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Sample records for bushehr city south

  1. Molecular epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the focus of bushehr city, southwestern iran.

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    Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL represents the most frequent vector borne parasitoses in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological features of CL including human infection and the reservoir host in the city of Bushehr, Bushehr Province, Iran during 2010-2011.Studies on human infection was carried out on 2962 school children aged 7-14 years old from 60 primary schools and among 400 households with a total population of 1568 in four infected districts of the city in December 2010. Serosity materials from patients on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. Rodents were caught by Sherman traps and examined for identification of the parasite.Prevalence of scars and ulcers among the inhabitants were 5.86% and 0.12% respectively. Molecular study indicated the presence of two coexisting species: Leishmania major and L. tropica among patients. The scar rate was 1.24% but no ulcers were seen among the students. Nineteen rodents were caught and identified as Tatera indica (47.4% and Rattus norvegicus (52.6%. Specimens from 7 T. indica and 9 R. norvegicus were examined by two techniques, microscopic examination and nested-PCR. Out of 7 T. indica, 14.3% were infected with L. major and 42.9% with L. turanica by nested-PCR. Out of 9 R. norvegicus 22.2% were infected with L. turanica and 11.1% with L. gerbilli.Based on this survey L. major and L. tropica are the causative agents of the disease among patients and T. indica plays a predominant role in the dissemination of L. major in the city.

  2. Food intake patterns and factors affecting in preschool children in Bushehr city

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    Farideh Nazari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous factors, some obvious and others subtle, determine food intake patterns in children. Likes and dislikes are established in the early years. The purpose of this study is to assess the food consumption pattern and factors affecting in preschool children in bushehr city. Materials and Methods: This is descriptive, analytical study. The total of 191 preschool children (6 years old was selected at random sampling method. Data were collected by food frequency questionnaire and were analyzed by table of serving sizes food groups for children and adolescents and by SPSS software 16. Results: Frequency Of milk consumption was 41.9% daily, 40.9% weekly, and 12.6% rarely. Frequency Of fish consumption was 1.6% daily, 71.7% weekly, and 16.8% rarely. Frequency Of chicken consumption was 1% daily, 83.4% weekly, and 9.9% rarely. Frequency Of fruit consumption was 69.6% daily, 22% weekly, and 7.3% rarely. There was significant statistical relationship between Frequency consumption Of dairy, salad, fruit , juices, chicken, egg, and fathers ‘job and fathers’ and mothers’ education level.(P<0. 05 Conclusion: It is concluded that situation of food group consumption about dairy, meats, vegetables, cereals is poor but fruit consumption was good in preschool children. Based on results we recommended planning for educational program in relation to Nutrition and food group consumption by media and in school and public centers and health centers.

  3. The study of contamination of discharged runoff from surface water disposal channels of Bushehr city in 2012-2013

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    Vaheid Noroozi-Karbasdehi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In coastal cities, wastewater discharge into the sea is one of the options for sewage disposal that in case of non-compliance with health standards  in wastewater disposal will be led to the spread of infection and disease. On the other hand, water resources preservation and using them efficiently are the principles of sustainable development of each country. This study was aimed to investigate the contamination of discharged runoff from the surface water disposal channels of Bushehr city in 2012 - 13. Materials and Methods: In this study, Sampling was conducted by composite sampling method from output of the five main surface water disposal channels leading to the Persian Gulf located in the coastal region of Bushehr city during two seasons including wet (winter and dry (summer in 2012- 13. Then, experimental tests of BOD5, total coliform and fecal coliform were done on any of the 96 samples according to the standard method. Results: Analysis of the data showed that the BOD5, total coliform and fecal coliform of effluent runoff of the channels were more than the national standard output of disposal wastewaters into the surface waters, and the highest and lowest amount of BOD5 which obtained were 160 mg/L and 28 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: considering the fact that discharged runoff from surface water disposal channels link from shoreline to sea in close distance and they often are as natural swimming sites and even fishing sites of Bushehr city, and also according to high level of organic and bacterial load of these channels, it is urgently required to be considered by the authorities.

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and practice about Emergency Contraception among health staff in Bushehr state, south of Iran.

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    Najafi-Sharjabad, Fatemeh; Hajivandi, Abdollah; Rayani, Mohammad

    2013-10-12

    Emergency Contraception (EC) is used within a few days of unprotected sex to prevent an unintended pregnancy. About one quarter of pregnancies in south of Iran are unintended. EC is important option that women can use after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure for preventing of unplanned pregnancies and adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Health staff have influence on women's contraceptive behavior and their knowledge and attitudes about EC can affect women's contraceptive behaviors. Data are lacking about the knowledge, attitude and practice of hormonal EC method among health staff in Bushehr state, south of Iran. A cross-sectional study using self administered questionnaire was conducted. A sample of 170 health staff were surveyed. The mean age of respondents was 30.6±5.1. Overall 6.5% of participants had poor knowledge, 25.2% moderate knowledge, 68.3% good knowledge about EC. Half of participants had positive and half had negative attitude towards the EC method. Midwives and family health workers were more knowledgeable (pknowledge about EC, their knowledge about the indications for prescription of EC and its side effects was inadequate. The educational efforts for health staff should be focused more on the specific aspects of EC method. GPs also should be more involved in family planning program.

  5. Survey of chemical quality and corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water distribution network of Bushehr city

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    Ghorban Asgari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of water corrosion indexes is one of the affecting approaches on drinking water management. Corrosion can causes economical problems, reduce the useful life of water facilities, and health damages to consumers. The aim of this study was to survey of chemical quality and determination of the corrosion potential of the water distribution system in Bushehr city. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, the sampling was carried out during one year from 7 stations. Values of Langelier, Ryznar, corrosivity and Puckorius indexes were calculated by using such parameters as pH, total dissolved solids, temperature, permanent and temporary hardness, and alkalinity. Results: The average values for pH, total dissolved solids, temperature, and alkalinity was obtained 7.5, 586.82 mg/L, 66.92 mg/L CaCO3. The corrosion indexes were calculated Langelier 0.28, Ryznar 7.24, corrosivity 12.02, and Puckorius 7.81. Conclusion: Bushehr city water is tends to be slightly scaling based on Ryznar index and corrosive based on other studied indexes. Overall, the water quality was tending to corrosive and, therefore, recommended to use corrosion resistance pipes in water transmission and network or lining the inner wall of pipes or correction the water quality.

  6. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Performance-Enhancing Drug Use Among Bodybuilding Athletes in the South of Iran, Bushehr

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    Haerinejad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Several reports have implied progressive increase of performance-enhancing drug (PED use among Iranian athletes. More importantly, most of the previous research in the Iranian population had mainly focused on the anabolic steroid abuse, and ignored other agents. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of PED use among bodybuilding athletes in Bushehr, south of Iran. Methods Four hundred and fifty three male bodybuilding athletes were recruited from Bushehr gyms between February and May of 2015. Men were eligible to participate in the survey if they had regularly participated in the strength-training exercise (minimum of 1 year and 4 hour/week. Data were collected via a face-to-face interview. The survey consisted of three separate parts including demographic data, exercise pattern and PED use. Results According to this study, 234 (51.7% of bodybuilding athletes had used PEDs. The PED users reported an average of 3.80 ± 4.52 agents’ use in their programs and they had used PEDs for the average of 3.24 ± 3.99 years. The most prevalent agents which had been abused by the athletes were anabolic steroids (used by 185 athletes (79.4% of athletes. Furthermore, 110 (47% of athletes reported stimulant agents’ use during their routines. The most prevalent motivation for using PEDs was increasing muscle mass that was reported by 164 (70.1% of PED users. In addition, sexual and dermatologic effects were the most prevalent adverse effects reported by the PED user athletes (114 (49.4% and 103 (44.2%, respectively. Conclusions This study showed the high rate of PED use among recreational and professional Iranian bodybuilding athletes that can expose them to the serious side effects of these agents.

  7. Vegetation Mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (South-west Iran)

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    Ahmadreza Mehrabian; Alireza Naqinezhad; Abdolrassoul Salman Mahiny; Hossein Mostafavi; Homan Liaghati; Mohsen Kouchekzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Add regions of the wodd occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions,vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of add regions is necessary and modem vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps.Sixteen map units covering t2 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata,Salicornia europaaa-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  8. Aftershocks following the 9 april 2013 bushehr earthquake, iran.

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    Ardalan, Ali; Hajiuni, Alireza; Zare, Mehdi

    2013-08-28

    On 9 April 2013 at 11:52 UTC (16:22 local time), a Mw 6.2 earthquake occurred at the depth of 20 Km in Dashti district in south-west Iran's Bushehr province. The macroseismic epicenter was located nearby the city of Shonbeh. During one month after the earthquake, a total of 282 aftershocks hit the epicentral region, mostly at the east and north sides. They ranged from 2.5 to 5.7 on the Richter scale. Seventy aftershocks (24.9%) were M4.0-4.9 and eight (2.8%) were M5.0-5.7. Aftershocks are potentially able to do additional damage. In Bushehr earthquake, a M5.4 aftershock on 10 April in Chahgah village caused at least four injuries and destruction of several buildings that had been already damaged by the main shock. Knowledge about the aftershock induced damages provides opportunities for timely risk communication with the affected people and for long term community education. This will hopefully increase the community awareness and minimize the risk of further loss of lives.

  9. Sustainability in South Asian city

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    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  10. Sustainability in South Asian city

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    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we will give an overview of urbanisation problems in South Asia. We will also suggest some key interventions for sustainable development in the region. Urbanisation problems in South Asia are manifested in the form of lopsided urbanisation and faulty urban planning with poor economic base. Urban poverty has been increasing in the region, resulting in the growth of a massive number of slums. As a manifestation of social injustice and the social divide, slums exclude the poor from accessing the basic amenities. South Asia has the highest regional urbanisation of poverty at any given overall urbanisation. Concerted government efforts with long-term commitment at the highest political levels are required to reduce urban poverty and deprivation. The way cities are growing in the region is not at all sustainable, with a clear imbalance between economic, environmental, socio-political and technological aspects. Sustainable communities can be established by focusing on social and human development programmes to develop intangible assets in the community such as inclusion, tolerance, public participation, and democratic governance, which do not depreciate through use but rather become more valuable the more they are used. Place matters in different ways, which have yet to be fully appreciated and incorporated into how planners teach place. But it needs to directly adopt the Bottom-up Approach to provide solutions for the problems going on in the cities of the region

  11. Role of the educational and non-educational factors on the mental health in girl high school students in Bushehr city on 2014

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    Zohreh Shakib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available : The mental health has a prominent role in psychosocial development in different periods of life, especially during adolescence. Mental disorders in adolescents can be related to different educational and non-educational factors. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify the educational and non-educational factors affecting the mental health of femal high school students in Bushehr. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 500 high school femal students evaluated with using multi-stage cluster random sampling. Information was collected by questionnaire with three-part including educational factors (suchas anxiety academic and educational motivation, non educational factors (suchas demographic characteristics and quality of life (SF-36 part. The data were analyzed with SPSS software by using appropriate statistical tests. In this study the mental health level was moderate (50.99±11, and mental health was associated with educational motivation, facilitator anxiety, the school years, educational branch, interest to educational branch, mother education, evaluation of educational counseling, and evaluation of non educational counseling. Maternal education, interest to educational branch, the evaluation of non-educational counseling, facilitating stress, the school year, and educational branch were predictors of mental health (R2= 0.107. According to the results, providing educational consulting for increasing interest to educational branch, also non educational consulting for reducing problems and designing stress management workshop are necessary to improve students' mental health.

  12. Assessment of Medication Adherence in Elderly Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases Based on Demographic Factors in Bushehr City in the Year 2013

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    Jahanpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The growing global elderly population is in need of more prescription medications. Objectives The present study assessed medication adherence with respect to demographic factors among elderly patients with cardiovascular disease who were admitted to a teaching hospital as well as outpatients referred to treatment centers in Bushehr, Iran. Patients and Methods The present study was a descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study using a simple random sampling method that investigated 125 elderly patients with cardiovascular disease. Data were collected through the Medication Adherence Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, and Pearson and Cramer’s V correlation analyses, using SPSS version 18. Results Among the patients, 57.6% and 42.4% were female and male, respectively. Moreover, 62.4% had high adherence to their prescribed medications. Frequency of medication use, history of previous hospitalization, and sex were significantly associated with adherence to medication (P < 0.05. Conclusions More than half of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease had high adherence to their medications. Demographic factors including the frequency of daily medication use, history of hospitalization, and female sex were associated with adherence to medication. By considering these factors, doctors and nurses increase medication adherence, especially for older adults.

  13. Prevalence of Asthma and Allergic Diseases and Its Risk Factors in School Children Aged (6-7 and 13-14 Years in Assalouyeh City, Bushehr Province Based on III ISAAC Protocol Phase I, in 2014

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    Mostafa Gooya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma and allergic diseases are raised as a major health  problem. The prevalence of these diseases are increasing in Iran and  all over the world. Based on this, the present study assessed to prevalence of these diseases in Assalouyeh region, Bushehr Province. Material and Methods: This study was performed on 190 school children aged 6-7 years and 223 girl student aged 13-14 years in Assalouyeh city in 2014 based on ISAAC standard questionnaires Phase I and III which examined prevalence and risk factors for these diseases. Results: The prevalence of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma among  6-7 year-old students were 11.6%, 13.7% and 5.8%, respectively. While, the prevalence of these diseases among 13-14 year-old students were 14.3%, 21.5% and 15.2%, respectively. Also, there were a significant association between risk factors such as exposure to tobacco smoke, pet keeping, consumption of fast and sea foods with prevalence of these diseases (P<0.05. Conclusion: Asthma and allergic diseases were high among school children in Assalouyeh and it seems that this increasing prevalenc can be associated with risk factors such as exposure to tobacco smoke, pet keeping, consumption of fast and sea foods.

  14. Study of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Asthma and Allergic Diseases Among School Children (6-7 and 13-14 years Based on ISAAC Protocol in Jam City, Bushehr Province in 2014

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    Tahere Assadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma and allergic diseases are raised as a major health problem in the world. The prevalence of these diseases is on the rise specifically in the world and Iran. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of these diseases in Jam City, from environs of Bushehr Province. Material and Methods: this study was performed on 516 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years and 569 schoolchildren aged 13-14 years in schools of this city based on a standard questionnaire of allergic conditions and asthma (ISAAC phase 1 and 3, which mention to the prevalence and risk factors for these diseases in 2014.     Results: in prevalence of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma among 6-7year old schoolchildren were 13.8 %, 20% and 3.9%, respectively, While, the prevalence of these diseases among 13-14 year old schoolchildren were 19.5%, 19.2% and 6.7%, respectively. There were a significant association in each group, between affliction rate to asthmaand its association with rhinitis and eczema (P<0.05. Also, there were a significant association between the prevalence of these diseases and the presence of risk factors such as exposure to cigarette smoke, pet care and use of gas as a fuel at home. (P<0.05. Conclusion: the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases was high in Jam city and this increase is associated to risk factors such as exposure to cigarette smoke, pet care and use of gas as a fuel at home.

  15. Study the Effect of Sources of Manufacturing Companies on the Achievement of the Objectives of the Trade Exhibition: Case Study at the International Exhibition of Bushehr City

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    Majid Esmaeilpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With increasing competition and reducing the possibility of exposure to commodities, the possibility of participating in trade exhibition is important hundredfold. Exhibiting a great opportunity for companies provide the goods. The exhibition will present a pre-determined targets and long-term planning to achieve these goals, the recognition of its resources in setting goals as a fundamental principle of the company, is participating in the exhibition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the importance sources of participating in trade exhibition and the impact that it will have sources of to achieve the objectives of the exhibition. Methodology: The study in term of purpose is applied and in term of data collection is descriptive - and the correlation. The research includes companies participating in international exhibition Bushehr over 180 companies. This study used a sample of 120 companies was Morgan. Data derived from the survey questionnaire. Validity through the content validity and reliability through Cronbach's alpha was approved. Data Analysis is a method of structural equation modeling. Results and findings: The results obtained suggest that the booth personnel sources of, sources of exhibition have a significant impact on sales targets and management capabilities. The booth personnel sources of and the ability to communicate with customers also have a significant impact on sales purposes. The findings of this study it can be concluded that except for the purposes of sale and non-sale capabilities partnership that does not, improvement of existing resources and capabilities of each model achieves sales targets and other participants will sell.

  16. South African cities and Globalization

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    Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Illustration 1 – Centre des affaires, Le CapAuteur : Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo.Born with colonial settlement patterns, the South-African urban system has experienced half a century of Apartheid. Under the effects of globalization, this urban system evolves as more developed urban systems and mature settlement patterns. This urbanization process (in the limits of functional urban agglomeration makes South Africa one of the most advanced countries in Africa in terms of urban growth. The world-...

  17. South African Cities: A Social Geography.

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    Western, John

    1986-01-01

    Traces the history of the development of cities in South Africa, paying special attention to the development of urban social controls. Three eras are identified: (1) mercantilism, (2) imperialism, and (3) apartheid. Concludes that enormous human costs are entailed by these attempts at social engineering. (JDH)

  18. Study of Concentrations and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Resulting From the Consumption of Agriculture Product in Different Farms of Dayyer City, Bushehr

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    Hosein Arfaeinia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulation of heavy metals and increasing their concentration and reaching them to the danger range can threaten human health by entering to food chain. Thus, continuous monitoring of pollutants consentration in agricultural products is important. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the heavy metals concentration and risk assessment resulting from them in agriculture product with two types of irrigation in farms of Dayyer city which is one of the counties in Boushehr province. Material and Methods: Samples of agriculture product were harvested in three in three categories vegetables included: leafy (lettuce, spinach, cabbage, tuber (onion, potato, and fruit (tomato, green pepper from farms of Dayyer city with two types of irrigation included River Water Irrigation (RWI( and Ground Water Irrigation (GWI. Totally 320 samples were analyzed by using (ICP-OES -Spectrum Arcos after acidic digestion steps and extraction of heavy metals from samples. Then, the obtained results were analyzed by diffrent equations and statistic softwares. Results: results showed that the concentrations of metals were 68.75 (47.71, 277.62 (196.12, 32.68 (18.31, 42.19 (17.09, 1.76 (0.87 and 12.04 (5.83 mg kg-1 for Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb in RWI (and GWI, respectively in irrigated farms with river water (farms irrigated by ground water. The concentration of heavy metals was significantly higher in the soil of farms which irrigated with river water than those which irrigated with ground water (P<0.05. Also, results showed that in farms which irrigated by ground water, the highest Target hazard quotient (THQ have been reported in spinach with mentioned values; Zn (0.1150, Cd (1.2846, Cu (0.2030 and Pb (1.9141. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the concentration of heavy metals in soil and agricultural products which irrigated with contaminated water with urban and industrial sewage was higher than soil and agricultural productswhich

  19. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

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    Hakimeh Vahedparast

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  20. Intermediary Cities in the territorial integration of Global South

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    Borja M. Iglesias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available “Economies of agglomeration” have acted as catalysts of the progress and modernisation of many nations in the Global South but have also contributed to unbalancing the territory, widening the gap between urban and rural populations and the accumulation of high environmental and social deficits. In contrast to the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, the economies that make up the MINTs (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey have better territorial integration of their urban systems, with intermediate cities that act as “economies of intermediation” with the rural hinterlands, and which could contribute to achieving the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals. The United Nations Habitat iii of October 2016 placed intermediary cities at the heart of the New Urban Agenda. The aim is to promote national urban policies in many of the economies of the Global South, allowing them to strengthen their role as the main instrument of economic integration and regional cohesion.

  1. An active serological survey of antibodies to newcastle disease and avian influenza (H9N2) viruses in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province,Iran, 2012-2013

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    Yousef Saadat; Seyed Ali Ghafouri; Farshad Tehrani; Arash Ghalyanchi Langeroudi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the antibodies against newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV, H9N2) in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province, Iran from 2012 to 2013. Methods: A total of 1 530 blood samples from unvaccinated backyard chickens in Bushehr province, south of Iran, were tested for antibodies against NDV and AIV (H9N2) by hemagglutination inhibition test according to International Epizootic Office (OIE) recommendation.Results:Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated that NDV and AIV (H9N2) were endemic and widely distributed in backyard areas of Bushehr province which should be incorporated in the control strategies. Further studies are needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes, model their transmission risk, provide adapted control measures and design proper and applicable vaccination program. Of these, 614 (40.13%) and 595 (39.00%) were positive for NDV and AIV (H9N2) respectively.

  2. Shifting corporate geographies in global cities of the South: Mexico City and Johannesburg as case studie

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    Parnreiter, Christof

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global city research links the expansion of advanced producer services in major cities to the internationalisation of real estate markets as well as to the spread of (mainly high-rise office complexes. This research, however, has based its findings mainly on cases of the Global North. This paper examines, based on Grant and Nijman’s (2002 suggestion that the “internal spatial organisation of gateway cities in the less-developed world” reflects “the city’s role in the global political economy”, which patterns occur in two metropoles of the Global South. In addition to this, the analysis focuses especially on the driving forces behind the changes in corporate geographies. The analysis is placed in Mexico City and Johannesburg and based on real estate market data (offices as well as background documents on urban development. The outcome shows that in these cities, local transformation processes of the real estate market and office space location are indeed considerably shaped by global market dynamics. However, the findings also indicate that there is no clear scale dependence of the territorial form. In order to comprehensively understand the changes in the corporate geographies therefore, it is necessary to direct more attention to local and national dynamics. The restructuring of the built environment in both cities can only be grasped fully by considering the particular role of local and national governments. This additional entry point to an understanding of shifting corporate geographies helps to put recent dynamics of global capitalism and politics of urban neoliberalism in perspective.

  3. Pica in under- 6 year old kindergarten children in Bushehr

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    fatemeh Khosravizadegan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pica is an eating disorder typically defined as the persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least 1 month, without an association with an aversion to food. This behavior should be developmentally inappropriate, and not a culturally sanctioned practice. Pica is more prevalent in underdeveloped and low socioeconomic areas. In this study under 6-year old kindergarten children of Bushehr were evaluated. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 256 under 6-year old kindergarten children were evaluated in Bushehr in 2001. The necessary information regarding pica characteristics was given to the parents and teachers. The questionnaires were completed by the parents and teachers, and the suspects were assessed a second time. A more complete history and psychiatric examination was done to confirm the diagnosis of pica according to DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV in these children. Results: A total of 256 children including 123 girls (48% and 133 boys (52% were evaluated. Pica was diagnosed in 67 of these children (26.2%. The most prevalent age for pica was 12-18 months (27 persons, 40.2% and 18-24 months (20 persons, 29.8%. Pica was significantly associated with sex (being a girl and positive family history. Conclusion: Pica is prevalent in kindergarten children in Bushehr. Educating parents and teachers seems to be necessary.

  4. Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) in a forest park south of Mexico City.

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    Alvarado R, D; De Bauer, L I; Galindo A, J

    1993-01-01

    Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) trees in the high elevation forest park, Desierto de los Leones, located south of Mexico City, is described. Trees located in the windward zone (exposed to air masses from Mexico City) were the most severely affected, especially trees at the distal ends of ravines. Examination of tree growth rings indicated decreases in ring widths for the past 30 years. Polluted air from Mexico City may be an important causal factor in fir decline. Drought, due to excessive removal of soil water, insects, mites and pathogens, and poor forest management are possible contributing and interactive factors in fir decline.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of asthma and allergic diseases in primary schoolchildren living in Bushehr, Iran: phase I, III ISAAC protocol.

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    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and allergic diseases present a major health burden. Information on the prevalence of these diseases indicates that these diseases are increasing in various parts of the world. It was hoped that this study would be helpful to health system policy-makers in planning allergy prevention programs in the region.The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases and relation between the various risk factors involved were assessed among schoolchildren in the city of Bushehr, Iran. The ISAAC Phase I and III questionnaires were completed by parents of 1280 children aged 6-7 years and self-completed by 1115 students aged 13-14 years.The prevalence of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma among 6-7 year-old students were 12.1%, 11.8% and 6.7%, respectively. While, the prevalence of these diseases among 13-14 year-old students were found to be 19%, 30% and 7.6%, respectively. There was an association between asthma and allergic rhinitis as well as eczema (p<0.05. Consumption of fast food as a risk factor was significantly associated with asthma (p=0.03.The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases was high among schoolchildren in the city of Bushehr, Iran. Also an association was observed between the fast food consumption and asthma.

  6. Ideal Images of Educational Leadership in Mexico City and South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Charles L.; Boone, Mike; Alvarez, Isaias; Topete, Carlos; Iturbe, Elizabeth; Base, Melinda; Fillion, Sharon; Galloway, Holly; Korth, Lisa Elena; Munoz, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This study used a qualitative approach to analyze ideal images of educational leadership among administrators in Mexico City and South Texas. Looking at educational leadership from a cross-cultural perspective revealed issues that are hidden when working in just one culture. Though both groups indicated that participation, clear communication,…

  7. Ultrasonographic determination of the thyroid volume in 7- 10 years old children of Bushehr port 2007

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    Farzad Morad Haseli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of thyroid volume using ultrasound has been recommended for monitoring public control of iodine deficiency programs in areas with mild iodine deficiency or with no iodine deficiency, instead of physical examination, in order to estimate the prevalence rate of goiter. The aim of this study was to determine the reference ranges of thyroid volume in Bushehr port. Methods: Thyroid volume of 1247 primary schoolchildren aged 7-10 years who were selected by probability proportionate to size method from rural and urban areas of Bushehr port was determined using ultrasonography. Medians and percentiles of thyroid volumes for age and body surface area were calculated for both genders. Results: The 97th percentiles of thyroid volume of Bushehr port schoolchildren according to age and sex were all lower than the corresponding sex-specific normative WHO reference values. Goiter prevalence was 1.68% according to WHO thyroid volume references for age in the studied population. The goiter prevalence according to age and body surface area-specific new normative WHO reference values were 7.13 and 7.17%, respectively. Conclusion: The 97th percentile for thyroid volume, calculated by ultrasonography in Bushehr port schoolchildren, were lower than the international WHO newly recommended reference values in all ages. Therefore, determination of a native reference value for estimating the prevalence rate of thyroid is highly recommended. According to ultrasonographically determined goiter prevalence, Bushehr is an iodine sufficient area.

  8. Cities as partners: the challenge to strengthen urban governance through North-South city partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontenbal, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, local governments have increasingly become recognised as actors in international development cooperation. It has been estimated that today 70% of the world’s cities are engaged in some form of international cooperation. Many of these relations connect the developed and the d

  9. Asymptomatic malaria in refugees living in a non-endemic South African city.

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    Joyce M Tsoka-Gwegweni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic malaria infection in refugees is both a threat to the lives of the individuals and the public in the host country. Although South Africa has been experiencing an unprecedented influx of refugees since 1994, data on malaria infection among refugees is lacking. Such information is critical since South Africa is among the countries that have planned to eliminate malaria. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection among a refugee population living in a city of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A survey was conducted on adult refugee participants who attended a faith-based facility offering social services in a city of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. The participants were screened for the presence of malaria using rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy. Demographic data for the participants were obtained using a closed ended questionnaire. Data was obtained for 303 participants consisting of 51.5% females and 47.5% males, ranging from 19 to 64 years old. More than 95% of them originated from sub-Saharan African countries. Two hundred and ninety participants provided a blood sample for screening of malaria. Of these, 3.8% tested positive for rapid diagnostic test and 5.9% for microscopy. The majority of malaria infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms the presence of asymptomatic malaria infections among a refugee population residing in a city of KwaZulu-Natal province that is not endemic for malaria. The results have important implications for both public health and malaria control in South Africa, particularly since the country has decided to eliminate malaria by 2018. To achieve this goal, South Africa needs to expand research, surveillance and elimination activities to include non-endemic areas, particularly with high refugee populations. We further recommend use of powerful diagnostic tests such as PCR for

  10. APTI of Some Selected Plants in Shivamogga City, South Asia

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    M.P. Adamsab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organism or damage the environment. The study examined air pollution indices (APTI of fourteen plant species around Shivamogga city of Karnataka State India . Four physiological and biochemical parameters, leaf relative water content (RWC , ascorbic acid (AA, total leaf chlorophyll (TCH, and leaf extract PH were used to compute the APTI values. The result showed that combining variety of these parameters gave more reliable result than those of individual parameter. The order of tolerance is as follows: Azadirachta indica, (37.74, Mangifera indica (28.4, Eucalyptus mysoresins (27.93, Carica papaya (24.62, Ricinus communis (22.46, Polvalthia longifolia (20.76, Calotropis gigantean (19.84, Nerium indicum (18.49, Psidium guajava (17.51, Parthenium hysterophorus (14.91, Bougainvillea glabra (13.35, Muntingia calabura (11.68, Terminalia cattapa (10.71 and Tamarindus indica (9.12.

  11. Patterns of dietary calcium intake in south Indian rural, urban and metropolitan city subjects

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    Harinarayan CV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate dietary calcium intake favours bone mineral accrual. Sparse published data are available on dietary calcium intake of metropolitan city population from south India. Methods: We recorded the dietary intake of calcium and phytates of 524 healthy subjects from Bengaluru, a metropolitan city, by recalling the diet consumed in the previous 5 to 7 days and compared it with dietary intake of calcium of 325 healthy subjects from rural areas around Tirupati, and 508 healthy subjects from urban Tirupati. Results: The dietary calcium intake of the Tirupati rural subjects was the least compared to that of the urban and metropolitan city subjects. In the metropolitan and urban groups the diet was high in calories, milk, milk products and vegetables compared to rural subjects. Dietary calcium intake was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in the rural subjects compared to the urban and metropolitan city subjects. The dietary phytate were significantly different in both the rural, urban as well as the metropolitan city groups (p<0.0001. The dietary phytate/calcium ratio was significantly higher in rural subjects compared to urban and metropolitan city group (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Improving the quality of diet by reducing the phytate and enriching/supplementing with calcium will be of benefit for maintaining bone health.

  12. Water-quality characteristics of stormwater runoff in Rapid City, South Dakota, 2008-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2015-01-01

    The water quality of Rapid Creek is important because the reach that flows through Rapid City, South Dakota, is a valuable spawning area for a self-sustaining trout fishery, actively used for recreation, and a seasonal municipal water supply for the City of Rapid City. This report presents the current (2008–14) water-quality characteristics of urban stormwater runoff in selected drainage networks within the City of Rapid City, and provides an evaluation of the pollutant reductions of wetland channels implemented as a best-management practice. Stormwater runoff data were collected at nine sites in three drainage basins within Rapid City: the Arrowhead (2 monitoring sites), Meade-Hawthorne (1 monitoring site), and Downtown (6 monitoring sites) drainage basins. Stormwater runoff was evaluated for concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) and bacteria at sites in the Arrowhead and Meade-Hawthorne drainage basins, and for concentrations of TSS, chloride, bacteria, nutrients, and metals at sites in the Downtown drainage basin.

  13. Kumbakonam: the ritual topography of a sacred and royal city of South India

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    Vivek Nanda

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available South India is renowned worldwide for the architectural splendour of its temples and the elaborate sculpture that adorns them, but their symbolism, still ritually enacted today, is less well understood outside India. Complex interrelationships of art, architecture and ritual are expressed in the evolution, through the past thousand years, of the topography of one of th most important of the temple cities.

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Household Waste Segregation in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia

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    Tunmise A. Otitoju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is faced with daunting challenges relating to household waste segregation. Due to an increase in population, economic growth, enforcement, infrastructure, public attitude, awareness and participation among others, source segregation is considered a crucial issue in Malaysia, particularly in urban settings. This paper presents the key findings of the quantitative (questionnaire survey administered among 235 households in Kuching South City and qualitative (interview survey with the Natural Resource & Environmental Board (NREB and Kuching South City Council. This survey attempts to identify the limiting and motivating factors on the part of households to waste segregation. The result shows that age, sex, race and education is insignificant towards waste segregation. The result also shows a significant difference between waste segregators and non-waste separators on their level of perception towards implementation of laws for source segregation. Result also shows that the ease of access to facilities and the methods of collection are the major limiting factors preventing households from waste segregation in Kuching South City.

  15. Asian dust effect on cause-specific mortality in five cities across South Korea and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Desert dust is considered to be potentially toxic and its toxicity may change during long-range transportation. In Asian countries, the health effects of desert dust in different locations are not well understood. We therefore evaluated the city-combined and city-specific effects of Asian dust events on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in five populous cities in South Korea (Seoul) and Japan (Nagasaki, Matsue, Osaka and Tokyo). We obtained daily mean concentrations of Asian dust using light detection and ranging (lidar) between 2005 and 2011. We then evaluated city-specific and pooled associations of Asian dust with daily mortality for elderly residents (≥65 years old) using time-series analyses. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of same-day (lag 0) or previous-day (lag 1) Asian dust was significantly associated with an elevated pooled risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR): 1.003 [95% CI: 1.001-1.005] at lag 0 and 1.001 [95% CI: 1.000-1.003] at lag 1) and cerebrovascular disease (RR: 1.006 [95% CI: 1.000-1.011] at lag 1). This association was especially apparent in Seoul and western Japan (Nagasaki and Matsue). Conversely, no significant associations were observed in Tokyo, which is situated further from the origin of Asian dust and experiences low mean concentrations of Asian dust. Adverse health effects on all-cause and cerebrovascular disease mortality were observed in South Korea and Japan. However, the effects of Asian dust differed across the cities and adverse effects were more apparent in cities closer to Asian dust sources.

  16. Soils and cultural layers of ancient cities in the south of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrovskii, A. L.; Aleksandrovskaya, E. I.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Kurbatova, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Antique cities in the south of European Russia are characterized by a considerable thickness of their cultural layers (urbosediments) accumulated as construction debris and household wastes. Under the impact of pedogenesis and weathering in dry climate of the steppe zone, these sediments have acquired the features of loesslike low-humus calcareous and alkaline deposits. They are also enriched in many elements (P, Zn, Ca, Cu, Pb, As) related to the diverse anthropogenic activities. The soils developed from such urbosediments can be classified as urbanozems (Urban Technosols), whereas chernozems close to their zonal analogues have developed in the surface layer of sediments covering long-abandoned ancient cities. Similar characteristics have been found for the soils of the medieval and more recent cities in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of the pollutants are locally found in the antique and medieval urbosediments enriched in dyes, handicrafts from nonferrous metals, and other artifacts. Surface soils of ancient cities inherit the properties and composition of the cultural layer. Even in chernozems that developed under steppe vegetation on the surface of the abandoned antique cities of Phanagoria and Tanais for about 1000—1500 years, the concentrations of copper, zinc, and calcium carbonates remain high. Extremely high phosphorus concentrations in these soils should be noted. This is related to the stability of calcium phosphates from animal bones that are abundant in the cultural layer acting as parent material for surface soils.

  17. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride in 10-12 years old adolescents of Bushehr port

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    Giti Javan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride increases tooth resistance to dental caries, but mild toxicity due to excessive ingestion of fluoride can cause dental fluorosis. Drinking water naturally contains fluoride and is a major source of fluoride. In Bushehr port, drinking water is supplied from limestone springs with normal fluoride levels but dental fluorosis is observed. Methods: A total of 95 native school children (between the ages of 10-12 years old were randomly selected from four Bushehr port regions. Dental fluorosis, height and weight were examined. Probable attributing factors of dental fluorosis were also questioned. A 16 to 18 hours urinary fluoride concentration was measured with a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results: Dental fluorosis in four upper incisors was apparent in 52.6 % of the subjects. The urinary fluoride concentration was 2.18 mg/lit. Fluoride concentration in drinking water of schools ranged from 0.41 to 0.58 mg/lit. Forty percent of subjects were caries free. Conclusion: In spite of the normal range of fluoride concentration in the drinking water of Bushehr, dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration are higher than the recommended ranges. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the amount and effects of fluoride ingestion in residents of Bushehr province.

  18. Data on metal levels in the inlet and outlet wastewater treatment plant of hospitals in Bushehr province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Babaahmadi, Fereshte; Dobaradaran, Sina; Pazira, Abdolrahim; Eghbali, Seyed Sajjad; maryam KHORSAND; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we measured the levels of metals including Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Hg, Fe, and Cu in the inlet and outlet wastewater of hospitals. The samples were taken from wastewater in Bushehr׳s province hospitals, Iran. After the collection of samples, the concentration levels of metals were determined by using graphite furnace absorption spectrometer (AAS) method (Varian, SpectrAA 240, Australia). Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16).

  19. Assessment of environmental public exposure from a hypothetical nuclear accident for Unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M; Ghasemi, M; Amrollahi, R; Khamooshi, C; Parsouzi, Z

    2013-05-01

    Unit-1 of the Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP-1) is a VVER-type reactor with 1,000-MWe power constructed near Bushehr city at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran. The reactor has been recently operational to near its full power. The radiological impact of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents is of public concern, and the assessment of radiological consequences of any hypothetical nuclear accident on public exposure is vital. The hypothetical accident scenario considered in this paper is a design-basis accident, that is, a primary coolant leakage to the secondary circuit. This scenario was selected in order to compare and verify the results obtained in the present paper with those reported in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR 2007) of the BNPP-1 and to develop a well-proven methodology that can be used to study other and more severe hypothetical accident scenarios for this reactor. In the present study, the version 2.01 of the PC COSYMA code was applied. In the early phase of the accidental releases, effective doses (from external and internal exposures) as well as individual and collective doses (due to the late phase of accidental releases) were evaluated. The surrounding area of the BNPP-1 within a radius of 80 km was subdivided into seven concentric rings and 16 sectors, and distribution of population and agricultural products was calculated for this grid. The results show that during the first year following the modeled hypothetical accident, the effective doses do not exceed the limit of 5 mSv, for the considered distances from the BNPP-1. The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with those in the FSAR-2007 report. The agreement obtained is in light of many inherent uncertainties and variables existing in the two modeling procedures applied and proves that the methodology applied here can also be used to model other severe hypothetical accident scenarios of the BNPP-1 such as a small and large break in the reactor coolant system as well

  20. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  1. A socio-structural analysis of crime in the city of Tshwane, South Africa

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    Gregory D. Breetzke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available High and rising levels of crime plague post-apartheid South Africa. A common explanation for these high crime rates relates the country’s unique socio-political past to a system of ineffective social control mechanisms that suggest high levels of social disorganisation within certain communities. Other explanations emphasise the presence of disaffected youths and deprivation, as well as the rapid immigration of people from neighbouring African countries into South Africa. I examined a number of these socio-structural explanations of crime on contact crime rates in the city of Tshwane, South Africa. The findings are largely consistent with the social disorganisation theory, as well as with what has previously been suggested in local literature. In order to supplement these preliminary findings, the effects of the same socio-structural explanations on contact crime rates were determined for predominantly Black, White, and ‘Mixed’ (containing a mix of both Black and White residents suburbs using spatial regression models. Evidence from these analyses suggests that the effects of the various socio-structural explanations do not appear to traverse racial lines. Rather, the findings suggest non-uniformity in terms of the extent to which the various socio-structural factors impact contact crime rates based on race.

  2. Open Spaces and Urban Ecosystem Services. Cooling Effect towards Urban Planning in South American Cities

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    Luis Inostroza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Open space (OS is a key element in the provision of ecosystem services (ES in urban environments. Under a land cover-land use perspective, cities are incorporating into the expansion process to different types of surfaces: sealed, paved surfaces and OS. The first corresponds to a land cover change while the second, which includes bare soil, grass, forest or any other type of non-sealed surface, corresponds to a land use change, without physical transformations. As a land use change OS is able to keep fundamental pre-existing ecological properties. However, besides specific ecological characteristics, the overall capacity to provide ES depends also on the size, number and spatial distribution of OSs within the urban fabric. Those aspects which can determine the very ecological performance of urban ecosystem services (UES are not yet included in the current urban planning in Latin America. OS is still understood mainly as green infrastructure and related mostly with aesthetic and cultural benefits. On the contrary, under an ecological point of view, OS is capable to provide fundamental UES, which can be spatially assessed and analyzed. In this paper the provision of cooling services (CS is assessed in 2 South American cities: Lima and Santiago de Chile. The provision of CS is measured by means of a Remote Sensing-GIS-based method. Two aspects of CS are explored: (1 the current amount of existing OS; and (2 the trend of increasing/reducing CS within the urban tissue, in a dynamic assessment of spatial distribution and rates of OS incorporation to the continuous urban tissue. The aim is to analyze the CS generated by OS in those two cities. The analysis discusses the role of OS in the provision of CS, considering the current urban development trends and planning practice in these specific Latin American cities, highlighting the need to keep unsealed surfaces and increase in trees coverage, to retain the CS provision in certain levels.

  3. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients in Bushehr, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazesh, Afshin; Fouladvand, Moradali; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Heydari, Ali; Fallahi, Jamal

    2015-07-01

    Hemodialysis patients, due to a dysfunction of the immune response, are prone to a variety of opportunistic infections. Studies of intestinal parasitic infections in these patients are limited. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the prevalence of these infections in patients on hemodialysis in Bushehr. In this cross-sectional study, fecal samples have been collected from all hemodialysis patients who were continuously referred from September 2011 to September 2012 to the dialysis center at Bushehr and tested using routine parasitological methods. From a total of 88 patients studied, 25 patients (28.4%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. Blastocystis hominis and Entamoeba coli with 13.6% and 6.7% prevalence had the highest prevalence among the patients, respectively. The age group 51-70 years had the highest rates of infection. Statistical analysis showed no relationship between sex and the risk of intestinal parasites. Seventeen percent of infected patients showed up with diarrhea and this relationship was statistically significant. Considering the high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among hemodialysis patients in Bushehr and also the high probability of infection in these patients, it is recommended that periodic examinations and screening patients during dialysis and before kidney transplantation should be a part of routine medical care.

  4. Study of Herbal Medicine in Zirrah (Touz /Dashtestan/Bushehr province

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    Mohammad ali Ziraee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 23 local informants by face to face interviews. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 131 medicinal plants belonging to 62 families were identified. Malva sylvestris, Zataria multiflora, Terminalia chebula, Cuminum cyminum, Foenicum vulgare, Olivera decumbens, Echium amoenum, Teucriuma polium, Cannabis sativa and Papaver somniferum had the highest cultural importance indices. Ducrosia anethifolia Bioss, Nigella sativa, Capparis spinosa and Urtica dioica had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynecological diseases and dermatological uses, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province are the same as Iran’s traditional medicine, but the people of this region use some of these plants for some diseases which are unique for this area. Thus, investigation about these plants should be initiated to discover novel drugs for clinical applications.

  5. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a South Asian Mega City: A case study of Karachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, imran

    2016-04-01

    Pakistan is facing unabated air pollution as a major issue and its cities are more vulnerable as compared to urban centers in the developed world. During the last few decades, there has been a rapid increase in population, urbanization, industrialization, transportation and other human activities. In year June 2015 heat wave in largest South Asian mega city Karachi more than 1500 people died in one week. Unfortunately no air quality monitoring system is operation in any city of Pakistan. There is a sharp increase in both the variety and quantity of air pollutants and their corresponding sources. In this study contributions of different sources to particulate matter concentration has estimated in urban area of Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4--), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were measured in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March - April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). Average concentrations of PM2.5 were 75μg/m3 and of PM10 437μg/m3. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and „siliceous dust" were the overall dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. 20 Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC+OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in 22 PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of "EC+OM" in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. Of secondary inorganic constituents (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity to PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to

  6. The management of hospital waste products in hospitals of Bushehr Province

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    kamran Mirzaie

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital waste contains a large quantity of dangerous pathogenic agents, which are hazardous to the health of man, animal, plant and the environment. In Iran, like many other developing countries, not enough attention is paid to this matter and available information regarding the generation and disposal of medical wastes are low. The existing information about production and disposal of wastes in our hospitals is little and incomplete. In this study, a survey on hospital waste management system in Bushehr province hospitals was conducted. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 8 hospitals in Bushehr province were investigated during a period of 6 months using a questionnaire, interviews and direct observations. The questionnaire had 93 questions (open and closed about general information on the hospitals and about various systems of managing hospital waste according to the World Health Organization suggested survey questionnaire for hospital waste management in developing countries. Results: In hospitals of bushehr province, waste generation rate was 2615 kg/day, including domestic waste (51.7%, infectious waste (20.8%, sharps (15.2% and chemical and drugs wastes (12.3%. In almost all hospitals, segregation of infectious waste from domestic waste at the place of origin and putting them in special containers had been done but this segregation wasn’t complete and sometimes some hazardous waste were disposed of in domestic waste containers. All hospitals used a color coding system for waste containers, 75 % of hospitals had incinerators. In others, waste was carried out by municipal service daily. In all hospitals, all workers were trained about hospital waste management. In none of the surveyed hospitals, there was an obvious policy and plan for purchasing equipment and necessary facilities in order to dispose hospital waste correctly and also no clear budget was allocated for hospital waste management. In none of these hospitals

  7. Spatial modelling of land use/cover change (LUCC) in South Tangerang City, Banten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, K.; Barus, B.; Rustiadi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Urban expansion in peri-urban region remains a major issue for regional planning and development, as it converts most of the land cover into built-up settlements rapidly and extensively beyond its spatial allocation plan (RTRW). South Tangerang City is one of municipalities in Jabodetabek with the most rapid annual population growth rate reached 6.87%. LUCC analysis from three LANDSAT land cover maps (1990, 2002, and 2014) shows that the built-up area has increased 8 times (8650 ha) in 1990-2014 with the average annual growth rate of 10.83% per sub-district (kelurahan). The most extensive land conversion type in 1990-2002 was vegetated land to open land (3605ha), while in 2002-2014 land conversion type was dominated by open land to built-up (3446ha). In general, the built-up area expansion in 1990-2002 shows irregular ribbon development pattern in district Serpong Utara, Pondok Aren, Ciputat Timur, Ciputat, and Pamulang, while district Serpong tends to represent leap frog development pattern. The expansion in 2002-2014 shows infill and ribbon development pattern continuation across the city. MLP was used to model LUCC sensitivity prediction. The model performance shows 73.16% accuracy with ROC validation of prediction output reaches 0.804 for 2014, which is qualified to predict LUCC sensitivity in 2032.

  8. 5-Year study of rainwater chemistry in a coastal mega-city in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xiang; He, Ling-Yan; Feng, Ning; Hu, Min; Niu, Yu-Wen; Zeng, Li-Wu

    2010-07-01

    South China is one of the major regions suffering from acid rain in the world, especially for its urban environments. However, long-term and comprehensive studies on rainwater chemistry in this region have been scarce in the literature. In order to characterize the current acid rain status in South China, a total of 208 rainfall events were collected and measured systematically at an urban site in Shenzhen, a mega-city on the southeast coast of China, from 2005 to 2009. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH was observed to be 4.56 during the five years, with an acid rain frequency of 84.6%. SO 42- was the most abundant ionic species, followed by Ca 2+, NH 4+, H +, NO 3-, Cl -, Na +, Mg 2+, K + and F - in sequence. Formic, acetic and oxalic acids together contributed 2.32% to the total organic carbon (TOC) content and 2.86% to the total free acidity. SO 42-, NO 3-, Ca 2+, NH 4+ and TOC presented a seasonal trend of being lower in summer and higher in winter, while the other species did not show clear seasonal patterns. Based on the dataset, the sources of the species in rainwater in Shenzhen were explored using different statistical techniques, which indicated strong impact of anthropogenic pollution on the rainwater chemistry in this area.

  9. CDMA2000 Radio Measurements at 1.9GHz and Comparison of Propagation Models in Three Built-Up Cities of South-South, Nigeria.

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    Isabona Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio propagation measurements and prediction, realized by the mobile terminal or the base station, is needed to guarantee quality of service and to supervise the planned coverage area. A wide variety of approaches have been developed over the years to predict signal pathloss using what are known as propagation models. In this paper, we compare the measured pathloss obtained for the urban areas with seven existingpropagation models, that is, SUI, Lee, Hata, ECC and COST-231 W/I and W/B. Firstly, for both areas, the results show that the path loss is not constant at various locations for a constant distance around the respective base station (BS. This shows that the terrains of studied cities are irregular. Secondly, observations show that the W/B gives better agreement for all the studied three cities; hence, it can be used to model signal coverage area of cellular networks in any region of South-South Nigeria

  10. Factors Predicting Fecal Occult Blood Testing among Residents of Bushehr, Iran, Based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi Dashdebi, Kamel; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Fecal occult blood testing has proven a very effective screening tool for early detection and mortality reduction. The aim of this study was to determine predictors factors related to fecal occult blood testing using the Health Belief Model method among residents of Bushehr, Iran. A cross sectional study was performed on a sample of 600 men and women more than 50 years of age. The sample was selected by a convenience method from patients referred to public and private laboratories throughout the city. Each subject filled out a questionnaire which was designed and developed based on Health Belief Model constructs. Statistical analysis was conducted using ANOVA, T-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression. Fecal occult blood tests were performed on 179 (29.8%) out of 600 subjects, of which 95 patients (58.1%) did a periodic examination test and 84 patients (46.9%) had a doctor's advice for testing. According to the logistic regression model, the perceived barriers (P=0.0, Exp(B)= 0.3), perceived benefits (P <0.01, Exp(B)= 1.9) and self-efficacy (P<0.01, Exp(B)= 1.6) were predictive factors related to occult blood testing among subjects.The results showed that reducing people's perception of barriers to testing, increasing perceived benefits of screening, and reinforcing self efficacy can have major effect in increasing the rate of fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer prevention.

  11. Data on metal levels in the inlet and outlet wastewater treatment plant of hospitals in Bushehr province, Iran

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    Fereshte Babaahmadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we measured the levels of metals including Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Hg, Fe, and Cu in the inlet and outlet wastewater of hospitals. The samples were taken from wastewater in Bushehr׳s province hospitals, Iran. After the collection of samples, the concentration levels of metals were determined by using graphite furnace absorption spectrometer (AAS method (Varian, SpectrAA 240, Australia. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.

  12. Knowledge regarding prevention of infective endocarditis among dentists in Bushehr Province-1390

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    Kamran Mirzaie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infective endocarditis (IE is known as a life-threatening disease, with bacteremia inducing dental procedures considered to be one of the major factors. Thus, prevention of IE onset with antibiotics is widely recommended. AHA 2007 Guidelines for prevention and treatment are well known. The aim this study was assessment of knowledge regarding prevention of infective endocarditis among dentist in Bushehr Province. Material and Methods: In a cross sectional study, data was collected by using Self-administered Questionnaires which obtain according AHA 2007 guideline were distributed to dentists who occupied governmental or private clinic in Bushehr Province. Data was analyzed by Independent t test, Chi-Square by using SPSS software at level of significancy, 0.05. Results: From 72 questionnaires were distributed between all dentists who worked in Bushehr Province, 59 questionnaires were completed. (Response rate: 81.9%. Approximately 48% reported encountering fewer than several patients at risk for IE per year and only 60.4% of the respondents were aware of the guidelines for its prevention. Frequency of correct answer toward cardiac conditions which needed antibiotic prophylaxis weren’t higher than 43%. In all, kind, route, dosage and time of antibiotics administration were according to AHA 2007 guidelines. Generally, the level of knowledge of dentists toward antibiotic prophylaxis to prevention infective endocarditis was poor and the frequency of correct answer toward cardiac conditions that need antibiotic prophylaxis is less than 43%. Conclusion: These findings suggest that promotion of knowledge of dentists for prevention of IE is important, although the frequency of cases encountered by dentists is extremely low.

  13. Prevalence of osteoporosis in women older than 50 years old in Bushehr port

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    Seyed Sajad Eghbali

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone, leading to enhanced bone fragility. Prevalence of osteoporosis increases with age. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis in women older than 50 years old in Bushehr port, irrespective of osteoporosis risk factors. Methods: A total of 406 women over 50 years old were selected from 13 cluster areas of Bushehr port using random sampling method. We used dual x-ray absorptimetry (DXA for measuring bone mineral density of femoral neck and lumbar areas. Demographic data, smoking, physical activity, daily intake of vitamin D and calcium, body mass index and waist to hip ratio were recorded for each women. Results: Mean BMDs of lumbar spine and femoral area were 0.944 (±0.844 g/cm2 and 0.842 (± 0.181 g/cm2, respectively. BMDs had a trend to decrease with increasing age (P<0.0001. The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in lumbar spine were 32.0% and 7.4%, respectively and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in femur were 29.6% and 3.9%, respectively. No significant differences were observed between normal women and osteoporotic women in secondary osteoporosis risk factors. But osteoporotic women had more history of present or past smoking in comparison to normal women (P<0.05. Conclusion: Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in women older than 50 years old in Bushehr port is less than USA, Europe and Tehran populations.

  14. Helminth Parasites of Wild Boars, Sus scrofa, in Bushehr Prov-ince, Southwestern Iran

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    Majid MANSOURI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any helminthic agents. Tissue samples were taken from each organ. Moreover, samples were taken from the content of digestive system. Blood samples were also collected from each boar. All the samples were evaluated for helminth infections by parasitological methods.Results: Twenty-two (88% of the wild boars were infected with at least one helminth. Out of 25 wild boars, 1 (4% were infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena, 13 (52% with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, 17 (68% with Metastrongylus spp, and 20 (80% with Ascarops spp. Hydatid cyst was detected in the lung of one of the wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in any of the tissues of the animals when evaluated by artificial digestion method. In addition, no contamination with microfilaria was detected in any of animals when the blood samples were tested with Knott’s method.Conclusion: Wild boars are contaminated by some helminthes including zoonotic ones. These animals could be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic helminth by acting as reservoir hosts. This in turn may bring potential risk for locals and residents of the Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.

  15. Detection of Salmonella Carriers in Sheep and Goat Flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan Provinces, Iran

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    Hossein Esmaeili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:    Salmonellosis is an infectious and a food-borne disease of humans and animals. The initial source of the infection is the intestinal tracts of birds and other animals. Apparently healthy animals can become subclinical carriers and persistently shed Salmonella in their feces which can act as a reservoir for the pathogen. The aim of this study is to detect the carriers of Salmonella among apparently healthy sheep and goat flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan provinces, Iran.Methods:    A total of 389 fecal samples were aseptically collected from the rectum of apparently healthy sheep and goat flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan provinces. Bacteriological culture was conducted using selenite cystine, Rappaport–Vassiliadis, brilliant green and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Suspected colonies were inoculated in to TSI, peptone water, Simmon’s Citrate, Urea medium and MRVP. Sero-groups were detected by antisera.              Results:    Two samples from 189 samples (1.05% were positive for Salmonella in Bushehr province. Salmonella abortusovis and Salmonella typhimurium were detected following serotyping. No Salmonella carriers were detected in Lorestan province.Conclusion:    As the rate of carriers of Salmonella was low, the risk of food-borne salmonellosis due to consumption of small ruminant's meat is low, especially in the condition of well cooked meat. Since S. abortusovis was detected, strategies of prevention and control of abortion due to this agent must be taken to reduce the economic losses. Moreover, the presence of S. typhimurium is a hazard to public health and people who have close contact to sheep and goats.

  16. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weisheng; Yuan, Hongping; Li, Jingru; Hao, Jane J L; Mi, Xuming; Ding, Zhikun

    2011-04-01

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C&D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m(2) and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C&D waste management in China.

  17. Small Cities, Neoliberal Governance and Sustainable Development in the Global South: A Conceptual Framework and Research Agenda

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    René Véron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Development and environmental issues of small cities in developing countries have largely been overlooked although these settlements are of global demographic importance and often face a “triple challenge”; that is, they have limited financial and human resources to address growing environmental problems that are related to both development (e.g., pollution and under-development (e.g., inadequate water supply. Neoliberal policy has arguably aggravated this challenge as public investments in infrastructure generally declined while the focus shifted to the metropolitan “economic growth machines”. This paper develops a conceptual framework and agenda for the study of small cities in the global south, their environmental dynamics, governance and politics in the current neoliberal context. While small cities are governed in a neoliberal policy context, they are not central to neoliberalism, and their (environmental governance therefore seems to differ from that of global cities. Furthermore, “actually existing” neoliberal governance of small cities is shaped by the interplay of regional and local politics and environmental situations. The approach of urban political ecology and the concept of rural-urban linkages are used to consider these socio-ecological processes. The conceptual framework and research agenda are illustrated in the case of India, where the agency of small cities in regard to environmental governance seems to remain limited despite formal political decentralization.

  18. Identification of wild chamomile species and secondary metabolites in Bushehr province

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    Mohammad Amin Kohanmoo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chamomile is medicinal and hygienic plants which have anti -inflammatory and anti-spasmodic characteristics. Its secondary metabolites (and etc. were varied by biodiversity and environmental effect. There is little information about the wild chamomile in natural habitats of the Bushehr province. In this study, different chamomile species were selected for essential oil content and active substances. Material and methods: In this field study, several samples of chamomile from different natural habitats were collected and screened for extraction of essential oil and secondary metabolites. The essential oil and methanolic extract were prepared by water distillation liquid and flask reflux condenser stirrer, respectively these were determined by the United States and Iran pharmacopeia methods. Essential oil and methanolic extract were analyzed by GC/Mass and HPLC devices, respectively. Results: Four species, Anthemis pseudocotula, Anthemis austro-iranica, Matricaria recotita and Matricaria aurea were indicated based on screening methods. Matricaria species was observed to have essential oil and beneficiary secondary metabolites, but were not observed to be present in Anthemis species. Results of the chemical analysis showed that, Matricaria species contained Essential oil (0.6 %, Apigenin 7-Glycoside (0.62%, Chamazulen (5.5% and other substances such as derivatives of Bisabolole , Bisaboleneand Farenzene. Conclusion: Two species of wild chamomiles, Matricaria recotita and Matricaria aurea, were found in Bushehr province containing significant amount of essential oil and secondary metabolites such as Chamazulen, -αBisabolole and Apigenin. Thus these species can be cultivated for commercial proposes.

  19. Prevalence of Seafood Allergy in Student Living in Bushehr and Borazjan

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    Shockrolla Farrokhi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seafood allergy is potentially severe, but the prevalence of this group of food allergies in Iran, has not been determined. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of seafood allergy in student living in Bushehr and Borazjan. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, random school survey by using a questionnaire in 2012-13. A total of 608 (36% male, and 64% female were asked questions about personal and family history of allergies, food and seafood allergy. Results: The overall prevalence of food allergy was 12% (Total 73 subjects, 69.8% male and 30.2% female, and seafood allergy was 4.4% (Total 27 subjects, 36.6% male, 43.4% female. Fish allergy (1.4% and shrimp and shellfish allergy (3.5% were reported. The most frequently reported symptoms were skin (49.3%, gastrointestinal (28.7%, and respiratory reactions (2.7%. Seafood allergy was not associated with subjects reporting atopic diseases, significantly (P> 0.05, while the other food allergy was positively associated (P=0.00. Conclusion: Our study is the first report on prevalence estimates for seafood allergy in Bushehr province. Findings indicated high prevalence of seafood allergy in student, therefore further studies and significant health concern is needed.

  20. Evaluation of resistancy to imipenem in positive blood culture in bushehr educational hospitals -1389

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    Fahimeh Hadavand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Imipenem is a betalactam antibioticthat has antibacterial activity against gram positive,gram negative and anerobic species. Antibiotic resistance is a problem in Iran. In this study, we asses imipenem resistance in blood cultures in Bushehr educational hospitals. Material and method:This cross sectional study was done in 2010. Blood cultures were taken from admitted patients in hospitals. For all samples, antibiogram with disk diffusion was done. And result of culture was categorized into three groups :resistance, sensitive and intermediate. Data was analyzed with SPSS Version13. Results: This study consisted of 200 patients. 48% Male, 37% female, 14% NeonateThe age of study group was ranged between 1 and 90 years (Mean 21, Standard deviation 28. . Psuedomonus aeroginosa and staphilococcus epidermis had higher perevalence. Resistancy to imipenem was 29/5%. Resistancy to imipenem was 41/4% in NICU. Concdlsion: Findings indicated that antibiotic resistancy is increasing in Bushehr. Therfore, it is necessary to modify antibiotic prescription and restrict using wide spectrum antibiotics such as imipenem.

  1. Infection control in general practices in Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities, South Africa

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    Don O'Mahony

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good infection control practices are effective in reducing rates of infection in health care settings. Studies in primary care in developed countries indicate that many general practitioners (GPs do not comply with optimal infection control practices. There are no published studies from developing countries in Southern Africa.Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe infection control practices in private GP surgeries in the Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.Method: A literature review was conducted to appraise current best practice with respect to Standard Infection Control and Transmission Based Precautions. A questionnaire, inquiring into GPs’ actual practices, was posted to each surgery.Results: The valid response rate was 34% (47/140. Methods used to sterilise instruments in 40 practices were: ultraviolet sterilisation (23, chemical disinfection (14, boiling water (7, and steam autoclave (2. Compounds used for chemical disinfection included organotin quaternary, chlorhexidine and benzyl ammonium chloride with a quaternary complex. Twenty-two (47% used a hand rub. Sixteen (35% GPs stated that they had a policy to promptly triage patients who are coughing, and 23 (50% had a policy for airflow movement in the surgery. All practices appropriately disposed of sharps. Thirty-seven (80% expressed interest in a seminar on infection control.Conclusions: Overall, GPs were aware of infection control precautions. Ultraviolet sterilisers and chlorhexidine are not recommended, however, for sterilisation or high level disinfection of medical instruments, and their use should be discontinued. Hand rubs are underutilised. GPs should implement Transmission Based Precautions to prevent airborne and droplet infections.

  2. Environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools of an urban city of south India

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    Nitin Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools are an important public health issue. Aims : To assess the school environment, sanitation and health related facilities and to compare the availability of these facilities between government, aided and private schools. Materials and Methods : This cross sectional study was done in 30 schools in Mangalore city of south India in February 2010. Results : Out of the 30 schools surveyed, four were government, 12 were aided and 14 were private schools. Overcrowding was seen in one third of schools. The recommended minus desks was lacking in 23(76.7% and chairs with back rest was lacking in 11(36.7% schools. More than a quarter of schools had no drinking water purification facility. Water storage units were not cleaned periodically in 6(20% schools. Quarter of all government schools and half of all aided schools had no dining hall for serving mid-day meals. Toilets were not adequate in 10(33.3% and it was not separated for boys and girls in 8(26.7% schools. Four of the surveyed schools had no medical examination of students and in 13(43.3% schools daily morning inspection by teachers was not done. Hardly few schools had staff trained to deal with medical emergencies and in counselling activities. None of the schools had an immunization register. Although the performance scores between the types of schools did not differ significantly, the combined performance of only private schools were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion : A good number of schools in this urban area were found to be falling short of several essential requirements regarding sanitation and health facilities which needs to be rectified.

  3. Data on metals (Zn, Al, Sr, and Co and metalloid (As concentration levels of ballast water in commercial ships entering Bushehr port, along the Persian Gulf

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    Farshid Soleimani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we determined the concentration levels of metals including Zn, Al, Sr, and Co and metalloid of As of ballast water in commercial ships entering Bushehr port, along the Persian Gulf. Ballast water samples were taken from commercial ships entering Bushehr port from 34 ports around the world during 15 February and 25 August 2016. The concentration levels of metals and metalloid were determined by using a graphite furnace absorption spectrometer (AAS.

  4. Identify factors affecting people\\'s attitudes to advertising (Case study: Persian Gulf University, Bushehr

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    hamid shahbandarzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is an important part of marketing and one thing that is important is to pay attention to what will has more impact on the attitude of consumers. This study is an attempt to examine the issue of economic beliefs in advertising, promotions, social beliefs, ethics in advertising, legal belief in the usefulness of the ads and personal ads, ads on attitudes to be effective or not The population for this study were the students of Persian Gulf University, Bushehr. The sample’s size was estimated with using Cochran's formula 413 persons Data were collected using questionnaires, and with random sampling, questionnaires were distributed among the students. The data were analyzed by software Amos and it was observed due to the economic ideas in advertising, ethics in advertising, legal belief in the usefulness of the ads and personal ads are positive and significant impact on attitudes to advertising.

  5. The Relationship between mental health and social support in health staffs of Bushehr oil industry

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    Ahmad Hajebi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study evaluated the relationship between social support, mental health and also demographic factors in health staffs of Bushehr oil industry in 2006. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study enrolled all health staffs, except 9 subjects who refuse to participate (108 male and 41 female. Subjects were evaluated by demographic questionnaire, general health Questionnaire-28 and Social Support Scale. Statistical analysis was performed by two sample t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: This study showed that female gender, 35-44 age range group, having college educations, marital status and families with 4-5 members have higher mental health and social support. Onshore shiftworker staffs in comparison with others have lower mental health and social support. Conclusion: Social support and mental health showed a direct and significant correlation. The changes of policies for promoting quality and quantity of supportive networks, especially for vulnerable staffs, can reinforce protective effects of social support.

  6. Evaluating autoimmunity markers (TPO Ab, Tg Ab and TM Ab in hypothyroid patients of Bushehr province

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    Iraj Nabipour

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is the common cause of primary hypothyroidism in iodine sufficient countries. Iran is named an iodine sufficient country, in this century. Methods: A total of 88 hypothyroid patients, on suppressing dose of levothyroxine who were followed in a university endocrine disorder clinic were evaluated for serum thyroid autoimmunity markers: thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO Ab, thyroglobulin antibody (Tg Ab and thyroid microsomal antibody (TM Ab using ELISA method. Results: The prevalence of TPO Ab, Tg Ab and TM Ab were 73.9%, 45.5% and 71.6%, respectively. Among the patients with high level of TPO Ab (> 75 u/ml, 45.3% had grade 1 or 2 of goiter (P< 0.05. Conclusion: Autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in Bushehr province.

  7. Solar project description: South Bridge Towers no. 6 multi-family cooperative, New York City, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    The South Bridge Towers, Inc. solar energy system is a high-rise cooperative apartments subdivision located in New York City, New York. The solar energy collector subsystem is located on the roof of the 27-story tower and consists of 150 flat plate collectors arranged in six arrays. The collectors have a total gross area of 3790 square feed and a net aperture area of 3150 square feet. The collectors are inclined at an angle of 40 deg to horizontal, and oriented to face 14 degrees west of south. Solar energy is stored in a 4000 gallon carbon steel tank located on the tower roof. The system uses a solar energy transport medium of one-half water and one-half propylene glycol in the collector loop. Solar energy, gathered in the collector loop, is transferred to the domestic water storage subsystem by circulating the water through the collector loop heat exchanger and the storage tank.

  8. An Exploration of Public Attitudes Toward LGBTI Rights in the Gauteng City-Region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Faraaz; Trangoš, Guy

    2016-10-01

    South Africa's legal framework on the rights of sexual minorities is one of the most progressive in the world. Despite this, discrimination and violence against gay and lesbian people continues to be a challenge. Using large-scale survey data gathered in the Gauteng City-Region, this study examines public attitudes related to homosexuality. Most respondents to the survey felt that sexual minorities should have equal rights. However, a considerable proportion of respondents also held negative views toward gay and lesbian individuals, with close to two fifths of respondents believing that homosexuality is against the values of their community, and over 12% of participants holding the view that it is acceptable to be violent toward gays and lesbians. Further analysis also consists of an examination of responses cross-tabulated with the variables of race, gender, age, and education, revealing that younger, well-educated South Africans tend to be the most tolerant, but also exhibiting large variances in attitudes within groups.

  9. Epidemiology of social behavioral disorders in male teenagers of Bushehr port 2005

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    Amer Yazdanparast

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social Behavioral Disorders (SBD is significantly widespread among teenagers in such a way that psychologists called it as “the new hidden morbidity”. Therefore, screening of teenagers, finding out the related demographic factors and introducing them to consultation centers are very important points for therapeutic interventions. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 400 male teenagers aged 13-18 years old were randomly selected in two stages, from a population in Bushehr in November 2005. Pediatric Symptoms Checklist 35-items Questionnaire (PSC/35 was used for their parents or their close relatives. The PSC/35 has 93% and 71% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. The cut off point of 28 was considered as the state of having SBD using this Questionnaire. Results: Overall 148 (37% male teenagers were recognized to have SBD. SBD was more prevalent in boys with an annual educational average score of 14 (out of 20 in comparison with those with 14-17 or >17. Father’s job (labor, farmer or multiple job, predisposed his teenager children to SBD more than when he was employee or businessman. These behavioral abnormalities were more common if they were living with a single parent (death or divorce. SBD was more prevalent in those with externalized personality than both inter-externalized and internalized personalities. Less social behavioral disorders had a positive correlation with leisure time activities. Increase of age in male teenagers, number or order of children, being single, parents’ level of education, mother's occupation and the total income rate of the family had no significant correlation with SBD. Conclusions: The prevalence of social behavioral disorders in male teenagers of Bushehr port is more than industrial countries. Demographic factors such as father’s job (labor, farmer or multiple jobs, living with a single parent (death or divorce, no leisure time activity, and internalized personality were

  10. Data on Fe (II biosorption onto Sargassum hystrix algae obtained from the Persian Gulf in Bushehr Port, Iran

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    Fatemeh Faraji Ghasemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we used Sargassum hystrix algae as biosorbent for removal of Fe (II from aqueous solutions that was collected along the Persian Gulf coastline, Bushehr, Iran. The concentration level of remaining Fe (II in the samples was measured by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, Varian AA240, Australia. The isotherms, kinetics and modeling data of Fe (II biosorption onto Sargassum hystrix were also presented.

  11. Characterizing ionic species in PM2.5 and PM10 in four Pearl River Delta cities, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected at four major cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, during winter and summer in 2002. Six water-soluble ions, Na+, NH4+, K+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- were measured using ion chromatography. On average, ionic species accounted for 53.3% and 40.5% for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively in winter and 39.4% and 35.2%, respectively in summer. Secondary ions such as sulfate, nitrate and ammonium accounted for the major part of the total ionic species. Sulfate was the most abundant specie followed by nitrate. Overall, a regional pollution tendency were shown in this campaign though there were higher concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium measured in Guangzhou City than those in the other PRD cities. Significant seasonal variations were also observed with higher levels of species in winter and lower in summer. The Asian monsoon system was favorable for removal and diffusion of air pollutants in PRD in summer while highly loading of local industrial emissions tended to deteriorate the air quality as well. NO3-/SO42- ratio indicates that mobile sources have considerably contribution to the urban aerosol but stationary sources should still not be neglected. Besides the primary emissions, complex atmospheric reactions under favorable weather conditions should be paid more attention for formulating control strategies for primary emission in the future in the PRD region.

  12. Study on Renewal Planning of Declining Historic Quarters:Inspired from the Discussion on Conservation of the Old City in South Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through collecting,reflecting and summarizing various opinions on the conservation of the old city in South Nanjing,this paper examines the problems that the declining historic quarters are facing amid the urban renewal process.Moreover,in combination with the existing planning practices in the old city in South Nanjing,this paper carries out a discussion on the renewal of the declining historic quarters from the perspective of values,exploration and assessment of historic resources,choice of renewal methods,and support of implementation system.

  13. City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

  14. Measurements and receptor modeling of volatile organic compounds in south-eastern Mexico City, 2000–2007

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    V. Gutiérrez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ambient samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured between 2000 and 2007 in south-eastern Mexico City, quantifying 13 species (ethane, propane, propylene, butane, acetylene, pentane, hexane, heptane, benzene, octane, toluene, nonane, o-xylene. These time series were analyzed for long-term trends, using linear regression models. A main finding was that the concentrations for several of the quantified VOC species were decreasing during this period. A receptor model was applied to identify possible VOC sources, as well as temporal patterns in their respective activities. Domestic use of liquefied petroleum gas and vehicle exhaust are suggested to be the principal emission sources, contributing together between 70% and 80% to total VOC. Both diurnal and seasonal patterns, as well as a weekend effect were recognized in the modelled source activities. Furthermore, vehicle exhaust emissions showed a decreasing trend over time, with a reduction of about 8% per year.

  15. Human Linguatulosis Caused by Linguatula serrata in the City of Kerman, South-eastern Iran- Case Report.

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    Rostam Yazdani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human linguatulosis poses an important medical and veterinary concern in endemic countries. Animals, as reservoir host, play a major role in transmission of infestation and epidemiology of the disease. This study reports a case of human linguatulosis caused by Linguatula serrata in the city of Kerman, South-eastern Iran. A woman suffering from upper respiratory symptoms is presented. The patient consumed raw liver of sheep who was admitted to the Afzalipour University Hospital in Kerman for the symptoms of upper respiratory tract. In microscopic examination of the nasopharyngeal discharge, L. serrata was detected. This report has future medical implication in precise diagnosis of L. serrata in patients with complaints of nasopharyngeal symptoms.

  16. Neoliberal Governmentality, Schooling and the City: Conceptual and Empirical Notes on and from the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Fataar, Aslam

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies ideas that emanate from the Global North, concerning neoliberalism and neoliberal governmentality, to the case of marketisation in South Africa. It also attends to the limits of Northern ideas that are both intellectual undertakings and policy manifestations. In the first part of the paper, we identify how rationales for school…

  17. [The impact of ecologic risk factors in mining cities of South Ural].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of common and primary morbidity according the statistic form 12 is presented. The assessment of health risk in major age groups of population in mining cities of Republic of Bashkortostan is provided. The dynamics of morbidity indicators trends to increasing because in all age groups higher levels of morbidity were detected. The analysis of input of environment pollution into morbidity of population of cities of Utchaly and Sybay revealed that a significant role is played by environment factors. So, the existence of specific geochemical territory and anthropogenic pollution of environment with inorganic compounds of highly toxic metals is a most significant risk fasctor impacting population health. This condition urges to develop various preventive measures.

  18. Identifying Anophele fauna in Qayenat city in the South khorasan Province (2010-2011

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    Hossien Borna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Biological vectors of malaria are only anopheles mosquitoes. Since the vector control without identifying them and understanding their biology is not possible, the present study was designed to identify anopheles fauna in different areas of Qayenat city and their internal or external shelters.   Materials and Methods: Larvae, pupae, and adults of anopheles mosquitoes were collected from their internal and external shelters in rural areas in plains and mountainous spots in Qayenat city during a cross-sectional and descriptive study between April 2010 and October 2011. This was done either singularly or collectively through taking samples of the larvae from various inhabitats through scooping. The caught samples were transferred to laboratory in order to determine their type using the valid key to identify adult anopheles and larvae in Iran (Shahgvdyan.   Results: A total of 2165 samples including 1711 larvae and 454 adults were collected from different parts of Qayenat city. After identification and validation of the samples 4 species of Anopheles were diagnosed. The samples were superpictus, multicolor, sacharovi, and turkhodai with the percent 72.2%, 27.9%, 0.44%, and 0.44% respectively. Most abundant Anopheles were reported to exist in the months of July and August.   Conclusion: Regarding the high frequency of superpictus anopheles in the area and its condition, it is necessary to make essential provision for a comprehensive program to control malaria In order to prevent outbreaks of the epidemic in suitable seasons of the year.

  19. Supply Chain of Organic Salak Pondoh (Salacca zalacca var.pondoh in Pagar Alam City- South Sumatera Province

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    Herfiani Rizkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a continued research of sertification of Salak var. Pondoh in Pagar Alam. This aim of this study is to get informations about characteristic and condition of organik Salak var. pondoh supply chain in Pagar Alam City, South Sumatera. In year 2012, the Sertification organic agencies (LSO of West Sumatera have delivered organic sertification to about 5 ha land area of Salak var pondoh of Dempo’s farmer group. Since that time, the production of an organic Salak pondoh in Pagar Alam city increased every year, from 1.27ton per year in 2011 become 1.42 ton per year in 2013 for every 0.25 Ha of  land area. The price of organic salak var. Pondoh Pagar Alam ranged from IDR 5000 until IDR 12000 at level of farmer and from 10000 until IDR 15000 in level of consumers. The actor in Supply chain of organic Salak var.pondoh in Pagar Alam, covering : farmer,  group of farmer, distributor, and or outlet (a place of bussiness for retailing salak, and retailer/domestic consumers. The activities along the supply chain of Salak var. Pondoh in Pagar Alam covering : harvesting, collecting and shelters of harvest, cleaning, sortation, grading and distribution.

  20. Assessment of Human Exposure to Magnetic Field from Overhead High Voltage Transmission Lines in a City in South Western Nigeria

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    Ponnle Akinlolu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in electricity consumption, population, and land use has now forced high voltage transmission lines (HVTLs either to pass or be installed around or through urban cities. This increases the level of human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation as this field produced around the HVTLs extends outwards covering some distance. This may cause a number of health hazards. It is even dangerous to a human who touch any metallic object in proximity of the HVTL, as it may have an appreciable voltage induced on it due to inductive, capacitive or resistive interference from the line. This paper evaluates the magnetic field produced at mid-span by a 132kV, and a 330kV, 50Hz adjacent HVTLs with horizontal and vertical configuration in Akure, a city in South Western Nigeria using analytical method from electromagnetic field theory. This is then compared to the recommended standard limit of public exposure to magnetic field. The results of the computation showed that currently, the general public exposure to the magnetic field along the HVTLs is safe. However, right of way (ROW along the power lines is being violated as buildings and work places exist within the ROW.

  1. Human and remote sensing data to investigate the frontiers of urbanization in the south of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lopez, Juan Miguel; Heider, Katharina; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    The data presented here were originally collected for the article "Frontiers of Urbanization: Identifying and Explaining Urbanization Hot Spots in the South of Mexico City Using Human and Remote Sensing" (Rodriguez et al. 2017) [4]. They were divided into three databases (remote sensing, human sensing, and census information), using a multi-method approach with the goal of analyzing the impact of urbanization on protected areas in southern Mexico City. The remote sensing database was prepared as a result of a semi-automatic classification, dividing the land cover data into urban and non-urban classes. The second data set details an alternative view of the phenomena of urbanization by concentrating on illegal settlements in the conservation zone. It was based on voluntary complaints about environmental and land use offences filed at the Procuraduria Ambiental y del Ordenamiento Territorial del Distrito Federal (PAOT), which is a governmental entity responsible for reviewing and processing grievances on five basic topics: illegal land use, deterioration of green areas, waste, noise/vibrations, and animals. Anyone can file a PAOT complaint by phone, electronically, or in person. The complaint ends with a resolution, act of conciliation, or recommendation for action by other actors, such as the police or health office. The third data about unemployment was extracted from Mexico׳s National Census 2010 database available via public access.

  2. Genetic variation of Garra rufa fish in Kermanshah and Bushehr provinces, Iran, using SSR microsatellite markers

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    Ali Shabani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Six highly variable microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the Garra rufa in Kermanshah and Bushehr provinces, Iran. All of the 6 microsatellite loci screened in this study showed polymorphism. A total of 90 individual fish from 3 populations were genotyped and 60 alleles were observed in all loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to14. The average allelic number of these polymorphic markers was 10. The averages of observed (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He was 0.529 and 0.826, respectively. The genetic distance values ranged between 0.235-0.570. The UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distance resulted in three clusters: Gamasiab population alone was classified as one and the other two populations as the second cluster. This study revealed a fairly high level of genetic variation in the microsatellite loci within the three populations, and identified distinct population groups of Garra rufa. This study gains significance for the analysis of the populations’ genetic diversity as well as the management of this important fish resource.

  3. Association Between Aeroallergens and Allergic Diseases Based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr Province

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    Ali Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases is growing in the world and Iran. Allergens play an important role in creating these diseases. Since inhalation allergens are an important part of these allergens the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of aeroallergens and their association with allergic diseases based on skin prick test (SPT. Material and Methods: In this study, the frequency of these allergens were examined by using 22 aeroallergens and based on Skin Prick Test in 1100 patients with allergic diseases who referred to Shohadaye- Khalije- Fars university hospital. Results: The reaction severity of SPT and the severity of disease associated with inhaled allergens with Russian thistle (21.1%, P꞊0.001, Chenopodium album pollen (14%, P꞊0.001 and Dermatophagoid Pteronyssinus (9%, P꞊0.001 respectively. Also, in these patients, the frequency of inhalation allergens were House Dust Mite (HDM (69%, feather (60.8%, Russian this tle (59.9% pollen and Alternaria mold (59.6% respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that outdoors inhaled allergens  such as Russian thistle and Chenopodium album pollen have the most allergenicity in patients with allergic and asthma in Bushehr province, Meanwhile, the prevalence of indoor aeroallergens such as HDM, feather and mold were high in these patients.

  4. Association Between Allergic Diseases and Food Allergens Based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr Province

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    Saman Keshvari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Frequency of allergic diseases is growing in recent years. Identification of frequency of food allergens in different areas play an important role in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine frequency and association of common food allergens in patients with allergic diseases based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr province. Material and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 1100 patients were enrolled with allergic diseases which had a sensitivity to at least one allergen.  This test was carried out with 21 common food allergens extract. Results: In all patients, association between the severity of the reaction prick allergy test and severity of allergic diseases with shrimp, cow's Milk and peanuts were (P= 0.01, (P= 0.02 and (P=0.04 respectively. In this study, the frequency of allergic rhinitis, asthma, chronic and acute urticaris and atopic eczema were 54.2%, 23%, 12.4%, 4.1% and 12%, respectively. While the the most common food allergens were peanuts (46.6%, egg yolk (43.1% and shrimp (42% respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that food allergens such as shrimp, cow's Milk and peanuts have a greater role in severity of allergic diseases and this food allergens showed the highest frequency in patients.

  5. Relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density in Bushehr population

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    Somayeh Amiri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea consumption is common throughout the world, especially in Iran and it was known as the most common beverages. Several studies evaluated negative effect of coffee and relationship between its caffeine content with bone density. But relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density is less observed. Considering high amount of tea consumption and prevalence of osteoporosis in Iran, it is important to investigate this relationship.Materials and Method: Population study includes 1125 subjects (aged 20- 72 years randomly selected by cluster sampling in Bushehr, who participated in general project of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The participants were categorized based on degree of tea consumption: high tea drinkers (more than 4 cups of tea per day and low tea drinkers (equal or less than 4 cups of tea per day.Results: In high tea drinkers, mean score for bone density was significantly higher in neck and total femur. But this difference in isolated groups (according to sex, age and both of them was not seen.Conclusion: The result of this study indicates on a direct relationship between tea drinking and increasing of bone mineral density. Moreover, it shows the prevalence of osteoporosis is lower in people who have a regular daily habit of tea consumption

  6. Studying the Influence of Market Orientation on Job Attitude The Case of Commercial Banks in Bushehr

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    manijeh bahrainizadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever changing of business trends and increase of competition among companies has made the surrounding environment of organizations, more diverse. Diagnosing future business trends and moving towards the way that organizational goals might be achievable, highlights the importance of marketing research and subjects such as market orientation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of market orientation on job attitude, which is essential for internal marketing. This research is typically a practical and descriptive survey. Hypothesis and the instrument of measuring market orientation have been derived from the market orientation scale of Narver and Slater (1990 and the instrument for measuring job attitude has been derived from standardized scales. Statistical population of this research includes the commercial banks in Bushehr. Using appropriate statistical methods, 234 individuals have been selected as the sample. Reliability internal consistency of data has been approved considering Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data has been further analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and regression tests using SPSS software. Findings imply that market orientation influences job attitude also component of market orientation influences organization commitment, job satisfaction and customer orientation and inter-functional coordination influences intention to leave. In addition, none of the components of market orientation has impact on role conflict and competitor orientation has no correlation with intention to leave. Finally, suggestions have been presented for improving performance of commercial banks and future research.

  7. Consequences of Promoting Less-Populated Rural Areas to Urban Areas: A Case Study, Bushehr Province

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    Ali Bastin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified law of Iranian Administrative divisions has greatly altered the pattern of settlement in recent decades. The promotion of rural areas to urban areas has shifted from mere population standard to combined population-administrative standards. However, all censuses suggest that many rural areas reported as smaller than the minimum population standard have been promoted to urban areas. In the last two decades, this is a clearly prominent phenomenon in the urban system of Iran. This paper evaluates the effects and consequences of promoting small and sparsely populated rural areas to urban areas in the Bushehr province. The used methodology is analytic-descriptive using a questionnaire distributed among 380 members of the target population. Data analysis is conducted in physical, economic, social and urban servicing domains using one-sample T-test and the utility range. The results show that promotion of rural areas to urban areas has positive outcomes such as improved waste disposal system, improved quality of residential buildings, increased monitoring of the construction, increased income, prevented migration and improved health services. However, the results of utility range show that the negative consequences of this policy are more than its positive outcomes, which have been studied in detail.

  8. Fuel Burnup and Fuel Pool Shielding Analysis for Bushehr Nuclear Reactor VVER-1000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Kamal; Ayobian, Navid

    Bushehr Nuclear power plant (BNPP) is currently under construction. The VVER-1000 reactor will be loaded with 126 tons of about 4% enriched fuel having 3-years life cycle. The spent fuel (SF) will be transferred into the spent fuel pool (SPF), where it stays for 8 years before being transferred to Russia. The SPF plays a crucial role during 8 years when the SP resides in there. This paper investigates the shielding of this structure as it is designed to shield the SF radiation. In this study, the SF isotope inventory, for different cycles and with different burnups, was calculated using WIMS/4D transport code. Using MCNP4C nuclear code, the intensity of γ rays was obtained in different layers of SFP shields. These layers include the water above fuel assemblies (FA) in pool, concrete wall of the pool and water laid above transferring fuels. Results show that γ rays leakage from the shield in the mentioned layers are in agreement with the plant's PSAR data. Finally we analyzed an accident were the water height above the FA in the pool drops to 47 cm. In this case it was observed that exposure dose above pool, 10 and 30 days from the accident, are still high and in the levels of 1000 and 758 R/hr.

  9. Dietary exposure to aluminium of urban residents from cities in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Wang, Jing; Li, Min; Liang, Xuxia; Dai, Guangwei; Hu, Zhikun; Wen, Jian; Huang, Qiong; Zhang, Yonghui

    2013-01-01

    A dietary survey was conducted over three consecutive days by using 24-hour dietary recall in the Pearl River Delta of South China to investigate the dietary consumption status. A total of 1702 food samples, 22 food groups, were collected, and aluminium concentrations of foods were determined by using ICP-MS. Weekly dietary exposure to aluminium of the average urban residents of South China was estimated to be 1.5 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, which amounted to 76% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Wheat-made products (53.5%) contributed most to the dietary exposure, followed by vegetables (12.2%). The high-level consumers' weekly exposure to aluminium was 11.1 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, which amounted to 407% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake. The results indicated that the general urban residents in South China might be safe from aluminium exposure, but the high-level consumers might be at some risk of aluminium exposure. The foods contributing to aluminium exposure were processed food with aluminium-containing food additives. It is necessary to take effective measures to control the overuse of aluminium-containing food additives.

  10. [Changes of agroecosystem service value during urbanization of Guangzhou City, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yan-Qiong; Li, Yi-Mian; Zhang, Jia-En

    2011-06-01

    Based on the 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008 statistical data of Guangzhou City, and by the methods of marketing valuation, shadow price, afforestation cost, carbon tax, and industrial oxygen-producing, this paper calculated the related service values of various agroecosystems in Guangzhou, and assessed the changes of agroecosystem service value during the rapid urbanization of the City. In 1996-2008, though the service values of farmland, grassland, and water ecosystems had somewhat increase, the overall agroecosystem service value of Guangzhou decreased, mainly due to the more decrease of forest ecosystem service value which occupied more than 90% of the total service value each year. Over the studied period, the proportion of each individual functional service value to the total service value changed little, and the contribution of each individual functional service value was in the order of climate regulation > gases regulation > product service > waste treatment > soil conservation > biodiversity conservation > recreation and culture > water source retention and storage. The sum of climate regulation and gases regulation service values took over 91% of the total agroecosystem service value. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.905, P agroecosystem service value, suggesting that the increase of urbanization rate would lead to a decrease of agroecosystem service value. Therefore, it requires an appropriate reservation of various agroecosystems to maintain the regional sustainable development during urbanization.

  11. Mapping cycling patterns and trends using Strava Metro data in the city of Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musakwa, Walter; Selala, Kadibetso M

    2016-12-01

    Plans for smart mobility through cycling are often hampered by lack of information on cycling patterns and trends, particularly in cities of the developing world such as Johannesburg. Similarly, traditional methods of data collection such as bicycle counts are often expensive, cover a limited spatial extent and not up-to-date. Consequently, the dataset presented in this paper illustrates the spatial and temporal coverage of cycling patterns and trends in Johannesburg for the year 2014 derived from the geolocation based mobile application Strava. To the best knowledge of the authors, there is little or no comprehensive dataset that describes cycling patterns in Johannesburg. Perhaps this dataset is a tool that will support evidence based transportation planning and smart mobility.

  12. British Council Project in Romania the South-East European Network of Creative Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Victor IONESCU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A Guidebook to Creative Industries in Iasi, Romania, 2006 is a project initiated by the British Council Centre Iasi concerning “creativeindustries”. After the conferences and workshops – in Plovdiv with the regional partners, in Iasi and Bucharest with the British and the localconsultants, the team has managed to put into practice one of the key projects it set out to achieve: publishing a unified inventory of the main actorsof the industrial-creative sector in Iasi. The purpose of this project is to bring to the attention of the potential partners and supporters the city‘spotential for economic and image “re-invention”, which “unify” Iasi through its creative energies and resources and to facilitate the creation of newcreative/ profitable partnership projects – in Romania, in the UK and in South-East Europe. This guidebook is the tangible sign of the beginning ofthe journey.

  13. Antimicrobial effects of 14 Medicinal plant speices of Dashti in Bushehr province

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    Afshin Shirkani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants are used in treating diseases as low-risk, available and inexpensive natural materials with higher consumption by people comparing to synthetic antimicrobial drugs. Excessive use of antimicrobial drugs led to medicinal resistance against different antibiotics in most bacteria. Material and Methods: In this empirical experimental study, the antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts of 14 medicinal plants species were examined comparing to conventional therapeutic antibiotics against standard bacterial strains. The plant species were collected from dashti of Bushehr province.The methanolic extract of the cultivations broths were prepared in different concentrations (0/25%, 0/5%, 1%, 2% and 4% dissolved in DMSO/ Methanolic solution and their antibacterial potency respected on the inhibition zone using the disc diffusion assay. Results: The maximum effects on Escherichia coli belonged to Arundo donax and the least effects belonged to Calotropis procera. The maximum effects on Staphylococcus aureus belonged to Lawsonia inermis and the least effects belonged to Calotropis procera. The maximum effects on Micrococcus luteus belonged to Phoeniex doctylifera and the least effects belonged to Oligomeris baccatus. The maximum effects on Klebsiella pneumonia belonged to mnocarpos decander and the least effects belonged Oligomeris baccatus. The maximum effects on pseudomonas aeroginosa belonged to Arundo donax. The maximum effects on Bacillus subtilis belonged to Astragalus arbusculinus. Conclusion: The antimicrobial effects of 4% methanolic extracts of Arundo donax were comparable to Cephalotin (30mcg, Piperacilin (30mcg and Amikacin (30mcg against Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeroginosa. The antimicrobial effects of %4 extracts of Lawsonia inermis were similar to Amikacin (30mcg and Chloramphenicol (30mcg against Klebsiella penumoniae.

  14. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Primary School Children in Bushehr, Iran

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    Barazesh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Due to their weak immune systems, contact with soil, and failure to comply with hygiene principles, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is high among children. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and the effects of various factors among elementary school children in Bushehr, Iran. Methods Following coordination with the education office, schools were randomly selected from different areas, and fecal samples were collected from 203 males and females students at different education levels. The samples were examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The data were collected via questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and the Chi-squared test. Results Approximately 25.1% of the children were infected with at least one type of intestinal parasite, and 5.9% of them were infected with more than one species. The highest prevalence was apparent in children at education levels 4 and 5. There was no significant relationship between infection and parents’ education and some clinical symptoms, such as abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and nausea, but there was a significant relationship with the number of family members. Conclusions The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was relatively high among the schoolchildren in this study. Since these parasites can cause anemia and dysfunctional nutrient absorption, growth, and learning among children, it is suggested that training courses be held for parents and that basic steps be taken to improve the level of hygiene in the region to prevent the transmission of these parasites.

  15. Determining nurses\\' clinical competence in hospitals of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences by self assessment method

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    Masood mahreini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses’ self awareness of their own level of clinical competence is essential in maintaining high standards of care and identifying areas of educational need and professional development. Self-assessment is a method for measuring clinical competence, and encourages nurses to use reflective thinking and take an active part in the learning process. Although nurse competence may vary between hospitals, very few studies have been done on this subject. Methods: In this cross sectional study, we analyzed clinical competency of 190 registered nurses working in different hospitals in Bushehr by self assessment method. The instrument for data collection was a valid and reliable questionnaire consisting of 73 items from seven categories which were devised from Benner's “from Novice to Expert” framework. The level of competence was assessed on a scale of 0-100 and the frequency of using the competencies was assessed on a Likert scale. Results: the nurses reported their overall level of competence as “good” (51-75. They felt more competent in the categories of “managing situations” and “helping role” (with maximum score of 79.54 and least competent in “teaching – coaching” and “ensuring quality” categories (with minimum score of 61.15. The frequency of practicing competencies had a positive correlation with the level of nursing clinical competence. Conclusion: The level of nursing competence and frequency of using competencies varied in different hospitals. Although the nurses reported their overall level of competence as good, we should be concerned about 24% of competencies which are not used by the nurses, especially in "teaching – coaching" and "ensuring quality" categories.

  16. Preliminary investigation of radon concentration in surface water and drinking water in Shenzhen City, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Nanping; Li, Shijun

    2015-11-01

    A radon survey in surface water and drinking water was conducted using a portable degassing system associated with an ionisation chamber AlphaGUARD (PQ2000) for understanding levels of dissolved radon ((222)Rn) concentration in different types of water sources and risk assessment of radon in drinking water in Shenzhen City (SC) with a population of 10 628 900 in 2013, Guangdong Province of China. The measurements show that arithmetic means ± standard deviations of radon ((222)Rn) concentration are 52.05 ± 6.64, 0.29 ± 0.26, 0.15 ± 0.23 and 0.37 ± 0.42 kBq m(-3) in spring water, surface water, large and small public water supplies, respectively. Only radon concentrations of two water samples collected in mountainous areas are more than 11.10 kBq m(-3), exceeding the limit of radon concentration in drinking water stipulated by the national standard of China (GB5749-2006). The annual effective doses due to radon in drinking water were also calculated. The investigation suggests that there are no risks caused by radon in the drinking water in SC.

  17. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dadolahi-Sohrab; M Garavand-Karimi; H Riahi; H Pashazanoosi

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney’s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m−2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m−2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m−2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m−2), respectively.

  18. Investigating Awareness Amount of Nursing Students of Medical Sciences University of Bushehr about Ethic in Nursing Profession -2013

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    F Jahanpour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nurses' ethical responsibility in practice and care is required to be aware of the principles of professional ethics. The aim of this study was to determine nursing students' knowledge of ethics in nursing of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In the present analytical-descriptive sectional study, in which the participants are 4-8 semester nursing students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. The research tools for collecting information were tow-section questionnaires consisting of demographic data and specialized questions about ethic and rules in the nursing profession. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS software by using independent t-tests and chi-square. Results: Total awareness of 4-8 semester nursing students about ethic and rules in nursing profession was intermediate (53.78 percent. There was a considerable relation between sexuality and satisfaction (p.436. A considerable relation between students' educational semester and satisfaction amount was not also not observed (p>.927. Conclusions: Students' awareness about professional ethic wasn't very desirable so it is suggested that by holding moral workshops in nursing or settling moral courses in nursing students curriculum will increase the amount of nursing students' awareness about nursing ethics.

  19. Breast cancer survival rate according to data of cancer registry and death registry systems in Bushehr province, 2001-2013

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    Zahra Rampisheh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. Survival rate of breast cancer, especially as an indicator of the successful implementation of screening, diagnosis and treatment programs, has been at the center of attention of public health experts Material and Methods: In a survival study, the records of breast cancer cases in cancer registry system of Bushehr Province were extracted during 2001, March to 2013, September. These records were linked and matched with records of death registry system. After determining patients, status regarding being alive or dead, survival analysis was done. Life table, Kaplan-Mayer analysis, log rank and Breslow tests were used for computing and comparing survival rates. Results: In 300 recorded breast cancer cases, mean and standard deviation of age was 51.26±13.87. Survival rates were 95, 88, 78, 73 and 68 percent since the first year through the fifth year, respectively. Mean survival was 87.20 months (95% CI= 81.28- 93.12. There was no significant difference in mean survival regarding age and different geographical areas. Conclusion: Although survival rates of registered breast cancer patients in Bushehr Province are similar to other provinces, they are far from those of developed countries. This situation demands more extensive efforts regarding public education and improving the process of diagnosis, treatment and care of patients especially during first two years after diagnosis.

  20. Prevalence of Anemia in Brush Painters of a South Indian City, Mysore

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    Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Painters are chronically exposed to lead based paints, which causes anemia by impairing heme biosynthesis and increasing the red cell destruction. The present study was conducted to assess the lead exposure and haematological effects of lead in brush painters as they are chronically exposed to lead based paints. Objective: To estimate prevalence of anemia among brush painters and lead exposure among them. Methodology: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 occupational residential brush painters of Mysore city of India during July 2012 and September 2012. Subjects were interviewed using standardized questionnaire, mainly, for lead toxicity symptoms and personal hygiene. Venous blood samples were drawn and haematological parameters were determined (n=100. The marker of anaemia was haemoglobin concentration. Through Systematic random sampling, 30 samples were selected for blood lead concentration (PbB estimation. Results: The prevalence of anemia among the subjects was 3%. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 15.5±1.4 g/dL and mean blood lead concentration (PbB was 12.9±10.9 µg/dL. There was no significant correlation found between the PbB and haematological parameters. There was a high prevalence of lead toxicity symptoms and the symptoms were more in the less hygienic subjects than the hygienic subjects. Conclusion: The blood lead concentration among painters is less than the threshold (PbB >50 µg/dL for hematological alterations. Hence lead induced anaemia is not a health risk among brush painters. The PbB is also less than the recommended threshold for occupational exposure (30 µg/dL. But the high prevalence of lead toxicity symptoms indicates the long term health effects of lead even at low levels of exposure. Fortunately, being hygienic is an easily achievable goal to decrease the lead exposure among the painters.

  1. A Feasibility Test on Adopting Electric Vehicles to Serve as Taxis in Daejeon Metropolitan City of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For realizing sustainable development, EV (Electric Vehicle is currently considered as one of the most promising alternative due to its cleanness and inexhaustibility. However, the development and dissemination of EV has stagnated because it faces major constraints such as battery performance and an excessively long charging time. Thus, this study examined the feasibility of using EVs as taxis by analyzing real data from a pilot project in Daejeon, a metropolitan city in South Korea for proposing the effective way to adopt EV. To reflect reality and improve accuracy, we adopted scenarios and assumptions based on in-depth interviews with groups of experts. The resulting initial benefit-to-cost (B/C ratio for EV taxis is approximately 0.4, which is quite low compared to 0.7 for traditional taxis. However, after incorporating some further assumptions into the calculation, the B/C ratio shifts to approximately 0.7, which is more appropriate for EV adoption. For this improvement to be achieved, the dissemination of a charging infrastructure, improvement of the business model and policy support is strongly needed. Limitations to this work and potential areas for future study are also fully discussed.

  2. Temperature modifies the association between particulate air pollution and mortality: A multi-city study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Satbyul Estella; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho

    2015-08-15

    Substantial epidemiologic literature has demonstrated the effects of air pollution and temperature on mortality. However, there is inconsistent evidence regarding the temperature modification effect on acute mortality due to air pollution. Herein, we investigated the effects of temperature on the relationship between air pollution and mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory death in seven cities in South Korea. We applied stratified time-series models to the data sets in order to examine whether the effects of particulate matter effect of PM10 on daily mortality was first quantified within different ranges of temperatures at each location using a time-series model, and then the estimates were pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis using the maximum likelihood method. From all the data sets, 828,787 non-accidental deaths were registered from 2000-2009. The highest overall risk between PM10 and non-accidental or cardiovascular mortality was observed on extremely hot days (daily mean temperature: >99th percentile) in individuals aged effects from PM10 on non-accidental mortality with the highest temperature range (>99th percentile) in men, with a very high temperature range (95-99th percentile) in women. Our findings showed that temperature can affect the relationship between the PM10 levels and cause-specific mortality. Moreover, the differences were apparent after considering the age and sex groups.

  3. Urbanising Africa: the city centre revisited: Experiences with inner-city revitalisation from Johannesburg (South Africa), Mbabane (Swaziland), Lusaka (Zambia), Harare and Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Ahmad (Peter); I. Chirisa (Innocent); L. Magwaro-Ndiweni (Linda); M.W. Michundu (Mazuba); W.N. Ndela (William); M. Nkonge (Mphangela); D. Sachs (Daniella)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDrawing on practical experiences of almost 15 years working within Gauteng Province and the City of Johannesburg my paper will focus on the location of poor communities within Johannesburg in relation to selected Inner-City areas and public transportation networks. The introduction notes

  4. Build a Green City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYING; HAOXUE

    2005-01-01

    MA'ANSHAN,dubbed ""City of Iron and Steel,""is on the south bank of the Yangtze River in eastern Anhui Province, bordering Jiangsu Province. One of the city's most impressive features is its clean environment.

  5. Fat characteristics and fatty acid profile of sea cucumbers (Holothuria Scabra obtained from the coasts of the Bushehr province -Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jadavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sea cucumbers are belonging to echinoderms and one of the important members of the food chain in temperate ecosystems and tropical coral reefs. The medicinal and nutritional uses of these invertebrates are primordial and are important as ecological, biological and economic properties. Holothuria Scabra, as one of the most valuable commercial species of sea cucumber in the world, is the dominant species in many Persian Gulf coasts such as the Bushehr province coasts. Conspicuous characteristics such as the use of inexpensive foods in their culture, the rather rapid, easy and low cost growth and reproduction, the possibility of culture with other fish, reduce the organic substrate in pools, the broad tolerance in water factors changes such as salinity and temperature it has selected them to culture.It seems they are containing the significant amounts of nutrients, especially appreciated fatty acids. Therefore, the aims of the current study are determination of total fat content, quality and quantity evaluations of some physicochemical parameters such as acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, and refractive index (RI as well as, identify the profile of fatty acids in the fat. Materials & Methods: In this study, after collecting the 36 samples of sea cucumbers from the coasts of the bushehr province, sample preparation, and extraction of fat, their fatty acids profile were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID. Results: The peroxide and the acid values were 0.62±0.0435 and 0.7553±0.0034. The optical refractive index of the oil was 1467 at 26°C, and total fat was also 2%. Among 19 identified fatty acids obtained from the GC analysis of Holothuria Scabra oil, fatty acids: heneicosanoic acid, linoleic acid, palimitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, and Meristic acid, with respectively amounts of 40.81%, 27.5%, 15.24%, 4.73%, 4.46% and 2.38% had the highest values, and other fatty acids were negligible

  6. Comparative survey of environmental health status of schools have health trainer and without health trainer in Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Ramavandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: School, as a reliable place in student's education, has an important role in training. If health principles do not comply with in schools, students may be suffering from infectious diseases. Health trainer can be effective in improving school health. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of health trainer on environmental health level of schools in Bushehr province. Material and Methods This study was a descriptive - analytic study. A total of 20 samples were selected from each of the elementary schools have and not have health trainer using the method of stratified random sampling in the Bushehr province in the year 91-92. Data collected by researcher direct observation and using an assessment form of school environmental health contains 30 questions in 9 different sections. The statistical method used to analyze and test questions in this study were the chi square and Fisher exact test. Results: Based on findings of this research, between the environment health situation in schools with and without health trainer in 19 cases of health variables the significant difference was observed. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between health status of toilets (p<0.005, drinking water taps and buffet (p<0.001, yard and corridors (p<0.01, and solid waste disposal (p<0.025 in schools with and without health trainer in the year 91-92. Conclusion: Overall, the results indicate that the presence of health trainers in schools can lead to improved health status of the school. The schools without health trainer had very poor health status this issue required further try of concerned authorities to employee health trainers in schools.

  7. In depth analysis of the role of the mountain gap south of the Valley of Mexico on the air quality in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo Ruiz Suarez, Luis

    2010-05-01

    38 days of air quality observations in Tenango del Aire (TENAI), south of Mexico City during MILAGRO were analyzed. That site was managed by FQA-CCA-UNAM's team with a mobile laboratory equipped with standard air quality monitors: O3, NOx, NOy, CO, SO2 and surface meteorological parameters. Hosted additional instruments were: CH2O, column NO2 (DOAS), backscatter (Lidar) and pilot balloons. Also, an ultra light plane from IMK-IFU, equipped with O3, PM10, CN, Dew Point monitors flew around the Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl volcanoes and above of TENAI some days during MILAGRO. Atop of TENAI, the ultra light descended in spiral until near ground and ascended to resume its path. In addition to these measurements, UNAM team ran air quality numerical simulations using the Mesoscale Climate and Chemistry Model (MCCM) and an online coupled Wind Erosion Processor to MCCM we call WEPS-MCCM. The combined observations on the ground, the ultra light plane and the models results enabled us to carry out an in depth analysis of air quality in such important region south of Mexico City. Comparison were made with the episodes classification proposed by De Foy; Ozone North and South, Convection North and South, Cold Surge and South Venting to characterize dynamics in the Valley of Mexico. The aim was to define how well connected is TENAI with the air quality network in the MCMA. The influence of the mountain gap on ozone and PM10 levels in Mexico City is analyzed by episode type. Also, the impact of the mega city of Mexico on the nearby region to the south can be understood by observations in TENAI. More polluted episode types in TENAI are those called: Cold Surge, Ozone South and South Venting due to a wind shift occurring in early afternoon that brings back polluted air that was drained south during the morning and returns back to TENAI rich in aged air parcels. March 17 was chosen to show the integrated analysis of all variables observed and modeled (MCCM) in TENAI. In that day

  8. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF INDOOR FEATURES OF TEMRERATURE AND HUMIDITY FOR ROOMS FACING NORTH—SOUTH IN WINTER IN A LOW—LTITUDE PLATEAU CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一平; 李佑荣; 等

    2002-01-01

    Analyzing observations of wintertime air temperature in both indoor and outdoor surroundings in Kunming,a city lying in low latitudes,characteristics of temperature and humidity have been studied for the interior of rooms facing north-south under differnet weather conditions ,Signicant warming effect has been identified in terms of lowest and daily-mean indoor temperature in the area of Kumming.The heating amplitude ranges from 7.7℃ to 10.0℃ and from 4.6℃ to 5.8℃ for the interior part of rooms facing the south and from 4.6℃to 7.0℃and from 1.3℃ to 4.4℃ for the interior part of rooms facing the north,respectively for the two elements,The highest air temperature is higher indoor than outdoor for rooms facing the south,but otherwise is usually true for rooms facing the north,Additional findings point out that buildings not only help maintain relatively warm indoor temperature but delay its variation.The diurnal cycle of temperature indoor is smaller and ranges by 40%-48% for south-facing rooms,and by 20%-30% for north-facing rooms,than outdoor,and the highest temperature is about 2 hours hate inside the room than outside.It shows how inertly indoor temperature varies.The work also finds that relative humidity is less indoor in southward rooms than in northward ones and difference is the largest on fine days but the smallest when it is overcast.For the diurnal variation,the indoor relative humidity is large at nighttime with small amplitude but small during daytime with large amplitude.The above-presented results can be served as scientific foundation for more research no climate in low-latitude cities and rational design of urban architectures.

  9. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF INDOOR FEATURES OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY FOR ROOMS FACING NORTH-SOUTH IN WINTER IN A LOW-LATITUDE PLATEAU CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一平; 李佑荣; 王进欣; 刘玉洪; 马友鑫

    2002-01-01

    Analyzing observations of wintertime air temperature in both indoor and outdoor surroundings in Kunming,a city lying in low latitudes,characteristics of temperature and humidity have been studied for the interior of rooms facing north-south under different weather conditions.Significant warming effect has been identified in terms of lowest and daily-mean indoor temperature in the area of Kunming.The heating amplitude ranges from 7.7(C to 10.0(C and from 4.6(C to 5.8(C for the interior part of rooms facing the south and from 4.6(C to 7.0(C and from 1.3(C to 4.4(C for the interior part of rooms facing the north,respectively for the two elements.The highest air temperature is higher indoor than outdoor for rooms facing the south,but otherwise is usually true for rooms facing the north.Additional findings point out that buildings not only help maintain relatively warm indoor temperature but delay its variation.The diurnal cycle of temperature indoor is smaller and ranges by 40% ~48% for south-facing rooms,and by 20%~30% for north-facing rooms,than outdoor,and the highest temperature is about 2 hours late inside the room than outside.It shows how inertly indoor temperature varies.The work also finds that relative humidity is less indoor in southward rooms than in northward ones and difference is the largest on fine days but the smallest when it is overcast.For the diurnal variation,the indoor relative humidity is large at nighttime with small amplitude but small during daytime with large amplitude.The above-presented results can be served as scientific foundation for more research on climate in low-latitude cities and rational design of urban architectures.

  10. A survey on animal bite in children less than 16 years old in Bushehr 2001-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisoo Hatami

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Animal bite, particularly dog bite is a prevalent public health problem which has not been taken into consideration properly. Especially, children have less experience in handling dogs and do not consider the related dangers seriously. The aim of this study was to determine incidence and related factors of animal bite in children less than 16 years old in Bushehr. Methods: In a prospective survey, all children (or their parents younger than 16 years with an animal bite were interviewed from March 2001 to March 2006 in Bushehr. Some information was collected from their medical records. Results: A total of 240 children (mean age 9.14 years, minimum 90 days and maximum 15 years old were identified. The annual incidence of animal bite was 0.19 per 1000 children between 0-15 years of age. Animal bite was higher in 10-15 years old patients and its rate was low in younger children. The most common animal bite was dog bite (79.6% and in 84.2% of cases the animal was domestic. Most of the children (65% had single lesion. The affected region in under 5 years age group and ≥5 years age group were upper limb (41.5% and lower limb (55.3% respectively (P=0.0001. The prevalence of cat bite injury was almost two times higher in girls than boys. Also cat and monkey bites were more frequent in urban than rural areas. Inpatient treatment was required in 3 cases (1.3%. All patients received Rabies immunoglobulin and completed courses of vaccination (3 or 5 times according to animal being captured or escaped. No significant associations were found between the number of wounds (single or multiple, degree of wounds (superficial or deep, sex and age (<5 or ≥5 years old with the kind of animal (domestic or wild. Conclusion: Dog bite in children is frequent. Since the cost of post exposure prophylaxis is very high for national health sector, preventive strategies should focus on public education, especially for children.

  11. Bufotenine - A Hallucinogen in Ancient Snuff Powders of South America and a Drug of Abuse on the Streets of New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamakura, R P

    1994-06-01

    Bufotenine, an isomer of psilocin, is a controlled Schedule I hallucinogenic substance under the New York state and Federal laws. Bufotenine was identified in 42 case samples received at the New York City Police Laboratory since May 1992. The samples were hard, resinous, dark reddish-brown material, sold on the streets as "hashish". A few other cases were also seized in Orlando and Tampa, FL. Natural sources of bufotenine are: (a) plant material, mostly seeds of the genus Anadenanthera (formerly Piptadenia); (b) plant organs of other genera; (c) toads (Bufo marinus, B. vulgaris, B. viridian, and B. avarice); and (d) mushrooms (Amanita amp, A. Citrina, A. Porphyria, and A. tomentella). The genus Anadenanthera is native to South America and West Indies. Historically, material made from seeds of genus Anadenanthera was, and in isolated areas is still, used by the native Indians of South America and West Indies. Native Indians make intoxicating snuffs from the seeds of Anadenanthera. Recently, bufotenine was identified in 1,200-year-old archaeological samples of an Anadenanthera material found in an excavated tomb in Northern Chile. Historical and published literature on the pharmacology, toxicology, and biological effects of bufotenine and bufotenine-containing material are reviewed. The case material was probably derived from the seeds of genus Andenanthera. There were no prior reported cases of this material being used outside the native Indian areas of South America and West Indies. Indications are that in New York City this material is smoked in combination with marijuana. Bufotenine in case material can be identified by color test, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Though the mass spectra of bufotenine and psilocin (parent compounds and mono-acetyl and di-acetyl derivatives) are very similar, their GC retention times are different. Case samples also gave multiple GC peaks, probably due to the added ingredients during the

  12. Resource management and operations in southwest South Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary January 20-21, 2016, Rapid City, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W; Symstad, Amy; Ray, Andrea; Miller, Brian; Cross, Molly; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the southwest South Dakota grasslands focal area, with an emphasis on Badlands National Park and Buffalo Gap National Grassland. The report explains scenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held January 20-21, 2016 in Rapid City, South Dakota, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  13. [Simulation of urban ecological security pattern based on cellular automata: a case of Dongguan City, Guangdong Province of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Sheng; Qiao, Ji-Gang; Ai, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Taking the Dongguan City with rapid urbanization as a case, and selecting landscape ecological security level as evaluation criterion, the urbanization cellular number of 1 km x 1 km ecological security cells was obtained, and imbedded into the transition rules of cellular automata (CA) as the restraint term to control urban development, establish ecological security urban CA, and simulate ecological security urban development pattern. The results showed the integrated landscape ecological security index of the City decreased from 0.497 in 1998 to 0.395 in 2005, indicating that the ecological security at landscape scale was decreased. The CA-simulated integrated ecological security index of the City in 2005 was increased from the measured 0.395 to 0.479, showing that the simulated urban landscape ecological pressure from human became lesser, ecological security became better, and integrated landscape ecological security became higher. CA could be used as an effective tool in researching urban ecological security.

  14. Continuation, south of Oaxaca City (southern Mexico) of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary and of the Oaxaca Fault. Based in MT, gravity and magnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Corbo, F.; Arzate-Flores, J.; Belmonte-Jimenez, S.; Arango-Galván, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Oaxaca Fault represents Tertiary extensional reactivation of the Juarez shear zone constituting the boundary-suture between the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes (southern Mexico). South of Oaxaca City, the fault trace disappears and there are not clear evidences for its southward continuation at depth. The crust in southern México has been studied through seismic refraction, and seismological and magnetotelluric (MT) studies. The refraction studies did not image the Oaxaca Fault. However, previous regional MT studies suggest that the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary lies to the east of the Zaachila and Mitla sub-basins, which implies sinistral displacement along the Donaji Fault. Campos-Enriquez et al. (2009) established the shallow structure of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary based in detailed gravity and magnetic studies. This study enabled: 1) to establish the shallow structure of the composite depression comprising three N-S sub-basins: the northern Etla and southern Zaachila sub-basins separated by the Atzompa sub-basin. According to the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary is displaced sinistrally ca. 20 km along the E-W Donají Fault, which defines the northern boundary of the Zaachila sub-basin. At the same time,, the Oaxaca Fault may either continue unbroken southwards along the western margin of a horst in the Zaachila sub-basin or be offset along with the terrane boundary. This model implies that originally the suture was continuous south of the Donaji Fault. A constraint for the accreation of the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes. Thirty MT soundings were done in the area of the Central Valleys, Oaxaca City (southern Mexico). In particular we wanted to image the possible southward continuation of the Oaxaca Fault. 22 Mt sounding are located along two NE-SW profiles to the northern and to the south of the City of Oaxaca. To the north of Oaxaca City, the electrical resistivity distribution obtained show a clear discontinuity across the superficial trace of the Oaxaca

  15. Research on flux of dry atmospheric falling dust and its characterization in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinping; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Ma, Shexia; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-09-01

    Guangzhou is the central city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, and is one of the most polluted cities in the world. To characterize the ambient falling dust pollution, two typical sampling sites: urban (Wushan) and suburban (University Town) areas in Guangzhou city were chosen for falling dust collection over 1 year at time intervals of 1 or 2 months. The flux of dry deposition was calculated. In addition, mineral composition and morphology of atmospheric falling dust were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and microscopic observation. The results revealed that the dust flux in Guangzhou city was 3.34-3.78 g/(m(2) month) during the study period. The main minerals in the dust were quartz, illite, calcite, kaolinite, gypsum, plagioclase, dolomite, and amorphous matter. The morphological types included grained and flaky individual minerals, chain-like aggregates, spherical flying beads, and irregular aggregates, with the chain-like and spherical aggregates indicators of industrial ash. The major dusts were derived from industrial and construction activities. The gypsum present in the dust collected in winter season was not only derived from cement dust but may also have originated from the reaction of calcic material with sulfuric acids resulting from photooxidation of SO(x) and NO(x), which confirmed serious air pollution due to SO(x) and NO(x) in Guangzhou. The abatement of fossil fuel combustion emissions and construction dust will have a significant beneficial effect on dust reduction.

  16. Performance graphs for solar-savings fraction vs. load-collector ratio for selected cities in the South

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, D.W.; Winkler, G.A.

    1981-06-01

    A graphical presentation is provided of Solar Savings Fraction (SFF) versus Load Collector Ratio (LCR) for 14 southern cities. Individual plots are shown for five standard passive systems: direct gain, Trombe wall, water wall, Type A sunspace, and Type B sunspace. Both uninsulated and night-insulated systems are considered for a total of ten plots per site. Instructions for using the graphs to estimate Solar Savings Fraction and annual auxiliary energy consumption are also included.

  17. Assessment of Human Exposure to Magnetic Field from Overhead High Voltage Transmission Lines in a City in South Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnle Akinlolu; Adedeji Kazeem

    2015-01-01

    The increase in electricity consumption, population, and land use has now forced high voltage transmission lines (HVTLs) either to pass or be installed around or through urban cities. This increases the level of human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation as this field produced around the HVTLs extends outwards covering some distance. This may cause a number of health hazards. It is even dangerous to a human who touch any metallic object in proximity of the HVTL, as it may have an appre...

  18. Urban advantage or Urban penalty? A case study of female-headed households in a South African city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Allison; Dodson, Belinda; Hill, Trevor

    2010-05-01

    Basic services have improved in many urban areas of South Africa, which should improve health and well-being. However, poverty and ill-health persist and are unequally distributed by race, class and place. This paper explores conditions of the most marginalized group, female-headed households, in a case study of Msunduzi Municipality (formerly Pietermaritzburg). Data from two household surveys conducted in 2006 show important patterns regarding the incidences of and coping strategies around, illnesses and deaths. While some positive environmental health outcomes are apparent, considerable stresses face households in relation to HIV/AIDS related deaths, poverty, and lack of health services. The insights of both urban environmental health and feminist geography assist in explaining the gendered and spatialized patterns of health in post-apartheid urban South Africa.

  19. The effect of dust on the chemical and microbiological qualities of the date palm fruits from Bushehr-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Delkhah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The date palm cultivation has a long history in Bushehr province. Throughout the recent decade the dusts, in addition to direct harmful effects on humans, have adverse effects on health of the population living in this area. The infestation of pests in the southern province of Bushehr has groves. Due to the importance of dates in this area, the total ash and acid insoluble ash as indexes for assessing of chemical pollution and also, mold and yeast as indicators for microbial contamination were evaluated. Recently in a number of dates packaging industries, washing the products after the harvest is done. In current study, the effects of rinsing to decrease the dust pollution on date palm along with, the time effect on the quality and durability of washed and un-washed dates were investigated. Materials and Methods: Overall, 48 washed and un-washed dates were sampled from traditional and technologically advanced packaging industries, equally, and were confirmed according to ISIRI methods. Results: The Averages of total and acid insoluble ashes in washed date samples were:1.05±0.14 and 3.32±0.32%, and for un-washed samples were 1.36±0.27 and 4.59±1.64 percent, respectively. In all date samples were presented the yeast, however, their means were lower than the maximum limit (1×104 CFU. Also, all date samples were moldy. The Mean percentage of total ash samples in un-rinsed and rinsed dates were approximately, 1.84 and 1.33 times more than the maximum permissible limit, respectively. The mean of acid insoluble ash in all samples (100%, and 98% of total ash were higher than acceptable levels (p<0.05. The results revealed that the average percentage difference between the two groups were transpicuous, while this difference was not significant (p=0.13. Under the similar conditions, the average amount of yeast in washed date samples, were significantly different (p<0.05 and more than un-wash samples. The Mold levels in un-rinsed and

  20. An active serological survey of antibodies to newcastle disease and avian influenza (H9N2 viruses in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province,Iran, 2012–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Saadat

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated that NDV and AIV (H9N2 were endemic and widely distributed in backyard areas of Bushehr province which should be incorporated in the control strategies. Further studies are needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes, model their transmission risk, provide adapted control measures and design proper and applicable vaccination program.

  1. Radiocarbon ages of Holocene Pelado, Guespalapa, and Chichinautzin scoria cones, south of Mexico City: implications for archaeology and future hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebe, Claus; Rodríguez-Lara, Virgilio; Schaaf, Peter; Abrams, Michael

    Pelado, Guespalapa, and Chichinautzin monogenetic scoria cones located within the Sierra del Chichinautzin Volcanic Field (SCVF) at the southern margin of Mexico City were dated by the radiocarbon method at 10,000, 2,800-4,700, and 1,835 years b.p., respectively. Most previous research in this area was concentrated on Xitle scoria cone, whose lavas destroyed and buried the pre-Hispanic town of Cuicuilco around 1,665+/-35 years b.p. The new dates indicate that the recurrence interval for monogenetic eruptions in the central part of the SCVF and close to the vicinity of Mexico City is <2,500 years. If the entire SCVF is considered, the recurrence interval is <1,700 years. Based on fieldwork and Landsat imagery interpretation a geologic map was produced, morphometric parameters characterizing the cones and lava flows determined, and the areal extent and volumes of erupted products estimated. The longest lava flow was produced by Guespalapa and reached 24 km from its source; total areas covered by lava flows from each eruption range between 54 (Chichinautzin) and 80 km2 (Pelado); and total erupted volumes range between 1 and 2 km3/cone. An average eruption rate for the entire SCVF was estimated at 0.6 km3/1,000 years. These findings are of importance for archaeological as well as volcanic hazards studies in this heavily populated region.

  2. Size distribution and mixing state of refractory black carbon aerosol from a coastal city in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiyuan; Huang, Ru-Jin; Zhao, Zhuzi; Zhang, Ningning; Wang, Yichen; Ni, Haiyan; Tie, Xuexi; Han, Yongming; Zhuang, Mazhan; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jieru; Zhang, Xuemin; Dusek, Uli; Cao, Junji

    2016-11-01

    An intensive measurement campaign was conducted in the coastal city of Xiamen, China to investigate the size distribution and mixing state of the refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosol. The average rBC concentration for the campaign, measured with a ground-based single particle soot photometer (SP2), was 2.3 ± 1.7 μg m- 3, which accounted for ~ 4.3% of the PM2.5 mass. A potential source contribution function model indicated that emissions from coastal cities to the southwest were the most important source for the rBC and that shipping traffic was another likely source. The mass size distribution of the rBC particles was mono-modal and approximately lognormal, with a mass median diameter (MMD) of ~ 185 nm. Larger MMDs (~ 195 nm) occurred during polluted conditions compared with non-polluted times (~ 175 nm) due to stronger biomass burning activities during pollution episodes. Uncoated or thinly-coated particles composed the bulk of the rBC aerosol, and on average ~ 31% of the rBC was internally-mixed or thickly-coated. A positive matrix factorization model showed that organic materials were the predominant component of the rBC coatings and that mixing with nitrate increased during pollution conditions. These findings should lead to improvements in the parameterizations used to model the radiative effects of rBC.

  3. Dynamics of Antenatal Care and Birth Delivery Preferences in Puskesmas Kassi-Kassi, Makassar City, South Sulawesi

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    Syarifah Nuraini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Riskesdas 2010 illustrates that birth deliveries by health workers in low-income community reached 69.3%; while deliveries were conducted health workers at health facilities only reached 55.4%. This illustrates that the health facility or program that has given local or central government has not run optimally. Methods:This study aims to determine antenatal care and birth delivery preferences in the community and what factors underlie the preference. The location of research is precisely in the area of Puskesmas Kassi-kassi, Makassar City. Results showed that the mother already has the knowledge, attitudes and behavior quite well in maintaining health. Society does not always take advantage of government facilities. Antinatal care is mostly done in the doctor or midwife in private practice for reasons of convenience and prestige; while health centers for labor is still the main choice for the cheapest. Conclusion: Urban community in Kassi Health Center area have many option other than health center the quality only type of services is factor related to costumer choice because they are able to finance the cost. Recommendation: Government need to involve the private sector and do not ignore the social economic and culture condition for the successful of program.

  4. Study of particulate matters pollution related with meteorological factors for a city from South-Central of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MITRAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the effects of climate change and air pollution is at present a global priority. Development and implementation of effective policies in order to achieve these  reductions is a challenge that requires a good understanding of the underlying phenomena  of climate change and air pollution. This paper aims to highlight the seasonal variation of PM10 concentration in Pitesti city depending on major meteorological factors (temperature, intensity of solar radiation, and relative humidity. The applied methodology consists in statistical processing, using specialized software, of a database containing historical records of concentration values of this pollutant and of meteorological parameters recorded concurrently. The results of processing a series of approximately 30000 values recorded from 2008 to 2011 indicate the fact that in every season (winter,spring, summer, and autumn the concentration of PM10 varies according to a sixth degree polynomial function, whose variable is one of the considered meteorological factors. The mathematical relationship that best approximates the variation of average PM10 concentration in relation with the three meteorological factors is by the form of a multiple linear regression equation.Keywords: air pollution and human health, particulate matters related with meteorological factors, statistical analysis

  5. Association of HLA-DRB1 Alleles with Ulcerative Colitis in the City of Kerman, South Eastern Iran

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    Mojgan Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of HLA class II genes with ulcerative colitis (UC as an autoimmune disease has been investigated for several years. However, factors responsible for genetic predisposition of this disease have so far not been clearly understood. In this study, for the first time, we aimed to investigate the association between HLA-DRB1 types and UC in the population of Kerman, a city southeast Iran.HLA typing was performed among 85 UC patients and 95 healthy controls using PCRamplification, employing sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP. The DRB1 frequencies were determined in the patients and controls.HLA-DRB1*04 was negatively associated with UC. Furthermore, HLA-DRB1*13 was significantly associated with severity of the disease (p=0.01 among UC patients.This is the novel result that describes an association of HLA-DRB1*13 with UC and also shows the protective role of HLA-DRB1*04 against the disease in people of Kerman.

  6. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Worku

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, Pearson’s chi-square tests of association, and binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results. The study showed that 857 of the 1,034 businesses selected for the study (83% were found to be efficient enough with regards to the proper collection and disposal of solid waste. Based on odds ratios estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, efficiency in the proper management of solid waste was significantly influenced by 4 predictor variables. These 4 influential predictor variables are lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and operation of businesses by employed managers, in a decreasing order of importance.

  7. 苏南县级城市防洪规划浅析%Analysis on the Flood Control Planning of a County-level City in South Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高焕芝; 秦建平; 李丽; 朱晓红; 彭晓光; 温善荣

    2014-01-01

    分析了苏南某县级城市城市洪涝的风险,针对现有防洪体系存在的主要问题,结合流域规划和城市总体发展规划,初步确定了城市防洪标准,提出了城市防洪工程措施和非工程措施、管理措施规划,以期初步形成综合防洪减灾体系,为城市可持续发展提供防洪安全保障。%This paper analyzes the urban flood risk of a county-level city in South Jiangsu, and in the light of the main problems in existing flood control system, and connecting with the watershed planning and overall urban development planning, preliminarily determines the urban flood control standard, and puts forward both engineering and non-engineering measures for urban flood control and the management planning in order to preliminarily form the integrated flood control and disaster mitigation system and provide the flood control safety guarantee for the city’s sustainable development.

  8. Effect of Air Pollutants on Rain Water Characteristics in Hammam Al-Aleel District/ Al-Erej Village South of Mosul City

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    Ayad F. Qasim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on Hammam Al-Aleel district/ Al-Erej village which is located south of Mosul city. This area has been suffering from spreading the air-pollutants resulted from the chimneys of Hammam Al-Aleel cement factories. Different areas were chosen for collecting samples of the rain water from December 2008 to March 2009. The study showed that rain-water is generally basic. The tests show an increase in ( EC, Mg+2, Ca+2, Cl-1, SO4-2 and NO-1,  due to the air pollutants emitted from local industries. The concentration of heavy elements represented by  Pb and Cd were high and this increase is due to the source of these elements from burning of the crude oil which is used in running the rotating kiln to produce the clinker in cement factory, In addition to the fuel used for  running vehicle and the friction between tires and  road.

  9. 苏南城市物流“最后一里”运营思路初探%The Research of the‘Last Mile’ -operation in the City Logistics of South Jiangsu Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤嘉

    2014-01-01

    苏南诸城市由于城市化进程快、经济发展水平高,“最后一里”问题在城市物流中逐渐形成制约其城市发展的“瓶颈”,成为城市物流中影响其运作效率、甚至间接影响环境的城市物流问题。针对该问题,应以地方政府主导、第四方物流整合供应商主持、规范物流合同来保障,以及设定城市配送中心等方法,多管齐下,综合加以解决。%Due to the scale and the speed of the economic development of the cities in south Jiangsu, PR China, the problem of“last mile” in city logistics comes to turn into the‘bottleneck’ in the cities' development, even negative to the efficient of city logistics and the environment of the cities. In order to solve this problem, the policy pilot of local government, the organization and control of the lead logistics provider, the useful logistics' contract between the participants in city logistics, and the central distribution warehouse etc. should be as the solutions to be used.

  10. Algal and Water-Quality Data for Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Putnam, Larry D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of algae and water-quality sampling on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007. The overall purpose of the study was to determine the algal community composition of Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake in relation to organisms that are known producers of unwanted tastes and odors in drinking-water supplies. Algal assemblage structure (phytoplankton and periphyton) was examined at 16 sites on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007, and actinomycetes bacteria were sampled at the Rapid City water treatment plant intake in May 2007, to determine if taste-and-odor producing organisms were present. During the May 2007 sampling, 3 Rapid Creek sites and 4 Canyon Lake sites were quantitatively sampled for phytoplankton in the water column, 7 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 4 lake and retention pond sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Five Rapid Creek sites were sampled for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, two common taste-and-odor causing compounds known to affect water supplies. During the September 2007 sampling, 4 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 3 Canyon Lake sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were measured during each sampling event. Methods of collection and sample analysis are presented for the various types of biological and chemical constituent samples. Diatoms comprised 91-100 percent of the total algal biovolume in periphyton samples collected during May and September. Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) were detected in 7 of the 11 quantitative periphyton samples and ranged from 0.01 to 2.0 percent of the total biovolume. Cyanobacteria were present in 3 of the 7 phytoplankton samples collected in May, but the relative biovolumes were small (0.01-0.2 percent). Six of seven qualitative samples collected from Canyon Lake

  11. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  12. Magnetic properties of terrestrial moss (Hylocomium splendens) along a north-south profile crossing the city of Oslo, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Karl, E-mail: Karl.Fabian@ngu.no; Reimann, Clemens; McEnroe, Suzanne A.; Willemoes-Wissing, Bjorn

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic measurements are routinely used in geophysics and environmental sciences to obtain detailed information about concentrations and quality of iron minerals. Here, magnetic properties of 38 terrestrial moss samples (Hylocomium splendens) from a {approx} 120 km south-north transect through Oslo are studied to gain better insight into the nature and origin of their Fe fraction. The concentration-dependent quantities, magnetic susceptibility k, and isothermal remanent magnetization IRM(700mT) after weight normalization have significantly higher values in urban regions, and parallel the previously found concentration signals of 16 out of 29 chemical elements (Ag, Al, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pt, Sb, Ti, and Zn). Because there is no evidence that Hylocomium splendens produces biogenic magnetic remanence carriers, the increase in IRM is attributed to adsorption of dust containing iron oxide minerals. This agrees with previous observations that Ti concentrations, related to local mineral dust, have a peak in Oslo, and at sites close to known dust sources. Scanning electron microscopy images also showed an increased density of minerogenic particles on the moss surfaces in the urban samples, which qualitatively supports the dust based interpretation. The concentration-independent ratios k/Fe and IRM(700mT)/Fe also have extreme values in the urban parts of the transect. This indicates that more of the total iron occurs in magnetically ordered form and in remanence carriers, interpreted as adsorbed dust. In addition, purely magnetic ratios displayed differences in urban and rural areas, indicating that their magnetic dust particles are inherently of different types. Therefore, it is likely that anthropogenic dust sources contribute considerably to the magnetic signal. Urban dust enhancement is not exclusively due to increased erosion, leading to higher loads of geogenic dust in the atmosphere, but also to specific anthropogenic sources from combustion

  13. Evaluation of the strategies of target market selection on the basis of IFE and EFE matrixes using linmap technique (A case study of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shahbandarzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important requirements of developing appropriate strategies for internationalmarketing is correct identification of target markets. Using quantitative techniques and decisionmaking skills will lead to better results regarding the evaluation of marketing strategies. In thisstudy, first we have used internal factor evaluation (IFE matrix for recognizing and comparingstrengths and weaknesses (internal factors of Bushehr export companies regarding participation intheir target markets and then we have used external factor evaluation (EFE matrix for recognizingand comparing opportunities and threats (external factors.As the effective criteria have been categorized in this four level (strengths, weaknesses,opportunities and threats, we have used LINMAP technique separately for each level and at lastwe've unified the results of each level by using of Borda method.The findings of this study help decision-makers of international trading to investigate the results oftheir decisions in a more logical and efficient way.

  14. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  15. Association between Health Locus of Control and Health Promotion Behaviors among Employees’ Bushehr University of Medical Sciences in 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqayeh Chenary

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work is an important source for establishing livelihoods and social occasions; however, it can also damage on person's health. The aim of the present study was to study of association between health locus of control and health promoting behaviors among employees of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 208 employees of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences by using convenience sampling method. Data were collected by using standard questionnaires of health-promoting lifestyle and multidimensional health locus of control. Data analysis done by SPSS software version 20. Descriptive indicators and linear regression test was used. Results: Among regression models which related to health promoting behavior and its six dimensions, only there was a significant association between total behavior, physical activity and interpersonal relationship dimensions. Between demographic factors and health locus of control only internal health locus of control explained the health promoting behavior and it explained health promoting behavior changes  within 3.2% (R2=3.2%. None of the three health locus of control explained physical activity dimensions, while internal health locus of control explained interpersonal relation dimension positively and chance locus of control explained interpersonal relation dimension negatively and explained interpersonal relation changes within 4.9% (R2=4.9%. Conclusion: Due to the effect of internal health locus of control on health promotion behavior and interpersonal relationships, we should try to internalize locus of control by performing counseling programs to step toward improving employee health by improving behaviors related to health.

  16. Prevalence of mental health disorders and its associated demographic factors in resettled Afghan refugees of Dalakee Refugee Camp in Bushehr Province 2005

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    Fatemeh Azizi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iran has received Afghan refugees for many years. Few studies have been done to assess psychiatric morbidity among Afghan refugees in Iran, especially those who are resettled in camps. This study has been designed to determine the prevalence of mental health problems and the associated demographic factors, in Afghan refugees resettled in Dalakee refugee camp of Bushehr Province, in 2005. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, a Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was administered to 321 resettled Afghan refugees with the minimum age of 15 years old who were randomly selected among 2200 residents of Dalakee refugee camp in Bushehr Province. Results: Among mental health subscales, the prevalence of social dysfunction, psychosomatic problem, anxiety and depression in the studied population were 80.1%, 48.9%, 39.3% and 22.1%, respectively. The total prevalence of mental health disorders in this camp was 88.5%. Male gender, living with more than eight persons per house, and being age ten or under at migration time were associated with higher level of social dysfunction. Higher rate of psychosomatic problem was associated with unemployment, being born in Iran, being age ten or under at migration time, and having no entertaining programs. Having 1-3 children, living with more than eight persons per house, and positive history of chronic disease were associated with higher level of anxiety. Having no entertaining programs, and family members' death during migration were associated with higher level of depression. Conclusion: Mental health problems related to immigration and living in camps, are common among Afghan refugees.

  17. Application of the basic constructs of social cognitive theory for predicting mental health in student of Bushehr University Medical Sciences 2012-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makyea Jamali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: mental health is one of the health assessment topics in different communities which plays an important role in ensuring the dynamism and efficiency, especially in the students. Thus, the aim of this study is to application of basic constructs of social cognitive theory for predicting mental health in student of Bushehr University Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross– sectional study was conducted with using a systematic random sampling method in 428 students of Bushehr University Medical Sciences in 2012-13. Information was collected by using five standard questionnaires including academic self efficacy, academic stress, multidimensional social support, student outcome expectancy and Quality of life (SF-36 scales. After data collection, all data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software with using Pearson correlation coefficient test and multiple linear regressions. Results: In this study, mental health had a significant correlation with social support (P =0.000, r=0.37, academic stress (P= 0.000, r= -0.45 and academic self-efficacy (P =0.000 , r =0. 24. In the liner regression model, predictor factors of mental health were faculty type and curriculum counseling and noncurriculum counseling evaluation variables and self efficacy (P=0.031, B= 1.49, academic stress (P=0.000, B=- 4.35, and social support constructs (P=0.000, B =4.77. Also, gender, mother's education and father's job had indirect effects to mental health through social support and acceptance quota and curriculum counseling evaluation had indirect effects to mental health through self efficacy. Conclusion: Utilization of strategies to increase self- efficacy, creating social support environment and also stress reduction particularly with organization of curriculum and non-curriculum counseling sessions can promote mental health in students.

  18. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  19. Proportion of depression and its determinants among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of South India

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    Nitin Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is found to be common among patients with diabetes and it is associated with poor outcomes in disease control. This study was carried out to find out the proportion and determinants associated with depression among patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of south India. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in one government and three private tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore in December 2010. All consenting patients with confirmed diagnosis of T2DM were interviewed and screened for depression by administering the 9-item PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results: Of the 230 T2DM patients, 119 (51.7% were males. The mean age of all participants was 53.61 ± 10.7 years. The median duration of T2DM was found to be 12.1 ± 7.35 years. Among the participants, 71 (30.9% met the criteria for moderate depression, 33 (14.3% for severe depression, and the remaining 126 (54.8% had no clinically significant depression. Only 26 (11.3% patients were already aware that they were depressed, of whom just 3 had taken medical consultation. Among the risk factors, depression was found to be significantly associated with older age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, unskilled and retired employment status, having complications due to T2DM or comorbidities like hypertension and coronary artery disease, being overweight and being on insulin syringe injections. Conclusion: This study found a high proportion of depression among patients with T2DM. Therefore the care of individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM should include the screening and possible treatment of depression in order to achieve and sustain treatment goals.

  20. Construction of Sponge City in the South of China---a Case Study on the Bi Ling Wetland of the Shenzhen City%南方地区海绵城市工程建设应用实例--以深圳市碧岭湿地工程为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方登丽; 刘明祥

    2016-01-01

    我国南方城市建设与气候具有十分密切的关系,海绵城市工程建设需因地制宜。以广东省深圳市碧岭湿地工程为例,介绍了工程建设在海绵城市的应用。该湿地工程通过构建海绵和安全体系工程措施,能实现年径流量总量控制、年径流污染控制及雨水资源利用目标。希望本工程的设计理念和思路可以对南方海绵城市建设提供借鉴。%The South City Construction and climate has obvious characteristics, The sponge city construction need to adjust measures to local conditions. The construction of the sponge and the safety system engineering measures can achieve annual runoff total control, annual runoff pollution control and rainwater resource utilization target;the design idea and idea of this project have a good demonstration effects on the construction of sponge city in the South of China.

  1. Assessing theEffects of Nitrogen Dioxide in Urban Air on Health of West and Southwest Cities of Iran

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    Zallaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a corrosive, strong oxidant and a physiologic stimulant of lower respiratory tract. Every human being inhales an average of 10-m3 air per day; therefore, assessment of the effect of inhaled air on health is a vital issue. The main source NO2 in urban regions is intra-urban public transport system. The annual average of determined air quality for NO2 is 40 μg/m3. Objectives The present study aimed to estimate and compare epidemiologic indices attributed to the pollutant NO2 in the urban air of southwest cities of Iran, namely, Ahvaz, Kermanshah, and Bushehr, in 2011. Materials and Methods In the present study, data relevant to the air-pollutant NO2 in 2011 was obtained from the Iranian Department of Environment and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. Raw data processing by Excel software included instruction set correction of averaging, coding, and filtering. Then the meteorological parameters were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas, relative risk (RR and attributed part to NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results The results showed that in summer, winter, and the whole year, Kermanshah and Bushehr had on average the maximum and minimum NO2 concentration, respectively, in 2011. In addition, accumulative number of cases attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was maximum in Kermanshah (21 cases and minimum in Bushehr (one case. The results revealed that approximately, the maximum number of death cases attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah due to heart problems (1.06%, acute infarction (1.8%, and obstructive pulmonary disease (1.9% with concentration > 20 μg/m3. Conclusions Every 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of the pollutant NO2 in the studied cities led to increase in the RR of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive pulmonary disease by 0.4%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, in

  2. 78 FR 52231 - 2013 Temporary Closure of I-395 Just South of Conway Street in the City of Baltimore to Vehicular...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ..., will remain open during the time period of the event. There are five additional I-95 interchanges, just... the city that could be affected by the event. These efforts include the formation of Task Forces...

  3. DFNB59 Gene Mutation Screening Using PCR-SSCP/HA Technique in Non-syndromic Genetic Hearing Loss in Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azadegan Dehkordi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hearing impairment (HI is the most prevalent Neurosensory disorder which is heterogenous and can also occur due to environmental causes. The majority of hearing deficiencies are of genetic origin affecting about 60% of the HI cases. A novel gene DFNB59 encodes pejvakin has been recently shown to cause deafness. This study aims to determine the frequency of DFNB59 gene mutations in coding region the gene in Bushehr province. Methods: In this descriptive experimental study, we investigated the presence of DFNB59 gene mutations in Exons (2-7 of the gene in 80 deaf subjects. DNA was extracted using standard phenol –chloroform method. The screening of gene mutations was performed by PCR-SSCP/HA procedure. Finally, the possible mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. Results: In all, 9 polymorphisms 793C>G were found in 80 non-syndromic, genetic hearing loss subjects studied. However no DFNB59 gene mutation was identified. Conclusion: We conclude that the association of DFNB59 gene mutations with hearing loss is very low in samples studies

  4. Influencing factors in the health promoting behaviors of Urinary system based on health belief model in pregnant women in Bushehr 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Noroozi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy that will follow with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the urinary system health promoting behaviors in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and methods: The present study is a descriptive - analytic study was performed on 250 pregnant women referred to health centers of Bushehr. The tools for collecting information was a multi sectional questionnaire consisting of demographic information, measurement of urinary system health behavior, knowledge and health belief model constructs, which its validity and reliability were ensured previously. Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 20 by using correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: The mean age of subjects 27/4±4/4 years.The relationship between demographic variables and health behavior wasn’t found. The most people (179 equivalents to 71/6% had medium level of knowledge about urinary tract infection, and only 44 women (17.6% had appropriate awareness. Mean score of preventive behaviors was significant difference between different levels of knowledge (p =0/026, self efficacy (p=0/000 and perceived barriers (p=0/002. In multivariate ANOVA, only the self efficacy had strong positive relationship with the preventing behaviors of urinary tract infection (p=0/000. Conclusion: Based on these results, the necessity of education based on health belief model with an emphasis on increasing the efficacy is necessary.

  5. Evaluation of factors influencing on non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life in Bushehr Port using focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exclusive breast feeding in the early years of life is one of the most important factors in growth and development of infants. Therefore, exclusive breast feeding is recommended during the first six months of life. For determining the effective factors of non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life, we used focus group discussion by participation of 60 mothers who had an infant under 6 months age and enjoyed non-exclusive breast feeding. Mothers divided into eight groups considering their occupation and number of child. All groups reported scanty of mother’s milk, mother’s occupation, mother’s illness, mother’s comfort, wrong beliefs, infant’s illness, doctors and health care providers recommendations, infant’s dependency to feeding bottle and pacifiers as the most frequent factors in using nonexclusive breast feeding. All mothers believed that health care centers, relatives and older members of family, books and pamphlets, mass media, physicians were their effective sources of awareness and promotion of exclusive breast feeding. Considering the presented ideas in all groups, it is realized that mothers during their pregnancy have sparse information about exclusive breast feeding and because of lack of enough essential training, some socio – cultural beliefs affects non-exclusive breast feeding. Mass media and especial training programs should be implemented to promote exclusive breast feeding in Bushehr Port.

  6. An Observational Study to Evaluate the Medication Errors by Nursing Staff Working in Bushehr Medical Centers during one Year Interval (1385-1386

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Zahmatkeshan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication errors refer to inappropriate use of drugs, can lead to harmful and serious consequent. Many factors contribute to incidence of these errors. To investigate this factors a descriptive analytic study was done that assess clinical staff medication errors in Bushehr medical centers. Methods: The participants were 400 clinical staff, including nurses, midwives and nurse assistances to complete designed medication errors questionnaire. This questionnaire include 2 parts, part one was demographic data and part two, assess influencing factors of medication errors in six domain. Results: Results showed that the half of participants (49.9% had medication errors in acquaintance and the most error in dosage (37.7% and then type of drugs(27.7%. 73.3% of participants reported their errors and in unreported cases the most cause was fear of managers. According to participants attitude factors that interfering to medication errors were physicians factor, including illegible order in patient file (24.94%, nurses factors including, incorrect documentation (24.38%, interpersonal relationship (19.45%, inappropriate environment (15.3%, knowledge deficit and lack of experience (11.23% and stressful events (4.66%. No statistical significant correlation between situation of job and shift work. Conclusion: Results show that medication errors are common and human factors are the most factors in these errors.

  7. Bacteriology of hospital-acquired infection and antibiotic resistance in a hospital university of Bushehr Port Fatemeh Zahra (s in 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Vahdat

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection is an increasing problem. The global problem of antimicrobial resistance is particularly pressing in developing countries, where the infectious disease burden is high and cost constraints prevent the widespread application of newer, more expensive agents. In a prospective study, 203 consecutive cases with hospital-acquired infection in a university hospital in Bushehr port were evaluated. The most common hospital-acquired infection was urinary (76 cases, conjunctivitis (16 cases, bacteremia (8 cases, meningitis (5 cases, wound (3 cases, empyema (2 cases and peritonitis (1 case. The patients with hospital-acquired infection were from surgical and internal medicine I.C.Us (53.2% & 15.6%, respectively. The most frequent isolated organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25.6%, Acinetobacter baumannii (19.7%, E. coli (13.3%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.3%, Staphylococcus aureus (8.4%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (7.9%, Enterobacter species (7%, Streptococcus species (6.4%, and Proteus mirabilis (0.5%. The most resistant organisms to antimicrobial agents were Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 97 & 93.3% of these bacteria were resistant to third generation cephalosporins. The isolated Staphylococcal species were resistant to amikacin (94%. In conclusion, gram negative bacteria were the most common etiologic agent of hospital-acquired infection and had a high level of resistance to amikacin and third generation cephalosporins. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies should be designed to combat these microorganisms.

  8. Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailen Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel; Fernandez-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; María Esbrí, Jose; Gonzalez-Corrochano, Beatríz; García-Noguero, Eva Mª; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; García-Noguero, Carolina

    2013-04-01

    Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailén Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain). Authors: Miguel A. López-Berdonces¹; Sergio Fernández Calderón¹; Pablo Higueras¹; José María Esbrí¹; Beatriz González-Corrochano¹; Eva Mª García-Noguero¹; Alba Martínez-Coronado¹; Carolina García Noguero¹ ¹Instituto de Geología Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Almadén 13400 (Spain). Ojailén Valley is situated in South Central of Spain, an area where livestock, agriculture, mining and industry coexist. This work tries to assess the relationships between these activities and local environmental compartments: water, soils and heavy metal contents, and establish the most appropriate methodology of sample treatment and analytical techniques that can be employed on this kind of studies. For soil geochemistry, 152 samples were taken at two different depths, one at surface layer and another at 20 cm depth, and establish relationships between them and the possible sources. For this purpose, we determine soil parameters (pH, conductivity and organic matter) and total metal contents by Energy Dispersion of X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Samples with higher nickel contents were analyzed with Inductive Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. The study of surface waters includes 18 samples along the river and tributaries near mining and industrial areas. Water analysis was performed by ICP-OES. Soil samples shows pH between 6 and 8.5, highest located near on the east part of the valley, in the vicinity of petrochemical complex. Conductivity values show higher levels (1600 µS cm¯¹) in the vicinity of Puertollano and the industrial sites. Local reference value (LRV) for contaminated soils were determined according to the methodology proposed by Jimenez-Ballesta et al. (2010), using the equation: LRV=GM + 2SD, where LRV: Local Reference Value, GM: Geometric Mean, SD: Standard Deviation

  9. 78 FR 28011 - 2013 Temporary Closure of I-395 Just South of Conway Street in the City of Baltimore to Vehicular...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... name of the individual submitting the comment (or signing the comment, if submitted on behalf of an... Action Response Team will provide real-time traffic information to motorists through dynamic message... the city that could be affected by the event. These efforts include the formation of Task Forces...

  10. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  11. Comparative Study of Calcium efficacy and placebo on leg muscle cramps during pregnancy in patients referred to clinics supervised by Bushehr University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Khoramroudi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Muscle cramps are common complains during pregnancy muscle cramps occur mostly during nights causing sleep disorder. The causes of muscle cramps are unknown. One probable cause could be the imbalance between intake and excretion of serum electrolyte such as calcium. Methods: The method used for the present study was double blind clinical trial. The study was conducted on 60 pregnant women suffering from leg muscle cramps who sought medical treatment in three selected clinics in Bushehr from April 2006 to November 2007. All subjects being third trimester of pregnancy, single pregnant, only used iron and multivitamins. Irregular use of medication, PLP (Preterm Labor Pain, disability completion forms excluded of study. Simple and accessible sampling was used in this study. Selection of study group and placebo were random. Visual analog forms were used to record the number and intensity of muscle cramps. These forms had provisions for 7 days of pretreatment and 28 days of treatments. At the end of the first week, the subjects were prescribed to take medications every night for four weeks. The subjects were asked to record the intensity of their muscle cramps on the visual analog forms during these four weeks. Results: The number and intensity of muscle cramps were considered in this study. The results of the study showed no significant change in intensity in the two groups. However, there was a significant reduction in the number of cramps in the study group after taking calcium (p=< 0.02<0.05. Conclusion: Taking calcium resulted in a significant reduction in the number of cramps in this study compared to placebo group. Therefore, prescribing calcium is effective in reducing the number of cramps, when the numbers of occurrences are excessive. In cases of highly intensive and painful cramps, however, taking calcium is as effective as placebo.

  12. The Study of Educational Program Effect Based on BAZNEF Model on Nutritional Performance of Pregnant Women Reffered to Meraj Health Center of Bushehr in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Arabi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy is one of the critical periods in a woman’s life. Pregnancy is a suitable time for nutrition education. Pregnant women pay special attention to various aspects of their health, their fetuses’ health and they are accurate about the amount and type of food who consume. So, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of educational program based on BASNEF model on pregnant women’s performance reffered to Meraj health centers in 2013 in Bushehr. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in two groups including control and experimental group. Before the intervention in both groups, food frequency questionnaires completed, then educational intervention for experimental group was done in four sessions (three sessions for pregnant women and one session for their husbands and educational pamphlets were given to them about suitable nutrition during pregnancy. Data were analyzed by using SPSS18 software. Results: Results showed that 55% of women had an education level until diploma, most of them were housewives (65% or their income (47.5% was more than one million Tomans. The results showed that between nutrition performance of experimental group in food groups of bread and cereals (F=27.11 and p=0.0001, meat and protein group (F=7.647 and p=0.009, fruit group (F=20.9 and p=0.0001, vegetables (F=6.236 and p=0.018 and dairy products (F=3.66 and p=0.048, had a significant difference with control groups. Conclusion: Designing and implementation of BASNEF model can be effective in pregnancy nutrition. This model can be effective with proper and coordinated structure in improving the pregnant women nutrition. Designing intervention and educational programs is inexpensive, functional and applicable by using this model and provide an organizational framework to individuals as well.

  13. Serum level of Zinc and Copper among pregnant women of Jam area referred to Towhid Hospital,southern part of Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    syead Mojtaba Jafari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronutrients are essential for the healthy growth and development of body organs and they have important roles in the function of immune and skeletal system . During pregnancy, due to the physiological changes for the normal growth of fetal, the need for minerals is significantly increased. The aim of this study was to find the status of serum copper and zinc and their relation to anemia in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, cross sectional descriptive study 250 pregnant women (mean age, 27.2±5.5 participated. They attended the medical center (In Jam area, Bushehr, Iran for routine checkups. Blood was collected from them and serum levels of Copper and Zinc were measured by atomic absorption spectrophothometric method. Hemoglobin and other indexes were measured by Automatic Counter analyzer. Results: the mean serum concentration of copper and Zinc were 126.5±56.7 g/dl and 67.6±18.2 g/dl respectively. Also the percentage of their deficiency was 21.2% and 47.2% respectively. The mean level of hemoglobin in the subjects was 11.9±1.2 and the percentage of anemia (Hb < 11g/dl was 21.6%. There was a significant differences between increases in gestational age and the deficiency of copper and zinc in the participants, which is as the pregnancy progress, the deficiency of Copper reduces (p=0.024 and that of Zinc increases(p=0.036. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the deficiency of Copper, Zinc and the rate of anemia in the pregnant women of Jam area is significantly high and suggests that a proper interventional program should be planned to monitor such women at risk, before their marriage or in prenatal clinics.

  14. Evaluation of the Frequency of Food and Aeroallergens in Patients with Eczema and Urticaria in Province of Bushehr: Based on Skin Prick Test Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years frequency of skin allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (eczema and urticaria is reported to be high in the region. Identification of reactive allergens in different areas are very important in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of common allergens in patients with skin allergies in province of Bushehr with regards to eczema and urticaria. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 234 patients with urticarial and eczema were enrolled. The participants reacted to at least one allergen with SPT. Skin prick test with standard inhaled and food was performed on patients according to the herbal geography of the area. Results: Among 837 patients referred to allergy clinic, 91 patients had eczema and 143 had urticaria. The frequency of both eczema and urticaria was significantly higher in females than in males. The most common food allergens in patients with eczema were almond (56.6%, walnut (47.7% and soybean (46.1%. And in patients with urticaria were almond (58%, walnut (53.1% and tomato (48.2%. Also, aeroallergens in the subjects were house dust mite (HDM (63.7%, Russian thistle (57.7% and Alternaria alternara (51.6%. Meanwhile, the common aeroallergens in the patients were HDM (66.4%, Russian thistle (52.4% and date palm (51%. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that almond and walnut are important food allergens in participants with eczema and urticaria. Moreover, SPT reactivity was positive with aeroallergens such as HDM and weeds.

  15. Microscopic isolation and characterization of free living amoebae (FLA from surface water sources.in Birjand, the capital city of the South Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Behravan

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The results indicated that a significant percentage of surface water sources in Birjand city was contaminated with Acanthamoeba spp. It is necessary for physicians, therefore, to take into account the diseases caused by these infectious agents. Besides, local regional health professionals should take into consideration the potential role of surface stagnant water sources in transferring these infectious agents. Placing warning signs in areas contaminated with these infectious agents seems a useful measure.

  16. Using conjoint analysis to measure the acceptability of rectal microbicides among men who have sex with men in four South American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsler, Janni J; Cunningham, William E; Nureña, César R; Nadjat-Haiem, Carsten; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Casapia, Martin; Montoya-Herrera, Orlando; Sánchez, Jorge; Galea, Jerome T

    2012-08-01

    Conjoint Analysis (CJA), a statistical market-based technique that assesses the value consumers place on product characteristics, may be used to predict acceptability of hypothetical products. Rectal Microbicides (RM)-substances that would prevent HIV infection during receptive anal intercourse-will require acceptability data from potential users in multiple settings to inform the development process by providing valuable information on desirable product characteristics and issues surrounding potential barriers to product use. This study applied CJA to explore the acceptability of eight different hypothetical RM among 128 MSM in Lima and Iquitos, Peru; Guayaquil, Ecuador; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Overall RM acceptability was highest in Guayaquil and lowest in Rio. Product effectiveness had the greatest impact on acceptability in all four cities, but the impact of other product characteristics varied by city. This study demonstrates that MSM from the same region but from different cities place different values on RM characteristics that could impact uptake of an actual RM. Understanding specific consumer preferences is crucial during RM product development, clinical trials and eventual product dissemination.

  17. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  18. Preliminary Exploration of Geothermal Resources in South of Jining City%济宁市南部地热资源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱军; 张丰; 王鹏

    2015-01-01

    济宁市南部地处鲁西南潜隆之济宁凹陷,经地质调查、物探、钻孔验证等分析表明,济宁城区南部地热属层控岩溶裂隙型层状热储中低温地热田,经初步概算,区内奥陶系灰岩热储地热资源总量为3.424×1017 J,折合标准煤1.17×107 t,开发利用前景十分可观。%Southern Jining city is located in Jining depression of Luxinan hidden uplift in Shandong province . Through analysis of geological investigation , geophysical prospecting and drilling verification , it is showed that geo-thermal resource in southern Jining city belongs to low temperature strata bound fissure type geothermal field . Through preliminary estimation , total amount of thermal storage of geothermal resources of Ordovician limestone in this region is 3.424 x 1017 J, which is equivalent to standard coal of 1.17 x 107 t.It has a quite considerable pros-pect for development and utilization .

  19. Tracing the sources of pollution of wells and Karst springs supplying water to the City of Ragusa, South-Eastern Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Ruggieri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the pollution occurs in two important karst springs, supplying the aqueduct to the city Ragusa, started since September2010 and is still continuing. Both springs show higher values of ammonia and the presence of salmonella, elements ascribable to wastewater of animal origin. This investigations identified a number of farms present within the springs protected areas which likely to have caused the pollution. These were imposed by ordinances to build adequate storage tanks for the animal waste water. Paradoxically, the construction of these tanks led to a further worsening of the state of pollution, as the latter from episodic, linked to rainfall, became continuous due to the overflowing of wastewater from the tanks never emptied, as it was ascertained. A geological and geochemical study, preparatory to the execution of tracer tests, conducted by the Water Dept. of Genio Civile of Ragusa and ARPA (Regional Agency for the Environmental Protection, allowed a hydrogeological characterization of the recharge area and the definition of the hydrologic regime of the springs, that in this case, resulted as interconnected. Follow-up tests with fluorescent tracers, carried out on a few farms, were then interrupted because of the opposition of one of the owners. From that moment on, everything stops as for the research of the origin of the pollutant, while at the same time the situation gets worse, both in terms of environment, for the devastating effect on the ecosystem of the Ciaramite stream due to the spill in the riverbed of the polluted water springs, and for the resulting pollution of two municipal drinking water wells placed at the confluence of the Ciaramite stream with the Irminio river. The lack of further drinkable water determined the starting of the crisis of the city water distribution system having to turn to a supply of chance with tank trucks and shifts that created situations of considerable discomfort to major part

  20. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever,...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  1. A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans.

  2. Effect of sanitation facilities, domestic solid waste disposal and hygiene practices on water quality in Malawi’s urban poor areas: a case study of South Lunzu Township in the city of Blantyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    Household water supply problems remain one of the major challenges facing developing countries. In Malawi, there is lack of documentation on the levels and causes of water pollution particularly in peri-urban areas so that meaningful interventions can be adopted. Therefore, a study was carried out in South Lunzu Township a peri-urban area in the city of Blantyre. The study revealed that the major form of sewerage disposal is the on-site sanitation system where about 58.8% of the respondents use traditional pit latrine while in terms of solid waste disposal, the Blantyre City Assembly which is responsible for solid waste collection, has only two collection vans to cater for more than half a million residents (Blantyre City Assembly, 1999. Urban Structure Plan, Draft Background Report, Blantyre.) hence indiscriminate disposal rampant in the area. Water samples collected from the major sources of domestic water supply showed that there are variations in the levels of water pollution between the ground water and surface water sources and between the wet and dry season. For instance, physically, the ground water turbidity levels were in the range of 2-12 mg/l during the dry season but increased to a maximum of 114 mg/l during the wet season while for surface water the turbidity increased from 4 to 408 mg/l over the seasons compared to the WHO standard set at 5 mg/l and the Water Department standard set at 25 mg/l. Chemical pollution for surface water sources show seasonal variations with an increase in the concentration during the wet season, for instance, iron levels ranged from 2.3 to 4.03 mg/l. This is above the WHO and Water Department drinking standards which are 1 and 3 mg/l, respectively. However, bacteriologically both the ground water and the surface water sources are grossly polluted. Ground water spring coliform count ranged from 190/100 ml to 9500/100 ml, and the well 3500/100 ml to 11,000/100 ml having the maximum during the wet season. Surface water

  3. Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba Strains from Envi-ron¬mental Sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, South-ern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahdar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoebae commonly found in the environmental sources such as water, soil, and air. This ubiquitous amoeba is the causative agent of amoebic kerati­tis (AK. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in water and soil sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, southern Iran.Methods: In general, 110 samples of water and soil were taken from different localities of Ahvaz including agricultural canals, rivers, and swimming pools. Filtration and cultivation were carried out on non-nutrient agar medium (NNA. Axenic cultivation was performed for all of positive isolates. PCR analysis was conducted on positive samples. Sequencing was done for 15 PCR products. Geno­types were identified by Blast search and homology analysis.Result: Acanthamoeba spp. was found in 43 (71.6% of samples of water and 13 (26% soil samples. Genotyping of 15 samples proved that Acanthamoeba belonged to T4 (86.6%, T2 (6.6%, and T5 (6.6% genotypes.Conclusion: TYI-S-33 medium could be better than PYG medium for Acanthamoeba axenic culture.

  4. An Exciting Time for Steel City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Panzhihua, in south Sichuan’s basin, is aptly called West China’s Industrial Pearl, and "treasure bowl." This city is well known as the home of Panzhihua Iron and Steel Group Company and Ertan Hydropower Station. At the beginning of 2004, two major events thrust this city into the limelight.

  5. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city......, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  6. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated by the st......This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  7. Construction of City's Pleasant Lobby Space:A Case Study of South Square Design in Shenyang North Railway Station%营造华丽的城市门厅空间——沈阳北站南广场改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东旭; 陈雷; 单鹏宇

    2012-01-01

    该文通过对沈阳北站南广场的改造规划设计的介绍,提出了北站南广场设计的两个重要问题,即交通问题和形象问题,探讨了解决这些问题的策略及所采用的方法,设计的目标是将沈阳北站南广场建设为城市优美华丽的“门厅”空间.%By introducing the planning and design of the south square in Shenyang north railway station, this paper puts forward two important questions, I.e. Traffic problems and city image problems, and discusses the tactics and methods to solve those problems. The design's target is to build the south square of Shenyang north railway station into the city's pleasant lobby space.

  8. 廊坊市南水北调配套水厂以上输水管道工程土工试验指标分析%Analysis of Test Index of above Water Pipeline Engineering of South to North Water Transfer Project Water Plant in Langfang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗杰

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly describes the test index of above water pipeline engineering of south to north water transfer pro-ject water plant in Langfang city, and has carried on detailed analysis.%本文主要阐述了廊坊市南水北调配套水厂以上输水管道工程土工试验指标,并对其进行了详细地分析。

  9. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  10. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography.......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...

  11. Strong paleoseismic manifestations in the south Baltic Sea basin, Kaliningrad city area, related to the retreat of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhin, Evgeny; Ovsuchenko, Alexander; Andreeva, Nadezhda; Buchroithner, Manfred; Rogozhina, Irina; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Osei Tutu, Anthony; Seguinot, Julien; Bernales, Jorge; Klemann, Volker; Hagedoorn, Jan M.

    2014-05-01

    Evidence of Mw >7-8 paleo-earthquakes accompanying final deglaciation across Fennoscandia and North America indicates enhanced seismicity close to the retreating margins of former ice sheets. Many of these high-latitude continental regions are currently characterized by moderate seismicity with typical magnitudes of Mw≡4-5. The relation between modern seismicity and former glaciations through ongoing isostatic adjustment is, however, a subject of considerable debate. Here we report and interpret new data on paleo- and contemporary earthquakes in one of the least studied regions formerly covered by the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS), namely the Kaliningrad area. According to paleoseismic evidence, an earthquake with a magnitude of Mw ≥ 7 occurred in this region about 11±0.5 ka ago. The age of the resulting paleoseismic ruptures (landslides, marks of liquefaction, seismites, close-to-fault folding) was determined by radiocarbon dating. Comparison with the reconstructed extent of FIS from glacial geomorphology reveals that the timing of this strong event, within dating uncertainty, coincides with the timing of local deglaciation. In this period, the ice margin across the south-eastern Baltic Sea region had retreated to allow, in succession, the Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake and the Littorina Sea to emerge. Because sediments previously covered by ice became oversaturated with water from the Yoldia Sea, the seismic shaking of the Mw ≥ 7 earthquake produced gravitational ruptures, which were found during our field investigations. Several seismic events have been registered using instrumental observations in the 20th and early 21st centuries. The latest earthquake occurred in Kaliningrad in 2004 with Mw 4.8, following a foreshock of Mw 4.6. The epicenter area was studied using seismotectonic and seismological methods immediately after the event. We identified some active faults responsible for the generation of the 2004 events, revealing that several moderate seismic

  12. New city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    2. rev. udg. engelsk udgave af 'Nye byrum'. This book presents an overview of the developments in the use and planning of public spaces, and offers a detailed description of 9 cities with interesting public space strategies: Barcelona, Lyon, Strasbourg, Freiburg and Copenhagen in Europe, Portland...... in North America, Curitiba and Cordoba in South America and Melbourne in Australia. It also portrays 39 selected public space projects from all parts of the World. The strategies and projects are extensively illustrated by drawings, plans and photographs....

  13. A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti

  14. 基于利益主体理论的苏南五市旅游合作系统研究%South of Jiangshu province five cities tourism cooepration system research based on interest main body theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友明

    2011-01-01

    The regional cooperation is an important method for the tourism industry development.Tourism cooperation affects the interest of all parties.How to coordinate the interest of all parties and make the attendees participate actively and cooperate efficiently to ensure the efficient and stability of regional tourism cooperation,that is an urgent issue to be settled.Based on the Stakeholder theory,the regional tourism cooperation system for five cities in South Jiangsu is researched in this paper.The system consists of four sub-systems:local government,tourism industry sector,non-profit organization and individuals.Each sub-system includes several actual stakeholders.The different focus of the stakeholder in each sub-system is analyzed.Finally,the relevant policy suggestions about how to strengthen the regional tourism cooperation in South Jiangsu are proposed.%区域旅游合作是发展旅游业的重要手段,旅游合作发展涉及到多方面利益,如何协调各方的利益,让合作各方都能主动参与和有效配合,确保区域旅游合作的有效性和稳定性,仍是亟待解决的难题。本文从利益主体理论出发对苏南五市区域旅游合作系统进行了研究,提出了该系统简化为地方政府、旅游产业部门、非营利组织和个人等4个子系统,每个子系统都包括若干个具体利益主体,分析了每个子系统中的利益主体不同的关注点;最后就加强苏南区域旅游合作提出了相关的政策建议。

  15. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  16. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  17. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  18. La ciudad al sur de la ciudad: historia sociourbana de los barrios Villa Lugano y Villa Riachuelo The City South of the City: A History of Socio-urban Slum Neighborhoods Villa Lugano and Villa Riachuelo A cidade ao sul da cidade: história sócio-urbana dos bairros Villa Lugano e Villa Riachuelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Perea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo del trabajo es presentar el derrotero de la urbanización, de la configuración de la estructura económica y de la dinámica del mercado inmobiliario local de los barrios Villa Lugano y Villa Riachuelo. Ambos se localizan al sur de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, y comprender el proceso de su urbanización permite entender mejor cuáles han sido los procesos que explican, en parte, la fisonomía actual de la ciudad. El trabajo se apoya en investigaciones previas y material de archivo existente sobre el proceso de urbanización e historia de ambos barrios, entrevistas a informantes clave (funcionarios y líderes de organizaciones barriales y fuentes de datos secundarias. AbstractThe objective of this article is to present the course of the urbanization, the configuration of the economic structure and the dynamics of the local real estate market of Villa Lugano and Villa Riachuelo neighborhoods. Both are located in the south of Buenos Aires city and understanding its urbanization process allows to understand in a better way the processes that explain, in part, the current physiognomy of the city. The work relies on previous investigations and archival material on the process of urbanization and the history of both neighborhoods, interviews with key informants (officials and leaders of community organizations and secondary data sources.ResumoO objetivo do trabalho é apresentar o curso do mapa do urbanization, da configuração da estrutura econômica e da dinâmica do mercado de propriedade real local do Villa Lugano e Villa Riachuelo. Ambos são ficados situados ao sul da cidade de Buenos Aires e, para compreenda que o processo de seu urbanization reserva para compreender mais melhor que foram os processos que explicam, em parte, a aparência atual da cidade. O trabalho inclina-se em investigações e no material precedentes de lima existente no processo do urbanization e da história de ambos os distritos, em entrevistas aos

  19. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision...... of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  20. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin...... down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  1. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services......, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of - or willingness...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  2. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  3. Anecdotes of the Forbidden City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUOYUANBO; ZHANGXUEYING

    2005-01-01

    Everyone who passes through Beijing's Forbidden City leaves the grounds with two words on their lips: magnificent and awe-inspiring. The seat of imperial power during the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368 - 1911), some twenty-four emperors ruled the nation from within these walls. Now more commonly known as the Palace Museum, the Forbidden City lies at the center of the Chinese capital. Extending 750 meters from east to west and 960 meters from north to south, the 720,000-square-meter city is the largest palatial complex in the world. Guarding the city is a 52-meter-wide, six-meter-deep moat, and a huge wall, which runs three kilometers around the city and stands 10 meters high. Construction lasted 15 years, involving 100,000 artisans and some one million civilians. If the bricks that make up the Forbidden City could speak, they would have many an interesting story to tell. Here are just a few anecdotes.

  4. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    /assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  5. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  6. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any in

  7. Sin City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city

  8. Calidad de la leche cruda en unidades de producción familiar del sur de Ciudad de México Raw milk quality produced in small dairy farms in the South of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Álvarez-Fuentes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las explotaciones lecheras en pequeña escala enfrentan el desafío de producir leche en cantidad y calidad que propicie una mayor demanda del consumidor y una adecuada transformación en quesos, dulces o yogures, asegurando su rentabilidad. Se realizó un estudio para evaluar la calidad de la leche cruda, según la norma PROY-NOM-155-SCFI-2003, tomada de los recipientes de almacenamiento sin refrigeración, basado en una muestra de 30 unidades de producción localizadas en el sur de Ciudad de México, las cuales fueron evaluadas en tres épocas del año (seca, lluvias e invierno y clasificadas por el tipo de manejo de la limpieza de la ubre (tradicional, parcial y completo. Los resultados mostraron que los componentes nutricionales (grasa, proteína, caseína y propiedades fisicoquímicas de la leche (pH, acidez, punto crioscópico fueron diferentes según la época de muestreo (P The small-scale dairy farms are challenged to produce milk in a specific quantity and quality that encourages greater consumer demand and an appropriate transformation into cheese, yoghurt and candy, ensuring profitability. A study to assess the quality of raw milk stored in containers without cooling system was carried out in 30 production units located in the south of Mexico City, according to the standard PROY-NOM-155-SCFI-2003. The production units were evaluated during three seasons (dry, rainy and winter and classified by the type of procedures for cleaning the udder, before milking (traditional, full and partial. The results showed that the milk component (fat, protein, casein, pH, acidity and cryoscopic point were different depending on the time of sampling (P 0.05. During winter, a deep cleaning produced lower CCS and higher reductase time (P < 0.05 compared to the dry and rainy seasons. In conclusion, the nutritional components and physicochemical parameters of raw milk in household production units are within the Mexican standard range for raw milk, but the

  9. City planning as preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason

    2015-08-01

    The health and well-being of rapidly growing urban populations is a global health issue. Cities in the global north and south are faced with rising health inequities - or avoidable differences in health determinants and outcomes based on place, social status and ethnicity. This commentary suggests that focusing only on treatment interventions in cities is likely to fail because populations will be forced to go back into the urban living and working conditions that likely made them sick in the first place. City planning as preventive medicine includes taking a relational and systems approach to urban health, requiring health assessments for all urban policy making, promoting neighborhood health centers as engines of community economic development and gathering place-based health indicator data to track progress and adapt interventions over time as conditions change.

  10. Analysis of Test Index of the Third Design Unit of above Water Pipeline Engineering of South to North Water Transfer Project Water Plant in Hengshui City%衡水市南水北调配套工程水厂以上输水管道第3设计单元工程土工试验指标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾静

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly describes the test index of the third design unit of above water pipeline engineering of south to north water transfer project water plant in Langfang city, and put forward my own opinion.%本文主要深入探讨了衡水市南水北调配套工程水厂以上输水管道第3设计单元工程土工试验指标,并提出了自己的观点。

  11. Studying the relationship between the styles of attachment, drug addiction and psychological profile of addicts in comparison with non-addicts (in self-introduced centers of Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Emphasizing on effective factors in drug dependency and multiple drug relapse, is probably related to formation of personality models. These models are heavily affected by development orientation personality. Various researches show that attachment as a development factor has a decisive role in forming personality models. Hence, in one hand, the present research evaluates the relationship between attachment styles and drug dependency and ,in the other hand, it addresses the relationship between attachment /drug addiction and psychological profile. The statistical community of this research consists of all male referrals to self-introduced centers in Bushehr province in summer 1381. The sample group consists 100 individuals of this community and comparison group cnosists another 100 individuals who had no history of drug abuse. They were controlled by counterpart variables. The tools of this research are MCMI-II and adults’ attachment questionnaire. The satisfaction of validity and reliabilty of research literature are reported. Apllied statistical methods include χ² statistical test and profile analysis. To compare the individual distribution based on attachment style, χ² test is obtained meaningfully in P<0/05 level. Also, the results of profile analysis for evaluating the effect of drug addiction and attachment style on psychological profile is meaningful in P<0/01 level. In summary, the research shows that there is a relationship between attachment style and drug addiction as well as between attachment/addiction and psychological profile.

  12. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities ...... of being mobile, as well as profoundly altering the process and perspective of data collection and feedback to governments, businesses and citizens.......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  13. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  14. Life Satisfaction Among Black Elderly in the Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Herbert M.

    This study is concerned with descriptive characteristics of 575 black elderly born in the West Indies (WI), the South (S) and the North (N), age 60 and older, living in the poverty areas of New York City. The sample is part of a larger replicated probability sample of 1552 elderly in a primary study undertaken by the New York City Department for…

  15. World Cities of Scientific Knowledge: Systems, Networks and Potential Dynamics. An Analysis Based on Bibliometric Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Schwarz, Annette Winkel; Find, Søren

    2010-01-01

    changed over the past decade in favour of south-east Asian and south European cities and in disfavour of the traditional centres of North America and north-western Europe. The analysis is based on bibliometric data on the world’s 100 largest cities measured in terms of research output. The level...

  16. World Cities of Scientific Knowledge: Systems, Networks and Potential Dynamics. An Analysis Based on Bibliometric Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Schwarz, Annette Winkel; Find, Søren

    2010-01-01

    over the last decade in favour of south east Asian and south European cities and in disfavour of the traditional centres of North America and north-western Europe. The analysis is based on bibliometric data on the world’s 100 largest cities measured in terms of research output. Then level of co...

  17. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  18. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  19. South-South, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovutor Owhoeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 213 faecal samples were collected from four abattoirs and households to determine the prevalence of helminthes infections in exotic and indigenous goats in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria. The study revealed that out of 153 exotic goats (Red Sokoto Capra hircus, 112 were infected with various species of gastrointestinal helminths; out of 60 indigenous goats (West African dwarf Capra hircus, 49 were also infected with various types of gastrointestinal helminths. The formol-ether concentration method was used to analyse the specimens. The study revealed that an overall prevalence of (75.5% was recorded, out of which 57 (76.0%, 55 (70.5%, and 49 (81.6% were recorded for exotic goat in the months of May–September, 2010, exotic goat in the months October 2010–February, 2011 and for indigenous goats, respectively. The overall prevalence amongst the infected animals was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Species of helminthes revealed from the study were, Haemonchus, Strongyloides, Chabertia, Trichuris, Ostertagia, Bunostomum, Trichostrongyloida, Ascaris, Tenia, Avitelina, Fasciola, Eurytrema, Gastrothylax, Schistosoma, and Dicrocoelium.

  20. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  1. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  2. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  3. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  4. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  5. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    South China Sea. What data are available, however, and if Hong Kong is used, as it is herein, as an indicator of what the perturbations of other regional cities upon the South China Sea are like, then it is impacted grossly and an ecological disaster has probably already, but unknowingly, happened.

  6. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    on the South China Sea. What data are available, however, and if Hong Kong is used, as it is herein, as an indicator of what the perturbations of other regional cities upon the South China Sea are like, then it is impacted grossly and an ecological disaster has probably already, but unknowingly, happened. (Author)

  7. Locking Down the South Bronx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Belford

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this brief analysis is the intended beginning of a systemic integral analysis of the social systems and structures in use in the South Bronx, New York City. Informed by the writing of Jonathan Kozol as well as current articles in the New York Times, this analysis uses the systems theories of Talcott Parsons and Donella Meadows and the human identity work of Vern Redekop to understand the exterior and interior dimensions of systemic oppression as experienced by residents of the South Bronx.

  8. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  9. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  10. Multibeam Mapping of the South Atlantic Bight: South Carolina 2005, a Proposed MPA on the Continental Shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Fisheries laboratory in Panama City, Florida coordinated an acoustic survey at the new proposed Marine Protected Areas in the South Atlantic Bight area June...

  11. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  12. Natural Hazards In Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vera, M.

    2001-12-01

    Around the world more than 300 natural disasters occur each year, taking about 250,000 lives and directly affecting more than 200 million people. Natural hazards are complex and vary greatly in their frequency, speed of onset, duration and area affected. They are distinguished from extreme natural events, which are much more common and widespread, by their potential impacts on human societies. A natural disaster is the occurrence of a natural hazard on a large scale, involving great damage and, particularly in developing countries, great loss of life. The Basin of Mexico, whose central and southwestern parts are occupied by the urban area of Mexico City at the average altitude of 2,240 m above the sea level, is located on the southern edge of the Southern Plateau Central, on a segment of the Trans-Mexican Neovolcanic Belt that developed during Pliocene-Holocene times. The Basin of Mexico is a closed basin, which was created with the closing of the former Valley of Mexico because of basaltic-andesitic volcanism that formed the Sierra de Chichinautzin south of the city. The south-flowing drainage was obstructed and prompted the development of a lake that became gradually filled with sediments during the last 700,000 years. The lake fill accumulated unconformably over a terrain of severely dissected topography, which varies notably in thickness laterally. The major part of the urban area of Mexico City is built over these lake deposits, whereas the rest is built over alluvial material that forms the transition zone between the lake deposits and what constitutes the basement for the basin fill. In the present study, the effect of rain, fire and earthquakes onto Mexico City is evaluated. Rain risk was calculated using the most dangerous flood paths. The fire risk zones were determined by defining the vegetation areas with greater probability to catch fires. Earthquake hazards were determined by characterization of the zones that are vulnerable to damages produced by

  13. Chapter Ⅱ Better Water Update the Quality of Better City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ With a warmer global climate and the modernization of cities,overcoming the problem of water is a common issue that many cities around the world have to face.With the development of modern cities,waste water from both families and factories is continuously flowing into lakes and rivers.Heavy rains often hit many cities in countries across the world,such as the South of China,Pakistan.Let us enter the Puxi side of Shanghai Expo,where many international cities are showcasing their achievements such as how to control flooding,how to utilize rain,and how to treat waste water.For instance.Water Square at the Netherlands exhibit,the living water park at the Chengdu Pavilion,the treatment of waste water in Izmir,Turkey and three Swiss cities (Zurich,Geneva,Basel),along with the Osaka exhibit,all showcase solutions to the problem of "Water".

  14. 河南安阳市王裕口南地殷代遗址的发掘%Excavation on the Yin Site at Locus South of Wangyukou in Anyang City, Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所安阳工作队

    2004-01-01

    The archaeological finds unearthed from the Yin site at Locus South of Wangyukou include three ash-pits,two house-foundations and 21 tombs,which yielded nearly one hundred pottery,stone,bronze,bone and shell objects.The site may have been a settlement of Yin people and then became a clan cemetery of theirs.The burial data show that the tomb-owners were freemen.Part of them were better living warriors.The site can be roughly dated to Yinxu Ⅲ and Ⅳ.

  15. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  16. A Re-examination of Henry Grady's New South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Harold

    Historian Henry Grady's speeches, particularly one delivered to the New England Club of New York City in 1886, are credited with persuading the North of the South's continued domination of blacks, its need for increased industrialization, and its broadened agriculture. Grady's term "The New South" is defined as a racially conservative,…

  17. Cities, Wages, and the Urban Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Juan D. Soto; Dusan Paredes

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence regarding the unequal spatial distribution of population in the north and south of Chile which implies that even when geographical distances to the main urban center are similar, the distances in a context of urban hierarchy are completely di?erent. Given this economic geography, we postulate that Central Place Theory provides a better understanding for the study of city size wage gap in Chile. In order to test our hypothesis, we construct ?ve tiers of urban hierarchy usin...

  18. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  19. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  20. 韩国首尔的城市记忆——工业废弃地上的城市公园%The Memories of the South Korea Capital Seoul: the City Park on Industrial Wasteland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周妍; 唐世斌; 谈燕君; 贺勇; 王永欣

    2012-01-01

    概述工业废弃地、后工业景观概念及韩国后工业景观设计方式,分析探讨了旧净水厂改造为仙游岛公园的设计方案、兰芝岛垃圾山生态修复工程和世界杯公园建设历程。总结韩国首尔改造废弃地的成功经验,以期对我国的工业废弃地景观改造有积极的借鉴作用。%This paper firstly overviews the concept of industrial waste land and post-industrial landscape design, and the desigu the achievemens of post-industrial landscape of South Korea. Second, it analyzes and discusses the establishment of Seonyudo Park basing on the space structure frame of the original water purification plant. At the same time, we reviewed the ecological restoration project of garbage mountain in Daenanjido, and the construction history of the World Cup Park. It is indicated that South Korea makes achievements in transforming waste field. Therefore, we can conclude that learning from its experience of transforming waste field would have positive influence on the improvement for the industrial waste land transformation in China.

  1. Literacy, Knowledge and Development: South-South Policy Dialogue on Quality Education for Adults and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.; Castro Mussot, Luz-Maria, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains the results of the conference "South-South Policy Dialogue on Quality Education for Adults and Young People" that took place in Mexico City in 2005. Articles were written by participants who presented their national programmes from the governmental perspective, which were reflected in the literacy policies, but…

  2. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research.

  3. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  4. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN) discou

  5. Child-Oral impacts on daily performances: A socio dental approach to assess prevalence and severity of oral impacts on daily performances in South Indian school children of Bangalore city: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral disorders can have a negative impact on the functional, social and psychological well-being of children and their families. Oral health and dental treatment may have an impact on eating, speaking and appearance, thereby affecting quality of life. Thus, there has been a greater focus on the measurement of quality of life as a complement to the clinical measures. Objective: The aim was to assess the prevalence, characteristics and severity of oral impacts in south Indian school children using Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index as a measure of oral health related quality of life. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among the six government, and six private school children aged 11-12 years, of Karnataka, South India randomly selected as cluster, and all their 563 children were invited to participate. A cross culturally adapted and validated oral health-related quality of life measure; Child-OIDP was used to assess oral impacts. Results: The common perceived oral health problems were tooth ache reported by 342 children, a sensitive tooth reported by 230 children, tooth decay - hole in the tooth reported by 226 children. Eating was the most common performance affected (68.3%. The severity of impacts was high for eating and cleaning mouth and low for the study and social contact performances. Conclusion: The study reveals that oral health impacts on quality of life of school children of Karnataka aged 11-12 years. Oral impacts were prevalent, but not severe. The impacts mainly related to difficulty eating. Toothache, a sensitive tooth, tooth decay and bleeding gums contributed largely to the incidence of oral impacts.

  6. The Changing Of Beijing Outer City History Public Gardens And Thinking-- Take The Goldfish Pond And The South Depression For Example%北京外城历史公共园林的变迁与思考--以金鱼池、南下洼为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹丹; 王琳琳; 仇莉

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of public gardens fundamentaly altered the private ownership of gardens. In history, some areas of public gardens were formed at the sites of pit-pond in Beijing outer city, and became important places where gentry and civilian joined in activities. Take the Goldfish Pond and the South Depression for example, this paper has sorted out the transition of pit-pond public gardens in Beijing outer city. These areas were reformed and utilized successively, but for lack of deep insight into the gardens’ human resources and historical resources, problems such as unclear site and no outstanding theme have showed up. Thinking of the huge value and vital function of history public gardens wil have important inspiration for the modern urban landscape green space construction.%公共园林的出现,从根本上改变了园林“私有制”的束缚。历史上,在北京外城的坑塘遗址处形成了一些公共园林区域,成为当时士庶百姓游览和活动的重要场所。以金鱼池、南下洼一带为例,梳理北京外城坑塘遗址公共园林的变迁,这些区域先后被利用和改造,但因缺乏对其人文资源和历史资源的深刻认识,出现了定位不明确,主题不突出等问题。思考历史公共园林所具有的丰厚价值和承载的重要功能,将对当今城市园林绿地建设有重要启发。

  7. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  8. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  9. The use of packed water in urban drinking water and its advantages to other methods of separating drinking water from undrinkable water (The case study : Ferdows city in south Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Akhgari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today,more than one billion people of the world don't have access to safe drinking water.  Therefore, due to the population increase andconsequently increasing water needs, and the reduction of drinking watersources available, separating drinking water and non-drinking water seemsnecessary. In this article, the use of packed water is compared to other methods,such as two networks (drinkable and non-drinkable water supply, public waterstations, purifying drinking water, and transferring high quality water fromdistant areas. Some statistics and information about the cities of Birjand, Ferdowsfor statistical analysis are used. Most scientists believe that changing theworld weather is because of the greenhouse effect, which has had many harmfuleffects on the planet. With the increasing of the use of fossil fuels andaccumulation of pollutant gases in the atmosphere of the earth which are theresults of spreading industries and cars in the recent centuries, thegreenhouse effect has occurred that the heat and returning long waves can't goout of the atmosphere, and consequently the earth temperature has increased. Theincreasing temperature phenomenon then would be a sign of a trend to a drierclimate.

  10. Towards Sustainable Urban Environmental Management in Jiangyin city, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dan; Wang Rusong; Yuan Shaojun

    2004-01-01

    Dramatic economic and social changes have taken place in Jiangyin city due to rapid and uneven urbanization and industrialization. The environmental degradation has followed driven by these changes since the 1980's. With the pressures and effects of environmental deterioration, the city has implemented environmental management to hold back the trends of negative environmental changes.From the viewpoint of systems, DPSER is a good model for urban environmental changes to understand the causes, pressure, state, effect, existing responses and future action strategies. We took Jiangyin city,a developed city in South Jiangsu province, East China, as an example, and analyzed the characteristics of environmental changes and urban responses using DPSER model. Some operational strategies have been put forward to direct the city environmental management towards a sustainable road step by step.

  11. Saturated South

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Heavy rain produced the worst floods in a century in some areas of China causing deaths and forcing whole communities to evacuate Millions have been forced to flee their homes in south China amid floods caused by heavy rainfall since the end of May.

  12. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  13. [South] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  14. 江南某城镇河道水体污染现状分析及修复%SOUTH OF YANGZI RIVER SOME CITIES RIVER COURSE WATER BODY POLLUTION PRESENT SITUATION ANALYSIS AND REPAIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同祺; 李勇; 李大鹏; 刘玉杰

    2011-01-01

    Through monitors many times, analyzing the south of Yangzi River some river course black odor pollution reasons, and through the artificial aeration, throwing adds the microorganism microbial inoculum, the sediments control, the planter aquatic plant to carry on the advanced treatment to this river course, the project can remove pollutant effectively and so on water body organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus, plays the emergency repair stream pollution, the persistent effect maintains the rivers water quality, achieves the anticipated target.%通过多次监测,分析了引起江南某河道污染黑臭的原因,通过采取人工曝气、投加微生物菌剂、底泥控制、种植水生植物等措施对该河道进行深度处理.实际运行结果表明,工程能够有效去除水体中的有机物、氨氮、磷等污染物,起到应急修复河流污染、长效保持河流水质的作用,达到预期目标.

  15. 'Wasteaware' benchmark indicators for integrated sustainable waste management in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C; Rodic, Ljiljana; Cowing, Michael J; Velis, Costas A; Whiteman, Andrew D; Scheinberg, Anne; Vilches, Recaredo; Masterson, Darragh; Stretz, Joachim; Oelz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses a major problem in international solid waste management, which is twofold: a lack of data, and a lack of consistent data to allow comparison between cities. The paper presents an indicator set for integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) in cities both North and South, to allow benchmarking of a city's performance, comparing cities and monitoring developments over time. It builds on pioneering work for UN-Habitat's solid waste management in the World's cities. The comprehensive analytical framework of a city's solid waste management system is divided into two overlapping 'triangles' - one comprising the three physical components, i.e. collection, recycling, and disposal, and the other comprising three governance aspects, i.e. inclusivity; financial sustainability; and sound institutions and proactive policies. The indicator set includes essential quantitative indicators as well as qualitative composite indicators. This updated and revised 'Wasteaware' set of ISWM benchmark indicators is the cumulative result of testing various prototypes in more than 50 cities around the world. This experience confirms the utility of indicators in allowing comprehensive performance measurement and comparison of both 'hard' physical components and 'soft' governance aspects; and in prioritising 'next steps' in developing a city's solid waste management system, by identifying both local strengths that can be built on and weak points to be addressed. The Wasteaware ISWM indicators are applicable to a broad range of cities with very different levels of income and solid waste management practices. Their wide application as a standard methodology will help to fill the historical data gap.

  16. Construction and Empirical Analysis of Index System for Evaluating Urban Tourism Sustainable Development——A Case of the Five South Jiangsu Cities%城市旅游可持续发展评价指标体系的构建与实证分析——以苏南五市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友明

    2011-01-01

    构建科学合理的城市旅游可持续发展评价指标体系,可以衡量城市旅游的可持续发展水平,指导城市旅游的科学发展,增强城市旅游的可持续发展能力.本文以城市旅游可持续发展的基本理论为基础,提出了科学合理的城市旅游可持续发展评价指标体系,并应用综合评价方法,对苏南五市城市旅游可持续发展水平进行了综合评判.%The construction of scientific and reasonable index system of evaluating urban tourism sustainable development can help measure the sustainable development level of urban tourism, guide scientific development of urban tourism, and enhance the development sustainability of urban tourism. Based on the basic theories of urban tourism sustainable development, this paper puts forward a scientific and reasonable index system of evaluating urban tourism sustainable development, and makes a comprehensive evaluation of the sustainable development level of the five South Jiangsu cities by using synthetic evaluating methods.

  17. 南水北调东线工程沿线城市尾水处理方案比选%Comparison and selection of tail water treatment programs for cities along Eastern Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝达平

    2013-01-01

    以洪泽县为例,综合运用水文学和生态学等理论和方法,研究南水北调东线工程沿线城市尾水处理方案的选择,最终确定蓄水塘-廊道-兼性塘-表面流湿地组合的尾水处理方案,并建议将处理工艺与景观建设相结合,建成集生态、景观、休闲、科教等功能于一体的综合性示范工程。%Hydrological and ecological integrated theories and methods were used to select tail water treatment programs for cities along the Eastern Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. A case study was conducted in Hongze County. A scheme combining a storage pond, corridor, facultative pond, and surface flow wetland was determined. The treatment process and the landscape construction were combined to build a comprehensive demonstration project with integration of ecology, landscape, recreation, education, and other functions. The collection, treatment, and utilization of tail water were also conducted.

  18. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden....... It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems......There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...

  19. 78 FR 66355 - Pleasant Grove City, UT; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pleasant Grove City, UT; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying.... Applicant Contact: Dean Lundell, Pleasant Grove City, Utah, 70 South 100 East, Pleasant Grove, UT...

  20. 近5a江苏省苏南五市酸雨分布特征分析%An analysis of acid rain distribution characteristics of five cities in south Jiangsu in recent five years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋名淑; 施丹平; 陈彦

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain distribution characteristics of 7 acid rain monitoring stations in Nanjing, Zhen-jiang,Changzhou,Wuxi and Suzhou in south Jiangsu were analyzed based on acid rain monitoring data from January 2007 to December 2011. The results indicate that the frequency of acid rain was maximum in Dongshan and minimum in Nanjing. The frequency was minimum in 2011 and maximum in 2009. The frequency of strong acid rain was maximum in Dongshan and minimum in Liyang. The frequency was maximum when the rainfall was strong acidity at 3 points at the same time. The strong acid precipitation failed at 7 points at the same time appeared only on February 22, 2009. The acid rain intensity was the strongest in Dongshan and weakest in Liyang. The precipitation of the four seasons in a year were acidic. The precipitation in 2011 was weak acidity, but it was strong acidity during 2008 -2010.%统计江苏省苏南地区南京、镇江、常州、无锡和苏州5市7个酸雨监测站2007年1月至2011年12月的酸雨监测资料得到:(1)酸雨发生频率以东山最高,南京最低;2011年最低,2009年最高.强酸雨发生概率以东山最高,溧阳最低;3站同时出现强酸雨的概率最高,7站同时为强酸雨的仅2009年2月22日1d.(2)四季均为酸性降水;酸雨强度以东山最强,溧阳最弱.2011年呈弱酸性,其余3 a呈强酸性.

  1. Slumdog cities: rethinking subaltern urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ananya

    2011-01-01

    This article is an intervention in the epistemologies and methodologies of urban studies. It seeks to understand and transform the ways in which the cities of the global South are studied and represented in urban research, and to some extent in popular discourse. As such, the article is primarily concerned with a formation of ideas - "subaltern urbanism" - which undertakes the theorization of the megacity and its subaltern spaces and subaltern classes. Of these, the ubiquitous ‘slum’ is the most prominent. Writing against apocalyptic and dystopian narratives of the slum, subaltern urbanism provides accounts of the slum as a terrain of habitation, livelihood, self-organization and politics. This is a vital and even radical challenge to dominant narratives of the megacity. However, this article is concerned with the limits of and alternatives to subaltern urbanism. It thus highlights emergent analytical strategies, utilizing theoretical categories that transcend the familiar metonyms of underdevelopment such as the megacity, the slum, mass politics and the habitus of the dispossessed. Instead, four categories are discussed — peripheries, urban informality, zones of exception and gray spaces. Informed by the urbanism of the global South, these categories break with ontological and topological understandings of subaltern subjects and subaltern spaces.

  2. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  3. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  4. Suburbs and Cities

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Matthew I. Spiegel; Susan M. Wachter

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how closely the fortunes of suburbs are tied to the fortunes of the central city. We use similarities in residential housing price dynamics as a measure of how closely the economies of cities and suburbs are related. We develop housing price indices for most of the zip codes in California, and use these in a clustering procedure to see whether cities and suburbs naturally aggregate together, or whether they move separately. We find that central cities tend to...

  5. Pollution of HCHs and DDTs in the Sediments from Lijiang,Guilin City, South China%河流沉积物有机氯农药的纵向分布特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzed the results of sediments from Mahuang Zhou (N25°17′49″, E110°17′51″) by contrast with Lijiang right bank near Wayao Village (N25°14′07″, E110°18′32″), using HP6890 GC technique for getting organochlo-rine pesticides (OCPs) contents. The results of rationing determination taking HCHs and DDTs for calculation, its contents are 0~18.8ng/g、0.13~20.7ng/g (Mahuang Zhou), and 0~76.2ng/g、0~7.02ng/g (Wayao Village), respectively. Research has shown that downriver has been lightly contaminated by HCHs on Lijiang right bank near Wayao Village , may have possibility of lindane addition. Compared with upriver near Mahuang Zhou, there are lots of chophouses producing amount of food wastes and letting out-of-order, leads to an anaerobic environment in the very area. According to the data, HCHs (hexachloro cyclohexane) and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) in Lijiang of Guilin city section are from historical residues of industry generally.%以漓江桂林市区段蚂蝗洲及瓦窑村漓江右岸两处取沉积柱作对比,分析了两处沉积物的有机氯农药(OCPs)含量,以六六六(HCHs)与滴滴涕(DDTs)为主。计算其含量分别为0~18.8ng/g、0.13~20.7ng/g(蚂蝗洲);0~76.2ng/g、0~7.02ng/g(瓦窑村)。研究表明,近年来桂林市区段下游的瓦窑村漓江右岸受到HCHs的轻微污染,可能有农业林丹的投加;而上游蚂蝗洲附近大量餐饮小店的食物残渣无序排放造成了该区域范围厌氧环境,不利于水生生物的生长。数据显示,漓江桂林市区段HCHs、DDTs主要来自历史残留的工业污染物。

  6. South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Background notes and statistics on South Korea are provided in the document. 98,500 sq. km. of diversified terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1988 population of 43 million growing at the annual rate of 1%. The work force totals 17 million. South Korea claims a population comprised of Koreans with a small Chinese minority, 4 religious beliefs, and native Korean-speakers. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 98% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 6/1,000, while life expectancy is 67-73 years. 1990 estimated GNP was $224 billion, and was growing at the estimated rate of 9%. Per capita GNP was $5,500, while a 9% increase was reported in the consumer price index for 1990. Agriculture accounts for 9% of GNP, mining and manufacturing for 35%; 1990 international trade deficit totalled $5 billion. Additional data are provided on South Korea's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. South Korea has enjoyed remarkable economic growth over the past 25 years, and has grown to become a middle-ranking industrial power. Korea's bilateral trade surpluses with the United States of nearly $10 billion in 1987 and 1988 declined decisively in 1989 due to a variety of factors. Surplus remained, however, approximately $4 billion in 1990. Whether or not these declines are indicative of structural, lasting trends is not yet discernible. Long-term growth prospects remain good, Korea's ability to adapt to a more open democratic system playing an important role.

  7. HIV-related knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, and utilisation of HIV counselling and testing: a venue-based intercept commuter population survey in the inner city of Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Chimoyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV counselling and testing (HCT and knowledge about HIV have been key strategies utilised in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS worldwide. HIV knowledge and uptake of HCT services in sub-Saharan Africa are still low. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with HCT and HIV/AIDS knowledge levels among a commuter population in Johannesburg, South Africa. Objective: To identify the factors associated with HCT uptake among the commuter population. Design: A simple random sampling method was used to select participants in a venue-based intercept survey at a taxi rank in the Johannesburg Central Business District. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis assessed factors associated with HIV testing stratified by gender. Results: 1,146 respondents were interviewed, the maority (n=579, 50.5% were females and (n=780, 68.1% were over 25 years of age. Overall HCT knowledge was high (n=951, 83% with more females utilising HCT facilities. There was a significant difference in HIV testing for respondents living closer to and further away from health facilities. Slightly more than half of the respondents indicated stigma as one of the barriers for testing (n=594, 52%, p-value=0.001. For males, living with a partner (aOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.78, p-value: 0.041 and possessing a post-primary education were positively associated with testing (aOR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.15–3.47, p-value: 0.014, whereas stigma and discrimination reduced the likelihood of testing (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.31–0.62, p-value: <0.001. For females, having one sexual partner (aOR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.19–5.90, p-value: 0.017 and a low perceived benefit for HIV testing (aOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.96, p-value: 0.035 were associated with HIV testing. Conclusion: The overall HIV/AIDS knowledge was generally high. Gender-specific health education and HIV intervention programmes are needed for improved access to HCT services

  8. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  9. Violência física contra menores de 15 anos: estudo epidemiológico em cidade do sul do Brasil Physical abuse of minors under 15: epidemiological study in a city in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apresentar o perfil de casos notificados de violência física contra menores de 15 anos em Londrina, Paraná, no ano de 2006. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, com coleta retrospectiva nos prontuários dos Conselhos Tutelares e serviços de atendimento do município. Os dados foram processados e tabulados pelo programa Epi Info. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 479 casos de violência por força corporal e 9 casos de violência por outros meios (7 por instrumentos, 1 por objeto cortante e 1 por substância corrosiva. Na violência por força corporal, predominaram vítimas do sexo feminino (53,4% e maior risco na idade de seis anos (12,2 por 1.000. O pai foi o agressor mais frequente (48,8% e o alcoolismo esteve presente em 64,0% dos casos. A violência por instrumentos foi praticada através de cinta (42,9%, fio (28,6%, ferro (14,3% e instrumento de cozinha (14,3%, com vítimas do sexo feminino (85,7%, na faixa etária de doze anos (33,3%, sendo o pai (71,4% e a mãe (28,6% os únicos agressores, com o alcoolismo presente em 57,1% destas situações. A vítima de violência por objeto cortante era do sexo masculino, 13 anos e o agressor, desconhecido, tinha de 15 a 19 anos. A violência por substância corrosiva teve como vítima um adolescente de 13 anos, do sexo masculino, cujo agressor foi o pai, sendo o alcoolismo a situação presente. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados apontam para a importância epidemiológica do abuso físico contra crianças e adolescentes e podem contribuir para a elaboração de estratégias de prevenção e acompanhamento das vítimas.OBJECTIVES: to build the epidemiological profile of deliberate violence against minors under 15 years of age in Londrina, Paraná in 2006. METHODS: cross-sectional study with retrospective data collected from the records of Tutelary Councils and care services in the city. Data were processed and tabulated with Epi Info software. RESULTS: 479 cases of violence by use of physical force and 9

  10. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  11. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  12. City Improves State Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjoyceZhu

    2003-01-01

    As China's new leadership drafts measures to help ailing Stateowned enterprises(SOEs),Changchun,a strategic city in the Rust Belt,is reaping benefits unseen in more than a decade of SOE reform.Home to a large number of SOEs,Changchun has had its share of bureaucracy and stagnation.The city initiated a program called,“Saving SOEs

  13. City profile: Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, H.J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Paramaribo, the largest and only significant urban area in Suriname, is a typical primate city. The majority of the countries’ population resides here and the majority of political, social and economic functions is clustered in the urban zone. In the course of the 20th century, the city changed dram

  14. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test...... on applied technologies and responsive light design in the contemporary cities....

  15. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...

  16. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  17. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  18. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets Arkitekt...

  19. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  20. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  1. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...... is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing...... on experience. We will argue for a human turn in the research on liveabil- ity and urbanisation, and debates the concept of liveability. We will take Copenhagen as our main case and compare with other cities from around the world....

  2. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...... the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset....

  3. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  4. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage...... cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...

  5. Cities, Towns and Villages, City Limits of City of Dubuque, IA, Published in 2007, City of Dubuque.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'City Limits of City of...

  6. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  7. Spatial integration of oasis city group around the western margins of the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the oasis cities in Kashgar Prefecture and Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture are taken as an example,through the factor analysis,spatial attraction interaction model and location quotient methods,urban hierarchy system,the intensity of urban economic ties,economic subordination degree,and structure of city functions were analyzed. The results indicated:(1) The urban hierarchy system takes Kashgar city as the main center,Artux city,Yarkant county and Maralbexi county as the sub-centers; (2) The intensity of economic ties among Kashgar city and each county is much higher than others. The interaction of Kashgar city,Shufu county and Shule county are the strongest,and the economic ties of Yarkant,Kagilik,Poskam counties are relatively close; All cities in the study area are economically subordinate to Kashgar city. (3) Three cities of Kashgar city,Shufu county and Shule county should connect strongly,with Kashgar city as the core. The cities and towns along the Southern Xinjiang Railway and along National Road 315 should be regarded as two strips,and the two city strips along the border,and the city strip along Provincial Road 215 should be treated as three axes. The ring structure strategy of "core ring,closer ring and radiated ring" was proposed. (4) It was proposed to build Kashgar city group in the north,and Yarkant city group in the south,Maralbexi city group in the southeast,and Taxkorgan border city group with four inner groups’ development strategy.

  8. Groundwater system analysis of south Yishu geosyncline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chang-lei; CHI Bao-ming; YI Shu-ping; LI Zhi-jun

    2004-01-01

    South Yishu geosyncline is 50 km southeast of Changchun City of Jilin Province, where an aquifer is thick,surface runoff is abundant and it has potential to develop water resources preferably. By means of system analysis, the authors analyse the structural characteristics, I/O characteristics, function characteristics and boundary and environment characteristics of the groundwater system, so as to search for a way of optimizing water resources arrangement and enhancing water resources'bearing capacity. Based on the analysis results, the authors abstract conceptual model and mathematical model of the groundwater system. The simulation results certify and enrich the knowledge about south Yishu geosyncline.

  9. Addressing South Africa’s urban challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M. Rogerson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is among the most urbanized countries in Africa and has an urban population that is growing rapidly. The country’s urban challenges sometimes are considered as distinctive and separate to those of rest of Africa because of the apartheid legacy of a fragmented and racially splintered urban landscape. Nevertheless, 20 years after democratic transition the issues that confront its cities increasingly exhibit a set of sustainability challenges that typify those problems of many other fast-growing African urban areas. This introduction locates the collection of articles as a contribution to the expanding corpus of scholarship on urban South Africa.

  10. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  11. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rojas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of  technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects  the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City,  creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  12. 徐州市三环南路沿线土壤重金属污染及相关性分析%Analysis on Pollution and Correlation of Heavy Metals in Soil along Third Ring South Road in Xuzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 刘汉湖; 邱超; 蔡香丽

    2012-01-01

    Taking the soil along third ring south road of Xuzhou city as research object, this paper researched on the soils pol- luted by heavy metals and correlations through sampling outside and indoor analysis. The results show that contents of the same heavy metal vary significantly in different sampling transects. In addition to types of heavy metals and sources, the availability of sheherbelts and density of shelterbelts are influencing factors. Zn, a major pollution factor, comes from the abrasion of motor vehi- cle tires. The result showed that heavy metals of Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb were not derived from natural sources, but closely related to human behaviors.%以徐州市三环南路沿线土壤为研究对象,经过野外调查取样和室内分析,对路旁土壤重金属污染及相关性进行了研究。结果表明:不同断面同一重金属含量之间存在显著性差异,这与重金属的种类、来源有关外,还与公路旁有无防护林及防护林的稠密度有关;土壤重金属污染最主要的贡献者是Zn,来自于机动车轮胎的磨损;根据土壤重金属元素之间及重金属与土壤理化性质之间的相关性分析可知,重金属Cu、Cr、Zn和Pb并不是来源于自然来源,而与人为来源有着紧密的关系。

  13. South-South Trade: A Quantitative Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan, Selim

    2014-01-01

    The share of North-North trade in global trade declined from 55.5 percent in 1990 to around 32 percent in 2010. Such fall in North-North trade had been accompanied by rising trade involving the South countries. The South-North trade share increased from 13.9 percent to 16.5 percent during the same time. However, the most spectacular phenomenon was the rise in South-South trade, which increased from only 6.4 percent to 19.4 percent during this period. Such rise in South-South trade has no...

  14. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  15. Cities and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke

    institutions, it is municipalities across Europe in general and Germany in particular who are responsible for planning, delivering, and, in some cases, financing the housing, education, and full integration of new arrivals. “Cities and Refugees: The European Response” is a collaboration of the Brookings...... Centennial Scholar Initiative and the Foreign Policy program, with key research led by the Copenhagen Business School. It aims to show the extent to which cities are at the vanguard of this crisis and to deepen our understanding of the role and capacity of city governments and local networks in resettlement...... and long-term economic and social integration....

  16. Multibeam Mapping of the South Atlantic Bight: Georgia 2005, a Proposed MPA on the Continental Shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Fisheries laboratory in Panama City, Florida coordinated an acoustic survey at the new proposed Marine Protected Areas in the South Atlantic Bight area June...

  17. The South Central Overland Trail in western Utah, 1850-1900

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following report is a discussion of the South Central Overland Trail, which goes west from Salt Lake City and skirts the worst of the salt desert, stopping at...

  18. CITY | NATURE BORDER ON TEST - [URBANISM STUDIO 2015}

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for city-nature border conditions on Amager, Copenhagen. From November 2014 to February 2015, 33 students from eight countries with an equal number of foreign and Danish students explored possible solutions for new city-nature border conditions of Amager and Nature Park Amager seeking to unfold the future......What if a plant and hydrological test center becomes a dynamic transition zone between Nature Park Amager and the city, testing the reaction of plants to shifting water levels as well as being a public and social reclamation learning center? How can military traces be the foundation for new site......- specific larger urban notes of city and park? And what if the shopping centre Fields is being opened up, and a new public main square across the highway becomes the new centre of Ørestad interlinking Amager north to south, east to west? This catalogue presents strategic development and design proposals...

  19. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  20. Ecological city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rueda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the urban systems is the necessary condition for the formulation of ecological city planning favouring the maximum liveability of sites. Liveability is directly correlated to the optimization of numerous elements (public space, equipment, services, building techniques, innovative technology, social cohesion, biodiversity. To carry out such objectives, ecological city planning proposes a new model of town planning on three levels (subsoil, ground level, and upper level.

  1. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  2. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  3. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  4. Should Cities Regulate Graffiti?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Graffiti, while still a new phenomenon to most Chinese, is becoming more familiar among teenagers in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai. A recent report by Xinhua News Agency discusses the trend. The report said a small

  5. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  6. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  7. Aging City Leads Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The northern city of Dalian has become a model of care for the elderly that other Chinese cities are following Chinese Minister of Civil Affairs Li Xueju has called upon civil affairs agencies in the nation to learn from Dalian’s diversified models for elderly care,ranging from running collectively owned and foreign-designed nursing homes to offering tax incentives to private households and companies serving the elderly

  8. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  9. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  10. Sinking Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  11. Project Veracruz: An assessment for the eroding beach south of Veracruz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineke, D.; Volbeda, E.; De Weerdt, B.; De Wit, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to frequently occurring storms, like hurricanes and cold fronts, the coasts around the Mexican port city Veracruz suffer from erosion. This is most severe at the beaches of Boca del Rio just south of the city of Veracruz. Here, small beaches can be found between large groynes. These groynes bloc

  12. Mexico City basin wind circulation during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign investigating the atmospheric chemistry of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA in April of 2003. This paper describes the wind circulation patterns during the campaign both within the Mexico City basin and on the regional scale. ''Time roses'' are introduced to concisely analyze the diurnal wind patterns. Three episode types were identified that explain the conditions encountered: ''O3-South'', ''Cold Surge'' and ''O3-North''. These can be diagnosed from a combination of synoptic and basin observations based on whether the day was predominantly cloudy, or whether the O3 peak was in the north or south of the basin. O3-South days have weak synoptic forcing due to an anti-cyclone over the eastern Pacific. Strong solar heating leads to northerly flows in the basin and an evening shift due to a gap flow from the south-east. Peak ozone concentrations are in the convergence zone in the south of the city. Cold Surge days are associated with ''El Norte'' events, with strong surface northerlies bringing cold moist air and rain. Stable conditions lead to high concentrations of primary pollutants and peak ozone in the city center. O3-North days occur when the sub-tropical jet is closer to Mexico City. With strong westerlies aloft, the circulation pattern is the same as O3-South days except for a wind shift in the mid-afternoon leading to ozone peaks in the north of the city. This classification is proposed as a means of understanding pollutant transport in the Mexico City basin and as a basis for future meteorological and chemical analysis. Furthermore, model evaluation and design of policy recommendations will need to take into account the three episode types.

  13. Mexico City basin wind circulation during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign investigating the atmospheric chemistry of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA in April of 2003. This paper describes the wind circulation patterns during the campaign both within the Mexico City basin and on the regional scale. ''Time roses'' are introduced to concisely analyze the diurnal wind patterns. Three episode types were identified that explain the conditions encountered: ''O3-South'', ''Cold Surge'' and ''O3-North''. These can be diagnosed from a combination of synoptic and basin observations based on whether the day was predominantly cloudy, or whether the O3 peak was in the north or south of the basin. O3-South days have weak synoptic forcing due to an anti-cyclone over the eastern Pacific. Strong solar heating leads to northerly flows in the basin and an evening shift due to a gap flow from the south-east. Peak ozone concentrations are in the convergence zone in the south of the city. Cold Surge days are associated with ''El Norte'' events, with strong surface northerlies bringing cold moist air and rain. Stable conditions lead to high concentrations of primary pollutants and peak ozone in the city center. O3-North days occur when the sub-tropical jet is closer to Mexico City. With strong westerlies aloft, the circulation pattern is the same as O3-South days except for a wind shift in the mid-afternoon leading to ozone peaks in the north of the city. This classification is proposed as a means of understanding pollutant transport in the Mexico City basin and as a basis for future meteorological and chemical analysis. Furthermore, model evaluation and design of policy recommendations will need to take into account the three episode types.

  14. Leadership: Subject to the State Personnel Act (SPA) Employee's Perceptions of Job Satisfaction at Elizabeth City State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted at Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, located approximately 40 miles south of the Virginia state line. ECSU, a historically Black institution of higher learning, was founded in 1891 and is one of 17 constituent universities in The University of North Carolina system. The…

  15. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  16. Anemia em gestantes de municípios das regiões Sul e Centro-Oeste do Brasil Anemia en mujeres enbarazadas de ciudades de regiones Sur y Centro-Oeste de Brasil Anemia in pregnant women from two cities in the South and Mid-West Regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fujimori

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a distribuição da anemia em gestantes da rede básica de saúde de dois municípios, na região Sul e Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Estudo transversal retrospectivo e descritivo desenvolvido a partir de dados de prontuários de 954 e 781 gestantes em Cuiabá-MT e Maringá-PR, respectivamente. Coletaram-se dados de caracterização sociodemográfica, de pré-natal e indicadores sociais. Foram consideradas anêmicas, as mulheres com hemoglobina inferior a 11g/dL. A desigualdade social existente entre os municípios foi evidente. Gestantes atendidas em Cuiabá-MT apresentavam características sociodemográficas significativamente mais precárias. A prevalência de anemia era significativamente maior e valores médios de hemoglobina menores em Cuiabá-MT, independentemente da idade gestacional. Encontrou-se associação dos níveis de hemoglobina com a idade, situação conjugal, número de gestações anteriores, estado nutricional e trimestre gestacional. As diferenças regionais na ocorrência da anemia gestacional são socialmente determinadas, o que deve ser considerado nas propostas de intervenção em saúde coletiva.Se analizó la distribución de anemia en mujeres embarazadas asistidas en servicios básicos de salud de dos ciudades de las regiones Sur y Centro-Oeste de Brasil. Estudio transversal retrospectivo y descriptivo. Se usó datos de registros médicos de 954 y 781 embarazadas de Cuiabá-MT y Maringá-PR, respectivamente. Se recopilaron datos sobre características sociodemográficas, atención prenatal e indicadores sociales. Hemoglobina-HbWe aimed to analyze anemia distribution in pregnant women who were attending health services in two cities in the South and Mid-West Regions in Brazil. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study developed from 954 and 781 medical records data in Cuiabá-MT and Maringá-PR. We collected data of social and demographic features as well as pre-natal care. Women who presented

  17. South Africa, the Arts and Youth in Conflict with the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Sheila C.; Sloth-Nielsen, Julia; Mathiti, Vuyisile

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Diversion into Music Education (DIME) youth intervention programme that originated in South Africa in 2001. DIME offers instruction in African marimba and djembe ensemble performance to juvenile offenders. Conceived as community collaboration among organizations in the cities of Cape Town, South Africa and Tampa, United…

  18. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case i...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city.......In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...

  19. Mapping the Gendered City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig;

    2017-01-01

    Walking is a mode of perceiving the city which also contributes to health and social benefits. This paper studies the influence of the socio-cultural aspects on the practice of walking and the meaning of walkscapes in Riyadh, one of the most auto-dependent and gender-segregated cities on the Arab...... Peninsula, where socio-cultural values and restrictions regulate men and women’s use and access to public spaces. The methodology used is a combination of movement tracking data using GPS technology and map-based workshops where participants can reflect on their walking behaviour and spatial preferences....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...

  20. Climate change and cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterthwaite, David

    2006-10-15

    What is done, or not done, in cities in relation to climate change over the next 5-10 years will affect hundreds of millions of people, because their lives and livelihoods are at risk from global warming. What is done in cities will also have a major influence on whether the escalating risks for the whole planet will be reduced or eliminated. Climate change needs to be considered in all development plans and investments - local, regional, national and international. Urban growth must be made more climate-resilient and help reduce, rather than increase, greenhouse gas emissions. This will not be done by the market; it can only be done by governments.

  1. São Paulo: Global Metropolis of the South

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocco, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    São Paulo is a metropolis of superlatives. It is the largest metropolis of South America, with 20.2 million inhabitants in the Greater Metropolitan Area and 11.8 million in the city proper (IBGE, 2014 prognosis). Numbers vary considerably, but it is generally accepted that São Paulo is among the 10

  2. Accepted into Education City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Qatar's Education City, perhaps the world's most diverse campus, is almost entirely unknown in the United States, but represents the next step in the globalization of American higher education--international franchising. Aided by technology such as online libraries, distance learning and streaming video, U.S. universities offer--and charge tuition…

  3. Cities on the GROW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, Richard; Meulen, Suzanne; Mol, G.; Bailey, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Cities on the Grow is a cross-disciplinary project that has been funded by Climate-KIC, an initiative of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology. It seeks to support the sustainable growth of urban food enterprises toward the implementation of more commercially viable business practices.

  4. Bandung City, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarigan, A.K.M.; Sagala, S.S.; Samsura, D.A.A.; Fiisabiilillah, D.F.; Simarmata, H.A.; Nababan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Bandung City has grown to become a very important centre in Indonesia, demonstrating a higher economic growth rate than the national average. It has experienced many challenges resulting from rapid urbanisation, including slums, basic infrastructures, and flooding. Despite such issues, a gradual imp

  5. That City is Mine!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijendijk, Cordula

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is about urban ideal images. It is about dreams - not fictitious beliefs, but dreams that humankind can realize tomorrow. It is about images from intellectuals, pastry cooks, urban planners and firemen. About people who deeply care about their cities, about their hopes, frustrations, ang

  6. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  7. Airport as city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The airport city is a two-fold phenomenon: the areas surrounding the airport develop due to their proximity and accessibility to the terminal complex, and the terminal complex itself develops in to a pseudo-urban centre. This situation is manifest to varying extents in all major airports of the worl

  8. A Committed City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    shanghai, one of the most populated cities in the world’s most populous nation, knew it had the largest ever World Exposition to prepare for more than two years prior to its opening, when a record number of countries and international organizations confirmed their participation. A total of 246 countries and international organizations take part in World Expo 2010,

  9. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    Reviews "If you are interested in how social structure can deeply influence social innovation outcomes, or in jump-starting social innovation in your city, this book will provide clear insights about how the way we lead, organize, and interact affects the way we innovate as a society." –Michael W...

  10. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  11. City fiiling / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Arhitektide Andres Alveri ja Tiit Trummali tähtsamatest töödest. Pikemalt Tallinna kesklinnas asuvatest majadest City Plaza ja Rävala Neli. Kommentaarid Rein Veidemannilt, Veljo Kaasikult, Hardo Aasmäelt, Toomas Tammiselt, Jaak Aaviksoolt ja Karin Pauluselt

  12. Cities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Elming, Anna

    2015-01-01

    for redesigning the neighbourhood in Minecraft and LEGO. These were presented to City of Copenhagen architects and urban planners as well as the head of the Department of Transport, Technology and Environment. Overall the study showed that tasks focused on solving local living problems through neighbourhood...

  13. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    With a point of departure in amongst others the Danish office of ADEPT’s approach, ‘The city in the building and the building in the city’ (ADEPT 2012), it is consequently the aim of this article to show how workshops can help shape and develop a spatial and architectural approach to form finding...

  14. A Committed City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Shanghai, one of the most populated cities in the world's most populous nation, knew it had the largest ever 'World Exposition to prepare for more than two years prior to its opening, when a record number of countries and international organizations confirmed their participation.

  15. Nature in the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  16. Health Condition of Jobholders in Public Places with Centralized Air Conditioning System in Three Cities in South China%我国南方三城市集中空调公共场所从业人员健康状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程义斌; 路凤; 顾珩; 陈晓东; 徐慧慧; 杨海兵; 谈立峰; 刘凡; 金银龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the health condition of employees in public places with centralized air-conditioning system in three cities in south China. Methods From October 2008 to October 2009, a total of 626 employees in public places with centralized air-conditioning system were selected in three cities of the south China as exposed population to finish the questionnaire and the blood samples were collected. Meanwhile, a total of 582 employees from the same type public places without centralized air-conditioning system were selected as the control population. Serum Legionella pneumophiia 1-7 IgG antibody, mycoplasma pneumonia IgG antibody and chlamydia pneumonia IgG antibody were detected in all available samples. IgG, IgA, IgM and C-reaction protein were tested in selected samples. Results The positive rates of Legionella pneumophiia 1-7 IgG antibody, mycoplasma pneumonia IgG antibody and chlamydia pneumonia IgG in the employees in public places with centralized air-conditioning system were 3.0% (19/626), 29.4% (184/625) and 72.7% (455/626), respectively; no significant difference was seen between exposed population and control population in the positive rate of Legionella pneumophiia 1-7 IgG antibody (P>0.05); Compared with the control group, the incidence of symptoms including nasal obstruction, snivel, throat dryness and itch, frequent cold, eyes drying, eyes itch, hypopsia, skin dryness, headache, chest pain and fatigue were higher in exposed group (P<0.05); The average concentrations of IgG [(13.270±3.157) g/L] in exposed group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The immunity level and incidence of symptoms including respiration system,eye and skin may be used as the sensitive biomarkers responding to the potential health effects of public places with centralized air conditioning system.%目的 了解我国南方三城市集中空调公共场所从业人员的健康现状.方法 于2008年10月-2009年10月

  17. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge. A better understanding of the complex organizational processes with many actors and stakeholders in city logistics projects may prevent further...... failures. Design/methodology/approach: Theory on organizational change is applied to capture the processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is process analysis on a single longitudinal case. Findings: The emergence of the Copenhagen city logistics project can be understood....... The study aims at understanding the social processes towards reduced congestion and greenhouse gas emissions from goods transport in inner cities. Originality/value: By better understanding the organization processes leading to implementation of city logistics, other projects in other cities may learn from...

  18. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  19. Space Radar Image of Star City, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    ), passing just east of Star City and flowing off the lower right edge of the image. The dark blue band of the Vorya River runs north-south in the upper right quadrant, east of Star City. SIR-C/X-SAR radar images are being compared with data from the Russian radar satellite Almaz to evaluate the usefulness of a permanent orbital radar platform in monitoring Earth s environment and ecology.

  20. Social Studies: Cities in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Brenda F.

    This elective quinmester program for grades 10 through 12 focuses upon the study of urban problems. Students analyze city problems taking into consideration ecology, city planning, model cities, and other factors in an attempt to provide creative solutions. The course is arranged into seven sections. Student activities are to: 1) discuss the…

  1. Magical Landscapes and Designed Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    from the point of view of the city, where order, design, planning and commerce are important cityscape qualities. The article deals with the way in which these two parts of the city, landscape and brandscape are complementary parts of the city-web. Analytical points made by Mauss, Lévi...

  2. Deconstructing Rotterdam's modern city centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 20th century, the Dutch city of Rotterdam was radically transformed from a historic town into a modern city, becoming the selfacclaimed 'city of architecture', home to international architectural design offices, publishers and institutions. Although it is already 60 years after the destructio

  3. JINAN: the City of Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Attractions Jinan is not a hot tourist destination in China, but it has Something special to offer, such as the 72 springs scattered throughout the city. Jinan has an alias of the Spring City (Quan Cheng)because of ouver 700 natural springs run through the city. Among them,the Baotu Spring is the most famous.

  4. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    2003-01-01

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sicily...

  5. Shaping Future Green Cities: LEDs Technology adoption as an option for India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R; Kroesen, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    The sustainable development in developing and newly industrialising countries (China, India, South Africa, and Brazil) is central issue for policy makers, decision makers, academic, and planners. The attainment of sustainability has become a challenge for rapidly urbanising India. The paper focuses on the challenges for building less energy consuming cities. The cities use different technologies for lighting purposes but which technology can decarbonise them in future. Moreover, the question ...

  6. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  7. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  8. Nuclear South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    nuclear equation in South Asia, the geopolitical and geoeconomic realities will keep China out of the South Asian nuclear picture. As Pakistan...remain unipolar for quite some time with the United States as the global superpower. There is predominance of geoeconomics as against geopolitical...to drag China into the nuclear equation in South Asia, the geopolitical and geoeconomic realities will likely keep China out of the South Asian

  9. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower...... conflict that gave impetus to the camp’s construction. Presented to the public as a scientific station and a technologically-advanced, under-ice extension of the American way of life, while situated in the titanic struggle between West and East, Camp Century took on a number of closed-world meanings....... However, the military logic of Camp Century was self-referential and closed in the sense that the very idea of constructing the city under ice emerged from Cold War strategy. The closed world of Camp Century established a temporary boundary between, on the one hand, the comfortable space controlled by US...

  10. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    of a research project  mapping the different approaches to urban transformation and experience design, to the level of strategic thinking and planning, and to the content of the programs implemented. Special emphasis is put on on projects combining experience, leisure and learning, and on projects which have...... concepts and framings that will guide the understanding and the analysis of the experience city. In section three we focus on the design of the Danish experience city and present the first findings of the research project The projects are categorised according to their content, structure and urban...... localisation. In particular the cases are represented in relation to their strategic and urban planning importance, their social and cultural content and their architectural representation and the programmes they contain. The article ends with a short discussion of some  of these preliminary findings as well...

  11. Coworking in the city

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the financial and economic crisis of 2007 and 2008, a new type of collaboratively oriented workplace has emerged in cities. These coworking spaces and the associated practice of coworking exemplify new ways of organising labour in project-based and largely freelance occupations as found in the cultural and creative industries. But coworking spaces are not just flexible shared office spaces for creative professionals ‘working alone together’ (Spinuzzi, 2012). Coworking prom...

  12. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....

  13. City of open works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava; Søberg, Martin; Braae, Ellen Marie

    2012-01-01

    Cities change – and so do the tasks and agendas of landscapes architects. New types of urban schemes are increasingly arising. On the one hand, new sorts of commissions have emerged in recent years – on the other hand, traditional commissions have been interpreted in radically new ways. These con......-geneous design method. But what actually characterizes this new design method? We have pointed out five specific strategies...

  14. Living in Living Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and overview of current and potential applications of living technology to urban problems. Living technology can be described as technology that exhibits the core features of living systems. These features can be useful to solve dynamic problems. In particular, urban problems concerning mobility, logistics, telecommunications, governance, safety, sustainability, and society and culture are presented, while solutions involving living technology are reviewed. Finally, the usefulness of describing cities as living systems is discussed.

  15. Tackling Cities' Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The world will continue to rely on scientists and technicians to tackle looming challenges in climate,medicine and transportation.A forum addressing science and technological innovations and the future of urbanization was held in Wuxi City in east China's Jiangsu Province on June 21-22,where scientists and government officials the world over discussed these three main issues.Edited excerpts follow:

  16. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRAKTISTAN 2011 og udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY på Utzon Centeret i Aalborg vil vi derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at der i Urban design fagligheden er et potentiale. Både for de der bruger byen og for dem der udøver arkitekturen med en stærk urban intention i det skala...

  17. Towards what kind of city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The virtual city exists in “time” whereas the real city exists in “space”. The first one is an expression of our imagination, the second one of our ability to create. Time has articulated the images of cities as artisan philosophers, historians, artists, dreamers and even poets have given it to us. Space has generated cities which have been worked upon by geographers, geologists, surveyors, and finally urban planners. Space and time however live together in both cities, even if with alternating states of subordination. The culture of thinking, of decision making and of working is the unifying center of both the cities; it is the generating element both of the crises and the prosperity of the cities and it works towards an overcoming of the first and for the pursuit of the second (prosperity using the experience of the past for the making of a better future.

  18. New South, Old Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The South's recent rapid growth has not erased its widespread poverty and low levels of human capital. The rural South remains the nation's low-income and high-poverty region, and low education levels may limit the rural South's prospects for development. Underlying social and economic conditions that depend on and reinforce a low-skill population…

  19. Sun exposure and sun protection habits in high school students from a city south of the country Práticas de exposição e proteção solar em estudantes do ensino médio de uma cidade do sul do país

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Dupont

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective solar protection is an uncommon practice among young people, increasing the likelihood of sunburn, sunstroke and skin cancers. This fact is more significant in the south of Brazil, where the prevalence of white skinned population is larger, being more prone to sun damage. OBJECTIVES: To study the practices of sun exposure and sun protection in high school students from the city of Carlos Barbosa - RS. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 775 students, enrolled on the first half of 2010, who had signed the consent form. We used a non-identifiable, self-administered questionnaire, with questions about related topics. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square or Fisher exact and t-Student tests. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee under the number 2010-115H. RESULTS: Most students are exposed to the sun at the more critical periods, remaining exposed for more than an hour. Five hundred and seventy-six students (74,3% reported using sunscreen, but less than 10% did it during all months of the year. Female teenagers are most likely to use sunscreen (p FUNDAMENTOS: A proteção solar efetiva é uma prática incomum entre os jovens, aumentando a probabilidade de queimaduras solares, insolações e cânceres de pele. Esse fato é mais significativo na Região Sul do Brasil, onde a prevalência da população branca é maior, sendo mais propensa aos danos causados pelo sol. OBJETIVOS: Estudar as práticas de exposição e proteção solar em estudantes do ensino médio da cidade de Carlos Barbosa, RS. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, envolvendo 775 estudantes matriculados no primeiro semestre de 2010, que tiveram o termo de consentimento assinado. Utilizou-se um questionário não identificável, autoaplicável, com perguntas abordando tópicos relacionados ao tema. Na análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e o teste t-Student. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comit

  20. Estudo de utilização de medicamentos em idosos residentes em uma cidade do sul de Santa Catarina (Brasil: um olhar sobre a polimedicação Study of the use of medicine in elderly living in a city in the South of Santa Catarina (Brazil: a look at the polymedication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayani Galato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de medicamentos em idosos residentes em uma cidade do sul de Santa Catarina. Realizou-se um estudo do tipo transversal. Foram entrevistados 104 pacientes distribuídos na área de cobertura de cinco Programas de Saúde da Família. Dos entrevistados, 68,3% eram mulheres, 78,8% tinham idade entre 60 e 79 anos e a maioria apresentava baixa escolaridade. O número de medicamentos em uso foi de 3,5 (DP=2,58 por idoso; o número de doses diárias foi de 5,4 (DP=4,78, sendo que 65,4% dos idosos referiram ter procurado os serviços de saúde duas ou mais vezes no último ano. Observou-se que 51,9% dos idosos foram classificados como polimedicação menor, e 28,8% classificaram-se como polimedicação maior. As classes de medicamentos que mais contribuíram para a polimedicação foram aquelas que atuam no sistema cardiovascular, nervoso e trato alimentar e metabolismo, sendo utilizadas principalmente para hipertensão, problemas cardíacos e circulatórios, diabetes, insônia e depressão. Verificou-se que 16,5% dos idosos apresentam risco de possuir problemas relacionados com medicamentos. Identificou-se associação entre polimedicação e gênero, escolaridade e frequência de procura a serviços de saúde. Constatou-se nessa população que a polimedicação pode estar relacionada ao perfil dos idosos.The objective was to evaluate the use of medicines in the elderly population living in a city in the South of Santa Catarina state. It was carried out a transverse study where 104 patients distributed in five Family Health Program covering area were interviewed. 68.3% of the interviewed people were women, 78.8% aged between 60 and 79 years old and most of them with low schooling. The number of medicines in use was 3.5 (DP=2.58 per elderly and the number of daily rate doses were 5.4 (DP=4.78. 64.4% of the elderly people reported to have used the health services two times or more last year. It was observed

  1. Playable cities the city as a digital playground

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the topic of playable cities, which use the ‘smartness’ of digital cities to offer their citizens playful events and activities. The contributions presented here examine various aspects of playable cities, including developments in pervasive and urban games, the use of urban data to design games and playful applications, architecture design and playability, and mischief and humor in playable cities. The smartness of digital cities can be found in the sensors and actuators that are embedded in their environment. This smartness allows them to monitor, anticipate and support our activities and increases the efficiency of the cities and our activities. These urban smart technologies can offer citizens playful interactions with streets, buildings, street furniture, traffic, public art and entertainment, large public displays and public events.

  2. Large cities are less green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; Andrade, José S.; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-02-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent β = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias.

  3. Securing water for the cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management.

  4. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  5. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    findings. The projects are categorised according to their content, structure and urban localisation. In particular the cases are labelled in relation to their strategic and urban planning importance, their social and cultural content and their architectural representation and the programmes they contain...... to relate to the wider international debate and development. In section two we present the main theoretical concepts and framings that will guide the understanding and the analysis of the experience city. In section three we focus on the design of the ‘Danish experience city’ and present the first research...

  6. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    The paper explores how urban bodies such as architecture, urban design, art works and social action can be drawn together in as urban assemblages producing “a movement of generalised deterritorialization”(Deleuze & Guattari 2004:78) in relation to the city. The first example, “The Elbæk bench” – ......, Capitalism and Schizofrenia. Transl. Massumi Continuum, New York, London Whitehead, A.N. (1978) Process and Reality, corrected edition, Eds. Griffin, David Ray & Sherburne, Donald. W. The Free Press, New York...

  7. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    hopes and dreams of modern urbanism. It also contests current claims about the 'end of utopia', arguing that reconsidering earlier projects can play a critical role in developing utopian perspectives today. Through the study of utopian visions, it aims to rekindle elements of utopianism itself.......Visions of the City is a dramatic account of utopian urbanism in the twentieth century. It explores radical demands for new spaces and ways of living, and considers their effects on planning, architecture and struggles to shape urban landscapes. Such visions, it shows, have played a crucial role...

  8. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach to geometry learning that is based on a didactic theory, which builds on play in order to discover and learn about geometry. Inspired by this theory, a mobile and location-aware game has been developed that aims at embodying geometric concepts in the real world. To this end......, the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  9. Beijing-Entertainment City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With 3,000 years of history and over 18 million people,Beijing is a city that has moved with the times.Behind the brand new malls,futuristic buildings and vibrant nightlife,one can still feel the pulse of China’s ancient culture.Here are a few options to discover Beijing’s rich and vibrant entertainment scene. Traditional Beijing Peking Opera is the most famous of all Chinese opera and certainly the quintessential traditional Chinese culture.It combines music,vocal per-

  10. Beyond the City Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hairong

    2012-01-01

    While most fresh university graduates in China aim to find jobs in the cities,more and more welleducated young people are starting to look for career opportunities in rural areas.Cheng Guangjing is one of those who have chosen to work as a village official.In 2009 he began working in Dongzhuang Village,Lankao County in central China's Henan Province.On November 24,2011,the villagers unanimously elected him secretary of the Dongzhuang Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC).

  11. City project and public space

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

  12. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. A better understanding of the complex organizational change processes in city logistics projects with many stakeholders may expand city logistics capabilities and thereby help prevent future failures. The purpose of this paper...... is therefore to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge, and secondarily, to investigate whether such processes can be managed at all. Design/methodology/approach: – A paradigm shift in urban planning creates new ways of involving stakeholders in new sustainability measures such as city logistics....... Organizational change theory is applied to capture the social processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is a qualitative processual analysis of a single longitudinal case. Findings: – The change process took different forms over time. At the time of concluding the analysis, positive...

  13. Foshan ceramics - One Thousand-Year-Old City of Ceramic Arts%佛山陶瓷千年陶韵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏国恩; 张江年

    2006-01-01

    @@ Foshan is a famous city with culture and history.Among the civilizations of Foshan, ceramic culutre is the most well-konwn and outstanding. Shi Wan Ceramics in Foshan is a name card of Foshan. It wins the reputation as the "the ceramic capital in South China" for Foshan city and develops the regional economic concept of "greater Foshan ceramics".

  14. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  15. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  16. Smart Cities and Sustainability Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In our age cities are complex systems and we can say systems of systems. Today locality is the result of using information and communication technologies in all departments of our life, but in future all cities must to use smart systems for improve quality of life and on the other hand for sustainable development. The smart systems make daily activities more easily, efficiently and represent a real support for sustainable city development. This paper analysis the sus-tainable development and identified the key elements of future smart cities.

  17. Large cities are less green

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, E A; Makse, H A

    2014-01-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions and city population with average allometric exponent $\\beta = 1.46$ across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropol...

  18. in Beirut City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. El Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nutritional supplements among exercisers in gyms has been never investigated in the Middle East. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence intake of nutritional supplements and the potential influencing factors among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. In this cross-sectional study, 512 exercisers, aged between 20 and 50 years, were randomly selected from gyms. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported among 36.3% (95% confidence interval 32.2–40.5 of participants, with a weak presence of medical supervision. Patterns of supplement use differed by gender and age. Men and younger exercisers were found to focus on supplements associated with performance enhancement and muscle building, while women and older exercisers were more concerned with health-promoting products such as vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. An appropriate dissemination of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding the benefits and side effects of nutritional supplements is highly recommended in the sports environment in Beirut city.

  19. SCHOOL QUALITY AND PROPERTY VALUES IN GREENVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Espey, Molly

    2003-01-01

    This study estimates the impact of school quality on property values within the city limits of Greenville, South Carolina. This study differs from others in its use of a relative, rather than an absolute measure of school quality. We apply a hedonic pricing model to estimate the impact of K-12 rankings on the real constant-quality housing values. Based on 3,731 housing transactions carried out from 1994 to 2000, our results suggest that those who choose to live within the city limits of the s...

  20. Sustainability and cities: a proposal for implementation of a sustainable town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L B de M

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a literature review on the concept of sustainability applied to cities and a proposal for transforming a town in the south of Brazil into a sustainable town. Improvements in energy, sanitation, waste and water conditions, as well as food, clothing, education and jobs generation were considered to enhance the citizen's quality of life and environmental protection.

  1. Shaping the Future: Asia-Pacific and Latin America-Caribbean Cooperation: ADB and IDB Partnership for South-South Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation between Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is rapidly increasing in the spirit of South-South cooperation. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) enter into a new chapter of cooperation in areas such as sustainable integration corridors (trade facilitation, transportation, energy, and telecommunications, including broadband investment and regulation); sustainable cities and climate change; institutional development; social policy...

  2. Inner-city station areas in Chinese cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Redevelopments of Chinese inner-­‐city station areas introduced both new transport infrastructures (high speed railway, urban mass transit system, etc.) and real estate projects to station vicinities during the past decades. However, existing station areas are isolated from the rest of the city, and

  3. Luoyang Dual Spatial Criterion Ecological City Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fazeng; Wang Shengnan

    2007-01-01

    The construction of an ecological city has two foundational platforms:the small platform,namely urban district or simply called as"city ecosystem";and the big platform,namely around city district in certain region scope or also referred to as"city-region ecosystem".The construction of an ecological city must be launched in the dual spatial criteria:in city(urban district)criterion-optimizing the city ecosystem;in city-region(city territory)criterion-optimizing the city-region ecosystem.Luoyang has the bright characteristic and the typical image within cities of China,and even in the world.The construction of anecological city in dual spatial criteria-the city and the city-region-has the vital significance to urbanization advancement and sustainable development in Luoyang.In city-region criterion,the primary mission of Luoyang's ecological city construction is to create a fine ecological environment platform in its city territory.In city criterion,the basic duty of Luoyang's ecologic city construction is to enhance the ecological capacity and benefit of the central city.

  4. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  5. Characteristics of Phthalic Acid Esters in Agricultural Soils and Products in Areas of Zhongshan City, South China%中山市农业区域土壤-农产品中邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs)污染特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 吴山; 梁金明; 梁文立; 陈桂贤; 李拥军; 杨国义

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate and assess the pollution level of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in farm soils and products from typical agricultural fields in areas of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, South China, 65 topsoil and 37 agricultural product samples were collected and contents of 6 PAEs compounds that classified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants were determined by the GC-FID. The results indicated that total contents of the PAEs ( ∑PAEs ) in soils ranged from 0. 14 to 1. 14 mg•kg - 1 , and the mean value was 0. 43 mg•kg - 1 , with the detected ratio of 100% . Various concentrations of PAEs differed in three land-use types were ordered by vegetable soil ﹥ orchard soil ﹥ paddy soil. Comparing with six U. S. EPA priority pollutants of PAEs, the contents of Di-n-butyl phthalate ( DBP) and Dimethyl phthalate ( DMP) in soils exceeded the control limits of PAEs in the American soil by 93. 85% and 27. 69% respectively, but the rest four PAEs compounds were lower than the control limits. Generally, the pollution level of soils contaminated by PAEs in agricultural fields of Zhongshan City was relatively low. The contents of ∑PAEs in agricultural products ranged from 0. 15 to 3. 15 mg•kg - 1 with the average of 1. 12 mg•kg - 1 , which was lower than the suggested standards in USA and Europe and with low health risk. Meanwhile, ∑PAEs concentrations in vegetables were higher than those both in rice and fruits. DBP and DEHP were the main components of PAEs both in agricultural soils and products, with higher percentage contents and detected ratio. ΣPAEs and DBP contents in various agricultural products-soils had a significantly positive correlation, with Pearson coefficients (r) in vegetables-vegetable soils were 0. 81(P = 0. 000), 0. 75(P = 0. 000), and corresponding r among rice-paddy soil and fruits-fruit soils were 0. 74 ( P = 0. 036), 0. 65 (P = 0. 041) and 0. 66 (P = 0. 029), 0. 78 (P = 0. 045), respectively

  6. Climate Proof Cities : Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, V.; Bosch, Peter; Albers, Ronald; Spit, Tejo

    2014-01-01

    All cities in the Netherlands, large and small, are vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The degree of vulnerability varies considerably within urban areas. This means that making cities more climate proof can be done most efficiently by taking many relatively small and local measures. Many

  7. New York City: Musically Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    New York City as a subject has fascinated generations of artists, writers, and musicians. However, the glamorous image of the city has changed over the years, and in the 1960s, popular music, in particular, began to reflect a utopia/dystopia dichotomy in relation to New York. During the past twenty years, six popular singer-songwriters who have…

  8. Modern Experience in City Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    reinforce the West Wall in the Aachen sector. A rapid thrust bypassing the city was no longer possible. Aachen, as the ancient capital of Charlemagne , had...old capital of the Vietnamese emperors and its most nota- ble feature was the walled citadel, or old city, lying north of the Perfume River. The

  9. Educating Cities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of…

  10. Dubai: a City of Hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Abirafeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The City of Hope is an organisation offering refuge for abused women in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. Dubai has started to acknowledge the social problems accompanying its phenomenal economic growth but is it doing enough to tackle the scourge of human trafficking?

  11. Dubai: a City of Hope?

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Abirafeh

    2007-01-01

    The City of Hope is an organisation offering refuge for abused women in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. Dubai has started to acknowledge the social problems accompanying its phenomenal economic growth but is it doing enough to tackle the scourge of human trafficking?

  12. Cities as nuclei of sustainability?

    CERN Document Server

    Rybski, Diego; Reusser, Dominik E; Fichtner, Christina; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing CO2 emission inventories of 256 cities from 33 countries we find power-law correlations between the emissions and city size, measured in population. The results suggest that in developing countries more CO2 per capita is emitted in large cities, i.e. they tend to exhibit super-linear correlations and doubling the population of any city implies up to 110% increase of emissions. For developed countries the results suggest the opposite, i.e. linear or sub-linear correlations, implying better efficiency of large cities, doubling the population of any city implies only 80% increase of emissions. The transition occurs at approx. 10,000GDP/cap. We derive how the total emissions of an entire country relate with the power-law correlations and find that the size of the most populated city is dominating in the case of linear and super-linear correlations. The size of the largest city has no influence in the case of sub-linear correlations. We conclude that from the climate change mitigation point of view, urba...

  13. Malmo: A city in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Tessa Kate

    2014-01-01

    . From 1840 to the mid-1970s, Malmo’s growth continued to flourish. Like many Swedish cities, the manufacturing recession of the mid-1970s bought unemployment and population decline. Malmo transitioned from a manufacturing hub into a knowledge city with a strong focus on sustainable planning. Malmo has...

  14. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates t

  15. Founding the sustainable city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Darko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development encompasses both ecologically and socio-culturally responsible and responsive practices. In urban design and architecture the results of cutting-edge research have to be tested on real projects. Issue of appropriate design-research methodologies thus becomes key to integration of usually separated disciplines of research (as 'analytical' or 'scientific' and design (as 'creative'. The paper presents a project for the new city based on ideas of sustainable urban development. The focus is on key aspects of urban design proposal, applied design research methods and efforts to translate critical sustainability-related urbanistic regulations and guidelines into responsible, high-quality architecture. The key issues are discussed throughout the paper and some open-ended conclusions put forward for further development.

  16. Gesamtkunstwerk Metelkova City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Nabergoj

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years the protagonists of the ACC Metelkova City have been transforming its public space and the façades of the buildings by architectural, constructional, artistic and handcraft interventions, thus creating a unique kind of gesamtkunstwerk. The article focuses on the key points of the construction process and its contextualization in a broader historical, social, political and cultural context, thus aiming to define the constitutive elements of artistic practices and procedures of setting up the Metelkova artists’ community. The article highlights the necessity to perceive the entire area as a work-in-progress, with individual segments sometimes disappearing or gradually overlapping with other interventions, and with a number of elements that from the very beginning were meant to be only temporary. This principle, in contrast to the traditional understanding of cultural heritage preservation, appears to be crucial.

  17. Archaeoastronomy and Calendar Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    The use of astronomy for collective purposes, both religious and political, is apparent in the earliest astronomical records, from the evidence for Palaeolithic lunar calendars to megalithic monuments and Mesopotamian celestial-omen reports. This paper will consider the application of the heavens to the organisation of the ‘Cosmic State’, the human polity modelled on the assumption of a close relationship between society on the one hand and planetary and stellar patterns on the other. I will also examine the foundation of Baghdad within the tradition of celestial town planning and argue that the city may be seen as a ‘talisman’, designed to connect heaven to Earth and ensure peace, stability and political success by harmonising time and space.

  18. Transformation of a City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenessa L. Williams

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gentrification changes the landscape and the cultural makeup of a city by increasing property values and changing consumption patterns. Since the late 1980s, gentrification has challenged the residential and small business community of Harlem, New York. Guided by the rent gap theory and the consumption-side theory, the purpose of this case study was to explore how small business leaders can compete with demographical changes brought by gentrification. A purposive sample of 20 Harlem small business owners operating during the city’s gentrification participated in interviews. Interview interpretations were triangulated with government documents and periodicals to bolster the trustworthiness of the final report. These findings may contribute to positive social change by informing the strategies employed by small business owners who are currently facing gentrification.

  19. Human diffusion and city influence

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and hierarchy in terms of influence at local, regional or global scales naturally emerges. Traditionally, there have been important efforts to describe this hierarchy by indirect measures such the sharing of company headquarters, traffic by air, train or boats or economical exchanges. In this work, we take a different approach and introduce a method that uses geolocated Twitter information to quantify the impact of cities on rural or other urban areas. Since geolocated tweets are becoming a global phenomenon, the method can be applied at a world-wide scale. We focus on $58$ cities and analyze the mobility patterns of people after visiting them for the first time. Cities such as Rome and Paris appear consistently as those with largest area covered by Twitter users after their visit and as those attracting visitors most diverse in origin. The study is also performed discerning users mobility b...

  20. The Right to the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Lefebvre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a new proposition of thinking about such categoriesas a city, the urban, urban strategy and social practices connected with analyticalscience of the city, which is only at the outline stage, but also projected by Lefebvrehimself. This turn seems necessary due to the death of traditional city and oldhumanism. The article is also a passionate and utopian (in positive sense of termmanifesto for democratization of right to the city consisting of cry and demand ofthe dispossessed from such a prerogative. The author argues that an urban strategybased on a new science of the city needs social support and political force. They willbe provided by the working class, putting an end to the urban segregation.

  1. Câncer de colo uterino: caracterização das mulheres em um município do sul do Brasil Cáncer del cuello uterino: identificación /caracterización de las mujeres en un município del sur de BRAZIL Cervical cancer: characterization of women in a city in the south of BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu Correa Soares

    2010-03-01

    tienen las prácticas pré-cáncer para la detección precoz y la prevención del cáncer de cuello uterino. El desafio para lograr la integralidad está en la necesidad de repensar el conocimiento y prácticas profesionales en el cuidado a las mulheres, independientemente del motivo que las motivo a buscar el servicio de salud.The aim of this study was to identify and analyze socioeconomic, behavioral and biological characteristics of women with cervical cancer that used public health services in a city in the south of Brazil. This is a qualitative study, realized with twenty women with a diagnosis of cervical cancer. The survey had as theoretical support the integrality of attention to the health. To collect data it was used the information from Information System of Cervical Cancer and a semi-structured interview. Characteristics of age, education, frequency to the medical consultation and the interval of prevent exams were identified. The findings make possible to say that women still have difficulty in considering the importance of pre-cancer in order to precocious detection and prevention of cervical cancer. The challenge to reach integrality is in the necessity of rethinking knowledge and professional practices in the care to women, independent of the reason which led them to the health service.

  2. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendse Najuwa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic

  3. Urban physiology: city ants possess high heat tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Angilletta

    Full Text Available Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12 degrees C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of leaf-cutter ants from South America's largest city (São Paulo, Brazil. Specifically, we compared thermal tolerances of ants from inside and outside of the city. Knock-down resistance and chill-coma recovery were used as indicators of heat and cold tolerances, respectively. Ants from within the city took 20% longer to lose mobility at 42 degrees C than ants from outside the city. Interestingly, greater heat tolerance came at no obvious expense of cold tolerance; hence, our observations only partially support current theory. Our results indicate that thermal tolerances of some organisms can respond to rapid changes in climate. Predictive models should account for acclimatory and evolutionary responses during climate change.

  4. Nitrogen Flow Analysis in Huizhou, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhaoyin; Yin, Zegao; Koenig, Albert

    2008-03-01

    Eutrophication due to uncontrolled discharges of nitrogen and phosphorus has become a serious pollution problem in many Chinese rivers. This article analyzes the nitrogen flow in Huizhou City in the East River watershed in south China. The material accounting method was applied to investigate the nitrogen flows related to human activities, which consist of the natural and anthropogenic systems. In Huizhou City, the nonpoint source pollution was quantified by the export coefficient method and the domestic discharge was estimated as the product of per capita nitrogen contribution and population. This research was conducted based on statistical information and field data from 1998 in the Huizhou City. The results indicated that the major nitrogen flows in this area were river loads, fertilizer and feedstuff imports, atmospheric deposition, animal manure volatilization, and processes related to burning and other emissions. In 1998, about 40% of the nitrogen was retained in the system and could result in potential environmental problems. Nitrogen export was mainly by rivers, which account for about 57% of the total nitrogen exported. Comparisons made between the East River and the Danube and Yangtze Rivers show that the unit area nitrogen export was of the same magnitude and the per capita nitrogen export was comparable.

  5. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  6. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging “Urban” South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hermosilla; Liliana M R Silva; Mauricio Navarro; Anja Taubert

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) tech...

  7. Small City With Big Ambitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2004-01-01

    Yiwu is a county-level city in the central part of Zhejiang Province with no obvious geographical advantage or traditional industrial foundation. And yet it has dazzled the country with its sizzling economic figures. The city posted an annual growth of 16 percent in GDP in 2003 on 15.6bn yuan {US$1.9 billion)from the previous year. Its average annual GDP increase from 1978 to 1999 reached 18.5 percent. Exports from Yiwu were valued at US$734 million last year, compared with US$390m for 2002. So what is it about Yiwu that has molded the city into such handsome shape?

  8. Cities Changing Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    The Rule of Halves (RoH), stating that half of those with diabetes are diagnosed, half of those diagnosed receive care, half of those receiving care achieve treatment targets, and finally that half of those achieving targets also achieve desired outcomes, has not previously been assessed for diab......The Rule of Halves (RoH), stating that half of those with diabetes are diagnosed, half of those diagnosed receive care, half of those receiving care achieve treatment targets, and finally that half of those achieving targets also achieve desired outcomes, has not previously been assessed...... for diabetes in Copenhagen. As part of the quantitative mapping phase of the Cities Changing Diabetes project in Copenhagen, a RoH analysis was conducted. The results of this analysis are summarized below. The figure shows that the ‘Halves’ rule does not generally apply for Copenhagen. On most of the levels......, Copenhagen is doing better than simple halves. For example, the results indicate that almost three quarters of the true diabetes population are diagnosed and that almost all of those diagnosed with diabetes receive some form of care. Although the analysis indicates that Copenhagen is doing better than...

  9. 应对“城市美化运动”的景观设计策略——以达州市南广场景观设计为例%The strategy of landscape design to the city prettified movement:Dazhou south square landscape design for case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁雯雯; 董莉莉

    2012-01-01

    中国快速城市化过程中"城市美化运动"其后有着复杂的经济、社会原因,市政景观建设成为资本和权力追逐的对象,但其最主要的作为区域融合、链接历史、消弭空间阶层作用的"缝合"功能却被严重忽视。浮于表面化的"城市美化运动"必将导致城市空间尺度夸大、空间序列感丧失、城市文脉断裂、地域身份弱化、阶层分化空间分异,使城市未来建设和发展出现不可持续等问题。文章结合设计案例提出了以文脉观缝合自然与人文,以场所观缝合形象与内涵,以区域观缝合场地与城市、以生态观缝合当下与未来四点应对"城市美化运动"的城市景观设计策略,以期对当代景观设计研究起到裨益的作用。%With the complicated economic and social factors for city prettified movement in the rapid urbanization of China,urban landscape construction becomes the chase object of capital and power,while the suture functions of regional integration,historic connection and spatial stratification elimination are severely neglected.It reveals that the city beautiful movement,a superficial embarrassment,will raise issues like exaggerated urban space scale,lost partial sequence,cracking city historical and cultural symbol,weakened region identification,spatial differentiation of stratification together with unsustainability of urban construction and development in future.Then,in combination with design cases,it proposes four strategies for city prettified movement which is helpful to the landscape design research: suture the nature and humanism by historical and cultural symbol,image and connotation by space settlement,space and city by regional integration,and current and future by ecological theory.

  10. From city marketing to city branding: An interdisciplinary analysis with reference to Amsterdam, Budapest and Athens

    OpenAIRE

    Kavaratzis, M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the theory and practice of city marketing. It describes the transition from city marketing to city branding by identifying the roots of city marketing in general marketing theory, by adapting the concept of corporate-level marketing for the needs of cities and by analysing in depth the components and processes involved in city branding. The thesis contends that city branding, if understood well and applied properly, is a powerful tool at the disposal of contemporary cit...

  11. Morphology of Tigris River within Baghdad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial changes have occurred in the morphology of the River Tigris within Baghdad City. Although huge volumes of sediment are being trapped in recently constructed headwater reservoirs, the number of islands in the Tigris at Baghdad is increasing. The debris of bridges destroyed in the wars of 1991 and 2003 and their subsequent reconstruction have enhanced the development of these islands. As a consequence the ability of the river to carry the peaks of flood waters has been reduced. This has led to potential increase of flooding in parts of the city.

    The bed of the River Tigris has been surveyed on three occasions (1976, 1991, and 2008. The most recent survey was conducted by the Ministry of Water Resources, extended 49 km from the Al-Muthana Bridge north Baghdad to the confluence with the Diyala River south Baghdad. It yielded cross-section profiles at 250 m intervals. The data are used to predict the maximum flood capacity for the river using the one-dimensional hydraulic model for steady flow "HEC-RAS" modeling. Calibration of the model was carried out using field measurements for water levels along the last 15 km of the reach and the last 10 yr of observation at the Sarai Baghdad gauging station.

    The model showed a significant predicted reduction in the current river capacity below that which the river had carried during the floods of 1971 and 1988. The three surveys conducted on the same reach of the Tigris indicated that the ability of the river to transport water has decreased.

  12. Planning for resource efficient cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    2016-01-01

    development from energy consumption are crucial for a city’s future vulnerability and resilience against changes in general resource availability. The challenge gets further complex, as resource and energy efficiency in a city is deeply interwoven with other aspects of urban development such as social...... structures and the geographical context. As cities are the main consumer of energy and resources, they are both problem and solution to tackle issues of energy efficiency and saving. Cities have been committed to this agenda, especially to meet the national and international energy targets. Increasingly......, cities act as entrepreneurs of new energy solutions acknowledging that efficient monitoring of energy and climate policies has become important to urban branding and competitiveness. This special issue presents findings from the European FP7 project ‘Planning for Energy Efficient Cities’ (PLEEC...

  13. Foreign Funds for City Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.

  14. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  15. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, Tom B. [Energy Conservation Specialist, Port Ewen, NY (United States)

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  16. Cities lead on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancost, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    The need to mitigate climate change opens up a key role for cities. Bristol's year as a Green Capital led to great strides forward, but it also revealed that a creative and determined partnership across cultural divides will be necessary.

  17. Reading the city through literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cruz Margueliche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bring the gaze of literature closer to the city. This gaze is used to create a focus enabling a “reading” of the city from its “textuality”; that is to say, from its path, so that we can position ourselves within society’s “writing” in each spatial delimitation. In order to do this, we looked into the connection between literature and geography and we selected certain works and authors, which have looked at the city, nature and landscapes from a literary stance. We have found that both literature and authors can move away from the daily gaze and portray the other city - that which ends up fading in space overlapping, maelstrom and everyday life.

  18. City Walks and Tactile Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.

  19. 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  20. Qinadao:An Oceanic City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    BLUE sky and white clouds, an azure sea patterned with colorful sails, this view of Qingdao is little different from a seascape of either the Mediterranean or the Pacific Ocean. The exotic facade of this small city on the

  1. Constructing a modern city machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures.......Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures....

  2. Automobile emissions in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, S.; Bishop, G.; Stedman, D.

    1996-09-01

    In order to determine the exhaust characteristics of the Mexico City vehicle fleet, a Fuel Efficiency Automotive Test (FEAT) unit was placed at 5 different sites over a 10 day period from 11 February 1991 through 21 February 1991. Valid data for the percent of carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were obtained on 31 838 vehicles. This represents approximately 1 % of the entire Mexico City fleet.

  3. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana

    the emission impact of various possible municipal climate plans over time. As such, the index promotes the export of solutions from one region on another, as it enables policy makers to look elsewhere for best practices and test them on their own city before potential implementation. The index facilitates...... an easy to use and transparent comparison of factual and planned emission policies in different cities and can inform regional sustainability discussion and contribute to the dissemination of solutions....

  4. Feicheng City of Peach Blossom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    IN Feicheng City, central Shandong Province, can be found the world’s largest peach orchard, recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records as covering 6,667 hectares. In spring, the city is permeated with the fragrance of peach blossom.Home of the "Buddha Peach"Peach growing in Feicheng has a history of 1,100 years. The Feicheng peach is distinctive for

  5. Small and Scenic Fenghuang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    FENGHUANG(Chinese for phoenix), a small city under the jurisdiction of the Tujia Autonomous Prefecture of Hunan Province, borders northern Guizhou Province and eastern Chongqing Municipality. Surrounded by mountains and girdled by the Tuojiang River, this small, quiet city is famous for its beautiful landscape, and as birthplace of several celebrated Chinese personages.Fenghuang’s history dates back 1,316 years. It was originally named Weiyang, and its location was in today’s Huangsiqiao

  6. INCREASING RETURN TO SMART CITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    Increased urbanization, global warming and sustainable growth belong to the major contemporary policy challenges. Today cities are home to more than 50% of the world population, the largest 600 urban centers generate about 60% of global GDP, and the agglomerated areas are responsible for 75% of world carbon emissions. The UN estimates that 70% of the world's growing population will live in cities by 2050. At the same time the world population is expected to increase from 7 billion people to 9...

  7. KUNMING: The City of Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  8. GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING PURPOSES USING GIS MODELLING (CASE STUDY: CITY OF TABRIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jeihouni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1 specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, hardness and sulphate (2 mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  9. Meaningful Interactions in a Smart City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waart, P. van; Mulder, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    A city is a public space where people find meaning by living together. Although cities are governed by city councils, it is mainly the citizens that make their own city. The contemporary cityscape is increasingly pervaded with emerging media. Recent invasions of interactive media in the cityscape, h

  10. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Braun (Erik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing? T

  11. Life in The Country And The City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仕富; 伍章华

    2002-01-01

    City born and city bred, some people consider city life to be the life of the heaven, comparing it with the poverty, in their opinion, of the country. On the contrary, others are very tired of the city life and they are admiring to live in the peaceful country very much.

  12. Green city Banda Aceh: city planning approach and environmental aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Banda Aceh as the capital of Aceh Province is the region with the tsunami disaster that occurred on December 26, 2004 the most severe of which over 60% of the city area were destroyed mainly coastal region and settlements. One product plan for rehabilitation and reconstruction of Banda Aceh is made of Banda Aceh as Green City. To realize the Green City Banda Aceh, urban development process should be conducted in a planned and integrated way with attention to spatial and environmental aspects to ensure an efficient urban management and to create a healthy, beautiful and comfortable environment. There is a weakness of the process in urban planning and development that occurred at present where cities tend to minimize the development of green open space and land conversion into a commercial district, residential areas, industrial areas, transport networks and infrastructure and facilities for other cities. Another tendency that occurs is urban environment only developed economically but not ecologically, whereas ecological balance is as important as the development of the economic value of urban areas. Such conditions have caused unbalance of urban ecosystems including increased air temperature, air pollution, declining water table, flooding, salt water intrusion and increased content of heavy metals in the soil. From an ecological perspective, unfavorable microclimate, high-temperature increase due to the lack of trees as a sieve / filter against heavy rain, can cause flooding. These conditions result in inconvienient, arid and less beautiful urban areas. The author identifies the elements contained in the Green City Banda Aceh and how the efforts and approaches must be made toward Green City Banda Aceh.

  13. South and Southwest HSRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest is a competitively awarded, peer-reviewed research consortium led by Louisiana State University with the...

  14. Ladybugs of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Images of the 79 species of Coccinellidae occurring in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-familial classification, and lengths and widths....

  15. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  16. South Africa PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIMS (SOL-674-12-000037) collects and provides information on activities, results, partners, and staff supported through PEPFAR funding in each sub-district of South...

  17. For the Smarter Good of Cities? On Cities, Complexity and Slippages in the Smart City Discourse’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Henriette; Veel, Kristin Eva Albrechtsen

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Cities for Smart Environmental and Energy Futures presents works written by eminent international experts from a variety of disciplines including architecture, engineering and related fields. Due to the ever-increasing focus on sustainable technologies, alternative energy sources......, and global social and urban issues, interest in the energy systems for cities of the future has grown in a wealth of disciplines. Some of the special features of this book include new findings on the city of the future from the macro to the micro level. These range from urban sustainability to indoor...... urbanism, and from strategies for cities and global climate change to material properties. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers active in architecture, engineering, the social and computational sciences, building physics and related fields....

  18. Eco-cities as an Assemblage of Worlding Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eco-cities are gaining attention in policy and academic circles over the past few years. Yet they pose difficulties as objects of study since they have been diversely defined and implemented. This paper argues that eco-cities are better understood as an assemblage of worlding practices. Combining these two concepts foregoes the emphasis on the eco-city’s physical structures and focuses more on its policy environment and its relations with other locations. The case study being examined is the Philippine’s Clark Green, the country’s first eco-city project. Its main proponent is an independent government agency, the Bases Conversion and Development Authority (BCDA, tasked with developing former military locations for civilian uses. Their vision is to create a world-class project built by international stakeholders in order to elevate the status of the Philippines and the Filipinos. They have chosen to emulate the Songdo International Business District in South Korea as their benchmark model. Not only are they adopting the ideas of a smart city but also similar strategies to enter the international education and logistics industries. The paper will show how the BCDA uses the eco-city idea as a tool to enter various national and international discourses that extend beyond the project’s geographical boundaries. Yet the strategies and visions of an independent government-owned corporation are tempered by challenges from local stakeholders, conflicting national priorities, and failures from similar policies applied elsewhere. The paper highlights the need for worlding projects to be embedded in their own national context for greater policy coordination.

  19. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent.

  20. From city marketing to city branding : An interdisciplinary analysis with reference to Amsterdam, Budapest and Athens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaratzis, Mihalis

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the theory and practice of city marketing. It describes the transition from city marketing to city branding by identifying the roots of city marketing in general marketing theory, by adapting the concept of corporate-level marketing for the needs of cities and by analysing in

  1. The Nowadays Isfahan! Green space city? Or black highway city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Taghvaei

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   In between urban land use, green spaces are part of the frameworks of the cities, which we refer to as the animate part of the framework structure of the city, and in correlation with inanimate part of the city; they create the texture and appearance of it. But according to importance of expansion of green space in cities, instead of the development and expansion of these spaces in isfahan which was someday regarded as the model of Islamic garden –town with appropriate green space, the focus in the recent years have been more on the development of framework- residential, commercial, structures and roads, parking lots etc. but among the prior ones and roads have the sixth rank in planning. Therefore, it is clear that the current approach has a one – dimensional theory for planning and using all these users and the relation between these spaces with each other has been almost forgotten. For instance, in the current conditions, many of city planners focus on development of cross over and streets to diminish traffic, but regarding the high demands for travel, volume of automobile arrival, easy automobile buying and owning, the preference of citizens for using personal cars and the gradual increase in urban travels due in appropriate access to urban services, the expansion of streets and changing urban textures in to cross avers and devoting a substantial part of urban budgets to creating roads, highways , autobahns and parking lots, to what extent we can have control over cities , and isn’t it the time take aside the conventional planning for urban lands and do something to solve these problems? If the current process continues, soon in looking downward from the sky to this city, well see a black city with black links connected together, not a green city with green links connected together .so this paper analyzes the irregular increase in roads and crossovers and parking lots with a comparing – analyzing method and in turn

  2. Smart City - Smart Trafikplanlægning

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    City development faces a new paradigm: it is now fundamental to take into deep consideration the environmental problems and therefore propose new solutions for city developing that seeks to solve these problems. The concept of thinking that cities can be smart, by using technological solutions as a way to solve environmental problems, is today broadly used in city planning. This concept is called Smart City. This project aims to contribute to a wise implementation of smart technologies so ...

  3. Engendering Creative City Image by Using Information Communication Technology in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillip Kumar Das

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Creativity has been a major key word in the city planning and urban marketing policies all over the world. Arguably, it ensures an image that can ensue marketable branding of a city. Thus, a creative city has major socio-economic implications. However, the question remains how a creative environment in a city can be engendered and an attractive image can be built. In the contemporary age, Information Communication Technology (ICT apparently has increasingly been influencing every sphere of the city functions, and it is hypothesized that it will assist in building a creative image of a city. Therefore, the objectives of the paper are (1 to map the theoretical insights on the concepts of creativity, city image building and branding; and (2 to explore the influence of ICT on developing image of a creative city. The investigation was conducted by using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. A stimulating mix of literature review and case study analyses were done to develop the concept of a creative city and image building. Besides, using a survey research method and by considering two cities (Bloemfontein from South Africa and Bhubaneswar from India two case studies were performed to examine how ICT can engender a creative image of a city in developing countries. Findings suggest that although urban creativity is not a revolutionary approach towards urban policies, and there are criticisms against such concept, economic variables, such as, business environment, entrepreneurship and innovation, availability of knowledge workers and ICT activities; socio-cultural variables, such as, art, culture, receptive attitude, safety and tolerance; and environmental variables, such as, cleanliness, greenery, quality public spaces and tourism enforce distinct images of cities. It is also revealed that ICT can play a catalytic role in the creative image building as it contributes extensively in the form of enabling better business environment

  4. The role of local government in redressing neighbourhood disadvantage: A case study from Penrith City Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Prior

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of disadvantage in specific neighbourhoods is a widespread characteristic of many Australian cities. A broad range of policies and programs which utilize integrated forms of governance have been designed and implemented to redress this. Within the state of New South Wales, Australia, local governments have been identified as being amongst the most effective drivers for these integrated governance approaches. Utilizing a case study of the Penrith Neighbourhood Renewal Program, this paper explores recent attempts by Penrith City Council to develop a framework to redress neighbourhood disadvantage, firstly by establishing an integrated governance framework for the program, and secondly by transforming the council’s operational structure.

  5. CITIES: Centre for IT-Intelligent Energy Systems in Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; O'Connell, Niamh; Heller, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This extended abstract provides an introduction to an interdisciplinary strategic research project, CITIES which has been funded with an excess of € 7 million from a wide range of industrial and academic partners, and the Danish Council for Strategic Research. CITIES was launched January 1, 2014...... and aims at developing methodologies and ICT solutions for the analysis, operation, planning and development of fully integrated urban energy systems. A holistic research approach will be developed, to provide solutions at all levels between the appliance and the overall system, and at all-time scales...... between operations and planning. This extended abstract outlines the challenges to be met by city and energy planning bodies in an energy efficient future. The necessity of novel, data driven and IT intelligent solutions is stressed. A focus is placed on energy system planning in systems with high...

  6. Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

  7. White Flight in the Context of Education: Evidence from South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng

    2008-01-01

    In the context of education, "white flight" refers to decreasing white enrollment in poor-performing, inner-city public schools. This article investigates white flight and the concomitant movement to better performing public schools and racially homogenous private schools using elementary school enrollment data from South Carolina, particularly…

  8. Thermal benefits of city parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Hien, W. N. [Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2006-07-01

    In Singapore, rapid population influx has led to demands for converting natural areas to public housing. The heat island in Singapore City has been documented. However, less attention has been placed on the cooling effect of city's green areas. To address this issue, temperature and humidity measurements were conducted in two big city green areas. One is the city's natural reserve, Bukit Batok Nature Park (BBNP) (36 ha) and the other is a neighbourhood park, Clementi Woods Park (CWP) (12 ha). The measurements were conducted at both vegetated areas and their surroundings. The results indicated the cooling effects of city greens are remarkable not only at vegetated areas but also the surrounding built environments. To further explore the role of the green area on moderating the microclimate, two simulation programmes, TAS and Envi-met, were employed, respectively, for the two parks. The aims are to explore the patterns of energy consumptions of a typical commercial building near to Bukit Batok Nature Park and different thermal conditions with and without Clementi Woods. (author)

  9. Prioritizing obesity in the city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jennifer Asanin; Elliott, Susan J

    2012-02-01

    A decade ago, the World Health Organization declared obesity to be a global epidemic. Accordingly, there is a growing body of research examining how "obesogenic environments" contribute to the increasing prevalence of obesity. Using the ANGELO Framework, this research explores the role of municipal policies and practices in constructing obesogenic environments in two Southern Ontario cities in order to examine how socio-cultural and political environments shape excess body weight. Data was collected from municipal policy documents, public health websites, and key informants in Hamilton and Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Results indicate that while the cities took different approaches to dealing with obesity, they both reflected the cities' overall prioritizing of health. Additionally, the findings reveal the pervasiveness of values and attitudes held in the socio-cultural environment in further shaping (and being shaped by) political as well as economic and physical environments in the cities. The importance of explicitly acknowledging the official discourse of the city, which this study demonstrates to be a significant factor in constructing obesogenic environments, is highlighted. Theoretical contributions and policy implications are also discussed.

  10. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, Tom B. [Energy Conservation Specialist, Port Ewen, NY (United States)

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  11. The Copper Balance of Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  12. City scale pollen concentration variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Michiel; van Vliet, Arnold; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Pollen are emitted in the atmosphere both in the country-side and in cities. Yet the majority of the population is exposed to pollen in cities. Allergic reactions may be induced by short-term exposure to pollen. This raises the question how variable pollen concentration in cities are in temporally and spatially, and how much of the pollen in cities are actually produced in the urban region itself. We built a high resolution (1 × 1 km) pollen dispersion model based on WRF-Chem to study a city's pollen budget and the spatial and temporal variability in concentration. It shows that the concentrations are highly variable, as a result of source distribution, wind direction and boundary layer mixing, as well as the release rate as a function of temperature, turbulence intensity and humidity. Hay Fever Forecasts based on such high resolution emission and physical dispersion modelling surpass traditional hay fever warning methods based on temperature sum methods. The model gives new insights in concentration variability, personal and community level exposure and prevention. The model will be developped into a new forecast tool to serve allergic people to minimize their exposure and reduce nuisance, coast of medication and sick leave. This is an innovative approach in hay fever warning systems.

  13. Discerning a theological agenda for spatial justice in South Africa: An imperative for sustained reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan de Beer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A spatial turn has occurred in various disciplines over the past decades. This article holds that it has not occurred in a similar decisive manner in theological discourse and not in South Africa in particular. After considering the necessity of a spatial turn and spatial consciousness, the article examines the concept of spatial justice against the backdrop of how injustice was and is spatially expressed in South African cities. Considering the way in which South African cities have evolved since the Native Land Act of 1913 – the segregated and apartheid city and the (postapartheid city – the article then argues that deep and sustained reconciliation will be impossible should current spatial patterns of segregation, exclusion and injustice continue. It advocates theological and ecclesial participation in a national agenda for spatial transformation, to be fleshed out in relation to four interconnected challenges: land, landlessness, housing and home; the ‘creative destruction’ of neighbourhoods, gentrification and the displacement of the poor; participation in city-making (from below and transformative spatial interventions; and close collaboration with social movements working for spatial justice. It concludes by asserting that such a trans- and/or postdisciplinary agenda for spatial justice would participate with the Spirit to mend the oikos of God.

  14. Yangzhou City in the Sui-Tang Period%隋唐时代的扬州城

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李裕群

    2003-01-01

    Yangzhou was the largest local city of the Sui-Tang period. It consisted of two parts: Zicheng (literally sub-city, but actually the quarter of government offices) and Luocheng (outer city, or the main body of Yangzhou City) . The former stood on Shugang Hill to the north of the latter. Origi- nally it was Jiangdu Palace-city built by Sui Emperor Yangdi, and was rebuilt into Zicheng in the Tang period. Being irregular in plan, it had four gates on the four sides respectively and two streets in a crisscross pattern within the city. The latter, Luocheng, was built below Shugang Hill in the full Tang or a little later. Rectangular in plan with the major axis pointing north and south, it had four gates on each of the eastern, western and southern sides and one gate on the northern side. The main streets led to the city gates respectively and formed a checkerboard-shaped layout with blocks arranged in the checks. Although its plan layout was designed in imitation of the block system in Chang'an and Luoyang, Yangzhou as a commercial city was developed on a gradually-progressing model with blocks emerging earlier than city walls, and the layout of Luocheng embodied the planning principle with mar- kets as the center. This might have reflected that the restrict block system of the Tang period had been relaxed or broken through in commercial cities. In the Northern Song period, the open-style street-and-lane layout in the capital of Bianjing, or the prefecture of Kaifeng, manifested the collapse of the old block system. This is of great significance in the history of Chinese cities, but its source can be traced to Yangzhou City of the Tang period.

  15. Secrets and Lies: Sex Education and Gendered Memories of Childhood's End in an Australian Provincial City, 1930s-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Josephine

    2006-01-01

    There are few historical studies about the sex education of Australian youth. Drawing on a range of sources, including the oral histories of 40 women and men who attended two single-sex, selective high schools in a provincial Australian city (Newcastle, New South Wales) in the 1930s-1950s, this paper explores the adolescent experience of sex…

  16. Microsensing networks for sustainable cities

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This book explores the microsensing technologies and systems now available to monitor the quality of air and water within the urban environment and examines their role in the creation of sustainable cities against the background of the challenges posed by rapid urbanization. The opening section addresses the theoretical and conceptual background of microsensing networks. The coverage includes detailed description of microsensors, supported by design-specific equations, and clear explanation of the ways in which devices that harvest energy from ambient sources can detect and quantify pollution. The practical application of such systems in addressing environmental impacts within cities and in sustainable urban planning is then discussed with the aid of case studies in developing countries. The book will be of interest to all who wish to understand the benefits of microsensing networks in promoting sustainable cities through better delivery of information on health hazards and improved provision of data to envir...

  17. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  18. Groundwater Depletion in Dhaka City, Bangladesh: A Spatio-temporal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerin, T.; Ishtiaque, A.

    2015-12-01

    Dhaka city, having a population of more than fifteen million, exclusively depends on groundwater as a source of quality drinking water. In recent decades the city is encountering groundwater diminution and the declining scenario is dissimilar in different parts of the city. This paper aims to discuss the groundwater depletion in different parts of Dhaka city from 1990 to 2012 along with the causes and consequences. Groundwater level data of different locations of Dhaka city were collected from Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB). The data were processed and analyzed using SPSS and Excel Worksheet; a contour map was generated using ArcGIS 10.0 to outline the contemporary groundwater scenario of Dhaka city and the spatial analyst tool, Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) was used to prepare the map. In addition, experts' opinions were collected using an in-depth interview strategy in order to provide a better understanding of the causes and consequences of groundwater depletion. The research results show that groundwater in Dhaka city is depleting at an alarming rate; the central part has the worst situation followed by the south-western part. In contrast, northern part has relatively better groundwater condition. Moreover, the peripheral zone exhibits a better condition because of the existence of rivers and wetlands. The interviews reveal that population density and overexploitation are mainly responsible for groundwater depletion; however, various other factors such as the deliberate establishment of deep tube wells, reduction of recharge capacity due to rapid growth of urban structures altogether results in huge drop of water level throughout the city. Rapid decline in groundwater augments the city's exposure towards multiple risks including land subsidence, groundwater pollution and most importantly, paucity of available fresh water that might ultimately results into an urban disaster. Potential solutions to ameliorate this situation include urban greening

  19. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  20. Sustainable development indicators for cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of urban population’s life quality implies an investigation of all factors defining it: economic, social and ecological. The development of the corresponding indicators of sustainable urban development is necessary. The majority of the cities in the world and this country show unsustainable development at present time. In the article, the world and Russian experience of development of indicators of sustainable urban development is considered. In the article, opportunities of adaptation of approaches to these indicators’ development on the basis of Human Development Index developed by United Nations Development Program and an index of Adjusted Net Savings of the World Bank for Russia are considered. The authors propose a new integrated index of sustainability for Russian cities. It is based on the concept and methodology of the Adjusted Net Savings index. In order to evaluate the sustainability of urban development taking into account economic, social, and ecological factors, the authors propose applying three corresponding sub-indexes: gross capital, expenses on human capital development, and damage from environmental pollution in the cities. In the article, the authors’ set of indicators for Russian cities is proposed. It reflects the most acute problems of sustainable urban development in Russia and the quality of life in cities; also it corresponds to Russian statistics. 21 key indicators reflecting important economic, social, and ecological urban priorities are proposed. Indicators are divided into nine groups: economic indicators; energy efficiency; transport; social and institutional indicators; air and climate; water resources; waste; especially protected natural territories; noise influence. Proposed indicators for cities allow more adequately assess trends of urbanized space shaping and quality of life

  1. Beijing—a Colorful City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE; SHAW

    1995-01-01

    AFTER living in Beijing for ten years, I feel more and more attached to it. It is a modern city but also old, bustling yet profound, large yet amiable, where you can not only see the roots of Chinese history and culture, but also feel the pulse of China’s development. After I visited historic sites and beautiful scenes in Beijing as a traveler and got to know the customs and the condition of the people, I came to love the city. The first song the current young Chinese generation learns in its childhood is "I Love Beijing’s Tiananmen." Tiananmen and the

  2. Playable Cities: The City as a Digital Playground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The first book to exhaustively review key recent research into playability in smart and digital cities. - Addresses pervasive games and the relation between gameful and gamified applications and the design of playful architecture - Includes special chapters on playful civic hacking applications and

  3. The green city guidelines : techniques for a healthy liveable city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, M.; Kuypers, V.H.M.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Green City Guidelines is an international book that provides information on the social and economic advantages of green spaces in urban environments. The book focuses on decision-makers and people practically involved in the field concerned. It provides tips and advice on ways of using plants, t

  4. LOCAL IDENTITY MEETING WITH CITY: CITTASLOW-SLOW CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ustun Topal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cities are characterised by local identities, which have been shaped by natural and cultural values. Constituting elements of local identity are settlement pattern bearing the traces of past, local music, traditional taste, handicrafts and life story. Besides, there has been a fast pace of life owing to globalization, and globally standardized cities, where local identities are ignored, have been emerged in planning-design-implementation process. From this viewpoint, Cittaslow movement has become a major turning point for liveable and sustainable cities that emphasize the local character. In this context, in the study, it is aimed to raise awareness about Cittaslow which is an example of an urban model for sustainability. In line with this purpose, the importance of Cittaslow approach and the criteria that are needed to be met for being a member of the Association of Cittaslow have been revealed. In line with these criteria Cittaslow cities in Turkey were discussed comparatively in terms of their features were considered. Examples from our country have been evaluated together with the international Cittaslow examples. In addition, proposals have been made by developing strategies in planning- designing and implementation process for the Cittaslow approach.

  5. Landscape planning for a safe city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ishikawa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.

  6. Study on Classification of City Poster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Peizhi

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes the city poster design as the research object, analysis of 2007 to 2014 World each main city posters to convey the theme and types. This paper studies on city image poster as samples, the literatures relevant to"literature survey"collec-tion, sorting, and use"content analysis on the classification of samples for method", the 700 sample cluster analysis, to explore the form and pattern of city image poster convey. The main results are:city image poster style can be divided into four types of"cultural diversity transmission type","inner emotional exchange type","sensory impressions spread type","the city appearance display type".

  7. Sustainability and Cities as Systems of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Lehmann, Martin

    Cities often constitute relevant environments for interactive learning and innovation potentially capable of tackling sustainability problems. In this paper we ask if the concept of systems of innovation can increase our understanding of city dynamics and help promoting the sustainable development...... of cities. Through a combination of the innovation system approach and the perspective of creative cities, we argue that a slightly modified concept – sustainable city systems of innovation – may be helpful in this context. To underline this, we discuss certain ‘city-traits’ of sustainability and conclude...... that the new concept may be of special use for urban quality development and management....

  8. Dengue Infection Pattern in Northern and Southern Region of Sukabumi City in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Nusa Rahagus Edo Santya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of dengue virus infection in Sukabumi city is still as major public health problem because of its case, its distribution, and occurs almost throughout the year. Geographically, Sukabumi city located in mountainous landscape with vary altitude among regions. Based on dengue incidence data reported by Health District of Sukabumi, tracking and plotting patient location and time of the incident was conducted in 2012. Also, the incidence in each village and months was determined. Result shows that there were difference peaks of cases in the northern region where the cases mostly occur in the second half and at the end of the year. Whereas, in Southern region mostly occurred in early first half of the year. North-South division was determined based on altitude differences which Northern-Southern part of Sukabumi city has altitude range that relatively consistent than Western–Eastern part of this city. It concludes that pattern of dengue case was different between the Northern and the Southern part of the city. This condition requires a specific approach to cope dengue case in every region of the city.

  9. Foodscape gastropolis New York City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der A.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Men slurp banana pudding from the hips of a black-latex-clad woman lying on atable in a room filled with liquid nitrogen smoke. This is just a single episode inthe culinary life of New York City (Parasecoli, 2009). Elsewhere, a long queue ofAfrican-Americans is patiently waiting for a soup kitchen i

  10. City Lights in Modern Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Patricia

    1979-01-01

    City Lights Books of San Francisco has served as a literary meeting place, as a bookstore that concentrates on serious literature--especially poetry, as a publisher of significant voices such as those of Allen Ginsberg and Charles Bukowski, and as an institution with a political conscience. (JMD)

  11. Preparation from Co-cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At the latest conference press held in mid of April, it is released by Chinese government officials that preparations for the Beijing Olympic Games in co-host cities are progressing well and most of the facilities are already in place.

  12. Shrinking Cities and Path Dependency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.

    2013-01-01

    When cities started shrinking, governments felt they had to do something. Where the main reason for shrinking was the closing down of traditional industry, economic policies were the first to be introduced: first by subsidising and reorganising existing companies, later by trying to create a more di

  13. Smart Cities for Smart Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning....

  14. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  15. A Tale of Two Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A Tale of Two Cities is one of Dickens's most exciting books, set against the backdrop of the French revolution, in which two generations struggle against the injustices of first a corrupt aristocracy and then the mindless rule of the mob.

  16. The Schoolhouse in the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffler, Alvin, Ed.

    A conference entitled "The Schoolhouse in the City" was convened at Stanford University, July 10-14, 1967. Sponsored by Stanford's School Planning Laboratory and supported by Educational Facilities Laboratories and the U. S. Office of Education, the conference brought together as speakers leading figures in local, state, and federal government,…

  17. Shrinking Cities or Urban Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst

    of how to handle negative urban development.  This concerns the investigation of design interventions conducted in the two cases Denmark and Baltimore. These investigations are then transformed into a guiding model for how to handle shrinking cities. This frame consists of five overall themes...

  18. Bug City: Ladybugs & Fireflies [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  19. Beijing: Beyond the Olympic city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies have become part of a deliberate urban policy for cities around the world. There is a particular concern on how to combine the preparation of a mega-event with urban development processes that meet long-term demands. This paper examines how Beijing tried to use the Summer Olymp

  20. Thirsty Cities,Dirty Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Rapid economic growth has taken a toll on water quality Houses lining up meandering rivers make Jiaxing in east China’s Zhejiang Province a famed water city.Yet the Venetian-style center is suffering from a water shortage.Jiaxing has a population of more than 3

  1. Kansas City Plots Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Kansas City (Missouri) Public Schools is at a crossroads. The district has struggled for decades with poor academic achievement, dwindling enrollment and budget, and short-term superintendents--27 in the past 40 years. Most recently, after a two-year stint during which he helped the district get its financial house in order, closing nearly half of…

  2. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development.

  3. Towards playful and playable cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Smart cities have inspired the introduction of various viewpoints, usually concerning the introduction of digital technology by governance bodies and its use by service providers and other economic stakeholders to allow a more efficient use of resources, transportation infrastructure, and an increas

  4. A City Classical and Contemporary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUJIE; WANGNAN

    2003-01-01

    XIANYANG City, covering an area of 10,000 square kilometers, and with a population of 4.8 million, is just 25 kilometers from Xi'an, capital of Shaanxi Province. Known as No.1 Capital of ancient China,Xianyang is the site of nine Han Dynasty and nine Tang Dynasty emperors' tombs.

  5. Youth and the City Streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry

    1992-01-01

    This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing, rebellion, and drugs. (NB)

  6. City and Nature In Harmony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the capital city of Shaanxi Province in northwest China,is now the host of the 41st International Horticultural Exposition(IHE).China was selected the third time to host the IHE,following the 1999 Expo in Kunming and the 2006 ExpoinShenyang.Launched on April 28,the 2011 Expo lasts 178 days,and

  7. The city of the landowner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    2002-01-01

    The City of the Landowner deals with urban systems and urban architecture in the Antique Greek World and the Roman Empire. Although it is a part og a wider context, the book can perfectly well be read separatly as its texts, drawings and photographs describe a subject which is abundant...

  8. Wasted cities in urbanizing China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Guizhen; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Yonglong

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization is a characteristic of the 21st century, especially in countries with developing economies and a large amount of rural-to-urban migration. In China, the emergence of "wasted cities and towns" has paralleled urban expansion; large newly built areas that remain unpopulated and have cre

  9. Market solutions for sustainable cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, Thomas; Nijkamp, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a globally accepted policy objective. It is however, increasingly recognized that the implementation of sustainability strategies has to take place at a decentralized level. This has also provoked the idea of urban sustainability. The notion of sustainable city is

  10. Autobiography of a Chinese City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of gazetteer [a peculiar Chinese genre of officially supervised local history writing] work in the Northeastern city of Harbin. It is a study of the interaction of politics, bureaucracy, and historical work at the local level in contemporary China, and it points...

  11. Health City Cayman Islands and the globalization of health services delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bimal R; Narayan, Mahesh; Seth, Ankur; Schulman, Kevin A

    2014-05-01

    We describe a new health care campus under development in the Cayman Islands, Health City, based on the low-cost "focused factory" model. The construction of a multispecialty hospital opening in February 2014 less than a 4-hour flight away from the United States and convenient to both Central and South America for patients who already travel to the United States for clinical care could reshape the US health care marketplace and enhance access to affordable specialty health care in the region.

  12. 76 FR 52905 - Proposed Amendment to Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ...-way radio communication. The FAA does not agree. Salt Lake City Tower and Approach control has... 80 (I-80) at the TCH 239 (T)/223 (M) radial 9- mile DME at lat. 40 46'22'' N., long. 112 09'04'' W...-mile DME at lat. 40 56'12'' N., long. 112 09'03'' W.; thence south to I-80 at the TCH 239 (T)/223...

  13. "South Park" vormistab roppused muusikalivormi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker, Matt Stone ja Pam Brady : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  14. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  15. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  16. Symmetry distribution of cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors of this paper induced five principles of geographical symmetry based on the space distributions of cities and towns in China. There is a symmetry distribution of cities and towns. The symmetry characteristics are the following: (i) the average coordination number of the cities (including large cities, medium cities and county towns) is 6 ( i.g. rotation symmetry); (ii) the distribution of large and medium cities are shown to be the latticework in which two directions are parallel to two main tectonic ones in China, respectively; (iii) the distribution of county towns of a province is also shown to be the latticework in which two directions are parallel to two tectonic ones in this province (i. g. two-dimensional translation ) and (iv) the concentric circle distribution of cities (CCDC) is centered round a large city (i. g. rotation symmetry).

  17. Computing the Image of the City

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Kevin Lynch proposed a theory of the image of the city identifying five elements that make the city legible or imageable. The resulting mental map of the city was conventionally derived through some qualitative processes, relying on interactions with city residents to ask them to recall city elements from their minds. This paper proposes a process by which the image of the city can be quantitatively derived automatically using computer technology and geospatial databases of the city. This method is substantially based on and inspired by Christopher Alexander's living structure and Nikos Salingaros' structural order, as a city with the living structure or structural order tends to be legible and imageable. With the increasing availability of geographic information of urban environments at very fine scales or resolutions (for example, trajectories data about human activities), the proposal or solution described in this paper is particularly timely and relevant for urban studies and architectural design. Keyword...

  18. 3PL Services in City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Gammelgaard, Britta; Prockl, Günter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is 1) to develop an overview of activities and services that can add value for users and consignees in city logistics schemes based on Urban Consolidation Centre, and 2) to understand and analyze the perceived value for users and consignees from using such services....... The paper will be based on studies of the city logistics literature and existing city logistics schemes, as well as survey and interview findings from studies of potential users (retailers) in Copenhagen inner city and interviews with existing users (retailers) of existing city logistics services...... in the cities of Maastricht, Netherlands, and Hasselt, Belgium. The paper provides an overview and classification of possible third party logistics services in city logistics schemes. Also, findings about value perceived by current users as well as potential users are presented. Literature on city logistics has...

  19. 'Inca City' is Part of a Circular Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-319, 8 August 2002 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 'Inca City' is the informal name given by Mariner 9 scientists in 1972 to a set of intersecting, rectilinear ridges that are located among the layered materials of the south polar region of Mars. Their origin has never been understood; most investigators thought they might be sand dunes, either modern dunes or, more likely, dunes that were buried, hardened, then exhumed. Others considered them to be dikes formed by injection of molten rock (magma) or soft sediment into subsurface cracks that subsequently hardened and then were exposed at the surface by wind erosion. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has provided new information about the 'Inca City' ridges, though the camera's images still do not solve the mystery. The new information comes in the form of a MOC red wide angle context frame taken in mid-southern spring, shown above left and above right. The original Mariner 9 view of the ridges is seen at the center. The MOC image shows that the 'Inca City' ridges, located at 82oS, 67oW, are part of a larger circular structure that is about 86 km (53 mi) across. It is possible that this pattern reflects an origin related to an ancient, eroded meteor impact crater that was filled-in, buried, then partially exhumed. In this case, the ridges might be the remains of filled-in fractures in the bedrock into which the crater formed, or filled-in cracks within the material that filled the crater. Or both explanations could be wrong. While the new MOC image shows that 'Inca City' has a larger context as part of a circular form, it does not reveal the exact origin of these striking and unusual martian landforms.

  20. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the m...

  1. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has,…

  2. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  3. Literacy in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the various facets and dimensions of literacy programs in South Asia indicates that literacy is viewed as a means of human resource development geared toward meaningful participation of all sectors in society, with individual programs varying according to the magnitude of illiteracy, national goals, linguistic setting, and regional…

  4. South Italian Festivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Herman

    2000-01-01

    South Italian Festivals is a story and study of socio-economic changes in an Italian mountain town Calvello (Basilicata) over a five-hundred-year period; from traditional society to modernity. Instead of exploring a single festival the book studies a ritual one year cycle of local and ecclesiastical

  5. INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION OF SHENYANG CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-yu

    2003-01-01

    Industrial transformation represents a unique economic phenomenon in China's regional economy,and old industrial city reconstruction has long been a key problem that affects state security. As a typical old indus-trial city in China, Shenyang established its heavy industrial city position in the First Five-year Plan period (1953-1957), and this industrial structure has been consolidated for a long time. After 1978, Shenyang began its long last-ing industrial reconstruction in an all-round way by 3 main initiatives including restructuring economic system, up-grading traditional industrial technology and developing high-tech industry. In the end of the 1990s, it could be I-dentified that remarkable structural changes took place in city economy at large as well as individual industrial sec-tor. According to the GDP proportion change, Shenyang is on the way to a high level industrial structure. The sec-ondary industry also engendered significant shifting as smelting and textile industry declined sharply but IT industry increased largely. Although the ratio of the heavy industry to the light industry changed periodically, the heavy in-dustrial output value most time kept a high proportion over 60% of the gross industrial output value in the past five decades. Shenyang has favorable conditions for developing equipment manufacturing industry, but it should carry out the program by establishing its leading role in urban economy plan, building "Theme Industrial Parks", improv-ing Tiexi Industrial Zone, removing any kind of system barrier, enlarging private and other ownerships economy and improving technology, marketing and management by IT application. In response to economy globalization,Shenyang needs to expand the cooperation worldwide and improve the cohesion with surrounding cities.

  6. The city: today’s frontier zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities are complex systems, but they are incomplete systems. All cities are becoming the same, but all cities are competing with each other. Here actors from different worlds meet, but there are no clear rules of engagement. It is in this context that the complex global city becomes a frontier space with political consequences. Here we can find new hybrid bases from which to act, spaces where the powerless can make history even when they do not get empowered.

  7. Empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Hemmerle, Peter; Koller, Micha; Hermanns, Gerhard; Klenov, Sergey L.; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Based on a study of anonymized GPS probe vehicle traces measured by personal navigation devices in vehicles randomly distributed in city traffic, empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic has been revealed. It turns out that real oversaturated city traffic resulting from speed breakdown in a city in most cases can be considered random spatiotemporal alternations between sequences of moving queues and synchronized flow patterns in which the moving queues do not occur.

  8. Traffic Management in Motorcycle Dependent Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Khuat, Viet Hung

    2007-01-01

    Many Asian cities, such as Hanoi, Bangkok, and Taipei, experience a special situation, the so-called motorcycle dependence. In these cities, urban transport system is dominated by the motorcycle. This domination influences urban form and land use pattern of the cities by remaining and growing of many two-wheeler accessed only blocks and motorcycle-based land uses. Nowadays, people in motorcycle dependent cities (MDCs) are quickly shifting to travelling by car instead of motorcycle. Under the ...

  9. Air pollution: a new respiratory risk for cities in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejjari, C; Filleul, L; Zidouni, N; Laid, Y; Atek, M; El Meziane, A; Tessier, J F

    2003-03-01

    Since the major accidents that occurred in the 1960s, air pollution has commonly been considered as a respiratory risk factor whose effects are most often studied in industrialised countries. Our aim is to show that it is now the turn of low- and middle-income countries to take this risk factor into account. After a discussion of the characteristics of air pollution, how it is diffused and the main known health effects (short- and long-term effects), we describe the specific differences between the cities in the North and the South. As a result of late industrialisation, cities in the South are now faced with pollution from industrial sources and urban traffic with polluting vehicles. The case of Algeria and Morocco illustrates this situation and its potential health risks. In order to prevent the health risks of air pollution in the cities of the South, systems for measuring pollution levels and epidemiological surveillance need to be put in place rapidly. This strategy can only work if it is supported by a strong partnership from industrialised countries.

  10. Selatan—Sur—South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Campbell

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Kumpulan puisi dalam Bahasa Indonesia oleh IAN CAMPBELL/Poetry compilation in Indonesian by the Australian poet Ian Campbell. This collection of poems explores the notion of the 'south' from locations in Indonesia, Australia, Chile and Argentina, locations in which the poems were written. Explaining his topographical approach in these poems, Campbell says: "One of the poems, titled in the Indonesian original 'Lejano sur' (Ke Kejauhan Selatan, appears alongside an English version, called 'Further South.' This short poem takes Borges's short story 'Sur' and a reference to Avenida Rivadavia that he includes in 'Sur' as its starting point for crossing into 'the South' from the centre of Buenos Aires. I then explore ideas of southness - as paradoxically moving 'south' away from North into a region where 'the natural elements are supreme'. Recent Chilean poetry eg 'Despedidas Antárticas' by Julio Carrasco (2006 picks up this idea of 'towards the essence' better than recent Australian poetry. Only Tom Griffiths, the historian, has recently explored this in prose. There are Borgesian images of dust/lack of clarity, then we head into a region where eg Torre del Paine, admittedly on the Chilean side of the Andes, come to mind. The stress on the elements - stone, wind, fire - is an allusion to the way Indonesian poet, Acep Zamzam Noor, portrays these elements in a poem 'Batu dan Angin' (Stone and Wind which has strong sufi/meditative elements. We head into the polar area, which because of climate change, is now melting. But there is also an allusion to Douglas Stewart's play 'Fire on the Snow' about the 1911 Scott expedition and the value of 'human failure'. Even the 'essence' is melting and is no longer stable."

  11. Local economic development and globalisation : the international competitiveness of certain South African municipalities / Vincent Monti Malebo Mongake

    OpenAIRE

    Mongake, Monti Malebo Vincent

    2004-01-01

    In today's global competitive environment, a city or a town more than ever needs a strategy that articulates how its international competitiveness is to be improved. Since 1994, following its first democratic elections, South Africa started processes of significant local government reform, as well as fast integration into the global economy. These processes will place significant challenges in the way of South Africa's local government (municipalities) since they now not only h...

  12. Aid in a city at war: the case of Mogadishu, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, François

    2012-07-01

    Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia, has been central to life, war, and peace in the country for almost two decades. Its urban characteristics, though, have been put to one side for the most part. In recent years, Mogadishu-related issues have been merged mostly into a global agenda for South and Central Somalia, resulting in the technical and coordination approaches employed in the city largely being reproductions of solutions utilised in refugee camps and rural areas. Unfortunately, urban problems require urban solutions. The aid system is just starting to discover how specific aid in cities at war should be, both from an organisational and a technical standpoint. The enhancement of aid practices in an urban setting implies, among other things, a more strategic approach to the specific spatial characteristics of the city, a more fine-tuned analysis of the technical requirements of the urban service delivery systems, and a better understanding of the role of urban institutions.

  13. Policy and Programs for Cycling in the City of Zagreb – A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Pilko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying cycling traffic issues in a beginner cityCity of Zagreb, stems from unclear development policy, an increase in cycling volume, a large number of traffic accidents, an inadequate infrastructure and legislation, a small number of high quality studies and published papers, and the question, did current cycling policy and programs advance cycling? A comprehensive search of available literature, including data from the Zagreb Traffic Department, was made. These data do not adequately address the direction of causality, such as whether current cycling policy and programs advance cycling or whether cycling demand led to increased levels of cycling. This review paper suggests that, it is not yet possible to evaluate which pro-bicycle packages are the most effective and, development of cycling traffic requires a coordinated holistic planning strategy. Results could serve as a beacon light for similarly sized beginner cities, especially those who are located in South-eastern and Eastern Europe.

  14. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    and exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies...... societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia....

  15. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  16. Strategies on Sustainable Development of Water Source Area in Shangluo City of Middle Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project%南水北调中线商洛市水源地可持续发展策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建林; 高莹; 马斌

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop an effective strategy of sustainable development in order to assure the harmonious development regarding water sources among the ecology, economy and society. Using the SWOT analysis method and the sustainable development theory, the SWOT matrix model was established and the sustainable development strategies were proposed for water sources areas in Shangluo City, Shannxi Prov-- ince. Considering the specific reality of water sources, four types of strategies including SO (strength-- opportunity), WO (weakness--opportunity), ST (strengh--threat) and WT (weakness--threat) strategy were developed and compared. Furthermore, a series of alternative strategies was developed in response to different actual situations by analyzing the internal and external environments and the SWOT factors in the City. The findings of this study could provide certain references to strategy researches on the sustainable de- velopment of similar water source areas.%为了制定出有效的水源地可持续发展策略,保证水源地生态、经济、社会和谐发展。运用SWOT分析法和可持续发展理论,建立了商洛市水源地SWOT矩阵模型,确定水源地可持续发展策略,并提出了商洛市水源地实现可持续发展的4类策略取向。通过对商洛市水源地可持续发展所面临的内外部环境的更清晰地分析,形成了一系列备选的策略,不同水源地可结合实际情况,择优实施。该研究结果对其他水源地可持续发展策略研究具有一定的借鉴和参考。

  17. Study on Asia's growing cities: Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of migration and urbanization in Korea is on the following: historical perspective, implications of urban growth, urbanization trends and population distribution, patterns of migration, socioeconomic differences, and population redistribution policies. Korea is one of the most densely populated countries in Asia. Attempts to deal successfully with this phenomenon have met with varying degrees of success. Population concentration in the capital region continues to be a problem and has resulted in acute housing shortages, rapidly rising land prices, and on encroachment of urban land use into prime agricultural land surrounding the Seoul metropolitan region. Between 1955-1975 the population of Seoul increased from 1.6 million to 6.9 million for the capital city proper and to 9.4 million for its metropolitan region, including 5 satellite cities. This fringe spillover began in the late 1960s. The metropolitan area, comprising 4 cities around the fast growing city of Busan in the south, was formed in the mid-1970s with 3.2 million people. At this time major policy concerns center on the demographic phenomenon of continued concentrations in the Seoul and Busan regions. Problem issues which persist include nonfarm polarization, regional imbalance, diverging intra-sectoral incomes, and the aging rural labor force. Despite its nearness to the demilitarized zone, Seoul was and continues to be the focal point of economic and educational opportunity. The early 1960s brought little variation in migration and urbanization trends. In 1961 family planning and planned economic development were initiated but their impact came several years later. The overall urban growth rate dropped from 5.4 to 4.6% in the 1960-1966 period, and Seoul's pace of expansion slowed down to an annual average of 6.5%. Yet, the capital continued its urbanizing dominance. By 1975 Korea had 3 cities with a population of over 3 million: Seoul, Busan, and Daegu. In 1975 48.4% of the

  18. Smart City Governance: A Local Emergent Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a local emergent perspective on smart city governance. Smart city governance is about using new technologies to develop innovative governance arrangements. Cities all around the world are struggling to find smart solutions to wicked problems and they hope to learn from successf

  19. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  20. The Politics of City Planning Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolson, Kenneth

    This research paper presents an analysis of the computer simulation, SimCity, used for an urban city planning class. The data were gathered by actual use of the simulation and an electronic mail network was employed to secure impressions from users of the simulation. SimCity (developed by Maxis) provides the player with rules of human factors,…