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Sample records for bushehr city south

  1. Vegetation Mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (South-west Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmadreza Mehrabian; Alireza Naqinezhad; Abdolrassoul Salman Mahiny; Hossein Mostafavi; Homan Liaghati; Mohsen Kouchekzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Add regions of the wodd occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions,vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of add regions is necessary and modem vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps.Sixteen map units covering t2 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata,Salicornia europaaa-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  2. Sustainability in South Asian city

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    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  3. Study the Effect of Sources of Manufacturing Companies on the Achievement of the Objectives of the Trade Exhibition: Case Study at the International Exhibition of Bushehr City

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    Majid Esmaeilpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With increasing competition and reducing the possibility of exposure to commodities, the possibility of participating in trade exhibition is important hundredfold. Exhibiting a great opportunity for companies provide the goods. The exhibition will present a pre-determined targets and long-term planning to achieve these goals, the recognition of its resources in setting goals as a fundamental principle of the company, is participating in the exhibition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the importance sources of participating in trade exhibition and the impact that it will have sources of to achieve the objectives of the exhibition. Methodology: The study in term of purpose is applied and in term of data collection is descriptive - and the correlation. The research includes companies participating in international exhibition Bushehr over 180 companies. This study used a sample of 120 companies was Morgan. Data derived from the survey questionnaire. Validity through the content validity and reliability through Cronbach's alpha was approved. Data Analysis is a method of structural equation modeling. Results and findings: The results obtained suggest that the booth personnel sources of, sources of exhibition have a significant impact on sales targets and management capabilities. The booth personnel sources of and the ability to communicate with customers also have a significant impact on sales purposes. The findings of this study it can be concluded that except for the purposes of sale and non-sale capabilities partnership that does not, improvement of existing resources and capabilities of each model achieves sales targets and other participants will sell.

  4. Sustainability in South Asian city

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    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we will give an overview of urbanisation problems in South Asia. We will also suggest some key interventions for sustainable development in the region. Urbanisation problems in South Asia are manifested in the form of lopsided urbanisation and faulty urban planning with poor economic base. Urban poverty has been increasing in the region, resulting in the growth of a massive number of slums. As a manifestation of social injustice and the social divide, slums exclude the poor from accessing the basic amenities. South Asia has the highest regional urbanisation of poverty at any given overall urbanisation. Concerted government efforts with long-term commitment at the highest political levels are required to reduce urban poverty and deprivation. The way cities are growing in the region is not at all sustainable, with a clear imbalance between economic, environmental, socio-political and technological aspects. Sustainable communities can be established by focusing on social and human development programmes to develop intangible assets in the community such as inclusion, tolerance, public participation, and democratic governance, which do not depreciate through use but rather become more valuable the more they are used. Place matters in different ways, which have yet to be fully appreciated and incorporated into how planners teach place. But it needs to directly adopt the Bottom-up Approach to provide solutions for the problems going on in the cities of the region

  5. Seismic potential of Bushehr region, NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to geological and seismological information and proposed model for plate tectonics of Iran, plates of Iran Arabia move north-eastwards with different velocities. This causes subduction of Iran plate by Arabian plate, folding of Zagros Range and seismic activities in the region. Investigation of recorded shocks in Bushehr Seismographic Network in recent 10 years, and historical seismicity record show that southern Zagros region should not be considered a single seismotectonic province, since it demonstrates at least distinct seismic characteristics in two aspects. First, eastern part of Qatar-Kazerun flexure suffers severe seismic activity, and Lar region has been devastated several times by destructive earthquakes in the present century. Second, Bushehr environment, which is located at the western part of Qatar-Kazerun line, according to historical records, bears considerable quiescence and is one of the seismically pacific quarters of the Iranian plateau. It is worth mentioning that, during the past 1000 years, the strongest earthquake close to Bushehr was a shock with a magnitude of 5, 50 Km distant. Accordingly, despite geographical proximity to seismically active Zagros belt, Bushehr bears considerably low seismicity and has relative quiescence and stability, and from this point, seismic characteristics of the region, relates to Arabian and Persian Gulf region than Iranian plateau. It follows that Bushehr region could be considered northern most part of Arabian plate. Should the complementary studies confirm the above conclusion, Bushehr would be the most promising region for development of important industrial projects. (Author)

  6. Clinical Manifestations of β-Thalassemia Major in Two Different Altitudes; Bushehr and Shahrekord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanbod, Mohammad Reza; Movahed, Ali; Ostovar, Afshin; Hajigholami, Ali; Khamisipour, Gholamreza; Farrokhi, Shokrollah; Darabi, Hossein; Khosravi, Yasaman; Gheybi, Mohammad Kazzem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with β-thalassemia major (TM) develop iron overload through increased iron absorption and transfusional therapy and it’s the most important complication of TM. Thalassemia is common in coastal regions and lands with low altitudes. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of high and low altitude on serum ferritin and treatment requirement in two groups of β-thalassemia major (TM) patients. Subjects and Methods: Patients were divided into two groups, the first group (No: 50) living at sea level (in the port of Bushehr, Iran) and the second group (No: 40) living at the altitude of 2061 m (in the city of Shahrekord, Iran). All patient’s clinical history, blood transfusion and laboratory tests including complete blood count and hemoglobin electrophoresis were reviewed. Results: There were no significant difference in ferritin levels, transfusion period and diabetes incidence of the two cities patients (P>0.05). Patient’s cardiac function and liver condition were significantly better in patients of Bushehr (P<0.05). Patients under 20 years in Bushehr were less splenectomized in comparison with Shahrekord (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our result showed that some of clinical manifestations of patients in low altitude such as cardiac and liver condition were better. But it did not affect ferritin level probably due to transfusion and chelating therapy. Totally patients of Bushehr had better conditions and had longer survivals.

  7. Sustainability in South Asian city

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Akhmat; Muhammad Mahroof Khan; Mumtaz Ali

    2011-01-01

    South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we...

  8. Suburbanization and residential desegregation in South Africa's cities

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Population density gradients for South Africa's cities are quite small in absolute value, indicating a relatively flat population distribution across the cities. In contrast employment is less flatly distributed than the population. The relationship between employment densities and distance across South African cities has remained constant between 1996 and 2001 whilst there has been on average a slight increase in population density further away from the city centres. As per capita income of ...

  9. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr...

  10. Population distribution around Bushehr nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population distribution around the nuclear power plant is one of the most important factors to be considered. For the Bushehr nuclear power plant, information on current population distribution in the external zone up to a 80 kilometer radius in the vicinity of the site is collected. Also a projection of population for the plant lifetime has been made. Finally, the collected data was classified according to the age and sex. For this purpose, the area around the power plant was divided into concentric rings, and the rings were divided into 16 sectors. The population from 366 villages and 5 towns are about 328,000 inhabitants. In this survey, the population for 1985 was prepared on the basis of the 1977 census, and the results are indicated on the figures and tables. The above information will be used in evaluation of the potential radiological impact of normal and accidental releases, planning of emergency measures, and calculation of individual and collective doses

  11. Incidence Rate of G6PD Deficiency in Newborns in Bushehr/Iran

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    Sh Farrokhi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied 415 newborns in the city of Bushehr in order to identify infants with G6PD deficiency and eliminate the induction of acute hemolytic crisis by informing the families about the extrinsic factors that the G6PD-deficient patients should avoid. The method used in the study was the fluorescent spot test. Abnormal fluorescence due to G6DP deficiency (severe and partial was found in 8.4% of the samples (6.5% severe and 1.9% partial, i.e. 1 in 51 females and 1 in 7 males. This study suggests the necessity for the establishment of a screening test as a routine for all newborns, especially in the coastal cities in order to make an opportune detection and an appropriate counseling available.

  12. Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) Programme, phase I (cardiovascular system)

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    Ostovar, Afshin; Nabipour, Iraj; Larijani, Bagher; Heshmat, Ramin; Darabi, Hossein; Vahdat, Katayoun; Ravanipour, Maryam; Mehrdad, Neda; Raeisi, Alireza; Heidari, Gholamreza; Shafiee, Gita; Haeri, Mohammadjavad; Pourbehi, Mohammadreza; Sharifi, Farshad; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Aghaei Meybodi, Hamidreza; Assadi, Majid; Farrokhi, Shokrollah; Nemati, Reza; Amini, Mohammad Reza; Barekat, Maryam; Amini, Abdullatif; Salimipour, Houman; Dobaradaran, Sina; Moshtaghi, Darab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The main objective of the Bushehr Elderly Health Programme, in its first phase, is to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their association with major adverse cardiovascular events. Participants Between March 2013 and October 2014, a total of 3000 men and women aged ≥60 years, residing in Bushehr, Iran, participated in this prospective cohort study (participation rate=90.2%). Findings to date Baseline data on risk factors, including demographic and socioeconomic status, smoking and medical history, were collected through a modified WHO MONICA questionnaire. Vital signs and anthropometric measures, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight, height, and waist and hip circumference, were also measured. 12-lead electrocardiography and echocardiography were conducted on all participants, and total of 10 cc venous blood was taken, and sera was separated and stored at –80°C for possible future use. Preliminary data analyses showed a noticeably higher prevalence of risk factors among older women compared to that in men. Future plans Risk factor assessments will be repeated every 5 years, and the participants will be followed during the study to measure the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events. Moreover, the second phase, which includes investigation of bone health and cognition in the elderly, was started in September 2015. Data are available at the Persian Gulf Biomedical Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran, for any collaboration. PMID:26674503

  13. An active serological survey of antibodies to newcastle disease and avian influenza (H9N2) viruses in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province,Iran, 2012-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousef Saadat; Seyed Ali Ghafouri; Farshad Tehrani; Arash Ghalyanchi Langeroudi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the antibodies against newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV, H9N2) in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province, Iran from 2012 to 2013. Methods: A total of 1 530 blood samples from unvaccinated backyard chickens in Bushehr province, south of Iran, were tested for antibodies against NDV and AIV (H9N2) by hemagglutination inhibition test according to International Epizootic Office (OIE) recommendation.Results:Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated that NDV and AIV (H9N2) were endemic and widely distributed in backyard areas of Bushehr province which should be incorporated in the control strategies. Further studies are needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes, model their transmission risk, provide adapted control measures and design proper and applicable vaccination program. Of these, 614 (40.13%) and 595 (39.00%) were positive for NDV and AIV (H9N2) respectively.

  14. South American mega cities: Knowledge gaps and collaboration opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L.

    2012-04-01

    Urbanization and population concentration are outstanding phenomena in South America. About 83% of the 530 million South Americans live already in large coastal or near coastal cities (> 750 k inhabitants), many of which are heavily polluted. Curbing measures have been implemented on a relatively fast pace taking advantage of lessons learned elsewhere. However, as environmental objectives become more ambitious, considering for instance chronic health effects, impacts on ecosystems and agriculture, addressing secondary particles and climatic impacts, the need for cost-effective measures requires of more reliable and locally representative data. Such data include: emission fluxes (both natural and anthropogenic) and emission scenarios; characterization of vertical mixing; speciation and distribution of pollutants and precursors. In this presentation, we review the current situation in terms of atmospheric modeling, emission modeling, measuring and observations in a number of South American cities. Also, we describe low-cost actions oriented towards improving our understanding of: 1) vertical mixing by means of a modeling inter comparison exercise using data already collected in Santiago de Chile; 2) aerosol composition and speciation of volatile organic compounds by means of a coordinated sampling of filters and canisters at various locations highlighting the diversity of our cities. These actions were collectively convened by ca. 50 leading scientists and local policy makers during an international symposium held in Santiago in January 2012 (http://ossaf.cmm.uchile.cl/). This activity marked the closure of a five year project sponsored by the Inter American Institute on Global Change Research that tackled South American Emissions Megacities and Climate (SAEMC, CRN 2017). It was also a regional activity promoted and sponsored by the international Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (iCACGP), and by the World Meteorological Organization, Global

  15. Shifting corporate geographies in global cities of the South: Mexico City and Johannesburg as case studie

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    Parnreiter, Christof

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global city research links the expansion of advanced producer services in major cities to the internationalisation of real estate markets as well as to the spread of (mainly high-rise office complexes. This research, however, has based its findings mainly on cases of the Global North. This paper examines, based on Grant and Nijman’s (2002 suggestion that the “internal spatial organisation of gateway cities in the less-developed world” reflects “the city’s role in the global political economy”, which patterns occur in two metropoles of the Global South. In addition to this, the analysis focuses especially on the driving forces behind the changes in corporate geographies. The analysis is placed in Mexico City and Johannesburg and based on real estate market data (offices as well as background documents on urban development. The outcome shows that in these cities, local transformation processes of the real estate market and office space location are indeed considerably shaped by global market dynamics. However, the findings also indicate that there is no clear scale dependence of the territorial form. In order to comprehensively understand the changes in the corporate geographies therefore, it is necessary to direct more attention to local and national dynamics. The restructuring of the built environment in both cities can only be grasped fully by considering the particular role of local and national governments. This additional entry point to an understanding of shifting corporate geographies helps to put recent dynamics of global capitalism and politics of urban neoliberalism in perspective.

  16. CITIES COMPETITION, PLACE MARKETING AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH EUROPE: THE BARCELONA CASE AS FDI DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxas, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to focus on the especially interesting area of South Europe and to present and points out the strategic development process, in one of the most representative examples of its successful implementation, which is the city of Barcelona. Barcelona, which in the last 20 years, managed to increase its competitiveness becoming one of the most attractive investment destinations on international level. The city?s economic dynamism, its strategic position in the South of Europ...

  17. Economic specialisation and diversity in South African cities / by Martin Luus

    OpenAIRE

    Luus, Martin

    2005-01-01

    According to Naudé and Krugell (2003a) South Africa's cities are too small, dispersed, and over concentrated. In South Africa, households in the country's urban areas have average incomes almost thrice as high as the households in rural areas. More than 70% of South Africa's GDP is produced in only 19 urban areas (Naudé and Krugell 2003b). In Naudé and Krugell (2003a) it is stated that the rank-size rule shows that South Africa's urban agglomerations are too small and the citie...

  18. Portsmouth the Island City - mainline rail connectivity proposals:high speed south England - sustainable regional growth

    OpenAIRE

    Menteth, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Proposals for a Portsmouth and Solent Region proposed mainline rail strategy. How Portsmouth and the Solent region with other south of England ring cities can inform future transportation strategy and development, to improve connectivity, sustainability and economic benefit.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of asthma and allergic diseases in primary schoolchildren living in Bushehr, Iran: phase I, III ISAAC protocol.

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    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and allergic diseases present a major health burden. Information on the prevalence of these diseases indicates that these diseases are increasing in various parts of the world. It was hoped that this study would be helpful to health system policy-makers in planning allergy prevention programs in the region.The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases and relation between the various risk factors involved were assessed among schoolchildren in the city of Bushehr, Iran. The ISAAC Phase I and III questionnaires were completed by parents of 1280 children aged 6-7 years and self-completed by 1115 students aged 13-14 years.The prevalence of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma among 6-7 year-old students were 12.1%, 11.8% and 6.7%, respectively. While, the prevalence of these diseases among 13-14 year-old students were found to be 19%, 30% and 7.6%, respectively. There was an association between asthma and allergic rhinitis as well as eczema (p<0.05. Consumption of fast food as a risk factor was significantly associated with asthma (p=0.03.The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases was high among schoolchildren in the city of Bushehr, Iran. Also an association was observed between the fast food consumption and asthma.

  20. GIS application in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant data management for environmental surveying project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes how a prototype environmental data management system has been developed during Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant environmental surveying project. Geographic Information System is an adequate tool to get quick and reliable information about Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant environmental parameters.The present report reviews the objectives of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant environmental data management system.It also describes the components of the Geographic Information System used for accessing data and analyzes data obtained. Recent advances in client/server web technology have the potential of greatly simplifying data accessibility. In this research, a prototype web site has been developed and few layers of Geographic Information System data have been distributed via local intra net. The web site is a dynamic page that is divided into three major parts. This paper presents application in preparation of Environmental Report for Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant during the period of 1999 to 2003. To illustrate the use of Geographic Information System in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant environmental surveying project three case studies are presented

  1. Bacterial Quality of Drinking Water in Bushehr Intercity Buses in 2010

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    Dariush Ranjbar Vakilabadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Road transportation and specifically bus travel accounts for the bulk of travel. Contaminated drinking water consumption is one of the issues that threaten health, and always there is pollution possibility in drinking water in buses. This study evaluated the microbial quality of consumed drinking water in buses and also compared it with available standards. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. By considering similar studies, 95% confidence interval and based on the samples size formula for tradition of proportion, 80 buses from 122 buses that entered Bushehr Passenger Depot from other cities or exited it were randomly selected. Over a three-month period, samples were taken from drinking water in these buses. Temperature, pH, residual chlorine, total coliform (TC, and fecal coliform (E. coli in each sample were measured in accordance with the standard method. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS Version 16, and the t-test was performed for statistical difference. Results: The results showed that residual chlorine in 97.5% was zero and pH values of the samples were in the range of 6.8-8.7. TC and E. coli numbers in 12.5% and 8.8% of the samples were higher than those of standards, respectively. Conclusion: Use of ice, washing time of the drinking water tank (daily or weekly, and method of usage and storage of drinking water (with 20-liter tanks had significant effects on the bacterial loads of the drinking water in the tanks (p value <0.05. Some factors such as tank material, driver's education and age, type and model of the bus, filling time of the tank (daily or weekly, the method of filling and emptying the tank (complete clearing out of the tank or otherwise, and distance had no significant effect on the quality of the drinking water in the buses.

  2. ???DESIGN-FLOOD DISCHARGE ANALYSIS AT TELLO RIVER MAKASSAR CITY, SOUTH SULAWESI PROVINCE???

    OpenAIRE

    Patanduk, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Flooding river is one factor that caused the flooding. In South Sulawesi, including the District Tamalanrea, floods occur almost every year, this is because the condition of the River Tello could no longer accommodate the volume of water discharge and sediment transport due to the influence of river flow from upstream. Therefore conducted an analysis of "design flood discharge analysis at Tello River in Makassar City of South Sulawesi" in order to ...

  3. Investigating Awareness Amount of Nursing Students of Medical Sciences University of Bushehr about Ethic in Nursing Profession -2013

    OpenAIRE

    F Jahanpour; A. Khalili; M Ravanipour; L Nourouzi; Khalili, M; F Dehghan

    2014-01-01

    Background & aim: Nurses' ethical responsibility in practice and care is required to be aware of the principles of professional ethics. The aim of this study was to determine nursing students' knowledge of ethics in nursing of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In the present analytical-descriptive sectional study, in which the participants are 4-8 semester nursing students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. The research tools for collecting information were tow-...

  4. APTI of Some Selected Plants in Shivamogga City, South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Adamsab; Hina Kousar; D.S. Shwetha; M.H. Sirajuddin; Ravichandran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organism or damage the environment. The study examined air pollution indices (APTI) of fourteen plant species around Shivamogga city of Karnataka State India . Four physiological and biochemical parameters, leaf relative water content (RWC) , ascorbic acid (AA), total leaf chlorophyll (TCH), and leaf extract PH were used t...

  5. Assessment of environmental public exposure from a hypothetical nuclear accident for Unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M; Ghasemi, M; Amrollahi, R; Khamooshi, C; Parsouzi, Z

    2013-05-01

    Unit-1 of the Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP-1) is a VVER-type reactor with 1,000-MWe power constructed near Bushehr city at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran. The reactor has been recently operational to near its full power. The radiological impact of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents is of public concern, and the assessment of radiological consequences of any hypothetical nuclear accident on public exposure is vital. The hypothetical accident scenario considered in this paper is a design-basis accident, that is, a primary coolant leakage to the secondary circuit. This scenario was selected in order to compare and verify the results obtained in the present paper with those reported in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR 2007) of the BNPP-1 and to develop a well-proven methodology that can be used to study other and more severe hypothetical accident scenarios for this reactor. In the present study, the version 2.01 of the PC COSYMA code was applied. In the early phase of the accidental releases, effective doses (from external and internal exposures) as well as individual and collective doses (due to the late phase of accidental releases) were evaluated. The surrounding area of the BNPP-1 within a radius of 80 km was subdivided into seven concentric rings and 16 sectors, and distribution of population and agricultural products was calculated for this grid. The results show that during the first year following the modeled hypothetical accident, the effective doses do not exceed the limit of 5 mSv, for the considered distances from the BNPP-1. The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with those in the FSAR-2007 report. The agreement obtained is in light of many inherent uncertainties and variables existing in the two modeling procedures applied and proves that the methodology applied here can also be used to model other severe hypothetical accident scenarios of the BNPP-1 such as a small and large break in the reactor coolant system as well

  6. APTI of Some Selected Plants in Shivamogga City, South Asia

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    M.P. Adamsab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organism or damage the environment. The study examined air pollution indices (APTI of fourteen plant species around Shivamogga city of Karnataka State India . Four physiological and biochemical parameters, leaf relative water content (RWC , ascorbic acid (AA, total leaf chlorophyll (TCH, and leaf extract PH were used to compute the APTI values. The result showed that combining variety of these parameters gave more reliable result than those of individual parameter. The order of tolerance is as follows: Azadirachta indica, (37.74, Mangifera indica (28.4, Eucalyptus mysoresins (27.93, Carica papaya (24.62, Ricinus communis (22.46, Polvalthia longifolia (20.76, Calotropis gigantean (19.84, Nerium indicum (18.49, Psidium guajava (17.51, Parthenium hysterophorus (14.91, Bougainvillea glabra (13.35, Muntingia calabura (11.68, Terminalia cattapa (10.71 and Tamarindus indica (9.12.

  7. Flood Insurance Study, City of South Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of South Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood...

  8. Globalisation, Class, Consumption and Civil Society in South-east Asian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    John Clammer

    2003-01-01

    Debates about the nature of globalisation have often taken a very abstract turn and have often failed to address the specificities of urban cultures and of the sociological as well as economic changes created by globalising forces. This paper examines the relationship between class, consumer culture and civil society in contemporary south-east Asian cities, particularly in the light of the region-wide economic crisis beginning in 1997. It attempts to place the relationship between class and c...

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Household Waste Segregation in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tunmise A. Otitoju; Lau Seng

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is faced with daunting challenges relating to household waste segregation. Due to an increase in population, economic growth, enforcement, infrastructure, public attitude, awareness and participation among others, source segregation is considered a crucial issue in Malaysia, particularly in urban settings. This paper presents the key findings of the quantitative (questionnaire) survey administered among 235 households in Kuching South City and qualitative (interview) survey with the ...

  10. The relationship between risk perceptions and responses in disaster-prone cities of the Global South

    OpenAIRE

    Sou, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    This research takes a social constructivist approach to investigate the relationship between people’s perceptions of disaster risk and their responses in disaster-prone cities of the Global South. This is important because the effects of risk perceptions on the ways that people respond to disaster risk remains unclear and has been labelled ‘weak’ within the disaster studies literature. Furthermore, this lack of clarity has contributed to the marginalisation of people at risk from contributing...

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Household Waste Segregation in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunmise A. Otitoju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is faced with daunting challenges relating to household waste segregation. Due to an increase in population, economic growth, enforcement, infrastructure, public attitude, awareness and participation among others, source segregation is considered a crucial issue in Malaysia, particularly in urban settings. This paper presents the key findings of the quantitative (questionnaire survey administered among 235 households in Kuching South City and qualitative (interview survey with the Natural Resource & Environmental Board (NREB and Kuching South City Council. This survey attempts to identify the limiting and motivating factors on the part of households to waste segregation. The result shows that age, sex, race and education is insignificant towards waste segregation. The result also shows a significant difference between waste segregators and non-waste separators on their level of perception towards implementation of laws for source segregation. Result also shows that the ease of access to facilities and the methods of collection are the major limiting factors preventing households from waste segregation in Kuching South City.

  12. Asian dust effect on cause-specific mortality in five cities across South Korea and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Desert dust is considered to be potentially toxic and its toxicity may change during long-range transportation. In Asian countries, the health effects of desert dust in different locations are not well understood. We therefore evaluated the city-combined and city-specific effects of Asian dust events on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in five populous cities in South Korea (Seoul) and Japan (Nagasaki, Matsue, Osaka and Tokyo). We obtained daily mean concentrations of Asian dust using light detection and ranging (lidar) between 2005 and 2011. We then evaluated city-specific and pooled associations of Asian dust with daily mortality for elderly residents (≥65 years old) using time-series analyses. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of same-day (lag 0) or previous-day (lag 1) Asian dust was significantly associated with an elevated pooled risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR): 1.003 [95% CI: 1.001-1.005] at lag 0 and 1.001 [95% CI: 1.000-1.003] at lag 1) and cerebrovascular disease (RR: 1.006 [95% CI: 1.000-1.011] at lag 1). This association was especially apparent in Seoul and western Japan (Nagasaki and Matsue). Conversely, no significant associations were observed in Tokyo, which is situated further from the origin of Asian dust and experiences low mean concentrations of Asian dust. Adverse health effects on all-cause and cerebrovascular disease mortality were observed in South Korea and Japan. However, the effects of Asian dust differed across the cities and adverse effects were more apparent in cities closer to Asian dust sources.

  13. Multiple Temporalities of Policy Circulation: Gradual, Repetitive and Delayed Processes of BRT Adoption in South African Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, bus rapid transit (BRT) swept across South African cities. Within three years of learning of the Bogotá model of BRT, Johannesburg's Rea Vaya opened, followed shortly by Cape Town's MyCiTi, while several other cities are at various stages of planning and implementation. This article traces the circulation of BRT across the South African urban context to expose the multiple and varied temporalities through which BRT came to appear as the only available solution. These earlier encounte...

  14. Shared Legacies, Disparate Outcomes: Why American South Border Cities Turned the Tables on Crime and Their Mexican Sisters Did Not

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro H. Albuquerque

    2005-01-01

    The article evaluates crime trends in south border American and Mexican sister cities using panel data analysis. The region offers a unique assessment opportunity since cities are characterized by shared cultural and historical legacies, institutional heterogeneity, and disparate crime outcomes. Higher homicide rates on the Mexican side seem to result from deficient law enforcement. Higher population densities in Mexican cities appear to also be a factor. Cultural differences, on the other ha...

  15. Soils and cultural layers of ancient cities in the south of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrovskii, A. L.; Aleksandrovskaya, E. I.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Kurbatova, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Antique cities in the south of European Russia are characterized by a considerable thickness of their cultural layers (urbosediments) accumulated as construction debris and household wastes. Under the impact of pedogenesis and weathering in dry climate of the steppe zone, these sediments have acquired the features of loesslike low-humus calcareous and alkaline deposits. They are also enriched in many elements (P, Zn, Ca, Cu, Pb, As) related to the diverse anthropogenic activities. The soils developed from such urbosediments can be classified as urbanozems (Urban Technosols), whereas chernozems close to their zonal analogues have developed in the surface layer of sediments covering long-abandoned ancient cities. Similar characteristics have been found for the soils of the medieval and more recent cities in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of the pollutants are locally found in the antique and medieval urbosediments enriched in dyes, handicrafts from nonferrous metals, and other artifacts. Surface soils of ancient cities inherit the properties and composition of the cultural layer. Even in chernozems that developed under steppe vegetation on the surface of the abandoned antique cities of Phanagoria and Tanais for about 1000—1500 years, the concentrations of copper, zinc, and calcium carbonates remain high. Extremely high phosphorus concentrations in these soils should be noted. This is related to the stability of calcium phosphates from animal bones that are abundant in the cultural layer acting as parent material for surface soils.

  16. Comparative analysis of reliability of emergency power system of Bushehr nuclear power plant using PSA and Markov method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of emergency power system of a nuclear power plant is important considering reliability and redundancy of systems, due to its share in the risk of the plant. Reliability of emergency power system of Bushehr nuclear power plant is evaluated and compared for both KWU and WWER design using fault tree/event tree and also Markov

  17. Antifouling paint booster biocides (Irgarol 1051 and diuron) in marinas and ports of Bushehr, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Molaei, Saeideh; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Abedi, Ehsan

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, antifouling paint booster biocides, Irgarol 1051 and diuron were measured in ports and marinas of Bushehr, Iran. Results showed that in seawater samples taken from ports and marinas, Irgarol was found at the range of less than LOD to 63.4ngL(-1) and diuron was found to be at the range of less than LOD to 29.1ngL(-1) (in Jalali marina). 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), as a degradation product of diuron, was also analyzed and its maximum concentration was 390ngL(-1). Results for analysis of Irgarol 1051 in sediments showed a maximum concentration of 35.4ngg(-1) dry weight in Bandargah marina. A comparison between the results of this study and those of other published works showed that Irgarol and diuron pollutions in ports and marinas of Bushehr located in the Persian Gulf were less than the average of reports from other parts of the world. PMID:26917092

  18. Design issues concerning Iran's Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iran achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was ∼80% complete and unit 2 was ∼50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction

  19. Examining 'Core-Periphery' Relationships in a Global City-Region: The Case of London and South East England

    OpenAIRE

    Pain, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the interdependencies between the London `core? and the South East England `Mega-City Region?. London?s description as a monocentric city in the European Spatial Development Perspective, belies functional connectivities that make a wide area to the west of the capital a web of dense inter-urban linkages. How are advanced business services creating a functional geography that differs from binary territorial representations? What are the implications for ...

  20. Prevalence of early childhood caries in 8 - 48 month old preschool children of Bangalore city, South India

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Subramaniam; P. Prashanth

    2012-01-01

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a devastating form of dental decay having a multi - factorial origin. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ECC in Bangalore city, South India, and also to study its associated risk factors. Random sample of 1500 children, aged between 8 - 48 months, was selected from play homes and nursing homes of various parts of the city. Dental caries was recorded according to World Health Organization criteria. Information regarding risk factors for car...

  1. FORECASTING AND ADAPTATION METHODS FOR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT USED FOR TOURIST PURPOSE IN CITIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Qai Liu

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers methodological statements concerning formation and development of cultural and tourist zones and complexes in the Chinese cities with precious historical and cultural heritage. Characteristic types of historical buildings in the cities of the Tsiansu province which are located in the south-eastern part ofChinaare given in the paper. The paper contains methods for renovation of historical development for tourist purpose and gives proposals pertaining to arrangement of touri...

  2. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  3. A socio-structural analysis of crime in the city of Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Breetzke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available High and rising levels of crime plague post-apartheid South Africa. A common explanation for these high crime rates relates the country’s unique socio-political past to a system of ineffective social control mechanisms that suggest high levels of social disorganisation within certain communities. Other explanations emphasise the presence of disaffected youths and deprivation, as well as the rapid immigration of people from neighbouring African countries into South Africa. I examined a number of these socio-structural explanations of crime on contact crime rates in the city of Tshwane, South Africa. The findings are largely consistent with the social disorganisation theory, as well as with what has previously been suggested in local literature. In order to supplement these preliminary findings, the effects of the same socio-structural explanations on contact crime rates were determined for predominantly Black, White, and ‘Mixed’ (containing a mix of both Black and White residents suburbs using spatial regression models. Evidence from these analyses suggests that the effects of the various socio-structural explanations do not appear to traverse racial lines. Rather, the findings suggest non-uniformity in terms of the extent to which the various socio-structural factors impact contact crime rates based on race.

  4. The development of the urban system and the hierarchy of cities in newly opened regions: Hokkaido, Japan and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoji Teraya

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the pattern and process of distribution of cities in the newly opened regions by tracing the historical changes of the urban system in Hokkaido, Japan and in the Republic of South Africa. The history of colonization is not so long in the newly opened regions. This means that we can study the genesis and development process of cities from the beginning of colonization. These frontier cities often have the gateway func-tion influencing over the wide surrounding region...

  5. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a South Asian Mega City: A case study of Karachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, imran

    2016-04-01

    Pakistan is facing unabated air pollution as a major issue and its cities are more vulnerable as compared to urban centers in the developed world. During the last few decades, there has been a rapid increase in population, urbanization, industrialization, transportation and other human activities. In year June 2015 heat wave in largest South Asian mega city Karachi more than 1500 people died in one week. Unfortunately no air quality monitoring system is operation in any city of Pakistan. There is a sharp increase in both the variety and quantity of air pollutants and their corresponding sources. In this study contributions of different sources to particulate matter concentration has estimated in urban area of Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4--), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were measured in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March - April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). Average concentrations of PM2.5 were 75μg/m3 and of PM10 437μg/m3. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and „siliceous dust" were the overall dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. 20 Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC+OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in 22 PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of "EC+OM" in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. Of secondary inorganic constituents (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity to PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to

  6. [Prevalence and alcohol user profile in adult population in a south Brazilian city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Traebert, Jefferson; Loguercio, Alessandro; Kehrig, Ruth Terezinha

    2010-05-01

    This is an observational cross-sectional survey which included 707 individuals from a south Brazilian city (Joaçaba, in Santa Catarina State) aiming to know the alcohol user prevalence as well as the profile of the user. The results showed that 45.5% (322) of that population consume alcohol on regular basis and had used it at least once in the last month. The regular alcohol consumption occurs predominantly on males (p education (p currency (p <0.001). The regular alcohol consumption was greater on those who classified his health status as regular, good or very good (p <0.006), also this relation happen to those people who haven't been under hospital internment in the last year (p <0.013). The depression levels scored by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) showed low levels to those who regularly consume alcohol (p <0.047). PMID:20464180

  7. Spatial variability of pouring rain in the City of Málaga. (South of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senciales Gonzalez, J. M.; Aguayo Maldonado, P.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Martinez Murillo, J. F.

    2012-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in the Mediterranean climate (Llasat et al., 2005; Neppel et al., 2007; Rodrigo and Derieg, 2008), as well as episodes of atmospheric dynamics which tend to intervene in such events (Llasat et al., 2005; Martin et al., 2006). Considering that the recurrence of torrential events is usual in the southwest of the Mediterranean Coastal areas and occasionally its difficult to structure, the study of the highest events were restricted to those that exceed 100 mm in 24 hours. The study of these events is very important to analyze the vulnerability of urban areas, taking as an example the case of the city of Malaga (South of Spain) Elías y Ruiz (1979) were calculated for the city of Málaga a maximum value of 220-240 mm for a period of 100 years return; and a maximum of 60 mm/h for 10 years. In the same area, the probability estimates by Senciales (1997) from a single station indicate a recurrence of between 10 and 25 years for such events. But with a wide number of stations a greater cumulative frequency is obtained. The city of Malaga has been divided into various sectors according to their topography, proceeding to multivariate analysis with SPSS-18 of maximum and average values greater than 100 mm. precipitation and linking them with the following independent variables: month of the year of the event, situation in altitude, wind in surface and surface situation. The best results were obtained by dividing the city into four sectors; Valley area, East Coast (steep), foothills (moderately steep) and mountains (steep). The units of the average values by sector with regard to the situation in area (depression, frontal system or occluded frontal system) and height (flow of cold air or cold drop) reached significant values (r2 > 0.5 and even > 0.9) repeated by dividing the city in only three areas, Valley, East Coast and mountains but with minor adjustment in the latter. Torrential events showed no

  8. Living Circumstances of Suicide Mortality in a South African City: An Ecological Study of Differences across Race Groups and Sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    In this study the importance of living area circumstances for suicide mortality was explored. Suicide mortality was assessed across race and sex groups in a South African city and the influence of area-based compositional and sociophysical characteristics on suicide risk was considered. Suicide mortality rates are highest among Whites, in…

  9. Identify factors affecting people\\'s attitudes to advertising (Case study: Persian Gulf University, Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid shahbandarzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is an important part of marketing and one thing that is important is to pay attention to what will has more impact on the attitude of consumers. This study is an attempt to examine the issue of economic beliefs in advertising, promotions, social beliefs, ethics in advertising, legal belief in the usefulness of the ads and personal ads, ads on attitudes to be effective or not The population for this study were the students of Persian Gulf University, Bushehr. The sample’s size was estimated with using Cochran's formula 413 persons Data were collected using questionnaires, and with random sampling, questionnaires were distributed among the students. The data were analyzed by software Amos and it was observed due to the economic ideas in advertising, ethics in advertising, legal belief in the usefulness of the ads and personal ads are positive and significant impact on attitudes to advertising.

  10. Surface Soil Carbon Storage in Urban Green Spaces in Three Major South Korean Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyung Yoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying and managing carbon (C storage in urban green space (UGS soils is associated with the ecosystem services necessary for human well-being and the national C inventory report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. Here, the soil C stocks at 30-cm depths in different types of UGS’s (roadside, park, school forest, and riverside were studied in three major South Korean cities that have experienced recent, rapid development. The total C of 666 soil samples was analyzed, and these results were combined with the available UGS inventory data. Overall, the mean soil bulk density, C concentration, and C density at 30-cm depths were 1.22 g·cm−3, 7.31 g·C·kg−1, and 2.13 kg·C·m−2, respectively. The UGS soil C stock (Gg·C at 30-cm depths was 105.6 for Seoul, 43.6 for Daegu, and 26.4 for Daejeon. The lower C storage of Korean UGS soils than those of other countries is due to the low soil C concentration and the smaller land area under UGS. Strategic management practices that augment the organic matter supply in soil are expected to enhance C storage in South Korean UGS soils.

  11. Black Carbon aerosol measurements and simulation in two cities in south-west Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, Celia; Fernández-Camacho, R.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Rodríguez, Sergio; Castell, Nuria; Marrero, Carlos; Bustos, J. J.; de la Rosa, J. D.; Stein, Ariel F.

    2016-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) has been simulated for south-west Spain with the air quality model CAMx driven by the MM5 meteorological model, with a spatial resolution of 2 km × 2 km and a temporal resolution of 1 h. The simulation results were evaluated against hourly equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations obtained in the cities of Seville and Huelva for a winter period (January 2013) and a summer period (June 2013). A large seasonal variability was observed in PM2.5 EBC concentration in the two cities, with higher concentrations in wintertime; summertime EBC concentrations were typically less than half those of the wintertime. The model captured the large diurnal, seasonal and day to day variability in these urban areas, mean biases ranged between -0.14 and 0.07 μg m-3 in winter and between 0.01 and 0.29 μg m-3 in summer while hourly PM2.5 EBC observations ranged between 0.03 μg m-3 to 10.9 μg m-3. The diurnal variation in EBC concentrations was bimodal, with a morning and evening peak. However, the EBC evening peak was much smaller in summer than in winter. The modelling analysis demonstrates that the seasonal and day to day variability in EBC concentration in these urban areas is primarily driven by the variation in meteorological conditions. An evaluation of the role of regional versus local contributions to EBC concentrations indicates that in the medium size city of Seville, local on-road sources are dominant, whereas in the small size city of Huelva, local as well as regional sources produce a similar contribution. Considering the large diesel share of the vehicle fleet in Spain (currently ˜ 56%), we conclude that continued reduction of BC from diesel on-road sources in these urban areas is indeed a priority, and we suggest that targeted mitigation strategies, for example reducing the heaviest emitters in wintertime, would yield the greatest benefits.

  12. Calculation of total effective dose equivalent and collective dose in the event of a LOCA in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and collective dose (CD) are calculated for the most adverse potential accident in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant from the viewpoint of radionuclides release to the environment. Calculations are performed using a Gaussian diffusion model and a slightly modified version of AIREM computer code to adopt for conditions in Bushehr. The results are comparable with the final safety analysis report which used DOZAM code. Results of our calculations show no excessive dose in populated regions. Maximum TEDE is determined to be in the WSW direction. CD in the area around the nuclear power plant by a distance of 30 km (138 man Sv) is far below the accepted limits. Thyroid equivalent dose is also calculated for the WSW direction (maximum 25.6 mSv) and is below the limits at various distances from the reactor stack. (authors)

  13. CDMA2000 Radio Measurements at 1.9GHz and Comparison of Propagation Models in Three Built-Up Cities of South-South, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabona Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio propagation measurements and prediction, realized by the mobile terminal or the base station, is needed to guarantee quality of service and to supervise the planned coverage area. A wide variety of approaches have been developed over the years to predict signal pathloss using what are known as propagation models. In this paper, we compare the measured pathloss obtained for the urban areas with seven existingpropagation models, that is, SUI, Lee, Hata, ECC and COST-231 W/I and W/B. Firstly, for both areas, the results show that the path loss is not constant at various locations for a constant distance around the respective base station (BS. This shows that the terrains of studied cities are irregular. Secondly, observations show that the W/B gives better agreement for all the studied three cities; hence, it can be used to model signal coverage area of cellular networks in any region of South-South Nigeria

  14. Determinants of overweight and obesity in affluent adolescent in Surat city, South Gujarat region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish P Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Obesity is a major global burden. Low levels of physical activity, TV watching, and dietary pattern are modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescent. Objective : The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among affluent adolescent, in Surat city in south Gujarat. Design : Cross sectional from July 2009 to April 2010. Setting : Two private schools with tuition fees more than Rs. 2000 per month, were selected randomly using a random table. Participants : The participants were adolescents, 12 to 15 years of age. Data collection : Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information about dietary history and physical activity. Measurement : Height and weight was measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI for age. Student who had BMI for age >85 th and 95 th percentile of reference population were classified as obese (IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Year. Result : The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 6.55% and 13.9% (boys: 6.7% and 15.1%; girls 6.4% and 13.35%. Final model of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that important determinants of overweight and obesity were low levels of physical activity, watching television or playing computer games, and consuming junk foods, snacks and carbonated drinks. Conclusion : The magnitude of obesity and overweight among affluent adolescent of Surat city was found to be 6.55% and 13.9%, respectively. Low level of physical activity, watching TV or playing computer games, and dietary pattern predisposed the adolescent to overweight/obesity.

  15. Seismic delineation of Algal Mound Reservoirs, Humble City South Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caughey, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pennsylvanian algal mounds near Lovington, New Mexico, typify the targets remaining for exploration in the Permian basin. The Strawn trend new Lovington comprises numerous small (200-800 ac) reservoirs of clean algal limestone encased in unfossiliferous carbonate mudrocks. Vuggy porosity occurs in algal micrites and sporadically in crinoidal or foraminiferal grainstones associated with the mound. Some of the Lovington area fields encountered downdip water, but difficulty in finding the mound facies remains the principal dry-hole hazard. Vague acoustical boundaries complicate seismic detection of relatively minor (50-150 ft) carbonate buildups at depths of 11,200-11,600 ft. Stratigraphic interpretation of high-resolution seismic data recently led to several new field discoveries and major extensions. Development drilling, however, can be an even greater challenge to reservoir prediction. Humble City South field illustrates the difficulty of developing a stratigraphic oil field in an area of poor seismic definition and sparse well control. A shooting program following the wildcat discovery only heightened confusion about the size and shape of the new reservoir. Two subsequent dry holes missed the mound entirely and provided only negative control. Seismic modeling, careful stratigraphic interpretation, and saturation coverage with a three-dimensional seismic project ultimately defined the existing reservoir and revealed the presence of a separate, nearby pool. Exact reservoir delineation remains difficult, but this program presented the first clear picture of overall mount geometry. The Humble City experience showed that three-dimensional seismic can be an important tool in the critical period following a wildcat discovery.

  16. FORECASTING AND ADAPTATION METHODS FOR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT USED FOR TOURIST PURPOSE IN CITIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qai Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological statements concerning formation and development of cultural and tourist zones and complexes in the Chinese cities with precious historical and cultural heritage. Characteristic types of historical buildings in the cities of the Tsiansu province which are located in the south-eastern part ofChinaare given in the paper. The paper contains methods for renovation of historical development for tourist purpose and gives proposals pertaining to arrangement of tourist service objects there that permit to preserve individual image of historical regions.

  17. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C and D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m2 and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C and D waste management in China.

  18. Novel model for vehicles traffic monitoring using wireless sensor networksbetween major cities in South Africa / Munienge Mbodila

    OpenAIRE

    Munienge, Mbodila

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of vehicles and users, monitoring road and traffic within cities is becoming a huge research challenge. With urban scale enlargement coupled with the exponential growth in the number of vehicles, South Africa (SA) is not an exception. Consequently, congestion and pollution (i.e. noise and air) have become the order of the day. Road congestion and traffic-related pollution are well-known for huge negative socio-economic impact on several economies worldwi...

  19. International experts conclude IAEA peer review of Iran's safety regulation of Bushehr NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An international team of nuclear safety experts today completed an IAEA mission to review the effectiveness of Iran's safety regulation of its first nuclear power plant and to identify possible improvements before the plant begins operation. Upon invitation of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of senior regulators from seven Member States for an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. The scope of the mission was limited to the safety regulation of Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP-1). The IRRS review took place from 20 February to 2 March at the INRA offices in Tehran and included a technical visit to the BNPP-1 site. The mission was an objective peer review based on IAEA safety standards, and was neither an inspection, nor an audit. Ms. Olena Mykolaichuk, IRRS Team Leader and Head of the State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine, commended her INRA counterparts: 'The regulatory work performed on the Bushehr construction and in preparation for commissioning has demonstrated significant progress of INRA as a nuclear regulatory authority,' she said. Philippe Jamet, Director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division, added: 'Through this IRRS mission, both Iran and the international experts contribute to the enhancement of nuclear safety and worldwide experience sharing.' In the course of its review the IRRS team identified the following strengths: - INRA has a dedicated, conscientious staff, demonstrating clear commitments to further improvements. - INRA clearly recognizes the value of peer reviews and international cooperation regarding nuclear safety. - Despite a shortage of staff, INRA demonstrated strong leadership while performing both review and assessment and inspection tasks during the BNPP-1 construction and pre-commissioning. - INRA has developed an excellent computerized documentation control system. Recommendations and suggestions to improve INRA's regulatory

  20. The Competitiveness of Global Port-Cities: The Case of Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Jasper; Merk, Olaf; Rodrigue, J. P

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a synthesis of main findings from the OECD Port-Cities Programme, created in 2010 in order to assess the impact of ports on their cities and provide policy recommendations to increase the positive impacts of ports on their cities. This Programme was directed by Olaf Merk, Administrator Port-Cities within the OECD Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate. This synthesis report was directed and written by Olaf Merk; it draws on the work of a...

  1. Allometric equations for estimating standing biomass of Avicennia marina in Bushehr of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is important to use of ecological indicators, such as biomass for recognizing the special status of ecosystems, such as mangrove forests and also monitoring and evaluating changes through a specific period. Because using the direct method of evaluating biomass would be destructive, it is common in all similar area to use determine exact Allometric equations by using the statistical relationship between the structural characteristics of trees and their biomass and use these equations to estimate the biomass of trees. The aim of this study is estimate the aboveground biomass of mangroves and determine Allometric models for Nayband area in Bushehr, located in southern Iran. A number of mangrove trees were randomly selected. Collar diameter, crown diameter and tree height of standing trees were measured. After logging and weighing fresh weight, dry weight, trunk and branches were obtained in laboratory and biomass of components was calculated. The relationship between quantities feature of trees and biomass for determination of allometric equation was studied by using linear, power and exponential regression. The equations were compared with each other based on the different modeling parameters. The highest significant correlation was found between crown diameters and dry weight (R > 0.90. The best equations were obtained by means of an exponential and power regression models (R2adj> 0.90. The models were obtained from explained factor, suggests that there might be a relationship between the characteristics of mangrove trees and biomass.

  2. Alternative concepts for the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant Unit-1 WWER-type reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the 'General guidelines for NPP safely assurance' PNAE G-01-011 -97 (OPB-88/97), the organization operating a WWER NPP must develop a 'Program of NPP unit decommissioning' not later than 5 years prior to the end of the plant's design life and submit it to State supervision bodies. Because of the change of the BUSHEHR NPP unit-1 designer during its construction, the planning for the decommissioning should be preceded by a more complex examination by the commission assigned by the operating organization. On the basis of this complex examination, the operating organization will develop the details for decommissioning and prepare a safety analysis report for the decommissioning activities in order to receive a license. If the NPP unit must be decommissioned before the end of its design service life for any reason, it must be defined in a special program with consideration of actual unit state. Engineering solutions, measures and activities supporting decommissioning must be made at all preceding stages of service life. In this paper, two alternative concepts of decommissioning the BNPP unit -1 are described. Also details of the basic concept of decommissioning the unit and of the preliminary work required before BNPP unit-1 decommissioning can begin have been described. (author)

  3. Genetic variation of Garra rufa fish in Kermanshah and Bushehr provinces, Iran, using SSR microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shabani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Six highly variable microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the Garra rufa in Kermanshah and Bushehr provinces, Iran. All of the 6 microsatellite loci screened in this study showed polymorphism. A total of 90 individual fish from 3 populations were genotyped and 60 alleles were observed in all loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to14. The average allelic number of these polymorphic markers was 10. The averages of observed (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He was 0.529 and 0.826, respectively. The genetic distance values ranged between 0.235-0.570. The UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distance resulted in three clusters: Gamasiab population alone was classified as one and the other two populations as the second cluster. This study revealed a fairly high level of genetic variation in the microsatellite loci within the three populations, and identified distinct population groups of Garra rufa. This study gains significance for the analysis of the populations’ genetic diversity as well as the management of this important fish resource.

  4. Fuel Burnup and Fuel Pool Shielding Analysis for Bushehr Nuclear Reactor VVER-1000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Kamal; Ayobian, Navid

    Bushehr Nuclear power plant (BNPP) is currently under construction. The VVER-1000 reactor will be loaded with 126 tons of about 4% enriched fuel having 3-years life cycle. The spent fuel (SF) will be transferred into the spent fuel pool (SPF), where it stays for 8 years before being transferred to Russia. The SPF plays a crucial role during 8 years when the SP resides in there. This paper investigates the shielding of this structure as it is designed to shield the SF radiation. In this study, the SF isotope inventory, for different cycles and with different burnups, was calculated using WIMS/4D transport code. Using MCNP4C nuclear code, the intensity of γ rays was obtained in different layers of SFP shields. These layers include the water above fuel assemblies (FA) in pool, concrete wall of the pool and water laid above transferring fuels. Results show that γ rays leakage from the shield in the mentioned layers are in agreement with the plant's PSAR data. Finally we analyzed an accident were the water height above the FA in the pool drops to 47 cm. In this case it was observed that exposure dose above pool, 10 and 30 days from the accident, are still high and in the levels of 1000 and 758 R/hr.

  5. Tidal asymmetry in a tidal creek with mixed mainly semidiurnal tide, Bushehr Port, Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Taleb; Chegini, Vahid; Sadrinasab, Masoud; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa; Yari, Sadegh

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the tidal asymmetry imposed by both the interaction of principal tides and the higher harmonics generated by distortions within a tidal creek network with mixed mainly semidiurnal tide in the Bushehr Port, Persian Gulf. Since velocity and water-level imposed by principal triad tides K1-O1-M2 are in quadrature, duration asymmetries during a tidal period in this short, shallow inverse estuary should be manifest as skewed velocities. The principal tides produce periodic asymmetries including a strong ebb-dominance and a weak flood-dominance condition during spring and neap tides respectively. The higher harmonics induced by nonlinearities engender a flood-dominance condition where the convergence effects are higher than frictional effects, and an ebbdominance condition where intertidal storage are extended. Since the triad K1-O1-M2 driven asymmetry is not overcome by higher harmonics close to the mouth, the periodic asymmetry dominates within the creek in which higher harmonics reinforce the weak flood-dominance (strong ebb-dominance) condition in the convergent channel (divergent area). Also, the maximum flood and the maximum ebb from all harmonic constituents occurred close to high water slack time during both spring and neap tides in this short creek. Since occational wetting of intertidal areas happened close to the high water (HW) time during spring tide, the water level flooded slowly close to the HW time of the spring tide.

  6. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Persian Gulf (Bushehr provenance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2014-09-15

    Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted. PMID:25037876

  7. Environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools of an urban city of south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools are an important public health issue. Aims : To assess the school environment, sanitation and health related facilities and to compare the availability of these facilities between government, aided and private schools. Materials and Methods : This cross sectional study was done in 30 schools in Mangalore city of south India in February 2010. Results : Out of the 30 schools surveyed, four were government, 12 were aided and 14 were private schools. Overcrowding was seen in one third of schools. The recommended minus desks was lacking in 23(76.7% and chairs with back rest was lacking in 11(36.7% schools. More than a quarter of schools had no drinking water purification facility. Water storage units were not cleaned periodically in 6(20% schools. Quarter of all government schools and half of all aided schools had no dining hall for serving mid-day meals. Toilets were not adequate in 10(33.3% and it was not separated for boys and girls in 8(26.7% schools. Four of the surveyed schools had no medical examination of students and in 13(43.3% schools daily morning inspection by teachers was not done. Hardly few schools had staff trained to deal with medical emergencies and in counselling activities. None of the schools had an immunization register. Although the performance scores between the types of schools did not differ significantly, the combined performance of only private schools were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion : A good number of schools in this urban area were found to be falling short of several essential requirements regarding sanitation and health facilities which needs to be rectified.

  8. Infection control in general practices in Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don O'Mahony

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good infection control practices are effective in reducing rates of infection in health care settings. Studies in primary care in developed countries indicate that many general practitioners (GPs do not comply with optimal infection control practices. There are no published studies from developing countries in Southern Africa.Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe infection control practices in private GP surgeries in the Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.Method: A literature review was conducted to appraise current best practice with respect to Standard Infection Control and Transmission Based Precautions. A questionnaire, inquiring into GPs’ actual practices, was posted to each surgery.Results: The valid response rate was 34% (47/140. Methods used to sterilise instruments in 40 practices were: ultraviolet sterilisation (23, chemical disinfection (14, boiling water (7, and steam autoclave (2. Compounds used for chemical disinfection included organotin quaternary, chlorhexidine and benzyl ammonium chloride with a quaternary complex. Twenty-two (47% used a hand rub. Sixteen (35% GPs stated that they had a policy to promptly triage patients who are coughing, and 23 (50% had a policy for airflow movement in the surgery. All practices appropriately disposed of sharps. Thirty-seven (80% expressed interest in a seminar on infection control.Conclusions: Overall, GPs were aware of infection control precautions. Ultraviolet sterilisers and chlorhexidine are not recommended, however, for sterilisation or high level disinfection of medical instruments, and their use should be discontinued. Hand rubs are underutilised. GPs should implement Transmission Based Precautions to prevent airborne and droplet infections.

  9. Emission Sources and Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere of a Mega-city in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, L.; Farhana, B. K.; Ghauri, B. M.

    2007-05-01

    The environmental regulations in the countries in the western hemisphere have greatly decreased the concentrations of PM2.5, black carbon (BC), SO4, SO2, and trace elements. Owing to rapid industrialization, concentrations of many chemical species in South Asia are rising and are expected to continue to increase. The impact of aerosols on global climate and on human health would also increase with time. Therefore, we conducted an extensive campaign to determine PM2.5 mass, concentrations of 25 trace elements, 13 ions, black and organic carbon, acidic gases and NH3 in the mega-cities of Karachi (population, ~14.5 million), and Lahore (population, 10 million), Pakistan. Here we present the data from Lahore. Continuous sampling of PM2.5 (particulate matter of low volume sampler equipped with two inlets was deployed for simultaneous collection of aerosol on quartz and PTFE filters, the latter being coupled to an annular diffusion denuder to collect acidic and alkaline gases. Water soluble ions in denuder gas samples and PM2.5 collected on PTFE filters were analyzed using ion chromatography, trace elements by ICP-MS, and organic and elemental carbon on quartz filters using thermal-optical carbon analyzer. Concentrations of BC were determined every 5 min with an Aethalometer. PM2.5 mass concentration varied an order of magnitude, 53 to 476 μg m-3 (mean, 191 μg m-3). Concentrations of the anthropogenic elements were exceedingly high, as much 100 to 1000 fold of those observed in cities such as New York. Maximum concentrations of BC, OC, Pb, Zn, SO4 2- , NH4+ were 110, 250, 12, 48, 66, and 60 μgm-3, respectively. HONO and NH3 concentrations of up to 25 and 117 ppb were observed. A strong diurnal pattern was evident in the concentration of elemental and organic carbon which was perhaps controlled by variation in mixing heights. We used HYSPLIT4 air trajectories, intercomponent relationships and meteorological observations to explain the sources and the impacts of fog

  10. Prevalence of early childhood caries in 8 - 48 month old preschool children of Bangalore city, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a devastating form of dental decay having a multi - factorial origin. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ECC in Bangalore city, South India, and also to study its associated risk factors. Random sample of 1500 children, aged between 8 - 48 months, was selected from play homes and nursing homes of various parts of the city. Dental caries was recorded according to World Health Organization criteria. Information regarding risk factors for caries was obtained through a structured questionnaire given to mothers or caretakers. The data was subjected to statistical analysis. The prevalence of ECC was 27.5% and the mean decayed, extracted and filled tooth index was 0.854. There was a strong association of ECC with the risk factors studied.

  11. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Persian Gulf (Bushehr provenance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated from Persian Gulf. • There is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in the Persian Gulf. • These bacteria are very useful for management of oil pollution in the sea. - Abstract: Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted

  12. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dadolahi-Sohrab; M Garavand-Karimi; H Riahi; H Pashazanoosi

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney’s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m−2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m−2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m−2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m−2), respectively.

  13. Investigating Awareness Amount of Nursing Students of Medical Sciences University of Bushehr about Ethic in Nursing Profession -2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Jahanpour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nurses' ethical responsibility in practice and care is required to be aware of the principles of professional ethics. The aim of this study was to determine nursing students' knowledge of ethics in nursing of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In the present analytical-descriptive sectional study, in which the participants are 4-8 semester nursing students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. The research tools for collecting information were tow-section questionnaires consisting of demographic data and specialized questions about ethic and rules in the nursing profession. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS software by using independent t-tests and chi-square. Results: Total awareness of 4-8 semester nursing students about ethic and rules in nursing profession was intermediate (53.78 percent. There was a considerable relation between sexuality and satisfaction (p.436. A considerable relation between students' educational semester and satisfaction amount was not also not observed (p>.927. Conclusions: Students' awareness about professional ethic wasn't very desirable so it is suggested that by holding moral workshops in nursing or settling moral courses in nursing students curriculum will increase the amount of nursing students' awareness about nursing ethics.

  14. Migrants and urban rights: politics of xenophobia in South African cities1

    OpenAIRE

    Maharaj, Brij

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been some critical intellectual reflections about who has rights to the city, and how such rights are realised. As the rights based discourse gains momentum, groups that have been previously excluded from participating in the social, economic and political life of the city, for example, migrants, are becoming more assertive and demanding inclusion. In the process of crossing borders and defining and claiming rights, there are social and political struggles over the a...

  15. Positioning the city product as an international tourist destination: Evidence from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Prayag, Girish

    2007-01-01

    Increased competition among international tourism destinations has turned many countries to seek growth from destination branding and positioning strategies. The most popular type of destination of interest for positioning studies has been countries, followed by states and very few studies have focused on city products. This study aims at contributing to city marketing and positioning literature. The objectives of this study are two-fold: firstly to identify whether cognitive images of Cape T...

  16. Assessing the Oral Cancer Risk of South-Asian Immigrants in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Ahluwalia, Kavita P.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing immigration from South Asia, where oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in adults, suggests that this disease will probably pose a serious public health problem in the United States. According to the 2000 Census, there are approximately 1.9 million South Asians in the U.S., and their access to dental care is limited. The morbidity and mortality associated with oral cancer can be reduced by primary prevention and early detection. South Asians are not a homogenous group, and...

  17. Characterizing ionic species in PM2.5 and PM10 in four Pearl River Delta cities, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected at four major cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, during winter and summer in 2002. Six water-soluble ions, Na+, NH4+, K+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- were measured using ion chromatography. On average, ionic species accounted for 53.3% and 40.5% for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively in winter and 39.4% and 35.2%, respectively in summer. Secondary ions such as sulfate, nitrate and ammonium accounted for the major part of the total ionic species. Sulfate was the most abundant specie followed by nitrate. Overall, a regional pollution tendency were shown in this campaign though there were higher concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium measured in Guangzhou City than those in the other PRD cities. Significant seasonal variations were also observed with higher levels of species in winter and lower in summer. The Asian monsoon system was favorable for removal and diffusion of air pollutants in PRD in summer while highly loading of local industrial emissions tended to deteriorate the air quality as well. NO3-/SO42- ratio indicates that mobile sources have considerably contribution to the urban aerosol but stationary sources should still not be neglected. Besides the primary emissions, complex atmospheric reactions under favorable weather conditions should be paid more attention for formulating control strategies for primary emission in the future in the PRD region.

  18. Human Reliability Analysis for steam generator feed-and-bleed accident in Bushehr NPP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the incident/accident reports, unsuccessful implementation of steam generator feed-and-bleed procedure is one of the most important events in nuclear power plants operation which greatly contributes to the level of risk of the plants. Generally, the loss of all feed water pumps flow (as one of the precursors) results in failure to maintain adequate cooling of the reactor core unless the operating crew initiate and follow the feed-and-bleed procedure correctly and timely. In this paper, firstly, a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) event tree is presented delineating the major human activities and errors in the implementation of the steam generator (SG) feed-and-bleed procedure following the loss of (both normal and emergency) water feed to four SGs of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant unit1 (BNPP-1). Secondly, the graphical method of task analysis as a part of HRA is used as a means of delineating correct and incorrect human actions. To be used in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), the outputs of the HRA event trees are fed into the system event trees, functional event trees or system fault trees. As a part of a probabilistic risk assessment of BNPP-1 and to assess the reliability of control room operators, a human reliability analysis model is applied based on the THERP (Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction) technique. The THERP method is used in the form of event trees named as the probability tree diagrams. In this research the Human Reliability Analysis event tree is constructed based on the background information and assumptions made and on a similar NPP task analysis. It is done so because the BNPP-1 is not an operational nuclear power plant. Thirdly, based on NUREG/CR-1278 Handbook, a computer program has been developed in Visual Basic language and used to illustrate the major human activities and determination of error rates of operators in the course of the implementation of the steam generator feed-and-bleed procedure. Finally, total

  19. Mobility and participatory planning in bogotá and medellín: relationship with cities in colombia and south america

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-González, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The article approaches the issue of urban mobility in Colombia by means of analyzing different bodies of data such as: population growth in five national cities, Bogota's institutional development over the last twenty years, successful participatory planning in the city of Medellín, effects of economic conurbation in large urban centers, the successful implementation of public transportation systems in comparison with other South American metropolis, Bogota's road and street condition, and th...

  20. A socio-structural analysis of crime in the city of Tshwane, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory D. Breetzke

    2010-01-01

    High and rising levels of crime plague post-apartheid South Africa. A common explanation for these high crime rates relates the country’s unique socio-political past to a system of ineffective social control mechanisms that suggest high levels of social disorganisation within certain communities. Other explanations emphasise the presence of disaffected youths and deprivation, as well as the rapid immigration of people from neighbouring African countries into South Africa. I examined a number ...

  1. Evaluation of the place and role of the re-introduced South African Police Service Railway Police Unit in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan municipality / Mkhacani Godfrey Maluleke

    OpenAIRE

    Maluleke, Mkhacani Godfrey

    2010-01-01

    The study: "Evaluation of the re-introduced South African Police Service Railway Police Unit in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality" reflects on the significant developmental initiatives that have taken place in the rail environment as a result of the re-introduction of the South African Police Service Railway Police Unit (SAPSRPU). The research focused on the place and role of the SAPSRPU in the context of crime combating and prevention in the railway network of the ...

  2. Are we monitoring the quality of cataract surgery services? A qualitative situation analysis of attitudes and practices in a large city in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwatosin O O Haastrup; John C Buchan; Andy Cassels-Brown; Colin Cook

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the current quality "assurance" and "improvement" mechanisms, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of cataract surgeons in a large South African city. Methodology: A total of 17 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with ophthalmologists in June 2012 at 2 tertiary institutions in the Republic of South Africa. Recruitment of the purposive sample was supplemented by snowball sampling. The study participants were 5 general ophthalmologists and 2 pediatric ...

  3. Evaluating bio environmental effects of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant on water and aquatic organism of Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of nuclear power plants is always subjected to emission of some radioactive materials in the form of gaseous, liquids and solids in the environment. The heat from condenser coolant discharged to the sea can have some adverse effects on biological systems as thermal pollution. In this project, the radiation and thermal effects on Bushehr Nuclear Power Plants on aquatic animals in Persian Gulf were studied. The mathematical models for atmospheric dispersion of pollutant and pathways of radioactive materials from air to sea water and from sea to animals and human bodies were considered. some environmental samples from Persian Gulf were measured for radioactivity using high-purity Ge/Li detectors and Gamma-spectroscopy. The results indicates that the erection of B usher Nuclear Power Plants and its operation in the normal operation can have no adverse effects on environment, and also its thermal pollution is of no importance due to low area for coolant discharges

  4. Public exposure from environmental release of radioactive material under normal operation of unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant is a VVER type reactor with 1000 MWe power. ► Doses of public critical groups living around the plant were assessed under normal reactor operation conditions. ► PC-CREAM 98 computer code developed by the HPA was applied to assess the public doses. ► Doses are comparable with those in the FSAR, in the ER and doses monitored. ► The doses assessed are lower than the dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/y associated with the plant. - Abstract: The Unit-1 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP-1), constructed at the Hallileh site near Bushehr located at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran, is a VVER type reactor with 1000 MWe power. According to standard practices, under normal operation conditions of the plant, radiological assessment of atmospheric and aquatic releases to the environment and assessment of public exposures are considered essential. In order to assess the individual and collective doses of the critical groups of population who receive the highest dose from radioactive discharges into the environment (atmosphere and aquatic) under normal operation conditions, this study was conducted. To assess the doses, the PC-CREAM 98 computer code developed by the Radiation Protection Division of the Health Protection Agency (HPA; formerly called NRPB) was applied. It uses a standard Gaussian plume dispersion model and comprises a suite of models and data for estimation of the radiological impact assessments of routine and continuous discharges from an NPP. The input data include a stack height of 100 m annual radionuclides release of gaseous effluents from the stack and liquid effluents that are released from heat removal system, meteorological data from the Bushehr local meteorological station, and the data for agricultural products. To assess doses from marine discharges, consumption of sea fish, crustacean and mollusca were considered. According to calculation by PC-CREAM 98 computer code, the highest individual

  5. Human Linguatulosis Caused by Linguatula serrata in the City of Kerman, South-eastern Iran- Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Yazdani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human linguatulosis poses an important medical and veterinary concern in endemic countries. Animals, as reservoir host, play a major role in transmission of infestation and epidemiology of the disease. This study reports a case of human linguatulosis caused by Linguatula serrata in the city of Kerman, South-eastern Iran. A woman suffering from upper respiratory symptoms is presented. The patient consumed raw liver of sheep who was admitted to the Afzalipour University Hospital in Kerman for the symptoms of upper respiratory tract. In microscopic examination of the nasopharyngeal discharge, L. serrata was detected. This report has future medical implication in precise diagnosis of L. serrata in patients with complaints of nasopharyngeal symptoms.

  6. Supply Chain of Organic Salak Pondoh (Salacca zalacca var.pondoh in Pagar Alam City- South Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herfiani Rizkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a continued research of sertification of Salak var. Pondoh in Pagar Alam. This aim of this study is to get informations about characteristic and condition of organik Salak var. pondoh supply chain in Pagar Alam City, South Sumatera. In year 2012, the Sertification organic agencies (LSO of West Sumatera have delivered organic sertification to about 5 ha land area of Salak var pondoh of Dempo’s farmer group. Since that time, the production of an organic Salak pondoh in Pagar Alam city increased every year, from 1.27ton per year in 2011 become 1.42 ton per year in 2013 for every 0.25 Ha of  land area. The price of organic salak var. Pondoh Pagar Alam ranged from IDR 5000 until IDR 12000 at level of farmer and from 10000 until IDR 15000 in level of consumers. The actor in Supply chain of organic Salak var.pondoh in Pagar Alam, covering : farmer,  group of farmer, distributor, and or outlet (a place of bussiness for retailing salak, and retailer/domestic consumers. The activities along the supply chain of Salak var. Pondoh in Pagar Alam covering : harvesting, collecting and shelters of harvest, cleaning, sortation, grading and distribution.

  7. Assessment of Human Exposure to Magnetic Field from Overhead High Voltage Transmission Lines in a City in South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnle Akinlolu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in electricity consumption, population, and land use has now forced high voltage transmission lines (HVTLs either to pass or be installed around or through urban cities. This increases the level of human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation as this field produced around the HVTLs extends outwards covering some distance. This may cause a number of health hazards. It is even dangerous to a human who touch any metallic object in proximity of the HVTL, as it may have an appreciable voltage induced on it due to inductive, capacitive or resistive interference from the line. This paper evaluates the magnetic field produced at mid-span by a 132kV, and a 330kV, 50Hz adjacent HVTLs with horizontal and vertical configuration in Akure, a city in South Western Nigeria using analytical method from electromagnetic field theory. This is then compared to the recommended standard limit of public exposure to magnetic field. The results of the computation showed that currently, the general public exposure to the magnetic field along the HVTLs is safe. However, right of way (ROW along the power lines is being violated as buildings and work places exist within the ROW.

  8. Assessing quality of urban underground spaces by coupling 3D geological models: The case study of Foshan city, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weisheng; Yang, Liang; Deng, Dongcheng; Ye, Jing; Clarke, Keith; Yang, Zhijun; Zhuang, Wenming; Liu, Jianxiong; Huang, Jichun

    2016-04-01

    Urban underground spaces (UUS), especially those containing natural resources that have not yet been utilized, have been recognized as important for future sustainable development in large cities. One of the key steps in city planning is to estimate the quality of urban underground space resources, since they are major determinants of suitable land use. Yet geological constraints are rarely taken into consideration in urban planning, nor are the uncertainties in the quality of the available assessments. Based on Fuzzy Set theory and the analytic hierarchy process, a 3D stepwise process for the quality assessment of geotechnical properties of natural resources in UUS is presented. The process includes an index system for construction factors; area partitioning; the extraction of geological attributes; the creation of a relative membership grade matrix; the evaluation of subject and destination layers; and indeterminacy analysis. A 3D geological model of the study area was introduced into the process that extracted geological attributes as constraints. This 3D geological model was coupled with borehole data for Foshan City, Guangdong province, South China, and the indeterminacies caused by the cell size and the geological strata constraints were analyzed. The results of the case study show that (1) a relatively correct result can be obtained if the cell size is near to the average sampling distance of the boreholes; (2) the constraints of the 3D geological model have a major role in establishing the UUS quality level and distribution, especially at the boundaries of the geological bodies; and (3) the assessment result is impacted by an interaction between the cell resolution and the geological model used.

  9. Implementation of City Gs Distribution Project in Wajo Regency, South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Amaliyah, Novriany

    2011-01-01

    Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use of gas turbines and steam turbines. Natural gas burns more cleaner than other hydrocarbon fuels, such us oil and coal and produces less carbon dioxide per unit of energy release. About 20 years, Energy Equity Epic Pty. Ltd as contractor sharing with PERTAMINA has been explored natural gas in Wajo Regency, South Sulawesi as a source of electricity generator. As a result of its environmentally friendliness and stable ...

  10. Cocaine cities: Exploring the relationship between urban processes and the drug trade in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Ignacio A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the cocaine trade and urban land markets in South America has been overlooked by the mainstream economics and urban studies literature. This paper examines two avenues through which the cocaine trade can have a large impact on urban development in producer countries: (i) through an employment multiplier effect similar to that of other legal exports, and (ii) through money laundering using urban real estate. We test our hypotheses using the Bolivian case and find that ...

  11. British Council Project in Romania the South-East European Network of Creative Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Victor IONESCU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A Guidebook to Creative Industries in Iasi, Romania, 2006 is a project initiated by the British Council Centre Iasi concerning “creativeindustries”. After the conferences and workshops – in Plovdiv with the regional partners, in Iasi and Bucharest with the British and the localconsultants, the team has managed to put into practice one of the key projects it set out to achieve: publishing a unified inventory of the main actorsof the industrial-creative sector in Iasi. The purpose of this project is to bring to the attention of the potential partners and supporters the city‘spotential for economic and image “re-invention”, which “unify” Iasi through its creative energies and resources and to facilitate the creation of newcreative/ profitable partnership projects – in Romania, in the UK and in South-East Europe. This guidebook is the tangible sign of the beginning ofthe journey.

  12. Urbanising Africa: the city centre revisited: Experiences with inner-city revitalisation from Johannesburg (South Africa), Mbabane (Swaziland), Lusaka (Zambia), Harare and Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Peter; Chirisa, Innocent; Magwaro-Ndiweni, Linda; Michundu, Mazuba; Ndela, William; Nkonge, Mphangela; Sachs, Daniella

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDrawing on practical experiences of almost 15 years working within Gauteng Province and the City of Johannesburg my paper will focus on the location of poor communities within Johannesburg in relation to selected Inner-City areas and public transportation networks. The introduction notes the historical foundations and spatial legacies of the City (for example, the mining industry, pre and post apartheid doctrines and migration patterns). It acknowledges that these foundations, leg...

  13. Preliminary investigation of radon concentration in surface water and drinking water in Shenzhen City, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radon survey in surface water and drinking water was conducted using a portable degassing system associated with an ionisation chamber AlphaGUARD (PQ2000) for understanding levels of dissolved radon (222Rn) concentration in different types of water sources and risk assessment of radon in drinking water in Shenzhen City (SC) with a population of 10 628 900 in 2013, Guangdong Province of China. The measurements show that arithmetic means ± standard deviations of radon (222Rn) concentration are 52.05 ± 6.64, 0.29 ± 0.26, 0.15 ± 0.23 and 0.37 ± 0.42 kBq m-3 in spring water, surface water, large and small public water supplies, respectively. Only radon concentrations of two water samples collected in mountainous areas are more than 11.10 kBq m-3, exceeding the limit of radon concentration in drinking water stipulated by the national standard of China (GB5749-2006). The annual effective doses due to radon in drinking water were also calculated. The investigation suggests that there are no risks caused by radon in the drinking water in SC. (authors)

  14. Probability analysis for consecutive-day maximum rainfall for Tiruchirapalli City (south India, Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarish, R. Mani; Narasimhan, R.; Chandhru, A. R.; Suribabu, C. R.; Sudharsan, J.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2015-07-01

    In the design of irrigation and other hydraulic structures, evaluating the magnitude of extreme rainfall for a specific probability of occurrence is of much importance. The capacity of such structures is usually designed to cater to the probability of occurrence of extreme rainfall during its lifetime. In this study, an extreme value analysis of rainfall for Tiruchirapalli City in Tamil Nadu was carried out using 100 years of rainfall data. Statistical methods were used in the analysis. The best-fit probability distribution was evaluated for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days of continuous maximum rainfall. The goodness of fit was evaluated using Chi-square test. The results of the goodness-of-fit tests indicate that log-Pearson type III method is the overall best-fit probability distribution for 1-day maximum rainfall and consecutive 2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-day maximum rainfall series of Tiruchirapalli. To be reliable, the forecasted maximum rainfalls for the selected return periods are evaluated in comparison with the results of the plotting position.

  15. Deterioration of drinking water quality in Sebha city, south of Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water resources are limited in Libya and therefore the ground water represents the only major water resource, in this part of the world and particularly in Sebha which situated in the south of Libya it has a big significance as a reliable source for mankind consumption and other purposes. The main problem that faces the water quality in this area is its deterioration due to overuse, irregular utilization and absence of good planning leading to salinity and decrease in water level. Five (5) wells were chosen which represent different water qualities; they were analyzed for some chemical constituents. Comparing the results obtained from this study with those for the wells when first used, the results showed that after 8-24 years of utilization, the quality of water deteriorated i.e. some parameters were increased by a factor of up to 32 fold for parameters such as Calcium and Total dissolved Solids. The results also showed that there was no source of pollution found that could have affected the water in the studied wells. (author)

  16. Indoor radon variations over time in the dwellings of Bangalore city, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than half of the body's air intake during a lifetime is inhaled at indoors. The indoor concentrations of radon and its progeny are found to be significantly greater compared to outdoors. Thus, major risk related to exposures to radon stem from indoor air exposure. In the present work, short term variations (diurnal) and long term variations (seasonal) in indoor radon levels have been studied in about 50 houses using LLRDS and SSNTD methods respectively. The results obtained from the diurnal and seasonal measurements of radon concentration are reported, analyzed and discussed. The diurnal measurements were carried out using Low Level Radon Detection System (LLRDS). The seasonal variations in the concentration are studied by using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The description of the methods and procedure of measurement is as explained elsewhere. Indoor radon measurements were carried out in large number of dwellings of Bangalore city. Significant diurnal variations are not found in houses with good ventilation. However, morning concentration is found to be much higher than afternoon and evening levels in most of the houses. The average seasonal concentrations of 222Rn in winter, summer, rainy and autumn were found to be 45.2, 14.25, 17.0 and 20.0 Bq m-3 respectively. Similar trend of seasonal variations were observed in 220Rn concentrations. The average concentrations of 220Rn in winter, summer, rainy and autumn were found to be 28.8, 13.25, 17.8 and 18.2 Bq m-3 respectively. The concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn were found to be higher in winter compared to other seasons. Since this region remains cold during winter, doors and windows are generally kept closed, which lowers the air exchange with outdoors, allowing an accumulation of radon and thoron. (author)

  17. Urbanising Africa: the city centre revisited: Experiences with inner-city revitalisation from Johannesburg (South Africa), Mbabane (Swaziland), Lusaka (Zambia), Harare and Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Ahmad (Peter); I. Chirisa (Innocent); L. Magwaro-Ndiweni (Linda); M.W. Michundu (Mazuba); W.N. Ndela (William); M. Nkonge (Mphangela); D. Sachs (Daniella)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDrawing on practical experiences of almost 15 years working within Gauteng Province and the City of Johannesburg my paper will focus on the location of poor communities within Johannesburg in relation to selected Inner-City areas and public transportation networks. The introduction notes

  18. Nocturnal enuresis: prevalence and risk factors among school-aged children with sickle-cell anaemia in a South-east Nigerian city

    OpenAIRE

    Eneh, Chizoma I.; Okafor, Henrietta U.; Ikefuna, Anthony N; Uwaezuoke, Samuel N

    2015-01-01

    Background Sickle-cell anaemia (SCA) is the most common inherited haemoglobinopathy affecting the Negroid race. Renal complications such as enuresis can occur during childhood. Reports show that children and adolescents with SCA may be at a higher risk of nocturnal enuresis than their counterparts with normal haemoglobin genotype. Aims The study aims to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and possible risk factors among school-aged children with SCA in a South-east Nigerian city. M...

  19. Study of boron dilution phenomenon in the core and fuel assemblies of Bushehr VVERr-1000 reactor in normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial temperature distributions in fuel and coolant, results in appearing local changes in those elements densities in the reactor core, and also due to the complete solubility of boric acid in the coolant, there will be a direct correlation between the changes in the boron concentration and the coolant density. Because of the gradual reduction of boron concentration, first a local positive reactivity will be inserted into the core which will cause slight thermo-neutronic fluctuations in the reactor core. Of course, the trend of this process in the case of excessive reduction of the density of the coolant and evaporation of water (accident scenarios) will be reversed and subsequently the negative reactivity will be given to the system. With regard to the importance of this phenomenon, the spatial changes of boron concentration in the core and fuel assemblies of Bushehr VVER-1000 reactor have been examined. In line with this, by designing a complete thermo-neutronic cycle and by using CITATION, WIMS D-5 and COBRAN-EN codes, coolant temperature distribution and boron concentration will be calculated through this procedure, which first by using the output results of WIMS and CITATION codes, the thermal power of each fuel assembly will be calculated and finally, by linking these data to COBRA-EN code and using core and sub-channel analysis methods, the three-dimensional (3D) calculations of boron dilution will be obtained in the core as well as the fuel assemblies of the reactor. (authors)

  20. Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A.; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background A baseline cross-sectional survey among female sex workers (FSWs) was conducted in four cities within the context of an implementation research project aiming to improve FSWs’ access to HIV, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. The survey measured where FSWs seek HIV/SRH care and what motivates their choice. Methods Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400), Tete, Mozambique (n = 308), Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400) and Mysore, India (n = 458) and interviewed. RDS-adjusted proportions were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests. Results Across cities, FSWs most commonly sought care for the majority of HIV/SRH services at public health facilities, most especially in Durban (ranging from 65% for condoms to 97% for HIV care). Services specifically targeting FSWs only had a high coverage in Mysore for STI care (89%) and HIV testing (79%). Private-for-profit clinics were important providers in Mombasa (ranging from 17% for STI care and HIV testing to 43% for HIV care), but not in the other cities. The most important reason for the choice of care provider in Durban and Mombasa was proximity, in Tete ‘where they always go’, and in Mysore cost of care. Where available, clinics specifically targeting FSWs were more often chosen because of shorter waiting times, perceived higher quality of care, more privacy and friendlier personnel. Conclusion The place where care is sought for HIV/SRH services differs substantially between cities. Targeted services have limited coverage in the African cities compared to Mysore. Convenience appears more important for choosing the place of care than aspects of quality of care. The best model to improve access, linking targeted interventions with general health services, will need to be tailored to the specific context of each city. PMID:27494412

  1. Relationship between Family History of Osteoporotic Fracture and Femur Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    MH Gozashti; I Nabipour; Soltani, A; A Hossein-nezhad; Larijani, B

    2007-01-01

    Background: The principal aim of this study was therefore to investigate association between family history of osteo¬porotic hip fracture, BMD and femur geometry in Bushehr city in South of Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from Iranian Multi-center Osteoporosis Study (IMOS) in Bushehr. Healthy men and women aged 50 to 75 years were selected based on randomized clustered sampling of all regions of the corresponding city. BMD was measured once at the lumba...

  2. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF INDOOR FEATURES OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY FOR ROOMS FACING NORTH-SOUTH IN WINTER IN A LOW-LATITUDE PLATEAU CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一平; 李佑荣; 王进欣; 刘玉洪; 马友鑫

    2002-01-01

    Analyzing observations of wintertime air temperature in both indoor and outdoor surroundings in Kunming,a city lying in low latitudes,characteristics of temperature and humidity have been studied for the interior of rooms facing north-south under different weather conditions.Significant warming effect has been identified in terms of lowest and daily-mean indoor temperature in the area of Kunming.The heating amplitude ranges from 7.7(C to 10.0(C and from 4.6(C to 5.8(C for the interior part of rooms facing the south and from 4.6(C to 7.0(C and from 1.3(C to 4.4(C for the interior part of rooms facing the north,respectively for the two elements.The highest air temperature is higher indoor than outdoor for rooms facing the south,but otherwise is usually true for rooms facing the north.Additional findings point out that buildings not only help maintain relatively warm indoor temperature but delay its variation.The diurnal cycle of temperature indoor is smaller and ranges by 40% ~48% for south-facing rooms,and by 20%~30% for north-facing rooms,than outdoor,and the highest temperature is about 2 hours late inside the room than outside.It shows how inertly indoor temperature varies.The work also finds that relative humidity is less indoor in southward rooms than in northward ones and difference is the largest on fine days but the smallest when it is overcast.For the diurnal variation,the indoor relative humidity is large at nighttime with small amplitude but small during daytime with large amplitude.The above-presented results can be served as scientific foundation for more research on climate in low-latitude cities and rational design of urban architectures.

  3. A Study on the Future Sustainability of Sejong, South Korea's Multifunctional Administrative City, Focusing on Implementation of Transit Oriented Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeongmuk

    2012-01-01

    Since the appearance of steam engines in the late 18th century, cities have been growing with the development of transportation and the consequent increase of its urban population and economic activities. Presently, cities accommodate more than half of the world population and are expected to be responsible for 73% of the world’s energy use in 2030. Cities come to the fore as a problem, being also the roots of solution for current environment and energy-related problems. The Transit-Oriented ...

  4. Performance management systems implementation in South African municipalities :|bthe case of Matlosana City Council / by Morero Ignatius Kgechane.

    OpenAIRE

    Kgechane, Morero Ignatius

    2013-01-01

    Local government in South Africa has undergone significant transformation since 2000. There is a growing need to modernise this sphere of government, and part of this transformation process in South Africa has been to ensure that municipalities deliver according to their mandate in terms of services and become more responsive to communities’ needs. The role of municipalities, as local sphere of government, is to ensure that all citizens have access to at least a minimum level of services....

  5. Evaluation of the strategies of target market selection on the basis of IFE and EFE matrixes using linmap technique (A case study of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shahbandarzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important requirements of developing appropriate strategies for internationalmarketing is correct identification of target markets. Using quantitative techniques and decisionmaking skills will lead to better results regarding the evaluation of marketing strategies. In thisstudy, first we have used internal factor evaluation (IFE matrix for recognizing and comparingstrengths and weaknesses (internal factors of Bushehr export companies regarding participation intheir target markets and then we have used external factor evaluation (EFE matrix for recognizingand comparing opportunities and threats (external factors.As the effective criteria have been categorized in this four level (strengths, weaknesses,opportunities and threats, we have used LINMAP technique separately for each level and at lastwe've unified the results of each level by using of Borda method.The findings of this study help decision-makers of international trading to investigate the results oftheir decisions in a more logical and efficient way.

  6. City of One Thousand Temples

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Emma Natalya

    2015-01-01

    A Network of Hearsay in South India Although the South Indian city of Kanchipuram is popularly known as the City of One Thousand Temples, there is no existing prescribed circuit, and no comprehensive temple listing or map to guide visitors.* Rather, the thousands of pilgrims who flood the city daily usually only know about the five most famous temples. Scattered street signs throughout the busy city point the way to these sprawling monuments, which are always crowded and especially ...

  7. Assessment of Human Exposure to Magnetic Field from Overhead High Voltage Transmission Lines in a City in South Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnle Akinlolu; Adedeji Kazeem

    2015-01-01

    The increase in electricity consumption, population, and land use has now forced high voltage transmission lines (HVTLs) either to pass or be installed around or through urban cities. This increases the level of human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation as this field produced around the HVTLs extends outwards covering some distance. This may cause a number of health hazards. It is even dangerous to a human who touch any metallic object in proximity of the HVTL, as it may have an appre...

  8. Social and demographic determinants for breastfeeding in a rural, suburban and city area of South East China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong; Shi, Zumin; Spatz, Diane; Loh, Rebecca; Sun, Guiju; Grisso, Jeane

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a traditional practice in China, yet few studies have explored its current trend after socioeconomic reform. This study aims to characterize breastfeeding rates and possible associations with sociodemographic factors using a breastfeeding questionnaire administered to 1,385 mothers of 6-year-old children. Rates were lowest among city residents and negatively associated with parental and grandmother education levels as well as mothers’ professional occupational status. These f...

  9. Sports Competition Performance and the Development of Cities in the South of Shaanxi Province%陕南体育竞赛表演与城市经营发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕仙利

    2011-01-01

    Through literature data method ,this paper gives out an analysis on the issue of sports competition performance and the development of cities in the south of Shaanxi province briefly from the following three aspects that sports competition performance may affect a city: economy > image and culture, aimed at discussing the effect sports competition performance may have on the future development of cities in the south of Shaanxi province.%文章采用文献资料研究方法,主要从体育竞赛表演对举办城市的经济、城市形象和城市文化三个方面来分析体育竞赛表演与陕南城市经营发展的问题,探讨体育竞赛表演与陕南城市的未来发展.

  10. Are We Monitoring the Quality of Cataract Surgery Services? A Qualitative Situation Analysis of Attitudes and Practices in a Large City in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haastrup, Oluwatosin O. O.; Buchan, John C.; Cassels-Brown, Andy; Cook, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the current quality “assurance” and “improvement” mechanisms, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of cataract surgeons in a large South African city. Methodology: A total of 17 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with ophthalmologists in June 2012 at 2 tertiary institutions in the Republic of South Africa. Recruitment of the purposive sample was supplemented by snowball sampling. The study participants were 5 general ophthalmologists and 2 pediatric ophthalmologists; 4 senior and 4 junior registrars and a medical officer. Participants were interviewed by a trained qualitative interviewer. The interview lasted between 20 and 60 min. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for thematic content. Results: Mechanisms for quality assurance were trainee logbooks and subjective senior staff observation. Clinicians were encouraged, but not obliged to self-audit. Quality improvement is incentivized by personal integrity and ambition. Poorly performing departments are inconspicuous, especially nationally, and ophthalmologists rely on the impression to gauge the quality of service provided by colleagues. Currently, word of mouth is the method for determining the better cataract surgical centers. Conclusion: The quality assurance mechanisms were dependent on insight and integrity of the individual surgeons. No structures were described that would ensure the detection of surgeons with higher than expected complication rates. Currently, audits are not enforced, and surgical outcomes are not well monitored due to concerns that this may lead to lack of openness among ophthalmologists. PMID:25949081

  11. Measurements of natural radioactivity concentration in drinking water samples of Shiraz city and springs of the Fars province, Iran, and dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fars province is located in the south-west region of Iran where different nuclear sites has been established, such as Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant. In this research, 92 water samples from the water supplies of Shiraz city and springs of the Fars province were investigated with regard to the concentrations of natural radioactive elements, total uranium, 226Ra, gross alpha and gross beta. 226Ra concentration was determined by the 222Rn emanation method. To measure the total uranium concentration, a laser fluorimetry analyzer (UA-3) was used. The mean concentration of 226Ra in Shiraz's water resources was 23.9 mBq l-1, while 93% of spring waters have a concentration 2 mBq l-1. The results of uranium concentration measurements show the mean concentrations of 7.6 and 6 mg l-1 in the water of Shiraz and springs of Fars, respectively. The gross alpha and beta concentrations measured by the evaporation method were lower than the limit of detection of the measuring instruments used in this survey. The mean annual effective doses of infants, children and adults from 238U and 226Ra content of Shiraz's water and spring waters were estimated. According to the results of this study, the activity concentration in water samples were below the maximum permissible concentrations determined by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Finally, the correlation between 226Ra and total U activity concentrations and geochemical properties of water samples, i.e. pH, total dissolve solids and SO42-, were estimated. (authors)

  12. Trends and sources vs air mass origins in a major city in South-western Europe: Implications for air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Camacho, R; de la Rosa, J D; Sánchez de la Campa, A M

    2016-05-15

    This study presents a 17-years air quality database comprised of different parameters corresponding to the largest city in the south of Spain (Seville) where atmospheric pollution is frequently attributed to traffic emissions and is directly affected by Saharan dust outbreaks. We identify the PM10 contributions from both natural and anthropogenic sources in this area associated to different air mass origins. Hourly, daily and seasonal variation of PM10 and gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NO2 and SO2), all of them showing negative trends during the study period, point to the traffic as one of the main sources of air pollution in Seville. Mineral dust, secondary inorganic compounds (SIC) and trace elements showed higher concentrations under North African (NAF) air mass origins than under Atlantic. We observe a decreasing trend in all chemical components of PM10 under both types of air masses, NAF and Atlantic. Principal component analysis using more frequent air masses in the area allows the identification of five PM10 sources: crustal, regional, marine, traffic and industrial. Natural sources play a more relevant role during NAF events (20.6 μg · m(-3)) than in Atlantic episodes (13.8 μg · m(-3)). The contribution of the anthropogenic sources under NAF doubles the one under Atlantic conditions (33.6 μg · m(-3) and 15.8 μg · m(-3), respectively). During Saharan dust outbreaks the frequent accumulation of local anthropogenic pollutants in the lower atmosphere results in poor air quality and an increased risk of mortality. The results are relevant when analysing the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the exposed population in large cities. The increase in potentially toxic elements during Saharan dust outbreaks should also be taken into account when discounting the number of exceedances attributable to non-anthropogenic or natural origins. PMID:26930305

  13. Study of particulate matters pollution related with meteorological factors for a city from South-Central of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MITRAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the effects of climate change and air pollution is at present a global priority. Development and implementation of effective policies in order to achieve these  reductions is a challenge that requires a good understanding of the underlying phenomena  of climate change and air pollution. This paper aims to highlight the seasonal variation of PM10 concentration in Pitesti city depending on major meteorological factors (temperature, intensity of solar radiation, and relative humidity. The applied methodology consists in statistical processing, using specialized software, of a database containing historical records of concentration values of this pollutant and of meteorological parameters recorded concurrently. The results of processing a series of approximately 30000 values recorded from 2008 to 2011 indicate the fact that in every season (winter,spring, summer, and autumn the concentration of PM10 varies according to a sixth degree polynomial function, whose variable is one of the considered meteorological factors. The mathematical relationship that best approximates the variation of average PM10 concentration in relation with the three meteorological factors is by the form of a multiple linear regression equation.Keywords: air pollution and human health, particulate matters related with meteorological factors, statistical analysis

  14. Dynamics of Antenatal Care and Birth Delivery Preferences in Puskesmas Kassi-Kassi, Makassar City, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Nuraini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Riskesdas 2010 illustrates that birth deliveries by health workers in low-income community reached 69.3%; while deliveries were conducted health workers at health facilities only reached 55.4%. This illustrates that the health facility or program that has given local or central government has not run optimally. Methods:This study aims to determine antenatal care and birth delivery preferences in the community and what factors underlie the preference. The location of research is precisely in the area of Puskesmas Kassi-kassi, Makassar City. Results showed that the mother already has the knowledge, attitudes and behavior quite well in maintaining health. Society does not always take advantage of government facilities. Antinatal care is mostly done in the doctor or midwife in private practice for reasons of convenience and prestige; while health centers for labor is still the main choice for the cheapest. Conclusion: Urban community in Kassi Health Center area have many option other than health center the quality only type of services is factor related to costumer choice because they are able to finance the cost. Recommendation: Government need to involve the private sector and do not ignore the social economic and culture condition for the successful of program.

  15. Association of HLA-DRB1 Alleles with Ulcerative Colitis in the City of Kerman, South Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of HLA class II genes with ulcerative colitis (UC as an autoimmune disease has been investigated for several years. However, factors responsible for genetic predisposition of this disease have so far not been clearly understood. In this study, for the first time, we aimed to investigate the association between HLA-DRB1 types and UC in the population of Kerman, a city southeast Iran.HLA typing was performed among 85 UC patients and 95 healthy controls using PCRamplification, employing sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP. The DRB1 frequencies were determined in the patients and controls.HLA-DRB1*04 was negatively associated with UC. Furthermore, HLA-DRB1*13 was significantly associated with severity of the disease (p=0.01 among UC patients.This is the novel result that describes an association of HLA-DRB1*13 with UC and also shows the protective role of HLA-DRB1*04 against the disease in people of Kerman.

  16. Effect of Air Pollutants on Rain Water Characteristics in Hammam Al-Aleel District/ Al-Erej Village South of Mosul City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad F. Qasim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on Hammam Al-Aleel district/ Al-Erej village which is located south of Mosul city. This area has been suffering from spreading the air-pollutants resulted from the chimneys of Hammam Al-Aleel cement factories. Different areas were chosen for collecting samples of the rain water from December 2008 to March 2009. The study showed that rain-water is generally basic. The tests show an increase in ( EC, Mg+2, Ca+2, Cl-1, SO4-2 and NO-1,  due to the air pollutants emitted from local industries. The concentration of heavy elements represented by  Pb and Cd were high and this increase is due to the source of these elements from burning of the crude oil which is used in running the rotating kiln to produce the clinker in cement factory, In addition to the fuel used for  running vehicle and the friction between tires and  road.

  17. Study of power distribution in the CZP, HFP and normal operation states of VVER-1000 (Bushehr) nuclear reactor core by coupling nuclear codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simulation of one-sixth of VVER-1000 reactor core by WIMS-D4 based on core symmetry. • Obtaining the cross sections of some nuclides by WIMS-D4 from BOC to EOC. • Transferring the obtained cross sections into CITATION as inputs for codes coupling. • Obtaining neutron fluxes and power by CITATION and program cycle in the CZP and HFP. • Distribution depiction of neutron fluxes and power in CZP, HFP and normal operation. - Abstract: In this research, the simulation of one-sixth of VVER-1000 (Bushehr) reactor core is carried out by WIMS-D4 nuclear code, based on symmetry of core and also by information obtained from FSAR. The cross sections of some nuclides are obtained by WIMS-D4 from the beginning of cycle (BOC) to the end of cycle (EOC), and they are transferred into the CITATION code as inputs. In the next stage, the amounts of neutron fluxes and power of reactor core are obtained by CITATION code in the CZP and HFP states. Then, the received products are returned again into the extended program cycle, thereby distributions of neutron fluxes and power are finally depicted. In the meantime, the space distribution of neutron fluxes and power throughout the core are presented during the normal operation by this simulation. It can be inferred that if the reactor operation continues, a flat power distribution will be made in the reactor core that might cause maximum power

  18. Study the Effect of Sources of Manufacturing Companies on the Achievement of the Objectives of the Trade Exhibition: Case Study at the International Exhibition of Bushehr City

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Esmaeilpour; Manijeh Bahrainizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: With increasing competition and reducing the possibility of exposure to commodities, the possibility of participating in trade exhibition is important hundredfold. Exhibiting a great opportunity for companies provide the goods. The exhibition will present a pre-determined targets and long-term planning to achieve these goals, the recognition of its resources in setting goals as a fundamental principle of the company, is participating in the exhibition. Objectives: The purpose of t...

  19. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  20. Magnetic properties of terrestrial moss (Hylocomium splendens) along a north-south profile crossing the city of Oslo, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Karl, E-mail: Karl.Fabian@ngu.no; Reimann, Clemens; McEnroe, Suzanne A.; Willemoes-Wissing, Bjorn

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic measurements are routinely used in geophysics and environmental sciences to obtain detailed information about concentrations and quality of iron minerals. Here, magnetic properties of 38 terrestrial moss samples (Hylocomium splendens) from a {approx} 120 km south-north transect through Oslo are studied to gain better insight into the nature and origin of their Fe fraction. The concentration-dependent quantities, magnetic susceptibility k, and isothermal remanent magnetization IRM(700mT) after weight normalization have significantly higher values in urban regions, and parallel the previously found concentration signals of 16 out of 29 chemical elements (Ag, Al, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pt, Sb, Ti, and Zn). Because there is no evidence that Hylocomium splendens produces biogenic magnetic remanence carriers, the increase in IRM is attributed to adsorption of dust containing iron oxide minerals. This agrees with previous observations that Ti concentrations, related to local mineral dust, have a peak in Oslo, and at sites close to known dust sources. Scanning electron microscopy images also showed an increased density of minerogenic particles on the moss surfaces in the urban samples, which qualitatively supports the dust based interpretation. The concentration-independent ratios k/Fe and IRM(700mT)/Fe also have extreme values in the urban parts of the transect. This indicates that more of the total iron occurs in magnetically ordered form and in remanence carriers, interpreted as adsorbed dust. In addition, purely magnetic ratios displayed differences in urban and rural areas, indicating that their magnetic dust particles are inherently of different types. Therefore, it is likely that anthropogenic dust sources contribute considerably to the magnetic signal. Urban dust enhancement is not exclusively due to increased erosion, leading to higher loads of geogenic dust in the atmosphere, but also to specific anthropogenic sources from combustion

  1. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  2. Proportion of depression and its determinants among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is found to be common among patients with diabetes and it is associated with poor outcomes in disease control. This study was carried out to find out the proportion and determinants associated with depression among patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of south India. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in one government and three private tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore in December 2010. All consenting patients with confirmed diagnosis of T2DM were interviewed and screened for depression by administering the 9-item PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results: Of the 230 T2DM patients, 119 (51.7% were males. The mean age of all participants was 53.61 ± 10.7 years. The median duration of T2DM was found to be 12.1 ± 7.35 years. Among the participants, 71 (30.9% met the criteria for moderate depression, 33 (14.3% for severe depression, and the remaining 126 (54.8% had no clinically significant depression. Only 26 (11.3% patients were already aware that they were depressed, of whom just 3 had taken medical consultation. Among the risk factors, depression was found to be significantly associated with older age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, unskilled and retired employment status, having complications due to T2DM or comorbidities like hypertension and coronary artery disease, being overweight and being on insulin syringe injections. Conclusion: This study found a high proportion of depression among patients with T2DM. Therefore the care of individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM should include the screening and possible treatment of depression in order to achieve and sustain treatment goals.

  3. Fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation (Miocene) in the Bukpyeong Basin at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea: occurrences, taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik; Paik, In Sung

    2016-04-01

    Abundant and diverse plant fossils such as land plants and subaqueous plants, freshwater mollusc fossils and invertebrate trace fossils are found in the Miocene Bukpyeong Formation at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea. Occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation are described and their taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications are interpreted. Based on fossil occurrences, lithofacies and sedimentary features of the fossil-bearing deposits, eight taphofacies are classified as the following: (1) Taphofacies 1: Gastropod fossils in massive silty mudstone; (2) Taphofacies 2: Bivalve fossils in massive silty mudstone; (3) Taphofacies 3: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in massive silty mudstone; (4) Taphofacies 4: Gastropod and plant fossils in massive silty mudstone; (5) Taphofacies 5: Plant fossils in weakly fissile silty mudstone; (6) Taphofacies 6: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (7) Taphofacies 7: Plant fragment fossils in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (8) Taphofacies 8: Plant debris in planar- to cross-laminated fine-grained sandstone. Taphonomy of taphofacies 1, 2, and 4 including freshwater mollusc fossils is interpreted to have been reworked or transported by turbidity currents after death and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Taphonomy of taphofacies 3, 5, 6, and 7 including plant fossils is interpreted to have been transported by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited by settling down in open lake. Taphofacies 8 including plant debris has been deposited in shallow lake by input of intensive episodic flooding from the land. The occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits indicate that most of the fossils were transported by turbidity current induced by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Moreover, plant fossils from the Bukpyeong

  4. Utilization of airborne gamma ray spectrometric data for geological mapping, radioactive mineral exploration and environmental monitoring of southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.; Elkhodary, Shadia T.

    2013-12-01

    The present work utilizes airborne gamma ray spectrometric data in a trial to refine surface geology of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, detect any radioactive mineralization and monitor environment at southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. This area is mainly covered with igneous rocks (younger granites, older granites, metasediments, metavolcanics, metagabbro, Tertiary basalt and ring complex), metamorphic rocks as well as sedimentary rocks (Um Barmil Formation, Timsah Formation, Abu Aggag Formation and wadi sediments). Airborne gamma ray spectrometry can be very helpful in mapping surface geology. This provides estimates of the apparent surface concentrations of the most common naturally occurring radioactive elements, such as potassium (K), equivalent uranium (eU) and equivalent thorium (eTh). This is based on the assumption that, the absolute and relative concentrations of these radioelements vary measurably and significantly with lithology. The composite image technique is used to display simultaneously three parameters of the three radioelement concentrations and their three binary ratios on one image. The technique offers much in terms of lithological discrimination, based on colour differences and showed efficiency in defining areas, where different lithofacies occur within areas mapped as one continuous lithology. The integration between surface geological information and geophysical data led to detailing the surface geology and the contacts between different rock units. Significant locations or favourable areas for uranium exploration are defined, where the measurements exceed (X + 2S), taking X as the arithmetic mean of eU, eU/eTh and eU/K measurements and S as the standard deviation corresponding to each variables. The study area shows the presence of four relatively high uraniferous zones. These zones cannot be ignored and need further ground follow-up. In addition, the trend analysis based on the three radioelement maps and

  5. Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailen Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel; Fernandez-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; María Esbrí, Jose; Gonzalez-Corrochano, Beatríz; García-Noguero, Eva Mª; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; García-Noguero, Carolina

    2013-04-01

    Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailén Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain). Authors: Miguel A. López-Berdonces¹; Sergio Fernández Calderón¹; Pablo Higueras¹; José María Esbrí¹; Beatriz González-Corrochano¹; Eva Mª García-Noguero¹; Alba Martínez-Coronado¹; Carolina García Noguero¹ ¹Instituto de Geología Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Almadén 13400 (Spain). Ojailén Valley is situated in South Central of Spain, an area where livestock, agriculture, mining and industry coexist. This work tries to assess the relationships between these activities and local environmental compartments: water, soils and heavy metal contents, and establish the most appropriate methodology of sample treatment and analytical techniques that can be employed on this kind of studies. For soil geochemistry, 152 samples were taken at two different depths, one at surface layer and another at 20 cm depth, and establish relationships between them and the possible sources. For this purpose, we determine soil parameters (pH, conductivity and organic matter) and total metal contents by Energy Dispersion of X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Samples with higher nickel contents were analyzed with Inductive Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. The study of surface waters includes 18 samples along the river and tributaries near mining and industrial areas. Water analysis was performed by ICP-OES. Soil samples shows pH between 6 and 8.5, highest located near on the east part of the valley, in the vicinity of petrochemical complex. Conductivity values show higher levels (1600 µS cm¯¹) in the vicinity of Puertollano and the industrial sites. Local reference value (LRV) for contaminated soils were determined according to the methodology proposed by Jimenez-Ballesta et al. (2010), using the equation: LRV=GM + 2SD, where LRV: Local Reference Value, GM: Geometric Mean, SD: Standard Deviation

  6. Education Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  7. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  8. The Exploration Analysis of Low-carbon Ecological City Path in South Bridge New City%南桥新城低碳生态城市之路的探索分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2014-01-01

    Prosperity and sustainable development ecological city has become a global trend, which is also a direction of Chinese future urban development. But in recent years, in the process of urban development, city is facing many problems, which have brought new challenges to the urban ecological planning, such as energy, pol ution, and urban heat island ef-fect and so on.%繁荣与可持续发展生态城市已成为全球发展趋势,也是我国未来城市发展的方向。但是近年来,在城市发展过程中,城市面临着诸多问题,如城市能源、污染、城市热岛效应等,都给城市生态规划带来了新的挑战。

  9. Customer Satisfaction in Online Banking : A Comparative Study of Local and Foreign Commercial Banks in the South of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Le Ngoc Diep

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to construct a conceptual model with related instruments that affect customer satisfaction in using online banking in Ho Chi Minh City and Southern Vietnam. An important task of this work is the comparison of customer satisfaction in using online banking between customers of Vietnamese local banks and customers of foreign banks. Further discussions of the relationship among online service quality, perceived value, e-trust, relationship quality, customer satisfa...

  10. Microscopic isolation and characterization of free living amoebae (FLA from surface water sources.in Birjand, the capital city of the South Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Behravan

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The results indicated that a significant percentage of surface water sources in Birjand city was contaminated with Acanthamoeba spp. It is necessary for physicians, therefore, to take into account the diseases caused by these infectious agents. Besides, local regional health professionals should take into consideration the potential role of surface stagnant water sources in transferring these infectious agents. Placing warning signs in areas contaminated with these infectious agents seems a useful measure.

  11. A Research of Construction Mechanism of Vassal State's City Group during Spring and Autumn Period Based on the Analyzation of Geographic Image - Take south region of Shandong as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Li, B.; Zhou, X.

    2015-08-01

    Spring and Autumn period, the vassal states began to carry out country defense construction actively, brought changes to building the ideological. At that time, the south region of Shandong, as an independent unit of geography, seldom affected by external factors, and had striking cultural characteristics. Vassal states there constructed their capital mainly to defense the neighboring countries and cope with small scale mergers war, not involving the nationwide military deployment. Therefore, the region reflect the construction thought changes during the Spring and Autumn Period, and consistent with the research purpose. Based on this judgment, the author analyzed each capital's location and terrain feature by topographic map. In brief, the Spring and Autumn Period, feudal states acted of one's own free will, the relationship between cities contained the one within and between vassal states. Within vassal state relationships included economic support, entrenching each other and protecting the country together. Meanwhile, strategic defensing, scrambling for resources and geographical location comprised of the competition between vassal states. In the agrarian age, the political centers and agricultural areas were interdependent, giving priority to the development of political cities. Transformation of capitals' space layout was actually the process of carving up farming plains, the powerful states occupy favorable geographical position, and the small countries would be encroached and annexed gradually.

  12. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  13. Ideal Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meitner, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  14. Sin City?

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Pieter A; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? Weinvestigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners bymoving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danishcouples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay inthe city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who marriedoutside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. Thiscorrelation ...

  15. Street Vending in African Cities: A Synthesis of Empirical Finding From Kenya, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Uganda and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mitullah, Winnie V.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies on street vending in six African countries (Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire and South Africa) assess the business/environment constraints for street vendors. Those working in the informal economy work in unregulated and unprotected environments that are not conducive to business growth. Street vending is primarily viewed as an economic activity for those with a low level of education and employs many women, for whom it is considered an extension of their reproductiv...

  16. Observational and modeling study of dry deposition on surrogate surfaces in a South China city: implication of removal of atmospheric crustal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Leung, Ka-Yee; Tanner, Peter A

    2010-05-01

    Dry deposition samples collected during 1999-2001 at a South China site using surrogate surfaces were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Collector surface properties played important roles to the dry deposition. The deposition velocities for various species ranged from 0.02 to 1.69 cm s(-1), in general agreement with literature values. More than 90% of Ca(2+) was deposited by sedimentation and its comparable values of dry or wet removal residence times imply that dry deposition is an important atmospheric removal process for the ubiquitous crustal species in South China, compared with precipitation scavenging. Relatively good agreement was found when the species deposition velocities were modeled based on up-to-date knowledge of particle dry deposition. The total depositions for anthropogenic and crustal species in northern China are likely to be much higher than those in the south, including our site where the fluxes of the acidic species SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-) were 4.4 and 2.2 g m(-2) year(-1), respectively. The sum of dry deposition for cations Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) contributes 44% of the total flux, which is equivalent to the value estimated in Europe. PMID:19357979

  17. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  18. Tracing the sources of pollution of wells and Karst springs supplying water to the City of Ragusa, South-Eastern Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Ruggieri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the pollution occurs in two important karst springs, supplying the aqueduct to the city Ragusa, started since September2010 and is still continuing. Both springs show higher values of ammonia and the presence of salmonella, elements ascribable to wastewater of animal origin. This investigations identified a number of farms present within the springs protected areas which likely to have caused the pollution. These were imposed by ordinances to build adequate storage tanks for the animal waste water. Paradoxically, the construction of these tanks led to a further worsening of the state of pollution, as the latter from episodic, linked to rainfall, became continuous due to the overflowing of wastewater from the tanks never emptied, as it was ascertained. A geological and geochemical study, preparatory to the execution of tracer tests, conducted by the Water Dept. of Genio Civile of Ragusa and ARPA (Regional Agency for the Environmental Protection, allowed a hydrogeological characterization of the recharge area and the definition of the hydrologic regime of the springs, that in this case, resulted as interconnected. Follow-up tests with fluorescent tracers, carried out on a few farms, were then interrupted because of the opposition of one of the owners. From that moment on, everything stops as for the research of the origin of the pollutant, while at the same time the situation gets worse, both in terms of environment, for the devastating effect on the ecosystem of the Ciaramite stream due to the spill in the riverbed of the polluted water springs, and for the resulting pollution of two municipal drinking water wells placed at the confluence of the Ciaramite stream with the Irminio river. The lack of further drinkable water determined the starting of the crisis of the city water distribution system having to turn to a supply of chance with tank trucks and shifts that created situations of considerable discomfort to major part

  19. Micro-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopic studies of ceramic shards excavated from ancient Stratonikeia city at Eskihisar village in West-South Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahçeli, Semiha; Güleç, Gamze; Erdoğan, Hasan; Söğüt, Bilal

    2016-02-01

    In this study, micro-Raman and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) were used to characterize the mineralogical structures of pigments of four ceramic fragments in which one of them belongs to Hellenistic period (1st - IVth century BC) and other three ceramic shards belong to Early Rome (IVth century BC- 1st century AD) excavated from Stratonikeia ancient city. In the results of investigations on these four ceramic fragments, the various phases were identified: quartz, kaolinite, albit (or Na-feldspar), calcite, anastase, hematite and magnetite. Furthermore, the obtained findings indicate that firing temperature is about 800-850 °C for all the shards.

  20. Earth's City Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  1. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban...

  2. Sex in the city: privacy-making practices, spatialized intimacies and the environmental risks of men-who-have-sex-with-men in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorway, Robert; Hwang, Sandra D H; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Pasha, Akram; Rahman, Syed Hafeez Ur; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James

    2011-09-01

    Employing community-based approaches, the spatialization of sexual risk among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) at local cruising spots was explored in South India. To move beyond individualistic and structural deterministic understandings of sexual risk the study examined how erotic associations and networks formed and dissolved as social actors connect to each other through their material world (which includes other bodies). Crowding was important for safely establishing intimacy in public but also created contexts of discrimination and violence, particularly for feminine-acting males. Risk itineraries drawn by MSM anticipated fluctuating levels of risk, enabling them to avoid dangerous situations. Although sexual typologies connected gender nonconforming males to HIV prevention networks, they reinforce the exclusion of men who did not identify with sexual minority identities. Future work must therefore address the HIV prevention needs of men whose identities cannot be readily separated from "the general population". PMID:21703909

  3. A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans. PMID:23802765

  4. Limerick City

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Postcard. Colour photograph of River Shannon with Limerick City in background. Number 2/LK-018. Printed on reverse "Limerick city, where the Shannon river meets the sea is one of the most progressive of Irish cities, where the past and present mingle pleasantly. That part of the city called Newtown Pery was designed and planned in 1767, and is the Limerick of wide streets crossing at right angles, and the pleasantly tree-sprinkled People's Park. The tall column in the park commemorates Thomas...

  5. Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba Strains from Envi-ron¬mental Sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, South-ern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahdar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoebae commonly found in the environmental sources such as water, soil, and air. This ubiquitous amoeba is the causative agent of amoebic kerati­tis (AK. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in water and soil sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, southern Iran.Methods: In general, 110 samples of water and soil were taken from different localities of Ahvaz including agricultural canals, rivers, and swimming pools. Filtration and cultivation were carried out on non-nutrient agar medium (NNA. Axenic cultivation was performed for all of positive isolates. PCR analysis was conducted on positive samples. Sequencing was done for 15 PCR products. Geno­types were identified by Blast search and homology analysis.Result: Acanthamoeba spp. was found in 43 (71.6% of samples of water and 13 (26% soil samples. Genotyping of 15 samples proved that Acanthamoeba belonged to T4 (86.6%, T2 (6.6%, and T5 (6.6% genotypes.Conclusion: TYI-S-33 medium could be better than PYG medium for Acanthamoeba axenic culture.

  6. [Construction of the work process of the Family Health Support Nucleus: the experience of pharmacists in a city in the south of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Carina Akemi; Leite, Silvana Nair

    2016-05-01

    The Family Health Support Nucleus (NASF) was created in 2008 with the objective of broadening the range and scope of primary healthcare. The insertion of pharmacists in this multi-professional context represents an opportunity to enhance the working process and the rational access and use of medicines. The working processes of pharmacists in a city NASF was investigated. Field research was conducted using a qualitative approach with participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Two analytic dialectic categories emerged. The first was the pharmacists' dilemma in the construction of their working process as promoters of primary healthcare, while at the same time facing the need to deal with managerial functions mostly to cater to operational demand. The second was the reality experienced with guidelines and coordination of their work, where pharmacists can be free to structure their work as supporters, although at the same time it limits them due to lack of acknowledgment of their previously established working process. The lack of planning and a clear objective for work in the NASF, besides the deficiency of pharmaceutical services in primary healthcare make the development of any type of pharmacist activity important and essential even if it does not fully attend the NASF proposal. PMID:27166904

  7. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the South American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) from the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yai, L E O; Cañon-Franco, W A; Geraldi, V C; Summa, M E L; Camargo, M C G O; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

    2003-08-01

    Antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii were assayed in sera of 396 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Antibodies to N. caninum were assayed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies (IFAT, approximately 1:25) to N. caninum were found in 84 opossums (D. marsupialis) in titers of 1:25 in 46, 1:50 in 20, 1:100 in 17, and 1:400 in 1. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed with the modified agglutination test (MAT) and the IFAT. Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT, approximately 1:25) were found in 82 (20.4%) of the 396 opossums, in titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 26, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 13, and 1:800 in 1. The IFAT antibodies to T. gondii were found in 148 of 396 opossums, in titers of 1:16 in 41, 1:32 in 23, 1:64 in 13, 1:128 in 6, 1:256 in 20, 1:512 in 17, 1:1,024 in 10, 1:2,048 in 10, 1:4,096 in 7, and 1:8,192 in 1. This is the first report of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in D. marsupialis. PMID:14533710

  8. 菲律宾鄢市华裔学生汉语学习的闽南方言因素%Effects of South Fujian Dialect on Chinese Learning by Chinese Descents in Cagayan de Oro City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连涵芬

    2014-01-01

    The south Fujian dialect plays an important part in the Chinese descents’ mandarin learning in Cagayan de Oro City, Singapore, including both positive transfer and negative transfer. Based on the questionnaires, observations and interviews, this paper tries to study on the effects of southern Fujian dialect on the Chinese language learning, to discover common mistakes the students make in their speech sound, vocabulary and intonation.%闽南方言在菲律宾鄢市华裔学生汉语学习中一方面起正迁移作用,另一方面也有负迁移影响。通过问卷调查、书面作业考察及个别访谈形式对华裔学生汉语学习中的闽南方言因素进行调查研究,发现了华裔学生汉语学习中因闽南方言所致的常见的语音、词汇和语法错误。

  9. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge...

  10. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  11. New city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    2. rev. udg. engelsk udgave af 'Nye byrum'. This book presents an overview of the developments in the use and planning of public spaces, and offers a detailed description of 9 cities with interesting public space strategies: Barcelona, Lyon, Strasbourg, Freiburg and Copenhagen in Europe, Portland...... in North America, Curitiba and Cordoba in South America and Melbourne in Australia. It also portrays 39 selected public space projects from all parts of the World. The strategies and projects are extensively illustrated by drawings, plans and photographs....

  12. First geophysical results on Musmeci Bridge next to Potenza city (Basilicata Region, South of Italy) in the framework of ISTIMES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavusi, Massimo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Loperte, Antonio; Proto, Monica; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results coming from the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys and data processing based on MT carried out on the Musmeci Bridge, in Potenza City (Basilicata, Italy), an important example of architectonic culture of the XX built in the 1968 by the Italian architect Sergio Musmeci. The bridge, at present day, suffers several aging related problems worse by the traffic growth of the last ten years. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique is now an effective tool for non invasive diagnostic of reinforced concrete. However, the achievement of the full spatial resolution requires to perform long sessions of data processing affected by a level of the operator's subjectiveness increasing as long as the investigated scenario becomes complicated. This drawback can be mitigated by advanced data processing based on microwave-tomography (MT) which faces an inverse scattering problem (Leone and Soldovieri, 2003). In particular, the adoption of the a simplified model of the electromagnetic scattering as the Born Approximation (BA) makes it possible to tackle the realistic cases of large domains in a reasonable amount of time and via an automatic procedure. Previous studies aimed at characterizing the structure of the Musmeci bridge, have considered the coupling of the Georadar technique with the classic Pacometric investigations for the detection of the reinforcement bars and their spatial position. Main limitation related to both techniques consists in detecting only the shallowest embedded rebars. The preliminary results of this study show that the GPR associated to the MT inversion allow to provide very high spatial resolution data, to detect the embedded rebars deeper and deeper and to overcome the subjectiveness of the operator. Moreover, the MT algorithm allows to process a large amount of data in a short time. The bridge is one of the test-sites selected within the ISTIMES "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and

  13. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  14. Potential Cities_

    OpenAIRE

    Budzynski, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Buildings and urban construction are understood in this paper as representations of the city. Their meanings, however, are often invisible, positing unrealized urban visions, which are both imbedded in and which call up chains of associations expressing desires and fears. Narratives of what the city should be often contain the rejection of the existing urban situation. Understanding architectural objects as potential underscores their imaginary nature. Freud, for example, uses the Roman ruins...

  15. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  16. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  17. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    M Batty

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  18. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  19. Prevalência e perfil dos usuários de álcool de população adulta em cidade do sul do Brasil Prevalence and alcohol user profile in adult population in a south Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este é um estudo do tipo observacional e transversal envolvendo 707 indivíduos do município de Joaçaba (SC, que visa conhecer a prevalência de usuários regulares de álcool, bem como seu perfil. Os resultados mostram que 45,5% (322 fazem uso de álcool de forma regular e consumiram álcool ao menos uma vez no último mês. O consumo regular de álcool ocorre predominantemente no sexo masculino (p This is an observational cross-sectional survey which included 707 individuals from a south Brazilian city (Joaçaba, in Santa Catarina State aiming to know the alcohol user prevalence as well as the profile of the user. The results showed that 45.5% (322 of that population consume alcohol on regular basis and had used it at least once in the last month. The regular alcohol consumption occurs predominantly on males (p <0.001, in people under 39 years old (p =0.007, occurring predominantly with ones working comparing to the ones not working, (p <0.001, have more than 8 years of education (p <0.001 and with income greater than 1738.00 reais - Brazilian currency (p <0.001. The regular alcohol consumption was greater on those who classified his health status as regular, good or very good (p <0.006, also this relation happen to those people who haven't been under hospital internment in the last year (p <0.013. The depression levels scored by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI showed low levels to those who regularly consume alcohol (p <0.047.

  20. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trads, Søren Frimann; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services with...... potential visitors, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of...... - or willingness to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  1. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision of a...... sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  2. La ciudad al sur de la ciudad: historia sociourbana de los barrios Villa Lugano y Villa Riachuelo The City South of the City: A History of Socio-urban Slum Neighborhoods Villa Lugano and Villa Riachuelo A cidade ao sul da cidade: história sócio-urbana dos bairros Villa Lugano e Villa Riachuelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Perea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo del trabajo es presentar el derrotero de la urbanización, de la configuración de la estructura económica y de la dinámica del mercado inmobiliario local de los barrios Villa Lugano y Villa Riachuelo. Ambos se localizan al sur de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, y comprender el proceso de su urbanización permite entender mejor cuáles han sido los procesos que explican, en parte, la fisonomía actual de la ciudad. El trabajo se apoya en investigaciones previas y material de archivo existente sobre el proceso de urbanización e historia de ambos barrios, entrevistas a informantes clave (funcionarios y líderes de organizaciones barriales y fuentes de datos secundarias. AbstractThe objective of this article is to present the course of the urbanization, the configuration of the economic structure and the dynamics of the local real estate market of Villa Lugano and Villa Riachuelo neighborhoods. Both are located in the south of Buenos Aires city and understanding its urbanization process allows to understand in a better way the processes that explain, in part, the current physiognomy of the city. The work relies on previous investigations and archival material on the process of urbanization and the history of both neighborhoods, interviews with key informants (officials and leaders of community organizations and secondary data sources.ResumoO objetivo do trabalho é apresentar o curso do mapa do urbanization, da configuração da estrutura econômica e da dinâmica do mercado de propriedade real local do Villa Lugano e Villa Riachuelo. Ambos são ficados situados ao sul da cidade de Buenos Aires e, para compreenda que o processo de seu urbanization reserva para compreender mais melhor que foram os processos que explicam, em parte, a aparência atual da cidade. O trabalho inclina-se em investigações e no material precedentes de lima existente no processo do urbanization e da história de ambos os distritos, em entrevistas aos

  3. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  4. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  5. City Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  6. Sustainable Building in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In view of sustainable building prioritized as a strategic sector by local government in South China, and the strong Dutch expertise and wide market recognition in this field especially the substantive presence of the Shanghai-based Dutch Sustainable Building Platform, the market in the South could be very potential and interesting to Dutch companies though strong competitors as well. An overview is given of the developments in the Chinese province Guangdong, Shenzhen city, Guangzhou City, Fujian Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Hainan Province. Also information is given about important potential counterparts: China Merchant Group, Guangdong Energy Conservation Association, and potential areas for cooperation.

  7. Calidad de la leche cruda en unidades de producción familiar del sur de Ciudad de México Raw milk quality produced in small dairy farms in the South of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Álvarez-Fuentes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las explotaciones lecheras en pequeña escala enfrentan el desafío de producir leche en cantidad y calidad que propicie una mayor demanda del consumidor y una adecuada transformación en quesos, dulces o yogures, asegurando su rentabilidad. Se realizó un estudio para evaluar la calidad de la leche cruda, según la norma PROY-NOM-155-SCFI-2003, tomada de los recipientes de almacenamiento sin refrigeración, basado en una muestra de 30 unidades de producción localizadas en el sur de Ciudad de México, las cuales fueron evaluadas en tres épocas del año (seca, lluvias e invierno y clasificadas por el tipo de manejo de la limpieza de la ubre (tradicional, parcial y completo. Los resultados mostraron que los componentes nutricionales (grasa, proteína, caseína y propiedades fisicoquímicas de la leche (pH, acidez, punto crioscópico fueron diferentes según la época de muestreo (P The small-scale dairy farms are challenged to produce milk in a specific quantity and quality that encourages greater consumer demand and an appropriate transformation into cheese, yoghurt and candy, ensuring profitability. A study to assess the quality of raw milk stored in containers without cooling system was carried out in 30 production units located in the south of Mexico City, according to the standard PROY-NOM-155-SCFI-2003. The production units were evaluated during three seasons (dry, rainy and winter and classified by the type of procedures for cleaning the udder, before milking (traditional, full and partial. The results showed that the milk component (fat, protein, casein, pH, acidity and cryoscopic point were different depending on the time of sampling (P 0.05. During winter, a deep cleaning produced lower CCS and higher reductase time (P < 0.05 compared to the dry and rainy seasons. In conclusion, the nutritional components and physicochemical parameters of raw milk in household production units are within the Mexican standard range for raw milk, but the

  8. Locking Down the South Bronx

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Belford

    2010-01-01

    In this brief analysis is the intended beginning of a systemic integral analysis of the social systems and structures in use in the South Bronx, New York City. Informed by the writing of Jonathan Kozol as well as current articles in the New York Times, this analysis uses the systems theories of Talcott Parsons and Donella Meadows and the human identity work of Vern Redekop to understand the exterior and interior dimensions of systemic oppression as experienced by residents of the South Bronx.

  9. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003). But......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  10. [South] Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Yemen has an area of 112,000 square miles, the terrain is mountainous in the interior, and has a flat and sandy coast. The climate is extremely hot with little rainfall. 2.2 million is the population level with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The ethnic background is Arab, the religion is Islam and the language is Arabic. 50 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 142/1000. The labor force is 42% agriculture, fisheries, industry and commerce 31%, and services 27%. A republic formed in 1967, the government has a constitution approved in 1978. They have 1 party, the Yemeni Socialist Party with a executive presidium, a supreme people's council and a federal high court. Natural resources include oil and fish, and agricultural products are cotton, hides, skins, and coffee. In 1962 the Federation of South Arabia was formed and a treaty was signed in 1959 for independence by 1968. There was much turmoil from 1967 until 1986 when Haydar Bakr Al-Attus gained power, and there are still strong internal rivalries. The economy has been concentrated in the city of Aden, and with the loss of tourist trade in 1967, and closing of the British base, it has declined by more than 20% by 1968. Attempts are being made to build roads, fisheries, villages, a power plant, and agriculture and irrigation projects. PMID:12178022

  11. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal...... performance. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  12. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008) and Zoo City (2010) are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published i...

  13. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  14. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  15. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  16. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  17. Sister Cities Flourish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building sister city relation,also known as friendsh ip city,is a common channel for cities in different countries to keep a closer tie and communication.According to the statistics from China International Friendship Cities Association,up to the end of 2007,1087 provinces and states and 314 cities from 120 countries in the world have found their sister cities in China.Among them,Japan has the largest amount of Chinese sister cities,that is 200 provinces and 33 cities,and takes up almost 17 percent of the total number.

  18. 76 FR 29647 - Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show; Bogue Sound, Morehead City, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... 400 yards south of the shoreline of Morehead City. (b) Definition: For the purposes of this section..., Morehead City, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... held over the waters of Bogue Sound, adjacent to Morehead City, North Carolina. This Safety Zone...

  19. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  20. A COLORFUL TOUR TO SOUTH KOREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ LOCATION The South Korean peninsula extends southward from the eastern end of the Asian continent. The peninsula is roughly 1,030 km(612 miles) long and 175 km (105 miles)wide at its narrowest point.Mountains cover70% of South Korea's land mass, making it one of the most mountainous regions in the world.The lifting and folding of South Korea's granite and limestone base has created breathtaking landscapes of scenic hills and valleys. The mountain range that stretches the length of the east coast plunges steeply into the East Sea, while along the southern and western coasts, the mountains descend gradually to the coastal plains that produce the bulk of South Korea's agricultural crops, especially rice. Administratively,the Republic of South Korea consists of nine provinces; the capital Seoul; and the six metropolitan cities of Busan, Daegu, Incheon,Gwangju, Daejeon and Ulsan. In total, there are 77 cities and 88 counties.

  1. Water for cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Africa has entered the new Millennium with a sense of hope and renewed confidence. With widening and deepening of political reforms, economic liberalization and a strengthened civil society, an increasing number of African countries are striving towards economic recovery and sustainable development. But also Africa is a continent of paradox. Home to the world's longest river, the Nile, and the second largest freshwater lake, Lake Victoria. Africa has abundant water resources contributed by large rivers, vast stretches of wetlands and limited, but widely spread, groundwater. Yet only a limited number of countries are beneficiaries of this abundance. Fourteen African countries account for 80% of the total water available on the continent, while 12 of the countries together account for only 1% of water availability. Some 400 million people are estimated to be living in water-scarce condition today. Indeed my home country, Tanzania, claims over 40% of Africa's water resources from Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganaika and other major water bodies. Water in Africa is not only unfairly distributed by nature but, due to backward technology and underdevelopment, it remains also inadequately allocated by man. At the turn of the new Millennium, over 300 million people in Africa still do not have access to safe water. But perhaps nowhere is the challenge more complex and demanding than in the rapidly growing African cities. With an average growth rate of 5% per annum, Africa is the fastest urbanizing region in the world today. Between 1990 and 2020, in many of our life times, urban populations in Africa will rise fourfold from 138 to 500 million. The 'Water for African Cities Programme' is demonstrating, in seven African countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa and Zambia), how to put in place an integrated urban water resource management strategy that could bring three key sectors -- urban, environment and water -- to work together. Tanzania is the

  2. Distribution Character of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils from the Karst Cavity,Guilin City, South China%广西岩溶洞穴土壤中多环芳烃污染特征与解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英辉; 祁士华; 袁道先; 李杰; 邢新丽

    2009-01-01

    首次研究相对封闭稳定环境条件下的岩溶洞穴土壤中PAHs的污染特征及其影响因素.以广西桂林大岩洞穴为例,结果表明,在洞穴内部PAHs总量为7.22~117.29 ng·g-1,远低于洞外土壤中的含量(51.35~235.73 ng·g-1),与其他地区相比,表明桂林近郊土壤PAHs污染较轻.大岩土壤中PAHs总量呈现出洞外和洞口附近明显高于洞内而洞内变化不大;洞外和洞口附近土壤中重环组芳烃含量高于轻环组(平均值69.25 ng·g-1>38.81 ng·g-1),但在洞内土壤中则相反(平均值3.93 ng·g-1<7.41 ng·g-1),说明洞内PAHs不仅来自于大气迁移过程,而且也来自于洞顶雨水淋滤作用.土壤中PAHs浓度分布表明在洞口附近存在陷阱效应、在洞穴最里端有裂隙存在.陷阱效应使洞口附近重环芳烃浓度显著高于洞外(88.19 ng·g-1>31.28 ng·g-1),而且PAH分子量与"易陷落性"呈线性相关(R2=0.49);通过实测值推测从洞口输入的PAHs浓度约为裂隙输入的17倍.温度和分子量差异是影响PAHs在土壤中浓度分布模式的重要因素.%We investigated the distribution characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of soils from Dayan cave, a karst cavity in Guilin City, South China. The total PAHs concentrations from the inner cave ranged from 7.22 to 117.29 ng·g-1 were much lower than those of outside cave (range of 51.35-235.73 ng·g-1). PAHs in studied area polluted slightly compared with other area. PAHs contents outside the cave and near cave gate were much higher than those within the cave with a little concentration change. In outside cave soils, the heavy molecular weight PAH(HMW) concentrations were higher than those of the light molecular weight PAH(LMW)(mean value 69.25 ng·g-1>38.81 ng·g-1)while it was reverse inside cave(mean value 3.93 ng·g-1<7.41 ng·g-1),which indicated the inner PAHs might came from atmosphere introduction and rainwater filtering from the top of the cave too

  3. A Regular City

    OpenAIRE

    Arina Sharavina

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the first plans of Chita, which served as the basis for the city development. It presents contribution to the city history made by the Decembrist Dmiry Zavalishin’s, who was the first author of the city development plan. Peculiarities of the quarter development of the realized city plan are also presented.

  4. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  5. South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Korea aspires to become a major nuclear supplier in the world nuclear market. There is no doubt that South Korea has great potential to fulfill these aspirations. South Korea is well positioned in terms of competitiveness, market relationships, institutional capability, ability to deliver, and commitment to nonproliferation values. As a mercantilist state, South Korea hopes to capitalize on its close relationships with transnational nuclear corporations in this endeavor. It hopes to participate in two- or three-way joint ventures---especially with the American firms that have traditionally predominated in the South Korean domestic nuclear business---to market their nuclear wares abroad. This paper is divided into four parts. The first section describes South Korea's intent to become a nuclear supplier in the 1990s. It delineates the networks of prior transactions and relationships that South Korea may use to penetrate export markets. The second section reviews South Korea's nuclear export potential, particularly its technological acquisitions from the domestic nuclear program. These capabilities will determine the rate at which South Korea can enter specific nuclear markets. The third section describes the institutional framework in South Korea for the review and approval of nuclear exports

  6. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    on the South China Sea. What data are available, however, and if Hong Kong is used, as it is herein, as an indicator of what the perturbations of other regional cities upon the South China Sea are like, then it is impacted grossly and an ecological disaster has probably already, but unknowingly, happened. (Author)

  7. Locking Down the South Bronx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Belford

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this brief analysis is the intended beginning of a systemic integral analysis of the social systems and structures in use in the South Bronx, New York City. Informed by the writing of Jonathan Kozol as well as current articles in the New York Times, this analysis uses the systems theories of Talcott Parsons and Donella Meadows and the human identity work of Vern Redekop to understand the exterior and interior dimensions of systemic oppression as experienced by residents of the South Bronx.

  8. Multibeam Mapping of the South Atlantic Bight: South Carolina 2005, a Proposed MPA on the Continental Shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Fisheries laboratory in Panama City, Florida coordinated an acoustic survey at the new proposed Marine Protected Areas in the South Atlantic Bight area...

  9. Cities and Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K. Rose

    2005-01-01

    If one ranks cities by population, the rank of a city is inversely related to its size, a well-documented phenomenon known as Zipf's Law. Further, the growth rate of a city's population is uncorrelated with its size, another well-known characteristic known as Gibrat's Law. In this paper, I show that both characteristics are true of countries as well as cities; the size distributions of cities and countries are similar. But theories that explain the size-distribution of cities do not obviously...

  10. Chapter Ⅱ Better Water Update the Quality of Better City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ With a warmer global climate and the modernization of cities,overcoming the problem of water is a common issue that many cities around the world have to face.With the development of modern cities,waste water from both families and factories is continuously flowing into lakes and rivers.Heavy rains often hit many cities in countries across the world,such as the South of China,Pakistan.Let us enter the Puxi side of Shanghai Expo,where many international cities are showcasing their achievements such as how to control flooding,how to utilize rain,and how to treat waste water.For instance.Water Square at the Netherlands exhibit,the living water park at the Chengdu Pavilion,the treatment of waste water in Izmir,Turkey and three Swiss cities (Zurich,Geneva,Basel),along with the Osaka exhibit,all showcase solutions to the problem of "Water".

  11. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits...

  12. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  13. Bright Lights, Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Overabundant lighting has become another pollution source in the Chinese cities The glow of electric lights illuminating the nights of ever-brighter cities has been regarded as one of the signs of prosperity and modern civilization.

  14. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  15. Globalization and cities

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Mina

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the basic concepts on cities within contemporary globalisation. First, it briefly reviews the city perspective within the world system theory (concepts of over-urbanisation, under-urbanisation, and dependent urbanisation), new international division of labour, theory of the second circuit of capital and informational society. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the concepts of global and world cities and their implications for the cities in developed and develop...

  16. Cities as Spatial Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand Rauch

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that Zipf's Law for cities can emerge as a property of a clustering process. If initially uniformly distributed people chose their location based on a specific gravity equation as found in trade studies, they will form cities that follow Zipf's Law in expected value. This view of cities as spatial agglomerations is supported empirically by the observation that larger cities are surrounded by larger hinterland areas and larger countryside populations.

  17. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  18. Imagineering the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Berg

    2015-01-01

    Cities today are products. The urban experience is commodified into marketable items by urban entrepreneurs. Urban administrations, city marketers, politicians, local businesses and other actors all over the world are developing entrepreneurial strategies to sell their city. From "‘I ♥ New York"’ to

  19. Earthquake Disaster Risk Index for Cities: Baku, Yerevan, Tbilisi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For comparative analysis of seismic risk in the capitals of the South Caucasian States - Baku, Yerevan and Tbilisi - the methodology of determination of earthquake disaster risk index (EDRI) has been used. Earthquake disaster risk indexes have been determined for considered cities. EDRI-analysis is performed, some peculiarities of main risk factors are revealed and risk portraits are made in each city of the given sample. (author)

  20. Knowledge about Inquiry: A Study in South African High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined…

  1. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage;

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...... can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The ‘urban order’ may form a platform for...... innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden. It...

  2. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  3. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  4. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  5. Heuksalim City Farming System and Native Seed Preservation Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae Geun

    2014-01-01

    Heuksalim is one of the leading organic agriculture associations in South Korea. It does research, training, seed preservation, certification, international cooperation work and carries out many urban agriculture projects in South Korea. Heuksalim has set up urban gardens in the cities and schools using traditional seeds and an innovative food wastes management system to train the publis and school children on the velue of organic agriculture, safe food and the value of food sufficiency.

  6. Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Newman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for daily contact with nature, to live happy, productive, meaningful lives. Recent attention to biophilic design among architects and designers acknowledges this power of nature. However, in an increasingly urban planet, more attention needs to be aimed at the urban scales, at planning for and moving towards what the authors call “biophilic cities”. Biophilic cities are cities that provide close and daily contact with nature, nearby nature, but also seek to foster an awareness of and caring for this nature. Biophilic cities, it is argued here, are also sustainable and resilient cities. Achieving the conditions of a biophilic city will go far in helping to foster social and landscape resilience, in the face of climate change, natural disasters and economic uncertainty and various other shocks that cities will face in the future. The paper identifies key pathways by which biophilic urbanism enhances resilience, and while some are well-established relationships, others are more tentative and suggest future research and testing.

  7. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research. PMID:24973022

  8. Initiated by the south. South - South Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, J S

    1993-12-01

    The UNFPA Deputy Chief of the Asia and Pacific Division explains how relations between representatives of developing countries to the South have often been less than congenial and how efforts have been made to smooth the way for greater cooperation between neighbors in the region. President Soeharto of Indonesia at a G-15 submeeting of Non-Aligned Countries in Malaysia in 1990 made the first overtures to his peers. He offered to work more closely with other interested countries economically and in terms of technical assistance. Prime Minister Von Van Kiet of Vietnam took him up on his offer and visited the President in Indonesia in January 1992 to discuss family planning issues. The subsequent assistance rendered by Indonesia to Vietnam in developing its family planning program was unique in bilateral relations in the region in that it was initiated by the nonaligned countries without outside interference. The author thinks that the UNFPA should play a facilitating role financially and organizationally in what may be the beginning of a trend toward greater South-South cooperation. Any help which developing countries could render to other developing nations will certainly be appreciated in this period of waning resources from developed countries for international population programs. The author also argues that service quality in donor countries is likely to improve. PMID:12345389

  9. Cape Town: Negotiating the Public in the Neoliberal City

    OpenAIRE

    Tomer, Sharone

    2009-01-01

    Since the end of apartheid, South Africa’s economic policies and governance models have become increasingly neoliberal. The concern of this paper is how those policies and governmental modalities play out and shape the city of Cape Town. The paper utilizes the analytic of ‘public’ to examine how a formerly apartheid city has been remade – and contested – as a neoliberal city. The analytic of public is employed as a ‘terrain’, across which neoliberal policies, privatizing practices, calls for ...

  10. CITY | NATURE BORDER ON TEST - [URBANISM STUDIO 2015}

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    - specific larger urban notes of city and park? And what if the shopping centre Fields is being opened up, and a new public main square across the highway becomes the new centre of Ørestad interlinking Amager north to south, east to west? This catalogue presents strategic development and design proposals for...... city-nature border conditions on Amager, Copenhagen. From November 2014 to February 2015, 33 students from eight countries with an equal number of foreign and Danish students explored possible solutions for new city-nature border conditions of Amager and Nature Park Amager seeking to unfold the future...

  11. Pollution and city size: can cities be too small?

    OpenAIRE

    Borck, Rainald; TABUCHI Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the optimal and equilibrium size of cities in a monocentric city model with environmental pollution. Pollution is related to city size through the effect of population on production, commuting, and housing consumption. If pollution is local, we find that equilibrium cities are too large, mirroring standard results in the theory of city systems. When pollution is global and per capita pollution declines with city size, however, equilibrium cities may be too small.

  12. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  13. Towards Sustainable Urban Environmental Management in Jiangyin city, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dan; Wang Rusong; Yuan Shaojun

    2004-01-01

    Dramatic economic and social changes have taken place in Jiangyin city due to rapid and uneven urbanization and industrialization. The environmental degradation has followed driven by these changes since the 1980's. With the pressures and effects of environmental deterioration, the city has implemented environmental management to hold back the trends of negative environmental changes.From the viewpoint of systems, DPSER is a good model for urban environmental changes to understand the causes, pressure, state, effect, existing responses and future action strategies. We took Jiangyin city,a developed city in South Jiangsu province, East China, as an example, and analyzed the characteristics of environmental changes and urban responses using DPSER model. Some operational strategies have been put forward to direct the city environmental management towards a sustainable road step by step.

  14. South Dakota – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    At the state level, South Dakota has no formal laws banning discrimination based on sexual orientation. However, South Dakota State University, one city, and two counties in South Dakota have ordinances prohibiting discrimination in employment based on sexual orientation and/or gender identity.

  15. 努力打造"京南近海强市名城"%Develop Baoding into A Famous City in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋长瑞

    2007-01-01

    @@ Baoding is under the jurisdiction of Hebei Province. Located in the Midwest of Hebei Province, standing at a situation of tripartite confrontation with Beijing & Tianjin,and known as an important place to the capital city and its environs and the south entrance of the capital city, Baoding is one of the important cities in the city circle formed by Beijing, Tianjin & Hebei Province and surrounding area of Bohai Sea. It is an open city approved by the State Council in 1985.

  16. The use of packed water in urban drinking water and its advantages to other methods of separating drinking water from undrinkable water (The case study : Ferdows city in south Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Akhgari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today,more than one billion people of the world don't have access to safe drinking water.  Therefore, due to the population increase andconsequently increasing water needs, and the reduction of drinking watersources available, separating drinking water and non-drinking water seemsnecessary. In this article, the use of packed water is compared to other methods,such as two networks (drinkable and non-drinkable water supply, public waterstations, purifying drinking water, and transferring high quality water fromdistant areas. Some statistics and information about the cities of Birjand, Ferdowsfor statistical analysis are used. Most scientists believe that changing theworld weather is because of the greenhouse effect, which has had many harmfuleffects on the planet. With the increasing of the use of fossil fuels andaccumulation of pollutant gases in the atmosphere of the earth which are theresults of spreading industries and cars in the recent centuries, thegreenhouse effect has occurred that the heat and returning long waves can't goout of the atmosphere, and consequently the earth temperature has increased. Theincreasing temperature phenomenon then would be a sign of a trend to a drierclimate.

  17. From Online to Ubiquitous Cities: The Technical Transformation of Virtual Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthopoulos, Leonidas; Fitsilis, Panos

    Various digital city projects, from the online cases (e.g. the America on Line) to the ubiquitous cities of South Korea, have achieved in creating technically 'physical' areas for the virtual communities, which share knowledge of common interest. Moreover, digital cities can succeed in simplifying citizen access to public information and services. Early digital cities deliver 'smart' and social services to citizens even with no digital skills, closing digital divide and establishing digital areas of trust in local communities. This paper presents the evolution of the digital cities, from the web to the ubiquitous architecture. It uses the latest digital city architecture and the current conditions of the digital city of Trikala (Greece), in order to present the evolution procedure of a digital city.

  18. Cities and human security

    OpenAIRE

    Szpak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cities have been researched mostly in terms of their economic, technological, and social value and significance. Despite some changes in this respect there is still a need to research cities as a fascinating phenomenon, also in respect of its capabilities to increase human security on a local and global scale. The article examines the role of cities for human security in the selected and representative fields such as sustainable development, human rights and environmental protection which are...

  19. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier; Verdugo, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    International audience We characterise how the assimilation patterns of minorities into the strong and the weak language differ in a situation of asymmetric bilingualism. Using large variations in language composition in Canadian cities from the 2001 and 2006 Censuses, we show that the differences in the knowledge of English by immigrant allophones (i.e. the immigrants with a mother tongue other than English and French) in English-majority cities are mainly due to sorting across cities. In...

  20. Learning cities 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of historic work in the field of Learning City development. It then proceeds to highlight two contemporary strands of work. The first is the initiative of UNESCO’s Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in establishing the International Platform of Learning Cities. The second is the work of the PASCAL Observatory, currently manifested in the Learning Cities 2020 programme.

  1. Sound and the City

    OpenAIRE

    Bulley, James; Sahin, Ozden; Spinelli, Emmanuel; Tanaka, Atau; Hosang, Georgina M.; Cubitt, Sean; Drever, John L.; Kanngieser, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Imagining the future soundscape of the city. Researchers from across disciplines explore the rapidly changing urban soundscape — how do the sounds around us affect our daily life? What might a futuristic city sound like? An interactive listening experience exploring the impact that the sounds around us can have on our health, wellbeing and sense of place. Sound and the City installation was exhibited as part of the Universities Week at the Natural History Museum between June 9 — 11, 2...

  2. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, we study the determinants of the assimilation of language minorities into the city majority language. We show that official minority members (i.e. francophones in English-speaking cities and anglophones in French-speaking cities) assimilate less than the "allophones" (the individuals with a mother tongue other than English or French), and that immigrants generally assimilate less than natives. In addition, the langua...

  3. Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims, and classification of mineral deposits in the Silver City 7 1/2-minute Quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Ed; Buscher, David; Wilson, A.B.; Johnson, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    This map is one in a set of 26 maps (see index map) at 1:24,000 scale of the Black Hills region of South Dakota and Wyoming om which are shown a geologic classification of mines, a bibliography of mineral deposits, and locations of active and inactive mines, prospects, and patented mining claims. Some of these maps are published as U. S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps (MF series) and some as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports (QF series); see index map. An earlier unpublished version of this set of maps was the data base from which plate 4 (scale 1:250,000) of DeWitt and others (1986) was compiled. Subsequent to that publication, the set has been revised and updated, and prospects and patented claims have been added. These revised and more detailed 1:24,000-scale maps should be used for the equivalent areas of plate 4 of DeWitt and others (1986).

  4. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  5. Suburbs and Cities

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Matthew I. Spiegel; Susan M. Wachter

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how closely the fortunes of suburbs are tied to the fortunes of the central city. We use similarities in residential housing price dynamics as a measure of how closely the economies of cities and suburbs are related. We develop housing price indices for most of the zip codes in California, and use these in a clustering procedure to see whether cities and suburbs naturally aggregate together, or whether they move separately. We find that central cities tend to...

  6. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  7. 近5a江苏省苏南五市酸雨分布特征分析%An analysis of acid rain distribution characteristics of five cities in south Jiangsu in recent five years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋名淑; 施丹平; 陈彦

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain distribution characteristics of 7 acid rain monitoring stations in Nanjing, Zhen-jiang,Changzhou,Wuxi and Suzhou in south Jiangsu were analyzed based on acid rain monitoring data from January 2007 to December 2011. The results indicate that the frequency of acid rain was maximum in Dongshan and minimum in Nanjing. The frequency was minimum in 2011 and maximum in 2009. The frequency of strong acid rain was maximum in Dongshan and minimum in Liyang. The frequency was maximum when the rainfall was strong acidity at 3 points at the same time. The strong acid precipitation failed at 7 points at the same time appeared only on February 22, 2009. The acid rain intensity was the strongest in Dongshan and weakest in Liyang. The precipitation of the four seasons in a year were acidic. The precipitation in 2011 was weak acidity, but it was strong acidity during 2008 -2010.%统计江苏省苏南地区南京、镇江、常州、无锡和苏州5市7个酸雨监测站2007年1月至2011年12月的酸雨监测资料得到:(1)酸雨发生频率以东山最高,南京最低;2011年最低,2009年最高.强酸雨发生概率以东山最高,溧阳最低;3站同时出现强酸雨的概率最高,7站同时为强酸雨的仅2009年2月22日1d.(2)四季均为酸性降水;酸雨强度以东山最强,溧阳最弱.2011年呈弱酸性,其余3 a呈强酸性.

  8. Saturated South

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Heavy rain produced the worst floods in a century in some areas of China causing deaths and forcing whole communities to evacuate Millions have been forced to flee their homes in south China amid floods caused by heavy rainfall since the end of May.

  9. COMPARISON OF KNOWLEDGE AND OUTCOME MEASURE OF HBA1C TESTING IN INDIAN NIDDM PATIENTS OF A NORTH INDIAN CITY WITH THAT OF PATIENTS FROM A METROPOLIS IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Luthra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem in India with rising prevalence. The patients with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of developing retinal, cardio vascular & other complications. Improved glycemic control can reduce the development and/or progression of diabetic complications. The glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C test is a test of long-term glycemic control and an index of average blood glucose level during the past 2-3 months. Its normal result causes reduction in complications of diabetes. Patient’s understanding of HbA1c and its target goal has a positive impact on long-term health. Many diabetics are unaware of the test or do not know their HbA1c levels and/or target goal. Diabetics who are aware of these have better health. In this study we tried to evaluate whether knowledge of this test is associated with a better glycaemic control in Dehradun and also to compare the results with those of a similar study carried out in a metropolitan city. Materials and methods: This is a clinic-based cross-sectional study in which all 213 NIDDM patients attending the retina service of a tertiary level eye care centre in Dehradun from July to September 2011 are included. Exclusion criteria: Any patient who did not suffer from type 2 Diabetes. Baseline demographic and clinical data of all subjects was obtained. Subject’s knowledge about HbA1c test and their target goal was assessed with a questionnaire. Recent HbA1c results were obtained from records. Retinal examination of all these subjects was conducted. Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS version 10.0 package. Comparisons were done by Chi-square test. P <0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: The mean age of study subjects was 58 years and mean duration of diabetes was 8.7 years. 56% of the subjects were males. 68% of the subjects know about HbA1c test and 32% were unaware of it. 37% of those who know about HbA1c know their goal also. 63% are

  10. Pollution of HCHs and DDTs in the Sediments from Lijiang,Guilin City, South China%河流沉积物有机氯农药的纵向分布特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzed the results of sediments from Mahuang Zhou (N25°17′49″, E110°17′51″) by contrast with Lijiang right bank near Wayao Village (N25°14′07″, E110°18′32″), using HP6890 GC technique for getting organochlo-rine pesticides (OCPs) contents. The results of rationing determination taking HCHs and DDTs for calculation, its contents are 0~18.8ng/g、0.13~20.7ng/g (Mahuang Zhou), and 0~76.2ng/g、0~7.02ng/g (Wayao Village), respectively. Research has shown that downriver has been lightly contaminated by HCHs on Lijiang right bank near Wayao Village , may have possibility of lindane addition. Compared with upriver near Mahuang Zhou, there are lots of chophouses producing amount of food wastes and letting out-of-order, leads to an anaerobic environment in the very area. According to the data, HCHs (hexachloro cyclohexane) and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) in Lijiang of Guilin city section are from historical residues of industry generally.%以漓江桂林市区段蚂蝗洲及瓦窑村漓江右岸两处取沉积柱作对比,分析了两处沉积物的有机氯农药(OCPs)含量,以六六六(HCHs)与滴滴涕(DDTs)为主。计算其含量分别为0~18.8ng/g、0.13~20.7ng/g(蚂蝗洲);0~76.2ng/g、0~7.02ng/g(瓦窑村)。研究表明,近年来桂林市区段下游的瓦窑村漓江右岸受到HCHs的轻微污染,可能有农业林丹的投加;而上游蚂蝗洲附近大量餐饮小店的食物残渣无序排放造成了该区域范围厌氧环境,不利于水生生物的生长。数据显示,漓江桂林市区段HCHs、DDTs主要来自历史残留的工业污染物。

  11. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  12. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    development are discussed in the paper, as well as the problems and the new opportunities with which the ‘Experience city' is faced. The article focus on the design of the Danish Experience City with special emphasis on hybrid cultural projects and on performative urban spaces. It present the first findings...... as we engage with the discussion about the trajectory of future research....

  13. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing on...

  14. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  15. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...

  16. Escaping The Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    More white-collar workers consider leaving major metropolises to find opportunities in small and medium-sized cities The energy and excitement of first-tier cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in Guangdong Province, have long served as magnets attracting enthusiastic young people. But recent surveys have overturned the perception of this urban draw.

  17. Smart cities: event everywhere

    OpenAIRE

    Reboredo Penedo, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The research attempts to provide a big picture from the literature through a Systematic Literature Review about the smart city and the existing standards topics for interchanging data through Smart City Apps. Additionally a prototype was created to analyze one of the standards found in the SLR

  18. Making Cities Better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Livelihood programs change the lives of urban residents For decades Chinese cities have vied with each other to top national and international development rankings. However, the triennial national list of cities with an advanced living environment judges candidates according to less conventional

  19. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  20. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  1. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  2. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  3. HIV-related knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, and utilisation of HIV counselling and testing: a venue-based intercept commuter population survey in the inner city of Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Chimoyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV counselling and testing (HCT and knowledge about HIV have been key strategies utilised in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS worldwide. HIV knowledge and uptake of HCT services in sub-Saharan Africa are still low. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with HCT and HIV/AIDS knowledge levels among a commuter population in Johannesburg, South Africa. Objective: To identify the factors associated with HCT uptake among the commuter population. Design: A simple random sampling method was used to select participants in a venue-based intercept survey at a taxi rank in the Johannesburg Central Business District. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis assessed factors associated with HIV testing stratified by gender. Results: 1,146 respondents were interviewed, the maority (n=579, 50.5% were females and (n=780, 68.1% were over 25 years of age. Overall HCT knowledge was high (n=951, 83% with more females utilising HCT facilities. There was a significant difference in HIV testing for respondents living closer to and further away from health facilities. Slightly more than half of the respondents indicated stigma as one of the barriers for testing (n=594, 52%, p-value=0.001. For males, living with a partner (aOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.78, p-value: 0.041 and possessing a post-primary education were positively associated with testing (aOR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.15–3.47, p-value: 0.014, whereas stigma and discrimination reduced the likelihood of testing (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.31–0.62, p-value: <0.001. For females, having one sexual partner (aOR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.19–5.90, p-value: 0.017 and a low perceived benefit for HIV testing (aOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.96, p-value: 0.035 were associated with HIV testing. Conclusion: The overall HIV/AIDS knowledge was generally high. Gender-specific health education and HIV intervention programmes are needed for improved access to HCT services

  4. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  5. Fatores associados ao início da amamentação em uma cidade do sul do Brasil Factors associated with the initiation of breastfeeding in a city in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Bosenbecker da Silveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar as características - maternas, dos bebês e das maternidades - associadas com o início da amamentação na primeira hora após o parto. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal aninhado em coorte que acompanhou bebês de mães residentes em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. As mães responderam a questionário padronizado, com dados referentes a fatores demográficos e socioeconômicos, pré-natal, características maternas do bebê, da maternidade, condições de nascimento e início da amamentação. As entrevistas foram realizadas através de visitas diárias às maternidades, respeitando um período mínimo de quatro horas após o parto. Foram realizadas análise univariada, bivariada e regressão logística. RESULTADOS: foram entrevistadas 2741 mães, sendo que 35,5% amamentaram na primeira hora pós-parto. As que mais precocemente iniciaram a amamentação foram as de menor idade, menor escolaridade e menor renda. Mães cujo parto foi cesárea tiveram um risco cerca de duas vezes maior de não amamentar na primeira hora de vida. CONCLUSÕES: é importante a indicação adequada do tipo de parto, pois a cesárea aumenta o tempo de separação mãe-bebê. É relevante estimular a expansão da Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança, pela capacidade de promover e proteger o aleitamento.OBJECTIVES: to identify characteristics of mothers, babies and nursing associated with the initiation of breastfeeding in the first hour of birth. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of newborns whose mothers were residents in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The mothers answered a questionnaire, which provided data referring to demographic and socioeconomic factors, prenatal period, maternal, neonatal and nursery characteristics, birth conditions, and initiation of breastfeeding. The interviews were carried out by way of daily visits to all nurseries, allowing for a minimum period of four hours after delivery

  6. Violência física contra menores de 15 anos: estudo epidemiológico em cidade do sul do Brasil Physical abuse of minors under 15: epidemiological study in a city in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apresentar o perfil de casos notificados de violência física contra menores de 15 anos em Londrina, Paraná, no ano de 2006. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, com coleta retrospectiva nos prontuários dos Conselhos Tutelares e serviços de atendimento do município. Os dados foram processados e tabulados pelo programa Epi Info. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 479 casos de violência por força corporal e 9 casos de violência por outros meios (7 por instrumentos, 1 por objeto cortante e 1 por substância corrosiva. Na violência por força corporal, predominaram vítimas do sexo feminino (53,4% e maior risco na idade de seis anos (12,2 por 1.000. O pai foi o agressor mais frequente (48,8% e o alcoolismo esteve presente em 64,0% dos casos. A violência por instrumentos foi praticada através de cinta (42,9%, fio (28,6%, ferro (14,3% e instrumento de cozinha (14,3%, com vítimas do sexo feminino (85,7%, na faixa etária de doze anos (33,3%, sendo o pai (71,4% e a mãe (28,6% os únicos agressores, com o alcoolismo presente em 57,1% destas situações. A vítima de violência por objeto cortante era do sexo masculino, 13 anos e o agressor, desconhecido, tinha de 15 a 19 anos. A violência por substância corrosiva teve como vítima um adolescente de 13 anos, do sexo masculino, cujo agressor foi o pai, sendo o alcoolismo a situação presente. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados apontam para a importância epidemiológica do abuso físico contra crianças e adolescentes e podem contribuir para a elaboração de estratégias de prevenção e acompanhamento das vítimas.OBJECTIVES: to build the epidemiological profile of deliberate violence against minors under 15 years of age in Londrina, Paraná in 2006. METHODS: cross-sectional study with retrospective data collected from the records of Tutelary Councils and care services in the city. Data were processed and tabulated with Epi Info software. RESULTS: 479 cases of violence by use of physical force and 9

  7. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  8. Great cities look small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  9. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  10. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Arkitektskole. Bogen  har 3 dele. Principles: Copenhagen Agenda for Sustainable Living, 10 principper udviklet af Ugebrevet Mandag Morgen illustreret af arkitektstuderende. Congress: Futures of Cities, Emerging Urbanisms- Emerging Practices, oplæg fra unge tegnestuer til temaet fremlagt på Student Congress......Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets...

  11. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...... makes an investigation into the complex relationship between the words and policies of the ‘Experience Economy' and the actual urban transformations made in cities with reference to these changes. The paper discusses the cases researched in relation to the state, market, civil society framework as well...

  12. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  13. Green Cities : Cities and Climate Change in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Urban sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Brazilian cities are growing. At the national level, the dominance of greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in Brazil masks the fact that emissions from other sectors, like Energy, Transport and Waste, are growing quite rapidly in cities. Compared to other cities around the world, Brazilian cities have low per capita GHG emissions be...

  14. Cities within Cities: An Urbanization Approach in the Gulf Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bamakhrama, Salim Salah

    2015-01-01

    Within Dubai, nineteen out of the original 112 mega-projects carried the word city in their names, a phenomenon that is common in Gulf cities such as Dubai, Riyadh and Abu Dhabi. To further explore this phenomenon, this thesis focuses on three aspects that affect the dynamic relationship between the primary city and the cities within cities (sub-cities) in the Gulf region with special emphasis on Dubai. First, the naming problem of the sub-city illustrates why the tension between competing id...

  15. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  16. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a mixed-method study of Denmark to investigate whether and how Richard Florida's creative class theory should be adapted to small welfare economies. First, we carry out an econometric analyses showing that like in North America, the Danish creative class propels economic growth...... and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  17. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  18. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  19. Should Cities Regulate Graffiti?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Graffiti, while still a new phenomenon to most Chinese, is becoming more familiar among teenagers in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai. A recent report by Xinhua News Agency discusses the trend. The report said a small

  20. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  1. Other city symphonies

    OpenAIRE

    Hielscher, Eva; Jacobs, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Catalogue description of the film program curated by Eva Hielscher and Steven Jacobs on 'Other City Symphonies' during the 2015 Pordenone Silent Film Festival, including paragraphs on individual films.

  2. Simulacrum City / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Veneetsia 7. arhitektuuribiennaali Eesti ekspositsiooni kataloogist Simulacrum City. Tallinn : Eesti Arhitektide Liit, 2000. Teksti autorid Anders Härm, Tarmo Maiste, Andres Kurg, Harry Charrington, kujundaja Jaanus Tamme, fotod Arne Maasik

  3. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  4. Measuring the Impacts of the Progress of Cities on Real Estate Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ATİK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investors, companies and people who have savings invest real estate because the expectation of the increasing future value of it. The correctly determination of the real estate value is important. The impact of the development of cities generally is not taken into account to detect the value of real estate. This study aims to determine whether there is a significantly difference in the investment of real estate to the south and west of the cities rather than other parts of that. For this reason, percentage change in real estate value per m2 in the five largest cities of Turkey, is analysed according to geographical location and direction of cities. As a result, the return on real estate investment at the south and west of cities is a significantly difference compared to investment in other parts of those.

  5. City, ICT and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Galit Cohen; Peter Nijkamp

    2004-01-01

    New technologies tend to exert a profound influence on modern city life. This paper addresses the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the city. After a broad overview of the potential of ICT in a geographical setting and its possible impact on urban policy in regard to the ICT sector, the paper focusses attention on urban public policy in regard to the ICT sector. This study offers the proposition that urban ICT policy is driven by the stakeholders attitudinal and perc...

  6. Feeding the City

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaglia, Sara; Giorgio Solinas, Pier

    2015-01-01

    Every day in Mumbai 6,000 dabbawalas (literally translated as "those who carry boxes") distribute a staggering 200,000 home-cooked lunchboxes to the city's workers and students. Giving employment and status to thousands of largely illiterate villagers from Mumbai's hinterland, this co-operative has been in operation since the late nineteenth century. It provides one of the most efficient delivery networks in the world: only one lunch in six million goes astray. Feeding the City is an ethnogr...

  7. Aging City Leads Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The northern city of Dalian has become a model of care for the elderly that other Chinese cities are following Chinese Minister of Civil Affairs Li Xueju has called upon civil affairs agencies in the nation to learn from Dalian’s diversified models for elderly care,ranging from running collectively owned and foreign-designed nursing homes to offering tax incentives to private households and companies serving the elderly

  8. Improving the City environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All around the world cities are under severe environmental pressure. Water supplies, traffic congestion, air pollution, noise and waste disposal cause very similar problems in cities that are otherwise quite diverse. And attempts to improve conditions usually run into a range of difficulties. Indeed, environmental problems often persist for years before governments -national, regional and local- make any major effort to address them. 6 refs

  9. Cities in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Shepotylo Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the urban development of transition countries in 1991–2010, primarily focusing on the last decade. Cities in transition face a unique set of challenges that came forth due to interplay of the legacy of socialist urban policies and the transition to the market economy. The socialist urban policies restrained growth of the largest cities and distorted the spatial equilibrium towards more uniform distribution of urban population. The transition to the market economy reduces d...

  10. The Happiness of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Florida, Richard; Mellander, Charlotta; Rentfrow, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Research on subjective well-being has focused on cross-national differences, while research on cities and regions has shown that human capital is a key factor in metropolitan income and related outcomes. This investigation tests the hypothesis that human capital will have a significant effect on well-being at the metropolitan scale. Using metropolitan level data from the 2009 Gallup-Healthways Survey, we examine the effects of human capital on city happiness alongside many...

  11. Towards smart city education

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Annika; Kortuem, Gerd; Cavero, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability has been an important topic in UK schools for some time, most notably since the Sustainable School Strategy was proposed by the UK Department for Education (DFES) in 2006. However, as smart city technologies emerge and show real promise in contributing to a more sustainable future, it is becoming apparent that new skills for working with the big urban data sets that drive these innovations must be taught to upcoming generations to ensure that they can be active smart city citiz...

  12. Innovation across cities

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Kwok Tong

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of patenting activity across cities in the OECD, using a sample of 218 cities from 2000 to 2008. We obtain three main results. First, patenting activity is more concentrated than population and GDP. Second, patenting activity is less persistent than population and GDP. Third, patenting exhibits mean-reversion, and is positively associated with GDP, the fragmentation of local government, and population density. Our results suggest that policymakers can infl...

  13. Small Cell City

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, S.; Steele, R.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, mobile operators have planned their networks to accommodate mobile terminals at ground level. Increasingly, mobile users communicate while stationary from within high-rise buildings. With mobiles operating at a variety of different heights and mobilities, plus the requirement to accommodate increasing teletraffic and multimedia services, there is a need to compact small cells into the three-dimensional city space. This article is concerned with using city buildings to act as el...

  14. Active City Administration

    OpenAIRE

    M .R. Sindhu; Viraj M. Jamle; Pramod M. Shelke; Shrikant G. Baheti

    2012-01-01

    The basic and universal corner stone of good governance are quality of service, quick response mechanisms and above all accountable and transparent process mechanism. The active city administration initiatives resulted in computerization of the legacy systems in government with limited ability to internalize the advances in information and communication technologies.By using active city administration services we able to know real time, quantitative and basic approach of the government servic...

  15. Cities and Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Mare, David C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the productivity (and wage) gains from locating in dense, urban environments. We distinguish between three potential explanations of why firms are willing to pay urban workers more: (1) the urban wage premium is spurious and is the result of omitted ability measures, (2) the urban wage premium works because cities enhance productivity and (3) the urban wage premium is the result of faster skill accumulation in cities. Using a combination of standard regressions, individual...

  16. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city making. "City hacking" evokes more participatory, inclusive, decentralized, playful and subversive alternatives to often top-down ICT implementations in smart city making. However, these discourses ...

  17. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  18. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  19. Groundwater system analysis of south Yishu geosyncline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chang-lei; CHI Bao-ming; YI Shu-ping; LI Zhi-jun

    2004-01-01

    South Yishu geosyncline is 50 km southeast of Changchun City of Jilin Province, where an aquifer is thick,surface runoff is abundant and it has potential to develop water resources preferably. By means of system analysis, the authors analyse the structural characteristics, I/O characteristics, function characteristics and boundary and environment characteristics of the groundwater system, so as to search for a way of optimizing water resources arrangement and enhancing water resources'bearing capacity. Based on the analysis results, the authors abstract conceptual model and mathematical model of the groundwater system. The simulation results certify and enrich the knowledge about south Yishu geosyncline.

  20. Addressing South Africa’s urban challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M. Rogerson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is among the most urbanized countries in Africa and has an urban population that is growing rapidly. The country’s urban challenges sometimes are considered as distinctive and separate to those of rest of Africa because of the apartheid legacy of a fragmented and racially splintered urban landscape. Nevertheless, 20 years after democratic transition the issues that confront its cities increasingly exhibit a set of sustainability challenges that typify those problems of many other fast-growing African urban areas. This introduction locates the collection of articles as a contribution to the expanding corpus of scholarship on urban South Africa.

  1. Multibeam Mapping of the South Atlantic Bight: Georgia 2005, a Proposed MPA on the Continental Shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Fisheries laboratory in Panama City, Florida coordinated an acoustic survey at the new proposed Marine Protected Areas in the South Atlantic Bight area...

  2. Analysis urban life quality, case study residents of Rostamabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ali Reza poor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues raised about sustainable development and the quality of human life. Life quality, economic, social, physical, biological, cultural and political advocacy. City Rostamabad Narmashir city center, which is located in the South East province. Based on the material provided above, the present study is the evaluation of quality of life in the city Rostamabad. The purpose of this studies the physical aspects of quality of life, economic, social and Rostamabad is in the city. Research question is: subjective quality of life of residents in the city Rostamabad (Narmashir How so? This study is a descriptive analysis. Data collection methods include observation, enterprise statistics, and library resources, and Inventory. Quality of Life Questionnaire research tool households. They Collection data by, correlations Statistical tests, Binomial T test, Wilcoxon, and one sample T- test were analyzed. Findings indicated the objective quality of life of city residents Rostamabad is desirable and less desirable in some areas. The results showed the following subjective satisfaction with the quality of this type of service, cost, access time, and so is low. The subjective quality of life in the next few social good and is close to the average. While the have become more favorable for quality of life in all three dimensions of economic, social, and spatial - ecological status of the city.

  3. Urine diverting vermicomposting toilets for Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gårdefors, Carolina; Mahmoudi, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Although being the third largest city in South Africa, the outskirts of Durban are scarcely populated. Due to economic limitations, the drainage and fresh water pipes from the city are not extended to the outskirts. One of the most important issues concerning human health is that of sanitation and waste management. Lack of sanitation leads to the spreading of pathogens and often results in outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as cholera; one outbreak motivated eThekwini Municipality to inst...

  4. The Joint Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

  5. The Investment Climate for the Informal Economy : A Case of Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Francie; Skinner, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    This investment climate of South Africa's informal economy is investigated with special focus on the regulatory environment (taxes and laws), institutions, services (training, financial services and insurance, access to markets), and access to infrastructure and protection from crime. Durban, South Africa's third largest city, is ahead of other cities in responding to the growth of informal work and has been proactive in seeking out ways of creatively supporting informal enterprises.

  6. Addressing South Africa’s urban challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne M. Rogerson; Nico Kotze; Christian M. Rogerson

    2014-01-01

    South Africa is among the most urbanized countries in Africa and has an urban population that is growing rapidly. The country’s urban challenges sometimes are considered as distinctive and separate to those of rest of Africa because of the apartheid legacy of a fragmented and racially splintered urban landscape. Nevertheless, 20 years after democratic transition the issues that confront its cities increasingly exhibit a set of sustainability challenges that typify those proble...

  7. Hamilton : the electric city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  9. Social exclusion and transportation in Peachtree City, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This paper will discuss how, in a small American city, Peachtree City (43km south of Atlanta), the flexibility and relative affordability of electric golf carts, as a viablealternative to the automobile, means that the level at which families and individuals are disadvantaged through their lack of access to public/private transport is effectively lowered. Economic access to golf carts, in of itself, would not be sufficient if it were not for the extensive, highly penetrative and ‘ringy’ s...

  10. The South Asian Presence in Britain and its Transnational Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2002-01-01

    An outline of the way in which transnational kinship networks facilitated the process of South Asian migration to Britain and the subsequent construction of plethora of ethnic colonies in the heart of most of Britain's cities, together with an exploration of the way in which the distinctive dynamics of locally-specific networks continue to have far reaching consequences for developments in Britain, in South Asia, as well as in more global arenas.

  11. Leadership: Subject to the State Personnel Act (SPA) Employee's Perceptions of Job Satisfaction at Elizabeth City State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted at Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, located approximately 40 miles south of the Virginia state line. ECSU, a historically Black institution of higher learning, was founded in 1891 and is one of 17 constituent universities in The University of North Carolina system. The…

  12. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

  13. Reproducing in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth

    2008-02-01

    Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only started recently and has been dramatic in some cities. Here it is argued that both historical and evolutionary demographers are interpreting fertility declines across the globe in terms of the relative costs of child rearing, which increase to allow children to outcompete their peers. Now largely free from the fear of early death, postindustrial societies may create an environment that generates runaway parental investment, which will continue to drive fertility ever lower. PMID:18258904

  14. E-Powering the People: South Africa's Smart Cape Access Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This document examines the launch of the Smart Cape Access Project in Cape Town, South Africa. In a city where more than 80 percent of the citizens do not have access to computers and fewer still can access the Internet, public officials set out to build a "smart city," where "informed people could connect to the world and to each other by the…

  15. The egocentric city

    OpenAIRE

    Tzinis, A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is going to discus the advantages of the use of a GPS as a tool for surveying the pedestrian movements of individuals in an urban environment. An experiment is going to take place that will try to evolve City designs specifically for the pedestrian movements of particular individuals whose tracks have been recorded with a GPS for this specific purpose. The aim is to see if the rest of participants’ movement habits have been affected by this mutation in the city g...

  16. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analyse...... elements of both the design process, the organisational, the political and technological contexts. They point to the role of researchers and designers in exploring and understanding digital elements of public space as not merely registering structures but also actively engaging in public discourse...

  17. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  18. The Effects of Historical Earthquakes on Cyzicus Ancient City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatepe, F.; Demirel, S.; Vardar, D.

    2012-04-01

    Cyzicus is one of the most important ancient settlement of Mysia region on Marmara coasts in Turkey. It's located on Belkis Tombolo which connects Kapıdağ (Arktonnesos) Peninsula to the shore. It was established by the King Cyzicus Kyzikos in B.C. 749 as a Miletos colony during the colonization movements of Ions. The main reason to determine the establishment place of Cyzicus was; a strong defense system formed by the natural conditions and the walls surrounding the city. In addition, from the documents, 3 natural harbor (one of them inner harbor) and one artificial canal in the ancient city has been designated. Because of these features, the ancient city had been developed by maritime trade and fisheries. And also, city's economy had grown due to its fertile soil. Works in marble that came from Marmara Island, were being effective in the artistic activities in the city. Due to the capital city of East Roman Empire was being Constantine (AD 324), the chance of Cyzicus was affected badly. Since its location on the south branch of the North Anatolian Fault zone in the Marmara Sea, ancient city was being ruined by a series of earthquakes. There were fifteen (15) destructive earthquakes occurred between AD 29 - 1887. For example the region had become a swamp because of AD 740 earthquake. At that time, despite metropolitan center pass through to Erdek, the city was not fully abandoned. In the end, the earthquake of 1064 had completely demolished Cyzicus. At the present day, this ancient city has come to the point to be lost in swamps, brushes and shrubs.

  19. 'Wasteaware' benchmark indicators for integrated sustainable waste management in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C; Rodic, Ljiljana; Cowing, Michael J; Velis, Costas A; Whiteman, Andrew D; Scheinberg, Anne; Vilches, Recaredo; Masterson, Darragh; Stretz, Joachim; Oelz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses a major problem in international solid waste management, which is twofold: a lack of data, and a lack of consistent data to allow comparison between cities. The paper presents an indicator set for integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) in cities both North and South, to allow benchmarking of a city's performance, comparing cities and monitoring developments over time. It builds on pioneering work for UN-Habitat's solid waste management in the World's cities. The comprehensive analytical framework of a city's solid waste management system is divided into two overlapping 'triangles' - one comprising the three physical components, i.e. collection, recycling, and disposal, and the other comprising three governance aspects, i.e. inclusivity; financial sustainability; and sound institutions and proactive policies. The indicator set includes essential quantitative indicators as well as qualitative composite indicators. This updated and revised 'Wasteaware' set of ISWM benchmark indicators is the cumulative result of testing various prototypes in more than 50 cities around the world. This experience confirms the utility of indicators in allowing comprehensive performance measurement and comparison of both 'hard' physical components and 'soft' governance aspects; and in prioritising 'next steps' in developing a city's solid waste management system, by identifying both local strengths that can be built on and weak points to be addressed. The Wasteaware ISWM indicators are applicable to a broad range of cities with very different levels of income and solid waste management practices. Their wide application as a standard methodology will help to fill the historical data gap. PMID:25458855

  20. Cities, Towns and Villages, city, Published in 2003, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'city'. Data by this publisher are often...

  1. Healthy Cities: a guide to the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenzer, M

    2000-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on attempts by city governments, international agencies, and nongovernmental and community organizations to improve city life around the world through Healthy Cities projects.

  2. Cultural diversity, cities and innovation: firm effects or city effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Growing cultural diversity is seen as important for innovation. Research has focused on two potential mechanisms: a firm effect, with diversity at the firm level improving knowledge sourcing or ideas generation, and a city effect, where diverse cities helping firms innovate. This paper uses a dataset of over 2,000 UK SMEs to test between these two. Controlling for firm characteristics, city characteristics and firm and city diversity, there is strong evidence for the firm effect. Firms with a...

  3. VILLAGERS' COGNITION AND WILLINGNESS EXPRESSION OF PARTICIPATING IN RURAL PLANNING IN SOUTH JIANGSU PROVINCE: A CASE STUDY OF CHANGSHU CITY%苏南地区村民参与乡村规划的认知与意愿分析——以江苏省常熟市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷; 张尧

    2012-01-01

    研究着眼于经济相对较为发达的苏南地区的乡村规划,选择常熟市的两个典型村庄作为研究对象,在问卷调研和现场访谈的基础上,考察和分析了村民对乡村规划的了解程度和途径、对乡村规划中政府作为的认知、对参与规划的意愿、对参与规划的内容和参与阶段的认知、对乡村规划实施的满意度表达等多方面要素,厘清了村民参与乡村规划的认知与意愿的主要现状特征,最后从组织构建、参与途径的疏通和参与能力的培养、参与过程的完善等角度提出了相应的政策建议,为未来乡村规划的村民参与方式、组织方式以及参与机制的构建提供了决策依据.%This study focused on the rural planning of the relatively developed area in South Jiangsu Province, and two villages of Changshu City were selected to conduct questionnaire surveys and face-to-face interviews. Based on surveys and interviews, this study mainly investigated and analyzed various factors, as following: villagers' understanding level of rural planning and understanding channels of rural planning, villagers' cognition of the power of government in rural planning, villagers' willingness expression of participating the rural planning, villagers' cognition on contents and stages of rural planning, and villagers' degree of satisfaction on implementation of planning. From the analysis, the main characters of villagers' cognition and willingness of participating in rural planning were clear. In a conclusion, some policy recommendations are brought out for establishing organizations, unblocking channels, training villagers' capacity, and perfecting participant process etc., which provided ascientific evidence for choosing participant ways andorganization forms, and establishing participationmechanism.

  4. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city m

  5. City of layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    mobility practices are played out in a relational space where the potential for movement is shifted in favour of the elite and the tourists. The Sky Train reconfigures the mobility patterns of the inner city of Bangkok in ways that are more than planning policies to overcome congestion and traffic jams...

  6. Nature in the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  7. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage ci...

  8. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    With a point of departure in amongst others the Danish office of ADEPT’s approach, ‘The city in the building and the building in the city’ (ADEPT 2012), it is consequently the aim of this article to show how workshops can help shape and develop a spatial and architectural approach to form finding...

  9. Scarcity Makes the City

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The first talk in the series, Scarcity Makes the City, features Vancouver-based economic geographer Geoff Mann. Looking at how modern political economy affects social relations and our experience of everyday life, Mann will discuss how contemporary capitalist dynamics shape Vancouver’s urban context, and the pasts, presents, and futures that weave it together.

  10. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  11. City Kids Go Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tricia

    1993-01-01

    Describes Outward Bound Urban Resources Initiative, a six-week summer course whose goal is to work with urban youth to develop solutions for local environmental problems. Among the activities described include converting city lots into parks, neighborhood cleanup, and tree planting. (MDH)

  12. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  13. A Vibrant Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTONG

    2004-01-01

    LIJIANG is a small city onthe Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in southern Chinawith an 800-year history.Word of its ancient language and music, and unique natural scenery has spread over the decades, and Lijiang is now known throughout the world. It was added

  14. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  15. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak’s No...

  16. City fiiling / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Arhitektide Andres Alveri ja Tiit Trummali tähtsamatest töödest. Pikemalt Tallinna kesklinnas asuvatest majadest City Plaza ja Rävala Neli. Kommentaarid Rein Veidemannilt, Veljo Kaasikult, Hardo Aasmäelt, Toomas Tammiselt, Jaak Aaviksoolt ja Karin Pauluselt

  17. City model enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  18. Atlantic City memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Franklin H

    2008-04-01

    Fifty years ago, the Atlantic City meetings, held the first week in May of every year, were attended by all the elite of American academic medicine and all who wanted to join that group. Part of the magic of those meetings was that professors and neophytes took each other seriously and talked to each other. PMID:18382726

  19. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  20. Urban Physiology: City Ants Possess High Heat Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Angilletta, Michael J; Wilson, Robbie S; Niehaus, Amanda C.; Michael W Sears; Navas, Carlos A.; Ribeiro, Pedro L.

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12 degrees C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of leaf-cutter ants from South America's largest city (São Paulo, Brazil). Specifically, we compared thermal tole...

  1. Rethinking Cities: Toward Shared Prosperity

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward; Joshi-Ghani, Abha

    2013-01-01

    The great transition from farm to city is filled with economic, social, and political promise. Cities are the product of a triad of forces. This Economic Premise explores how the three forces of spatial transformation—physical infrastructure, human interactions, and public policy—come together and shape cities. But too many cities in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to suffer from the oldest urban scourge—unclean water. Crime and murder turn many Latin American neighborhoods into places of terror ...

  2. Cities with Children: Child friendly cities in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

    2006-01-01

    Child Friendly Cities in Italy describes the evolution of childhood in Italy and the emergence of a new culture of the city. It analyses the consideration given to the Child Friendly Cities initiative and in particular the attention provided to the child as an active citizen and the role of the city in promoting the participation of young people in decision-making processes at the local level. The study looks at the specific experience of 12 of the more than 100 Italian cities that have adopt...

  3. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana;

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  4. Impact of Line 1 on the South African Hereford Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research was to document the influence of Line 1 Hereford cattle, developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) at its research facility in Miles City, Montana, on Hereford cattle in South Africa. Analytical approaches made use of both recorded pedigree and microsa...

  5. São Paulo: Global Metropolis of the South

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocco, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    São Paulo is a metropolis of superlatives. It is the largest metropolis of South America, with 20.2 million inhabitants in the Greater Metropolitan Area and 11.8 million in the city proper (IBGE, 2014 prognosis). Numbers vary considerably, but it is generally accepted that São Paulo is among the 10

  6. Public Expenditure and Regional Development (Studies In Education Sector in South Sulawesi)

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    South Sulawesi government has placed education as a top priority of regional development. In the Medium Term Development Plan of South Sulawesi 2008-2013, the education sector together with the health sector occupies the first agenda of the seven regional development agenda. To ensure that all children who are at school age actually attending school, South Sulawesi government since 2008 has implemented a policy of free education in all districts / cities. In real terms, the proportion of the ...

  7. Benefits of Low Carbon Development Strategies in Emerging Cities of Developing Country: A Case of Kathmandu

    OpenAIRE

    Shakya, Shree Raj

    2016-01-01

    Kathmandu is one of the fastest growing cities in South Asia facing various challenges related to climate change, local pollutants emissions and energy security of supply. This study analysed the greenhouse gas mitigation potential in different economic sectors of the city by using Long-range Energy Planning (LEAP) frame work. It shows that the effect of implementing various low carbon development strategy options can reduce 35.2% of total greenhouse gas emission from energy use as compared t...

  8. EVALUATION OF SCORPION STING INCIDENCE IN ALKUFRA CITY DURING 1993 AND 1994

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Libya is almost desert or semi-desert. Scorpion fauna is widely diversity in the country. However, scorpion in many places are not medical important especially around the coastal area. Meanwhile, scorpion species in desert are almost accounted as a first health problem related to animal toxin. Scorpion stings are ancient hazards. Alkufra is small city in east south of Libya in boarders with Egypt, Sudan and Chad. The most common scorpion genuses in Alkufra city are Leiurus sp, Androctonus sp....

  9. Benefits of Low Carbon Development Strategies in Emerging Cities of Developing Country: a Case of Kathmandu

    OpenAIRE

    Shree Raj Shakya

    2016-01-01

    Kathmandu is one of the fastest growing cities in South Asia facing various challenges related to climate change, local pollutants emissions and energy security of supply. This study analysed the greenhouse gas mitigation potential in different economic sectors of the city by using Long-range Energy Planning (LEAP) frame work. It shows that the effect of implementing various low carbon development strategy options can reduce 35.2% of total greenhouse gas emission from energy use as compared t...

  10. Urban transition and sustainability. The case of the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra DJURASOVIC; Joerg KNIELING

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses the historical trajectory of development processes in the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), in order to offer insights into newly-shaping planning systems in South East Europe during the late phase of post-socialist transition. The paper argues that slow development of small transitional cities can suggest new models of sustainable urban development, but societal complexity makes transition more difficult and creates boundaries to a sustainable path development....

  11. Disparity in the spatial distribution of clinics within a metropolitan city

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang-Soo Lee

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for evaluating and understanding how healthcare agencies are distributed within a city is provided. The study undertaken analysed the disparity in the spatial distribution of clinics within the metropolitan city of Daejeon, South Korea. Address and specialty of clinics in use were collected from five public health centres in 2010. Buffer analysis, hot-spot analysis, and generalized linear models were applied to the data collected. Multivariate analysis was also conducted on data...

  12. Changes in transport organisations within Southeast Asian cities: petty producers to statutory corporations

    OpenAIRE

    P J Rimmer

    1986-01-01

    A spate of studies of West European and North American cities have charted and interpreted the remarkable and rapid transformation of public transport since the early 19th century. The question arises as to whether the attempts to superimpose metropolitan culture via public transport structures in African, Asian, and Central and South American cities were as spectacular and speedy. Attention, in tackling this question, focuses upon the transfer of public transport technological-organisational...

  13. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    ” – urban furniture that was originally part of an election campaign for the cultural minister of Denmark, will illustrate how both political and artistic signatures become deterritorialized through urban space, time and every day social use. The second example is taken from corporate city development at...... the urban milieu and how other meanings emerge. In the last example, Relocation of beer drinkers on Enghave Square, Copenhagen, I will highlight how a heterogeneous assemblages of architecture, urban design, artistic intervention and every day social life has constructed continuums of intensities over...... a period of time thus establishing an emergent urban space divergent from both the intentions of the planner, architect, artist and user. Through the examples, I suggest that each urban body or design deterritorialize connecting with the city. Broadening up the perspective, I ask whether...

  14. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    Visions of the City is a dramatic account of utopian urbanism in the twentieth century. It explores radical demands for new spaces and ways of living, and considers their effects on planning, architecture and struggles to shape urban landscapes. Such visions, it shows, have played a crucial role in...... to transform urban space and everyday life. He addresses in particular Constant's vision of New Babylon, finding within his proposals for future spaces produced through nomadic life, creativity and play a still powerful challenge to imagine cities otherwise. The book not only recovers vital moments...... from past hopes and dreams of modern urbanism. It also contests current claims about the 'end of utopia', arguing that reconsidering earlier projects can play a critical role in developing utopian perspectives today. Through the study of utopian visions, it aims to rekindle elements of utopianism...

  15. Structural Seismic Risk at David City, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, E.; Battlo, J.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Lindhom, C.

    2007-12-01

    were located. Soil was classified as soft, intermediate, and hard from in-situ dynamic standard penetration test (SPT) measurements. For proper interpretation, all our observations were incorporated in a Geographical Information System (GIS). From a combined analysis of seismic hazard and vulnerability results, we identified six areas with different levels of structural seismic risk increasing from north to south along the David River. Central David has intermediate level risk. The highest risk is measured southwest and south of the city. The southern areas increase their risk due to the thickness of their sedimentary soils, low quality of housing construction and high population density.

  16. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRAKTISTAN 2011 og udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY på Utzon Centeret i Aalborg vil vi derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at der i Urban design fagligheden er et potentiale. Både for de der bruger byen og for dem der udøver arkitekturen med en stærk urban intention i det skala...

  17. City Gods projektet

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jakob Find

    2005-01-01

    Title: Copenhagen Urban Freight project – potentials and barriers – a case study approach Keywords: Urban freight transport, urban sustainability, Copenhagen Urban Freight Or-dinance, City logistics, mobility, supply chain approach Introduction The Copenhagen Urban Freight project was launched in 1995, where representatives from two competing transport companies, working for the first time in cooperation on behalf on the Danish Minster for Transport, presented their ideas towa...

  18. City Gods projektet

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jakob Find

    2006-01-01

    Title: Copenhagen Urban Freight project – potentials and barriers – a case study approach Keywords: Urban freight transport, urban sustainability, Copenhagen Urban Freight Or-dinance, City logistics, mobility, supply chain approach Introduction The Copenhagen Urban Freight project was launched in 1995, where representatives from two competing transport companies, working for the first time in cooperation on behalf on the Danish Minster for Transport, presented their ideas toward a more effici...

  19. Cities, connections and cronyism

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in the global system of cities present a curious paradox. With the cost of communications declining almost to zero and substantial, though less dramatic reductions in transport costs, there is now little technical requirement for most kinds of production to be undertaken in any particular location, or for elements of production chains to be located close to each other. This fact has had dramatic consequences for the organisation of manufacturing industry. Simple production...

  20. Businessplan Smart Sustainable cities

    OpenAIRE

    Verdeyen, Nadia; Opstelten, Ivo; Eweg, Erlijn; Rietbergen, Marieke; Martinovic, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Uit voorwoord Anton Franken, lid CvB `Smart Sustainable Cities is een platform voor het bedrijfsleven, kennisinstellingen en Hogeschool Utrecht waar gezamenlijk vernieuwende producten en diensten worden ontwikkeld die de realisatie van slimme, duurzame en gezonde steden dichterbij brengt. Startende en ervaren professionals hebben hiermee de mogelijkheid om via het onderwijs of via bij- en nascholing de nieuwste toepasbare kennis en inzichten op dit gebied op te doen. Tevens verricht het platf...

  1. Transport for smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    The global megatrend of the last century’s migration from rural to ever-larger conurbations has created immense gains to society through economies of scale and benefits from agglomeration. These include – other things remaining equal – a lesser need for transport because a bigger share of peoples’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. T...

  2. The Temporary City Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Niamh; McCarthy, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The Temporary City Workshop was hosted by Dr Niamh Moore-Cherry on Tuesday 21 October in Nova UCD. The workshop is part of the Greening as Spatial Politics project funded by the IRC New Foundations scheme 2013 and is a collaboration between geographers at University College Dublin and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. The goal of the workshop was to facilitate networking across a diversity of stakeholders and initiate discussion on temporary urban interventions in Dublin. The workshop wa...

  3. Towards what kind of city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The virtual city exists in “time” whereas the real city exists in “space”. The first one is an expression of our imagination, the second one of our ability to create. Time has articulated the images of cities as artisan philosophers, historians, artists, dreamers and even poets have given it to us. Space has generated cities which have been worked upon by geographers, geologists, surveyors, and finally urban planners. Space and time however live together in both cities, even if with alternating states of subordination. The culture of thinking, of decision making and of working is the unifying center of both the cities; it is the generating element both of the crises and the prosperity of the cities and it works towards an overcoming of the first and for the pursuit of the second (prosperity using the experience of the past for the making of a better future.

  4. CityVille For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Orland, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Learn to build and play CityVille to its full potential! You don't have to move to the city?just build one! Free to play, CityVille is a real-time simulation game that is available on Facebook and is the latest online game craze. As the only how-to beginner guide for new and current players, this helpful book walks you through the process of building a city from the ground up while acting as the city leader. You'll learn how to clear land, assemble roads, construct buildings, ship and import goods, trade with others, interact with the city's residents, and visit neighboring cities. Vibrant ful

  5. Spatiotemporal Patterns and Socioeconomic Contexts of Vegetative Cover in Altamira City, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Hetrick; Rinku Roy Chowdhury; Eduardo Brondizio; Emilio Moran

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation can ameliorate problems common to urban environments while improving the quality of life of urban residents. Much research in urban ecology has analyzed urban environmental dynamics in the global north; rapidly urbanizing areas in the global south have not received commensurate attention. The land cover dynamics of mid-sized cities in the global south remain under-explored in particular. In this article, we investigate the spatial patterns and ...

  6. Determinants of Private Clinics' Productivity: a Comparison of City and County Clinics in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Seung-Hm; Kim, Sang-A; Park, Woong-Sub

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to assess determinants of private clinics' productivity, and to compare city and county clinics in South Korea. We analyzed the revenue and patient data from all 9,212 private clinics in South Korea. This data was obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation, during the period between 1996 and 1999. We used a mixed model for repeatedly measured data. The following listed variables were used in our analysis: sex and age of physician, number of beds of ...

  7. A physical environmental management perspective on municipal water supply: proposals for Tlokwe City Council

    OpenAIRE

    Nealer, Eric J; Kishor, Raga

    2008-01-01

    All South Africans, especially, those involved with the development and management of its water resources should be aware that South Africa is generally an arid to semi-arid region, with an average rainfall of approximately 500 mm per annum, compared to a world average of 860mm. Consequently, potable water is a very scarce resource, and is often the biggest prohibiting factor for development of, for example, new residential areas in a town or city. Hence a public service ren...

  8. A methodology to quantify the risks of urbanisation on groundwater systems in South Africa / Johanna Margaretha van Rooyen

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rooyen, Johanna Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the urbanised population grows exponentially and due to this growth, cities are forced to expand beyond their manageable borders resulting in greater pressure on the surrounding urban environment. Many South African towns or cities are dependent on surface water for water supply. These resources are slowly being depleted and the dependence on groundwater resources is becoming increasingly important. Due to increased mining, industrial and agricultural activities in South Africa the...

  9. Securing water for the cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management. PMID:12287008

  10. ENSO-triggered floods in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    ENSO-triggered floods altered completely the annual discharge of most watersheds of South America. Anomalous years as 1941, 1982-83 and 1997-98 signified enormous discharges of rivers draining toward the Pacific but also to the Atlantic Ocean. These floods affected large cities as Porto Alegre, Blumenau, Curitiba, Asunción, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires. Maximum discharge months are particular and easily distinguished at those watersheds located at the South American Arid Diagonal. At watersheds conditioned by precipitations delivered from the Atlantic or Pacific anticyclonic centers the ENSO-triggered floods are difficult to discern. The floods of 1941 affected 70,000 inhabitants in Porto Alegre. In 1983, Blumenau city was flooded during several days; and the Paraná River multiplied 15 times the width of its middle floodplain. The Colorado River in Northern Patagonia connected for the last time to the Desaguadero-Chadileuvú-Curacó system and therefore received saline water. ENSO years modify also the water balance of certain piedmont lakes of Southern Patagonia: the increases in snow accumulations cause high water levels with a lag of 13 months. The correlation between the maximum monthly discharges of 1982-83 and 1997-98 at different regions and watersheds indicates they can be forecasted for future floods triggered by same phenomena. South American rivers can be classified therefore into ENSO-affected, and ENSO-dominated, for those within the Arid Diagonal that are exclusively subject to high discharges during these years.

  11. Sun exposure and sun protection habits in high school students from a city south of the country Práticas de exposição e proteção solar em estudantes do ensino médio de uma cidade do sul do país

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Dupont

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective solar protection is an uncommon practice among young people, increasing the likelihood of sunburn, sunstroke and skin cancers. This fact is more significant in the south of Brazil, where the prevalence of white skinned population is larger, being more prone to sun damage. OBJECTIVES: To study the practices of sun exposure and sun protection in high school students from the city of Carlos Barbosa - RS. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 775 students, enrolled on the first half of 2010, who had signed the consent form. We used a non-identifiable, self-administered questionnaire, with questions about related topics. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square or Fisher exact and t-Student tests. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee under the number 2010-115H. RESULTS: Most students are exposed to the sun at the more critical periods, remaining exposed for more than an hour. Five hundred and seventy-six students (74,3% reported using sunscreen, but less than 10% did it during all months of the year. Female teenagers are most likely to use sunscreen (p FUNDAMENTOS: A proteção solar efetiva é uma prática incomum entre os jovens, aumentando a probabilidade de queimaduras solares, insolações e cânceres de pele. Esse fato é mais significativo na Região Sul do Brasil, onde a prevalência da população branca é maior, sendo mais propensa aos danos causados pelo sol. OBJETIVOS: Estudar as práticas de exposição e proteção solar em estudantes do ensino médio da cidade de Carlos Barbosa, RS. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, envolvendo 775 estudantes matriculados no primeiro semestre de 2010, que tiveram o termo de consentimento assinado. Utilizou-se um questionário não identificável, autoaplicável, com perguntas abordando tópicos relacionados ao tema. Na análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e o teste t-Student. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comit

  12. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  13. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  14. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  15. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter;

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach to geometry learning that is based on a didactic theory, which builds on play in order to discover and learn about geometry. Inspired by this theory, a mobile and location-aware game has been developed that aims at embodying geometric concepts in the real world. To this end......, the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  16. Smart Cities need architects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Architects and urban planners have always been at the forefront of technical and social innovation processes, researching and proposing new urban models and buildings based on cognitive materials from both their own and other fields of knowledge. In fact, current society, including our ways of life and habits, could not be comprehended without the open, curious minds and progressive even defiant attitudes of architects such as Brunelleschi, Violletle- Duc, Perret, Le Corbusier and Fuller, who defied the threshold of conceptual and vital convention and staked everything on exploring and applying the characteristic technological breakthroughs of their day to architecture and the design of cities. (Author)

  17. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower...... public image of Camp Century was one of technological comfort and military-scientific control. Amidst the raging Cold War and up against the harsh environment, the construction of the camp would prove to the public that the combined forces of the US military-technology-science complex would prevail...

  18. Building the Bicycle City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    was supplemented by an informative magazine and a map of the ward for pupils. At first you could think that it was just another gimmick to inform inhabitants about their municipality, but it was actually an intelligent way to make children and young people know their neighbourhood through physical activity......, the bike reduces distances, is a stress reducing tool, makes the cyclists experience the differences of the seasons - smells, sounds, wind, temperatures - see parts of the city that they never would normally not experience in the underground subway and gives you the opportunity to talk with your companion...

  19. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test......-site, where 15 LED RGB Park lamps, controlled driven by a wind sensor, mobile phone applications or by thermal camera tracking. According to the specialists are the social and aesthetical dimensions more interesting than the energy use cases and efficiency. This motivates an interdisciplinary discussion on...

  20. City of Epitaphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Hicks

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The pavement lies like a ledger-stone on a tomb. Buried underneath are the remains of fertile landscapes and the life they once supported. Inscribed on its upper side are epitaphic writings. Whatever their ostensible purpose, memorial plaques and public artworks embedded in the pavement are ultimately expressions of civic bereavement and guilt. The pavement's role as both witness and accomplice to fatality is confirmed by private individuals who publicize their grief with death notices graffitied on the asphalt. To walk the city is to engage in a dialogue about death.

  1. Beyond the City Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hairong

    2012-01-01

    While most fresh university graduates in China aim to find jobs in the cities,more and more welleducated young people are starting to look for career opportunities in rural areas.Cheng Guangjing is one of those who have chosen to work as a village official.In 2009 he began working in Dongzhuang Village,Lankao County in central China's Henan Province.On November 24,2011,the villagers unanimously elected him secretary of the Dongzhuang Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC).

  2. The City Street

    OpenAIRE

    H.C. van der Wouden

    1999-01-01

    Original title: De stad op straat. The city street; the public space in perspective (De stad op straat; de openbare ruimte in perspectief) by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is intended to contribute to the formation of new ideas about the public space and the future of urban societies. It presents a collection of essays on the urban public space from a large number of scientific disciplines. The following authors contributed to the collection: Prof. R.W. Boomkens (cult...

  3. Smart Cities: esperienze europee

    OpenAIRE

    Gasca, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    «Il tema chiave che ruota intorno concetto di Smat City è la necessità e il desiderio di trasformare le città e le comunità in luoghi con una migliore qualità della vita» (Van Beurden, 2011). Proprio questo deve essere uno degli obiettivi principali delle strategie smart che, valorizzando le potenzialità dei territori nei quali si sviluppano, devono essere orientate ad un miglioramento delle condizioni di vita della cittadinanza e allo sviluppo della capacità attrattiva delle città. La smart ...

  4. Magical Landscapes and Designed Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    “something special,” a feel-good, (almost spiritual) healing power (just moments away from the bustling city). In Melanesia, such a spiritual force goes by the name of “mana”. Århus’ mana landscapes are only invested with this huge, floating quality because they are near the city. Furthermore, they are seen...... from the point of view of the city, where order, design, planning and commerce are important cityscape qualities. The article deals with the way in which these two parts of the city, landscape and brandscape are complementary parts of the city-web. Analytical points made by Mauss, Lévi-Strauss and...... Greimas are discussed in connection with the empirical setting of the city of Århus...

  5. City project and public space

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

  6. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. A better understanding of the complex organizational change processes in city logistics projects with many stakeholders may expand city logistics capabilities and thereby help prevent future failures. The purpose of this paper is...... therefore to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge, and secondarily, to investigate whether such processes can be managed at all. Design/methodology/approach: – A paradigm shift in urban planning creates new ways of involving stakeholders in new sustainability measures such as city logistics....... Organizational change theory is applied to capture the social processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is a qualitative processual analysis of a single longitudinal case. Findings: – The change process took different forms over time. At the time of concluding the analysis, positive...

  7. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  8. Participatory prototyping for future cities

    OpenAIRE

    Van Waart, P.; Mulder, I.J.; de Bont, C.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging pervasive technologies such as the Internet of Things and Open Data will have severe impact on the experience, interactions and wellbeing of citizens in future smart cities. Local governments are concerned how to engage and embed citizens in the process of smart city development because without them it is difficult for governments and industrial technology providers to understand what future city is desired. We explore how prototyping methods can be used in a multi-helix approach tow...

  9. Large cities are less green

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; José S. Andrade; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-01-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine...

  10. Large cities are less green

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, E A; Makse, H A

    2014-01-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions and city population with average allometric exponent $\\beta = 1.46$ across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropol...

  11. Smart Cities and Sustainability Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In our age cities are complex systems and we can say systems of systems. Today locality is the result of using information and communication technologies in all departments of our life, but in future all cities must to use smart systems for improve quality of life and on the other hand for sustainable development. The smart systems make daily activities more easily, efficiently and represent a real support for sustainable city development. This paper analysis the sus-tainable development and identified the key elements of future smart cities.

  12. Spatial heterogeneity and transboundary pollution: a contingent valuation study on the Xijiang River drainage basin in south China

    OpenAIRE

    Jie He; Anping Huang; Luodan Xu

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether and how transboundary river water pollution spillover may affect resident’s Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a river water quality improvement project. Based on a CVM survey conducted in 20 cities located in the Xijiang river basin located in south China, our study demonstrates that the downstream city respondents report lower WTP when the water quality in the immediate upstream city is more polluted. This negative externality decreases with distance and relative b...

  13. in Beirut City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. El Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nutritional supplements among exercisers in gyms has been never investigated in the Middle East. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence intake of nutritional supplements and the potential influencing factors among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. In this cross-sectional study, 512 exercisers, aged between 20 and 50 years, were randomly selected from gyms. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported among 36.3% (95% confidence interval 32.2–40.5 of participants, with a weak presence of medical supervision. Patterns of supplement use differed by gender and age. Men and younger exercisers were found to focus on supplements associated with performance enhancement and muscle building, while women and older exercisers were more concerned with health-promoting products such as vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. An appropriate dissemination of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding the benefits and side effects of nutritional supplements is highly recommended in the sports environment in Beirut city.

  14. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  15. Cities and Climate Change : An Urgent Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The report discusses the link between climate change and cities, why cities should be concerned about climate change and adopt early preventative policies, and how the World Bank and other organizations can provide further support to cities on climate change issues. The report is one in a series of activities that explore the nexus of cities and climate change. This report, cities and clim...

  16. 78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...) for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor... currently has no passenger rail service. This corridor is part of the South Central High Speed Rail Corridor and is a federally-designated high-speed rail (HSR) corridor. ODOT envisions the Tulsa--Oklahoma...

  17. Tourism and City. Reflections about Tourist Dimension of Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of the future seems to be necessarily “intelligent” both in its physical and in functional features.This paper starts from the consideration that the diffusion of new communication technologies (ICTs is significantly changing the urban supply system of tourist services giving rise to new ways of enjoying the city.As tourism can be assumed as an urban activity, by a town planning point of view, the study of tourism is meaningful to identify development trajectories of the present cities targeted to sustainable and smarter models.As a matter of fact, almost all the projects to get a “smart city” are based on the idea of joining the potentialities of ICTs and the needs of urban management through people living or using the city.In such a vision, “tourist dimension” of the city becomes fundamental in promoting urban image as well as in improving efficiency of the city. This efficiency also depends on the capability of each city to share historical and cultural heritage as “common good”.As tourist demand has deeply changed also driven by technological development, this paper tries to investigate how the urban supply will change in order to meet the rising demand of quality and efficiency. The transition to smart tourist destination currently seems to be strongly connected with the number and the variety of apps to improve the “experiential component”. A lack of interest there seems to be in finding strategies and policies oriented to plan the urban supply of services tourist or not.This consideration, if shared, opens up new perspectives for research and experimentation in which city planning could have a key-role also in proposing an holistic approach to city development towards smart city.

  18. The hybrid outcome of urban change: global city, polarized city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of studies supports the assumption that levels of socio-spatial polarization, segregation, and exclusion are rising in global cities over the past decades as a direct outcome of certain global processes, such as the deindustrialization process, its associated changes in division of labor, and declined redistributive power of the welfare state. However, that assumption – known as the polarization thesis – is criticized based on several contentions, including the oversimplification of the global/local interplay by overlooking the role of local contingent factors that may modify, intensify, or reverse the expected socio-spatial outcome in individual cities. This study aims to capture the hybrid nature of the socio-spatial outcomes of global cities by proving that the complex process of restructuring of cities is a form of structural and chronological hybridity. Through providing a solid empirical ground for investigating the general applicability of the socio-spatial polarization thesis, as well as evaluating the influence of local contexts of cities on the outcomes of urban change. The research offers a theoretical review of the multifaceted restructuring of global cities. Then, the macro trends of global economy are linked to their micro outcomes (segregation patterns within cities, through understanding the implications of cities’ economic functions on local urban policies and housing markets. Finally, the changes in socioeconomic segregation over the past decades are calculated for a large dataset of 66 global cities. The collective result of the analysis shows the downfalls of the generalized hypothesis. While the discussion of individual cities highlights certain contextual particularities, that are contributing to the production of unique socio-spatial configurations in different global cities.

  19. Islamic Republic of Iran: Bushehr NPP. Project control. Annex 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annex deals with project control. After almost 17 years of delay due to revolution and war, the work on BNPP-1 resumed. The new plant will be a combination of German and Russian designs and as such will present many unique technical and managerial problems. These will be accentuated by the fact that Iranian nuclear personnel are relatively young and inexperienced. In spite of hostile environmental conditions at the site, the equipment, structures and documentation have been relatively well presented. (author)

  20. CHED Events: Salt Lake City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

  1. Malmo: A city in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Tessa Kate

    2014-01-01

    . From 1840 to the mid-1970s, Malmo’s growth continued to flourish. Like many Swedish cities, the manufacturing recession of the mid-1970s bought unemployment and population decline. Malmo transitioned from a manufacturing hub into a knowledge city with a strong focus on sustainable planning. Malmo has...

  2. Tuned City: The Space Acoustic

    OpenAIRE

    Niessen, BM

    2008-01-01

    The article is an in-depth interview with Derek Holzer, performance director of the Berlinese sound art festival Tuned City. The interview focuses on the transformations of sound art and on the role of media festivals in the contemporary city.

  3. Cities as nuclei of sustainability?

    CERN Document Server

    Rybski, Diego; Reusser, Dominik E; Fichtner, Christina; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing CO2 emission inventories of 256 cities from 33 countries we find power-law correlations between the emissions and city size, measured in population. The results suggest that in developing countries more CO2 per capita is emitted in large cities, i.e. they tend to exhibit super-linear correlations and doubling the population of any city implies up to 110% increase of emissions. For developed countries the results suggest the opposite, i.e. linear or sub-linear correlations, implying better efficiency of large cities, doubling the population of any city implies only 80% increase of emissions. The transition occurs at approx. 10,000GDP/cap. We derive how the total emissions of an entire country relate with the power-law correlations and find that the size of the most populated city is dominating in the case of linear and super-linear correlations. The size of the largest city has no influence in the case of sub-linear correlations. We conclude that from the climate change mitigation point of view, urba...

  4. Dubai: a City of Hope?

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Abirafeh

    2007-01-01

    The City of Hope is an organisation offering refuge for abused women in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. Dubai has started to acknowledge the social problems accompanying its phenomenal economic growth but is it doing enough to tackle the scourge of human trafficking?

  5. Dubai: a City of Hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Abirafeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The City of Hope is an organisation offering refuge for abused women in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. Dubai has started to acknowledge the social problems accompanying its phenomenal economic growth but is it doing enough to tackle the scourge of human trafficking?

  6. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates t

  7. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Aastrup, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    as a change process where the city is working to change paradigm from a conventional top down regulation to a sustainable mobility paradigm. This long lasting and complex process towards improved organization of goods deliveries in the Copenhagen city center can further be understood as a teleological process...

  8. Educating Cities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of…

  9. Archaeoastronomy and Calendar Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    The use of astronomy for collective purposes, both religious and political, is apparent in the earliest astronomical records, from the evidence for Palaeolithic lunar calendars to megalithic monuments and Mesopotamian celestial-omen reports. This paper will consider the application of the heavens to the organisation of the ‘Cosmic State’, the human polity modelled on the assumption of a close relationship between society on the one hand and planetary and stellar patterns on the other. I will also examine the foundation of Baghdad within the tradition of celestial town planning and argue that the city may be seen as a ‘talisman’, designed to connect heaven to Earth and ensure peace, stability and political success by harmonising time and space.

  10. Distance weighted city growth

    CERN Document Server

    Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2012-01-01

    Urban agglomerations exhibit complex emergent features of which Zipf's law, i.e. a power-law size distribution, and fractality may be regarded as the most prominent ones. We propose a simplistic model for the generation of city-like structures which is solely based on the assumption that growth is more likely to take place close to inhabited space. The model involves one parameter which is an exponent determining how strongly the attraction decays with the distance. In addition, the model is run iteratively so that existing clusters can grow and new ones can emerge. The model is capable of reproducing the size distribution and the fractality of the hull of the largest cluster. While the power-law distribution depends on both, the imposed exponent and the iteration, the fractality seems to be independent of the former and only depends on the latter.

  11. Human diffusion and city influence

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and hierarchy in terms of influence at local, regional or global scales naturally emerges. Traditionally, there have been important efforts to describe this hierarchy by indirect measures such the sharing of company headquarters, traffic by air, train or boats or economical exchanges. In this work, we take a different approach and introduce a method that uses geolocated Twitter information to quantify the impact of cities on rural or other urban areas. Since geolocated tweets are becoming a global phenomenon, the method can be applied at a world-wide scale. We focus on $58$ cities and analyze the mobility patterns of people after visiting them for the first time. Cities such as Rome and Paris appear consistently as those with largest area covered by Twitter users after their visit and as those attracting visitors most diverse in origin. The study is also performed discerning users mobility b...

  12. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  13. Sister Cities along US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Locations of 29 cities referred to as US and Mexico "Sister Cities." The locations of the cities were pulled from the Digital Chart of the World database, 1994. The...

  14. Urban physiology: city ants possess high heat tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Angilletta

    Full Text Available Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12 degrees C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of leaf-cutter ants from South America's largest city (São Paulo, Brazil. Specifically, we compared thermal tolerances of ants from inside and outside of the city. Knock-down resistance and chill-coma recovery were used as indicators of heat and cold tolerances, respectively. Ants from within the city took 20% longer to lose mobility at 42 degrees C than ants from outside the city. Interestingly, greater heat tolerance came at no obvious expense of cold tolerance; hence, our observations only partially support current theory. Our results indicate that thermal tolerances of some organisms can respond to rapid changes in climate. Predictive models should account for acclimatory and evolutionary responses during climate change.

  15. South Pacific newsletter : 9

    OpenAIRE

    Kagoshima University Research Center for the South Pacific; カゴシマ ダイガク ミナミ タイヘイヨウ カイイキ ケンキュウ センター; 鹿児島大学南太平洋海域研究センター

    1998-01-01

    The Future of the Research Center for the South Pacific / INOUE Akio (Director, Kagoshima University Research Center for the South Pacific) Unicellular Organisms with Calcareous Shells in the Subtropical and Tropical NW-Pacific / HOHENEGGER Johann (Visiting Professor, Kagoshima University Research Center for the South Pacific) [Symposium] Foraminifera as Indicators of Marine Environments in the Present and Past Why Does Foraminifera Act as Useful Proxies for Modern and Ancient ...

  16. Coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper comprises a report on the coal industry in the Republic of South Africa. Stresses the importance of coal in the South African economy (meets 75% of the country's energy requirements and is in second place in the South African exports table). Covers deposits, production and prices, exports policy; winning methods, productivity and the various grades of coal. Also includes data on investments and refers to synthetic fuels from coal (Sasol I, II, III processes).

  17. Câncer de colo uterino: caracterização das mulheres em um município do sul do Brasil Cáncer del cuello uterino: identificación /caracterización de las mujeres en un município del sur de BRAZIL Cervical cancer: characterization of women in a city in the south of BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu Correa Soares

    2010-03-01

    tienen las prácticas pré-cáncer para la detección precoz y la prevención del cáncer de cuello uterino. El desafio para lograr la integralidad está en la necesidad de repensar el conocimiento y prácticas profesionales en el cuidado a las mulheres, independientemente del motivo que las motivo a buscar el servicio de salud.The aim of this study was to identify and analyze socioeconomic, behavioral and biological characteristics of women with cervical cancer that used public health services in a city in the south of Brazil. This is a qualitative study, realized with twenty women with a diagnosis of cervical cancer. The survey had as theoretical support the integrality of attention to the health. To collect data it was used the information from Information System of Cervical Cancer and a semi-structured interview. Characteristics of age, education, frequency to the medical consultation and the interval of prevent exams were identified. The findings make possible to say that women still have difficulty in considering the importance of pre-cancer in order to precocious detection and prevention of cervical cancer. The challenge to reach integrality is in the necessity of rethinking knowledge and professional practices in the care to women, independent of the reason which led them to the health service.

  18. Coal is the key to South Sumatra upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    This year should see the start of a 200 million dollar project to upgrade much of PJKA's 628 km South Sumatra division. The aim is to carry 2 to 3 million tonnes of coal a year from the Bukit Asam mine to a new port at Tarahan, 18 km south of the city of Tanjung Karang. Radio will be used to raise line capacity, and a major training programme for PJKA staff will be undertaken by Canadian and French engineers and operators. The preparations for this are described.

  19. São Paulo: Global Metropolis of the South

    OpenAIRE

    Rocco, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    São Paulo is a metropolis of superlatives. It is the largest metropolis of South America, with 20.2 million inhabitants in the Greater Metropolitan Area and 11.8 million in the city proper (IBGE, 2014 prognosis). Numbers vary considerably, but it is generally accepted that São Paulo is among the 10 largest urban agglomerations in the world. The Greater São Paulo comprises 39 municipalities, with a total area of 8,051 km² (similar to the area of South and North Holland, Utrecht and Flevoland, ...

  20. Why to measure a broad range of city sizes? Analysis of globally pooled data of urban GHG measurements for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybski, Diego; Sterzel, Till; Reusser, Dominik E.; Fichter, Christina; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    We have assembled a database of urban GHG emissions from various published sources, including about 200 cities globally. Analyzing this CO2 emission inventory from multiple countries we find power-law relations between the emissions and city size, measured in population. The results suggest that in developing countries large cities emit more CO2 per capita compared to small cities, i.e. they tend to comprise super-linear correlations. For developed countries the results suggest the opposite, i.e. linear or sub-linear correlations, implying better efficiency of large cities. We derive how the total emissions of an entire country relate with the power-law correlations and find that the size of the most populated city is dominating in the case of linear and super-linear correlations, while a transition occurs to sub-linear correlations, where the size of the largest city has no influence. It is important to further substantiate an overview of city emission inventories across a broad range of city sizes and types to further clarify the complex relationships between cities and GHG emissions. On the one hand, we propose a minimum set of meta-information to be reported together with the emission inventories, e.g. for determining comparability among inventories. On the other hand, we propose to fill evident gaps with respect to regions (e.g. sub-Saharan African and South American cities) and types of cities (e.g. small medium and low-income country cities) to allow for a better global overview of city sizes, income, and emissions. We conclude that from the climate change mitigation point of view, urbanization is desirable in developed countries and should be avoided in developing countries, if effinciency increasing mechanisms can not be established. More data acquisition is needed to support our empirical findings.

  1. Stereo Pair, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This image pair provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  2. CUA-IUAES: Dreamed/Planned Cities and Experienced Cities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beranská, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 4 (2014), s. 487-488. ISSN 0009-0794 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : city * urban space * urban anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology Impact factor: 0.094, year: 2012

  3. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    2003-01-01

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sici......, in the middle East, the Crusades, in Germany (the Hansatic League) and, finally, as far a field as the Danish West Indies. The book is part of a larger project that comprises other historical environments....

  4. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Jr., Newton J.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2005-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results w...

  5. The ecological future of cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Mark J; MacGregor-Fors, Ian

    2016-05-20

    The discipline of urban ecology arose in the 1990s, primarily motivated by a widespread interest in documenting the distribution and abundance of animals and plants in cities. Today, urban ecologists have greatly expanded their scope of study to include ecological and socioeconomic processes, urban management, planning, and design, with the goal of addressing issues of sustainability, environmental quality, and human well-being within cities and towns. As the global pace of urbanization continues to intensify, urban ecology provides the ecological and social data, as well as the principles, concepts and tools, to create livable cities. PMID:27199416

  6. Flood Insurance Study, City of Park City, Utah, Summit County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1987-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Park City, Summit County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain man...

  7. DENSER Cities: A System for Dense Efficient Reconstructions of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Michael; Pinies, Pedro; Paz, Lina Maria; Newman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the efficient generation of dense, colored models of city-scale environments from range data and in particular, stereo cameras. Better maps make for better understanding; better understanding leads to better robots, but this comes at a cost. The computational and memory requirements of large dense models can be prohibitive. We provide the theory and the system needed to create city-scale dense reconstructions. To do so, we apply a regularizer over a compressed 3D data stru...

  8. ConnectiCity, augmented perception of the city

    OpenAIRE

    Iaconesi, Salvatore; Persico, Oriana

    2012-01-01

    As we move through cities in our daily lives, we are in a constant state of transformation of the spaces around us. The form and essence of urban space directly affects people's behavior, describing in their perception what is possible or impossible, allowed or prohibited, suggested or advised against. We are now able to fill and stratify space/time with digital information layers, completely wrapping cities in a membrane of information and of opportunities for interaction and communication. ...

  9. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  10. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2014-04-01

    Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed. PMID:24759176

  11. Dancing to the Bhangra in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Anjali Gera

    2016-01-01

    Nearly two decades after Rekha Malhotra alias DJ Rekha launched Basement Bhangra, a “party that mixes South Asian bhangra music with hip-hop, dancehall and electronic sounds to create an unforgettable New York City dance experience” at SOB’s on Varick Street, which subsequently moved to Le Poisson Rouge, it has been voted by Time Out New York readers as the “best live music venue”. Born in London and raised in Queens and Long Island, Brooklyn based DJ Rekha, who is credited with pioneering bh...

  12. First results on the city planning of Cyrrhus (Syria)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Massih, Jeanine; Benech, Christophe; Gelin, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    The site of Cyrrhus is located in the Afrin valley (North Syria) at the crossing of the roads between Antioch and inner Syria. The layout of the lower town of Cyrrhus is established on a rectangular grid fanning out from the Main Street (Fig. 1). This Hippodamian plan in the pure Hellenistic tradition seems to be more or less respected in the Roman and Byzantine periods. The grid pattern is centred on a colonnaded main street running north/south across the entire city. However, during the Rom...

  13. Relationship between Family History of Osteoporotic Fracture and Femur Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Gozashti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The principal aim of this study was therefore to investigate association between family history of osteo¬porotic hip fracture, BMD and femur geometry in Bushehr city in South of Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from Iranian Multi-center Osteoporosis Study (IMOS in Bushehr. Healthy men and women aged 50 to 75 years were selected based on randomized clustered sampling of all regions of the corresponding city. BMD was measured once at the lumbar spine (L2-L4 and proximal femur with dual X-ray absorptiometry using Lunar DPX densitometers. From the DXA image the operator manually determines the hip axis length (HAL and femoral neck-shaft angle. The HAL was measured from the inner pelvic brim to the lateral side of the femur .The femoral neck–shaft an¬gle was defined as the angle between the femoral neck axis and the femoral shaft axis . Results: There were no significant differences between the family fracture history groups with regard to the potential confound¬ers of age and body mass index (BMI. HAL of women with history of hip fracture was greater but history of hip fracture showed no significant relation with other vari¬ables. Conclusion: These findings suggest that individuals with a positive family history may be at higher risk of osteoporotic hip frac¬ture because they have greater HAL and more prone to buckle at the femur neck.

  14. Experiences and Challenges of Community Participation in Urban Renewal Projects: The Case of Johannesburg, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Wellington Didibhuku Thwala

    2009-01-01

    Urban renewal and inner city regeneration have become critical efforts for the South African government, which has invested in several structures to stem the tide of decline in its nine major cities. Commitment to the alleviation of poverty is a focal point of the renewal and regeneration agenda and will remain so in the future. This effort is motivated by the fact that around 24% of the South African population currently lives on less than USD 1.00 per day, below the poverty line defined by ...

  15. Factors for viral infection in blood donors of South Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Kabinda, Jeff Maotela; Michèle, Dramaix-Wilmet; Donnen, Philippe; Miyanga, Serge Ahuka; van den Ende, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Assessing the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors among blood donors in South Kivu and identify risk factors for viral markers. Methods A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study involved 595 blood donors in the city of Bukavu (Head city of the province of South Kivu) in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Results Our sample consisted of 70.3% men with a median age of 23 and 77% of young people fewer than 30 years. The score of knowledge and attitude of bl...

  16. A serological study of brucellosis in camels south of Kirkuk, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yawoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the prevalence of antibodies to camel brucellosis has been carried out in the south of Kirkuk city during March 2011. A total of 66 camels (6 male, 60 female involved in this study with age between 6 months to 22 years. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein and the sera samples were screened by using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT. The sera that were positive by using RBPT have been tested again by using the 2-Mercaptoethanol (2ME test. The results of this study revealed that two camels from 66 camels (3.03% were seropositive for brucella antibodies in South of Kirkuk city.

  17. 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  18. Qinadao:An Oceanic City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    BLUE sky and white clouds, an azure sea patterned with colorful sails, this view of Qingdao is little different from a seascape of either the Mediterranean or the Pacific Ocean. The exotic facade of this small city on the

  19. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, Tom B. [Energy Conservation Specialist, Port Ewen, NY (United States)

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  20. Foreign Funds for City Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.

  1. Global cities and cultural experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Gaviria, Pilar; Emontspool, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studying the cultural dynamics of expatriate amateur theater in Brussels, this paper investigates multicultural marketplace development in contemporary global cities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper performs an interpretive analysis of the expatriate amateur scene in Brussels from...... marketing research, providing original insights into market dynamics and cultural experimentation in multicultural environments....... an ethnographic perspective, combining observations of rehearsals and performances, in-depth interviews with actors, directors and audience, and secondary data. Findings: The fluidity of global cities allows their inhabitants to engage in collective creative processes of cultural experimentation...... to the important role of global cities for cultural experimentation. Such cities are not only an interesting market for culturally diverse products, but also learning hubs. Managers willing to address multicultural marketplaces might target these markets with dynamic cultural offers that ensure a...

  2. City Governments Need Deliberative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot; Lewis, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Innovation in the public sector has become an important focus for governments, which are facing a growing inability to address difficult policy challenges. In the context of city governments, innovation capacity is boosted by the involvement of ‘outsiders’...

  3. City Walks and Tactile Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.

  4. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendse Najuwa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic

  5. Who's the alien? Xenophobia in post-apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Duponchel, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    In May 2008, South Africa became the theatre of widespread violent attacks against undesirable 'outsiders'. Over 60 were killed, hundreds wounded, and tens of thousands displaced. This analysis aims at identifying the characteristics of the victims in an attempt to portray the 'alien' using household data collected in February 2009 in the Johannesburg inner city and in Alexandra township. Results confirm that foreigners face a higher probability of being victimized on the ground of xenophobia...

  6. Staging transition: the Oresteia in post-apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Weyenberg, van, S.J.B.; Bal, M; Hernández-Navarro, M.Á.

    2011-01-01

    Aeschylus' Oresteia dramatizes the meaning and political deployment of justice, concluding with the transformation of justice as vengeance into the legal justice of Athens's new democracy. In this essay, I examine two dramatic texts that draw on the Oresteia within another context of transitional justice: post-apartheid South Africa. In Mark Fleishman's In the City of Paradise and Yael Farber's Molora the distorted family relations within the house of Atreus come to represent the distorted re...

  7. Smart cities and sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    GORI, Paula; Parcu, Pier Luigi; STASI, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of smart city and sharing economy are at the centre of a number of current debates, which touch upon, among others, issues like the current urbanisation trends, the particular economic situation we are facing in the last years, the spread of connectivity and of new technologies and the innovation process in general. This working paper looks at the different and common characteristics of both smart cities and sharing economy models, in order to explore their interaction and comple...

  8. Feicheng City of Peach Blossom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    IN Feicheng City, central Shandong Province, can be found the world’s largest peach orchard, recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records as covering 6,667 hectares. In spring, the city is permeated with the fragrance of peach blossom.Home of the "Buddha Peach"Peach growing in Feicheng has a history of 1,100 years. The Feicheng peach is distinctive for

  9. Deer Tracks in the City?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    "Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

  10. KUNMING: The City of Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  11. Constructing a modern city machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures.......Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures....

  12. FUSION CITIES - consolidation of movement

    OpenAIRE

    Sieber, Jula-Kim

    2009-01-01

    Urban, social, cultural analysis of fusion cities, two bordering cities growing together, with different types of borders: natural, artificial, political, and social. The work is displayed in maps and visual language. BRAKIN_natural : Brazzaville and Kinshasa by Humerto Sarabio and Marion Bouchard SAN JUANA_artificial : San Diego and Tijuana by Julio Obregon Zepeda and Anne Touchet JERUSALEM_political : East and West Jerusalem by Slobodan Subotić and Petko Gogov FAVEMINIO_social : Favela and ...

  13. Housing Booms and City Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Glaeser; Joshua D. Gottlieb; Kristina Tobio

    2012-01-01

    Popular discussions often treat the great housing boom of the 1996-2006 period as if it were a national phenomenon with similar impacts across locales, but across metropolitan areas, price growth was dramatically higher in warmer, less educated cities with less initial density and higher initial housing values. Within metropolitan areas, price growth was faster in neighborhoods closer to the city center. The centralization of price growth during the boom was particularly dramatic in those met...

  14. INCREASING RETURN TO SMART CITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    Increased urbanization, global warming and sustainable growth belong to the major contemporary policy challenges. Today cities are home to more than 50% of the world population, the largest 600 urban centers generate about 60% of global GDP, and the agglomerated areas are responsible for 75% of world carbon emissions. The UN estimates that 70% of the world's growing population will live in cities by 2050. At the same time the world population is expected to increase from 7 billion people to 9...

  15. European Strategies for Smarter Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Barresi; Gabriella Pultrone

    2013-01-01

    On a worldwide scale, cities and regions must tackle the challenges set by the radical change in our society and in our economy, aiming to develop effective public policies and boost their managerial, evaluation and planning skills. Anyway, it is essential to put a new idea of city at the centre of the smart strategies in order to bring policies back to their former central position, since technologies alone cannot generate welfare and prosperity. Local leadership, integrated planning and a r...

  16. Beijing: Beyond the Olympic city

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies have become part of a deliberate urban policy for cities around the world. There is a particular concern on how to combine the preparation of a mega-event with urban development processes that meet long-term demands. This paper examines how Beijing tried to use the Summer Olympic Games 2008 to fight its spatial and environmental problems, and create a new image for the city.

  17. Coaltrans South Africa 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: overview of the South African coal industry; South African economy and coal reserves; black economic empowerment and new mining legislation; and transport logistics. Most of the papers only consist of the viewgraphs/overheads. Three papers which are not overheads have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  18. Analysis Matrix for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E. Branchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current digital revolution has ignited the evolution of communications grids and the development of new schemes for productive systems. Traditional technologic scenarios have been challenged, and Smart Cities have become the basis for urban competitiveness. The citizen is the one who has the power to set new scenarios, and that is why a definition of the way people interact with their cities is needed, as is commented in the first part of the article. At the same time, a lack of clarity has been detected in the way of describing what Smart Cities are, and the second part will try to set the basis for that. For all before, the information and communication technologies that manage and transform 21st century cities must be reviewed, analyzing their impact on new social behaviors that shape the spaces and means of communication, as is posed in the experimental section, setting the basis for an analysis matrix to score the different elements that affect a Smart City environment. So, as the better way to evaluate what a Smart City is, there is a need for a tool to score the different technologies on the basis of their usefulness and consequences, considering the impact of each application. For all of that, the final section describes the main objective of this article in practical scenarios, considering how the technologies are used by citizens, who must be the main concern of all urban development.

  19. Life in The Country And The City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仕富; 伍章华

    2002-01-01

    City born and city bred, some people consider city life to be the life of the heaven, comparing it with the poverty, in their opinion, of the country. On the contrary, others are very tired of the city life and they are admiring to live in the peaceful country very much.

  20. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Braun (Erik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing? T

  1. How To Save Our Shrinking Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybcznski, Witold; Linneman, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    Explores solutions to the problem of shrinking cities, population declines in urban areas. Consolidation and de-annexation are not desirable alternatives, but for many shrinking cities no other workable alternative can be seen. The reality is that many cities will continue to shrink. Radical redesign can make cities better and smaller. (SLD)

  2. Venture capital in New England secondary cities

    OpenAIRE

    Carole Carlson; Prabal Chakrabarti

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, venture capital has been one of the major drivers of the U.S. economy. This article examines venture capital investment in secondary cities, cities outside of the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), including New England secondary cities, and identifies factors that may explain how certain smaller cities attract venture capital.

  3. Masculine identities, youth gangs and male sex work among East Javarese migrants in South Bali (Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Alcano,

    2013-01-01

    The present work examines the construction of masculine identities in the context of migration between the city of Surabaya, East Java and the region of South Bali. It addresses the issues of growth, work and the transition towards adulthood among underemployed East Javanese young men who seek membership to street gangs of male sex workers in South Bali. My focus is on social relations among youth gangs who make extensive use of violence. I try to explore the meaning of collective practices ...

  4. An Organic Sertification of Organic Salak Pondoh (Salacca zallaccavar.pondoh) : South Sumatera Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Herfiani Rizkia; Wahyu Anita Sari

    2013-01-01

    Because of Salak Pondoh in Pagar Alam City of South Sumatera Province was cultivated organically, so they need to follow the organic certification program conducted by the Department of Agriculture Food Crops and Horticulture South Sumatra Province to get a quality assurance of food safety certificate. The aims of an organic sertification programs are to protect consumers from quality fraud; protect producers that has implemeted of organic food systems from others who also claim to be a produ...

  5. Activity of the 7Be isotope in plants from south-west Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the measurements of 7Be activity in nine vegetable species through the detection of its 477.6 keV γ-ray of 7Li. The plants were grown 10 km south of the city of Turku in south-west Finland, located at approximately about 23E, 62N. The results show that nettle, salad and cucumber have activities that exceed the detection limit. (author)

  6. GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING PURPOSES USING GIS MODELLING (CASE STUDY: CITY OF TABRIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jeihouni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1 specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, hardness and sulphate (2 mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  7. Developing living cities from analysis to action

    CERN Document Server

    Scientific, World

    2010-01-01

    With more and more of the world's population projected to live in urban areas, the life and death of cities has become a key factor in urban development considerations. This book attempts to bring an original contribution on the analysis of creating living cities. It advances the concept and framework of a ""living city"" and also explicates the key attributes of a ""living city"" that are increasingly critical to the reinvigoration and sustainable growth of cities.The book also seeks to document and compare Singapore's development as a ""living city"" with other cities around the world. Contr

  8. Architecture and Stages of the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents more than 41 articles on ‘Architecture and Stages of the Experience City'. The aim of the book is to investigate current challenges related to architecture, art and city life in the ‘Experience City' and it is presenting cutting edge knowledge and experiences within the following...... themes: Experience City Making Digital Architecture Stages in the Experience City The City as a Learning Lab Experience City Architecture Performative Architecture Art and Performance Urban Catalyst and Temporary Use...

  9. Smartmentality: The Smart City as Disciplinary Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Vanolo

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses the concept of the smart city in critical perspective, focusing on the power/knowledge implications for the contemporary city. On the one hand, smart city policies support new ways of imagining, organising and managing the city and its flows; on the other, they impress a new moral order on the city by introducing specific technical parameters in order to distinguish between the ‘good’ and ‘bad’ city. The smart city discourse may therefore be a powerful tool for the ...

  10. For the Smarter Good of Cities? On Cities, Complexity and Slippages in the Smart City Discourse’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Henriette; Veel, Kristin Eva Albrechtsen

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Cities for Smart Environmental and Energy Futures presents works written by eminent international experts from a variety of disciplines including architecture, engineering and related fields. Due to the ever-increasing focus on sustainable technologies, alternative energy sources......, and global social and urban issues, interest in the energy systems for cities of the future has grown in a wealth of disciplines. Some of the special features of this book include new findings on the city of the future from the macro to the micro level. These range from urban sustainability to indoor...... urbanism, and from strategies for cities and global climate change to material properties. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers active in architecture, engineering, the social and computational sciences, building physics and related fields....

  11. From city marketing to city branding : An interdisciplinary analysis with reference to Amsterdam, Budapest and Athens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaratzis, Mihalis

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the theory and practice of city marketing. It describes the transition from city marketing to city branding by identifying the roots of city marketing in general marketing theory, by adapting the concept of corporate-level marketing for the needs of cities and by analysing in

  12. Plan for city identity establishment and city marketing - the case of Kimpo city

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Inn

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide theoretical methods and practical strategies of crea-ting city identity, and to utilize them as basic tools of city management. Place marketing consists of two parts, place assets making and place promotion. Place asset making is the process of making the place-specific advantage or attractiveness and the place promotion is the process that makes notice of it. The place marketing debates and strategies is quite often confined to partial place marketing,...

  13. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent

  14. Cities in translation : some proposals on method

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    This article argues for the existence of a category of linguistically divided cities and provides four examples: colonial Calcutta, turn of the century Trieste, Barcelona and Montreal. These are cities which—at specific historical moments—are characterized by competition between two languages each claiming entitlement to the space of the city. Because there are two strong languages claiming the allegiance of citizens, these cities are different from most other multilingual cities where there ...

  15. Determinants of commercial identities of brandname cities

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Funda; Marangoz, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    As commercial products, cities compete by performing branding strategies in their own market. However branding strategies serve not only to create a tourism destination attracting more visitors by differentiating from its rivals. Further to that, residents and investors are also the stakeholders that cities target within city branding. Therefore developing a city brand identity that introduces the city to new investors and entrepreneurs is important. Accordingly, the aim of the study is to ex...

  16. Post-socialist city development in Tirana

    OpenAIRE

    Abitz, Julie

    2006-01-01

    #Abstract This thesis surveys how city development is contested in post-socialist Tirana, Albania. It explores how different actors contest city development in Tirana and how the concept of community informs their work. Furthermore, this study explores how socialist city development informs post-socialistic city development. Contestations in post-socialist city development are studied through a theoretical framework formed by a combination of two theoretical approaches: A discursive gover...

  17. Monitoring and Prevention the Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Berná Martínez, José Vicente; Maciá Pérez, Francisco; Sánchez Bernabeu, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the intensive use of Technology Information (TI) provide solutions to problems of the high population density, energy conservation and cities management. This produces a newest concept of the city, Smart City. But the inclusion of TI in the city brings associated new problems, specifically the generation of electromagnetic fields from the available and new technological infrastructures installed in the city that did not exist before. This new scenario produces a negative effect on a...

  18. Census Snapshot: South Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in South Dakota. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in South Dakota. In many ways, the nearly 1,000 same-sex couples living in South Dakota are similar to married cou...

  19. Census Snapshot: South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in South Carolina. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in South Carolina. In many ways, the more than 10,500 same-sex couples living in South Carolina are similar to married c...

  20. Engendering Creative City Image by Using Information Communication Technology in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillip Kumar Das

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Creativity has been a major key word in the city planning and urban marketing policies all over the world. Arguably, it ensures an image that can ensue marketable branding of a city. Thus, a creative city has major socio-economic implications. However, the question remains how a creative environment in a city can be engendered and an attractive image can be built. In the contemporary age, Information Communication Technology (ICT apparently has increasingly been influencing every sphere of the city functions, and it is hypothesized that it will assist in building a creative image of a city. Therefore, the objectives of the paper are (1 to map the theoretical insights on the concepts of creativity, city image building and branding; and (2 to explore the influence of ICT on developing image of a creative city. The investigation was conducted by using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. A stimulating mix of literature review and case study analyses were done to develop the concept of a creative city and image building. Besides, using a survey research method and by considering two cities (Bloemfontein from South Africa and Bhubaneswar from India two case studies were performed to examine how ICT can engender a creative image of a city in developing countries. Findings suggest that although urban creativity is not a revolutionary approach towards urban policies, and there are criticisms against such concept, economic variables, such as, business environment, entrepreneurship and innovation, availability of knowledge workers and ICT activities; socio-cultural variables, such as, art, culture, receptive attitude, safety and tolerance; and environmental variables, such as, cleanliness, greenery, quality public spaces and tourism enforce distinct images of cities. It is also revealed that ICT can play a catalytic role in the creative image building as it contributes extensively in the form of enabling better business environment

  1. City scale pollen concentration variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Michiel; van Vliet, Arnold; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Pollen are emitted in the atmosphere both in the country-side and in cities. Yet the majority of the population is exposed to pollen in cities. Allergic reactions may be induced by short-term exposure to pollen. This raises the question how variable pollen concentration in cities are in temporally and spatially, and how much of the pollen in cities are actually produced in the urban region itself. We built a high resolution (1 × 1 km) pollen dispersion model based on WRF-Chem to study a city's pollen budget and the spatial and temporal variability in concentration. It shows that the concentrations are highly variable, as a result of source distribution, wind direction and boundary layer mixing, as well as the release rate as a function of temperature, turbulence intensity and humidity. Hay Fever Forecasts based on such high resolution emission and physical dispersion modelling surpass traditional hay fever warning methods based on temperature sum methods. The model gives new insights in concentration variability, personal and community level exposure and prevention. The model will be developped into a new forecast tool to serve allergic people to minimize their exposure and reduce nuisance, coast of medication and sick leave. This is an innovative approach in hay fever warning systems.

  2. Greenest city in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons why Curitiba, Brazil, is considered the greenest city in the world. Accomplished by Jaime Lerner, former mayor of Curitiba, this city has been called by some planners the most environmentally advanced urban area on Earth. Several initiatives have contributed to Curitiba's environmental success. Most important of these initiatives is the bus system, which offers faster, cheaper and more comfortable transportation. Created in the 1970s, the system is a winning mix of fast express arteries, local feeder buses, and special routes for circulating in the downtown area. From this bus system a series of other initiatives were facilitated, including the creation of a 42 sq. km "Industrial City". This Industrial City is restricted to low-polluting industries, which generates about 33,000 jobs directly and another 150,000 indirectly. Moreover, Curitiba launched a series of programs aimed not only at preserving the city's existing trees and green space, but adding to them. Other programs include trading garbage for food, recycling rates, and free health care. PMID:12296011

  3. Tourism and City. Reflections about Tourist Dimension of Smart City

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2013-01-01

    The city of the future seems to be necessarily “intelligent” both in its physical and in functional features.This paper starts from the consideration that the diffusion of new communication technologies (ICTs) is significantly changing the urban supply system of tourist services giving rise to new ways of enjoying the city.As tourism can be assumed as an urban activity, by a town planning point of view, the study of tourism is meaningful to identify development trajectories of the present cit...

  4. Dating by fission tracers of some metamorphic rocks within the city of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission-Track (FT) ages were measured in apatites from metamorphic rocks outcropping within the city of Rio de Janeiro. One apatite presented a 'substraction age' of 124 + - 10 my (2σ) and a second one a 'plateau age' of 117 + - 5 my. These ages are supposed to be related to the isostatic uplift related to the opening of the South-Atlantic Ocean. A younger plateau age of 85 + - 5 my might possibly be related to a later readjustment phase. Based on these and Fonseca et al. (1984) results, a cooling history for the rocks in Rio de Janeiro city is proposed. (Author)

  5. The role of local government in redressing neighbourhood disadvantage: A case study from Penrith City Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Prior

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of disadvantage in specific neighbourhoods is a widespread characteristic of many Australian cities. A broad range of policies and programs which utilize integrated forms of governance have been designed and implemented to redress this. Within the state of New South Wales, Australia, local governments have been identified as being amongst the most effective drivers for these integrated governance approaches. Utilizing a case study of the Penrith Neighbourhood Renewal Program, this paper explores recent attempts by Penrith City Council to develop a framework to redress neighbourhood disadvantage, firstly by establishing an integrated governance framework for the program, and secondly by transforming the council’s operational structure.

  6. Shelter from the Storm--but Disconnected from Jobs : Lessons from Urban South Africa on the Importance of Coordinating Housing and Transport Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Somik V. Lall; van den Brink, Rogier; Dasgupta, Basab; Muir Leresche, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Informal settlements are a permanent feature of South Africa's cities. Estimates from the General Household Survey by Statistics South Africa show that more than 26 percent of all households in the country's six metropolitan areas live in informal dwellings. The government's policy efforts have focused on provision of subsidized housing, first introduced as part of the Reconstruction and D...

  7. First record on Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet, 1849 (Araneae, Sicariidae in the West Zone of São Paulo City, São Paulo, Brazil, and considerations regarding its geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves-de-Andrade Rute Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles laeta spiders were captured in the West zone of São Paulo City, this being the first record of the specie in this area. Since loxoscelism is an important public health problem in the South region of Brazil, it is necessary to investigate the presence of this spider in São Paulo City.

  8. City-City Tourism Collaboration in the Straits of Malacca Development Region: Key Success Factors

    OpenAIRE

    A. Habibah; Hamzah, J; A. C. Er; A. Buang; S. Selvadurai; I. Mushrifah

    2013-01-01

    City to city collaboration has emerged as one of the regional initiatives to promote and sustained economic growth in many parts around the world. Within the Asean cooperation, city to city tourism collaboration is also an emerging sector. Although existing literatures assert on key success factors that lead to economic and cultural collaboration, little has been done to explore and elaborate deeply the key success factors in the city to city (C2C) tourism collaboration the Straits of Malacca...

  9. South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi warned against attempts to "in-ternationalize" the issue of the South China Sea, where China has territorial disputes with some ASEAN member states, including Viet Nam and the

  10. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  11. South and Southwest HSRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest is a competitively awarded, peer-reviewed research consortium led by Louisiana State University with the...

  12. Tsunami Hazard in Crescent City, California from Kuril Islands earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, L.; Uslu, B.; Barberopoulou, A.

    2007-12-01

    in a half meter difference in water heights. We also look at the contribution of fault segments along the Kuril subduction zone using the FACTS server to look at the potentially most damaging source regions for Crescent City. A similar-sized rupture as the November 15 event located further south along the Hokkaido - Honshu area of the subduction zone, is likely to produce a slightly larger amplitude signal with and even greater delay between the first wave arrivals and the largest waves.

  13. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  14. Auditing energy use in cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M.; Newborough, M. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). Applied Energy Group

    2001-01-01

    'Energy auditing' as a technique for obtaining a 'snapshot' of the energy flows in a city or urban conurbation is discussed in the context of meeting national and international targets for CO{sub 2} emissions abatement. An audit methodology is presented which addresses the key questions: who needs to be involved in the audit? how should the city or conurbation be divided? what data are required? how might these data be obtained and then analysed? which are the areas of significant consumption? A basis for setting local targets for reducing future energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions is presented. The scope for auditing major cities and conurbations in the United Kingdom is identified with reference to implementing Local Agenda 21 and satisfying CO{sub 2} emissions reduction targets. (author)

  15. Shrinking Cities or Urban Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst

    Shrinking Cities or Urban Transformation is a PhD-thesis conducted at the Department of Architecture and Design, Aalborg University in the period 2004-2008. The PhD concerns the spatial changes that emerge in contemporary urbanity. Contemporary urbanity can among others be characterized as both...... growing and declining. On the one hand, a concentration of the urban into a highly urbanized nodal point is happening and on the other a deconcentration of the urban fabric in declining territories is taking place. The starting point for the dissertation is the term shrinking cities, which has been...... investigation of the cases Baltimore and Denmark is conducted. This shall shed light upon whether the theoretical assumptions correspond to what is happening in the real world. The introduction of the term urban transformation is the result of these investigations and a response to shrinking cities. Urban...

  16. Microsensing networks for sustainable cities

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This book explores the microsensing technologies and systems now available to monitor the quality of air and water within the urban environment and examines their role in the creation of sustainable cities against the background of the challenges posed by rapid urbanization. The opening section addresses the theoretical and conceptual background of microsensing networks. The coverage includes detailed description of microsensors, supported by design-specific equations, and clear explanation of the ways in which devices that harvest energy from ambient sources can detect and quantify pollution. The practical application of such systems in addressing environmental impacts within cities and in sustainable urban planning is then discussed with the aid of case studies in developing countries. The book will be of interest to all who wish to understand the benefits of microsensing networks in promoting sustainable cities through better delivery of information on health hazards and improved provision of data to envir...

  17. South Africa; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper highlights that cautious monetary and fiscal polices of South Africa during 1997 resulted in a return of financial investor confidence and capital inflows during 1997 and through April 1998. These policies helped the South African economy emerge successfully from the exchange market pressures of 1996 and weather the contagion from the East Asian crisis in the second half of 1997. Throughout 1997 and up until May 1998, inflation and market interest rates fell conside...

  18. Sustainable development indicators for cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of urban population’s life quality implies an investigation of all factors defining it: economic, social and ecological. The development of the corresponding indicators of sustainable urban development is necessary. The majority of the cities in the world and this country show unsustainable development at present time. In the article, the world and Russian experience of development of indicators of sustainable urban development is considered. In the article, opportunities of adaptation of approaches to these indicators’ development on the basis of Human Development Index developed by United Nations Development Program and an index of Adjusted Net Savings of the World Bank for Russia are considered. The authors propose a new integrated index of sustainability for Russian cities. It is based on the concept and methodology of the Adjusted Net Savings index. In order to evaluate the sustainability of urban development taking into account economic, social, and ecological factors, the authors propose applying three corresponding sub-indexes: gross capital, expenses on human capital development, and damage from environmental pollution in the cities. In the article, the authors’ set of indicators for Russian cities is proposed. It reflects the most acute problems of sustainable urban development in Russia and the quality of life in cities; also it corresponds to Russian statistics. 21 key indicators reflecting important economic, social, and ecological urban priorities are proposed. Indicators are divided into nine groups: economic indicators; energy efficiency; transport; social and institutional indicators; air and climate; water resources; waste; especially protected natural territories; noise influence. Proposed indicators for cities allow more adequately assess trends of urbanized space shaping and quality of life

  19. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  20. Yangzhou City in the Sui-Tang Period%隋唐时代的扬州城

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李裕群

    2003-01-01

    Yangzhou was the largest local city of the Sui-Tang period. It consisted of two parts: Zicheng (literally sub-city, but actually the quarter of government offices) and Luocheng (outer city, or the main body of Yangzhou City) . The former stood on Shugang Hill to the north of the latter. Origi- nally it was Jiangdu Palace-city built by Sui Emperor Yangdi, and was rebuilt into Zicheng in the Tang period. Being irregular in plan, it had four gates on the four sides respectively and two streets in a crisscross pattern within the city. The latter, Luocheng, was built below Shugang Hill in the full Tang or a little later. Rectangular in plan with the major axis pointing north and south, it had four gates on each of the eastern, western and southern sides and one gate on the northern side. The main streets led to the city gates respectively and formed a checkerboard-shaped layout with blocks arranged in the checks. Although its plan layout was designed in imitation of the block system in Chang'an and Luoyang, Yangzhou as a commercial city was developed on a gradually-progressing model with blocks emerging earlier than city walls, and the layout of Luocheng embodied the planning principle with mar- kets as the center. This might have reflected that the restrict block system of the Tang period had been relaxed or broken through in commercial cities. In the Northern Song period, the open-style street-and-lane layout in the capital of Bianjing, or the prefecture of Kaifeng, manifested the collapse of the old block system. This is of great significance in the history of Chinese cities, but its source can be traced to Yangzhou City of the Tang period.

  1. Gibrat's Law for Cities Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    González-Val, Rafael; Lanaspa, Luis; Sanz, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test empirically the validity of Gibrat's Law in the growth of cities, using data for all the twentieth century of the complete distribution of cities (without any size restrictions) in three countries: the US, Spain and Italy. For this we use different techniques (parametric and non-parametric methods), obtaining mixed evidence. Our results confirm that Gibrat's law for means holds only as a long-run average. In the short term, considered decade by decade, we find ...

  2. Changing mobilities in Asian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Boquet, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Asian countries have experienced tremendous changes in their mobility patterns in recent years. As economic development has allowed a rise in the standards of living of a god part of the population, the rate of motorzation has increased very quickly. At the sametime, cities populations continue to grow at a fast pace, and the spread of the urbanized area requires more and more to be able to travel on distances too long for walking or even bicycling. Given the high density of many central citi...

  3. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Qing W. Tian; Peter Brimblecombe

    2008-01-01

    The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollut...

  4. The post-secular city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    Spaces of post-secular engagement Session for the Association of American Geographers (AAG) Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., United States, 14-18 April 2010 The post-secular city: An emergent international culture? Anni Greve, Abstract The post-secular city is an emergent intellectual field which...... point of departure in cultural trauma theory (Alexander 2003) the paper calls attention to the ability of a site to offer a framework (in terms of meta narrative and ritual choreography) within which each story gains new meaning (Greve 2006). Against the idea that ‘political and ideological differences...

  5. Smart Cities via Data Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Poncela, J; Vlacheas, P; Giaffreda, R.; S.; Vecchio, M; Nechifor, S; Barco, R.; Aguayo-Torres, MC; Stavroulaki, V; Moessner, K.; Demestichas, P

    2014-01-01

    Cities have an ever increasing wealth of sensing capabilities, recently including also internet of things (IoT) systems. However, to fully exploit such sensing capabilities with the aim of offering effective city-sensing-driven applications still presents certain obstacles. Indeed, at present, the main limitation in this respect consists of the vast majority of data sources being served on a “best effort” basis. To overcome this limitation, we propose a “resilient and adaptive IoT and social ...

  6. Groundwater Depletion in Dhaka City, Bangladesh: A Spatio-temporal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerin, T.; Ishtiaque, A.

    2015-12-01

    Dhaka city, having a population of more than fifteen million, exclusively depends on groundwater as a source of quality drinking water. In recent decades the city is encountering groundwater diminution and the declining scenario is dissimilar in different parts of the city. This paper aims to discuss the groundwater depletion in different parts of Dhaka city from 1990 to 2012 along with the causes and consequences. Groundwater level data of different locations of Dhaka city were collected from Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB). The data were processed and analyzed using SPSS and Excel Worksheet; a contour map was generated using ArcGIS 10.0 to outline the contemporary groundwater scenario of Dhaka city and the spatial analyst tool, Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) was used to prepare the map. In addition, experts' opinions were collected using an in-depth interview strategy in order to provide a better understanding of the causes and consequences of groundwater depletion. The research results show that groundwater in Dhaka city is depleting at an alarming rate; the central part has the worst situation followed by the south-western part. In contrast, northern part has relatively better groundwater condition. Moreover, the peripheral zone exhibits a better condition because of the existence of rivers and wetlands. The interviews reveal that population density and overexploitation are mainly responsible for groundwater depletion; however, various other factors such as the deliberate establishment of deep tube wells, reduction of recharge capacity due to rapid growth of urban structures altogether results in huge drop of water level throughout the city. Rapid decline in groundwater augments the city's exposure towards multiple risks including land subsidence, groundwater pollution and most importantly, paucity of available fresh water that might ultimately results into an urban disaster. Potential solutions to ameliorate this situation include urban greening

  7. 中心城区园林节水型施工技术应用——以上海南园滨江绿地改扩建工程为例%Application of Water Saving Technologies to Landscaping in City Core: A Case Study of Green Space Rebuilding and Expansion Project at South Riverside Garden in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁剑琤

    2012-01-01

    The paper described the use of water - saving technologies, including container planting, rainwater reuse and water - saving plants selection, in the new garden construction and landscaping, with the green space rebuilding and expansion project implemented at South Riverside Garden, Huangpu District, Shanghai, as the example.%以上海市黄浦区南园滨江绿地改扩建工程为例,介绍容器栽植、雨水再利用和配置节水植物等节水型施工技术在新园林建设中的使用。

  8. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  9. Secrets and Lies: Sex Education and Gendered Memories of Childhood's End in an Australian Provincial City, 1930s-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Josephine

    2006-01-01

    There are few historical studies about the sex education of Australian youth. Drawing on a range of sources, including the oral histories of 40 women and men who attended two single-sex, selective high schools in a provincial Australian city (Newcastle, New South Wales) in the 1930s-1950s, this paper explores the adolescent experience of sex…

  10. Atrazine in Source Water Intended for Artificial Ground-Water Recharge, South-Central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    1998-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide commonly applied to row crops, is of concern because of potential effects on water quality. This fact sheet describes atrazine in water from the Little Arkansas River in south-central Kansas. The river is being evaluated as a source of artificial recharge into the Equus Beds aquifer, which provides water for the city of Wichita.

  11. Teacher Unionism and School Management: A Study of (Eastern Cape) Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msila, Vuyisile

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study that was conducted in 10 urban schools, situated in the city of Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The research explored the perceptions of school stakeholders with regard to the effects of power relations between teacher unions and school managers. It is assumed, within the context of this…

  12. White Flight in the Context of Education: Evidence from South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng

    2008-01-01

    In the context of education, "white flight" refers to decreasing white enrollment in poor-performing, inner-city public schools. This article investigates white flight and the concomitant movement to better performing public schools and racially homogenous private schools using elementary school enrollment data from South Carolina, particularly…

  13. Shrinking Cities and the Need for a Reinvented Understanding of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise holst

    With the coming of the Shrinking Cities phenomenon several questions appear in relation to the influences of shrinkage on the city and how we are to understand and work with the Shrinking Cities. The Shrinking Cities phenomenon has to be incorporated into the general assumptions about the...... contemporary city and maybe the understanding of the city needs to be updated in some areas, before we are able to do so. In this paper, the focus will be directed towards two themes which become present with the Shrinking Cities phenomenon and therefore seems important to discuss in order to understand the...... concept of Shrinking Cities. These two themes may affect the understanding of the existing city theory. The first theme is concerned with the physical understanding of the city where the traditional assumption about the city as a high density area, with buildings as the dominant structure, is questioned...

  14. City and Nature In Harmony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the capital city of Shaanxi Province in northwest China,is now the host of the 41st International Horticultural Exposition(IHE).China was selected the third time to host the IHE,following the 1999 Expo in Kunming and the 2006 ExpoinShenyang.Launched on April 28,the 2011 Expo lasts 178 days,and

  15. Wisdom of an Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE JIANXIONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The famous painting,Along the River During Qingming Festival,impresses visitors at the China Pavilion not iust because of the animated figures in the electronic version of the painting but because it shows a prosperous view of Kaifeng,capital of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127).It also showcases the wisdom of city planning in ancient China.

  16. A City Classical and Contemporary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUJIE; WANGNAN

    2003-01-01

    XIANYANG City, covering an area of 10,000 square kilometers, and with a population of 4.8 million, is just 25 kilometers from Xi'an, capital of Shaanxi Province. Known as No.1 Capital of ancient China,Xianyang is the site of nine Han Dynasty and nine Tang Dynasty emperors' tombs.

  17. Heritage contribution in sustainable city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of sustainability has been an integral part of development work since the late 1970s. Sustainability is no longer a buzzword but a reality that must be addressed by cities all over the world. Increasing empirical evidence indicates that city sustainability is not just related to technical issues, such as carbon emissions, energy consumption and waste management, or on the economic aspects of urban regeneration and growth, but also it covers social well-being of different groups living within increasingly cosmopolitan towns and cities. Heritage is seen as a major component of quality of life, features that give a city its unique character and provide the sense of belonging that lies at the core of cultural identity. In other words, heritage by providing important social and psychological benefits enrich human life with meanings and emotions, and raise quality of life as a key component of sustainability. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine the role that built cultural heritage can play within sustainable urban development

  18. Project WISH: The Emerald City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Hayrani; Dunne, Jim; Butchar, Stan; George, Tommy; Hellstrom, Rob; Kringen, Tricia; Owens, George; Perrea, Mike; Semeraro, Paul; Thorndike, Phil

    1992-01-01

    Phase 3 of Project WISH saw the evolution of the Emerald City (E-City) from a collection of specialized independent analyses and ideas to a working structural design integrated with major support systems and analyses. Emphasis was placed on comparing and contrasting the closed and open cycle gas core nuclear rocket engines to further determine the optimum propulsive system for the E-City. Power and thermal control requirements were then defined and the question of how to meet these requirements was addressed. Software was developed to automate the mission/system/configuration analysis so changes dictated by various subsystem constraints could be managed efficiently and analyzed interactively. In addition, the liquid hydrogen propellant tank was statically designed for minimum mass and shape optimization using a finite element modeling package called SDRC I-DEAS. Spoke and shaft cross-sectional areas were optimized on ASTROS (Automated Structural Optimization System) for mass minimization. A structural dynamic analysis of the optimal structure also conducted using ASTROS enabled a study of the modes, frequencies, displacements, and accelerations of the E-City. Finally, the attitude control system design began with an initial mass moment of inertia analysis and was then designed and optimized using linear quadratic regulator control theory.

  19. Smart Cities for Smart Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge; Wøldike, Niels Peter;

    This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning....

  20. Beijing: Beyond the Olympic city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies have become part of a deliberate urban policy for cities around the world. There is a particular concern on how to combine the preparation of a mega-event with urban development processes that meet long-term demands. This paper examines how Beijing tried to use the Summer Olymp