WorldWideScience

Sample records for buses interim results

  1. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  2. AES Water Architecture Study Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems in order to enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near and long term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I of this study established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as indentifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II of this study focused on the near term space exploration objectives by establishing an ISS-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.

  3. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  4. Interim Results on Improvement of Melia volkensii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, J.G.; Kimondo, J.M; Muchri, D.K

    2007-01-01

    Melia volkensii is important in some dry lands of Kenya as a high quality timber, for fodder, shade and construction. It is both drought resistant and fast growing and is termite resistant. Demand for the species has led to dysgenic selection, resulting in the selection of superior trees, progressively leading to a pool of poor parent trees remaining in most populations. A genetic improvement strategy and implementation plan was initiated in the year 2005. The main objective was genetic improvement of melia volkensii through selection, breeding and propagation. Specific objectives was to develop new plantations that are superior to their predecessors in one or several key economic traits and to maximize value of logs produced by farmers. The basic material for selection of plus trees were the natural and on farm populations across most of the species' natural range. Selection was carried out in nine transects located in various areas from Isiolo to Voi, through assessment of candidate trees and subsequent comparison with nearest 5 check trees. Site characterization and passport data collection was also carried out. Various selection criteria were used including diameter at breast height (dbh), height, form (straightness and branching habit), resistance to diseases, pests and spiral grain tendency. For establishment of hedges , stressing of root through severing part of the root to produce scions was done, followed by scion selection and grafting. Initial results showed the existence of two main forms in M. volkensii i.e crop and tree ideotypes. Crop ideotypes are shorter, have shorter clear boles with deep large and spreading crowns, mainly found in Mwingi, Nuu, Tseikuru and some parts of Kitui. Tree ideotypes are taller with long clear boles, light branching and sparce crowns mainly found in Voi, Mbeere,Mutha and Embu. Intermediate forms also exist. Because the breeding objective was timber production, the tree ideotypes were favoured in selection. In all nine

  5. Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  6. Interim results from UO2 fuel oxidation tests in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, T.K.; Gilbert, E.R.; Thornhill, C.K.; White, G.D.; Piepel, G.F.; Griffin, C.W.j.

    1987-08-01

    An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to extend the characterization of spent fuel oxidation in air. To characterize oxidation behavior of irradiated UO 2 , fuel oxidation tests were performed on declad light-water reactor spent fuel and nonirradited UO 2 pellets in the temperature range of 135 to 250 0 C. These tests were designed to determine the important independent variables that might affect spent fuel oxidation behavior. The data from this program, when combined with the test results from other programs, will be used to develop recommended spent fuel dry-storage temperature limits in air. This report describes interim test results. The initial PNL investigations of nonirradiated and spent fuels identified the important testing variables as temperature, fuel burnup, radiolysis of the air, fuel microstructure, and moisture in the air. Based on these initial results, a more extensive statistically designed test matrix was developed to study the effects of temperature, burnup, and moisture on the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Oxidation tests were initiated using both boiling-water reactor and pressurized-water reactor fuels from several different reactors with burnups from 8 to 34 GWd/MTU. A 10 5 R/h gamma field was applied to the test ovens to simulate dry storage cask conditions. Nonirradiated fuel was included as a control. This report describes experimental results from the initial tests on both the spent and nonirradiated fuels and results to date on the tests in a 10 5 R/h gamma field. 33 refs., 51 figs., 6 tabs

  7. PROJECT “5-100”: SOME INTERIM RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г А Ключарев

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The tasks of modernization and development of education and science are of a key im-portance for the Russian Federation. Despite a number of significant changes in the Russian system of education and science over the last 10-15 years, the best Russian universities still cannot compete with the world leading universities. In 2013, to change this situation the state started one of its most ambitious projects to increase the international competitiveness of Russian universities, which is the project “5-100”. Though the need for such projects for the development of science and education is widely acknowledged, the “5-100” has received contradictory estimates of different stakeholders and experts. By 2017, the project approached its half-time line and spent a significant part of its resources, thus, it is time to consider its interim results. Moreover, the today’s close attention to the project determined numerous speculations not only in the media but also in scientific articles aiming to assess the project’s impact on the Russian system of education and science based on ideological and political judgments. The authors understand and accept all informed judgments but emphasize the importance of evaluating both reasons for such large-scale projects and factors affecting their implementations. A superficial estimate of the project “5-100” leads to the em-phasis on its minor disadvantages, which usually hides its less obvious positive sides. Thus, the article focuses on the role of the project “5-100” in the modernization of the Russian system of education and science, considers its different aspects, and identifies possible approaches to assess its efficiency at the final stages of its implementation (or to develop new projects to increase the international competitiveness of Russian universities.

  8. Buse_Francisella Medium

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains colony forming unit and qPCR data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Morris, B., H. Buse, N. Adcock, and E. Rice. A...

  9. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  10. Advanced Exploration Systems Water Architecture Study Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems that enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near-term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness-level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near- and long-term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit Environmental Control and Life Support Systems definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as identifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II focused on the near-term space exploration objectives by establishing an International Space Station-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long-term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.

  11. Advanced Stirling Convertor Durability Testing: Plans and Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, David W.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. In support of this program, GRC has been involved in testing Stirling convertors, including the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), for use in the ASRG. This testing includes electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/EMC), structural dynamics, advanced materials, organics, and unattended extended operation. The purpose of the durability tests is to experimentally demonstrate the margins in the ASC design. Due to the high value of the hardware, previous ASC tests focused on establishing baseline performance of the convertors within the nominal operating conditions. The durability tests present the first planned extension of the operating conditions into regions beyond those intended to meet the product spec, where the possibility exists of lateral contact, overstroke, or over-temperature events. These tests are not intended to cause damage that would shorten the life of the convertors, so they can transition into extended operation at the conclusion of the tests. This paper describes the four tests included in the durability test sequence: 1) start/stop cycling, 2) exposure to constant acceleration in the lateral and axial directions, 3) random vibration at increased piston amplitude to induce contact events, and 4) overstroke testing to simulate potential failures during processing or during the mission life where contact events could occur. The paper also summarizes the analysis and simulation used to predict the results of each of these tests.

  12. Environmental Technology Assessment of Introducing Fuel Cell City Buses. A Case Study of Fuel Cell Buses in Goeteborg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstroem, Magnus

    2002-07-01

    Over the last several years, fuel cell systems have improved. These advancements have increased the expectations that fuel cells are a feasible option for several applications such as transportation and stationary use. There are several reasons why fuel cell buses in city centres appear to be the most beneficial market niche to begin introducing the technology in. The goal of the report is to compile information about fuel cell buses relevant for city administrators working with public transport and environmental issues. A literature review of the fuel cells in buses is included. This study also consists of an environmental assessment of using fuel cell buses with hydrogen produced in various ways for buses on bus route 60 in Goeteborg by 2006. The fuel cell buses are compared with other bus and fuel alternatives. There are two goals of the case study: 1. The first goal is to describe the technical system, the methodology, and the problem for the intended audience. In the future, this study could help frame future investment decisions. 2. The second goal is to present environmental performance results---emission, health, monetary---relative the alternative bus technologies. The model calculations showed that the social benefits were approximately SEK 910,000 each year if all buses were fuel cell buses compared with developed diesel buses. If the fuel cell buses were compared to natural gas buses, then the benefits were SEK 860,000 each year. The benefits were SEK 1.39/bus/km compared with diesel buses or SEK 1.30/bus/km compared with natural gas buses.

  13. Policy-based Network Management in Home Area Networks: Interim Test Results

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Rana, Annie; Ó Foghlú, Mícheál

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that Home Area Networks (HANs) are a good candidate for advanced network management automation techniques, such as Policy-Based Network Management (PBNM). What is proposed is a simple use of policy based network management to introduce some level of Quality of Service (QoS) and Security management in the HAN, whilst hiding this complexity from the home user. In this paper we have presented the interim test results of our research experiments (based on a scenario) using the H...

  14. Interim report on Mitsubishi's results using rainbow for stage 1 verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Y.; Kinjo, H.; Itoh, K.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical work on the benchmark problems is underway at Mitsubishi by using RAINBOW code. This interim report contains the results of examples 1, 2, 4 and 5. In the following, the brief outline of RAINBOW code is described, and then the analyzed results of the examples are reported. RAINBOW code is a three-dimensional core deformation analysis code developed by Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc. In the RAINBOW code, core elements are approximated in straight beams and the beam theory is applied in the analysis of their deflections due to mechanical interactions among core elements. It can handle various sectors of the whole core, assuming a boundary condition of rotational or reflective symmetry. (author). 6 tabs, figs

  15. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation technology relies on removal of water from a portion of the subsurface such that the resultant low moisture conditions inhibit downward movement of water and dissolved contaminants. Previously, a field test report (Truex et al. 2012a) was prepared describing the active desiccation portion of the test and initial post-desiccation monitoring data. Additional monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and is reported herein along with interpretation with respect to desiccation performance. This is an interim report including about 2 years of post-desiccation monitoring data.

  16. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  17. Environmental surveillance results for 1995 for the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCague, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This memorandum presents and interprets analytical results and measurements obtained as part of the 1995 environmental surveillance program for the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The discussion provides a comparative analysis of average historical background conditions and applicable regulatory criteria to the 1995 results reported for external gamma radiation and for samples from the media investigated (air, surface water, sediment, groundwater, and stormwater). Results from the 1995 environmental surveillance program at HISS indicate that, with the exception of thorium-230 in streambed sediment, applicable US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines were not exceeded for any measured parameter or for any dose calculated for potentially exposed members of the general public. In the absence of sediment guidelines, DOE soil guidelines serve as a standard of comparison for data obtained from stream bed sediment; two samples from downstream locations contained concentrations of thorium-230 that exceeded DOE soil guidelines. All stormwater sample results were in compliance with permit-specified limits. Other radioactive materials include radium 226 and natural uranium

  18. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  19. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  20. Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 11 Tank 21H Acceptance Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of verification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 11 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) for processing. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  1. Continuation of the summarizing interim report on previous results of the Gorleben site survey as of May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    In addition to results from the 1983 interim report, this report contains, in order to supplement the surface explorations, seismic reflection measurements, hydrogeologic and seismologic investigations, sorption experiments, and studies of glacial development in the site region and of long-term safety of final waste repositories in salt domes. The site's high grade of suitability for becoming a final radioactive waste repository, the legal basis as well as quality assurance are evaluated. (orig.) [de

  2. To Evaluate Zero Emission Propulsion and Support Technology for Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Chandler; Leslie Eudy

    2006-11-01

    This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California, in partnership with the San Mateo County Transit District in San Carlos, California. VTA has been operating three fuel cell transit buses in extra revenue service since February 28, 2005. This report provides descriptions of the equipment used, early experiences, and evaluation results from the operation of the buses and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure from March 2005 through July 2006.

  3. Buses involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Institut...

  4. Emulytics for Cyber-Enabled Physical Attack Scenarios: Interim LDRD Report of Year One Results.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clem, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urias, Vincent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Atkins, William Dee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Symonds, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-08

    Sandia National Laboratories has funded the research and development of a new capability to interactively explore the effects of cyber exploits on the performance of physical protection systems. This informal, interim report of progress summarizes the project’s basis and year one (of two) accomplishments. It includes descriptions of confirmed cyber exploits against a representative testbed protection system and details the development of an emulytics capability to support live, virtual, and constructive experiments. This work will support stakeholders to better engineer, operate, and maintain reliable protection systems.

  5. Current Leads, Links and Buses

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2014-01-01

    Electrical transfer from a room temperature power source to a superconducting system is done via conventional or superconducting current leads and superconducting buses or links. The principles of optimization of these devices are presented, with emphasis on the cryogenic, electrical, and superconductor related aspects that drive choices for a system.

  6. Current Leads, Links and Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarino, A [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Electrical transfer from a room temperature power source to a superconducting system is done via conventional or superconducting current leads and superconducting buses or links. The principles of optimization of these devices are presented, with emphasis on the cryogenic, electrical, and superconductor related aspects that drive choices for a system.

  7. Results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-02-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR). Further work will report the results of the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing (Task 5 of the TTR) using the Tank 21H material. Task 4 of the TTR (MST Strike) will not be completed for Salt Batch 10.

  8. Environmental benefits of natural gas for buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment comparing diesel buses with buses fueled by natural gas. The data for the emission of pollutants are based on the MEET Project of the European Commission (EC), supplemented by data measured for diesel and gas buses in Paris. The benefits of the gas fueled bus are then quantified using the damage cost estimates of the ExternE Project of the EC. A diesel bus with emissions equal to Standard EURO2 of the EC is compared with the same bus equipped with a natural gas engine, for use in Paris and in Toulouse. The damage cost of a diesel bus is significant, in the range of 0.4-1.3 euro/km. Natural gas allows an appreciable reduction of the emissions, lowering the damage cost by a factor of about 2.5 (Toulouse) to 5.5 (Paris). An approximate rule is provided for transferring the results to other cities. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of the evolution of the emissions standard towards EURO3, 4 and 5, as well as the effect of uncertainties. Finally a comparison is presented between a EURO2 diesel bus with particle filter, and a gas fueled bus with the MPI engine of IVECO, a more advanced and cleaner technology. With this engine the damage costs of the gas fueled bus are about 3-5 times lower than those of the diesel with particle filter, even though the latter has already very low emissions.(author)

  9. Air quality in inter-city buses : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Various studies have suggested that air quality inside automobiles and school buses may be poorer than ambient or nearby air quality, and that concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants in city buses may be sufficiently elevated to pose concerns for vehicle occupants and operators. This paper presented the results of preliminary investigation of levels of some pollutants in inter-city buses to determine whether a fuller investigation is warranted. Another objective of the investigation was to develop methods for assessing air quality within road vehicles. Students carried monitoring equipment on 28 inter-city trips made by Greyhound Canada buses during July and August 2004. The equipment recorded average levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), as well as concentrations of particulate matter. Bus routes were selected that allowed for an average of 10 hours of total sampling time in a day. Data was recorded on pumps, run times and routes taken. Results indicated that levels of CO in the buses were much lower than the national standard of acceptable levels for CO. Levels of NO 2 were on average lower, but 5 of the 19 recorded values exceeded acceptable levels. Average particulate levels recorded in the buses were considered acceptable, although some of the recorded levels were higher than desirable. It was concluded that further work on in-vehicle levels of NO 2 and particulate matter could be warranted. Although several procedural and equipment problems were encountered, the methods used in the investigation appeared to be valid, and were thought to be suitable for further work on in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants. 21 refs

  10. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 7 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An ARP and several ESS tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP/MCU. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 7 strategy are identified, other than the presence of visible quantities of dark colored solids. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable 4 hour average decontamination factors for Pu and Sr of 3.22 and 18.4, respectively. The Four ESS tests also showed acceptable behavior with distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 15.96, 57.1, 58.6, and 65.6 for the MCU, cold blend, hot blend, and Next Generation Solvent (NGS), respectively. The predicted value for the MCU solvent was 13.2. Currently, there are no models that would allow a prediction of extraction behavior for the other three solvents. SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed. While no outstanding issues were noted, the presence of solids in the samples should be investigated in future work. It is possible that the solids may represent a potential reservoir of material (such as potassium) that could have an impact on MCU performance if they were to dissolve back into the feed solution. This salt batch is intended to be the first batch to be processed through MCU entirely using the new NGS-MCU solvent.

  11. Independent Technical Review of the C-400 Interim Remedial Project Phase I Results, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart, L.; Richards, W.

    2010-01-01

    The groundwater and soil in the vicinity of the C-400 Building at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), is contaminated with substantial quantities of industrial solvents, primarily trichoroethene (TCE). This solvent 'source' is recognized as a significant challenge and an important remediation target in the overall environmental cleanup strategy for PGDP. Thus, the cleanup of the C-400 TCE Source is a principal focus for the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, and for PGDP regulators and stakeholders. Using a formal investigation, feasibility study and decision process, Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) was selected for the treatment of the soil and groundwater in the vicinity of C-400. ERH was selected as an interim action to remove 'a significant portion of the contaminant mass of TCE at the C-400 Cleaning Building area through treatment' with the longer term goal of reducing 'the period the TCE concentration in groundwater remains above its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL).' ERH is a thermal treatment that enhances the removal of TCE and related solvents from soil and groundwater. The heterogeneous conditions at PGDP, particularly the high permeability regional gravel aquifer (RGA), are challenging to ERH. Thus, a phased approach is being followed to implement this relatively expensive and complex remediation technology. Conceptually, the phased approach encourages safety and efficiency by providing a 'lessons learned' process and allowing appropriate adjustments to be identified and implemented prior to follow-on phase(s) of treatment. More specifically, early deployment targeted portions of the challenging RGA treatment zone with relatively little contamination reducing the risk of adverse collateral impacts from underperformance in terms of heating and capture. Because of the importance and scope of the C-400 TCE source remediation activities, DOE chartered an Independent Technical Review (ITR) in 2007 to assess the C-400 ERH plans prior

  12. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE C-400 INTERIM REMEDIAL PROJECT PHASE I RESULTS, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart,L.; Richards, W.

    2010-10-29

    The groundwater and soil in the vicinity of the C-400 Building at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), is contaminated with substantial quantities of industrial solvents, primarily trichoroethene (TCE). This solvent 'source' is recognized as a significant challenge and an important remediation target in the overall environmental cleanup strategy for PGDP. Thus, the cleanup of the C-400 TCE Source is a principal focus for the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, and for PGDP regulators and stakeholders. Using a formal investigation, feasibility study and decision process, Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) was selected for the treatment of the soil and groundwater in the vicinity of C-400. ERH was selected as an interim action to remove 'a significant portion of the contaminant mass of TCE at the C-400 Cleaning Building area through treatment' with the longer term goal of reducing 'the period the TCE concentration in groundwater remains above its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL).' ERH is a thermal treatment that enhances the removal of TCE and related solvents from soil and groundwater. The heterogeneous conditions at PGDP, particularly the high permeability regional gravel aquifer (RGA), are challenging to ERH. Thus, a phased approach is being followed to implement this relatively expensive and complex remediation technology. Conceptually, the phased approach encourages safety and efficiency by providing a 'lessons learned' process and allowing appropriate adjustments to be identified and implemented prior to follow-on phase(s) of treatment. More specifically, early deployment targeted portions of the challenging RGA treatment zone with relatively little contamination reducing the risk of adverse collateral impacts from underperformance in terms of heating and capture. Because of the importance and scope of the C-400 TCE source remediation activities, DOE chartered an Independent Technical Review (ITR) in

  13. Lifecycle cost assessment and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel, natural gas, hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid and electric transit buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajunen, Antti; Lipman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the lifecycle costs and carbon dioxide emissions of different types of city buses. The simulation models of the different powertrains were developed in the Autonomie vehicle simulation software. The carbon dioxide emissions were calculated both for the bus operation and for the fuel and energy pathways from well to tank. Two different operating environment case scenarios were used for the primary energy sources, which were Finland and California (USA). The fuel and energy pathways were selected appropriately in relation to the operating environment. The lifecycle costs take into account the purchase, operating, maintenance, and possible carbon emission costs. Based on the simulation results, the energy efficiency of city buses can be significantly improved by the alternative powertrain technologies. Hybrid buses have moderately lower carbon dioxide emissions during the service life than diesel buses whereas fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, by up to 75%. The lifecycle cost analysis indicates that diesel hybrid buses are already competitive with diesel and natural gas buses. The high costs of fuel cell and battery systems are the major challenges for the fuel cell hybrid buses in order to reduce lifecycle costs to more competitive levels. - Highlights: • Alternative powertrains can significantly improve energy efficiency of transit buses. • Operating environment has an important impact on the lifecycle costs of buses. • Diesel hybrid buses are already cost effective solution for public transportation. • The cost of fuel cell technology is the major challenge for fuel cell hybrid buses. • Fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  14. Interim overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, A H

    1976-07-01

    The construction of an interim overdenture using existing removable partial dentures with natural tooth crowns and artificial teeth can be a simple and economical method of providing patients with dentures while tissues heal and teeth are prepared and restored. A more definite prognosis for both the patient and his remaining dentition can be established before the final overdenture is completed. The procedures necessary to provide three types of interim overdentures have been outlined. Patients tolerate this method of changing their dentitions extremely well.

  15. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2008, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  16. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2007, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2007 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  17. Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Proton Beam Radiation Therapy with Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results of an Interim Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, David A., E-mail: dbush@llu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Smith, Jason C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Slater, Jerry D. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Volk, Michael L. [Transplantation Institute and Liver Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Reeves, Mark E. [VA Loma Linda Health Care System, Loma Linda, California (United States); Cheng, Jason [Transplantation Institute and Liver Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Grove, Roger [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Vera, Michael E. de [Transplantation Institute and Liver Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To describe results of a planned interim analysis of a prospective, randomized clinical trial developed to compare treatment outcomes among patients with newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had either clinical or pathologic diagnosis of HCC and met either Milan or San Francisco transplant criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or to proton beam radiation therapy. Patients randomized to TACE received at least 1 TACE with additional TACE for persistent disease. Proton beam radiation therapy was delivered to all areas of gross disease to a total dose of 70.2 Gy in 15 daily fractions over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, with secondary endpoints of overall survival, local tumor control, and treatment-related toxicities as represented by posttreatment days of hospitalization. Results: At the time of this analysis 69 subjects were available for analysis. Of these, 36 were randomized to TACE and 33 to proton. Total days of hospitalization within 30 days of TACE/proton was 166 and 24 days, respectively (P<.001). Ten TACE and 12 proton patients underwent liver transplantation after treatment. Viable tumor identified in the explanted livers after TACE/proton averaged 2.4 and 0.9 cm, respectively. Pathologic complete response after TACE/proton was 10%/25% (P=.38). The 2-year overall survival for all patients was 59%, with no difference between treatment groups. Median survival time was 30 months (95% confidence interval 20.7-39.3 months). There was a trend toward improved 2-year local tumor control (88% vs 45%, P=.06) and progression-free survival (48% vs 31%, P=.06) favoring the proton beam treatment group. Conclusions: This interim analysis indicates similar overall survival rates for proton beam radiation therapy and TACE. There is a trend toward improved local tumor control and progression-free survival with proton beam. There are

  18. Extraction, -scrub, -strip test results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 10 characterization results were previously reported.ii,iii An Extraction, -Scrub, -Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a sample of the NGS Blend solvent currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 110. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This is better than the predicted value of 39.8 from a recently created D(Cs) model.

  19. Interim results: fines recycle testing using the 4-inch diameter primary graphite burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.B.

    1975-05-01

    The results of twenty-two HTGR primary burner runs in which graphite fines were recycled pneumatically to the 4-inch diameter pilot-plant primary fluidized-bed burner are described. The result of the tests showed that zero fines accumulation can easily be achieved while operating at plant equivalent burn rates. (U.S.)

  20. Treatment choices for managing glucose control in impaired renal function: Interim Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Davies

    2017-04-01

    The project methods and coding structure are well place to provide anticipated results as soon as pathology data arrives. The percentage of ABMU patients having type 2 diabetes is in line with other literature for adults in the UK.

  1. Interim Report on Heuristics about Inspection Parameters: Updates to Heuristics Resulting from Refinement on Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Forrest; Seaman, Carolyn; Feldman, Raimund; Haingaertner, Ralf; Regardie, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, we have continued analyzing the inspection data in an effort to better understand the applicability and effect of the inspection heuristics on inspection outcomes. Our research goals during this period are: 1. Investigate the effect of anomalies in the dataset (e.g. the very large meeting length values for some inspections) on our results 2. Investigate the effect of the heuristics on other inspection outcome variables (e.g. effort) 3. Investigate whether the recommended ranges can be modified to give inspection planners more flexibility without sacrificing effectiveness 4. Investigate possible refinements or modifications to the heuristics for specific subdomains (partitioned, e.g., by size, domain, or Center) This memo reports our results to date towards addressing these goals. In the next section, the first goal is addressed by describing the types of anomalies we have found in our dataset, how we have addressed them, and the effect of these changes on our previously reported results. In the following section, on "methodology", we describe the analyses we have conducted to address the other three goals and the results of these analyses are described in the "results" section. Finally, we conclude with future plans for continuing our investigation.

  2. Development of radiological performance objectives interim results: trade-offs in attitudes toward radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, J.W.

    1978-07-01

    In order to measure the risk associated with radioactive waste it is necessary to ascertain public opinion concerning the relative significance of the different possible health effects of radiation, and public attitudes towards uncertainty. LLL has directed Decisions and Designs, Incorporated (DDI), to elicit such views from various members of the public. Purpose of this note is to give a brief account of some of the views so far obtained, provide some interpretation of these results, and briefly demonstrate how these results can be used to guide the drafting of regulations

  3. Interim results of the study of control room crew staffing for advanced passive reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbert, B.P.; Sebok, A.; Haugset, K.

    1996-01-01

    Differences in the ways in which vendors expect the operations staff to interact with advanced passive plants by vendors have led to a need for reconsideration of the minimum shift staffing requirements of licensed Reactor Operators and Senior Reactor Operators contained in current federal regulations (i.e., 10 CFR 50.54(m)). A research project is being carried out to evaluate the impact(s) of advanced passive plant design and staffing of control room crews on operator and team performance. The purpose of the project is to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and provide data to support the development of design review guidance. Two factors are being evaluated across a range of plant operating conditions: control room crew staffing; and characteristics of the operating facility itself, whether it employs conventional or advanced, passive features. This paper presents the results of the first phase of the study conducted at the Loviisa nuclear power station earlier this year. Loviisa served as the conventional plant in this study. Data collection from four crews were collected from a series of design basis scenarios, each crew serving in either a normal or minimum staffing configuration. Results of data analyses show that crews participating in the minimum shift staffing configuration experienced significantly higher workload, had lower situation awareness, demonstrated significantly less effective team performance, and performed more poorly as a crew than the crews participating in the normal shift staffing configuration. The baseline data on crew configurations from the conventional plant setting will be compared with similar data to be collected from the advanced plant setting, and a report prepared providing the results of the entire study

  4. Biofilm formation and control in a simulated spacecraft water system - Interim results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, John R.; Taylor, Robert D.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.; Brown, Harlan D.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of iodine to control microbial contamination and biofilm formation in spacecraft water distribution systems is studied using two stainless steel water subsystems. One subsystem has an iodine level of 2.5 mg/L maintained by an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The other subsystem has no iodine added. Stainless steel coupons are removed from each system to monitor biofilm formation. Results from the first six months of operation indicate that 2.5 mg/L of iodine has limited the number of viable bacteria that can be recovered from the iodinated subsystem. Epifluorescence microscopy of the coupons taken from this subsystem, however, indicates some evidence of microbial colonization after 15 weeks of operation. Numerous bacteria have been continually removed from both the water samples and the coupons taken from the noniodinated subsystem after only 3 weeks of operation.

  5. THE INTERIM RESULTS AND THE WAYS TO IMPLEMENT THE PROGRAMS TEACHER TRAINING IN NETWORK FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tolsteneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of approbation of new modules primary educational undergraduate specialties Group expanded education and pedagogy (training areas-economics, involving academic mobility of students of universities in terms of networking of Novosibirsk and Nizhny Novgorod pedagogical universities. The article describes the structure of established affiliate networks, conducted pedagogical and methodical analysis modules have passed testing, recommendations for improvement and suggested ways for the development of a modular approach to building educational programs in teacher education system. The implementation of educational modules require their integration into the curricula of the Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, with no loss of content, giving the existing curriculum structure saturation. Thus, it was achieved 100% consistency of curriculum, opening further opportunities for the implementation of educational programs in terms of networking.

  6. Effects of glufosinate-ammonium on off crop vegetation--interim results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Snoo, G R; De Jong, F M; Van Der Poll, R J; Van Der Linden, M G

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a field study was conducted at four different locations concerning the effects of low dosages of glufosinate-ammonium, a leaf acting herbicide, on off crop vegetation. Therefore species rich road verges and ditch banks not adapted to a history of herbicide use were sprayed twice with different dosages of glufosinate-ammonium, simulating drift (0, 2, 4, 16, 32 and 64% of the maximum field dose: 800 g a.i./ha). The parameters studied were short term phytotoxic effects and the effects on biomass, species cover and number of species in autumn (Braun-Blanquêt relevés). The results show significant phytotoxic effects at all dosages of glufosinate-ammonium on the non-target vegetation. The low concentrations (2 and 4%) had most impact when applied early in the season (9% average at the 2% dosage and 22% at 4% dosage, after the first spraying. At high dosages (32 and 64%) a decrease of the biomass of the vegetation was found in August. A comparison between treatments in August shows a small decrease in species number and cover in the 64% compared to the control. In the comparison between the spring and August relevés, the decrease in the mean number of species was significantly stronger in the treated plots than in the untreated ones of 4% and higher. For monocotyledons in all treatments except 16%, a significantly stronger decrease in species number was found compared to the untreated. For dicotyledons only the 64% dosage differed from the untreated. Only at the 64% treatment the total cover of species decreased more than in the untreated plots. Since drift percentages of 2-4% can be expected at 1-2 m from a treated plot it can be concluded that the use of glufosinate-ammonium could result in visible short term phytotoxic effects (max 22%) on off-crop vegetation such as ditch banks and verges. There are also indications that effects on the number and cover of species in autumn can occur. Because in future glufosinate-ammonium could be used on a large scale in

  7. Cancer early detection program based on awareness and clinical breast examination: Interim results from an urban community in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Anita; Sauvaget, Catherine; Roy, Nobhojit; Muwonge, Richard; Kantharia, Surita; Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Bantwal, Kanchan; Haldar, Indrani; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-02-01

    Indian women with breast cancer are usually diagnosed in advanced stages leading to poor survival. Improving breast awareness and increasing access to early diagnosis and adequate treatment has been advocated for breast cancer control. We implemented a program to increase awareness on breast cancer and access to its early detection in an occupational health care scheme in Mumbai, India. Breast awareness brochures were mailed annually between June 2013 and June 2016 to a cohort of 22,500 eligible women aged 30-69 years old receiving universal health care from an occupational health care scheme comprising of primary health centres and a referral secondary care hospital in Mumbai. Women with suspected breast cancers were provided with diagnostic investigations and treatment. Socio-demographic information and tumour characteristics were compared between the breast awareness pre-intervention period (Jan 2005-May 2013) and the breast awareness intervention period after four rounds of mailers (June 2013-June 2016). The proportion of women with early tumours and axillary lymph node negative cancers increased from 74% to 81% and 46% to 53% respectively, between the two periods. While the proportion of patients receiving breast conserving surgery increased from 39% to 51%, the proportion receiving chemotherapy decreased from 84% to 56%. Interim results following efforts to improve breast awareness and access to care in a cohort of women in an occupational health care scheme indicate early detection and more conservative treatment of breast cancers. Creating awareness and improving access to care may result in cancer down-staging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification for Flight Dynamics; Interim Results and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, David C.; Shweyk, Kamal M.; Brown, Frank; Shah, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    into a real-time simulation capability, generating techniques for uncertainty modeling that draw data from multiple modeling sources, and providing a unified database model that includes nominal plus increments for each flight condition. This paper presents status of testing in the BR&T water tunnel and analysis of the resulting data and efforts to characterize these data using alternative modeling methods. Program challenges and issues are also presented.

  9. Operative and conservative management of primary gastric lymphoma: interim results of a German multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willich, Normann A.; Reinartz, Gabriele; Horst, Ekkehard J.; Delker, Georg; Reers, Berthold; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Tiemann, Markus; Parwaresch, Reza; Grothaus-Pinke, Bernward; Kocik, Juergen; Koch, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Biology and appropriate management of gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas are matters of an ongoing controversial debate. To evaluate histological features, sites of involvement and management of primary GI-lymphomas, a prospective multicentric study was initiated in 10/1992. Aim of study was the further standardization of operative and conservative treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: Study started 10/1992 and was closed 11/1996. A total of 381 evaluable patients had been accrued then. Standardized diagnostic workup included endoscopic and radiological evaluation of the complete GI-tract as well as a central histological review. Diagnosis was established after Lewin, stage classification was made after Musshoff, and histological classification was made after Isaacson. Treatment decision concerning operative or conservative management was due to the initially acting physician. Patients with resection of low grade lymphoma received total abdominal irradiation 30 Gy + 10 Gy boost to incompletely resected areas. After resection of high grade lymphoma CHOP chemotherapy (4 cycles for stage IE, 6 cycles for higher stages) after McKelvy was followed by total abdominal irradiation 30 Gy for stage IE respectively involved field irradiation 30 Gy for higher stages with 10 Gy boost to incompletely resected areas. Primary conservative treatment consisted of six cycles COP chemotherapy after Bagley for low grade lymphomas stage >IE and total abdominal irradiation 30 Gy + 10 Gy boost to involved areas for all stages. Patients with high grade lymphomas received 4 x CHOP followed by total abdominal irradiation 30 Gy + 10 Gy boost to involved areas or 6 x CHOP plus involved field radiation therapy with 40 Gy. 257 patients are considered for analysis due to exclusion criteria of the study, 190 of them were suffered from gastric lymphoma. Their median observation time is 29 months, maximum observation time is 68 months. Results: Sites of involvement were

  10. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-06-01

    This Interim Report summarizes the research and development activities of the Superconducting Super Collider project carried out from the completion of the Reference Designs Study (May 1984) to June 1985. It was prepared by the SSC Central Design Group in draft form on the occasion of the DOE Annual Review, June 19--21, 1985. Now largely organized by CDG Divisions, the bulk of each chapter documents the progress and accomplishments to date, while the final section(s) describe plans for future work. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides a basic brief description of the SSC, its physics justification, its origins, and the R&D organization set up to carry out the work. Chapter 2 gives a summary of the main results of the R&D program, the tasks assigned to the four magnet R&D centers, and an overview of the future plans. The reader wishing a quick look at the SSC Phase I effort can skim Chapter 1 and read Chapter 2. Subsequent chapters discuss in more detail the activities on accelerator physics, accelerator systems, magnets and cryostats, injector, detector R&D, conventional facilities, and project planning and management. The magnet chapter (5) documents in text and photographs the impressive progress in successful construction of many model magnets, the development of cryostats with low heat leaks, and the improvement in current-carrying capacity of superconducting strand. Chapter 9 contains the budgets and schedules of the COG Divisions, the overall R&D program, including the laboratories, and also preliminary projections for construction. Appendices provide information on the various panels, task forces and workshops held by the CDG in FY 1985, a bibliography of COG and Laboratory reports on SSC and SSC-related work, and on private industrial involvement in the project.

  11. Quantitative characterization of the reliability of simplex buses and stars to compare their benefits in fieldbuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, Manuel; Proenza, Julián; Almeida, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Fieldbuses targeted to highly dependable distributed embedded systems are shifting from bus to star topologies. Surprisingly, despite the efforts into this direction, engineers lack of analyses that quantitatively characterize the system reliability achievable by buses and stars. Thus, to guide engineers in developing adequate bus and star fieldbuses, this work models, quantifies and compares the system reliability provided by simplex buses and stars for the case of the Controller Area Network (CAN). It clarifies how relevant dependability-related aspects affect reliability, refuting some intuitive ideas, and revealing some previously unknown bus and star benefits. - Highlights: • SANs models that quantify the reliability of simplex buses/stars in fieldbuses. • Models cover system relevant dependability-related features abstracted in the literature. • Results refute intuitive ideas about buses and stars and show some unexpected effects. • Models and results can guide the design of reliable simplex bus/stars fieldbuses

  12. Safety and Effectiveness of Natalizumab: First Report of Interim Results of Post-Marketing Surveillance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Takahiko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Sato, Ryusuke; Makioka, Haruki; Iizuka, Yukihiko; Hase, Masakazu; Ling, Yan; Torii, Shinichi

    2017-12-01

    Natalizumab, a humanized anti-α4 integrin monoclonal antibody, received marketing approval in Japan in 2014 for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Because the previous large-scale clinical trials of natalizumab were mainly conducted in Europe and North American countries, and data in patients with MS from Japan were limited, we conducted an all-case post-marketing surveillance of natalizumab-treated MS patients from Japan to investigate the safety and effectiveness of natalizumab in a real-world clinical setting in Japan. Here, we report the results of an interim analysis. During the observation period of 2 years, all patients who were treated with natalizumab subsequent to its approval in Japan were followed. The effectiveness of natalizumab was assessed by examining the changes in expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score and annualized relapse rate (ARR) from baseline. Safety was assessed by analyzing the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The safety analysis included 106 patients (mean age 39.3 years; women 62.3%) whose data were collected until the data lock point (February 7, 2016). The effectiveness analysis included 75 patients. The majority of patients had relapsing-remitting MS (93/106 patients; 87.7%). The mean length of treatment exposure in the present study was 6.6 months. During the 2-year observation period, no significant change in the EDSS was observed, while the ARR decreased significantly from baseline (72.9% reduction, p = 0.001). ADRs and serious ADRs were observed in 11.3% and 3.8% of patients, respectively; however, no new safety concerns were detected. No patient had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) during the present study period. The safety and effectiveness of natalizumab were confirmed in Japanese patients with MS in clinical practice. Nevertheless, potential risks including PML require continuous, careful observation. Biogen Japan Ltd (Tokyo, Japan).

  13. Microbial air quality in mass transport buses and work-related illness among bus drivers of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Sundhiyodhin, Viboonsri; Luksamijarulkul, Soavalug; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan

    2004-06-01

    The air quality in mass transport buses, especially air-conditioned buses may affect bus drivers who work full time. Bus numbers 16, 63, 67 and 166 of the Seventh Bus Zone of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority were randomly selected to investigate for microbial air quality. Nine air-conditioned buses and 2-4 open-air buses for each number of the bus (36 air-conditioned buses and 12 open-air buses) were included. Five points of in-bus air samples in each studied bus were collected by using the Millipore A ir Tester Totally, 180 and 60 air samples collected from air-conditioned buses and open-air buses were cultured for bacterial and fungal counts. The bus drivers who drove the studied buses were interviewed towards histories of work-related illness while working. The results revealed that the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied open-air buses ranged from 358.50 +/- 146.66 CFU/m3 to 506 +/- 137.62 CFU/m3; bus number 16 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which ranged from 93.33 +/- 44.83 CFU/m3 to 302 +/- 294.65 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. Whereas, the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied air-conditioned buses ranged from 115.24 +/- 136.01 CFU/m3 to 244.69 +/- 234.85 CFU/m3; bus numbers 16 and 67 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which rangedfrom 18.84 +/- 39.42 CFU/m3 to 96.13 +/- 234.76 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. When 180 and 60 studied air samples were analyzed in detail, it was found that 33.33% of the air samples from open-air buses and 6.11% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of bacterial counts (> 500 CFU/m3) while 6.67% of air samples from open-air buses and 2.78% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of fungal counts (> 500 CFU/m3). Data from the history of work-related illnesses among the studied bus drivers showed that 91.67% of open-air bus drivers and 57.28% of air-conditioned bus drivers had

  14. NREL Evaluates Performance of Fast-Charge Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-16

    This real-world performance evaluation is designed to enhance understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of electric buses in transit operation and to provide unbiased technical information to other agencies interested in adding such vehicles to their fleets. Initial results indicate that the electric buses under study offer significant fuel and emissions savings. The final results will help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals. help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals.

  15. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  16. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau. Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Program. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 4 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  17. Defibrotide for Patients with Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease/Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome: Interim Results from a Treatment IND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Paul G; Smith, Angela R; Triplett, Brandon M; Kernan, Nancy A; Grupp, Stephan A; Antin, Joseph H; Lehmann, Leslie; Shore, Tsiporah; Iacobelli, Massimo; Miloslavsky, Maja; Hume, Robin; Hannah, Alison L; Nejadnik, Bijan; Soiffer, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease, or sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS), is a serious and potentially fatal complication of conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or of chemotherapy regimens alone. Defibrotide is a complex mixture of single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotides that is approved in the United States for treating hepatic VOD/SOS with renal or pulmonary dysfunction post-HSCT and in the European Union, Israel, and South Korea for treating severe hepatic VOD/SOS post-HSCT. Defibrotide was previously available in the United States as an investigational drug through a treatment protocol (treatment IND) study. Interim results of that large, treatment IND study of patients with VOD/SOS and with or without multiorgan dysfunction (MOD; also known as multiorgan failure) are presented here. Defibrotide was administered i.v. at 6.25 mg/kg every 6 hours (25 mg/kg/day), with a recommended treatment duration of at least 21 days. Enrolled patients (n = 681) were diagnosed with VOD/SOS based on Baltimore or modified Seattle criteria or liver biopsy analysis. Among the 573 HSCT recipients, 288 (50.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 46.2% to 54.4%) were alive at day +100 post-HSCT. Day +100 survival for the pediatric (≤16 years) and adult (>16 years) subgroups was 54.5% (95% CI, 49.1% to 60.0%; n = 174 of 319) and 44.9% (95% CI, 38.8% to 51.0%; n = 114 of 254), respectively. In the MOD subgroup, 159 of 351 patients (45.3%; 95% CI, 40.1% to 50.5%) of patients were alive at day +100 post-HSCT. Treatment with defibrotide was generally well tolerated, and drug-related toxicities were consistent with previous studies. Adverse events were reported in 69.6% of safety-evaluable patients (399 of 573). Other than VOD/SOS and associated MOD symptoms, the most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse event was hypotension (13.8%). Day +100 survival results observed in this trial were consistent with results seen in previous trials of

  18. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter in buses on highways in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Der-Jen; Huang, Hsiao-Lin

    2009-12-01

    Although airborne pollutants in urban buses have been studied in many cities globally, long-distance buses running mainly on highways have not been addressed in this regard. This study investigates the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and particulate matter (PM) in the long-distance buses in Taiwan. Analytical results indicate that pollutants levels in long-distance buses are generally lower than those in urban buses. This finding is attributable to the driving speed and patterns of long-distance buses, as well as the meteorological and geographical features of the highway surroundings. The levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) found in bus cabins exceed the proposed indoor VOC guidelines for aromatic compounds, and are likely attributable to the interior trim in the cabins. The overall average CO level is 2.3 ppm, with higher average level on local streets (2.9 ppm) than on highways (2.2 ppm). The average CO 2 level is 1493 ppm, which is higher than the guideline for non-industrial occupied settings. The average PM level in this study is lower than those in urban buses and IAQ guidelines set by Taiwan EPA. However, the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 is higher than the level set by WHO. Besides the probable causes mentioned above, fewer passenger movements and less particle re-suspension from bus floor might also cause the lower PM levels. Measurements of particle size distribution reveal that more than 75% of particles are in submicron and smaller sizes. These particles may come from the infiltration from the outdoor air. This study concludes that air exchange rates in long-distance buses should be increased in order to reduce CO 2 levels. Future research on long-distance buses should focus on the emission of VOCs from brand new buses, and the sources of submicron particles in bus cabins.

  19. The New Energy Buses in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of “low carbon” economy, new energy vehicles are increasingly favored by the Chinese government and manufacturers. New energy buses have become an important channel for the promotion of new energy utilizations. Based on the summary of policies, this paper conducts a thorough...

  20. Unit Monitors Manchester-Format Data Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit card converts data signals into convenient hexadecimal form for troubleshooting. Bus-monitoring unit converts data signals from Manchester II format used on data bus into hexadecimal format. Monitoring circuit causes hexadecimal words to display on video terminal, where test engineer compares them with hexadecimal records for troubleshooting. Circuit monitors one bus or two buses simultaneously.

  1. Gas Phase Emission Ratios From In-Use Diesel and CNG Curbside Passenger Buses in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, S. C.; Shorter, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J.; Nelson, D. D.; Wormhoudt, J. C.; Williams, P.; Silva, P. J.; Shi, Q.; Ghertner, A.; Zahniser, M.; Worsnop, D.; Kolb, C.; Lanni, T.; Drewnick, F.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory simultaneously measured gas phase and particulate emissions from in use vehicles during two campaigns in New York City. The campaigns took place during two weeks in October, 2000 and four weeks in July-August, 2001. Passenger curbside buses were the primary focus of the study, but school buses and several other heavy duty diesel vehicles were also characterized. This paper describes the methodologies used to measure individual in use vehicles and presents the results of the gas phase measurements. Emission ratios for NO, NO2, SO2, N2O, CO, CH4 and H2CO relative to CO2 have been determined across several classes of buses. The gas phase concentrations were measured each second, using Tunable Infrared Laser Direct Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS). Some of the categories of buses into which the data has been sorted are; diesel (both 6V92 and Series 50) with and without the Continuous Regenerative Technology (CRT) retrofit, compressed natural gas powered(CNG) and hybrid diesel-electric buses. The New York Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) cooperated with this work, providing details about each of their buses followed. In addition to MTA buses, other New York City passenger bus operators were also measured. In September 2000, MTA began to switch to 30 ppm sulfur diesel fuel while it is believed the non MTA operators did not. The measured emission ratios show that low sulfur fuel greatly reduces the amount of SO2 per CO2. Roughly one third of the MTA fleet of diesel buses have been equipped with the CRT retrofit. The gas phase results of interest in this category show increased direct emission of NO2 and companion work (also submitted to the 12th CRC) show the impact the CRT refit has on particulate emissions. CNG buses show increased H2CO and CH4 emission ratios relative to diesel powered motors.

  2. Characterizing ultrafine particles and other air pollutants in and around school buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifang; Zhang, Qunfang

    2014-03-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFP*, diameter emissions from idling school buses to air pollutant levels in and around school buses under different scenarios; 3. Retrofit tests to evaluate the performance of two retrofit systems, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) muffler and a crankcase filtration system (CFS), on reducing tailpipe emissions and in-cabin air pollutant concentrations under idling and driving conditions; and 4. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air purifier tests to evaluate the effectiveness of in-cabin filtration. In total, 24 school buses were employed to cover a wide range of school buses commonly used in the United States. Real-time air quality measurements included particle number concentration (PNC), fine and UFP size distribution in the size range 7.6-289 nm, PM2.5 mass concentration, black carbon (BC) concentration, and carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. For in-cabin measurements, instruments were placed on a platform secured to the rear seats inside the school buses. For all other tests, a second set of instruments was deployed to simultaneously measure the ambient air pollutant levels. For tailpipe emission measurements, the exhaust was diluted and then measured by instruments identical to those used for the in-cabin measurements. The results show that when driving on roads, in-cabin PNC, fine and UFP size distribution, PM2.5, BC, and CO varied by engine age, window position, driving speed, driving route, and operating conditions. Emissions from idling school buses increased the PNC close to the tailpipe by a factor of up to 26.0. Under some circumstances, tailpipe emissions of idling school buses increased the in-cabin PNC by factors ranging from 1.2 to 5.8 in the 10-30 nm particle size range. Retrofit systems significantly reduced the tailpipe emissions of idling school buses. With both DOC and CFS installed, PNC in tailpipe emissions dropped by 20

  3. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.

    2010-11-01

    This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

  4. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2011-11-01

    This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES FOR OBESITY AND COMORBID DISORDERS BASED ON OBSERVATIONAL PROGRAMS: INTERIM RESULTS OF THE RUSSIAN OBSERVATIONAL PROGRAM PRIMAVERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Troshina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess interim results of the Russian observational program PrimaVera on efficacy and safety sibutramine (Reduxin® for treatment of obesity within routine medical practice. Materials and methods: This multicenter observational program included patients with obesity aged below 65  years, excluding those with uncontrolled arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure and cerebrovascular disease. All patients were administered sibutramine for treatment of their obesity. During out-patient follow-up visits, physicians assessed changes in patients’ body mass, blood pressure and heart rate, as well as registered adverse events. Maximal treatment duration was 12 months. In this report, the results from 16  515  patients are analyzed, 82% of whom (n=13 192 were females.Results: After 3  months of treatment body mass index (BMI decreased by 2.81±1.0  kg/m², after 6 months, by 5.17±2.15 kg/m². At 12 months decrease in BMI was 1.3-fold higher compared to 6  months’ results and amounted to 6.76±2.93  kg/m². Reduction of body mass with longterm (above 6  months treatment with sibutramine under supervision of a physician was associated with a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels (by 4.1 mm Hg, in both cases and did not lead to an increase in heart rate (Δ=-1.02  bpm. Based on data from 16  515  medical records processed up to now, 397  episodes of adverse events were registered, with none of them being serious.Conclusion: This interim results of the program PrimaVera confirmed favorable safety profile of Reduxin® and its high efficacy in the treatment of obesity.

  6. Observational Study of IncobotulinumtoxinA for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm (XCiDaBLE: Interim Results for the First 170 Subjects with Blepharospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert H. Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: XCiDaBLE is a large, prospective, observational “naturalistic” study evaluating Xeomin® for Cervical Dystonia or BLEpharospasm in the United States. We report the interim results from the blepharospasm cohort of XCiDaBLE.Methods: Subjects (≥18 years old with blepharospasm were followed for two treatment cycles of incobotulinumtoxinA and monitored for 4 weeks after injection via interactive voice/web response system (IVRS/IWRS. The investigator‐reported scale includes the Clinical Global Impression Scale‐Severity subscale (CGI‐S. Patient‐reported outcome measures include the Patient Global Impression Scale‐Severity (PGI‐S and ‐Improvement (PGI‐I subscales, Jankovic Rating Scale (JRS, SF‐12v2® health survey, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Subjects are seen by the investigator at baseline (including the first injection, during the second injection, and at a final study visit (12 weeks after the second injection.Results: One hundred seventy subjects were included in this interim analysis. The majority of subjects were female (77.1% and white (91.8%, and had previously been treated with botulinum toxins (96.5%. The mean total dose (both eyes was 71.5 U of incobotulinumtoxinA for the first injection. PGI‐S, PGI‐I, and JRS scores were significantly improved 4 weeks after treatment (all p<0.0001. No differences were noted in either quality of life (QoL or work productivity in this short assessment period. No unexpected adverse events occurred.Discussion: This is an interim study and assessment method based on an IVRS/IWRS. In this predominantly toxin‐experienced cohort, significant benefits in specific and global measures of disease severity were seen in the immediate post‐incobotulinumtoxinA injection period. It will be interesting to see if there are improvements in QoL with consistent individualized injections over a longer period.

  7. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Over decades of operation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have released nearly 2 trillion L (450 billion gal.) of liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Much of this discharge of liquid waste into the vadose zone occurred in the Central Plateau, a 200 km2 (75 mi2) area that includes approximately 800 waste sites. Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths below the limit of direct exposure pathways, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Tri-Party Agencies (DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology) established Milestone M 015 50, which directed DOE to submit a treatability test plan for remediation of technetium-99 (Tc-99) and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment and have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. Testing technologies for remediating Tc-99 and uranium will also provide information relevant for remediating other contaminants in the vadose zone. A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the DOE test plan published in March 2008 to meet Milestone M 015 50. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 3 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  8. Prospective Study Evaluating IncobotulinumtoxinA for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm: Interim Results from the First 145 Subjects with Cervical Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Fernandez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report the interim results from XCiDaBLE: A large prospective, observational "naturalistic" study evaluating Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA for cervical dystonia or blepharospasm in the United States.Methods: Subjects with CD are followed for 2 treatment cycles and monitored via Interactive Voice/Web Response. Subject-reported scales include the Subject Global Impression-Severity and Improvement; Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58; and Work Productivity and Quality of Life (QoL are assessed by means of an employment questionnaire and work history and the SF-12v2.Results: This ongoing study includes 145 subjects with a diagnosis of CD. The majority were female (82.3% and White (91.0% and had previously been treated with botulinum toxins (77.2%. There were 106 employed at the time of onset of the disease, but 12.6 years later only 44% were still employed at the time of enrolment into the study and 20% were either receiving or seeking disability benefits. However, only 44% were still employed at the time of recruitment for study participation. The mean total dose/treatment of CD was 225.2 units for the 1st injection. The CDIP-58 total score was significantly improved at four weeks post the first injection compared to baseline (p=<0.0001. Most subjects noted improvement in their global impression assessment. No new or unexpected adverse events occurred. Discussion: The results from these interim analyses confirm previous controlled single-dose studies of incobotulinumtoxinA in terms of efficacy and safety.

  9. Bacterial Quality of Drinking Water in Bushehr Intercity Buses in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Ranjbar Vakilabadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Road transportation and specifically bus travel accounts for the bulk of travel. Contaminated drinking water consumption is one of the issues that threaten health, and always there is pollution possibility in drinking water in buses. This study evaluated the microbial quality of consumed drinking water in buses and also compared it with available standards. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. By considering similar studies, 95% confidence interval and based on the samples size formula for tradition of proportion, 80 buses from 122 buses that entered Bushehr Passenger Depot from other cities or exited it were randomly selected. Over a three-month period, samples were taken from drinking water in these buses. Temperature, pH, residual chlorine, total coliform (TC, and fecal coliform (E. coli in each sample were measured in accordance with the standard method. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS Version 16, and the t-test was performed for statistical difference. Results: The results showed that residual chlorine in 97.5% was zero and pH values of the samples were in the range of 6.8-8.7. TC and E. coli numbers in 12.5% and 8.8% of the samples were higher than those of standards, respectively. Conclusion: Use of ice, washing time of the drinking water tank (daily or weekly, and method of usage and storage of drinking water (with 20-liter tanks had significant effects on the bacterial loads of the drinking water in the tanks (p value <0.05. Some factors such as tank material, driver's education and age, type and model of the bus, filling time of the tank (daily or weekly, the method of filling and emptying the tank (complete clearing out of the tank or otherwise, and distance had no significant effect on the quality of the drinking water in the buses.

  10. Multistage Mechanical Transmissions with Automatic Control for Advanced Trucks and Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blokhin Aleksandr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study considers the basic trends of development of modern mechanical transmissions of trucks and buses. It provides the developed various series of multispeed transmissions with automatic control and a number of transmissions from 6 to 16 for trucks and buses. The paper shows the basic parameters of the standard series of new transmissions received on the basis of innovative technical solutions. It provides the results of experimental studies of 16-speed transmissions on a special test stand and on the road as part of a truck transmission. Theoretical and experimental data on the gear change time are compared.

  11. Transit experience with hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M.; Levin, J.; Edwards, T.

    2006-01-01

    Both AC Transit and SunLine Transit operate hybrid electric hydrogen fueled buses in their transit service. ACT presently operates three fuel cell buses in daily revenue service, and SunLine operates a fuel cell bus and a HHICE (Hybrid Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine) bus. All these buses use similar electric drive train and electric accessories, although the detailed design differs notably between the fuel cell and the hybrid ICE buses. The fuel cell buses use a 120kW UTC fuel cell and a Van Hool Chassis, whereas the HHICE bus uses a turbocharged Ford engine which is capable of 140kW generator output in a New Flyer Chassis. The HHICE bus was the first in service, and has been subjected to both winter testing in Manitoba, Canada and summer testing in the Palm Springs, CA region. The winter testing included passenger sampling using questionnaires to ascertain passenger response. The fuel cell buses were introduced to service at the start of 2006. All five buses are in daily revenue service use. The paper will describe the buses and the experience of the transit properties in operating the buses. (author)

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  13. Communication Buses and Protocols for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mason

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews existing digital communication buses which are commonly used in sensor networks, discusses sensor network architectures, and introduces a new sensor bus for low power microsystem applications. The new intra-module multi-element microsystem (IM2 bus is nine-line interface with 8b serial data which implements several advanced features such as power management and plug-n-play while maintaining minimum hardware overhead at the sensor node. Finally, some issues in wireless sensor networking are discussed. The coverage of these issues provides a guideline for choosing the appropriate bus for different sensor network applications.

  14. COORDINATION OF THE WORK OF BUSES IN CITY ROUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad DASHDAMIROV

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the work of bus routes passing through a street. Optimality criterion was chosen for the development of appropriate models of effective work of buses on the land. The paper proposes a new model costing time passengers at bus stops. A method of technique was developed to coordinate the buses running on the combined section of route.

  15. 49 CFR 393.89 - Buses, driveshaft protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.89 Buses, driveshaft protection. Any driveshaft extending lengthways under the floor of the passenger compartment of a bus shall... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, driveshaft protection. 393.89 Section 393...

  16. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except...

  17. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... control wiring must be— (1) Suitable for installation within in a switchboard enclosure and be rated at 90... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements of...

  18. Big Brother Is Watching: Video Surveillance on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloggett, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Many school districts in North America have adopted policies to permit cameras on their properties and, when needed, on buses used to transport students. With regard to school buses, the camera is typically a tool for gathering information to monitor behavior or to help investigate a complaint about behavior. If a picture is worth a thousand…

  19. 49 CFR 392.63 - Towing or pushing loaded buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Towing or pushing loaded buses. 392.63 Section 392... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.63 Towing or pushing loaded buses. No disabled bus with... passengers aboard for the purpose of towing or pushing any disabled motor vehicle, except in such...

  20. Feasibility study on the introduction of hybrid buses; Hybrid bus donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to design pilot projects for introducing hybrid buses into the public transportation sector. This research also covers contents regarding hybrid buses with a trolley-collector motor and a diesel engine, to identify technical and economical problems and to analyze cost beneficiation using hybrid buses. The trolley parallel hybrid system has been employed for the feasibility study. This system has abundant operation results in Europe and the USA. Its battery is small or is not necessary, and the maintenance cost is also low. As a result of the feasibility study, reduction effects of CO2 emission were found out. When the CO2 generation at the power plant is not counted, the reduction effect was estimated to be 32% compared with the CO2 emission from diesel buses. When the CO2 generation at the power plant is considered, it was estimated to be 18%. The cost beneficiation was investigated for the cases of the transportations using trolley system surrounding a medium-scale terminal among large-scale housing development, tourist resort, and stations. The annual income is estimated to be larger than the annual payment in each case. It was found that the hybrid bus is economically established. 17 refs., 48 figs., 41 tabs.

  1. Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Katarina; Schippert, Ruth; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Besch, Dorothea; Cottriall, Charles L; Edwards, Thomas L; Gekeler, Florian; Greppmaier, Udo; Kiel, Katja; Koitschev, Assen; Kühlewein, Laura; MacLaren, Robert E; Ramsden, James D; Roider, Johann; Rothermel, Albrecht; Sachs, Helmut; Schröder, Greta S; Tode, Jan; Troelenberg, Nicole; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the safety and efficacy of a technically advanced subretinal electronic implant, RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS, in end stage retinal degeneration in an interim analysis of two ongoing prospective clinical trials. The purpose of this article is to describe the interim functional results (efficacy). Methods: The subretinal visual prosthesis RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany) was implanted in 15 blind patients with hereditary retinal degenerations at four study sites with a follow-up period of 12 months (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01024803 and NCT02720640). Functional outcome measures included (1) screen-based standardized 2- or 4-alternative forced-choice (AFC) tests of light perception, light localization, grating detection (basic grating acuity (BaGA) test), and Landolt C-rings; (2) gray level discrimination; (3) performance during activities of daily living (ADL-table tasks). Results: Implant-mediated light perception was observed in 13/15 patients. During the observation period implant mediated localization of visual targets was possible in 13/15 patients. Correct grating detection was achieved for spatial frequencies of 0.1 cpd (cycles per degree) in 4/15; 0.33 cpd in 3/15; 0.66 cpd in 2/15; 1.0 cpd in 2/15 and 3.3 cpd in 1/15 patients. In two patients visual acuity (VA) assessed with Landolt C- rings was 20/546 and 20/1111. Of 6 possible gray levels on average 4.6 ± 0.8 (mean ± SD, n = 10) were discerned. Improvements (power ON vs. OFF) of ADL table tasks were measured in 13/15 patients. Overall, results were stable during the observation period. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported in 4 patients: 2 movements of the implant, readjusted in a second surgery; 4 conjunctival erosion/dehiscence, successfully treated; 1 pain event around the coil, successfully treated; 1 partial reduction of silicone oil tamponade leading to distorted vision (silicon oil successfully refilled). The majority of adverse events (AEs

  2. Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Stingl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We assessed the safety and efficacy of a technically advanced subretinal electronic implant, RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS, in end stage retinal degeneration in an interim analysis of two ongoing prospective clinical trials. The purpose of this article is to describe the interim functional results (efficacy.Methods: The subretinal visual prosthesis RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany was implanted in 15 blind patients with hereditary retinal degenerations at four study sites with a follow-up period of 12 months (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01024803 and NCT02720640. Functional outcome measures included (1 screen-based standardized 2- or 4-alternative forced-choice (AFC tests of light perception, light localization, grating detection (basic grating acuity (BaGA test, and Landolt C-rings; (2 gray level discrimination; (3 performance during activities of daily living (ADL-table tasks.Results: Implant-mediated light perception was observed in 13/15 patients. During the observation period implant mediated localization of visual targets was possible in 13/15 patients. Correct grating detection was achieved for spatial frequencies of 0.1 cpd (cycles per degree in 4/15; 0.33 cpd in 3/15; 0.66 cpd in 2/15; 1.0 cpd in 2/15 and 3.3 cpd in 1/15 patients. In two patients visual acuity (VA assessed with Landolt C- rings was 20/546 and 20/1111. Of 6 possible gray levels on average 4.6 ± 0.8 (mean ± SD, n = 10 were discerned. Improvements (power ON vs. OFF of ADL table tasks were measured in 13/15 patients. Overall, results were stable during the observation period. Serious adverse events (SAEs were reported in 4 patients: 2 movements of the implant, readjusted in a second surgery; 4 conjunctival erosion/dehiscence, successfully treated; 1 pain event around the coil, successfully treated; 1 partial reduction of silicone oil tamponade leading to distorted vision (silicon oil successfully refilled. The majority of adverse events

  3. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ming-Hung; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm) and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses). Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ming-Hung; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm) and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses). Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel. PMID:25923722

  5. Predicting self-pollution inside school buses using a CFD and multi-zone coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Lee, Eon S.; Liu, Junjie; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-04-01

    The in-cabin environment of a school bus is important for children's health. The pollutants from a bus's own exhaust contribute to children's overall exposure to air pollutants inside the school bus cabin. In this study, we adapted a coupled model originally developed for indoor environment to determine the relative contribution of the bus own exhaust to the in-cabin pollutant concentrations. The coupled model uses CFD (computational fluent dynamics) model to simulate outside concentration and CONTAM (a multi-zone model) for inside the school bus. The model was validated with experimental data in the literature. Using the validated model, we analyzed the effects of vehicle speed and tailpipe location on self-pollution inside the bus cabin. We confirmed that the pollution released from the tailpipe can penetrate into the bus cabin through gaps in the back emergency door. We found the pollution concentration inside school buses was the highest when buses were driven at a medium speed. In addition, locating the tailpipe on the side, behind the rear axle resulted in less self-pollution since there is less time for the suction effect to take place. The developed theoretical framework can be generalized to study other types of buses. These findings can be used in developing policy recommendations for reducing human exposure to air pollution inside buses.

  6. Efficiency evaluation of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, Tobias Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The following report evaluates the efficiency of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector on a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the combination of CHP power plants and electric driven buses reach an overall efficiency of about 51% throughout the production chain (Well-to-Wheel), including heat distribution losses. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency for conventional gas turbines without heat recovery decreases to around 28%. For gas fuelled buses the Well-to-Wheel efficiency is about 30%. The Co2-emissions are evaluated based on the example of a #Left Double Quotation Mark#Volvo B10L CNG#Right Double Quotation Mark# gas bus and the electric driven #Left Double Quotation Mark#Eurabus 600#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The low energy consumption of the electric driven bus results in Co2-emissions of only 181.4 g Co2/km (Grid-to-Wheel). Depending on the utilised power plant technology the overall Co2-emissions (Well-to-Wheel) amount to 307.5 g Co2/km for a CHP power plant and 553.5 g Co2/km for a conventional gas turbine. On the other hand, gas fuelled buses emit about 1.25 kg Co2/km (Tank-to-Wheel), which is eightfold the emissions of an electrical bus. The Well-to-Tank emissions further increase to about 1.32 kg Co2/km. The emission calculation is based on real gas consumption data from a Norwegian public transport utility. The results indicate that the combination of CHP plants and electrical buses provide a much higher efficiency while reducing Co2-emissions. (author)

  7. Hydrogen fuelled buses: Italian ENEA research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.

    1993-01-01

    Current hydrogen automotive fuels research studies being conducted by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) are being targeted towards the development of hydrogen fueled vans and buses for use in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicles' air pollution abatement characteristics would justify their high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. The demonstration vehicle being used in the experimental studies and performance tests is a two liter minibus with a spark ignition engine power rated at 55 kW with gasoline operation and 45 kW with hydrogen. Detailed design notes are given regarding the retrofitting of the minibus chassis to house the aluminium gas storage tanks and the adaptation of the engine to operate with compressed hydrogen. Attention is given to efforts being made to resolve combustion control and fueling problems. Focus is on the progress being made in the development of an efficient and safe electronically controlled fuel injection system

  8. New buses and links for data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.; Bogaerts, A.; McLaren, R.; Parkman, C.; Linnhoefer, D.

    1992-01-01

    Bus standards for data acquisition have been vital for the construction and operation of medium and large HEP experiments. The recent industry bus standardisation effort will soon release the next generation of high performance buses and links for scalable systems. Prototype components, VLSI chips and board-level systems are already announced. Layers of the new bus specifications cover wide areas of applications and provide possibilities to define specific bus profiles by interest groups. New, innovative solutions which are needed for high rate experiments are becoming visible. These will provide novel architectural possibilities, very high bandwidth, fast silicon, industry support and new metric mechanical standards. Interconnected via standard bridges, different bus standards can be used to cover the varying requirements from the front ends to the computers. (orig.)

  9. 76 FR 53102 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; School Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... small school buses to provide adequate crash protection for the occupants. For large school buses, FMVSS... and crash protection,'' requires lap/shoulder belts for all seating positions on small school buses... for adequate occupant crash protection. For large school buses, we have determined there is not a...

  10. Internal Revenue Service: Assessment of Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2003 and Interim Results of 2002 Tax Filing Season

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, James

    2002-01-01

    ...) and the 2002 tax filing season. As you requested, our statement assesses the support for various aspects of IRS s budget request, including the linkage between resources requested and expected results, and IRS's performance...

  11. Design, methods, baseline characteristics and interim results of the Catheter Sampled Blood Archive in Cardiovascular Diseases (CASABLANCA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna K. Gaggin

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The CASABLANCA study will examine the role of novel biomarkers and metabolomics for predicting a wide range of cardiovascular, neurologic, and renal complications in patients undergoing angiography. Full results are expected in the latter half of 2014 (ClinicalTrials.Gov # NCT00842868.

  12. Bronchial obstruction syndrome as a predictor of mortality in cardiac surgery: interim results of prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. Н. Пономарев

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of bronchial obstruction syndrome on perioperative characteristics in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Methods. Body plethysmography and spiroergometry at rest were used to study respiratory function and consumption of O2. To evaluate the effectiveness of pulmonary ventilation, the oxygen utilization coefficient of (O2CU was calculated in 178 patients prior to scheduled surgery. The relationship of external ventilation parameters and perioperative clinical characteristics was analyzed. Results. A bronchial obstruction syndrome was detected in 30 (16.9% patients, with 21 (11.2% of them having no chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnosis. 4 patients (2.3% with obstructive pulmonary disease had no bronchial obstruction. Thus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was misdiagnosed in 13.5% cases. In patients undergoing isolated CABG, negative relationship was revealed between the Tiffno index and hospital stay (regression coefficient –6.9, 95%, confidence interval –14.4… 0.6; p = 0.07. In patients operated with the myocardium stabilized, bimammary grafting tended to increase hospital stay by an average of 4.3 days (95% CI 1.5–7.1; p=0.003. The majority of patients had a low O2CU. O2CU lower than 16.2 ml/l is associated with an increased risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF in the postoperative period (OR 2.96; 95% CI 1.01–9.83; p = 0.04. No significant associations were observed between the degree of bronchial obstruction and the number of perioperative complications. Conclusion. The degree of bronchial obstruction could be positively associated with the length of hospital stay. A critically low level of O2CU is explained by an increased risk of postoperative AF. Further research might result in the identification of predictors for respiratory complications and long-term mortality in patients after CABG.

  13. Buse_Francisella and free-living amoebae data sets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Co-infection data in the form of colony forming units and amoeba cell counts. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Buse , H., F. Schaefer, and...

  14. Phase 2 clinical trial of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector expressing α1-antitrypsin: interim results.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flotte, Terence R

    2011-10-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors offer promise for the gene therapy of α(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. In our prior trial, an rAAV vector expressing human AAT (rAAV1-CB-hAAT) provided sustained, vector-derived AAT expression for >1 year. In the current phase 2 clinical trial, this same vector, produced by a herpes simplex virus complementation method, was administered to nine AAT-deficient individuals by intramuscular injection at doses of 6.0×10(11), 1.9×10(12), and 6.0×10(12) vector genomes\\/kg (n=3 subjects\\/dose). Vector-derived expression of normal (M-type) AAT in serum was dose dependent, peaked on day 30, and persisted for at least 90 days. Vector administration was well tolerated, with only mild injection site reactions and no serious adverse events. Serum creatine kinase was transiently elevated on day 30 in five of six subjects in the two higher dose groups and normalized by day 45. As expected, all subjects developed anti-AAV antibodies and interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot responses to AAV peptides, and no subjects developed antibodies to AAT. One subject in the mid-dose group developed T cell responses to a single AAT peptide unassociated with any clinical effects. Muscle biopsies obtained on day 90 showed strong immunostaining for AAT and moderate to marked inflammatory cell infiltrates composed primarily of CD3-reactive T lymphocytes that were primarily of the CD8(+) subtype. These results support the feasibility and safety of AAV gene therapy for AAT deficiency, and indicate that serum levels of vector-derived normal human AAT >20 μg\\/ml can be achieved. However, further improvements in the design or delivery of rAAV-AAT vectors will be required to achieve therapeutic target serum AAT concentrations.

  15. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  16. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  17. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China. Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources. (author)

  18. Natural gas drive for city buses in Skopje

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile; Veljanovski, Krsto; Dimitrovski, Dame

    2002-01-01

    Emission improvement in both city centers and conurbations is an important factor which developers of public-utility vehicles and buses must take into account. If natural gas is used as a fuel the emission is considerably lower than that from conventional diesel drive. Thus it is an important contribution to keep the air clean in the area where the vehicles are deployed. In this paper the project 'Ecological Natural gas drive for city buses in Skopje' is analysed. (Original)

  19. Efficacy and effectiveness of an rVSV-vectored vaccine expressing Ebola surface glycoprotein: interim results from the Guinea ring vaccination cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria; Longini, Ira M; Egger, Matthias; Dean, Natalie E; Edmunds, W John; Camacho, Anton; Carroll, Miles W; Doumbia, Moussa; Draguez, Bertrand; Duraffour, Sophie; Enwere, Godwin; Grais, Rebecca; Gunther, Stephan; Hossmann, Stefanie; Kondé, Mandy Kader; Kone, Souleymane; Kuisma, Eeva; Levine, Myron M; Mandal, Sema; Norheim, Gunnstein; Riveros, Ximena; Soumah, Aboubacar; Trelle, Sven; Vicari, Andrea S; Watson, Conall H; Kéïta, Sakoba; Kieny, Marie Paule; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-08-29

    A recombinant, replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine expressing a surface glycoprotein of Zaire Ebolavirus (rVSV-ZEBOV) is a promising Ebola vaccine candidate. We report the results of an interim analysis of a trial of rVSV-ZEBOV in Guinea, west Africa. For this open-label, cluster-randomised ring vaccination trial, suspected cases of Ebola virus disease in Basse-Guinée (Guinea, west Africa) were independently ascertained by Ebola response teams as part of a national surveillance system. After laboratory confirmation of a new case, clusters of all contacts and contacts of contacts were defined and randomly allocated 1:1 to immediate vaccination or delayed (21 days later) vaccination with rVSV-ZEBOV (one dose of 2 × 10(7) plaque-forming units, administered intramuscularly in the deltoid muscle). Adults (age ≥18 years) who were not pregnant or breastfeeding were eligible for vaccination. Block randomisation was used, with randomly varying blocks, stratified by location (urban vs rural) and size of rings (≤20 vs >20 individuals). The study is open label and masking of participants and field teams to the time of vaccination is not possible, but Ebola response teams and laboratory workers were unaware of allocation to immediate or delayed vaccination. Taking into account the incubation period of the virus of about 10 days, the prespecified primary outcome was laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus disease with onset of symptoms at least 10 days after randomisation. The primary analysis was per protocol and compared the incidence of Ebola virus disease in eligible and vaccinated individuals in immediate vaccination clusters with the incidence in eligible individuals in delayed vaccination clusters. This trial is registered with the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, number PACTR201503001057193. Between April 1, 2015, and July 20, 2015, 90 clusters, with a total population of 7651 people were included in the planned interim analysis. 48 of

  20. Compilation of interim technical research memoranda. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, W.R.

    1984-04-01

    Four interim technical research memoranda are presented that describe the results of numerical simulations designed to investigate the dynamics of energetic plasma beams propagating across magnetic fields

  1. Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level

  2. Our path to the 21{sup st} century. Interim result for the environmental and energy policy; Unser Weg in das 21. Jahrhundert. Zwischenbilanz der Umwelt- und Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    A future-oriented society needs a close connection between ecology and economy, if it should show solidarity. It is about growth which no longer is linked to an excessive consumption of natural resources. Instead, climate and natural resources shall be conserved. A gain in quality of life shall be enabled. This fundamental transformation process is a key target of the Federal Republic of Germany. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration supplies an interim balance of the environmental policy and energy policy.

  3. ITER Conceptual design: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This interim report describes the results of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activities after the first year of design following the selection of the ITER concept in the autumn of 1988. Using the concept definition as the basis for conceptual design, the Design Phase has been underway since October 1988, and will be completed at the end of 1990, at which time a final report will be issued. This interim report includes an executive summary of ITER activities, a description of the ITER device and facility, an operation and research program summary, and a description of the physics and engineering design bases. Included are preliminary cost estimates and schedule for completion of the project

  4. Hydrogen for buses in London: A scenario analysis of changes over time in refuelling infrastructure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayegan, S.; Pearson, P.J.G.; Hart, D.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of a hydrogen refuelling infrastructure is one of the major obstacles to the introduction of the hydrogen vehicles to the road transport market. To help overcome this hurdle a likely transitional solution is to introduce hydrogen for niche applications such as buses or other types of fleet vehicles for which fuel demand is predictable and localised. This paper analyses the costs of different hydrogen production-delivery pathways, via a case study of buses in London. Scenario analysis over time (2007-2025) is used to investigate potential changes to the cost of hydrogen as a result of technology development, growing demand for hydrogen and changes in energy prices (gas and electricity). It is found that factors related to hydrogen demand have the greatest effect on the unit cost of hydrogen, while for the whole of the analysis period, on-site SMR (steam methane reforming) remains the least-cost production-delivery pathway. (author)

  5. The Interim Financial Statements: The Case of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Rogdaki, E.I.; Kazantzis, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The following paper refers to the accounting and auditing issues which emerge in the preparation of the interim financial statements of the companies: Firstly, the interim financial statements are defined as being the financial statements that provide useful information about the financial position and the financial results of a company which are realized and accrued during the fiscal year. The interim financial statements can be prepared on a monthly basis, on a quarterly basis or covering a...

  6. Relationship of Eating Patterns and Metabolic Parameters, and Teneligliptin Treatment: Interim Results from Post-marketing Surveillance in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Takashi; Haneda, Masakazu; Ito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Hiraide, Sonoe; Matsukawa, Miyuki; Ueno, Makoto

    2018-06-01

    Healthy eating is a critical aspect of the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Disrupted eating patterns can result in poor glucose control and increase the likelihood of diabetic complications. Teneligliptin inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity for 24 h and suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia after all three daily meals. This interim analysis of data from the large-scale post-marketing surveillance of teneligliptin (RUBY) in Japan examined eating patterns and their relationship with metabolic parameters and diabetic complications. We also examined whether eating patterns affected safety and efficacy of teneligliptin. We analyzed baseline data from survey forms collected in RUBY between May 2013 and June 2017, including patient characteristics, metabolic parameters, and eating patterns (eating three meals per day or not; timing of evening meal) before teneligliptin treatment was initiated. Safety and efficacy of 12 months' teneligliptin (20-40 mg/day) treatment was assessed. Data from 10,532 patients were available for analysis. Most patients who did not eat three meals per day (n  =757) or who ate their evening meal after 10 PM (n  =206) were 64 years old or younger. At baseline, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were higher in those patients who did not eat three meals per day (p < 0.05) or who ate their evening meal late (p < 0.05). Diabetic complications were more common in patients who did not eat three meals per day. Treatment with teneligliptin reduced HbA1c over 6 or 12 months across all eating patterns, with a low incidence of adverse drug reactions. Eating patterns may be associated with altered metabolic parameters and diabetic complications among Japanese patients with T2DM. Teneligliptin may be well tolerated and improve hyperglycemia in patients

  7. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel−1 and for the CNG buses 41

  8. Transit experience with hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M. [ISE Corp., Poway, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Mass transit buses are ideal candidates for hydrogen implementation due to their capability of carrying 30 to 60 kg of hydrogen. ISE Corporation is a supplier of hydrogen fueled buses, including the first hybrid electric fuel cell bus which was commercialized in 2002, the hybrid electric fuel cell bus, and the hybrid hydrogen internal combustion engine (HHICE) bus which was commercialized in 2004. The configuration of a HHICE bus was illustrated with reference to its engine, control system, energy storage, generator, drive motor, inverter and accessories. Although these vehicles are expensive, the cost is amortized over a large base of hours used and passengers carried. The buses are operated primarily in urban areas where quiet and clean operation is needed the most. ISE has established a joint venture with Thor industries to develop a series of fuel cell buses equipped with a 60 kW PEM fuel cell. A schematic illustrating the energy flow in HHICE bus was also presented. It was shown that regenerative braking recovers the energy of motion. When using regenerative braking, most of the braking energy is saved in the battery. ISE drive systems convert 30 per cent or more of the bus energy to electrical energy to be used in later acceleration. Reduced fuel consumption also reduces the vehicle emissions. Testing of HHICE buses in both summer and winter operating conditions have shown that the range needs to be improved along with engine component reliability and durability. Fuel supply is also a major issue. A comparison with a fuel cell hybrid system was also presented. In the United States, more than 100,000 miles have been logged for the use of hydrogen hybrid buses, fuel cell buses and HHICE buses. The HHICE bus offers low capital cost, familiar technologies, but some NOx. CAT absorber technology offers the possibility of near zero emission capability. The fuel cell bus was found to be more fuel efficient, and can travel nearly twice as far per unit energy as

  9. Diesel vs. compressed natural gas for school buses: a cost-effectiveness evaluation of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.T.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing emissions from school buses is a priority for both state and federal regulators. Two popular alternative technologies to conventional diesel (CD) are emission controlled diesel (ECD), defined here to be diesel buses equipped with continuously regenerating particle filters, and engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper uses a previously published model to quantify the impact of particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions on population exposure to ozone and to primary and secondary PM, and to quantify the resulting health damages, expressed in terms of lost quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Resource costs include damages from greenhouse gas-induced climate change, vehicle procurement, infrastructure development, and operations. I find that ECD and CNG produce very similar reductions in health damages compared to CD, although CNG has a modest edge because it may have lower NO x emissions. However, ECD is far more cost effective ($400,000-900,000 cost per QALY saved) than CNG (around $4 million per QALY saved). The results are uncertain because the model used makes a series of simplifying assumptions and because emissions data and cost data for school buses are very limited

  10. Location Planning for Dynamic Wireless Charging Systems for Electric Airport Passenger Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Helber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the ground vehicles operating on the airside parts of commercial airports are currently powered by diesel engines. These include vehicles such as apron buses, fuel trucks, and aircraft tractors. Hence, these vehicles contribute to the overall CO 2 emissions of the aviation transport system and thus negatively influence its environmental footprint. To reduce this damaging environmental impact, these vehicles could potentially be electrified with on-board batteries as their energy sources. However, the conductive charging of such vehicles via stationary cable connections is rather time-consuming. A dynamic wireless charging system to supply public transportation passenger buses with electric energy while in motion has recently been installed on the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST campus and in the Korean city of Gumi. In this paper, we study configuration problems related to the use of this technology to make airport operations more environmentally sustainable. We concentrate on the power supply for apron buses and analyze the location planning problems related to the distribution of the required power supply and the wireless charging units in the apron road system. To this end, we develop a formal optimization model and discuss the first numerical results.

  11. Quantification of self pollution from two diesel school buses using three independent methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Liu, L.-J.; Phuleria, Harish C.; Webber, Whitney; Davey, Mark; Lawson, Douglas R.; Ireson, Robert G.; Zielinska, Barbara; Ondov, John M.; Weaver, Christopher S.; Lapin, Charles A.; Easter, Michael; Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Larson, Timothy

    2010-09-01

    We monitored two Seattle school buses to quantify the buses' self pollution using the dual tracers (DT), lead vehicle (LV), and chemical mass balance (CMB) methods. Each bus drove along a residential route simulating stops, with windows closed or open. Particulate matter (PM) and its constituents were monitored in the bus and from a LV. We collected source samples from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions using an on-board dilution tunnel. Concentrations of PM 1, ultrafine particle counts, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) were higher on the bus than the LV. The DT method estimated that the tailpipe and the crankcase emissions contributed 1.1 and 6.8 μg m -3 of PM 2.5 inside the bus, respectively, with significantly higher crankcase self pollution (SP) when windows were closed. Approximately two-thirds of in-cabin PM 2.5 originated from background sources. Using the LV approach, SP estimates from the EC and the active personal DataRAM (pDR) measurements correlated well with the DT estimates for tailpipe and crankcase emissions, respectively, although both measurements need further calibration for accurate quantification. CMB results overestimated SP from the DT method but confirmed crankcase emissions as the major SP source. We confirmed buses' SP using three independent methods and quantified crankcase emissions as the dominant contributor.

  12. Reliability Evaluation Of The City Transport Buses Under Actual Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarz Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.

  13. Is the public willing to pay for hydrogen buses? A comparative study of preferences in four cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Garra, Tanya; Mourato, Susana; Garrity, Lisa; Schmidt, Patrick; Beerenwinkel, Anne; Altmann, Matthias; Hart, David; Graesel, Cornelia; Whitehouse, Simon

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from the international AcceptH2 study (http://www.accepth2.com) of acceptability and preferences for hydrogen fuel cell (FC) buses. Using the contingent valuation method, this paper compares public willingness to pay (WTP) for the air pollution reductions associated with a scenario of large-scale introduction of hydrogen (H 2 ) FC buses in four cities: Berlin, London, Luxembourg and Perth. Results indicate that bus users in all cities have a positive WTP for H 2 buses, and that values (adjusted to the cost of living in each city) are very similar across geographical locations (ranging from WTP an extra Euro 0.29 to Euro 0.35 per single bus fare). Non-bus users were also interviewed in London and Perth, in order to capture values for the whole populations in these cities. Combined results for bus users and non-bus users confirm that overall residents in these cities are willing to pay extra (in taxes) to support the large-scale introduction of H 2 -buses

  14. Interim PET Response-adapted Strategy in Untreated Advanced Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Results of GOELAMS LH 2007 Phase 2 Multicentric Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carras, Sylvain; Dubois, Benjamin; Senecal, Delphine; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Peoc'h, Michel; Quittet, Philippe; Foussard, Charles; Bouabdallah, Krimo; Gastinne, Thomas; Jourdan, Eric; Sanhes, Laurence; Ertault, Marjan; Lamy, Thierry; Molina, Lysiane

    2018-03-01

    Patients with advanced stage Hodgkin lymphoma still present unsatisfactory outcomes. The Groupe d'étude des Leucémies Aigues et des Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS) group conducted a prospective multicentric trial (NCT00920153) for advanced stage Hodgkin lymphoma to evaluate a positron emission tomography (PET)-adapted strategy. Patients received an intensive regimen (VABEM [vindesine, doxorubicin, carmustine, etoposide, and methylprednisolone]) in front-line and interim 18F FDG-PET evaluation after 2 courses (PET-2). Patients with negative PET-2 findings received 1 additional course. Patients with positive PET-2 findings underwent early salvage therapy followed by high-dose therapy/autologous stem cell transplantation. Fifty-one patients were included. The final complete remission rate was 88%. With a median follow up of 5.3 years, 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 75.3% and 85.3%, respectively, for the whole cohort. Patients who were PET-2-negative had 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates of, respectively, 77.8% and 88.2% versus 85.1% and 91.7% for patients who were PET-2-positive. A PET-guided strategy with early salvage therapy and high-dose therapy/autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with interim PET-2-positive findings is safe and feasible and provide similar outcome as patients with a negative PET-2. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  16. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkesson, Anders

    2008-05-01

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Diesel and Electric Public Transportation Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act identifies diesel powered motor vehicles, including transit buses, as significant sources of several criteria pollutants which contribute to ground level ozone formation or smog. The effects of air pollution in urban areas are often more significant due to con...

  18. Luxurious Buses As Means Of Night Journey In Nigeria: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transfer to discourage robbery cases on our roads. Passengers should also keep their traveling plans secret as much as possible as a way of fostering safety. Keywords: night journey, armed robbers, luxurious buses and police escorts. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 1 (3) 2008: pp. 52-62.

  19. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  20. Aerosol particles generated by diesel-powered school buses at urban schools as a source of children’s exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstetler, Heather A.; Yermakov, Mikhail; Reponen, Tiina; Ryan, Patrick H.; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Various heath effects in children have been associated with exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM), including emissions from school buses. In this study, the indoor and outdoor aerosol at four urban elementary schools serviced by diesel-powered school buses was characterized with respect to the particle number concentrations and size distributions as well as the PM2.5 mass concentrations and elemental compositions. It was determined that the presence of school buses significantly affected the outdoor particle size distribution, specifically in the ultrafine fraction. The time-weighted average of the total number concentration measured outside the schools was significantly associated with the bus and the car counts. The concentration increase was consistently observed during the morning drop-off hours and in most of the days during the afternoon pick-up period (although at a lower degree). Outdoor PM2.5 mass concentrations measured at schools ranged from 3.8 to 27.6 µg m−3. The school with the highest number of operating buses exhibited the highest average PM2.5 mass concentration. The outdoor mass concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were also highest at the school with the greatest number of buses. Most (47/55) correlations between traffic-related elements identified in the outdoor PM2.5 were significant with elements identified in the indoor PM2.5. Significant associations were observed between indoor and outdoor aerosols for EC, EC/OC, and the total particle number concentration. Day-to-day and school-to-school variations in Indoor/Outdoor (I/O) ratios were related to the observed differences in opening windows and doors, which enhanced the particle penetration, as well as indoor activities at schools. Overall, the results on I/O ratio obtained in this study reflect the sizes of particles emitted by diesel-powered school bus engines (primarily, an ultrafine fraction capable of penetrating indoors). PMID:25904818

  1. Aerosol particles generated by diesel-powered school buses at urban schools as a source of children's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstetler, Heather A; Yermakov, Mikhail; Reponen, Tiina; Ryan, Patrick H; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2011-03-01

    Various heath effects in children have been associated with exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM), including emissions from school buses. In this study, the indoor and outdoor aerosol at four urban elementary schools serviced by diesel-powered school buses was characterized with respect to the particle number concentrations and size distributions as well as the PM2.5 mass concentrations and elemental compositions. It was determined that the presence of school buses significantly affected the outdoor particle size distribution, specifically in the ultrafine fraction. The time-weighted average of the total number concentration measured outside the schools was significantly associated with the bus and the car counts. The concentration increase was consistently observed during the morning drop-off hours and in most of the days during the afternoon pick-up period (although at a lower degree). Outdoor PM2.5 mass concentrations measured at schools ranged from 3.8 to 27.6 µg m -3 . The school with the highest number of operating buses exhibited the highest average PM2.5 mass concentration. The outdoor mass concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were also highest at the school with the greatest number of buses. Most (47/55) correlations between traffic-related elements identified in the outdoor PM2.5 were significant with elements identified in the indoor PM2.5. Significant associations were observed between indoor and outdoor aerosols for EC, EC/OC, and the total particle number concentration. Day-to-day and school-to-school variations in Indoor/Outdoor (I/O) ratios were related to the observed differences in opening windows and doors, which enhanced the particle penetration, as well as indoor activities at schools. Overall, the results on I/O ratio obtained in this study reflect the sizes of particles emitted by diesel-powered school bus engines (primarily, an ultrafine fraction capable of penetrating indoors).

  2. Decision on performing interim analysis for comparative clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Kyongsun; Jacobus, Susanna; Uno, Hajime

    2017-09-01

    In randomized-controlled trials, interim analyses are often planned for possible early trial termination to claim superiority or futility of a new therapy. While unblinding is necessary to conduct the formal interim analysis in blinded studies, blinded data also have information about the potential treatment difference between the groups. We developed a blinded data monitoring tool that enables investigators to predict whether they observe such an unblinded interim analysis results that supports early termination of the trial. Investigators may skip some of the planned interim analyses if an early termination is unlikely. We specifically focused on blinded, randomized-controlled studies to compare binary endpoints of a new treatment with a control. Assuming one interim analysis is planned for early termination for superiority or futility, we conducted extensive simulation studies to assess the impact of the implementation of our tool on the size, power, expected number of interim analyses, and bias in the treatment effect. The numerical study showed the proposed monitoring tool does not affect size or power, but dramatically reduces the expected number of interim analyses when the effect of the treatment difference is small. The tool serves as a useful reference when interpreting the summary of the blinded data throughout the course of the trial, without losing integrity of the study. This tool could potentially save the study resources and budget by avoiding unnecessary interim analyses.

  3. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  4. The Nord interim store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leushacke, D.F.; Rittscher, D.

    1996-01-01

    In line with the decision taken in 1990 to shut down and decommission the Greifswald and Rheinsberg Nuclear Power Stations, the waste management concept of the Energiewerke Nord is based on direct and complete decommissioning of the six shut down reactor units within the next fifteen years. One key element of this concept is the construction and use of the Zwischenlager Nord (Nord Interim Store, ZLN) for holding the existing nuclear fuels and for interim and decay storage of the radioactive materials arising in decommissioning and demolition. The owner and operator of the store is Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and treatment station and buffer store for the flows of residues arising. As a radioactive waste management station, it accommodates nuclear fuels, radioactive waste or residues which are not treated any further. It is used as a buffer store to allow the materials accumulating in disassembly to be stored temporarily before or after treatment in order to ensure continuous loading of the treatment plants. When operated as a processing station, the ZLN is able to handle nearly all types of radioactive waste and residues arising, except for nuclear fuels. These installations allow the treatment of radioactive residues to be separated from the demolition work both physically and in time. The possibilities of interium storage and buffer storage of untreated waste and waste packages make for high flexibility in logistics and waste management strategy. (orig.) [de

  5. Evaluating real-world CO2 and NOX emissions for public transit buses using a remote wireless on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuhanzi; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Chen, Qizheng; Niu, Tianlin; Huang, Xu; Zhang, Shida; Zhang, Liangjun; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2016-11-01

    The challenge to mitigate real-world emissions from vehicles calls for powerful in-use compliance supervision. The remote on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach, with wireless data communications, is one of the promising next-generation monitoring methods. We collected second-by-second profiles of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions, driving conditions and engine performance for three conventional diesel and three hybrid diesel buses participating in a remote OBD pilot program in Nanjing, China. Our results showed that the average CO 2 emissions for conventional diesel and hybrid diesel buses were 816 ± 83 g km -1 and 627 ± 54 g km -1 , respectively, under a typical driving pattern. An operating mode binning analysis indicated that CO 2 emissions reduction by series-parallel hybrid technology was largely because of the significant benefits of the technology under the modes of low speed and low power demand. However, significantly higher CO 2 emissions were observed for conventional diesel buses during rush hours, higher than 1200 g km -1 . The OBD data suggested no improvement in NO X emission reduction for hybrid buses compared with conventional buses; both were approximately 12 g km -1 because of poor performance of the selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in the real world. Speed-dependent functions for real-world CO 2 and NO X emissions were also constructed. The CO 2 emissions of hybrid buses were much less sensitive to the average speed than conventional buses. If the average speed decreased from 20 km h -1 to 10 km h -1 , the estimated CO 2 emission factor for conventional buses would be increased by 34%. Such a change in speed would increase NO X emissions for conventional and hybrid buses by 38% and 56%, respectively. This paper demonstrates the useful features of the remote OBD system and can inform policy makers how to take advantage of these features in monitoring in-use vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  6. Automotive Mechanics Occupational Performance Survey. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcher, Sidney D.; Leiter, Paul B.

    The purpose of this federally-funded interim report is to present the results of a task inventory analysis survey of automotive mechanics completed by project staff within the Instructional Systems Design Program at the Center for Vocational and Technical Education. Intended for use in curriculum development for vocational education programs in…

  7. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  8. Adopting Clean Fuels and Technologies on School Buses. Pollution and Health Impacts in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Souza, Jennifer; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Davey, Mark E.; Sullivan, James R.; Jahnke, Jordan; Koenig, Jane; Larson, Timothy V.; Liu, L. J. Sally

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: More than 25 million American children breathe polluted air on diesel school buses. Emission reduction policies exist, but the health impacts to individual children have not been evaluated. Methods: Using a natural experiment, we characterized the exposures and health of 275 school bus riders before, during, and after the adoption of clean technologies and fuels between 2005 and 2009. Air pollution was measured during 597 trips on 188 school buses. Repeated measures of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function (FEV1, FVC), and absenteeism were also collected monthly (1,768 visits). Mixed-effects models longitudinally related the adoption of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), closed crankcase ventilation systems (CCVs), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), or biodiesel with exposures and health. Measurements and Main Results: Fine and ultrafine particle concentrations were 10–50% lower on buses using ULSD, DOCs, and/or CCVs. ULSD adoption was also associated with reduced FeNO (−16% [95% confidence interval (CI), −21 to −10%]), greater changes in FVC and FEV1 (0.02 [95% CI, 0.003 to 0.05] and 0.01 [95% CI, −0.006 to 0.03] L/yr, respectively), and lower absenteeism (−8% [95% CI, −16.0 to −0.7%]), with stronger associations among patients with asthma. DOCs, and to a lesser extent CCVs, also were associated with improved FeNO, FVC growth, and absenteeism, but these findings were primarily restricted to patients with persistent asthma and were often sensitive to control for ULSD. No health benefits were noted for biodiesel. Extrapolating to the U.S. population, changed fuel/technologies likely reduced absenteeism by more than 14 million/yr. Conclusions: National and local diesel policies appear to have reduced children’s exposures and improved health. PMID:25867003

  9. Confusion errors and false manoeuvres at power buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernes, A.

    1985-09-01

    The incident at Bugey 5 on 14th April 1984, which is regarded as one of the most important in recent years has alas shown again that unless dealt with by the operators in good time, failure of a rectifier supplying one of the buses may soon lead to a very serious situation, in this particular instance voltage loss on the train A 48 volt supply from the two offsite electrical sources and train A diesel generator. Operating experience feedback of the past three years reveals that although the Bugey incident is undoubtedly the most serious, it is not the only where a major alarm was not taken into consideration until fairly late by the operators, and other types of error with far from negligible consequences have occurred during repair work on buses. After a brief reminder of the role and layout of buses, statistics of all incidents of this type in recent years are described and a few cases are presented in order to give some idea of the range of situations encountered. The main measures aimed at reducing the number of incidents of this type are then presented, bearing in mind that one cannot hope to remove the possibility of this type of failure entirely. It may also be noted that the large number of such errors during the night shift or at the very beginning of the morning shift is no doubt connected with the well-known fact that operators are less vigilant at such times

  10. Immediate provisionalization in the esthetic zone: 1-year interim results from a prospective single-cohort multicenter study evaluating 3.0-mm-diameter tapered implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinski, Martin; Hess, Pablo; Leziy, Sonia; Friberg, Bertil; Bellucci, Gionata; Trisciuoglio, Davide; Wagner, Wilfried; Moergel, Maximilian; Pozzi, Alessandro; Wiltfang, Jörg; Behrens, Eleonore; Zechner, Werner; Vasak, Christoph; Weigl, Paul

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this interim analysis of a 5-year prospective multicenter study is to evaluate clinical and radiological performance of immediately provisionalized 3.0-mm-diameter tapered implants. Patients needing implant rehabilitation of maxillary lateral incisors or mandibular lateral and central incisors were treated with 3.0-mm-diameter implants placed in extraction or healed sites and immediately provisionalized. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at implant insertion, 6 months thereafter, and are ongoing. Marginal bone levels and changes, complications, the papilla, plaque, and bleeding indices, and the pink esthetic score (PES) were evaluated at each follow-up visit. Of 112 enrolled patients, 77 patients (91 implants) met the inclusion criteria. Seventy-one patients with 82 implants completed the 1-year follow-up. Three implants failed yielding a CSR of 96.7%. All failures occurred within the first 3 months after implant insertion. Marginal bone level changes from insertion to 6 months was - 0.57 ± 1.30 mm (n = 75) and from insertion to 12 months - 0.25 ± 1.38 mm (n = 72). Fifteen non-serious complications were recorded. Papilla index score and PES improved at the 1-year follow-up. Plaque formation and bleeding-on-probing showed no statistically significant differences between the 6-month and the 1-year visit. This 1-year analysis demonstrated high survival, stable bone levels, and healthy soft tissue with 3.0-mm-diameter implants. Narrow diameter implants are a safe and predictable treatment option in patients with limited bone volume and/or limited interdental space and eligible for immediate loading protocols.

  11. Thermal Safety of the Current Buses in the Chimney of the D0 Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal and electrical behaviour of the current buses in the chimney of the D0 solenoid during upset conditions is modeled to guide the selection of trip levels for magnet protection circuits which discharge the magnet if abnormal conditions are detected. The current buses in the chimney are designed to operate safely without likelihood of loss of superconductivity as long as normal cooling conditions are maintained. Helium liquid level probes, helium flow instrumentation, and thermometry all are provided to certify that proper cooling conditions exist in the subcooler and chimney at all times. Rising temperatures in any portion of the system, excessive voltage drops on the vapor cooled leads, or decreasing liquid level in the subcooler or flow rate in the system, will each cause the fast discharge system to be triggered. Postulated failures of the helium flow system, somehow undetected by any and all of the aforementioned instrumentation, can in principal eventually lead to loss of superconductivity in the buses. Quenching in one bus will rapidly lead to quenching in the other. Potential taps on the buses and magnet coil halves connected to voltage-detection bridges external to the system provide at least dually redundant signals which will unambiguously trigger the magnet rapid discharge system. The conservative design of the bus system ensures that it will not be damaged during such incidents, however improbable they may be. The transition leads in the subcooler are equally conservatively designed, and would not be damaged if they were operated in a fully non-superconducting state for several minutes. The loss of liquid helium in the sub cooler required to cause this condition would imply that helium flow from the magnet had stopped, which in turn would imply that flow to the magnet had also stopped. The lack of flow into the sub cooler would result in insufficient flow to the vapor cooled leads. Any or all of these conditions would be detected, as would

  12. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  13. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  14. Interim storage report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration

  15. Ways to improve the environmental conditions of their buses in operation on passenger routes of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychuk S.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on operational and environmental parameters buses used on bus routes Zhitomir city. It uses statistical methods for determining the intensity of traffic, passenger traffic and ecology in traffic. To assess the environmental chosen stop with the greatest intensity of traffic, which is the probability of accumulation of pollution transport emissions that exceed permissible limits. Calculation of environmental pollution emission route for vehicles made stops street «Str. Hundreds of Heaven» «CUM», «vul. Hlibna» on the main trunk street Kievska. Results obtained environmental field experiments compared with the data defined calculation methods, based on the proposed use appropriate operational vehicles. The conclusions that indicate the seriousness of the problem and the urgency to address it. The system of environmental safety and road safety in Zhitomir requires significant improvements due to the increased quantities bus vehicles plying city routes. Recommendations to improve the ecological condition of intersections can be developed through the optimization of traffic using buses with environmentally improved operating parameters. Keywords: environmental and operational parameters; ecological safety; environmental assessment; intensity of traffic; passenger traffic; environmental conditions; operation; bus choice; stop.

  16. Sustainable Solutions for Nuclear used Fuels Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Marc; Favet, Dominique; Issard, Herve; Le Jemtel, Amaury; Drevon, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    AREVA has a unique experience in providing sustainable solutions for used fuel management, fitted with the needs of different customers in the world and with regulation in different countries. These solutions entail both recycling and interim storage technologies. In a first part, we will describe the various types of solutions for Interim Storage of UNF that have been implemented around the world for interim storage at reactor or centralized Pad solution in canisters dry storage, vault type storages for dry storage, dry storage of transportation casks (dual purpose) pools for wet storage, The experience for all these different families of interim storages in which AREVA is involved is extensive and will be discussed with respect to the new challenges: increase of the duration of the interim storage (long term interim storage) increase of burn up of the fuels In a second part of the presentation, special recycling features will be presented. In that case, interim storage of the used fuels is ensured in pools. This provides in the long term good conditions for the behaviour of the fuel and its retrievability. With recycling, the final waste (Universal Canister of vitrified fission products and compacted hulls and end pieces): is stable and licensed in many countries for the final disposal (France, UK, Belgium, NL, Switzerland, Germany, Japan, upcoming: Spain, Australia, Italy). Presents neither safety criticality risks nor proliferation risks (AREVA conditioned HLW and LL-ILW are free of IAEA safeguard constraints thanks to AREVA process high recovery and purification yields). It can therefore be safely stored in interim storage for more than 100 years before final disposal. Some economic considerations will also be discussed. In particular, in the case of long term interim storage of used fuels, there are growing uncertainties regarding the future needs of repackaging and transportation, which can result in future cost overruns. Meanwhile, in the recycling policy

  17. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  18. Lagrangian Hotspots of In-Use NOX Emissions from Transit Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Andrew J; Kittelson, David B; Northrop, William F

    2016-06-07

    In-use, spatiotemporal NOX emissions were measured from a conventional powertrain transit bus and a series electric hybrid bus over gradients of route kinetic intensity and ambient temperature. This paper introduces a new method for identifying NOX emissions hotspots along a bus route using high fidelity Lagrangian vehicle data to explore spatial interactions that may influence emissions production. Our study shows that the studied transit buses emit higher than regulated emissions because on-route operation does not accurately represent the range of engine operation tested according to regulatory standards. Using the Lagrangian hotspot detection, we demonstrate that NOX hotspots occurred at bus stops, during cold starts, on inclines, and for accelerations. On the selected routes, bus stops resulted in 3.3 times the route averaged emissions factor in grams/km without significant dependence on bus type or climate. The buses also emitted 2.3 times the route averaged NOX emissions factor at the beginning of each route due to cold selective catalytic reduction aftertreatment temperature. The Lagrangian hotspot detection technique demonstrated here could be employed in future connected vehicles empowered by advances in computational power, data storage capability, and improved sensor technology to optimize emissions as a function of spatial location.

  19. ETF interim design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    A three-day ETF Interim Design Review was conducted on July 23-25, 1980, at the Sheraton Potomac Inn in Rockville, Maryland. The intent of the review was to provide a forum for an in-depth assessment and critique of all facets of the ETF design by members of the fusion community. The review began with an opening plenary session at which an overview of the ETF design was presented by D. Steiner, manager of the ETF Design Center, complemented by a physics overview by P.H. Rutherford, chairman of the ETF/INTOR Physics Committee. This was followed by six concurrent review sessions over the next day and a half. The review closed with a plenary session at which the Design Review Board presented its findings. This document consists of the viewgraphs for the opening plenary session and an edited version of the presentations made by Steiner and Rutherford

  20. Interim geotechnical data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This issue, the Interim Geotechnical Field Data Report, presents information obtained from the geotechnical activities at the WIPP site underground facilities since the last quarterly report. It also includes cumulative plots which contain all previous data. Finally, it continues the geotechnical analyses and interpretations of the data. The GFDR is organized into two principal parts. The first part, Geotechnical Field Data, presents in graphical form all the data collected since April 1982 from the geomechanical instruments. Presented in the second part, Evaluation and Analyses, are preliminary interpretations and analyses of the data. In this report, continuing geotechnical assessment of all the facility features is presented. Also included in the second part are separate sections on evaluation and interpretation of the instrumentation measurements, and an updated description and evaluation of observed behavior of the underground openings

  1. Federal Interim Storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; McBride, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The DOE has developed a program for providing Federal Interim Storage servies for spent nuclear fuel which complies with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Although very little constructive activity in providing storage facilities can be undertaken by DOE until fuel has been certified by NRC as eligible for FIS, DOE planning and background information is such as to provide reasonable assurance that its obligations can be fulfilled when the required certifications have been issued. A fee structure providing fuel recovery of all costs associated with the FIS program, as required by the Act, has been developed. It provides for an equitable distribution of costs among users, based on the quantity of fuel requiring storage

  2. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-11

    This past year has been one of transition for the introduction of fuel cell transit buses. The existing generation of fuel cell buses from Van Hool and UTC Power has continued to operate in service at three transit agencies. At the same time, a new g...

  3. Charging cost optimization for EV buses using neural network based energy predictor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nageshrao, S.P.; Jacob, J.; Wilkins, S.

    2017-01-01

    For conventional buses, based on the decades of their operational knowledge, public transport companies are able to optimize their cost of operation. However, with recent trend in the usage of electric buses, cost optimal operation can become challenging. In this paper an offline optimal charging

  4. The Bus Stops Here: The Case for Biodiesel in School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that diesel exhaust from most of the nation's school buses may be hazardous to children's health. Documents studies on the nature and potential magnitude of the risk to children and proposes replacing petroleum diesel with biodiesel as the fuel for school buses. Presents the merits and practicality of switching to biodiesel as a healthier…

  5. Modeling of passengers' safety perception for buses on mountainous roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hooi Ling; Ahmed, Muaid

    2018-04-01

    This study had developed a passenger safety perception model specifically for buses taking into consideration the various factors, namely driver characteristics, environmental conditions, and bus characteristics using Bayesian Network. The behaviour of bus driver is observed through the bus motion profile, measured in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical accelerations. The road geometry is recorded using GPS and is computed with the aid of the Google map while the perceived bus safety is rated by the passengers in the bus in real time. A total of 13 variables were derived and used in the model development. The developed Bayesian Network model shows that the type of bus and the experience of the driver on the investigated route could have an influence on passenger's perception of their safety on buses. Road geometry is an indirect influencing factor through the driver's behavior. The findings of this model are useful for the authorities to structure an effective strategy to improve the level of perceived bus safety. A high level of bus safety will definitely boost passenger usage confidence which will subsequently increase ridership. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electric buses - An energy efficient urban transportation means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Reinhart [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Transportation Studies, Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Bus transit systems with electric traction are an important contribution to the post fossil fuel mobility. Most renewable energy sources provide energy in the form of electricity. Electric motors thus have promise in the development of the way ''beyond oil''. The reactivation of trolley bus systems - grid bounded but also catenary free for short distances - paves this way. The design of modern trolley bus operations overcomes the existing disadvantages of conventional buses using fossil fuel. Germany has an efficient industry in this field, that offers braking energy recovery and energy storage in modern supercapacitors as well as technical and organisational innovations for a local emission free and a low noise transit system. Gentle but powerful when starting and braking, the trolley bus is cost effective and easy to integrate into an existing infrastructure. Such an electric bus system is ecological, customer-friendly and suitable for cities. It has a high economic efficiency and it also expands the traffic planning field towards an ecological future technology. This paper shows examples at home and abroad how electric buses achieve an energy solving modern urban traffic. It gives insights into technical developments of electric vehicle equipment, cateneries with fast driving handling characteristics and the use of plain electric and hybrid powertrains. (author)

  7. On the issue of selecting technical and operational parameters for buses in urban passenger routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzinskyi V.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of a public transport bus service in urban areas were analyzed. The aim of the article is to determine actual operational parameters of buses during passenger transportation in Zhytomyr. Ways of determining technical and operational parameters of buses were developed using visual and tabular methods of city buses real-time speed and acceleration performance registration by GPS-monitoring system with the help of a communicational and informational intelligent transport system of the city. Experimental studies of city buses motion parameters were presented. A comprehensive survey of passenger traffic and conditions of public transport functioning in Zhytomyr was carried out. The values of technical and operational parameters of buses on city routes were obtained. Preliminarily conclusions and recommendations considering the criteria for selecting the optimal rolling stock for a bus network of the city were suggested.

  8. Using Task Clarification, Goal Setting, and Feedback to Decrease Table Busing Times in a Franchise Pizza Restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Seth; Smith, Andrew; Ludwig, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of task-clarification, and manager verbal and graphic feedback on employee busing times at a pizza restaurant. Using an ABC design, task-clarification was provided in a memo, which described the process, priority, and goal time of busing. The busing time decreased slightly, from an average of 315 seconds…

  9. Safety and efficacy of ipragliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes in real-world clinical practice: interim results of the STELLA-LONG TERM post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ichiro; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Tabuchi, Hiromi; Uno, Satoshi

    2018-02-01

    Data regarding the efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the real-world setting in Japan are limited. The STELLA-LONG TERM study is an ongoing 3-year post-marketing surveillance study of ipragliflozin in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Here, we report the interim results (including 3-, 12-, and 24-month data). All Japanese patients with T2D who were first prescribed ipragliflozin between 17 July 2014 and 16 October 2015 at participating centers in Japan were registered in STELLA-LONG TERM. At 3, 12, and 24 months, the safety analysis set comprised 11,053, 5475, and 138 patients, respectively; the efficacy analysis set comprised 8757 patients. Ipragliflozin treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements versus baseline in hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose concentration, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. The adverse drug reaction incidence rate was 10.71%, the most common reactions being renal and urinary disorders (5.06%), infections and infestations (1.24%), and skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders (1.14%). Ipragliflozin was well tolerated and effective in Japanese patients with T2D; no new safety issues were identified.

  10. Gaz de France interim financial report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This financial report contains the unaudited condensed financial statements of Gaz de France Group for the first half ended June 30, 2007, which were reviewed by the audit committee on August 27, 2007 and by the board of directors at its meeting on August 28, 2007. It includes forward-looking statements concerning the objectives, strategies, financial position, future operating results and the operations of Gaz de France Group. These statements reflect the Group's current perception of its activities and the markets in which it operates, as well as various estimates and assumptions considered to be reasonable. Content: interim management report (highlights of the first half of 2007, revenues and results for the period, financial structure, data on outstanding stock, outlook); interim consolidated financial statements (consolidated statements of income, consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of cash flows, recognized income and expenses, statements of changes in shareholders' equity, note to the consolidated financial statements); statement by the person responsible for the interim financial report; statutory auditors' report. (J.S.)

  11. Real-world operation conditions and on-road emissions of Beijing diesel buses measured by using portable emission measurement system and electric low-pressure impactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Johnson, Kent C; Shah, Asad Naeem; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao

    2011-03-15

    On-road measurement is an effective method to investigate real-world emissions generated from vehicles and estimate the difference between engine certification cycles and real-world operating conditions. This study presents the results of on-road measurements collected from urban buses which propelled by diesel engine in Beijing city. Two widely used Euro III emission level buses and two Euro IV emission level buses were chosen to perform on-road emission measurements using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous pollutant and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for particulate matter (PM) number emissions. The results indicate that considerable discrepancies of engine operating conditions between real-world driving cycles and engine certification cycles have been observed. Under real-world operating conditions, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions can easily meet their respective regulations limits, while brake specification nitrogen oxide (bsNO(x)) emissions present a significant deviation from its corresponding limit. Compared with standard limits, the real-world bsNO(x) emission of the two Euro III emission level buses approximately increased by 60% and 120% respectively, and bsNO(x) of two Euro IV buses nearly twice standard limits because Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system not active under low exhaust temperature. Particle mass were estimated via particle size distribution with the assumption that particle density and diameter is liner. The results demonstrate that nanometer size particulate matter make significant contribution to total particle number but play a minor role to total particle mass. It is suggested that specific certified cycle should be developed to regulate bus engines emissions on the test bench or use PEMS to control the bus emissions under real-world operating conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Specific provisions applicable to the production, inspection, treatment, packaging and interim storage of low and medium level bituminized wastes resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This rule sets forth the specific provisions applicable to the production, inspection, treatment, packaging and interim storage of the wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in a PWR and coated in bitumen

  13. Particular provisions applicable to the production, inspection, treatment, packaging and interim storage of wastes immobilized in cement, resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in pressurized light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This rule is intended to stipulate the specific provisions applicable to the production, inspection, treatment, packaging and interim storage of the wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in a PWR and immobilized in cement

  14. Interim Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S.; Goswami, S.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Benedetto, E.; Fernandez-Martinez, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Martini, M.; Prior, G.; Ballett, P.; Pascoli, S.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Kopp, J.; Mokhov, N.; Morfin, J.; Neuffer, D.; Parke, S.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Blondel, A.; Dufour, F.; Laing, A.; Soler, F.J.P; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Dornan, P.; Eccleston, R.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Bogacz, A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Bhattacharya, S.; Majumdar, D.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Zisman, M.; Cline, D.; Stratakis, D.; Ding, X.; Coloma, P.; Donini, A.; Gavela, B.; Lopez Pavon, J.; Maltoni, M.; Bromberg, C.; Bonesini, M.; Hart, T.; Kudenko, Y.; Mondal, N.; Antusch, S.; Blennow, M.; Ota, T.; Abrams, R.J.; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Beard, K.B.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Roberts, T.J.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; Migliozzi, P.; Palladino, V.; de Gouvea, A.; Graves, V.B.; Kuno, Y.; Peltoniemi, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Witte, H.; Mezzetto, M.; Rigolin, S.; McDonald, K.T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.; Snopok, P.; Tortora, L.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J.R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, R.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Thomason, J.W.G.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Samulyak, R.; Mishra, S.R.; Petti, R.; Dracos, M.; Yasuda, O.; Agarwalla, S.K.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hernandez, P.; Li, T.; Martin-Albo, J.; Huber, P.; Back, J.; Barker, G.; Harrison, P.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was established by the community at the ninth "International Workshop on Neutrino Factories, super-beams, and beta- beams" which was held in Okayama in August 2007. The IDS-NF mandate is to deliver the Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility on the timescale of 2012/13. In addition, the mandate for the study [3] requires an Interim Design Report to be delivered midway through the project as a step on the way to the RDR. This document, the IDR, has two functions: it marks the point in the IDS-NF at which the emphasis turns to the engineering studies required to deliver the RDR and it documents baseline concepts for the accelerator complex, the neutrino detectors, and the instrumentation systems. The IDS-NF is, in essence, a site-independent study. Example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL, have been identified to allow site-specific issues to be addressed in the cost analysis that will be presented in the RDR. The choice of example sites shou...

  15. Txatarra: vivienda transitoria con buses de transporte público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Arenas Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente análisis del proyecto Casa Linda parte de una exploración conceptual en torno a un hábitat sostenible, mediante la generación de un tipo de vivienda transitoria que reutiliza buses de transporte público destinados a ser reducidos a chatarra. La necesidad de replantear la labor de configurar espacios con materiales y formas predeterminados llevó a los autores a comprender cómo resultan insuficientes los medios tradicionales de construcción, en los que se acostumbra emplear materias primas en presentaciones estandarizadas y con acabados predefinidos que se adaptan a los requerimientos y necesidades del proyecto. Enfrentar el proyecto a partir del reciclaje de materiales y objetos (chatarra, de diversas dimensiones y en variadas condiciones, generó un proceso cuya característica principal es la imposibilidad de anticipar con exactitud los procesos constructivos y los acabados finales.

  16. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  17. An updated assessment of the prospects for fuel cell-powered buses. An information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, T.K. [Future Energy Solutions, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents updated conclusions of the Department of Trade and Industry's research and development programme to assess the commercial prospects for advanced fuel cells in buses. The programme has focussed on low temperature solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) for transport and combined heat and power (CHP)/distributed power and high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for CHP/distributed power. As well as assessing the prospects for SPFCs in buses, the report examines those for alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) in buses. The report provides an assessment of the status of technology development for different types of fuel cells in terms of applications to buses and offers estimates of market potential. Some fuel-cell powered buses are now available for demonstration purposes but the report concludes that truly commercial sales are unlikely to start before 2010 and widespread deployment is expected to take a further ten years after that. Buses have now slipped behind cars in terms of worldwide deployment. The issue of fuel choice is considered largely resolved with most fleet vehicle/bus manufacturers currently focussing on hydrogen as a fuel. A discussion of the prospects and barriers for fuel cell buses concludes that cost reduction is now the major barrier to the successful commercialisation of fuel cells in buses. More demonstration prototypes and field trials are required to provide information on energy, environmental and economic performance of fuel cell buses. Field trials could also provide information to assist the development of refuelling systems, fuel storage systems, stacks and other system components and to gain experience of building integrated fuel cell systems.

  18. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, R. Sam; Grimmett, Tami; Vang, Leng; McGrath, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V and V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  19. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sam Alessi; Tami Grimmett; Leng Vang; Dave McGrath

    2010-09-01

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V&V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  20. Evaluation of ERA-Interim precipitation data in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Bernhardt, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation controls a large variety of environmental processes, which is an essential input parameter for land surface models e.g. in hydrology, ecology and climatology. However, rain gauge networks provides the necessary information, are commonly sparse in complex terrains, especially in high mountainous regions. Reanalysis products (e.g. ERA-40 and NCEP-NCAR) as surrogate data are increasing applied in the past years. Although they are improving forward, previous studies showed that these products should be objectively evaluated due to their various uncertainties. In this study, we evaluated the precipitation data from ERA-Interim, which is a latest reanalysis product developed by ECMWF. ERA-Interim daily total precipitation are compared with high resolution gridded observation dataset (E-OBS) at 0.25°×0.25° grids for the period 1979-2010 over central Alps (45.5-48°N, 6.25-11.5°E). Wet or dry day is defined using different threshold values (0.5mm, 1mm, 5mm, 10mm and 20mm). The correspondence ratio (CR) is applied for frequency comparison, which is the ratio of days when precipitation occurs in both ERA-Interim and E-OBS dataset. The result shows that ERA-Interim captures precipitation occurrence very well with a range of CR from 0.80 to 0.97 for 0.5mm to 20mm thresholds. However, the bias of intensity increases with rising thresholds. Mean absolute error (MAE) varies between 4.5 mm day-1 and 9.5 mm day-1 in wet days for whole area. In term of mean annual cycle, ERA-Interim almost has the same standard deviation of the interannual variability of daily precipitation with E-OBS, 1.0 mm day-1. Significant wet biases happened in ERA-Interim throughout warm season (May to August) and dry biases in cold season (November to February). The spatial distribution of mean annual daily precipitation shows that ERA-Interim significant underestimates precipitation intensity in high mountains and northern flank of Alpine chain from November to March while pronounced

  1. 24 CFR 35.1330 - Interim controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1330 Interim controls. Interim..., cleanable covering or coating, such as metal coil stock, plastic, polyurethane, or linoleum. (3) Surfaces...

  2. Careful system design. Current interim results of the heat pump field test; Das Gesamtsystem sorgfaeltig auslegen. Aktuelle Zwischenergebnisse im Waermepumpen-Feldtest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miara, Marek [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    How efficient are modern electric heat pumps for newly constructed single-family dwellings? This question is to be answered by the project ''Waermepumpen-Effizienz'' (heat pump efficiency), a scientific field test that started in the summer of 2006. The contribution presents first results, including the measured performance data. Further, factors were identified that interfere with the optimum operation of heat pumps. (orig.)

  3. URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT WITH THE USE OF ELECTRIC BUSES – DEVELOPMENT TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław KRAWIEC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The programing documents of the European Union determine the direction of transport systems development, including large cities and agglomerations. The context of these actions which aim to transform into ecologically clean and sustainable transport system is a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Assuming that public transport will significantly reduce the use of combustion-powered buses, studies on urban logistic enabling the use of electric buses for public transport are needed. The article presents the variants and scenarios for electric buses implementation in urban public transport, as well as the decision algorithm to support electric bus implementation based on technological, organisational, economic and ecological variables.

  4. Concentrations and risk assessment of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons in buses and bus stations of Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Chen, Shuguang; Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Xiasheng; Yao, Chaoying; Shen, Xueyou

    2009-03-01

    Air pollution surveys of ten selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHCs) were conducted in buses and bus stations in Hangzhou, China. The mean concentrations of MAHCs in the air of buses and bus stations were 95.9 and 36.5 microg/m(3), respectively, of which toluene was the highest in all the sampling sites. Mean concentrations of all MAHCs in buses were statistically higher than those nearby bus stations (pbus drivers were 1.11x10(-5) and 4.00x10(-5), respectively, which were way above the limit set by USEPA. The health risk caused by MAHCs in bus microenvironment should be cautioned.

  5. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on advance science research. Result evaluation, interim evaluation, in-advance evaluation in fiscal year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 13 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the accomplishments of the research completed in Fiscal Year 2002, the accomplishments of the research started in Fiscal Year 2001, and the adequacy of the programs of the research to be started in Fiscal Year 2004 at Advanced Science Research Center of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of nine specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from May to July 2003. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on June 24, 2003, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on August 4, 2003. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: interim results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David M; Rogers, Rick; Sepulveda, Rosalina; Kunzendorf, Peter; Bellmann, Bernd; Ernst, Heinrich; Phillips, James I

    2014-04-01

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (>20 μm) cleared quickly with T(½) estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T(½)>1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advance Science Research. Result evaluation, interim evaluation, in-advance evaluation in fiscal year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 13 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the accomplishments of the research completed in Fiscal Year 2001, the accomplishments of the research started in Fiscal Year 2000, and the adequacy of the programs of the research to be started in Fiscal Year 2003 at Advanced Science Research Center of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of eight specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from May to July 2002. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on June 4, 2002, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on August 5, 2002. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research. (author)

  8. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  9. Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The September 1985 Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is the third revision of this document. In the future, the HWMP will be updated on an annual basis or as major changes in disposal planning at Hanford Site require. The most significant changes in the program since the last release of this document in December 1984 include: (1) Based on studies done in support of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS), the size of the protective barriers covering contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, and single-shell tanks has been increased to provide a barrier that extends 30 m beyond the waste zone. (2) As a result of extensive laboratory development and plant testing, removal of transuranic (TRU) elements from PUREX cladding removal waste (CRW) has been initiated in PUREX. (3) The level of capital support in years beyond those for which specific budget projections have been prepared (i.e., fiscal year 1992 and later) has been increased to maintain Hanford Site capability to support potential future missions, such as the extension of N Reactor/PUREX operations. The costs for disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes are identified in four major areas in the HWMP: waste storage and surveillance, technology development, disposal operations, and capital expenditures

  10. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: Interim results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, David M.; Rogers, Rick; Sepulveda, Rosalina; Kunzendorf, Peter; Bellmann, Bernd; Ernst, Heinrich; Phillips, James I.

    2014-01-01

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (> 20 μm) cleared quickly with T 1/2 estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T 1/2 > 1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • We evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite produced pathological response - Wagner 4 interstitial fibrosis by 32d

  11. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONRAD EA

    2008-01-01

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel

  12. Evaluation of recruitment and selection for specialty training in public health: interim results of a prospective cohort study to measure the predictive validity of the selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, Nora; Gray, Selena; Duff, Celia; Parkes, Julie; Williams, David; Patterson, Fiona; Koczwara, Anna; Fisher, Grant; Mason, Brendan W

    2016-06-01

    The recruitment process for public health specialty training includes an assessment centre (AC) with three components, Rust Advanced Numerical Reasoning Appraisal (RANRA), Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCT) and a Situation Judgement Test (SJT), which determines invitation to a selection centre (SC). The scores are combined into a total recruitment (TR) score that determines the offers of appointment. A prospective cohort study using anonymous record linkage to investigate the association between applicant's scores in the recruitment process and registrar's progress through training measured by results of Membership Faculty Public Health (MFPH) examinations and outcomes of the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP). Higher scores in RANRA, WGCT, AC, SC and TR were all significantly associated with higher adjusted odds of passing Part A MFPH exam at the first attempt. Higher scores in AC, SC and TR were significantly associated with passing Part B exam at the first attempt. Higher scores in SJT, AC and SC were significantly associated with satisfactory ARCP outcomes. The current UK national recruitment and selection process for public health specialty training has good predictive validity. The individual components of the process are testing different skills and abilities and together they are providing additive value. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Interim results of the sixth three-dimensional AER dynamic benchmark problem calculation. Solution of problem with DYN3D and RELAP5-3D codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadek, J.; Kral, P.; Macek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives a brief survey of the 6 th three-dimensional AER dynamic benchmark calculation results received with the codes DYN3D and RELAPS-3D at NRI Rez. This benchmark was defined at the 10 th AER Symposium. Its initiating event is a double ended break in the steam line of steam generator No. I in a WWER-440/213 plant at the end of the first fuel cycle and in hot full power conditions. Stationary and burnup calculations as well as tuning of initial state before the transient were performed with the code DYN3D. Transient calculations were made with the system code RELAPS-3D.The KASSETA library was used for the generation of reactor core neutronic parameters. The detailed six loops model of NPP Dukovany was adopted for the 6 th AER dynamic benchmark purposes. The RELAPS-3D full core neutronic model was connected with seven coolant channels thermal-hydraulic model of the core (Authors)

  14. 7 CFR 1735.75 - Interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim financing. 1735.75 Section 1735.75... Involving Loan Funds § 1735.75 Interim financing. (a) A borrower may submit a written request for RUS approval of interim financing if it is necessary to close an acquisition before the loan to finance the...

  15. 7 CFR 1738.21 - Interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim financing. 1738.21 Section 1738.21... Interim financing. (a) Upon notification by RUS that an applicant's application is considered complete, the applicant may enter into an interim financing agreement with a lender other than RUS or use its...

  16. INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

    2012-03-30

    Mercury (Hg) has been identified as a 'persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic' pollutant with widespread impacts throughout North America and the world (EPA. 1997a, 1997b, 1998a, 1998b, 2000). Although most of the mercury in the environment is inorganic Hg, a small proportion of total Hg is transformed through the actions of aquatic microbes into methylmercury (MeHg). In contrast to virtually all other metals, MeHg biomagnifies or becomes increasingly concentrated as it is transferred through aquatic food chains so that the consumption of mercury contaminated fish is the primary route of this toxin to humans. For this reason, the ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) for mercury is based on a fish tissue endpoint rather than an aqueous Hg concentration, as the tissue concentration (e.g., < 0.3 {mu}g/g fillet) is considered to be a more consistent indicator of exposure and risk (EPA, 2001). Effective mercury remediation at point-source contaminated sites requires an understanding of the nature and magnitude of mercury inputs, and also knowledge of how these inputs must be controlled in order to achieve the desired reduction of mercury contamination in biota necessary for compliance with AWQC targets. One of the challenges to remediation is that mercury body burdens in fish are more closely linked to aqueous MeHg than to inorganic Hg concentrations (Sveinsdottir and Mason 2005), but MeHg production is not easily predicted or controlled. At point-source contaminated sites, mercury methylation is not only affected by the absolute mercury load, but also by the form of mercury loaded. In addition, once MeHg is formed, the hydrology, trophic structure, and water chemistry of a given system affect how it is transformed and transferred through the food chain to fish. Decreasing inorganic Hg concentrations and loading may often therefore be a more achievable remediation goal, but has led to mixed results in terms of responses in fish bioaccumulation. A number of

  17. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Measurements of ultrafine particles and other vehicular pollutants inside school buses in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfang; Zhu, Yifang

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated toxic effects of vehicular emitted ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter pollutants, especially UFPs, was measured inside four diesel-powered school buses. Two 1990 and two 2006 model year diesel-powered school buses were selected to represent the age extremes of school buses in service. Each bus was driven on two routine bus runs to study school children's exposure under different transportation conditions in South Texas. The number concentration and size distribution of UFPs, total particle number concentration, PM 2.5, PM 10, black carbon (BC), CO, and CO 2 levels were monitored inside the buses. The average total particle number concentrations observed inside the school buses ranged from 7.3 × 10 3 to 3.4 × 10 4 particles cm -3, depending on engine age and window position. When the windows were closed, the in-cabin air pollutants were more likely due to the school buses' self-pollution. The 1990 model year school buses demonstrated much higher air pollutant concentrations than the 2006 model year ones. When the windows were open, the majority of in-cabin air pollutants came from the outside roadway environment with similar pollutant levels observed regardless of engine ages. The highest average UFP concentration was observed at a bus transfer station where approximately 27 idling school buses were queued to load or unload students. Starting-up and idling generated higher air pollutant levels than the driving state. Higher in-cabin air pollutant concentrations were observed when more students were on board.

  19. Cool Science: K-12 Climate Change Art Displayed on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cool science is an art contest where K12 students create placards (7" x 22") to educate the public about climate change. Students are prompted to create their artwork in response to questions such as: What is the evidence for climate change? How does climate change impact your local community? What can you do to reduce the impacts of climate change? In each of three years, 500-600 student entrees have been submitted from more than 12 school districts across Massachusetts. A panel of judges including scientists, artists, rapid transit representatives, and educators chooses elementary, middle, and high school winners. Winners (6), runners-up (6), and honorable mentions (12) and their families and teachers are invited to an annual Cool Science Award Ceremony to be recognized and view winning artwork. All winning artwork is posted on the Cool Science website. The winning artwork (2 per grade band) is converted into placards (11" x 28") and posters (2.5' x 12') that are placed on the inside (placards) and outside (posters) of buses. Posters are displayed for one month. So far, Cool Science was implemented in Lowell, MA where over 5000 public viewers see the posters daily on the sides of Lowell Rapid Transit Authority (LRTA) buses, making approximately 1,000,000 impressions per year. Cool Science acts to increase climate literacy in children as well as the public, and as such promotes intergenerational learning. Using art in conjunction with science learning about climate change appears to be effective at engaging not just traditionally high achieving science students, but also those interested in the creative arts. Hearing winners' stories about how they created their artwork and what this contest meant to them supports the idea that Cool Science attracts a wide diversity of students. Parents discuss climate change with their children. Multiple press releases announcing the winners further promotes the awareness of climate change throughout school districts and their

  20. EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type

  1. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  2. CNG/diesel buses for Texas school districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    At the present time, the preponderance of trucks, buses and other heavy duty vehicles are powered by diesel engines. The reasons for the change from gasoline to diesel engines are all basically economic, due to the longer life and lower operating costs of diesel engines, as compared to gasoline engines. This provides a compelling reason to continue to use these engines, even if powered by fuel other than diesel. A major strategy within the industry has been the various attempts to adapt diesel engines to alternative fuels. These conversions have been largely to either methanol or natural gas, with propane joining the race just recently. This strategy takes advantage of the remaining life of existing vehicles by converting engines rather than purchasing a new engine (and/or vehicle) designed for and dedicated to an alternate fuel. Although diesel engines have been converted to run on natural gas, there are substantial challenges that must be met. The following describes some of the technical approaches being used for diesel engine conversions

  3. Combustion Chemistry of Biodiesel for the Use in Urban Transport Buses: Experiment and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvarborna, Hamid

    Biofuels, such as biodiesel, offer benefits as a possible alternative to conventional fuels due to their fuel source sustainability and their reduced environmental impact. Before they can be used, it is essential to understand their combustion chemistry and emission characterizations due to a number of issues associated with them (e.g., high emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx), lower heating value than diesel, etc.). During this study, emission characterizations of different biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B50, and B100) were measured on three different feedstocks (soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow oil (TO), and waste cooking oil (WCO)) with various characteristics, while an ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) was used as base fuel at low-temperature combustion (LTC). A laboratory combustion chamber was used to analyze soot formation, NOx emissions, while real engine emissions were measured for further investigation on PM and NOx emissions. For further study, carbon emissions (CO, CO 2, and CH4) were also measured to understand their relations with feedstocks' type. The emissions were correlated with fuel's characteristics, especially unsaturation degree (number of double bonds in methyl esters) and chain length (oxygen-to-carbon ratio). The experimental results obtained from laboratory experiments were confirmed by field experiments (real engines) collected from Toledo area regional transit authority (TARTA) buses. Combustion analysis results showed that the neat biodiesel fuels had longer ignition delays and lower ignition temperatures compared to ULSD at the tested condition. The results showed that biodiesel containing more unsaturated fatty acids emitted higher levels of NOx compared to biodiesel with more saturated fatty acids. A paired t-test on fuels showed that neat biodiesel fuels had significant reduction in the formation of NOx compared with ULSD. In another part of this study, biodiesel fuel with a high degree of unsaturation and high portion of long chains of

  4. A comparison of the value relevance of interim and annual financial statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbalenhle Zulu

    2017-03-01

    Aim: It explores whether the value relevance of interim financial statements is higher than the value relevance of annual financial statements. Finally, it investigates whether accounting information published in interim and annual financial statements has incremental value relevance. Setting: Data for the period from 1999 to 2012 were collected from a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Method: The Ohlson model to investigate the value relevance of accounting information was used for the study. Results: The results show that interim book value of equity is value relevant while interim earnings are not. Interim financial statements appear to have higher value relevance than annual financial statements. The value relevance of interim and annual accounting information has remained fairly constant over the sample period. Incremental comparisons provide evidence that additional book value of equity and earnings that accrue to a company between interim and annual reporting dates are value relevant. Conclusion: The study was conducted over a long sample period (1999–2012, in an era when a technology-driven economy and more timely reporting media could have had an effect on the value relevance of published accounting information. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate and compare the value relevance of published interim and annual financial statements.

  5. Retention of long-term interim restorations with sodium fluoride enriched interim cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strash, Carolyn

    Purpose: Interim fixed dental prostheses, or "provisional restorations", are fabricated to restore teeth when definitive prostheses are made indirectly. Patients undergoing extensive prosthodontic treatment frequently require provisionalization for several months or years. The ideal interim cement would retain the restoration for as long as needed and still allow for ease of removal. It would also avoid recurrent caries by preventing demineralization of tooth structure. This study aims to determine if adding sodium fluoride varnish to interim cement may assist in the retention of interim restorations. Materials and methods: stainless steel dies representing a crown preparation were fabricated. Provisional crowns were milled for the dies using CAD/CAM technology. Crowns were provisionally cemented onto the dies using TempBond NE and NexTemp provisional cements as well as a mixture of TempBond NE and Duraphat fluoride varnish. Samples were stored for 24h then tested or thermocycled for 2500 or 5000 cycles before being tested. Retentive strength of each cement was recorded using a universal testing machine. Results: TempBond NE and NexTemp cements performed similarly when tested after 24h. The addition of Duraphat significantly decreased the retention when added to TempBond NE. NexTemp cement had high variability in retention over all tested time periods. Thermocycling for 2500 and 5000 cycles significantly decreased the retention of all cements. Conclusions: The addition of Duraphat fluoride varnish significantly decreased the retention of TempBond NE and is therefore not recommended for clinical use. Thermocycling significantly reduced the retention of TempBond NE and NexTemp. This may suggest that use of these cements for three months, as simulated in this study, is not recommended.

  6. Mass concentrations of BTEX inside air environment of buses in Changsha, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaokai; Zhang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Quan [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Chen, Hong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China)

    2011-02-15

    In order to estimate the mass concentrations of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E) and xylenes (X) inside air environment of buses and to analyze the influencing factors of the BTEX pollution levels, 22 public buses were investigated in Changsha, China. The interior air was collected through activated charcoal adsorption tubes and then the air samples were analyzed with thermally desorbed gas chromatograph. The mass concentrations ranged from 21.3 to 106.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for benzene, from 53.5 to 266.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for toluene, from 19.6 to 95.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for ethylbenzene and from 46.9 to 234.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for xylenes. Their mean values were 68.7, 179.7, 62.5 and 151.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. The rates of buses tested where the interior concentrations exceeded the limit levels of Chinese Indoor Air Quality Standard were 45.5% for toluene and 13.6% for xylenes. The BTEX levels increased when in-car temperature or relative humidity rose, and decreased when car age or travel distance increased. The BTEX concentrations were higher in leather trims buses than in non-leather trims ones, in air-conditioned buses than in non-air-conditioned ones, and in high-grade buses than in low-grade ones. According to the analysis of multiple linear regression equation, car age and in-car temperature were two most important factors influencing the BTEX pollution levels in the cabins of public buses. (author)

  7. Evaluation of city buses installed diesel particulate filter systems on fleet test; Diesel particulate filter system wo tosaishita rosen bus no soko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, H [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An environmental air quality of suspended particulate matter is insufficient in the big city area. To reduce the particulate matter, improvement of engine and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system are carrying. The purpose of this report is to investigate a possibility of practical use of the city buses installed DPF systems. From March 1995, investigation for practical use of these DPF systems on a route buses was carried in regular service operation of the Tokyo and Yokohama Transportation Bureau. The investigation items are service situation, smoke density and preparation inspection. From the result for 2 years service operation, each DPF systems needed some failure correspondence. but these were not fatal problem on using the DPF system. Then the subject of relative to durability and reliability became clear, and the performance of a low particulate emission DPF system obtained the high value evaluation for users. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  9. Agenda 21 interim balance, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Bakkes, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Five years after the `United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)`, an interim balance was drawn up to see what was done to meet the ambitious challenges adopted in Agenda 21 during this conference. Such a balance is presented in this report and the complementary brochure, `Developments in Sustainability 1992-1997`, reflecting societal developments and changes in environmental quality, as well as changes in responses to environmental concerns. 24 figs., 12 tabs., 68 refs.

  10. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  11. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published five previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2016 through December 2016.

  12. Unregulated emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses configured with and without oxidation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Robert A; Kado, Norman Y; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Ayala, Alberto; Kobayashi, Reiko

    2006-01-01

    The unregulated emissions from two in-use heavy-duty transit buses fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and equipped with oxidation catalyst (OxiCat) control were evaluated. We tested emissions from a transit bus powered by a 2001 Cummins Westport C Gas Plus 8.3-L engine (CWest), which meets the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) 2002 optional NOx standard (2.0 g/bhp-hr). In California, this engine is certified only with an OxiCat, so our study did not include emissions testing without it. We also tested a 2000 New Flyer 40-passenger low-floor bus powered by a Detroit Diesel series 50G engine (DDCs50G) that is currently certified in California without an OxiCat. The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) offers a "low-emission" package for this bus that includes an OxiCat for transit bus applications, thus, this configuration was also tested in this study. Previously, we reported that formaldehyde and other volatile organic emissions detected in the exhaust of the DDCs50G bus equipped with an OxiCat were significantly reduced relative to the same DDCs50G bus without OxiCat. In this paper, we examine othertoxic unregulated emissions of significance. The specific mutagenic activity of emission sample extracts was examined using the microsuspension assay. The total mutagenic activity of emissions (activity per mile) from the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus was generally lower than that from the DDC bus without the OxiCat. The CWest bus emission samples had mutagenic activity that was comparable to that of the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus. In general, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were lower forthe OxiCat-equipped buses, with greater reductions observed for the volatile and semivolatile PAH emissions. Elemental carbon (EC) was detected in the exhaust from the all three bus configurations, and we found that the total carbon (TC) composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions was primarily organic carbon (OC). The amount of carbon emissions far exceeded the

  13. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-21

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This annual status report combines results from all FCEB demonstrations, tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. These data and analyses help provide needed information to guide future early-stage research and development. The 2017 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2016 through July 2017. The primary results presented in the report are from five demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; AFCB Project at the University of California at Irvine; AFCB Project at Orange County Transportation Authority; and AFCB Project at Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.

  14. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Funding for this effort is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration. The 2016 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2015 through July 2016. The results for these buses account for more than 550,000 miles traveled and 59,500 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from three demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; and American Fuel Cell Bus Project at the University of California at Irvine.

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in public transportation vehicles (buses): another piece to the epidemiologic puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Jonathan K; van Balen, Joany; Crawford, John Mac; Wilkins, John R; Lee, Jiyoung; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Hoet, Armando E

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the occurrence and epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in public transportation in the United States. This research sought to determine the background prevalence and phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of MRSA strains circulating on buses from a large, metropolitan transportation agency. Electrostatic wipes were used to collect 237 surface samples from 40 buses randomly selected from July-October 2010. Six samples were collected from each bus immediately postservice and before any cleaning and disinfection. Positive isolates were analyzed for antibiotic resistance, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; and potential epidemiologic factors were examined. Of the buses, 68% (27/40) were contaminated with S aureus, and 63% (25/40) were contaminated with MRSA. Seats and seat rails were the surfaces most frequently contaminated, followed by the back door and stanchions. Most (62.9%) of the MRSA isolates were classified as community-associated MRSA clones (SCCmec type IV), and 22.9% were health care-associated MRSA clones (SCCmec type II). Of the MRSA strains, 65% (5/20) were multidrug resistant. MRSA was frequently isolated from commonly touched surfaces in buses serving both hospital and community routes. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis demonstrated that buses may be effective mixing vessels for MRSA strains of both community and health care-associated origin. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  17. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  18. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  19. “Bus Lane Within The Area Of Intersection” Method For Buses Priority On The Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikovych Ihor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this article is to formalize the “special bus lanes within the area of intersection” method that allows providing buses with space-time priority at signalized intersections (mostly of the isolated type, including those with no more than two traffic lanes in each direction at the approaches to the intersection. The article establishes the limits for efficient application of this method, and describes the results of a simulation experiment conducted in the VISSIM environment to investigate the functioning of the method on an actual intersection. The most critical phase of implementation of this method is to determine the optimum length of the special bus lane at the approach to the intersection. The optimum length of special bus lanes at the approaches to isolated or coordinated intersections is determined based on the maximum length of queued vehicles which is computed using the simulation models developed in the Objective-C language. The article covers the basic characteristics of those models, their structure and building principles, and also provides the model validation results. Simulation models can be used both for determination of the optimum length of special bus lanes at the approaches to signalized intersections and for analysis of intersection performance based on the maximum length of queued vehicles.

  20. A Model for the Stop Planning and Timetables of Customized Buses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Ma

    Full Text Available Customized buses (CBs are a new mode of public transportation and an important part of diversified public transportation, providing advanced, attractive and user-led service. The operational activity of a CB is planned by aggregating space-time demand and similar passenger travel demands. Based on an analysis of domestic and international research and the current development of CBs in China and considering passenger travel data, this paper studies the problems associated with the operation of CBs, such as stop selection, line planning and timetables, and establishes a model for the stop planning and timetables of CBs. The improved immune genetic algorithm (IIGA is used to solve the model with regard to the following: 1 multiple population design and transport operator design, 2 memory library design, 3 mutation probability design and crossover probability design, and 4 the fitness calculation of the gene segment. Finally, a real-world example in Beijing is calculated, and the model and solution results are verified and analyzed. The results illustrate that the IIGA solves the model and is superior to the basic genetic algorithm in terms of the number of passengers, travel time, average passenger travel time, average passenger arrival time ahead of schedule and total line revenue. This study covers the key issues involving operational systems of CBs, combines theoretical research and empirical analysis, and provides a theoretical foundation for the planning and operation of CBs.

  1. Multi-criteria analysis of alternative-fuel buses for public transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, G.-H.; Lin, C.-W.; Opricovic, Serafim

    2005-01-01

    The technological development of buses with new alternative fuels is considered in this paper. Several types of fuels are considered as alternative-fuel modes, i.e., electricity, fuel cell (hydrogen), and methanol. Electric vehicles may be considered the alternative-fuel vehicles with the lowest air pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles provide an alternate mode, at least for the period of improving the technology of electric vehicles. A hybrid electric vehicle is defined as a vehicle with the conventional internal combustion engine and an electric motor as its major sources of power. Experts from different decision-making groups performed the multiple attribute evaluation of alternative vehicles. AHP is applied to determine the relative weights of evaluation criteria. TOPSIS and VIKOR are compared and applied to determine the best compromise alternative fuel mode. The result shows that the hybrid electric bus is the most suitable substitute bus for Taiwan urban areas in the short and median term. But, if the cruising distance of the electric bus extends to an acceptable range, the pure electric bus could be the best alternative

  2. New York State interim waste management cost evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.S.; Watts, R.J.; Jorgensen, J.R.; Rochester Gas and Electric Corp., NY)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and quantify the comparative costs associated with including or excluding Class A utility wastes at a centralized interim waste management facility in New York State. The objective of the study is to assess the unit costs and total statewide costs associated with two distinct scenarios: (1) the case where non-utility Class A LLRW is received, incinerated and stored at the centralized interim facility, and utility Class A wastes are held without incineration at respective nuclear power plant interim onsite facilities without incineration; and (2) the alternative case where both utility and non-utility Class A wastes are accepted, incinerated and stored at the centralized facility. Unit costs to waste generators are estimated for each of the two cases described. This is followed by an estimation of the statewide cost impact to the public. The cost impact represents the cost differential resulting from the exclusion of utility Class A waste from the centralized NYS interim waste management facility. The principal factors comprising the cost differential include (1) higher unit disposal fees charged to non-utility waste generators, which are passed along in the costs of products and services; and (2) costs to utilities due to construction of additional onsite storage capacity, which in turn are charged to electric rate payers

  3. 76 FR 58790 - Notice of Interim Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... to the customers. Rate Scenario 3--Original Cumberland Marketing Policy The third rate alternative... an interim basis to the customers. Rate Scenario 3--Original Cumberland Marketing Policy The third... allocated on an interim basis to the customers. Rate Scenario 3--Original Cumberland Marketing Policy The...

  4. Addendum to IFMIF-CDA interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Mizuho [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; eds.

    1996-08-01

    During the second IFMIF-CDA Design Integration Workshop, the conceptual design and contents of `IFMIF-CDA Interim Report` were examined and discussed at both general and group meetings. Based on these discussion, the final IFMIF-CDA Report will be modified from the `Interim Report`. This report describes the outline of these modification. (author)

  5. Addendum to IFMIF-CDA interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Mizuho

    1996-08-01

    During the second IFMIF-CDA Design Integration Workshop, the conceptual design and contents of 'IFMIF-CDA Interim Report' were examined and discussed at both general and group meetings. Based on these discussion, the final IFMIF-CDA Report will be modified from the 'Interim Report'. This report describes the outline of these modification. (author)

  6. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-01-01

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83

  7. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  8. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  9. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Lee

    2005-09-15

    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  10. Hitrex 1: an interim report on experimental and analytical work on BNL's zero power HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beynon, A J; Kitching, S J; Lewis, T A; Waterson, R H

    1972-06-15

    This report presents interim experimental and theoretical results for the BNL Hitrex reactor. Reactivity effects and thermal and fast reaction rate distributions have been measured. Preliminary analysis has been performed, and some initial comparisons between theory and experiments made. (auth)

  11. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  12. Interim and final storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpfrock, L.; Kockelmann, H.

    2012-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is a huge social challenge in Germany and all over the world. As is well known the search for a site for a final repository for high-level waste in Germany is not complete. Therefore, interim storage facilities for radioactive waste were built at plant sites in Germany. The waste is stored in these storage facilities in appropriate storage and transport casks until the transport in a final repository can be carried out. Licensing of the storage and transport casks aimed for use in the public space is done according to the traffic laws and for handling in the storage facility according to nuclear law. Taking into account the activity of the waste to be stored, different containers are in use, so that experience is available from the licensing and operation in interim storage facilities. The large volume of radioactive waste to be disposed of after the shut-down of power generation in nuclear power stations makes it necessary for large quantities of licensed storage and transport casks to be provided soon.

  13. Glass packages in interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO 2 . The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  14. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety regulation

  15. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety

  16. Interim report and accounts 1993/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    An interim set of accounts and reports is presented here for 1993/1994 for the health science company Amersham International. The company's research programs focus on developments in life science research, nuclear medicine and industrial quality and safety assurance, with particular expertise in the application of radioactivity to labelling and detection at the molecular level. This report which covers the half-year to 30 September 1993 shows promising financial results, with turnover, operating profits and earnings per share all having risen. All life science markets report growth although difficult trading conditions are being reported in Europe. Two products in the Healthcare business have achieved progress, a pain palliation agent for bone metastases has been launched in the United States, and European approval has been gained for a new technetium based heart imaging agent. Further growth is expected for the company. (UK)

  17. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  18. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  19. Alternative Fuels for Washington's School Buses: A Report to the Washington State Legislature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John Kim; McCoy, Gilbert A.

    This document presents findings of a study that evaluated the use of both propane and compressed natural gas as alternative fuels for Washington State school buses. It discusses air quality improvement actions by state- and federal-level regulators and summarizes vehicle design, development, and commercialization activities by all major engine,…

  20. 76 FR 77888 - Student Transportation of America, Inc.-Control-Dairyland Buses, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Wisconsin law, also holds a FMCSA license (MC-170747) and is owned by Coach USA, Inc., a Delaware..., 2011, from their current owner, Coach USA, Inc., into an independent voting trust established under 49... Transportation of America, Inc.--Control--Dairyland Buses, Inc. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION...

  1. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  2. Demonstration of 3 buses fuelled with ethanol with ignition improver in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.; Weide, J. van der; Nie, L.H. de; Bruin, A. de

    1996-01-01

    This three year demonstration programme was initiated by OBL, a subsidiary of two Dutch sugar companies, and GADO, a public transport company. The programme was financially supported by a regional governmental organisation (ISP). In this programme, three bio-ethanol fuelled buses accumulated more

  3. Immobilized High-Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report - second Generation Implementing Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document

  4. 13 CFR 120.890 - Source of interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Source of interim financing. 120... Development Company Loan Program (504) Interim Financing § 120.890 Source of interim financing. A Project may use interim financing for all Project costs except the Borrower's contribution. Any source (including...

  5. Application of dose evaluation of the MCNP code for interim spent fuel cask storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Iimoto, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Teramura, Masahiro; Okamura, Tomomi; Narumiya, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    The interim storage facility for spent fuel metallic cask is designed as a concrete building structure with air inlet and outlet for circulating the natural cooling. The feature of the interim storage facility is big capacity of spent fuel at several thousands MTU and restricted site usage. It is important to evaluate realistic dose rate in shielding design of the interim storage facility, therefore the three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP that exactly treating the complicated geometry was applied. The validation of dose evaluation for interim storage facility by MCNP code were performed by three kinds of neutron shielding benchmark experiments; cask shadow shielding experiment, duct streaming experiment and concrete deep penetration experiment. Dose rate distributions at each benchmark were measured and compared with the calculated results. The comparison showed a good consistency between calculation and experiment results. (author)

  6. Detection of maximum loadability limits and weak buses using Chaotic PSO considering security constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharjee, P.; Mallick, S.; Thakur, S.S.; Ghoshal, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The unique cost function is derived considering practical Security Constraints. → New innovative formulae of PSO parameters are developed for better performance. → The inclusion and implementation of chaos in PSO technique is original and unique. → Weak buses are identified where FACTS devices can be implemented. → The CPSO technique gives the best performance for all the IEEE standard test systems. - Abstract: In the current research chaotic search is used with the optimization technique for solving non-linear complicated power system problems because Chaos can overcome the local optima problem of optimization technique. Power system problem, more specifically voltage stability, is one of the practical examples of non-linear, complex, convex problems. Smart grid, restructured energy system and socio-economic development fetch various uncertain events in power systems and the level of uncertainty increases to a great extent day by day. In this context, analysis of voltage stability is essential. The efficient method to assess the voltage stability is maximum loadability limit (MLL). MLL problem is formulated as a maximization problem considering practical security constraints (SCs). Detection of weak buses is also important for the analysis of power system stability. Both MLL and weak buses are identified by PSO methods and FACTS devices can be applied to the detected weak buses for the improvement of stability. Three particle swarm optimization (PSO) techniques namely General PSO (GPSO), Adaptive PSO (APSO) and Chaotic PSO (CPSO) are presented for the comparative study with obtaining MLL and weak buses under different SCs. In APSO method, PSO-parameters are made adaptive with the problem and chaos is incorporated in CPSO method to obtain reliable convergence and better performances. All three methods are applied on standard IEEE 14 bus, 30 bus, 57 bus and 118 bus test systems to show their comparative computing effectiveness and

  7. Simulation on the consumption-oriented evaluation of ventilation concepts for buses; Simulation zur verbrauchsorientierten Bewertung von Omnibus-Klimatisierungskonzepten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Christian; Foersterling, Sven; Strupp, Christian; Lemke, Nicholas [TLK Thermo GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Sonnekalb, Michael [Konvekta AG, Schwalmstadt (Germany); Koehler, Juergen [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents different air conditioning system and climate control concepts for buses. These concepts are investigated based on a complete vehicle simulation in order to perform a close-to-reality assessment. The effects of various control strategies are examined in a comparative approach using boundary conditions which are based on on-the-road-relevant test cycles and climatic conditions. The focus of this study is the evaluation of the total energy consumption. Moreover, an analysis of air conditioning systems with conventional and natural refrigerants is presented (R-134a and R-744). Based on simulation results, a high fuel-saving concept is developed and tested in a virtual test drive, in order to present a specific method of control strategy evaluation with transient boundary and environmental conditions. (orig.)

  8. AGR-1 Data Qualification Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, Machael

    2009-01-01

    Projects for the very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) program provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR Program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are (1) qualified for use, (2) stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and (3) analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the data streams associated with the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-1) experiment, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY09 qualification status of the AGR-1 data to date. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category, which is assigned by the data generator, and include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing, to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documentation that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent QA program. The interim qualification status of the following four data streams is reported in this document: (1) fuel fabrication data, (2) fuel irradiation data, (3) fission product monitoring system (FPMS) data, and (4) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) operating conditions data. A final report giving the NDMAS qualification status of all AGR-1 data (including cycle 145A) is planned for February 2010

  9. A cost-benefit analysis of alternatively fueled buses with special considerations for V2G technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Yosef; Carr, Edward; Knapp, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by climate, health and economic considerations, alternatively-fueled bus fleets have emerged worldwide. Two popular alternatives are compressed natural gas (CNG) and electric vehicles. The latter provides the opportunity to generate revenue through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services if properly equipped. This analysis conducts a robust accounting of the costs of diesel, CNG and battery-electric powertrains for school buses. Both marginal and fleet-wide scenarios are explored. Results indicate that the marginal addition of neither a small CNG nor a small V2G-enabled electric bus is cost effective at current prices. Contrary to previous findings, a small V2G-enabled electric bus increases net present costs by $7,200/seat relative to diesel for a Philadelphia, PA school district. A small CNG bus increases costs by $1,200/seat relative to diesel. This analysis is the first to quantify and include the economic implications of cold temperature extremes on electric vehicle battery operations, and the lower V2G revenues that result. Additional costs and limitations imposed by electric vehicles performing V2G are frequently overlooked in the literature and are explored here. If a variety of technical, legal, and economic challenges are overcome, a future eBus may be economical. - Highlights: • We present a robust cost-benefit analysis of various bus technologies. • Diesel is a low-cost technology at current prices. • CNG represents slightly higher costs on a marginal bus basis. • V2G-enabled electric buses are not cost-effective at current prices. • We identify frequently overlooked costs and challenges to V2G implementation.

  10. Interim reliability evaluation program (IREP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.; Murphy, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP), sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is currently applying probabilistic risk analysis techniques to two PWR and two BWR type power plants. Emphasis was placed on the systems analysis portion of the risk assessment, as opposed to accident phenomenology or consequence analysis, since the identification of risk significant plant features was of primary interest. Traditional event tree/fault tree modeling was used for the analysis. However, the study involved a more thorough investigation of transient initiators and of support system faults than studies in the past and substantially improved techniques were used to quantify accident sequence frequencies. This study also attempted to quantify the potential for operator recovery actions in the course of each significant accident

  11. In-vehicle measurement of ultrafine particles on compressed natural gas, conventional diesel, and oxidation-catalyst diesel heavy-duty transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Jones, Steven; Lalor, Melinda

    2007-02-01

    Many metropolitan transit authorities are considering upgrading transit bus fleets to decrease ambient criteria pollutant levels. Advancements in engine and fuel technology have lead to a generation of lower-emission buses in a variety of fuel types. Dynamometer tests show substantial reductions in particulate mass emissions for younger buses (vehicle particle number concentration measurements on conventional diesel, oxidation-catalyst diesel and compressed natural gas transit buses are compared to estimate relative in-vehicle particulate exposures. Two primary consistencies are observed from the data: the CNG buses have average particle count concentrations near the average concentrations for the oxidation-catalyst diesel buses, and the conventional diesel buses have average particle count concentrations approximately three to four times greater than the CNG buses. Particle number concentrations are also noticeably affected by bus idling behavior and ventilation options, such as, window position and air conditioning.

  12. DOE UST interim subsurface barrier technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document contains information which was presented at a workshop regarding interim subsurface barrier technologies that could be used for underground storage tanks, particularly the tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Reservation

  13. Fuel consumption reduction in urban buses by using power split transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macor, Alarico; Rossetti, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel consumption is highly influenced by transmission layout and control. • Continuous Variable Transmission allows control of the working point of the engine. • Hydromechanical CVT was numerically tested and compared with usual mechanical solutions. • CVT solution proved to reduce fuel consumption, improving the I.C.E. mean efficiency. • Results obtained from standard emission test cycles: New York and Manhattan Buses. - Abstract: The reduction of fuel consumption of urban vehicles is one of the challenges of the society today. Many promising technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells are the focus of a lot of research and investments, but high costs prevent their development on a large scale, especially in heavy duty vehicles. Simpler solutions, such as continuously variable transmissions, are then interesting alternatives: they preserve some of the advantages of hybrid solutions significantly reducing the overall cost of the system. Since these technologies allow the decoupling of the engine’s velocity from that of the wheels, optimised management of the engine becomes feasible, leading to lower fuel consumption than that of traditional solutions. This work compares the hydromechanical transmission with a traditional power shift in an application where efficiency and comfort are required: a city bus. The performance of a vehicle with a dual stage hydromechanical transmission has been investigated by means of a model implemented in the AMESim environment. A second model of a vehicle with a power shift transmission has been taken as reference solution. During the simulation of two standard test cycles, the first vehicle showed the lower fuel consumption, due to its better engine management, and to the operation of the torque converter during starts, which lowers the efficiency of the reference vehicle

  14. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  15. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes--an interim analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Home, Philip D; Pocock, Stuart J; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis raised concern regarding an increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes associated with rosiglitazone treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted an unplanned interim analysis of a randomized, multicenter, open...... group). The primary end point was hospitalization or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: Because the mean follow-up was only 3.75 years, our interim analysis had limited statistical power to detect treatment differences. A total of 217 patients in the rosiglitazone group and 202 patients...... in the control group had the adjudicated primary end point (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 1.31). After the inclusion of end points pending adjudication, the hazard ratio was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.32). There were no statistically significant differences between the rosiglitazone...

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  17. Characterization and speciation of fine particulate matter inside the public transport buses running on bio-diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Air pollution with respect to particulate matter was investigated in Toledo, Ohio, USA, a : city of approximately 300,000, in 2009. Two study buses were selected to reflect typical : exposure conditions of passengers while traveling in the bus. Monit...

  18. A randomized controlled trial of interim methadone maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert P; Highfield, David A; Jaffe, Jerome H; Brady, Joseph V; Butler, Carol B; Rouse, Charles O; Callaman, Jason M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Battjes, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Effective alternatives to long waiting lists for entry into methadone hydrochloride maintenance treatment are needed to reduce the complications of continuing heroin dependence and to increase methadone treatment entry. To compare the effectiveness of interim methadone maintenance with that of the usual waiting list condition in facilitating methadone treatment entry and reducing heroin and cocaine use and criminal behavior. Randomized, controlled, clinical trial using 2 conditions, with treatment assignment on a 3:2 basis to interim maintenance-waiting list control. A methadone treatment program in Baltimore. A total of 319 individuals meeting the criteria for current heroin dependence and methadone maintenance treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to either interim methadone maintenance, consisting of an individually determined methadone dose and emergency counseling only for up to 120 days, or referral to community-based methadone treatment programs. Entry into comprehensive methadone maintenance therapy at 4 months from baseline; self-reported days of heroin use, cocaine use, and criminal behavior; and number of urine drug test results positive for heroin and cocaine at the follow-up interview conducted at time of entry into comprehensive methadone treatment (or at 4 months from baseline for participants who did not enter regular treatment). Significantly more participants assigned to the interim methadone maintenance condition entered comprehensive methadone maintenance treatment by the 120th day from baseline (75.9%) than those assigned to the waiting list control condition (20.8%) (Pmethadone maintenance results in a substantial increase in the likelihood of entry into comprehensive treatment, and is an effective means of reducing heroin use and criminal behavior among opioid-dependent individuals awaiting entry into a comprehensive methadone treatment program.

  19. Comparison of Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas, biodiesel and diesel buses of the Madrid transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López Martínez, José María; Lumbreras Martín, Julio; Flores Holgado, Maria Nuria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on the use of three after-treatment technologies: i) EGR + DPF, ii) SCR + Urea and iii) 3-way catalyst when implemented in urban buses, to determinate the energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), direct Land Use Change (dLUC), abiotic depletion of fossil energy by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The process of production, conditioning and transporting of the fuels used by the buses (diesel, biodiesel (B100), a blended biodiesel at 20% (B20) and natural gas) were also analyzed (Well-to-Tank analysis) along with the environmental impact due to its combustion in the bus (Tank-to-Wheel analysis). The environmental impact of the manufacturing, maintenance and recycling process of the urban buses and exhaust after-treatment systems has also been evaluated. Main results shows that Life Cycle of SCR + Urea technology reduces environmental impact to a greater extent than its global Life Cycle increases it when gasoil is used resulting in a final balance more efficient than the other options, the same behavior is observed with the use of B20 and B100 but only when 0%dLUC is assumed since if the percentage of dLUC increases the effectiveness of the SCR + Urea technology in the reduction of environmental impact tend to decrease. -- Highlights: ► We examine the environmental impact caused by the Life Cycle of each technology, fossil fuel, biofuel and vehicle. ► Biodiesel environmental impact depends largely on land transformed for grow crops. ► Using SCR + Urea technology and gasoil as a fuel in the bus further reduces the environmental impact.

  20. Preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, F.; Chadelas, R.; Montarou, G.

    1996-01-01

    We present here after a preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the photomultipliers of the TILECAL calorimeter. After some generalities, different commercial buses are reviewed (CAN, ARCET, WorldFIP, Profibus and LonWorks). The Profibus and LonWorks solution are more extensively studies as a possible solution for the high voltage system of the TILE hadronic calorimeter. (authors)

  1. School buses, air pollution and children's health: follow-up report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, K. [Clean Air Partnership, Toronto, ON (Canada)], email: Kperrotta@cleanairpartnership.org

    2010-10-15

    This document is designed to be a follow-up report to the Ontario Public Health Association (OPHA) school bus report published in 2005, and was produced through a collaboration between the Clean Air Partnership and the OPHA. The level of awareness of school bus emissions are evaluated in this report. The document also provides a review of projects handled by the federal government, programs developed by governments of other provinces and the policies followed by school boards in other provinces, to mitigate emissions and exposures related to school buses. Several recommendations were made, including the replacement of older school buses, adapt the routes considering the emissions generated and promote the use of biodiesel to reduce emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. 36 refs, 8 tabs.

  2. School buses, air pollution and children's health: follow-up report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, K.

    2010-10-01

    This document is designed to be a follow-up report to the Ontario Public Health Association (OPHA) school bus report published in 2005, and was produced through a collaboration between the Clean Air Partnership and the OPHA. The level of awareness of school bus emissions are evaluated in this report. The document also provides a review of projects handled by the federal government, programs developed by governments of other provinces and the policies followed by school boards in other provinces, to mitigate emissions and exposures related to school buses. Several recommendations were made, including the replacement of older school buses, adapt the routes considering the emissions generated and promote the use of biodiesel to reduce emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. 36 refs, 8 tabs.

  3. Development and demonstration of use of methane/hydrogen blends as fuel in existing methane-driven buses; Utveckling och demonstration av anvaendning av metan/vaetgasblandningar som braensle i befintliga metangasdrivna bussar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Owe

    2006-10-15

    Two natural gas buses in Malmoe have in a project been converted to run on mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas. The buses have been in operation from September 2003 to December 2005 and have during the whole extent of the project been in commercial operation with passengers. One bus has been refuelled with a mixture containing 8% hydrogen and another with 25% hydrogen. One of the buses has during limited periods been refuelled with natural gas in order to establish differences in fuel consumption between the different fuels. A number of different supporting activities have been performed in conjunction to the project: Tests at the Lund Univ. with hydrogen addition to natural gas in a one cylinder test engine and in a 6 cylinder natural gas engine. Safety analysis for handling of hydrogen/natural gas blends. Hydrogen compatibility study of material and components in bus fuel system. Test of leak detection systems for hydrogen and hydrogen/natural gas blends. Development of safety routines for operation and maintenance staff. Emission measurement during road operation with mobile equipment. Follow up of filling station for hydrogen/natural gas blends. The results from the projects are: The buses did not need to be modified in any way in order to run on mixtures with up to 8 vol-% hydrogen. The buses could, in less than 4 h, be modified to run on mixtures with 25 vol-% hydrogen. The conversion was accomplished by changing one computer chip in the engine control system, thus altering the air/fuel ratio and adjusting the ignition angle. The fuel consumption of the buses was reduced by 20-30% by hydrogen addition. The largest relative influence was achieved with 8% hydrogen addition. The reduced fuel consumption in combination with reduced carbon content in the fuel resulted in a total reduction in CO{sub 2}-emission by approximately 35% using 8% hydrogen (by volume). Addition of hydrogen to natural gas has thus proved to be a more efficient way of reducing CO{sub 2

  4. From prototype to product. The development of low emission natural gas- and biogas buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, M. [Strateco Development AB, Haninge (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to show the development of natural gas and bio gas buses and trucks since the termination of the `Co-Nordic GasBus Project`, to which KFB was a major contributor and one of the initiators. Sweden have some 325 heavy duty methane vehicles of which almost 100 are bio gas operated. Scania and Volvo have produced, or have orders for, 500 gas buses to 6 different countries since 1990. The Project objectives were obtained and the significantly reduced emission levels aimed for, were shown. The international bus manufacturing industry followed, and have since shown the same low levels of emissions from gas bus engines. Sweden has taken the lead in the use of bio gas, by operating nearly 100 buses and trucks. Bio gas is still an underestimated fuel when it comes to supply, as it can provide fuel for 50% of the domestic use of diesel oil. Future development need to include control systems for more stable emissions, lower weight cylinders, less costly compressors, cleaning equipment and storage cylinders as well as more fuel efficient engines that can reduce mainly the discharge of CO2, NOx and CH4 further. Societal costs, regardless of who pays, for methane operated buses is still somewhat higher compared with best use of diesel + CRT technology. As commercialization develops, it is expected that the price of the vehicle will be reduced and emissions improved. It is therefore expected that the stake holders costs will be lower then that of diesel technology in the future

  5. Developing a discrete event simulation model for university student shuttle buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkepli, Jafri; Khalid, Ruzelan; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Hamid, Muhammad Hafizan

    2017-11-01

    Providing shuttle buses for university students to attend their classes is crucial, especially when their number is large and the distances between their classes and residential halls are far. These factors, in addition to the non-optimal current bus services, typically require the students to wait longer which eventually opens a space for them to complain. To considerably reduce the waiting time, providing the optimal number of buses to transport them from location to location and the effective route schedules to fulfil the students' demand at relevant time ranges are thus important. The optimal bus number and schedules are to be determined and tested using a flexible decision platform. This paper thus models the current services of student shuttle buses in a university using a Discrete Event Simulation approach. The model can flexibly simulate whatever changes configured to the current system and report its effects to the performance measures. How the model was conceptualized and formulated for future system configurations are the main interest of this paper.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of the two-phase ejector air-conditioning system for buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ünal, Şaban; Yilmaz, Tuncay

    2015-01-01

    Air-conditioning compressors of the buses are usually operated with the power taken from the engine of the buses. Therefore, an improvement in the air-conditioning system will reduce the fuel consumption of the buses. The improvement in the coefficient of performance (COP) of the air-conditioning system can be provided by using the two-phase ejector as an expansion valve in the air-conditioning system. In this study, the thermodynamic analysis of bus air-conditioning system enhanced with a two-phase ejector and two evaporators is performed. Thermodynamic analysis is made assuming that the mixing process in ejector occurs at constant cross-sectional area and constant pressure. The increase rate in the COP with respect to conventional system is analyzed in terms of the subcooling, condenser and evaporator temperatures. The analysis shows that COP improvement of the system by using the two phase ejector as an expansion device is 15% depending on design parameters of the existing bus air-conditioning system. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of the two-phase ejector refrigeration system. • Analysis of the COP increase rate of bus air-conditioning system. • Analysis of the entrainment ratio of the two-phase ejector refrigeration system

  7. Safety issues in urban transit facilities for hydrogen-fueled buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, R.H.; Ducharme, P.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance (CTFCA), created by the Canadian Government as part of its 2000 Climate Change Action Plan, has commissioned MARCON-DDM's Hydrogen Intervention Team (HIT) to provide a roadmap for urban transit systems that wish to move to hydrogen fuel cell-powered bus fleets. HIT is currently in the process of gathering information from hydrogen technology providers, bus manufacturers, fuelling system providers and urban transit systems in Canada, the US and Europe. In September, HIT will be in a position to provide a hands-on perspective of the introduction of fuel-cell buses in the Canadian environment. Part of the process of adding hydrogen-fueled busses to urban transit systems involves phasing in the new technology to minimize the economic cost. This involves substituting hydrogen buses into the normal bus procurement life cycle and maximizing the use of existing facilities for garaging, maintenance and fueling. Using a schematic outline of an urban transit system, this presentation will outline the safety issues specific to hydrogen in such systems, particularly for garaging, maintenance and fueling components. It will then outline how safety of these component is addressed in current and proposed codes, standards and recommended practices. Based on these requirements the impact of the introduction of hydrogen-fueled buses on each component of the transit system will be addressed in terms of the adaptations of current facilities and practices or the requirements for new facilities and practices. (author)

  8. Buses retrofitting with diesel particle filters: Real-world fuel economy and roadworthiness test considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Rafael; Amiel, Ran; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2018-05-01

    Retrofitting older vehicles with diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a cost-effective measure to quickly and efficiently reduce particulate matter emissions. This study experimentally analyzes real-world performance of buses retrofitted with CRT DPFs. 18 in-use Euro III technology urban and intercity buses were investigated for a period of 12months. The influence of the DPF and of the vehicle natural aging on buses fuel economy are analyzed and discussed. While the effect of natural deterioration is about 1.2%-1.3%, DPF contribution to fuel economy penalty is found to be 0.6% to 1.8%, depending on the bus type. DPF filtration efficiency is analyzed throughout the study and found to be in average 96% in the size range of 23-560nm. Four different load and non-load engine operating modes are investigated on their appropriateness for roadworthiness tests. High idle is found to be the most suitable regime for PN diagnostics considering particle number filtration efficiency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Studies of self-pollution in diesel school buses: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, Jonathan; Sirianni, Greg

    2007-09-01

    Considerable interest has focused on levels of exhaust emissions in the cabins of diesel-powered school buses and their possible adverse health effects. Significantly different policy and engineering issues would be raised if compelling evidence found that inc-cabin contamination was due to self-pollution from bus emissions, rather than ambient pollution, neighboring vehicles, and/or re-entrained road dust. We identified 19 reports from 11 studies that measured diesel exhaust particulate in the cabins of 58 school bus of various type. Studies were evaluated in light of their experimental design, their data quality, and their capacity to quantify self-pollution. Only one study had a true experimental design, comparing the same buses with and without emission controls, while four others used intentional tracers to quantify tail pipe and/or crankcase emissions. Although definitive data are still lacking, these studies suggest that currently available control technologies can nearly eliminate particulate self-pollution inside diesel school buses.

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of one versus two doses of Takeda's tetravalent dengue vaccine in children in Asia and Latin America: interim results from a phase 2, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Tricou, Vianney; Yu, Delia; Rivera, Luis; Tuboi, Suely; Garbes, Pedro; Borkowski, Astrid; Wallace, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in human beings, and vector control has not halted its spread worldwide. A dengue vaccine for individuals aged 9 years and older has been licensed, but there remains urgent medical need for a vaccine that is safe and effective against all four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-4) in recipients of all ages. Here, we present the preplanned interim analyses at 6 months of a tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (TDV), which is comprised of an attenuated DENV-2 virus strain (TDV-2) and three chimeric viruses containing the premembrane and envelope protein genes of DENV-1, DENV-3, and DENV-4 genetically engineered into the attenuated TDV-2 genome backbone (TDV-1, TDV-3, and TDV-4). An ongoing phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a TDV is being done at three sites in dengue-endemic countries (Dominican Republic, Panama, and the Philippines) to determine its safety and immunogenicity over 48 months in healthy participants aged 2-17 years who were randomly assigned (1:2:5:1) using an interactive web response system (stratified by age) to subcutaneous TDV injection (one 0·5 mL dose containing 2·5 × 10 4 plaque-forming units [PFU] of TDV-1; 6·3 × 10 3 PFU of TDV-2; 3·2 × 10 4 PFU of TDV-3; and 4·0 × 10 5 PFU of TDV-4) in different dose schedules (two-dose regimen at 0 and 3 months, one dose at 0 months, or one dose at 0 months and a booster at 12 months) or placebo. The primary endpoint of this 6 month interim analysis was geometric mean titres (GMTs) of neutralising antibodies against DENV-1-4 in the per-protocol immunogenicity subset at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the first injection. Safety was assessed as a secondary outcome as percentage of participants with serious adverse events in all participants who were injected (safety set), and solicited and unsolicited adverse events (immunogenicity subset). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT

  11. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location

  12. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Hunter, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  13. Interim Administrators in Higher Education: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Marie Thielke; Neubrander, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the roles and experiences of interim administrators in higher education. A survey was given to current and recent interim administrators in four-year public universities and colleges across the United States. The goals were to identify the advantages and disadvantages of using and serving as interims, and to solicit…

  14. An Approach for Evaluating the Technical Quality of Interim Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Marion, Scott; Perie, Marianne; Gong, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of schools and districts have expressed interest in interim assessment systems to prepare for summative assessments and to improve teaching and learning. However, with so many commercial interim assessments available, schools and districts are struggling to determine which interim assessment is most appropriate to their needs.…

  15. Real-time measurements of nitrogen oxide emissions from in-use New York City transit buses using a chase vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Joanne H; Herndon, Scott; Zahniser, Mark S; Nelson, David D; Wormhoudt, Joda; Demerjian, Kenneth L; Kolb, Charles E

    2005-10-15

    New diesel engine technologies and alternative fuel engines are being introduced into fleets of mass transit buses to try to meet stricter emission regulations of nitrogen oxides and particulates: Real-time instruments including an Aerodyne Research tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectrometer (TILDAS) were deployed in a mobile laboratory to assess the impact of the implementation of the new technologies on nitrogen oxide emissions in real world driving conditions. Using a "chase" vehicle sampling strategy, the mobile laboratory followed target vehicles, repeatedly sampling their exhaust. Nitrogen oxides from approximately 170 in-use New York City mass transit buses were sampled during the field campaigns. Emissions from conventional diesel buses, diesel buses with continuously regenerating technology (CRT), diesel hybrid electric buses, and compressed natural gas (CNG) buses were compared. The chase vehicle sampling method yields real world emissions that can be included in more realistic emission inventories. The NO, emissions from the diesel and CNG buses were comparable. The hybrid electric buses had approximately one-half the NOx emissions. In CRT diesels, NO2 accounts for about one-third of the NOx emitted in the exhaust, while for non-CRT buses the NO2 fraction is less than 10%.

  16. Early interim 18F-FDG PET in Hodgkin's lymphoma: evaluation on 304 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Stefoni, Vittorio; Broccoli, Alessandro; Argnani, Lisa; Baccarani, Michele; Rigacci, Luigi; Puccini, Benedetta; Castagnoli, Antonio; Vaggelli, Luca; Zanoni, Lucia; Fanti, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The use of early (interim) PET restaging during first-line therapy of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in clinical practice has considerably increased because of its ability to provide early recognition of treatment failure allowing patients to be transferred to more intensive treatment regimens. Between June 1997 and June 2009, 304 patients with newly diagnosed HL (147 early stage and 157 advanced stage) were treated with the ABVD regimen at two Italian institutions. Patients underwent PET staging and restaging at baseline, after two cycles of therapy and at the end of the treatment. Of the 304 patients, 53 showed a positive interim PET scan and of these only 13 (24.5%) achieved continuous complete remission (CCR), whereas 251 patients showed a negative PET scan and of these 231 (92%) achieved CCR. Comparison between interim PET-positive and interim PET-negative patients indicated a significant association between PET findings and 9-year progression-free survival and 9-year overall survival, with a median follow-up of 31 months. Among the early-stage patients, 19 had a positive interim PET scan and only 4 (21%) achieved CCR; among the 128 patients with a negative interim PET scan, 122 (97.6%) achieved CCR. Among the advanced-stage patients, 34 showed a persistently positive PET scan with only 9 (26.4%) achieving CCR, whereas 123 showed a negative interim PET scan with 109 (88.6%) achieving CCR. Our results demonstrate the role of an early PET scan as a significant step forward in the management of patients with early-stage or advanced-stage HL. (orig.)

  17. Efficiency improvement of transport service by trolley buses based on the levels of their power demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Aulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Use efficiency improvement of trolley buses in passenger traffic based on power levels of electric energy input and terms adjustment of their maintenance. Methodology. In order to achieve this goal conformance of electric energy input by trolleybus to the transported amount of passengers taking into account characteristics of the route is offered to establish. The major indicators of the trolleybus operation are: speed of a race on lines, number of tractive motor firing, voltage and amperage in the network that were taken with accountants from a dashboard. Research results were tabulated and recorded with DVR. Along with the study of power consumption of electric energy input by a trolleybus passenger count was carried out too. Findings. The directly proportional dependence between the level of energy consumption by a trolleybus and the number of passengers for constant performance route was determined. Originality. As the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the trolleybus operation on the route is proposed to use the ratio between electricity consumption and number of passengers for these characteristics of the route. This is confirmed experimentally. The obtained formulas give the possibility to balance the force work and consequently the volume of energy consumption during the trolleybus movement on the rise and the descent. Practical value. The proposed criterion can be used to adjust the terms of maintenance on the individual program, that means individual maintenance (IM. Type of work performed at the IM should be determined on the basis of diagnostic data of the vehicle (V. The principles of IM were formulated: 1 the primary task is planned and preventative strategy to identify and eliminate troubleshooting and technical actions; 2 operational control of the vehicle (V technical condition on the basis of prediction of its state using the proposed criteria, that takes into account the dependence of power consumption to

  18. Driving-behavior-aware stochastic model predictive control for plug-in hybrid electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yang, Chao; Yan, Bingjie; Song, Jian; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The novel approximated global optimal energy management strategy has been proposed for hybrid powertrains. • Eight typical driving behaviors have been classified with K-means to deal with the multiplicative traffic conditions. • The stochastic driver models of different driving behaviors were established based on the Markov chains. • ECMS was used to modify the SMPC-based energy management strategy to improve its fuel economy. • The approximated global optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric buses has been verified and analyzed. - Abstract: Driving cycles of a city bus is statistically characterized by some repetitive features, which makes the predictive energy management strategy very desirable to obtain approximate optimal fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric bus. But dealing with the complicated traffic conditions and finding an approximated global optimal strategy which is applicable to the plug-in hybrid electric bus still remains a challenging technique. To solve this problem, a novel driving-behavior-aware modified stochastic model predictive control method is proposed for the plug-in hybrid electric bus. Firstly, the K-means is employed to classify driving behaviors, and the driver models based on Markov chains is obtained under different kinds of driving behaviors. While the obtained driver behaviors are regarded as stochastic disturbance inputs, the local minimum fuel consumption might be obtained with a traditional stochastic model predictive control at each step, taking tracking the reference battery state of charge trajectory into consideration in the finite predictive horizons. However, this technique is still accompanied by some working points with reduced/worsened fuel economy. Thus, the stochastic model predictive control is modified with the equivalent consumption minimization strategy to eliminate these undesirable working points. The results in real-world city bus routines show that the

  19. Lessons for outsourcing and interim management relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, W; Kostyack, P T

    1999-01-01

    Few decisions can affect an organization more than the selection of an outsourcing or interim management partner. More and more health care organizations face such decisions in today's competitive market in order to face new business needs. Making these relationships successful can be important for health care organizations seeking competitive advantages or seeking immediately accessible management support. These relationships, however, require careful partner selection and development. Success in outsourcing and interim management relationships is contingent upon a thorough selection process, a strong contract that has clearly and explicitly detailed responsibilities and a culture-sensitive business rapport between the client and selected partner.

  20. 216-T-4 interim stabilization final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a general description of the activities performed for the interim stabilization of the 216-T-4-1 ditch, 216-T-4-2 ditch, and 216-T-4-2 pond. Interim stabilization was required to reduce the amount of surface-contaminated acres and to minimize the migration of radioactive contamination. Work associated with the 216-T4-1 ditch and 216-T-4-2 pond was performed by the Radiation Area Remedial Action (RARA) Project. Work associated with the 216-T-4-2 ditch was done concurrently but was funded by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS)

  1. Hitrex 1: an interim report on experimental and analytical work on BNL's zero power HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beynon, A.J.; Kitching, S.J.; Lewis, T.A.; Waterson, R.H.

    1972-06-15

    This report presents interim experimental and theoretical results for the BNL Hitrex reactor. Reactivity effects and thermal and fast reaction rate distributions have been measured. Preliminary analysis has been performed, and some initial comparisons between theory and experiments made. (auth)

  2. Fit of interim crowns fabricated using photopolymer-jetting 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hang-Nga; Lee, Kyu-Bok; Lee, Du-Hyeong

    2017-08-01

    The fit of interim crowns fabricated using 3-dimensional (3D) printing is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the fit of interim crowns fabricated using photopolymer-jetting 3D printing and to compare it with that of milling and compression molding methods. Twelve study models were fabricated by making an impression of a metal master model of the mandibular first molar. On each study model, interim crowns (N=36) were fabricated using compression molding (molding group, n=12), milling (milling group, n=12), and 3D polymer-jetting methods. The crowns were prepared as follows: molding group, overimpression technique; milling group, a 5-axis dental milling machine; and polymer-jetting group using a 3D printer. The fit of interim crowns was evaluated in the proximal, marginal, internal axial, and internal occlusal regions by using the image-superimposition and silicone-replica techniques. The Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the results among groups (α=.05). Compared with the molding group, the milling and polymer-jetting groups showed more accurate results in the proximal and marginal regions (P3D printing significantly enhanced the fit of interim crowns, particularly in the occlusal region. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nondestructive evaluation of creep-fatigue damage: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1977-02-01

    In view of the uncertainties involved in designing against creep-fatigue failure and the consequences of such failures in Class 1 nuclear components that operate at elevated temperature, the possibility of intermittent or even continuous non-destructive examination of these components has been considered. In this interim report some preliminary results on magnetic force and ultrasonic evaluation of creep-fatigue damage in an LMFBR steam generator material are presented. These results indicate that the non-destructive evaluation of pure creep damage will be extremely difficult. A set of biaxial creep-fatigue tests that are designed to discriminate between various failure theories is also described

  4. Effectiveness of interim remedial actions at a radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Seay, W.M.; McNamee, E.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past eight years, several interim remedial actions have been taken at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), primarily to reduce radon and gamma radiation exposures and to consolidate radioactive waste into a waste containment facility. Interim remedial actions have included capping of vents, sealing of pipes, relocation of the perimeter fence (to limit radon risk), transfer and consolidation of waste, upgrading of storage buildings, construction of a clay cutoff wall (to limit the potential groundwater transport of contaminants), treatment and release of contaminated water, interim use of a synthetic liner, and emplacement of an interim clay cap. An interim waste containment facility was completed in 1986. 6 refs., 3 figs

  5. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable.

  6. Adopting Clean Fuels and Technologies on School Buses. Pollution and Health Impacts in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Sara D; D'Souza, Jennifer; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D; Hallstrand, Teal S; Davey, Mark E; Sullivan, James R; Jahnke, Jordan; Koenig, Jane; Larson, Timothy V; Liu, L J Sally

    2015-06-15

    More than 25 million American children breathe polluted air on diesel school buses. Emission reduction policies exist, but the health impacts to individual children have not been evaluated. Using a natural experiment, we characterized the exposures and health of 275 school bus riders before, during, and after the adoption of clean technologies and fuels between 2005 and 2009. Air pollution was measured during 597 trips on 188 school buses. Repeated measures of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function (FEV1, FVC), and absenteeism were also collected monthly (1,768 visits). Mixed-effects models longitudinally related the adoption of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), closed crankcase ventilation systems (CCVs), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), or biodiesel with exposures and health. Fine and ultrafine particle concentrations were 10-50% lower on buses using ULSD, DOCs, and/or CCVs. ULSD adoption was also associated with reduced FeNO (-16% [95% confidence interval (CI), -21 to -10%]), greater changes in FVC and FEV1 (0.02 [95% CI, 0.003 to 0.05] and 0.01 [95% CI, -0.006 to 0.03] L/yr, respectively), and lower absenteeism (-8% [95% CI, -16.0 to -0.7%]), with stronger associations among patients with asthma. DOCs, and to a lesser extent CCVs, also were associated with improved FeNO, FVC growth, and absenteeism, but these findings were primarily restricted to patients with persistent asthma and were often sensitive to control for ULSD. No health benefits were noted for biodiesel. Extrapolating to the U.S. population, changed fuel/technologies likely reduced absenteeism by more than 14 million/yr. National and local diesel policies appear to have reduced children's exposures and improved health.

  7. High prevalence of EMRSA-15 in Portuguese public buses: a worrisome finding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roméo Rocha Simões

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nosocomial prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Portugal remains one of the highest in Europe and is currently around 50%. Transmission of S. aureus, including MRSA, occurs principally by direct human-to-human skin contact. However, S. aureus can survive for long periods on inanimate objects, which may represent an important reservoir for dissemination as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between May 2009 and February 2010, handrails of 85 public urban buses circulating in Oporto, Portugal, were screened for the occurrence of MRSA. Twenty-two (26% buses showed MRSA contamination. The molecular characterization of a total of 55 MRSA, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC mec typing, spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, clustered the isolates into three clonal types. However, the overwhelming majority (n = 50; 91% of the isolates belonged to a single clone (PFGE A, spa types t747, t032, t025 or t020, ST22, SCCmec type IVh that exhibits the characteristics of the pandemic EMRSA-15, currently the major lineage circulating in Portuguese hospitals, namely in the Oporto region. Two additional clones were found but in much lower numbers: (i PFGE B, ST5, spa type t002, SCCmec IVa (n = 3, and (ii PFGE C, spa type t008, ST8, SCCmec IVa (n = 2. None of the 55 isolates was PVL positive. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Public buses in Oporto seem to be an important reservoir of MRSA of nosocomial origin, providing evidence that the major hospital-associated MRSA clone in Portugal is escaping from the primary ecological niche of hospitals to the community environment. Infection control measures are urgently warranted to limit the spread of EMRSA-15 to the general population and future studies are required to assess the eventual increase of MRSA in the Portuguese community, which so far remains low.

  8. Interim storage of radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report covers all the principal aspects of production and interim storage of radioactive waste packages. The latest design solutions of waste storage facilities and the operational experiences of developed countries are described and evaluated in order to assist developing Member States in decision making and design and construction of their own storage facilities. This report is applicable to any category of radioactive waste package prepared for interim storage, including conditioned spent fuel, high level waste and sealed radiation sources. This report addresses the following issues: safety principles and requirements for storage of waste packages; treatment and conditioning methods for the main categories of radioactive waste; examples of existing interim storage facilities for LILW, spent fuel and high level waste; operational experience of Member States in waste storage operations including control of storage conditions, surveillance of waste packages and observation of the behaviour of waste packages during storage; retrieval of waste packages from storage facilities; technical and administrative measures that will ensure optimal performance of waste packages subject to various periods of interim storage

  9. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  10. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., monitoring and assessment; (ii) Be provided to the independent scientific review panel established in.... The interim goals shall be developed through the use of appropriate models and tools and shall provide... to be required to meet long-term hydrological and ecological restoration goals, based on best...

  11. Interim Storage Facility decommissioning. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Speed, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the Interim Storage Facility were completed. Activities included performing a detailed radiation survey of the facility, removing surface and imbedded contamination, excavating and removing the fuel storage cells, restoring the site to natural conditions, and shipping waste to Hanford, Washington, for burial. The project was accomplished on schedule and 30% under budget with no measurable exposure to decommissioning personnel

  12. 19 CFR 354.8 - Interim sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reconsider imposition of interim sanctions on the basis of new and material evidence or other good cause... Secretary may petition a presiding official to impose such sanctions. (b) The presiding official may impose... person to return material previously provided by the Department and all other materials containing the...

  13. A Non-Traditional Interim Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Diane; Ward, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    Describes a project initiated by the Foreign Language Department of Birmingham-Southern College for their Interim term and discusses an interdisciplinary course focusing on Medieval Europe. The course included presentations on German and French language and literature, as well as lectures on the arts, philosophy, and family life of the period.…

  14. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  15. ITER interim design report package documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-8), the ITER Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis, ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions and the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-9). 8 figs, 2 tabs

  16. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  17. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people

  18. Operational integrity using field buses; Integridade operacional utilizando barramentos de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Carlos Henrique [Coester Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The device information is collected using standardized Filed Buses with high data transmission capacity, which allows the analysis of his operational status in real time. The quantity of information generated by the devices for the maintenance area is increasing and this data quantity transferred through the field bus should not interfere in the network performance to the point of degrade his control function. In this way, is presented a technique that can be used in different protocols, which allow sending of maintenance data using a small band of the communication channel. Operational integrity can be achieved using predictive maintenance techniques based on the collected data. (author)

  19. Long-term interim storage concepts with conditioning strategies ensuring compatibility with subsequent disposal or reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moitrier, C.; Tirel, I.; Villard, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the CEA studies carried out under research topic 3 (long-term interim storage) of the 1991 French radioactive waste management law is to demonstrate the industrial feasibility of a comprehensive, flexible interim storage facility by thoroughly evaluating and comparing all the basic components of various interim storage concepts. In this context, the CEA is considering reference solutions or concepts based on three primary components (the package, the interim storage facility and the site) suitable for determining the specifications of a very long-term solution. Some aspects are examined in greater detail, such as the implementation of long-term technologies, conditioning processes ensuring the absence of water and contamination in the facility, or allowance for radioactive decay of the packages. The results obtained are continually compiled in reports substantiating the design options. These studies should also lead to an overall economic assessment in terms of the capital and operating cost requirements, thereby providing an additional basis for selecting the design options. The comparison with existing industrial facilities highlights the technical and economic progress represented by the new generation of interim storage units. (authors)

  20. Cost estimation of interim dry storage for Atucha I NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergallo, Juan E.; Fuenzalida Troyano, Carlos S.

    2007-01-01

    A joint effort between NASA and CNEA has been performed in order to evaluate and fix the strategy of interim spent fuel storage for Atucha I nuclear power plant. In this work the cost estimation on the proposed system was performed in order to fix the parameter and design criteria for the next engineering step. The main results achieved show that both alternatives are all in the same range of costs per unit of mass to be stored, the impact on electricity cost is less than 1 US mills/KWh and the scaling factor achieved is 0.85. (author) [es

  1. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lybeck, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY2010 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under NQA-1 guidelines, and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from two test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault: (1) Tensile Tests for Sm (i.e., Allowable Stress) Confirmatory Testing - 1,403,994 records have been inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process. (2) Creep-Fatigue Testing to Support Determination of Creep-Fatigue Interaction Diagram - 918,854 records have been processed and inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process.

  2. Development of Accident Scenario for Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility Based on Fukushima Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongjin; Choi, Kwangsoon; Yoon, Hyungjoon; Park, Jungsu [KEPCO-E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    700 MTU of spent nuclear fuel is discharged from nuclear fleet every year and spent fuel storage is currently 70.9% full. The on-site wet type spent fuel storage pool of each NPP(nuclear power plants) in Korea will shortly exceed its storage limit. Backdrop, the Korean government has rolled out a plan to construct an interim spent fuel storage facility by 2024. However, the type of interim spent fuel storage facility has not been decided yet in detail. The Fukushima accident has resulted in more stringent requirements for nuclear facilities in case of beyond design basis accidents. Therefore, there has been growing demand for developing scenario on interim storage facility to prepare for beyond design basis accidents and conducting dose assessment based on the scenario to verify the safety of each type of storage.

  3. Using ERA-Interim reanalysis for creating datasets of energy-relevant climate variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Philip D.; Harpham, Colin; Troccoli, Alberto; Gschwind, Benoit; Ranchin, Thierry; Wald, Lucien; Goodess, Clare M.; Dorling, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    The construction of a bias-adjusted dataset of climate variables at the near surface using ERA-Interim reanalysis is presented. A number of different, variable-dependent, bias-adjustment approaches have been proposed. Here we modify the parameters of different distributions (depending on the variable), adjusting ERA-Interim based on gridded station or direct station observations. The variables are air temperature, dewpoint temperature, precipitation (daily only), solar radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity. These are available on either 3 or 6 h timescales over the period 1979-2016. The resulting bias-adjusted dataset is available through the Climate Data Store (CDS) of the Copernicus Climate Change Data Store (C3S) and can be accessed at present from climate.copernicus.eu" target="_blank">ftp://ecem.climate.copernicus.eu. The benefit of performing bias adjustment is demonstrated by comparing initial and bias-adjusted ERA-Interim data against gridded observational fields.

  4. Technological capability assessment of suppliers to support product development: case study on a buses and coaches manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Comerlato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management has become a critical issue in the global collaboration scenario. Suppliers are not expected to provide just commodities or pre-defined components, but also collaborative engineering design solutions within the product development cycle. Thus, the selection criteria for defining supply partner go beyond the production and logistic capabilities, but must also include technical and engineering competence. This, in some sense, can be considered a common scenario of big companies, but is still challenging when dealing with SME´s. This work discusses how SME´s can be included in a supply chains taking in consideration a set of parameters to assess their technical competence related to product development collaboration. A set of eight parameters has been proposed to assess the engineering team competence, physical and technological structure and further legal responsibility. For each parameter values and weights were defined also. The assessment was applied to three companies that are suppliers of a buses and coaches manufacturer from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The results show that even when dealing with objective parameters, the suppliers and costumer can have different perceptions about same issues.

  5. Consumption-efficient regulation and switching concepts for air conditioners in buses; Verbrauchseffiziente Regelungs- und Verschaltungskonzepte fuer Omnibusklimaanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Christian; Tegethoff, Wilhelm [TLK-Thermo GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Koehler, Juergen [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik; Sonnekalb, Michael [Konvekta AG, Schwalmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The reduction of the fuel consumption and the related reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions is one of the most important requirements in the current development of vehicles. This includes the development of fuel-efficient drive systems and the optimization of the so-called auxiliary users such as the air conditioner. The majority of the buses used today have an air conditioner in order to meet the increased demand of passengers for comfort. Since the operation of the air conditioner results in a significant increase in fuel consumption and thus in enhanced emissions of CO{sub 2}, an essential task of the development engineer is to minimize this additional consumption. In order to identify possible optimization potentials, a bus simulation model was developed which investigates not only exclusively compression refrigeration systems, but also is in communication with their relevant systems: heating circuit with engine cooling circuit, vehicle interior, on-board electrical system and vehicle longitudinal dynamics with the drive train. In the contribution under consideration, potentials of energy conservation should be identified that can be achieved due to the use of improved control and switching concepts. For this purpose, both the conventional R-744 (CO{sub 2}) bus air conditioning systems as well as alternative systems such as an ejector cycle were studied by means of a total vehicle simulation of the bus and compared.

  6. Scientific criteria document for the development of an interim provincial water quality objective for aniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelow, R.V.; Bazinet, N.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop an interim provincial water quality objective for aniline for the protection of aquatic life in Ontario. It reviews the sources of aniline in the environment, its environmental fate and properties, acute and chronic toxicity as determined from results reported in the literature on toxicity tests using vertebrates and invertebrates, the bioaccumulation of aniline in the environment, mutagenic effects, and threshold aniline concentrations affecting fish odour and taste. The document then explains the derivation of the interim water quality objective. Water quality criteria for aniline developed in other jurisdictions are noted.

  7. Early rehabilitation of facial defects using interim removable prostheses: A clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekanandhan Ramkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection of neoplasms or malformations of the face may result in defects that are not amenable to immediate surgical reconstruction. Such defects can have a severe adverse effect on patient perceptions of body image and self-esteem. In these cases, the use of an interim removable facial prosthesis can offer a rapid alternative treatment solution. The patient may then resume social interactions more comfortably while permitting easy access to the facial defect to observe tissue healing while awaiting definitive rehabilitation. This article presents a case report describing the use of interim nasal prostheses to provide rapid patient rehabilitation of facial defects.

  8. Spent fuel interim management: 1995 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The problems of interim away-from-reactor spent fuel storage and storage in spent fuel pools at the reactor site are discussed. An overview of the state-of-the-art in the USA, Europe, and Japan is presented. The technical facilities for away-from-reactor storage are briefly described, including wet storage pools, interactive concrete systems, metallic containers, and passive concrete systems. Reprocessing technologies are mostly at the design stage only. It is predicted that during the 20 years to come, about 50 000 tonnes of spent fuel will be stored at reactor sites regardless of the advance of spent fuel reprocessing or interim storage projects. (J.B.). 4 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Pathways to deep decarbonization - Interim 2014 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The interim 2014 report by the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP), coordinated and published by IDDRI and the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), presents preliminary findings of the pathways developed by the DDPP Country Research Teams with the objective of achieving emission reductions consistent with limiting global warming to less than 2 deg. C. The DDPP is a knowledge network comprising 15 Country Research Teams and several Partner Organizations who develop and share methods, assumptions, and findings related to deep decarbonization. Each DDPP Country Research Team has developed an illustrative road-map for the transition to a low-carbon economy, with the intent of taking into account national socio-economic conditions, development aspirations, infrastructure stocks, resource endowments, and other relevant factors. The interim 2014 report focuses on technically feasible pathways to deep decarbonization

  10. Poor predictive value of positive interim FDG-PET/CT in primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarovici, Julien; Petrovanu, Cynthia; Danu, Alina; Ferme, Christophe; Ribrag, Vincent; Ghez, David [Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France). Dept. of Hematology; Paris Saclay Univ., Saint-Aubin (France); Terroir, Marie [Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology; Paris Saclay Univ., Saint-Aubin (France); Arfi-Rouche, Julia [Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France). Dept. of Radiology; Paris Saclay Univ., Saint-Aubin (France); Michot, Jean-Marie [Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France). Dept. of Drug Development (DITEP); Paris Saclay Univ., Saint-Aubin (France); Mussot, Sacha; Florea, Valentina [Marie Lannelongue Hospital, Le Plessis Robinson (France). Dept. of Thoracic Surgery; Ghigna, Maria-Rosa [Marie Lannelongue Hospital, Le Plessis Robinson (France). Dept. of Pathology; Dartigues, Peggy [Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France). Dept. of Pathology; Paris Saclay Univ., Saint-Aubin (France)

    2017-11-15

    Though commonly used to assess response to therapy, the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET/CT in Primary Mediastinal Large B-cell Lymphoma (PMBCL) is unclear. We conducted a retrospective study on 36 consecutive patients treated at our institution for a PMBCL between 2006 and 2014. All patients with a positive interim FDG-PET/CT had undergone histological restaging consisting either in a surgical debulking of the residual lesion (15 patients) or a CT-guided core needle biopsy (two patients). All FDG-PET/CT were secondarily reviewed according to the more recent Deauville criteria. Interim FDG-PET/CT was considered positive in 17/36 patients using visual evaluation. Among these patients, 14 had a Deauville score of 4. Histological restaging was negative in all but one case, showing inflammation and/or fibrosis. After a median follow-up of 48.5 months, a total of five patients have relapsed, two patients in the positive FDG-PET/CT group, and three patients in the negative FDG-PET/CT group, respectively. These data indicate that a positive interim FDG-PET/CT does not reflect persistence of active disease in the vast majority of PMBCL cases. The relapse rate appears similar regardless of interim FDG-PET/CT results and interpretation criteria. This suggests that interim FDG-PET/CT has a poor positive predictive value, thus kt should be used with caution in PMBCL. (orig.)

  11. Safety of Long-term Interim Storage Facilities - Workshop Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this workshop was to discuss and review current national activities, plans and regulatory approaches for the safety of long term interim storage facilities dedicated to spent nuclear fuel (SF), high level waste (HLW) and other radioactive materials with prolonged storage regimes. It was also intended to discuss results of experiments and to identify necessary R and D to confirm safety of fuel and cask during the long-term storage. Safety authorities and their Technical Support Organisation (TSO), Fuel Cycle Facilities (FCF) operating organisations and international organisations were invited to share information on their approaches, practices and current developments. The workshop was organised in an opening session, three technical sessions, and a conclusion session. The technical sessions were focused on: - National approaches for long term interim storage facilities; - Safety requirements, regulatory framework and implementation issues; - Technical issues and operational experience, needs for R and D. Each session consisted of a number of presentations followed by a panel discussion moderated by the session Chairs. A summary of each session and subsequent discussion that ensued are provided as well as a summary of the results of the workshop with the text of the papers given and presentations made

  12. Tribal child welfare. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is issuing this interim final rule to implement statutory provisions related to the Tribal title IV-E program. Effective October 1, 2009, section 479B(b) of the Social Security Act (the Act) authorizes direct Federal funding of Indian Tribes, Tribal organizations, and Tribal consortia that choose to operate a foster care, adoption assistance and, at Tribal option, a kinship guardianship assistance program under title IV-E of the Act. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 requires that ACF issue interim final regulations which address procedures to ensure that a transfer of responsibility for the placement and care of a child under a State title IV-E plan to a Tribal title IV-E plan occurs in a manner that does not affect the child's eligibility for title IV-E benefits or medical assistance under title XIX of the Act (Medicaid) and such services or payments; in-kind expenditures from third-party sources for the Tribal share of administration and training expenditures under title IV-E; and other provisions to carry out the Tribal-related amendments to title IV-E. This interim final rule includes these provisions and technical amendments necessary to implement a Tribal title IV-E program.

  13. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration that includes 13 advanced-d...

  14. New Britain, Conn. School District will Benefit from $125,000 EPA Rebate for Clean Emission School Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The New Britain, Conn. school district will benefit from a $125,000 US EPA rebate that will pay for retrofitted engines on seven older school buses so they would emit fewer pollutants that are linked to health problems such as asthma and lung damage.

  15. Chicopee, Mass. School District will Benefit from $200,000 EPA Rebate to Clean Up Emissions from School Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A school district in Chicopee., Mass. will benefit from $200,000 from the US EPA that will pay for rebates to retrofit the engines on 10 older school buses so they would emit fewer pollutants that are linked to health problems such as asthma & lung damage.

  16. NAA of an iridium tracer to determine soot exposure of students commuting on Baltimore`s buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondov, J.M.; Wu, C.C.; Lin, Zhibo; Kidwell, C.B. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that short-term increases in indices of particulate air pollution are associated with increased mortality and morbidity from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. An important component of urban aerosol, diesel soot, is a known respiratory irritant and contains mutagenic and carcinogenic organic compounds. In the United States, motor vehicles are thought to be the largest single source of atmospheric soot and account for {approximately}36% of the annual anthropogenic emission of toxic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Much of the motor-vehicle-derived PAH originates from diesel-powered vehicles because their PAH emissions are up to 50-fold greater than those from gasoline engines. In Baltimore, city high school students take public buses to school and, often, must stand at bus stops while many diesel buses pass or stop before their own buses arrive. To estimate student exposures to soot emitted from public diesel buses (MTA) during commutes to city high schools, the Baltimore municipal fuel supply was tagged with an iridium tracer, and exposure was monitored during commutes with personal aerosol monitors as a part of the Baltimore Environmental Justice Project.

  17. Pilot testing of environment-friendly low-emission alternative drive components for city buses. Phase 1. Technical final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doemeland, H.; Haase, G.; Sarnes, J.; Schultheis, S.; Schuenemann, M.; Strauss, A.; Voss, K.; Aepler, E.; Stachel, K.; Wolter, M.; Lenz, W.

    1993-05-01

    The report describes pilot tests of environment-friendly, low-emission city buses with alternative drive systems. The following problems are discussed: Natural gas as primary energy source, natural gas drives, safety requirements, measurement and testing technology for natural gas engines, environmental effects, operating concepts, operating cost. (HW) [de

  18. Walking School Buses as a Form of Active Transportation for Children--A Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Liz; Norgate, Sarah H.; Cherrett, Tom; Davies, Nigel; Winstanley, Christopher; Harding, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background: Walking school buses (WSBs) offer a potentially healthier way for children to get to school while reducing traffic congestion. A number of pressing societal challenges make it timely to evaluate evidence of their value. Methods: Studies that focused solely on WSBs were identified through online and manual literature searches. Twelve…

  19. Alternatives generation and analysis report for immobilized low-level waste interim storage architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-01

    The Immobilized Low-Level Waste Interim Storage subproject will provide storage capacity for immobilized low-level waste product sold to the U.S. Department of Energy by the privatization contractor. This report describes alternative Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architectures, evaluation criteria, and evaluation results to support the Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architecture selection decision process.

  20. 24 CFR 982.516 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.516 Family income and composition: Regular and... assistance payment. (For a voucher tenancy, the housing assistance payment shall be calculated in accordance... the housing assistance payment resulting from an interim redetermination. (2) At the effective date of...

  1. 78 FR 76160 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS) Capital Fund Interim Scoring Notice: Reinstitution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... System (PHAS) Capital Fund Interim Scoring Notice: Reinstitution of Five Points for Occupancy Sub... intended to help lessen the impact of decreases in funding in recent appropriations acts. Adding automatic... to adjust their systems and procedures to the new scoring regime. As a result of automatic across-the...

  2. Development of CH{sub 3}OH fueled PEMFC power plants for hybrid transit buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumert, R; Cooper, R; Feasey, G [DBB Fuel Cell Engines Corp., Poway, CA (United States)

    1999-12-31

    An overview of the methanol fuel cell power system was provided, identifying improved efficiency and reduced emissions as the principal advantages. Four critical tasks regarding on-board fuel processing were described: (1) efficient methanol conversion (steam reforming), (2) effective reformate purification (selective catalytic oxidation), (3) optimized heat integration, and (4) rapid response to transients. A description of a 100 kW PEM fuel cell bus engine package was also presented. As far as a development time table is concerned, the DBB Fuel Cell Engines Corp. of Poway California has completed two methanol fueled PEMFC power plants, fabrication of the initial 100 kW PEMFC engine is in progress and scheduled for delivery by 1998. The two methanol fueled commercial products which are in the planning stages are the 100 and 200 kW class FCPS for hybrid and non-hybrid buses and other applications. tabs., figs.

  3. Individual shareholders’ understanding of the content of interim reports of South African listed retail companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan GI Oberholster

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies conducted, and reports published, by international and local accounting bodies have found that the proliferation of disclosures in financial reports has hampered users’ understanding of these reports. The reports by accounting bodies also indicate that these users prefer more concise financial reports. These findings, in conjunction with a dearth of recent questionnaire-based research on whether individual shareholders understand the content of financial reports, resulted in this study on whether individual shareholders understand the content of interim reports. The study provides empirical proof that a sound knowledge of business, accounting and economic matters is a prerequisite for understanding interim reports in the case of individual shareholders. The results of the study indicate that individual shareholders have a limited understanding of the content of interim reports as a whole, and that a good knowledge of business and economic matters and of accounting results in an improved understanding of the content of interim reports. In particular, specialisation in accounting in undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, professional qualifications, and work experience in the financial field improve the understanding of individual shareholders.

  4. What is Needed in the EU's 2030 Climate and Energy Framework. Interim Discussion Paper and Results from a Research Project Led by IDDRI and Climate Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Spencer, Thomas IDDRI; Colombier, Michel; Bart, Istvan; Cochran, Ian; Neuhoff, Karsten; Szpor, Aleksander; Tuerk, Andreas; Wyns, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The EU 2030 Climate and Energy Framework presents a number of technical challenges whose solution will be essential to its effectiveness. These include: the question of the role and reform of the ETS, the approach to decarbonization of non-ETS sectors, and the mechanisms that exist for governing the package of policies at EU and Member State level. This discussion paper presents preliminary results from an analysis of these challenges, as well as proposals that could be included in the package of post- 2020 climate policies. (authors)

  5. Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina (ed.) [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    level. This latter group of FEPs is also documented in the SR-Can version of the FEP database. The further processing of the initial state FEPs revealed that those FEPs that are not covered by the description of the repository design or by the site description, concern deviations from the intended initial state as a consequence of undetected mishaps, sabotage etc. These FEPs were propagated to the selection of scenarios. Relevant process FEPs from the audit were used to update the SR 97 set of internal processes for the engineered barrier system and the geosphere. The resulting SR-Can set of processes for the buffer are documented in the interim version of the SR-Can Process report and as process headings in the SR-Can interim version of the FEP database. Preliminary lists with SR-Can processes for the other system components are presently available in the interim version of the FEP database, but these lists will be further processed and documented in the final version of the SR-Can Process report. External FEPs from the audit were checked against the plans for managing these issues in SR-Can. Climate and large-scale geological FEPs were compared against the plans for modelling these phenomena and the handling of future human actions were compared to the handling in SR 97, which forms the basis for the handling in SR-Can. The coverage was found satisfactory. The results are not documented in the interim version of the SR-Can database, but will be so in the final version of the SR-Can database.

  6. Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2004-08-01

    level. This latter group of FEPs is also documented in the SR-Can version of the FEP database. The further processing of the initial state FEPs revealed that those FEPs that are not covered by the description of the repository design or by the site description, concern deviations from the intended initial state as a consequence of undetected mishaps, sabotage etc. These FEPs were propagated to the selection of scenarios. Relevant process FEPs from the audit were used to update the SR 97 set of internal processes for the engineered barrier system and the geosphere. The resulting SR-Can set of processes for the buffer are documented in the interim version of the SR-Can Process report and as process headings in the SR-Can interim version of the FEP database. Preliminary lists with SR-Can processes for the other system components are presently available in the interim version of the FEP database, but these lists will be further processed and documented in the final version of the SR-Can Process report. External FEPs from the audit were checked against the plans for managing these issues in SR-Can. Climate and large-scale geological FEPs were compared against the plans for modelling these phenomena and the handling of future human actions were compared to the handling in SR 97, which forms the basis for the handling in SR-Can. The coverage was found satisfactory. The results are not documented in the interim version of the SR-Can database, but will be so in the final version of the SR-Can database

  7. Interim FDG-PET Scan in Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Hopes and Caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. André

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available FDG-PET has recently emerged as an important tool for the management of Hodgkins lymphoma. Although its use for initial staging and response evaluation at the end of treatment is well established, the place of interim PET for response assessment and subsequent treatment tailoring is still quite controversial. The use of interim PET after a few cycles of chemotherapy may allow treatment reduction for good responders, leading to lesser treatment toxicities as well as early treatment adaptation for bad responders with a potential higher chance for cure. Interpretation of interim PET is a rapidly moving field. Actually, visual interpretation is preferred over quantitative interpretation in this situation. The notion of minimal residual uptake emerged for faint persisting FDG uptake, but has evolved during the recent years. Guidelines using mediastinum and liver as references have been proposed at the expert meeting in Deauville 2009. Actually, several trials are ongoing both for localised and advanced disease to evaluate the FDG-PET potential for early treatment monitoring and tailoring. Until the results of these prospective randomized trials become available, treatment changes according to the interim PET results should remain inappropriate and limited to well-conducted clinical trials.

  8. The Homestake Interim Laboratory and Homestake DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2011-12-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead South Dakota is proposed for the National Science Foundation's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The gold mine provides expedient access to depths in excess of 8000 feet below the surface (>7000 mwe). Homestake's long history of promoting scientific endeavours includes the Davis Solar Neutrino Experiment, a chlorine-based experiment that was hosted at the 4850 Level for more than 30 years. As DUSEL, Homestake would be uncompromised by competition with mining interests or other shared uses. The facility's 600-km of drifts would be available for conversion for scientific and educational uses. The State of South Dakota, under Governor Rounds' leadership, has demonstrated exceptionally strong support for Homestake and the creation of DUSEL. The State has provided funding totalling $46M for the preservation of the site for DUSEL and for the conversion and operation of the Homestake Interim Laboratory. Motivated by the strong educational and outreach potential of Homestake, the State contracted a Conversion Plan by world-recognized mine-engineering contractor to define the process of rehabilitating the facility, establishing the appropriate safety program, and regaining access to the facility. The State of South Dakota has established the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to oversee the transfer of the Homestake property to the State and the rehabilitation and preservation of the facility. The Homestake Scientific Collaboration and the State of South Dakota's Science and Technology Authority has called for Letters of Interest from scientific, educational and engineering collaborations and institutions that are interested in hosting experiments and uses in the Homestake Interim Facility in advance of the NSF's DUSEL, to define experiments starting as early as 2007. The Homestake Program Advisory Committee has reviewed these Letters and their initial report has been released. Options for

  9. The Homestake Interim Laboratory and Homestake DUSEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2011-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead South Dakota is proposed for the National Science Foundation's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The gold mine provides expedient access to depths in excess of 8000 feet below the surface (>7000 mwe). Homestake's long history of promoting scientific endeavours includes the Davis Solar Neutrino Experiment, a chlorine-based experiment that was hosted at the 4850 Level for more than 30 years. As DUSEL, Homestake would be uncompromised by competition with mining interests or other shared uses. The facility's 600-km of drifts would be available for conversion for scientific and educational uses. The State of South Dakota, under Governor Rounds' leadership, has demonstrated exceptionally strong support for Homestake and the creation of DUSEL. The State has provided funding totalling $46M for the preservation of the site for DUSEL and for the conversion and operation of the Homestake Interim Laboratory. Motivated by the strong educational and outreach potential of Homestake, the State contracted a Conversion Plan by world-recognized mine-engineering contractor to define the process of rehabilitating the facility, establishing the appropriate safety program, and regaining access to the facility. The State of South Dakota has established the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to oversee the transfer of the Homestake property to the State and the rehabilitation and preservation of the facility. The Homestake Scientific Collaboration and the State of South Dakota's Science and Technology Authority has called for Letters of Interest from scientific, educational and engineering collaborations and institutions that are interested in hosting experiments and uses in the Homestake Interim Facility in advance of the NSF's DUSEL, to define experiments starting as early as 2007. The Homestake Program Advisory Committee has reviewed these Letters and their initial report has been released. Options for

  10. Early Chemotherapy Intensification With Escalated BEACOPP in Patients With Advanced-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma With a Positive Interim Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Scan After Two ABVD Cycles: Long-Term Results of the GITIL/FIL HD 0607 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallamini, Andrea; Tarella, Corrado; Viviani, Simonetta; Rossi, Andrea; Patti, Caterina; Mulé, Antonino; Picardi, Marco; Romano, Alessandra; Cantonetti, Maria; La Nasa, Giorgio; Trentin, Livio; Bolis, Silvia; Rapezzi, Davide; Battistini, Roberta; Gottardi, Daniela; Gavarotti, Paolo; Corradini, Paolo; Cimminiello, Michele; Schiavotto, Corrado; Parvis, Guido; Zanotti, Roberta; Gini, Guido; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Viero, Piera; Miglino, Maurizio; Billio, Atto; Avigdor, Abraham; Biggi, Alberto; Fallanca, Federico; Ficola, Umberto; Gregianin, Michele; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Prosperini, Giuseppe; Bergesio, Fabrizio; Chauvie, Stephane; Pavoni, Chiara; Gianni, Alessandro Massimo; Rambaldi, Alessandro

    2018-02-10

    Purpose To investigate the progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) after a risk-adapted treatment strategy that was based on a positive positron emission tomography scan performed after two doxorubicin, vinblastine, vincristine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) cycles (PET2). Patients and Methods Patients with advanced-stage (IIB to IVB) HL were consecutively enrolled. After two ABVD cycles, PET2 was performed and centrally reviewed according to the Deauville five-point scale. Patients with a positive PET2 were randomly assigned to four cycles of escalated bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP) followed by four cycles of standard BEACOPP with or without rituximab. Patients with a negative PET2 continued ABVD, and those with a large nodal mass at diagnosis (≥ 5 cm) in complete remission with a negative PET at the end of chemotherapy were randomly assigned to radiotherapy or no further treatment. The primary end point was 3-year PFS. Results Of 782 enrolled patients, 150 (19%) had a positive and 630 (81%) a negative PET2. The 3-year PFS of all patients was 82%. The 3-year PFS of those with a positive and negative PET2 was 60% and 87%, respectively ( P < .001). The 3-year PFS of patients with a positive PET2 assigned to BEACOPP with or without rituximab was 63% versus 57% ( P = .53). In 296 patients with both interim and post-ABVD-negative PET who had a large nodal mass at diagnosis, radiotherapy was randomly added after chemotherapy without a significant PFS improvement (97% v 93%, respectively; P = .29). The 3-year overall survival of all 782 patients was 97% (99% and 89% for PET2 negative and positive, respectively). Conclusion The PET-driven switch from ABVD to escalated BEACOPP is feasible and effective in high-risk patients with advanced-stage HL.

  11. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline... apply to: (i) All gasoline sold or transferred to a party who sells or transfers gasoline to the...

  12. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660.720 Section 660.720 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§ 660.707...

  13. 12 CFR 541.18 - Interim Federal savings association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an existing savings and loan holding company or to facilitate any other transaction the Office may... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim Federal savings association. 541.18... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.18 Interim Federal savings association. The term...

  14. Transuranic waste storage and assay facility (TRUSAF) interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, K.D.

    1995-09-01

    The TRUSAF ISB is based upon current facility configuration and procedures. The purpose of the document is to provide the basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and the authorization basis for the TRUSAF at the Hanford Site. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1977) is superseded by this document

  15. Presidential Transition: The Experience of Two Community College Interim Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the experiences of two community college interim presidents, their characteristics, and how they led institutions following an abrupt presidential departure. There were two fundamental questions framing this research study, 1. How do two interim community college presidents lead…

  16. General certification procedure of enterprises and interim job enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien

    2002-01-01

    This procedure defines the certification global process of enterprises employing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities and interim job enterprises proposing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities. This certification proves the enterprises ability to satisfy the specification ''E'' of the CEFRI and the interim job enterprises to satisfy the specification ''I'' of the CEFRI. (A.L.B.)

  17. 47 CFR 51.715 - Interim transport and termination pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim transport and termination pricing. 51.715 Section 51.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... Telecommunications Traffic § 51.715 Interim transport and termination pricing. (a) Upon request from a...

  18. Do Interim Assessments Reduce the Race and SES Achievement Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia R.; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined differential effects of interim assessments on minority and low socioeconomic status students' achievement in Grades K-6. They conducted a large-scale cluster randomized experiment in 2009-2010 to evaluate the impact of Indiana's policy initiative introducing interim assessments statewide. The authors used 2-level models to…

  19. 78 FR 49782 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Construction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; request for comment... During Construction.'' This ISG provides guidance to the NRC staff on the Preliminary Amendment Request...-ISG-025 ``Interim Staff Guidance on Changes during Construction under 10 CFR Part 52'' is available...

  20. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste

  1. Interim supply in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassburg, W

    1977-06-01

    The interim supply or the so-called 'condition without a contract' can occur within the framework of energy supply in the relationship between 1) public utility and tariff customer, 2) public utility and the special last-in-line consumer, 3) supplying and distributing public utility, 4) public utility and territorial administrative body. The present contribution deals with the cases named under (3) and (4). Cases (1) and (2) were dealt with in a previous article. Relevant contract clauses and laws and their effects on contracting partners are discussed.

  2. Interim supply in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassburg, W

    1977-05-01

    The interim supply or the so-called 'condition without a contract' can occur within the framework of energy supply in the relationship between: 1) public utility and tariff customer, 2) public utility and the special last-in-line consumer, 3) supplying and distributing public utility, 4) public utility and territorial administrative body. The contribution at hand deals with the cases under 1) and 2); cases 3) and 4) are dealt with in an article to be published. Relevant contract clauses and laws and their effects on contracting partners are discussed. 41 references.

  3. Interim Reliability Evaluation Program procedures guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.; Gallup, D.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Kolb, G.J.; Stack, D.W.; Lofgren, E.; Horton, W.H.; Lobner, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    This document presents procedures for conducting analyses of a scope similar to those performed in Phase II of the Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP). It documents the current state of the art in performing the plant systems analysis portion of a probabilistic risk assessment. Insights gained into managing such an analysis are discussed. Step-by-step procedures and methodological guidance constitute the major portion of the document. While not to be viewed as a cookbook, the procedures set forth the principal steps in performing an IREP analysis. Guidance for resolving the problems encountered in previous analyses is offered. Numerous examples and representative products from previous analyses clarify the discussion

  4. National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, B

    2002-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has the mission of supporting Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science research in high-energy-density plasmas. To execute those missions, the facility must provide diagnostic instrumentation capable of observing and resolving in time events and radiation emissions characteristic of the plasmas of interest. The diagnostic instrumentation must conform to high standards of operability and reliability within the NIF environment. These exacting standards, together with the facility mission of supporting a diverse user base, has led to the need for a central organization charged with delivering diagnostic capability to the NIF. The National NIF Diagnostics Program (NNDP) has been set up under the aegis of the NIF Director to provide that organization authority and accountability to the wide user community for NIF. The funds necessary to perform the work of developing diagnostics for NIF will be allocated from the National NIF Diagnostics Program to the participating laboratories and organizations. The participating laboratories and organizations will design, build, and commission the diagnostics for NIF. Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize NIF Core Diagnostics Systems and Cryogenic Target Handing Systems, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems has been initiated and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National NIF Diagnostics Program Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope

  5. Results and Lessons Learned Interim Report: Altus AFB Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McHugh, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    ...) to address the critical groundwater-to-indoor-air vapor intrusion pathway. By increasing our understanding of this critical pathway, guidelines can be improved, thereby better focusing Department of Defense (DoD...

  6. Crash problem definition and safety benefits methodology for stability control for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive engineering analysis of electronic stability control (ESC) and roll stability control (RSC) systems for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses. This report details the applica...

  7. Interim report - geotechnical site assessment methodology. Vol.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunbridge, L.W.; Richards, L.R.

    1983-05-01

    An interim report summarizing the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in Cornwall. The geological setting of the test site in the Cornubian granite batholith is described. The effect of structure imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses is discussed and the scanline survey method of obtaining data on discontinuities in the rock mass is described. The requirement for remote geophysical methods of characterizing the mass is discussed and initial experiments using seismic and ultrasonic velocity measurements are reported. Computer programs to perform statistical analysis of the discontinuity patterns are described. Overcoring and hydraulic fracturing methods of determining the in-situ stress are briefly described and the results of a programme of in-situ stress measurements using the overcoring method are reported. (author)

  8. Radiation analysis for a generic centralized interim storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, S.G.; Lopez, P.; Eble, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper documents the radiation analysis performed for the storage area of a generic Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The purpose of the analysis is to establish the CISF Protected Area and Restricted Area boundaries by modeling a representative SNF storage array, calculating the radiation dose at selected locations outside the storage area, and comparing the results with regulatory radiation dose limits. The particular challenge for this analysis is to adequately model a large (6000 cask) storage array with a reasonable amount of analysis time and effort. Previous analyses of SNF storage systems for Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations at nuclear plant sites (for example in References 5.1 and 5.2) had only considered small arrays of storage casks. For such analyses, the dose contribution from each storage cask can be modeled individually. Since the large number of casks in the CISF storage array make such an approach unrealistic, a simplified model is required

  9. Corrosion behaviour of metallic containers during long term interim storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.; Feron, D.; Mazaudier, F.; Terlain, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two main corrosion phenomena are encountered in long term interim storage conditions: dry oxidation by the air when the temperature of high level nuclear wastes containers is high enough (roughly higher than 100 C) and corrosion phenomena as those encountered in outdoor atmospheric corrosion when the temperature of the container wall is low enough and so condensation is possible on the container walls. Results obtained with dry oxidation in air lead to predict small damages (less than 1μm on steels over 100 years at 100 C) and no drastic changes with pollutants. For atmospheric corrosion, first developments deal with a pragmatic method that gives assessments of the indoor atmospheric corrosivities. (author)

  10. The challenges facing the long term interim storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iracane, D. [CEA Sacaly, Dir. de la Simulation et des Outils Experimentaux-DSOE, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Marvy, A. [CEA Saclay, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares-DDIN, 91 - Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    In France electricity generation by means of commercial nuclear power plants has come to a point where it contributes to the national demand at a level of 80%. The safety performance of the production system has also reached a high level of both maturity and reliability taking advantage of the cumulative effect of a 30 years long learning experience and ever more stringent safety requirements. The policy to reprocess spent fuel has been overriding but no final decision has yet been made regarding the ultimate disposition of the waste streams. Although studies on deep geological disposal are ongoing, France is also looking at whether and under which conditions a long-term interim storage may provide an effective flexibility to the fuel cycle back-end. We discuss thereafter the needs and the paramount objectives of this latter R and D program. Results are being framed as potential guiding criteria for decision makers and various stakeholders. In first part, we propose a general analysis which emphasises that a long term interim storage is more than a classical nuclear facility because it explicitly requires long-lasting control and creates a burden for Society during many generations. Then, in second part, we offer an overview of the technical results from the R and D program as they stand at the time of writing. As an answer to the Government request, a strong emphasis has been put on this research for three years. Conclusion is an attempt to outline the societal context in which future decisions will have to be made. (author)

  11. The challenges facing the long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iracane, D.; Marvy, A.

    2001-01-01

    In France electricity generation by means of commercial nuclear power plants has come to a point where it contributes to the national demand at a level of 80%. The safety performance of the production system has also reached a high level of both maturity and reliability taking advantage of the cumulative effect of a 30 years long learning experience and ever more stringent safety requirements. The policy to reprocess spent fuel has been overriding but no final decision has yet been made regarding the ultimate disposition of the waste streams. Although studies on deep geological disposal are ongoing, France is also looking at whether and under which conditions a long-term interim storage may provide an effective flexibility to the fuel cycle back-end. We discuss thereafter the needs and the paramount objectives of this latter R and D program. Results are being framed as potential guiding criteria for decision makers and various stakeholders. In first part, we propose a general analysis which emphasises that a long term interim storage is more than a classical nuclear facility because it explicitly requires long-lasting control and creates a burden for Society during many generations. Then, in second part, we offer an overview of the technical results from the R and D program as they stand at the time of writing. As an answer to the Government request, a strong emphasis has been put on this research for three years. Conclusion is an attempt to outline the societal context in which future decisions will have to be made. (author)

  12. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrafine particle emissions by in-use diesel buses of various generations at low-load regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Baibikov, V.; Comte, P.; Czerwinski, J.; Mayer, A.; Veinblat, M.; Zimmerli, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) are major contributors to air pollution due to their easy gas-like penetration into the human organism, causing adverse health effects. This study analyzes UFP emissions by buses of different technologies (from Euro II till Euro V EEV - Enhanced Environmentally-friendly Vehicle) at low-load regimes. Additionally, the emission-reduction potential of retrofitting with a diesel particle filter (DPF) is demonstrated. A comparison of the measured, engine-out, particle number concentrations (PNC) for buses of different technological generations shows that no substantial reduction of engine-out emissions at low-load operating modes is observed for newer bus generations. Retrofitting the in-use urban and interurban buses of Euro II till Euro IV technologies by the VERT-certified DPF confirmed its high efficiency in reduction of UFP emissions. Particle-count filtration efficiency values of the retrofit DPF were found to be extremely high - greater than 99.8%, similar to that of the OEM filter in the Euro V bus.

  14. 1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-07-02

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ``dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.`` This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD.

  15. 1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ''dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.'' This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD

  16. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  17. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  18. Hierarchies of belief and interim rationalizability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Ely

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In games with incomplete information, conventional hierarchies of belief are incomplete as descriptions of the players' information for the purposes of determining a player's behavior. We show by example that this is true for a variety of solution concepts. We then investigate what is essential about a player's information to identify behavior. We specialize to two player games and the solution concept of interim rationalizability. We construct the universal type space for rationalizability and characterize the types in terms of their beliefs. Infinite hierarchies of beliefs over conditional beliefs, which we call Delta-hierarchies, are what turn out to matter. We show that any two types in any two type spaces have the same rationalizable sets in all games if and only if they have the same Delta-hierarchies.

  19. Safety regulations for radioisotopes, etc. (interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An (interim) report by an ad hoc expert committee to the Nuclear Safety Commission, on the safety regulations for radioisotopes, etc., was presented. For the utilization of radioisotopes, etc., there is the Law Concerning Prevention of Radiation Injury Due to Radioisotopes, etc. with the advances in this field and the improvement in international standards, the regulations by the law have been examined. After explaining the basic ideas of the regulations, the problems and countermeasures in the current regulations are described: legal system, rationalization in permission procedures and others, inspection on RI management, the system of the persons in charge of radiation handling, RI transport, low-level radioactive wastes, consumer goods, definitions of RIs, radiation and sealed sources, regulations by group partitioning, RI facilities, system of personnel exposure registration, entrusting of inspection, etc. to private firms, and reduction in the works for permission among governmental offices. (author)

  20. Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan (HWMTP) is a companion document to the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP). A reference plan for management and disposal of all existing and certain projected future radioactive Hanford Site Defense Wastes (HSDW) is described and discussed in the HWMP. Implementation of the reference plan requires that various open technical issues be satisfactorily resolved. The principal purpose of the HWMTP is to present detailed descriptions of the technology which must be developed to close each of the technical issues associated with the reference plan identified in the HWMP. If alternative plans are followed, however, technology development efforts including costs and schedules must be changed accordingly. Technical issues addressed in the HWMTP and HWMP are those which relate to disposal of single-shell tank wastes, contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, double-shell tank wastes, encapsulated 137 CsCl and 90 SrF 2 , stored and new solid transuranic (TRU) wastes, and miscellaneous wastes such as contaminated sodium metal. Among the high priority issues to be resolved are characterization of various wastes including early determination of the TRU content of future cladding removal wastes; completion of development of vitrification (Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant) and grout technology; control of subsidence in buried waste sites; and development of criteria and standards including performance assessments of systems proposed for disposal of HSDW. Estimates of the technology costs shown in this report are made on the basis that all identified tasks for all issues associated with the reference disposal plan must be performed. Elimination of, consolidation of, or reduction in the scope of individual tasks will, of course, be reflected in corresponding reduction of overall technology costs

  1. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  2. Federal interim storage fee study for civilian spent nuclear fuel: a technical and economical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the study conducted by the Department of Energy (the Department) regarding payment charges for the federal interim storage (FIS) of spent fuel and presents the details of the study results. It describes the selection of a methodology for calculating a FIS fee schedule, sets forth the estimates of cost for construction and operation of FIS facilities, provides a range of estimates for the fee for FIS services, and identifies special contractual considerations associated with providing FIS services to authorized users. The fee is structured for a range of spent fuel capacities because of uncertainties regarding the schedule of availability and amount of spent fuel that may require and qualify for FIS. The results set forth in the report were used as a basis for development of the report entitled Payment Charges for Federal Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Civilian Nuclear Power Plants in the United States, dated July 1983

  3. Prosthetic rehabilitation of the dentate maxillectomy patient from a delayed surgical to an interim obturator: A clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angleena Y Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of maxillary pathosis results in direct communication between the oral and nasal cavity, imposing problems such as nasal regurgitation, unintelligent speech, difficulty in deglutition and compromised esthetics. A restoration of these defects is not always possible surgically, but prosthetic rehabilitation is an established treatment modality. Early rehabilitation can improve the quality of life and reduce the psychological trauma caused by surgical excision. Surgical and interim obturators placed during the initial phase can improve the outcome of the definitive prosthesis. This article presents a case report of a patient with partial maxillectomy who has been rehabilitated with a delayed surgical and an interim obturator.

  4. Strategic Review of Medical Training and Career Structure Interim Report

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2013-01-01

    Click here to download Strategic Review of Medical Training and Career Structure Interim Report PDF 44kb Click here to download Strategic Review of Medical Training and Career Structure Terms of Reference PDF 59KB

  5. Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility Interim Operational Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management of administrative controls to ensure safe operation of the facility

  6. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards

  7. Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Materials And Runoff Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  8. Interim research assessment 2003-2005 - Computer Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    This report primarily serves as a source of information for the 2007 Interim Research Assessment Committee for Computer Science at the three technical universities in the Netherlands. The report also provides information for others interested in our research activities.

  9. Interim Feed The Future Population Based Assessment of Cambodia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is the interim population based survey of Feed the Future in Cambodia for 2015. The data is split into survey modules. Modules A through C includes location...

  10. EPA's Revised Interim Financial Assistance Conflict of Interest Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has established the following revised interim policy governing disclosure of actual and potential conflicts of interest (COI Policy) by applicants for, and recipients of, federal financial assistance awards from EPA.

  11. Interim report on long range plan for nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The interim report on the updated NSAC Long Range Plan for Nuclear Physics will be presented to the community for discussion and comment before submission to the funding agencies. The presentation will be coordinated by E. Moniz chair of NSAC

  12. School buses, air pollution and children's health : improving children's health and local air quality by reducing school bus emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, K. [Ontario Public Health Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    The exhaust gases from school buses was examined and recommendations were presented for the establishment of a healthy school bus program in Ontario that is directed at improving children's health and local air quality. The Ontario Public Health Association is concerned with school bus emissions because they are heavy-duty vehicles that emit large quantities of diesel-related air pollutants such as fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides and diesel particulates. In addition, school buses can be self-polluting vehicles that expose children on-board to high levels of fine particulates and diesel particulate matter. Both these pollutants have been associated with a range of acute and chronic health problems such as asthma, respiratory infections, allergies, and school absences. With nearly 800,000 Ontario children being transported on school buses annually, these exposures can represent a serious public health concern, as childhood exposures can also influence the health of exposed individuals later in life. Exposure studies have found that tailpipe and engine emissions contribute greatly to concentrations of air pollutants on-board school buses. The studies also showed that on-board concentrations were also influenced by local air quality in the communities studied, traffic density, wind direction, the configuration of windows, idling and queuing patterns. It was recommended that the use of ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel along with the installation of diesel particulate filters and closed crankcase filters can reduce the concentrations of air pollutants on-board school buses to almost ambient air levels, even under idling conditions. This report recommended the replacement of pre-1994 school buses, the retrofitting of 1994-2003 school buses with filters, and maintaining proper maintenance, idling and vehicle operation practices. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. TWRS HLW interim storage facility search and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to identify and provide an evaluation of interim storage facilities and potential facility locations for the vitrified high-level waste (HLW) from the Phase I demonstration plant and Phase II production plant. In addition, interim storage facilities for solidified separated radionuclides (Cesium and Technetium) generated during pretreatment of Phase I Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant feed was evaluated.

  14. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.

    1999-09-14

    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  15. Interim Report by Asia International Grid Connection Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omatsu, Ryo

    2018-01-01

    The Asia International Grid Connection Study Group Interim Report examines the feasibility of developing an international grid connection in Japan. The Group has investigated different cases of grid connections in Europe and conducted research on electricity markets in Northeast Asia, and identifies the barriers and challenges for developing an international grid network including Japan. This presentation introduces basic contents of the interim report by the Study Group.

  16. ITER interim design report package and relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication documents the technical basis which underlay the Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis submitted to the ITER Councils (IC-8 and IC-9) Records of decisions and the ''ITER Interim Design Report Package''. This publication contains ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions, TAC-8 Report, SRG Report, CP's Report on Tentative Sequence of Events and Parties' Views on the IDR Package and Parties' Technical Comments on the IDR Package. Figs, tabs

  17. Materials behavior in interim storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bailey, W.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Inman, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    Interim storage has emerged as the only current spent-fuel management method in the US and is essential in all countries with nuclear reactors. Materials behavior is a key aspect in licensing interim-storage facilities for several decades of spent-fuel storage. This paper reviews materials behavior in wet storage, which is licensed for light-water reactor (LWR) fuel, and dry storage, for which a licensing position for LWR fuel is developing

  18. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines

  19. Glass-ionomer-silver-cermet interim Class I restorations for permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P; Killian, C M

    1992-11-01

    Glass-ionomer-silver-cermet cement has proved to be a worthy alternative to silver amalgam for restoring certain Class I lesions in primary teeth. Such restorations are now known to last up to 8 years without need for repair or replacement. Cermet cement has also been used for interim restoration of permanent teeth in special cases, with ideal results. The procedure for placing a glass-ionomer-silver-cermet cement Class I restoration is described.

  20. Comprehensive Medical Management of Rosacea: An Interim Study Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rosso, James Q.; Baum, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a common inflammatory facial dermatosis seen in adults that exhibits considerable variety in clinical presentation. Multiple medical therapeutic options are available including topical and oral treatments. Optimal medical management of rosacea includes assessment of subtype and disease severity and use of appropriate skin care to reduce epidermal barrier dysfunction. This article provides an overall discussion of the medical management of rosacea and reviews interim results from a ...

  1. Continuous solvent extraction feed adjustment for HTGR fuel reprocessing. Interim development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin, L.J.

    1978-06-01

    The two-cycle Acid-Thorex solvent extraction process requires that the feed stream to each thorium cycle be processed to reduce its nitric acid concentration (feed adjustment). This interim development report presents the results of bench-scale and pilot-plant-scale feed adjustment experiments using a continuous mode of operation. An examination of formic acid denitration and fluoride ion volatilization is also included

  2. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  3. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations

  4. Criticality safety evaluation for long term storage of FFTF fuel in interim storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    It has been postulated that a degradation phenomenon, referred to as ''hot cell rot'', may affect irradiated FFTF mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel during dry interim storage. ''Hot cell rot'' refers to a variety of phenomena that degrade fuel pin cladding during exposure to air and inert gas environments. It is thought to be a form of caustic stress corrosion cracking or environmentally assisted cracking. Here, a criticality safety analysis was performed to address the effect of the ''hot cell rot'' phenomenon on the long term storage of irradiated FFTF fuel in core component containers. The results show that seven FFTF fuel assemblies or six Ident-69 pin containers stored in core component containers within interim storage casks will remain safely subcritical

  5. Safety evaluation of interim stabilization of non-stabilized single-shell watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides results of a review of recently completed safety analyses related to hazards associated with Interim Stabilization of Single analyses related to hazards included oh the Hanford Site Waste Tank-Watch Shell Tanks (SSTs) that are included on the Hanford List. The purpose of the review was to identify and summarize conclusions regarding the safety of interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs, and to highlight applicable limitations, restrictions, and controls. The scope of this review was restricted to SSTs identified List in the categories of flammable gas ferrocyanide, and organic salts. High heat tanks were not included in the scope. A Watch List tank is defined as an underground storage tank containing waste that requires special safety precautions because it may have a serious potential for release of high level radioactive waste because of uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. Special restrictions have been placed on these tanks

  6. Continuous Covariate Imbalance and Conditional Power for Clinical Trial Interim Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolino, Jody D.; Martin, Renee' H.; Zhao, Wenle; Jauch, Edward C.; Hill, Michael D.; Palesch, Yuko Y.

    2014-01-01

    Oftentimes valid statistical analyses for clinical trials involve adjustment for known influential covariates, regardless of imbalance observed in these covariates at baseline across treatment groups. Thus, it must be the case that valid interim analyses also properly adjust for these covariates. There are situations, however, in which covariate adjustment is not possible, not planned, or simply carries less merit as it makes inferences less generalizable and less intuitive. In this case, covariate imbalance between treatment groups can have a substantial effect on both interim and final primary outcome analyses. This paper illustrates the effect of influential continuous baseline covariate imbalance on unadjusted conditional power (CP), and thus, on trial decisions based on futility stopping bounds. The robustness of the relationship is illustrated for normal, skewed, and bimodal continuous baseline covariates that are related to a normally distributed primary outcome. Results suggest that unadjusted CP calculations in the presence of influential covariate imbalance require careful interpretation and evaluation. PMID:24607294

  7. EFFECT OF REHABILITATION DURING INTERIM STAY IN AALBORG MUNICIPALITY, DENMARK: A STUDY PROTOCOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sidsel Maria Monrad; Villumsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark, the aim is to support citizens’ rehabilitation through training and learning in order to be self-reliant. This effort is supported at interim stays at the nursing homes [1]. A recent external report has outlined that citizen are highly satis ed...... are available in the systems, containing information on rehabilitation services rendered during interim stays. However, available data on the effect of the rehabilitation are currently unstructured in free-text, which impedes the assessment of rehabilitation effect and thereby the quality assurance. Objectives...... on rehabilitation of the citizen. The rehabilitation effect will be extracted from the free-text in the records. The free-text will be categorized into rehabilitation effects of i) deterioration, ii) no effect, iii) effect of rehabilitation, or iv) not possible to classify from the text. Results: This study...

  8. Second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuschke, D.M.; Gillespie, P.A.; Main, D.E.

    1985-07-01

    The nuclear fuel waste disposal concept chosen for development and assessment in Canada involves the isolation of corrosion-resistant containers of waste in a vault located deep in plutonic rock. As the concept and the assessment tools are developed, periodic assessments are performed to permit evaluation of the methodology and provide feedback to those developing the concept. The ultimate goal of these assessments is to predict what impact the disposal system would have on man and the environment if the concept were implemented. The second assessment was performed in 1984 and is documented in the Second Interim assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal Volumes 1 to 4. This volume, entitled Summary, is a condensation of Volumes 2, 3 and 4. It briefly describes the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, and the methods and results of the second interim pre-closure and post-closure assessments of that concept. 46 refs

  9. Environmental, health, and safety issues of fuel cells in transportation. Volume 1: Phosphoric acid fuel-cell buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, S

    1994-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Phosphoric Acid Fuel-Cell (PAFC) Bus Program to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cells in heavy-duty transportation systems. As part of this program, PAFC- powered buses are being built to meet transit industry design and performance standards. Test-bed bus-1 (TBB-1) was designed in 1993 and integrated in March 1994. TBB-2 and TBB-3 are under construction and should be integrated in early 1995. In 1987 Phase I of the program began with the development and testing of two conceptual system designs- liquid- and air-cooled systems. The liquid-cooled PAFC system was chosen to continue, through a competitive award, into Phase H, beginning in 1991. Three hybrid buses, which combine fuel-cell and battery technologies, were designed during Phase III. After completing Phase II, DOE plans a comprehensive performance testing program (Phase HI) to verify that the buses meet stringent transit industry requirements. The Phase III study will evaluate the PAFC bus and compare it to a conventional diesel bus. This NREL study assesses the environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues that may affect the commercialization of the PAFC bus. Because safety is a critical factor for consumer acceptance of new transportation-based technologies the study focuses on these issues. The study examines health and safety together because they are integrally related. In addition, this report briefly discusses two environmental issues that are of concern to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first issue involves a surge battery used by the PAFC bus that contains hazardous constituents. The second issue concerns the regulated air emissions produced during operation of the PAFC bus.

  10. Evaluation of retrofit crankcase ventilation controls and diesel oxidation catalysts for reducing air pollution in school buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbath, Kim; Hannigan, Michael P.; Milford, Jana B.

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates the effect of retrofit closed crankcase ventilation filters (CCFs) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) on the in-cabin air quality in transit-style diesel school buses. In-cabin pollution levels were measured on three buses from the Pueblo, CO District 70 fleet. Monitoring was conducted while buses were driven along their regular routes, with each bus tested three times before and three times after installation of control devices. Ultrafine number concentrations in the school bus cabins were 33-41% lower, on average, after the control devices were installed. Mean mass concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were 56% lower, organic carbon (OC) 41% lower, elemental carbon (EC) 85% lower, and formaldehyde 32% lower after control devices were installed. While carbon monoxide concentrations were low in all tests, mean concentrations were higher after control devices were installed than in pre-retrofit tests. Reductions in number, OC, and formaldehyde concentrations were statistically significant, but reductions in PM2.5 mass were not. Even with control devices installed, during some runs PM2.5 and OC concentrations in the bus cabins were elevated compared to ambient concentrations observed in the area. OC concentrations inside the bus cabins ranged from 22 to 58 μg m -3 before and 13 to 33 μg m -3 after control devices were installed. OC concentrations were correlated with particle-bound organic tracers for lubricating oil emissions (hopanes) and diesel fuel and tailpipe emissions (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons). Mean concentrations of hopanes, PAH, and aliphatic hydrocarbons were lower by 37, 50, and 43%, respectively, after the control devices were installed, suggesting that both CCFs and DOCs were effective at reducing in-cabin OC concentrations.

  11. Comparisons of Cooperative and Non-Cooperative Students: An Analysis of Student Accounting System Data. Interim Report, June, 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Don

    The major purpose of this study was to identify unique effects of cooperative vocational education. This interim report is of results of the analyses of existing data bases. Comparisons of cooperative and non-cooperative vocational programs are made on the following variables: enrollments by age, sex and race, school status, work status,…

  12. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  13. Itinerant vending of medicines inside buses in Nigeria: vending strategies, dominant themes and medicine-related information provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuff, Kazeem B; Wassi Sanni, Abd'

    2011-07-01

    To determine vending strategies and marketing themes employed by itinerant bus vendors, and assess the accuracy and completeness of information provided on medicines being sold in an urban setting in Nigeria. Cross-sectional study and content analysis of itinerant vending of medicines inside buses recorded with a mobile telephone on purposively selected routes in a mega city with an estimated 18 million residents in southwestern Nigeria over a 2-month period. Two coders independently assessed 192 vending episodes by 56 vendors for 147 OTC and prescription medicines. Inter-rater reliability (Gwet AC1 =0.924; p<0.0001). Fourteen thousands and four hundred potential consumers encountered 192 recorded episodes of vending of medicines inside 192 buses within the study periods. Forty-four (78•5%) of the 56 vendors were females in the 30-45 years age bracket, were mostly (75%) attired in the local 'Iro and Buba' Ankara fabric and showed laminated identity cards (97.5%) issued by the local association for 'marketers' of medicines inside buses, markets, and motor parks. Of the 14400 consumers encountered inside buses during the study period, between 6.7% and 48.3% purchased the medicines promoted. Prayers against death from road traffic accidents and diseases of physical and / or meta-physical origins were the most frequently used (76•8%) ice-breaking opening statement / strategy to gain consumers' attention. Hematinics, multi-vitamins, simple analgesic, NSAIDs and corticosteroids were the most frequently vended medicines. Consumers' enquiries were related to dosing for children (51.8%), elderly (28.6%), and pregnancy (52.7%); and contra-indications during pregnancy (8.9%). Factual medicines information such as dose, frequency, potential side effects and contra-indications were not provided in majority of vending episodes. Itinerant vending of medicines and the use of misleading and melodramatic themes to secure high consumer patronage appear considerable in Nigeria

  14. 340 Waste Handling Facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    This document establishes the interim safety basis (ISB) for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (340 Facility). An ISB is a documented safety basis that provides a justification for the continued operation of the facility until an upgraded final safety analysis report is prepared that complies with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The ISB for the 340 Facility documents the current design and operation of the facility. The 340 Facility ISB (ISB-003) is based on a facility walkdown and review of the design and operation of the facility, as described in the existing safety documentation. The safety documents reviewed, to develop ISB-003, include the following: OSD-SW-153-0001, Operating Specification Document for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (WHC 1990); OSR-SW-152-00003, Operating Limits for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (WHC 1989); SD-RE-SAP-013, Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Railroad Liquid Waste Tank Cars (Mercado 1993); SD-WM-TM-001, Safety Assessment Document for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (Berneski 1994a); SD-WM-SEL-016, 340 Facility Safety Equipment List (Berneski 1992); and 340 Complex Fire Hazard Analysis, Draft (Hughes Assoc. Inc. 1994)

  15. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842/Rev.1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999)

  16. The EMEFS model evaluation. An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dennis, R.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Seilkop, S.K. [Analytical Sciences, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Banic, C.M.; Davies, D.; Hoff, R.M.; Macdonald, A.M.; Mickle, R.E.; Padro, J.; Puckett, K. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, ON (Canada); Byun, D.; McHenry, J.N. [Computer Sciences Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Karamchandani, P.; Venkatram, A. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Camarillo, CA (United States); Fung, C.; Misra, P.K. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hansen, D.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Chang, J.S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center

    1991-12-01

    The binational Eulerian Model Evaluation Field Study (EMEFS) consisted of several coordinated data gathering and model evaluation activities. In the EMEFS, data were collected by five air and precipitation monitoring networks between June 1988 and June 1990. Model evaluation is continuing. This interim report summarizes the progress made in the evaluation of the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) and the Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model (ADOM) through the December 1990 completion of a State of Science and Technology report on model evaluation for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Because various assessment applications of RADM had to be evaluated for NAPAP, the report emphasizes the RADM component of the evaluation. A protocol for the evaluation was developed by the model evaluation team and defined the observed and predicted values to be used and the methods by which the observed and predicted values were to be compared. Scatter plots and time series of predicted and observed values were used to present the comparisons graphically. Difference statistics and correlations were used to quantify model performance. 64 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Release of radionuclides following severe accident in interim storage facility. Source term determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandi, S.; Mariani, M.; Giacobbo, F.; Covini, R.

    2006-01-01

    Among the severe accidents that can cause the release of radionuclides from an interim storage facility, with a consequent relevant radiological impact on the population, there is the impact of an aircraft on the facility. In this work, a safety assessment analysis for the case of an aircraft crash into an interim storage facility is tackled. To this aim a methodology, based upon DOE, IAEA and NUREG standard procedures and upon conservative yet realistic hypothesis, has been developed in order to evaluate the total radioactivity, source term, released to the biosphere in consequence of the impact, without recurring to the use of complicated numerical codes. The procedure consists in the identification of the accidental scenarios, in the evaluation of the consequent damage to the building structures and to the waste packages and in the determination of the total release of radionuclides through the building-atmosphere interface. The methodology here developed has been applied to the case of an aircraft crash into an interim storage facility currently under design. Results show that in case of perforation followed by a fire incident the total released activity would be greater of some orders of magnitude with respect to the case of mere perforation. (author)

  18. Current status of the first interim spent fuel storage facility in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinbo, Hitoshi; Kondo, Mitsuru

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, storage of spent fuels outside nuclear power plants was enabled as a result of partial amendments to the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law in June 2000. Five months later, Mutsu City in Aomori Prefecture asked the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) to conduct technical surveys on siting of the interim spent fuel storage facility (we call it 'Recyclable-Fuel Storage Center'). In April 2003, TEPCO submitted the report on siting feasibility examination, concluded that no improper engineering data for siting, construction of the facility will be possible from engineering viewpoint. Siting Activities for publicity and public acceptance have been continued since then. After these activities, Aomori Prefecture and Mutsu City approved siting of the Recyclable Fuel Storage Center in October 2005. Aomori Prefecture, Mutsu City, TEPCO and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) signed an agreement on the interim spent fuel storage Facility. A month later, TEPCO and JAPC established Recyclable-Fuel Storage Company (RFS) in Mutsu City through joint capital investment, specialized in the first interim spent fuel storage Facility in Japan. In May 2007, we made an application for establishment permit, following safety review by regulatory authorities. In March 2008, we started the preparatory construction. RFS will safely store of spent fuels of TEPCO and JAPC until they will be reprocessed. Final storage capacity will be 5,000 ton-U. First we will construct the storage building of 3,000 ton-U to be followed by second building. We aim to start operation by 2010. (author)

  19. Failsafe automation of Phase II clinical trial interim monitoring for stopping rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Roger S

    2010-02-01

    In Phase II clinical trials in cancer, preventing the treatment of patients on a study when current data demonstrate that the treatment is insufficiently active or too toxic has obvious benefits, both in protecting patients and in reducing sponsor costs. Considerable efforts have gone into experimental designs for Phase II clinical trials with flexible sample size, usually implemented by early stopping rules. The intended benefits will not ensue, however, if the design is not followed. Despite the best intentions, failures can occur for many reasons. The main goal is to develop an automated system for interim monitoring, as a backup system supplementing the protocol team, to ensure that patients are protected. A secondary goal is to stimulate timely recording of patient assessments. We developed key concepts and performance needs, then designed, implemented, and deployed a software solution embedded in the clinical trials database system. The system has been in place since October 2007. One clinical trial tripped the automated monitor, resulting in e-mails that initiated statistician/investigator review in timely fashion. Several essential contributing activities still require human intervention, institutional policy decisions, and institutional commitment of resources. We believe that implementing the concepts presented here will provide greater assurance that interim monitoring plans are followed and that patients are protected from inadequate response or excessive toxicity. This approach may also facilitate wider acceptance and quicker implementation of new interim monitoring algorithms.

  20. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  1. Industrial complementarities between interim storage and reversible geological repository - 59237

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoorelbeke, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The French Act voted in 2006 made the choice of deep geological disposal as the reference option for the long term management of high level (HLW) and intermediate level long-lived waste. The CIGEO repository project aims at avoiding or limiting burden to future generations, which could not be achieved by the extension in time of interim storage. The reversibility as provided by the Act will maintain a liberty of choice for waste management on a duration which is comparable to new storage facility. Interim storage is required to accommodate waste as long as the repository is not available. The commissioning of the repository in 2025 will not suppress needs for interim storage. The paper describes the complementarities between existing and future interim storage facilities and the repository project: repository operational issues and planning, HLW thermal decay, support for the reversibility, etc. It shows opportunities to prepare a global optimization of waste management including the utilization at best of storage capacities and the planning of waste emplacement in the repository in such a way to facilitate operational conditions and to limit cost. Preliminary simulations of storage-disposal scenarios are presented. Thanks to an optimal use of the waste management system, provision can be made for a progressive increase of waste emplacement flow during the first operation phase of the repository. It is then possible to stabilize the industrial activity level of the repository site. An optimal utilization of interim storage can also limit the diversity of waste packages emplaced simultaneously, which facilitates the operation of the repository. 60 years minimum interim storage duration is generally required with respect to HLW thermal output. Extending this interim storage period may reduce the underground footprint of the repository. Regarding reversibility, the capability to manage waste packages potentially retrieved from the repository should be analyzed. The

  2. Interim main report of the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Allan [and others

    2004-08-01

    This document is an interim report on the safety assessment SR-Can (SR in the acronym stands for Safety Report and Can is short for canister). The final SR-Can report will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of the present interim report is to demonstrate the methodology for safety assessment so that it can be reviewed before it is used in a license application. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. Preliminary data from the Forsmark site, presently being investigated by SKB as one of the candidate for a KBS-3 repository are used to some extent as examples. However, the collected data are yet too sparse to allow an evaluation of safety for this site. An important aim of this report is to demonstrate the proper handling of requirements on the safety assessment in applicable regulations. Therefore, regulations issued by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority are duplicated in an Appendix. The principal acceptance criterion requires that 'the annual risk of harmful effects after closure does not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk'. 'Harmful effects' refer to cancer and hereditary effects. Following the introductory chapter 1, this report outlines the methodology for the SR-Can assessment in chapter 2, and presents in chapters 3, 4 and 5 the initial state of the system and the plans and methods for handling external influences and internal processes, respectively. Function indicators are introduced in chapter 6 and a preliminary evaluation of these is given in chapter 7. The material presented in the first seven chapters is utilised in the scenario selection in chapter 8

  3. Interim main report of the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Allan (ed.) [and others

    2004-08-01

    This document is an interim report on the safety assessment SR-Can (SR in the acronym stands for Safety Report and Can is short for canister). The final SR-Can report will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of the present interim report is to demonstrate the methodology for safety assessment so that it can be reviewed before it is used in a license application. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. Preliminary data from the Forsmark site, presently being investigated by SKB as one of the candidate for a KBS-3 repository are used to some extent as examples. However, the collected data are yet too sparse to allow an evaluation of safety for this site. An important aim of this report is to demonstrate the proper handling of requirements on the safety assessment in applicable regulations. Therefore, regulations issued by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority are duplicated in an Appendix. The principal acceptance criterion requires that 'the annual risk of harmful effects after closure does not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk'. 'Harmful effects' refer to cancer and hereditary effects. Following the introductory chapter 1, this report outlines the methodology for the SR-Can assessment in chapter 2, and presents in chapters 3, 4 and 5 the initial state of the system and the plans and methods for handling external influences and internal processes, respectively. Function indicators are introduced in chapter 6 and a preliminary evaluation of these is given in chapter 7. The material presented in the first seven chapters is utilised in the scenario selection

  4. Interim main report of the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, Allan

    2004-08-01

    This document is an interim report on the safety assessment SR-Can (SR in the acronym stands for Safety Report and Can is short for canister). The final SR-Can report will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of the present interim report is to demonstrate the methodology for safety assessment so that it can be reviewed before it is used in a license application. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. Preliminary data from the Forsmark site, presently being investigated by SKB as one of the candidate for a KBS-3 repository are used to some extent as examples. However, the collected data are yet too sparse to allow an evaluation of safety for this site. An important aim of this report is to demonstrate the proper handling of requirements on the safety assessment in applicable regulations. Therefore, regulations issued by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority are duplicated in an Appendix. The principal acceptance criterion requires that 'the annual risk of harmful effects after closure does not exceed 10 -6 for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk'. 'Harmful effects' refer to cancer and hereditary effects. Following the introductory chapter 1, this report outlines the methodology for the SR-Can assessment in chapter 2, and presents in chapters 3, 4 and 5 the initial state of the system and the plans and methods for handling external influences and internal processes, respectively. Function indicators are introduced in chapter 6 and a preliminary evaluation of these is given in chapter 7. The material presented in the first seven chapters is utilised in the scenario selection in chapter 8. Hydrogeological

  5. An interim report on the Zenith Exponential Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absalom, R M; Cameron, I R; Kinchin, G H; Sanders, J E; Wilson, D J [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1959-06-15

    The following memorandum gives an interim account of the exponential experiments with Zenith-type fuel elements being carried out at Winfrith. Results quoted are still subject to revision: however it is hoped that the description of the work at this stage will stimulate discussion and suggestions for further measurements before the experiment is dismantled later in the year. The measurements are being undertaken in order to form some initial understanding of the reactor physics of uranium 235-thorium-graphite systems of the type later to be studied in Zenith. There have been no previous investigations of this type of system in the U.K. though measurements on enriched uranium-graphite systems have been reported from the U.S.A.. A practical result of the measurements will be a revision of the estimated critical loadings for Zenith, since the exponential systems studied cover the range of loadings proposed for the first critical assemblies. The theoretical work on these systems includes a two-group analysis being carried on in the Zenith group and a multigroup analysis being made by the H.T.G.C. Technical Assessments Group, including a Monte Carlo study of resonance capture.

  6. Lamar Low-Level Jet Program Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N.; Shirazi, M.; Jager, D.; Wilde, S.; Adams, J.; Buhl, M.; Sullivan, P.; Patton, E.

    2004-01-01

    This interim report presents the results to date from the Lamar Low-Level Jet Program (LLLJP) that has been established as joint effort among the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and General Electric Wind Energy (GE Wind). The purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of the influence of nocturnal low-level jet streams on the inflow turbulence environment and the documenting of any potential operating impacts on current large wind turbines and the Low Wind Speed Turbine (LWST) designs of the future. A year's record of detailed nocturnal turbulence measurements has been collected from NREL instrumentation installed on the GE Wind 120-m tower in southeastern Colorado and supplemented with mean wind profile data collected using an acoustic wind profiler or SODAR (Sound Detection and Ranging). The analyses of measurements taken as part of a previous program conducted at the NWTC have been used to aid in the interpretation of the results of representative case studies of data collected from the GE Wind tower.

  7. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist

  8. New portal axle for low-floor electric-powered city buses; Neue Portalachse fuer Niederflur-Stadtbusse mit E-Antrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Axel Michael [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Solka, Ulrich [ZF Passau GmbH, Passau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Serial hybrid systems do have due to the very distinctive intra-urban driving cycles and the low average speeds in city bus applications very good technical characteristics regarding reduction of emissions and fuel consumption. Hence, in comparison to passenger car applications this technical solution has found a wide spreading in the field of city busses. This contribution describes the essential characteristics of the new-developed, electrically driven low floor portal axle AVE 130 for city buses from ZF. Beside the main features of the mechanical constructive assembly, the qualities of the electric drive with the features of the specifically developed asynchronous electrical machines are shown. Another main focus forms the description of the system characteristics of a city bus, which is equipped with a serial hybrid system and the new electrical portal axle. On this occasion, traction performances, aggregate arrangement, weight balances and the interaction of the components in the electrical driveline are discussed. Finally the results of simulation calculations regarding the fuel saving potential in such systems round the paper out. (orig.)

  9. Why People Are Not Willing to Let Their Children Ride in Driverless School Buses: A Gender and Nationality Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. Anania

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As driverless vehicles proliferate, it is possible that this technology will be applied in mass transport vehicles. School buses may be suited for autonomous operations as they follow set routes and schedules. However, a research gap exists in whether or not parents would be willing to have their children ride in autonomously operated school buses. The purpose of this study was to examine parents’ willingness to allow their child to ride in an autonomous school bus. Participant gender and nationality were also two independent variables, along with affect measures as a possible mediating variable. The research used a two-study approach. In study one, it was found that participants were less willing to have their child ride in a driverless school bus than a traditional human-operated vehicle. In study two, findings suggest a significant interaction between the type of driver, participant gender, and nationality. In general, American females were less willing than Indian females and overall, Americans were less willing than Indians in the driverless conditions. Affect was found to be a mediating variable, which suggests that emotions were playing a role in the responses of participants. The paper concludes with theoretical contributions, practical applications, and suggestions for future research.

  10. Technical evaluation report on the 120 Vac vital instrument buses and inverter Technical Specifications Issue B71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.; White, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The operation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with one of its 120 Vac vital buses energized in an off-normal mode was analyzed. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment was made to determine the increment of risk by energizing a vital bus from an off-site source directly vs energizing it from its normal, uninterruptible source (i.e., a battery/inverter arrangement). The calculations were made based on uninterruptible source energized vital buses as the normal mode. The analysis indicated that a reduction in the incremental risk increase (caused by plant operation with a vital bus being energized in an off-normal mode) can be accomplished by limiting the time permitted in that condition. Currently, the time that a vital bus can be energized in the off-normal mode is not universally time-limited by plant Technical Specifications. Several alternatives for the reduction in incremental risk were examined and their value/impacts were derived. These data indicate that a recommendation be made for a Technical Specification time limitation of 72 hours per year for off-normal energizing a vital bus during operation of a PWR

  11. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, S; Hak, C

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO2, O3, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde>150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20-30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Load demand profile for a large charging station of a fleet of all-electric plug-in buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Rios

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a general procedure to compute the load demand profile from a parking lot where a fleet of buses with electric propulsion mechanisms are charged. Such procedure is divided in three different stages, the first one models the daily energy utilisation of the batteries based on Monte Carlo simulations and route characteristics. The second one models the process in the charging station based on discrete event simulation of queues of buses served by a lot of available chargers. The third step computes the final demand profile in the parking lot because of the charging process based on the power consumption of batteries’ chargers and the utilisation of the available charges. The proposed procedure allows the computation of the number of required batteries’ chargers to be installed in a charging station placed at a parking lot in order to satisfy and ensure the operation of the fleet, the computation of the power demand profile and the peak load and the computation of the general characteristics of electrical infrastructure to supply the power to the station.

  13. Next Generation Melter Optioneering Study - Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.F.; Calmus, R.B.; Ramsey, G.; Lomax, J.; Allen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D 2 0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  14. The effects of urban driving conditions on the operating characteristics of conventional and hybrid electric city buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Operating characteristics of conventional and hybrid electric buses were examined. • Recovery of braking energy offers an excellent opportunity to improve fuel economy. • Speed and altitude profiles of routes have dramatic impacts on the energy recovery. • Capacity of the auxiliary power source has a dramatic impact on the energy recovery. • Round-trip efficiency of the regenerative braking system was calculated to be 27%. - Abstract: The basic operating characteristics of a conventional bus (CB) and a hybrid electric bus (HEB) were examined under urban driving conditions. To perform this examination, real-time operating data from the buses were collected on the Campus-Return route of the Sakarya Municipality. The main characteristics examined were the traction, braking, engine, engine generator unit (EGU), motor/generator (M/G), and ultracapacitor (Ucap) energies and efficiencies of the buses. The route elevation profile and the frequency of stop-and-go operations of the buses were found to have dramatic impacts on the braking and traction energies of the buses. The declining profile of the Campus-Return route provided an excellent opportunity for energy recovery by the regenerative braking system of the HEB. However, owing to the limits on the capacities and efficiencies of the hybrid drive train components and the Ucap, the bus braking energies were not recovered completely. Braking energies as high as 2.2 kW h per micro-trip were observed, but less than 1 kW h of braking energy per micro-trip was converted to electricity by the M/G; the rest of the braking energy was wasted in frictional braking. The maximum energy recovered and stored in the Ucap per micro-trip was 0.5 kW h, but the amount of energy recovered and stored per micro-trip was typically less than 0.2 kW h for the entire route. The cumulative braking energy recovered and stored in the Ucap for the Campus-Return route was 52% of the available brake energy, which was 13.02 kW h

  15. Wayne Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Wayne, New Jersey. [Wayne Interim Storage Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the envirormental monitoring program at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of WISS and surrounding area began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. WISS is a National Priorities List site. The environmental monitoring program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several nonradiological parameters are also measured in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides, dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment.

  16. Maywood Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Maywood, New Jersey. [Maywood Interim Storage Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984 when congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a DOE program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation-exposure; and total uranium, radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and thorium-230 concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment.

  17. Uranium exploration of the Colorado Plateau: interim staff report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This report is an issue of the original draft copy of the Interim Staff Report on Uranium Exploration on the Colorado Plateau, dated June 1951. The original draft copy was only recently located and is being published at this time because of the interest in the contained historical content. The table of contents of this report lists: history of uranium mining; geology; proposed program for the geologic investigations section; general activities of industry and government; and future exploration of sedimentary uranium deposits and anticipated results. Under the proposed program section are: future of the copper-uranium deposits as a source of uranium; uraniferous asphaltite deposits; and commission exploration and future possibilities. The section on general activities of industry and government includes: exploratory and development drilling; field investigations and mapping; early geologic investigations and investigations by the US geological survey; and geophysical exploration. Tables are also presented on: uranium production by districts; US Geological survey drilling statistics; Colorado Exploration Branch drilling statistics; summary of drilling projects; and comparative yearly core-drill statistics on the Colorado Plateau

  18. Safety aspects of spent nuclear fuel interim storage installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. da Qualidade. Div. de Sistemas da Qualidade]. E-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.br; Rzyski, Barbara Maria [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Ensino]. E-mail: bmrzyski@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Nowadays safety and security of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) interim storage installations are very important, due to a great concentration of fission products, actinides and activation products. In this kind of storage it is necessary to consider the physical security. Nuclear installations have become more vulnerable. New types of accidents must be considered in the design of these installations, which in the early days were not considered like: fissile material stolen, terrorists' acts and war conflicts, and traditional accidents concerning the transport of the spent fuel from the reactor to the storage location, earthquakes occurrence, airplanes crash, etc. Studies related to airplane falling had showed that a collision of big commercials airplanes at velocity of 800 km/h against SNF storage and specially designed concrete casks, do not result in serious structural injury to the casks, and not even radionuclides liberation to the environment. However, it was demonstrated that attacks with modern military ammunitions, against metallic casks, are calamitous. The casks could not support a direct impact of this ammo and the released radioactive materials can expose the workers and public as well the local environment to harmful radiation. This paper deals about the main basic aspects of a dry SNF storage installation, that must be physically well protected, getting barriers that difficult the access of unauthorized persons or vehicles, as well as, must structurally resist to incidents or accidents caused by unauthorized intrusion. (author)

  19. Immunotherapy for recurrent malignant glioma: an interim report on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Buckwalter, J G; Jacques, D B; Freshwater, D B; Abts, R M; Techy, G B; Miyagi, K; Shelden, C H; Rand, R W; English, L W

    1990-12-01

    We present interim survival data for a group of 83 adult patients with recurrent malignant glioma treated by implanting stimulated autologous lymphocytes into the tumour bed following surgical debulking. The patients were treated 6 months or more prior to data analysis. Fifty-nine patients were male and 24 female. The mean age for the entire group was 48.4 years and the mean Karnofsky rating (KR) was 67.2. Eight of the patients had grade II tumours, 33 had grade III tumours and 42 had grade IV tumours. Statistical analysis focuses on tumour grade, KR and patient age, factors that have been shown to affect survival in previous studies. Multifactorial analyses are employed to identify interrelationships among factors related to survival. Seven patients (8%) did not respond to immunotherapy, 76 (92%) had a good initial response. Twenty-five patients (30.1%) are living and 18 (22%) have shown no evidence of recurrence. Results are evaluated in the light of those obtained in trials of other experimental therapies for recurrent malignant gliomas. It is concluded that the present protocol offers a safe and comparatively effective treatment option.

  20. Kennedy Space Center Press Site (SWMU 074) Interim Measure Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Interim Measure (IM) activities conducted at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Press Site ("the Press Site"). This facility has been designated as Solid Waste Management Unit 074 under KSC's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action program. The activities were completed as part of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) Area Land Use Controls Implementation Plan (LUCIP) Elimination Project. The purpose of the VAB Area LUCIP Elimination Project was to delineate and remove soil affected with constituents of concern (COCs) that historically resulted in Land Use Controls (LUCs). The goal of the project was to eliminate the LUCs on soil. LUCs for groundwater were not addressed as part of the project and are not discussed in this report. This report is intended to meet the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Corrective Action Management Plan requirement as part of the KSC Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments permit and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) self-implementing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) cleanup requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761.61(a).

  1. The UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Iglesias Velasco

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The current situation in the Province of Kosovo in the Republic of Serbia within the Yugoslav State became unsustainable in the late 1990´s as a result of the repressive policies of the Serbian authorities toward the Kosovar Albanians. International efforts tofind a peaceful solution to the conflict were unsuccessful, in large measure on account of Serbian intransigence, and the intensification of the conflict with tragic consequences for the Kosovar civilian population led the Atlantic Alliance in the spring of 1999 to a carryout a military intervention of, to say the least, dubious legality under international law, which in turn forced Serbian leaders to bow to the application of the solution worked out by the international community in the Rambouillet Accords and set down in UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999 of June 10, 1999. This resolution provided for two international entities in the province, one a security force (KFOR and the other civilian, the UN Interim Administration Mission (UNMIK. This paper analyzes the mission’s mandate and structure as well as the evolution of the peace process.

  2. Safety aspects of spent nuclear fuel interim storage installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays safety and security of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) interim storage installations are very important, due to a great concentration of fission products, actinides and activation products. In this kind of storage it is necessary to consider the physical security. Nuclear installations have become more vulnerable. New types of accidents must be considered in the design of these installations, which in the early days were not considered like: fissile material stolen, terrorists' acts and war conflicts, and traditional accidents concerning the transport of the spent fuel from the reactor to the storage location, earthquakes occurrence, airplanes crash, etc. Studies related to airplane falling had showed that a collision of big commercials airplanes at velocity of 800 km/h against SNF storage and specially designed concrete casks, do not result in serious structural injury to the casks, and not even radionuclides liberation to the environment. However, it was demonstrated that attacks with modern military ammunitions, against metallic casks, are calamitous. The casks could not support a direct impact of this ammo and the released radioactive materials can expose the workers and public as well the local environment to harmful radiation. This paper deals about the main basic aspects of a dry SNF storage installation, that must be physically well protected, getting barriers that difficult the access of unauthorized persons or vehicles, as well as, must structurally resist to incidents or accidents caused by unauthorized intrusion. (author)

  3. Interim report of working group of Nuclear Fusion Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takuma, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    The conclusion of the working group was presented as an interim report to the general meeting of Nuclear Fusion Committee, which became the base for deciding the future plan. The report was the result of the hard work for about a half year by five Committee experts and 23 researchers, and has the rich contents. At present, the supply of petroleum relaxed, and the trend that a large amount of investment for a long period for nuclear fusion research is problematical has become strong. Of course, the importance of the nuclear fusion research never changes. The research projects of Heliotron E, Gekko 12, Gamma 10 and so on have advanced, and the base for synthetically promoting the research has been completed. It is indispensable to decide the most effective plan for the next stage. The working group discussed on the five year plan, especially on the research based on a large project. The policy of the works and problems, the progress of the works of respective subgroups, and the summarization are reported. The researches on nuclear burning simulation, no current plasma using an external conductor system and making an axisymmetrical high-beta torus steady were proposed. (Kako, I.)

  4. German Approach for the Transport of Spent Fuel Packages after Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, Frank; Wolff, Dietmar; Droste, Bernhard; Voelzke, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In Germany the concept of dry interim storage of spent nuclear fuel in dual purpose metal casks is implemented, currently for periods of up to 40 years. The casks being used have an approved package design in accordance with the international transport regulations. The license for dry storage is granted on the German Atomic Energy Act with respect to the recently (in 2012) revised 'Guidelines for dry cask storage of spent nuclear fuel and heat-generating waste' by the German Waste management Commission (ESK) which are very similar to the former RSK (reactor safety commission) guidelines. For transport on public routes between or after long term interim storage periods, it has to be ensured that the transport and storage casks fulfil the specifications of the transport approval or other sufficient properties which satisfy the proofs for the compliance of the safety objectives at that time. In recent years the validation period of transport approval certificates for manufactured, loaded and stored packages were discussed among authorities and applicants. A case dependent system of 3, 5 and 10 years was established. There are consequences for the safety cases in the Package Design Safety Report including evaluation of long term behavior of components and specific operating procedures of the package. Present research and knowledge concerning the long term behavior of transport and storage cask components have to be consulted as well as experiences from interim cask storage operations. Challenges in the safety assessment are e.g. the behavior of aged metal and elastomeric seals under IAEA test conditions to ensure that the results of drop tests can be transferred to the compliance of the safety objectives at the time of transport after the interim storage period (aged package). Assessment methods for the material compatibility, the behavior of fuel assemblies and the aging behavior of shielding parts are issues as well. This paper describes the state

  5. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses

  6. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-03-27

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  7. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE's Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  8. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrick (ed.)

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses.

  9. 10 CFR 431.401 - Petitions for waiver, and applications for interim waiver, of test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Each Application for Interim Waiver must reference the Petition... Renewable Energy. (e) Provisions specific to interim waivers—(1) Disposition of application. If... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petitions for waiver, and applications for interim waiver...

  10. 78 FR 67442 - Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...] Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance AGENCY: Federal Highway... Comment. SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing Interim Guidance on the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality.../environment/air_quality/cmaq/policy_and_guidance/2008_guidance/ guidance/. DATES: This Interim Guidance is...

  11. Radiation shielding and dose rate evaluation at the interim storage facility for spent fuel from Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, Marcela; Mateescu, Silvia; Pantazi, Doina; Penescu, Maria

    2000-01-01

    At present studies necessary to license the Interim Storage Facility for the Spent Fuel (CANDU type) from Cernavoda NPP are developed in our country.The spent fuel from Cernavoda NPP is discharged into Spent Fuel Bay in Service Building of the plant, where it remains several years for cooling. After this period, the bundles of spent fuel are to be transferred to the Interim Storage Facility.The dry interim storage solution seems to be the most appropriate variant for Cernavoda NPP.The design of the Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facility must meet the applicable safety requirements in order to ensure radiological protection of the personnel, public and environment during all phases of the facility achievement. In this paper we intend to present the calculation of radiation shielding at the spent fuel interim storage facility for two technical solutions: - Concrete Monolithic Module and Concrete Storage Cask. In order to quantify the fuel composition after irradiation, the isotope generation and depletion code ORIGEN 2.1 has been used, taking into account a cooling time of 7 years and 9 years, respectively, for these two variants. The shielding calculations have been performed using the computer codes QAD-5K and MICROSHIELD-4. The evaluations refer only to gamma radiation because the resulting neutron source (from (α,n) reactions and spontaneous fission) is insignificant as compared to the gamma source. The final results consist in the minimum thickness of the shielding and the corresponding external dose rates, ensuring a design average dose rate based on national and international regulations. (authors)

  12. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.

  13. An interim report on the State of Nevada socioeconomic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This Interim Report is a report on work in progress and presents findings from the research to date on the potential consequences of a repository for the citizens of Nevada. The research and findings in the Report have been subjected to rigorous peer review as part of the state's effort to insure independent, objective analysis that meets the highest professional standards. The basic research effort will continue through June 1990 and will enable the state to refine and clarify the findings presented in this Interim Report

  14. Single-shell tank interim stabilization risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basche, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Risk Analysis is to provide a cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-2358, Rev. 1, Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization Project Plan (Project Plan) (Ross et al. 1998). The analysis compares the required cost profile by fiscal year (Section 4.2) and revised schedule completion date (Section 4.5) to the Project Plan. The analysis also evaluates the executability of the Project Plan and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation

  15. Interim safety basis for fuel supply shutdown facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, J.R.; Deobald, T.L.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This ISB in conjunction with the new TSRs, will provide the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the Facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements. It is concluded that the risk associated with the current operational mode of the Facility, uranium closure, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within Risk Acceptance Guidelines. The Facility is classified as a Moderate Hazard Facility because of the potential for an unmitigated fire associated with the uranium storage buildings

  16. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form

  17. Concepts for the interim storage of spent fuel elements from research reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niephaus, D.; Bensch, D.; Quaassdorff, P.; Plaetzer, S.

    1997-01-01

    Research reactors have been operated in the Federal Republic of Germany since the late fifties. These are Material Test Reactors (MTR) and training, Research and Isotope Facilities of General Atomic (TRIGA). A total of seven research reactors, i.e. three TRIGA and four MTR facilities were still in operation at the beginning of 1996. Provisions to apply to the back-end of the fuel cycle are required for their continued operation and for already decommissioned plants. This was ensured until the end of the eighties by the reprocessing of spent fuel elements abroad. In view of impeding uncertainties in connection with waste management through reprocessing abroad, the development of a national back-end fuel cycle concept was commissioned by the Federal Minister of Education, Science, Research and Technology in early 1990. Development work was oriented along the lines of the disposal concept for irradiated light-water reactor fuel elements from nuclear power plants. Analogously, the fuel elements from research reactors are to be interim-stored on a long-term basis in adequately designed transport and storage casks and then be directly finally disposed without reprocessing after up to forty years of interim storage. As a first step in the development of a concept for interim storage, several sites with nuclear infrastructure were examined and assessed with respect to their suitability for interim storage. A reasonably feasible reference concept for storing the research reactor fuel elements in CASTOR MTR 2 transport and storage casks at the Ahaus interim storage facility (BZA) was evaluated and the hot cell facility and AVR store of Forschungszentrum Juelich (KFA) were proposed as an optional contingency concept for casks that cannot be repaired at Ahaus. Development work was continued with detailed studies on these two conceptual variants and the results are presented in this paper. (author)

  18. Data Analysis of GPM Constellation Satellites-IMERG and ERA-Interim precipitation products over West of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Ehsan; Steinacker, Reinhold; Saghafian, Bahram

    2016-04-01

    of false detection (POFD) IMERG yields a better value of POD, TS, FAR and POFD in comparison to era-Interim. Overall, ERA-Interim product produced fewer robust results when compared to IMERG.

  19. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... if the bus has a passenger seating capacity of at least 20 adults and the transportation is available... of a school. Incidental use (deadheading) of the school bus without passengers to or from a point to... used on intercity, local, and school buses. 48.4221-8 Section 48.4221-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...

  20. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : heavy goods vehicles and buses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Kirk, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Haddak, M. & Moutengou, E.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) are defined as goods vehicles of over 3,5 tons maximum permissible gross vehicle weight. Road traffic accidents involving HGVs tend to be more severe than other accidents because of the great size and mass of these vehicles. Buses and coaches are included in this Basic

  1. An Analysis of Challenges Faced by Students Learning in Virtual and Open Distance Learning System: A Case of Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo, Obediah; Makwerere, David; Parwada, Matavire; Parwada, Cosmas

    2013-01-01

    After realizing that the traditional modes of tuition in Zimbabwe's andragogy had either gone obsolete or over-crowded, BUSE ventured into a "virtualised" model of open and distance learning as a way of out-doing other competing universities. However, as the programme was rolled out, there came a myriad of challenges affecting the…

  2. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This volume contains five appendices

  3. Options for the interim storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kromar, M.; Kurincic, B.

    1995-01-01

    Different concepts for the interim storage of spent fuel arising from operation of a NPP are discussed. We considered at reactor as well as away from reactor storage options. Included are enhancements of existing storage capabilities and construction of a new wet or dry storage facility. (author)

  4. Fuel supply shutdown facility interim operational safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, R.L.; Brehm, J.R.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    These Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSR) for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls to ensure safe operation. The IOSRs apply to the fuel material storage buildings in various modes (operation, storage, surveillance)

  5. 17 CFR 210.8-03 - Interim financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim financial statements... AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE... ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Article 8 Financial Statements of...

  6. ASPECTS CONCERNING INTERIM FINANCIAL REPORTING IN ROMANIA: STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristita Rotila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms employed for the communication of accounting information that is necessary for users in their economic decision-making process consist of the financial statements of an entity. All legal entities, no matter the domain of their activity, have the obligation to draw up annual financial statements for every completed financial year. For certain categories of entities, reporting obligations are also required for periods other than the annual reporting, throughout the financial year. It is the case of interim financial reporting. At the level of the international accounting framework, the aspects related to interim financial reporting are the subject of a separate standard, namely, IAS 34 Interim Financial Reporting. In Romania, the current system of accounting regulations concerning the annual financial statements comprises accounting regulations that comply with the European directives and which apply to the various categories of entities, on the one hand and, on the other, accounting regulations in line with the IFRS, which are applicable to other classes of entities from certain activity sectors. The accounting regulations that apply to each category refer to, among other things, the contents and the format of financial statements that have to be presented. Analysing the system of norms and regulations, this article identifies the requirements concerning interim financial reporting in Romania, with reference to the different types of entities.

  7. 39 CFR 211.4 - Interim personnel regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim personnel regulations. 211.4 Section 211.4... under the Postal Reorganization Act. (b) Continuation of Personnel Provisions of Former title 39, U.S.C... collective bargaining agreement under the Postal Reorganization Act, all provisions of former title 39, U.S.C...

  8. Students' interim literacies as a dynamic resource for teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the notion of 'interim literacies'by drawing on data from a research project which used linguistic and intertextual analysis of first year student writing in economics to investigate the intersection of academic discourse and student voice. This research has provided a rich set of data to illustrate the ways in ...

  9. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by shipping...

  10. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

  11. Guidelines for interim storage of low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.; Castagnacci, A.; Clymer, G.; Kelly, J.; Naughton, M.; Saunders, P.; Stoner, P.; Walker, N.; Cazzolli, R.; Dettenmeier, R.; Loucks, L.; Rigsby, M.; Spall, M.; Strum, M.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents an overview of on-site storage of Low Level Waste while providing guidelines for using the complete Interim On-Site Storage of Low Level Waste report series. Overall, this report provides a methodology for planning and implementing on-site storage

  12. Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VLADIMIROFF, D.T.; BOYLES, V.C.

    2000-01-01

    This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline

  13. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-05-11

    This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  14. 78 FR 70244 - Electronic Interim Assistance Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ..., Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background To be... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 [Docket No. SSA-2011-0104] RIN 0960-AH45 Electronic Interim Assistance Reimbursement Program AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

  15. 14 CFR 136.41 - Interim operating authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Parks Air Tour Management § 136.41 Interim operating... terminate 180 days after the date on which an air tour management plan is established for the park and tribal lands; (6) Shall promote protection of national park resources, visitor experiences, and tribal...

  16. Public School Finance Problems in Texas. An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Research League, Austin.

    The U.S. District Court ruling in Rodriguez vs San Antonio Independent School District, which struck down Texas' school finance system as inequitable and unconstitutional, provided the impetus for publishing this interim report. The report documents the growing cost of State-supported public school programs--the primary concern prior to the…

  17. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  18. Robust Clamping Force Control of an Electro-Mechanical Brake System for Application to Commercial City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjune Eum

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sensor-less robust force control method for improving the control performance of an electro-mechanical brake (EMB which is applicable to commercial city buses. The EMB generates the accurate clamping force commanded by a driver through an independent motor control at each wheel instead of using existing mechanical components. In general, an EMB undergoes parameter variation and a backdrivability problem. For this reason, the cascade control strategy (e.g., force-position cascade control structure is proposed and the disturbance observer is employed to enhance control robustness against model variations. Additionally, this paper proposed the clamping force estimation method for a sensor-less control, i.e., the clamping force observer (CFO. Finally, in order to confirm the performance and effectiveness of a proposed robust control method, several experiments are performed and analyzed.

  19. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published two previous reports, in August 2011 and July 2012, describing operation of these buses. New results in this report provide an update covering eight months through October 2013.

  20. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Aparicio, S., E-mail: sla@nilu.no; Hak, C.

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde > 150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20–30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion. - Highlights: ► Acetaldehyde levels above 150 ppm were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► High acetic acid levels (20–30 ppm) were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► Demonstrated usefulness of PTR-MS to evaluate non-criteria pollutants ► High levels of acetaldehyde and acetic acid are estimated in the dispersion plume. ► Climate mitigation measures may have adverse impact on air quality.

  1. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Aparicio, S.; Hak, C.

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO 2 , O 3 , acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde > 150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20–30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion. - Highlights: ► Acetaldehyde levels above 150 ppm were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► High acetic acid levels (20–30 ppm) were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► Demonstrated usefulness of PTR-MS to evaluate non-criteria pollutants ► High levels of acetaldehyde and acetic acid are estimated in the dispersion plume. ► Climate mitigation measures may have adverse impact on air quality

  2. Interim report of the task force on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A Task Force was established by the Premier of British Columbia in August 2001 to draft an energy policy framework for the province. Based on best practices worldwide, and keeping in mind the specific energy needs of British Columbia, this framework aims at fostering energy development in British Columbia, in accordance with exemplary environmental practices. This interim report comprises the preliminary findings of the Task Force, and public input is sought before the final report is finalized and presented to government. The energy sector of British Columbia comprises hydroelectric power, oil, gas and coal resources. In addition, green energy and alternative energy technologies are being developed, such as wind, solar, and wave power, and hydrogen fuel cells. Industry and individual consumers are well served by the highly developed transmission and distribution systems for energy. Several strategic directions were identified by the Task Force for inclusion in the energy policy of British Columbia, to meet its full potential. They are: growth to ensure safe, reliable energy and take advantage of economic opportunities; diversification; competitiveness; industry restructuring and expansion; environmental imperative; government leadership; and community and First Nations' involvement. Some changes are also required for the continuing success of the energy sector in British Columbia: a move to fully competitive markets in the electricity system, the development of natural gas storage capacity in the Lower Mainland, additional considerations for coal use, and the development of alternative energy sources. It is expected that private capital and more energy supply will result from a fully competitive energy market, which in turn would lower energy costs. Jobs and income would increase as a result of the growth in the sector. Diversification makes good economic and environmental sense. tabs., figs

  3. LDEF materials: An overview of the interim findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    The flight and retrieval of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) provided an opportunity for the study of the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment and long-duration space environmental effect (SEE) on materials that are unparalleled in the history of the U.S. space program. The 5.8-year flight of LDEF greatly enhanced the potential value of materials data from LDEF to the international SEE community, compared to that of the original 1-year flight plan. The remarkable flight attitude stability of LDEF enables specific analyses of various individual and combined effects of LEO environmental parameters on identical materials of the same space vehicle. NASA recognized the potential by forming the LDEF Space Environmental Effects on Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) to address the greatly expanded materials and LEO space environment parameter analysis opportunities available in the LDEF structure, experiment trays, and corollary measurements, so that the combined value of all LDEF materials data to current and future space missions will be assessed and documented. This paper provides an overview of the interim LDEF materials findings of the Principal Investigators and the Materials Special Investigation Group. These revelations are based on observations of LEO environmental effects on materials made in-space during LDEF retrieval and during LDEF tray deintegration at the Kennedy Space Center, and on findings of approximately 1.5 years of laboratory analyses of LDEF materials by the LDEF materials scientists. These findings were extensively reviewed and discussed at the MSIG-sponsored LDEF Materials Workshop '91. The results are presented in a format which categorizes the revelations as clear findings or confusing/unexplained findings and resultant needs for new space materials developments and ground simulation testing/analytical modeling

  4. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-01-01

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations

  5. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  6. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  7. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This IM/IRAP/EA identifies and evaluates interim remedial actions for removal of residual free-phase VOC contamination from three different subsurface environments at OU2. The term ''residual'' refers to the non-aqueous phase contamination remaining in the soil matrix (by capillary force) subsequent to the passage of non-aqueous or free-phase liquid through the subsurface. In addition to the proposed actions, this IM/IRAP/EA presents an assessment of the No Action Alternative. This document also considers an interim remedial action for the removal of radionuclides from beneath the 903 Pad

  8. Reliability Centered Maintenance for Savannah River Site`s interim waste management facilities. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, K.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilson, J.F. [PRC, Inc. (US)

    1992-06-01

    The application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) has been shown to be an effective means to optimize maintenance programs or to establish new programs. The key to success of any RCM program is to customize the methodology to meet the specific needs of the implementing organization. This paper discusses how RCM is being used to establish the preventive maintenance program and how the resulting system data is being used to support the Technical Baseline reconstitution effort for the interim Waste Management Division of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC).

  9. Reliability Centered Maintenance for Savannah River Site's interim waste management facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, K.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Wilson, J.F. (PRC, Inc. (US))

    1992-01-01

    The application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) has been shown to be an effective means to optimize maintenance programs or to establish new programs. The key to success of any RCM program is to customize the methodology to meet the specific needs of the implementing organization. This paper discusses how RCM is being used to establish the preventive maintenance program and how the resulting system data is being used to support the Technical Baseline reconstitution effort for the interim Waste Management Division of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC).

  10. Thermal analysis of the unloading cell of the Spanish centralized interim storage facility (CISF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Dominguez, J. R.; Perez Vara, R.; Huelamo Martinez, E.

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the thermal analysis performed for the Untoading Cell of Spain Centralized Interim Storage Facility, CISF (ATC, in Spanish). The analyses are done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, with the aim of obtaining the air flow required to remove the residual heat of the elements stored in the cell. Compliance with the admissible heat limits is checked with the results obtained in the various operation and accident modes. The calculation model is flexible enough to allow carrying out a number of sensitivity analyses with the different parameters involved in the process. (Author)

  11. Interim guidance risk assessment of the device assembly facility at the Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenbach, T.J.

    1996-05-01

    The risks of plutonium dispersal and/or high explosive detonation from nuclear explosive operations at the Device Assembly Facility were examined in accordance with DOE Order 5610.11 and the Interim Guidance. The assessment consisted of a qualitative task and hazards analysis, and a quantitative risk screening. Results are displayed on risk matrices for the major types of operations. Most accident scenarios were considered to have Low risk; a few scenarios have Moderate risk; and none have High risk. The highest risk scenarios (Moderate category) consist of a high explosive detonation during assembly operations in a cell, with bare conventional high explosive surrounding the pit

  12. Reliability Centered Maintenance for Savannah River Site's interim waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauer, K.A.; Wilson, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) has been shown to be an effective means to optimize maintenance programs or to establish new programs. The key to success of any RCM program is to customize the methodology to meet the specific needs of the implementing organization. This paper discusses how RCM is being used to establish the preventive maintenance program and how the resulting system data is being used to support the Technical Baseline reconstitution effort for the interim Waste Management Division of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC)

  13. 2. interim report on radiation situation in Finland from 5 to 16 May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This second interim report is a continuation of the first 'Fallout situation in Finland from April 26 to May 4' STUK-B-VALO-44. It deals with the results from external radiation measurements and analysis of environmental and foodstuff samples between 5 and 16 May, i.e. the development of the situation after the fallout peak. The whole-body counter measurements of tourists returning from the Soviet Union and from other countries in Eastern Europe after the accident are also reported

  14. Basis for Interim Operation for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    This document establishes the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) for the Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility (FSS) as managed by the 300 Area Deactivation Project (300 ADP) organization in accordance with the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract procedure (PHMC) HNF-PRO-700, ''Safety Analysis and Technical Safety Requirements''. A hazard classification (Benecke 2003a) has been prepared for the facility in accordance with DOE-STD-1027-92 resulting in the assignment of Hazard Category 3 for FSS Facility buildings that store N Reactor fuel materials (303-B, 3712, and 3716). All others are designated Industrial buildings. It is concluded that the risks associated with the current and planned operational mode of the FSS Facility (uranium storage, uranium repackaging and shipment, cleanup, and transition activities, etc.) are acceptable. The potential radiological dose and toxicological consequences for a range of credible uranium storage building have been analyzed using Hanford accepted methods. Risk Class designations are summarized for representative events in Table 1.6-1. Mitigation was not considered for any event except the random fire event that exceeds predicted consequences based on existing source and combustible loading because of an inadvertent increase in combustible loading. For that event, a housekeeping program to manage transient combustibles is credited to reduce the probability. An additional administrative control is established to protect assumptions regarding source term by limiting inventories of fuel and combustible materials. Another is established to maintain the criticality safety program. Additional defense-in-depth controls are established to perform fire protection system testing, inspection, and maintenance to ensure predicted availability of those systems, and to maintain the radiological control program. It is also concluded that because an accidental nuclear criticality is not credible based on the low uranium enrichment

  15. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report FY 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lybeck, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim fiscal year (FY) 2011 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under the Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA)-1 guidelines and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from seven test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault, including tensile tests, creep tests, and cyclic tests. Of the 5,603,682 records currently in the vault, 4,480,444 have been capture passed, and capture testing is in process for the remaining 1,123,238.

  16. A new consideration for the heat transfer coefficient and an analysis of the thermal stress of the high-interim pressure turbine casing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Dall Sun

    2004-01-01

    In real design of the high and interim pressure turbine casing, it is one of the important things to figure out its thermal strain exactly. In this paper, with the establishment of the new concept for the heat transfer coefficient of steam that is one of the factors in analysis of the thermal stress for turbine casing, an analysis was done for one of the high and interim pressure turbine casings in operating domestically. The sensitivity analysis of the heat transfer coefficient of steam to the thermal strain of the turbine casing was done with a 2-D simple model. The analysis was also done with switching of the material properties of the turbine casing and resulted in that the thermal strain of the turbine casing was not so sensitive to the heat transfer coefficient of steam. On the basis of this, 3-D analysis of the thermal strain for the high and interim pressure turbine casing was done

  17. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives

  18. A web-based endpoint adjudication system for interim analyses in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Tracy L; Dimmick, Bill F; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Kendrick, Amy S; Sable, Carole; Ngai, Angela; Wallace, Dennis

    2009-02-01

    A data monitoring committee (DMC) is often employed to assess trial progress and review safety data and efficacy endpoints throughout a trail. Interim analyses performed for the DMC should use data that are as complete and verified as possible. Such analyses are complicated when data verification involves subjective study endpoints or requires clinical expertise to determine each subject's status with respect to the study endpoint. Therefore, procedures are needed to obtain adjudicated data for interim analyses in an efficient manner. In the past, methods for handling such data included using locally reported results as surrogate endpoints, adjusting analysis methods for unadjudicated data, or simply performing the adjudication as rapidly as possible. These methods all have inadequacies that make their sole usage suboptimal. For a study of prophylaxis for invasive candidiasis, adjudication of both study eligibility criteria and clinical endpoints prior to two interim analyses was required. Because the study was expected to enroll at a moderate rate and the sponsor required adjudicated endpoints to be used for interim analyses, an efficient process for adjudication was required. We created a web-based endpoint adjudication system (WebEAS) that allows for expedited review by the endpoint adjudication committee (EAC). This system automatically identifies when a subject's data are complete, creates a subject profile from the study data, and assigns EAC reviewers. The reviewers use the WebEAS to review the subject profile and submit their completed review form. The WebEAS then compares the reviews, assigns an additional review as a tiebreaker if needed, and stores the adjudicated data. The study for which this system was originally built was administratively closed after 10 months with only 38 subjects enrolled. The adjudication process was finalized and the WebEAS system activated prior to study closure. Some website accessibility issues presented initially. However

  19. Safety Consideration for a Wet Interim Spent Fuel Store at Conceptual Design Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astoux, Marion

    2014-01-01

    EDF Energy plans to build and operate two UK EPRs at the Hinkley Point C (HPC) site in Somerset, England. Spent fuel from the UK EPRs will need to be managed from the time it is discharged from the reactor until it is ultimately disposed of and this will involve storing the spent fuel for a period in the fuel building and thereafter in a dedicated interim facility until it can be emplaced within the UK Geological Disposal Facility. EDF Energy has proposed that this interim store should be located on the Hinkley Point site which is consistent with UK policy. This Interim Spent Fuel Store (ISFS) will have the capability to store for at least one hundred years the spent fuel arising from the operation of the two EPR units (sixty years operation). Therefore, specificities regarding the lifetime of the facility have to be accounted for its design. The choice of interim storage technology was considered in some depth for the HPC project and wet storage (pool) was selected. The facility is currently at conceptual design stage, although its construction will be part of main site construction phase. Safety functions and safety requirements for this storage facility have been defined, in compliance with WENRA 'Waste and Spent Fuel Storage - Safety Reference Level Report' and IAEA Specific Safety Guide no. 15 'Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel'. EDF technical know-how, operational feedback on existing storage pools, UK regulatory context and Fukushima experience feedback have also been accounted for. Achievement of the safety functions as passively as reasonably practicable is a key issue for the design, especially in accident situations. Regarding lifetime aspects, ageing management of equipments, optimisation of the refurbishment, climate change, passivity of the facility, and long-term achievement of the safety functions are among the subjects to consider. Adequate Operational Limits and Conditions will also have to be defined, to enable the long-term achievement of the safety

  20. Interim safety basis compliance matrix for Trenches 31 and 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The tables provided in this document identify the specific requirements and basis for the administrative controls established in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Burial Ground (SWBG) Interim Safety Basis (ISB) for operation of the Project W-025, Mixed Waste Lined Landfill (Trenches 31 and 34). The tables document the necessary controls and implementing procedures to ensure compliance with the requirements of the ISB. These requirements provide a basis for future Unreviewed Safety Questions (USQ) screening of applicable procedure changes, proposed physical modifications, tests, experiments, and occurrences. Table 1 provides the SWBG interim Operational Safety Requirements administrative controls matrix. The specific assumptions and commitments used in the safety analysis documents applicable to disposal of mixed wastes in Trenches 31 and 34 are provided in Table 2. Table 3 is provided to document the potential engineered and administrative mitigating features identified in the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) for disposal of mixed waste

  1. 105-C Reactor interim safe storage project technology integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsford, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Technology Integration Plan involves the decontamination, dismantlement, and interim safe storage of a surplus production reactor. A major goal is to identify and demonstrate new and innovative D and D technologies that will reduce costs, shorten schedules, enhance safety, and have the potential for general use across the RL complex. Innovative technologies are to be demonstrated in the following areas: Characterization; Decontamination; Waste Disposition; Dismantlement, Segmentation, and Demolition; Facility Stabilization; and Health and Safety. The evaluation and ranking of innovative technologies has been completed. Demonstrations will be selected from the ranked technologies according to priority. The contractor team members will review and evaluate the demonstration performances and make final recommendations to DOE

  2. Ad interim legal remedy in case of large projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limberger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Action for ad interim judicial relief in response to large projects approved of by the authorities very frequently take several years until a decision is taken by the court. Experience has shown that this applies in particular to large projects such as the construction of nuclear power plants, large-size industrial plants, or airports. It has become regular practice by the authorities concerned to issue an order for immediate execution upon the plan approving decision and granting of licence for said projects, in accordance with section 80, sub-section (2), no.4 of the VwGO. The problems thus created with regard to interim legal remedy sought by the parties concerned are of great significance. The book in hand discusses the question as to whether the practice of the administrative authorities and the courts satisfies the requirements embodied in the law, to provide for efficient legal protection. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. The determination of the cesium distribution coefficient of the interim storage soil from Abadia de Goias, Go, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.; Suarez, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    In September, 1987, an unauthorized removal of a cesium-therapy unit and its violation caused an accident, where several places of Goiania's city, capital of Goias, Brazil, were contaminated. The removal of the radioactive wastes generated from decontamination process, was made to Abadia de Goias city (near Goiania), where an interim storage was constructed. Soil samples collected from the 57th Street (Goiania) and from the interim storage permitted to determine, through static method, the cesium distribution coefficient for different cesium solution concentrations. Those results allows for some migration/retention evaluations in disposal site selection. Some soils parameters (water content, density, granulometric analysis, etc) as well as clay minerals constituents were also determined. (author) [pt

  4. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  5. 105-H Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ison, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    The following information documents the decontamination and decommissioning of the 105-H Reactor facility, and placement of the reactor core into interim safe storage. The D and D of the facility included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and restoration of the site. The ISS work also included construction of the safe storage enclosure, which required the installation of a new roofing system, power and lighting, a remote monitoring system, and ventilation components.

  6. Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.

  7. Interim reliability evaluation program, Browns Ferry fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    An abbreviated fault tree method is used to evaluate and model Browns Ferry systems in the Interim Reliability Evaluation programs, simplifying the recording and displaying of events, yet maintaining the system of identifying faults. The level of investigation is not changed. The analytical thought process inherent in the conventional method is not compromised. But the abbreviated method takes less time, and the fault modes are much more visible

  8. Interim dry storage system technologies and innovations VARNA 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, P.; Guenon, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The main concepts of the TN24 Family and NUHOMS System are explained in the paper. It is discussed how the NPPs specific requirements and economics trends contributes to the growing families of interim dry storage systems delivered under COGEMA LOGICTICS license. It is concluded that modular solutions are currently dominating because they are derived from main concepts evolved over time, benefited from both the transport aspects with internationally recognised stringent regulations, and various specific ISFSI requirements and economic trends

  9. Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HORNER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. [CHG 2000a]. Support Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings. [CHG 2000a

  10. Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. Support Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings

  11. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste

  12. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility interim operational safety requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Covey, L I

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt and inspection of cesium and strontium capsules from private irradiators; decontamination of the capsules and equipment; surveillance of the stored capsules; and maintenance activities. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines (EGs) are included.

  13. Transport casks help solve spent fuel interim storage problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierkes, P.; Janberg, K.; Baatz, H.; Weinhold, G.

    1980-01-01

    Transport casks can be used as storage modules, combining the inherent safety of passive cooling with the absence of secondary radioactive waste and the flexibility to build up storage capacity according to actual requirements. In the Federal Republic of Germany, transport casks are being developed as a solution to its interim storage problems. Criteria for their design and licensing are outlined. Details are given of the casks and the storage facility. Tests are illustrated. (U.K.)

  14. Dry storage of spent fuel elements: interim facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quihillalt, O.J.

    1993-01-01

    Apart from the existing facilities to storage nuclear fuel elements at Argentina's nuclear power stations, a new interim storage facility has been planned and projected by the Argentinean Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) that will be constructed by private group. This article presents the developments and describes the activities undertaken until the national policy approach to the final decision for the most suitable alternative to be adopted. (B.C.A.). 09 refs, 01 fig, 09 tabs

  15. Interim Evaluation of the Project P.A.T.H.S.: Findings Based on Different Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interim evaluation studies were carried out in order to examine the implementation details of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes in Hong Kong. Quantitative results of the interim evaluation findings based on eight datasets collected from 2006 to 2009 are reported in this paper. Three hundred and seventy-eight schools were randomly selected to provide information on the implementation details of the program via face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, and self-completed questionnaires. Results showed that a majority of the workers perceived that the students had positive responses to the program and the program was helpful to the students. In conjunction with other process evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the implementation quality of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. is high. The present study also provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

  16. Preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter; Etude preliminaire d`un reseau de terrain pour le systeme de controle des hautes tensions du calorimetre hadronique d`Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevet, F.; Chadelas, R.; Montarou, G.

    1996-12-31

    We present here after a preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the photomultipliers of the TILECAL calorimeter. After some generalities, different commercial buses are reviewed (CAN, ARCET, WorldFIP, Profibus and LonWorks). The Profibus and LonWorks solution are more extensively studies as a possible solution for the high voltage system of the TILE hadronic calorimeter. (authors).

  17. Interim data report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlund, Fredrik; Andersson, Johan

    2004-08-01

    This document is the interim data report in the project SR-Can. The purpose of the data report is to present input data, with uncertainty estimates, for the SR-Can assessment calculations. Besides input data, the report also describes the standardised procedures used when deriving the input data and the corresponding uncertainty estimates. However, in the present interim version of the report (written in the initial stage of the project when site characterisation has yet not been completed) the standardised procedures have not been possible to apply for most of the data and, in order to present a compilation of the data used in the assessment, much of the input data is presented without following the standardised procedures. This will however be changed for the final version of the SR-Can data report, in order to show the methodology that will be used in the final version one example of how input data will be presented is included (migration data for buffer) . The recommended input data for the assessment calculations are, for the interim version, mainly based on SR 97 Beberg data, these are merely presented without any background or uncertainty discussion (this is presented in the SR 97 data report)

  18. Analysis of removal of residual decay heat from interim storage facilities by means of the CFD program FLUENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratmann, W.; Hages, P.

    2004-01-01

    Within the scope of nuclear licensing procedures of on-site interim storage facilities for dual purpose casks it is necessary, among other things, to provide proof of sufficient removal of the residual decay heat emitted by the casks. The results of the analyses performed for this purpose define e.g. the boundary conditions for further thermal analyses regarding the permissible cask component temperatures or the maximum permissible temperatures of the fuel cladding tubes of the fuel elements stored in the casks. Up to now, for the centralized interim storage facilities in Germany such analyses were performed on the basis of experimental investigations using scaled-down storage geometries. In the engineering phase of the Lingen on-site interim storage facility, proof was furnished for the first time using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) program FLUENT. The program FLUENT is an internationally recognized and comprehensively verified program for the calculation of flow and heat transport processes. Starting from a brief discussion of modeling and the different boundary conditions of the computation, this contribution presents various results regarding the temperatures of air, cask surfaces and storage facility components, the mass flows through the storage facility and the heat transfer at the cask surface. The interface point to the cask-specific analyses is defined to be the cask surface

  19. Reliability improvement of potential transformer and secondary circuit of 6 kV 1E-class buses in Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Houjun

    2014-01-01

    There are design defects in potential transformer (PT) and secondary circuit of 6 kV 1E-class buses in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear Island. During the operating period, there happened several serious operational events (loss of power) caused by PT resonance. The essay analyses the defects of original design, and put forward corresponding modification measures, which have been carried out by two steps between 2009 and 2010, and after the modification the same problems have not happened again. (author)

  20. The Interim Financial Reporting in the Spirit of the IAS 34 Norm

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidia Doinea

    2008-01-01

    The role of an interim financial reporting is to allow the information users to acknowledge the activity of an entity on period shorter than financial exercise from the perspective of the available profits and cash flows generated as well as from the point of view of its financial position and liquidity. The interim financial reporting includes a complete or condensed set of financial statements which target to update the last financial reporting, usually the annual report. The interim financ...

  1. Immobilized high-level waste interim storage alternatives generation and analysis and decision report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a study of alternative system architectures to provide onsite interim storage for the immobilized high-level waste produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization vendor. It examines the contract and program changes that have occurred and evaluates their impacts on the baseline immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) interim storage strategy. In addition, this report documents the recommended initial interim storage architecture and implementation path forward

  2. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs

  3. Elder Abuse Demonstration Project. Third Interim Report to the Illinois General Assembly on Public Acts 83-1259 and 83-1432.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.

    This document contains the third annual interim report of the Illinois Elder Abuse Demonstration Program. It discusses the overall intent of the demonstration program, trends and changes in the third year of the demonstration program compared with the results from the first two years of the program, and achievements and recommendations for a…

  4. Explicit feedback to enhance the effect of an interim assessment: a cross-over study on learning effect and gender difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Bekkink, M.; Donders, R.; van Muijen, G.N.; de Waal, R.M.; Ruiter, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated by a prospective controlled design that an interim assessment during an ongoing small group work (SGW) session resulted in a higher score in the course examination. As this reflects the so-called testing effect, which is supposed to be enhanced by feedback, we

  5. Interim policy on establishment and operation of internet open, anonymous information servers and services

    OpenAIRE

    Acting Dean of Computer and Information Services

    1995-01-01

    Purpose. To establish interim NPS general policy regarding establishment and operation of Open, Anonymous Information Servers and Services, such as World Wide Web (http), Gopher, Anonymous FTP, etc...

  6. Project management plan for the 105-C Reactor interim safe storage project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1942, the Hanford Site was commissioned by the US Government to produce plutonium. Between 1942 and 1955, eight water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors were constructed along the Columbia River at the Hanford Site to support the production of plutonium. The reactors were deactivated from 1964 to 1971 and declared surplus. The Surplus Production Reactor Decommissioning Project (BHI 1994b) will decommission these reactors and has selected the 105-C Reactor to be used as a demonstration project for interim safe storage at the present location and final disposition of the entire reactor core in the 200 West Area. This project will result in lower costs, accelerated schedules, reduced worker exposure, and provide direct benefit to the US Department of Energy for decommissioning projects complex wide. This project sets forth plans, organizational responsibilities, control systems, and procedures to manage the execution of the Project Management Plan for the 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project (Project Management Plan) activities to meet programmatic requirements within authorized funding and approved schedules. The Project Management Plan is organized following the guidelines provided by US Department of Energy Order 4700.1, Project Management System and the Richland Environmental Restoration Project Plan (DOE-RL 1992b)

  7. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Maywood, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1984, was continued in 1989 at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in the Borough of Maywood and the Township of Rochelle Park, New Jersey. MISS is currently used for storage of soils contaminated with low-level radioactivity. MISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials are present. The monitoring program at MISS measures thoron and radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and thorium, uranium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. The radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual to verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess its potential effects on public health. This report presents the results of the environmental monitoring program conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) during calendar year 1989. Environmental monitoring began at MISS in 1984. 19 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs

  8. Allowable peak heat-up cladding temperature for spent fuel integrity during interim-dry storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Nam Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate allowable peak cladding temperature and hoop stress for maintenance of cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport, zirconium alloy cladding tubes were hydrogen-charged to generate 250 ppm and 500 ppm hydrogen contents, simulating spent nuclear fuel degradation. The hydrogen-charged specimens were heated to four peak temperatures of 250°C, 300°C, 350°C, and 400°C, and then cooled to room temperature at cooling rates of 0.3 °C/min under three tensile hoop stresses of 80 MPa, 100 MPa, and 120 MPa. The cool-down specimens showed that high peak heat-up temperature led to lower hydrogen content and that larger tensile hoop stress generated larger radial hydride fraction and consequently lower plastic elongation. Based on these out-of-pile cladding tube test results only, it may be said that peak cladding temperature should be limited to a level < 250°C, regardless of the cladding hoop stress, to ensure cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport.

  9. Czech interim spent fuel storage facility: operation experience, inspections and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajman, V.; Bartak, L.; Coufal, J.; Brzobohaty, K.; Kuba, S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the situation in the spent fuel management in the Czech Republic. The interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (ISFSF) at Dukovany, which was commissioned in January 1997 and is using dual transport and storage CASTOR - 440/84 casks, is briefly described. The authors deal with their experience in operating and inspecting the ISFSF Dukovany. The structure of the basic safety document 'Limits and Conditions of Normal Operation' is also mentioned, including the experience of the performance. The inspection activities focused on permanent checking of the leak tightness of the CASTOR 440/84 casks, the maximum cask temperature and inspections monitoring both the neutron and gamma dose rate as well as the surface contamination. The results of the inspections are mentioned in the presentation as well. The operator's experience with re-opening partly loaded and already dried CASTOR-440/84 cask, after its transport from NPP Jaslovske Bohunice to the NPP Dukovany is also described. The paper introduces briefly the concept of future spent fuel storage both from the NPP Dukovany and the NPP Temelin, as prepared by the CEZ. The preparatory work for the Central Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (CISFSF) in the Czech Republic and the information concerning the planned storage technology for this facility is discussed in the paper as well. The authors describe the site selection process and the preparatory steps concerning new spent fuel facility construction including the Environmental Impact Assessment studies. (author)

  10. Methods for assessing environmental impacts of a FUSRAP property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, D.J.

    1982-12-01

    This document provides a description of a property-cleanup/interim-storage action, explanation of how environmental impacts might occur, comprehensive treatment of most potential impacts that might occur as a result of this type of action, discussion of existing methodologies for estimating and assessing impacts, justification of the choice of specific methodologies for use in FUSRAP environmental reviews, assessments of representative impacts (or expected ranges of impacts where possible), suggested mitigation measures, and some key sources of information. The major topical areas covered are physical and biological impacts, radiological impacts, and socioeconomic impacts. Some project-related issues were beyond the scope of this document, including dollar costs, specific accident scenarios, project funding and changes in Congressional mandates, and project management (contracts, labor relations, quality assurance, liability, emergency preparedness, etc.). These issues will be covered in other documents supporting the decision-making process. Although the scope of this document covers property-cleanup and interim-storage actions, it is applicable to other similar remedial actions. For example, the analyses discussed herein for cleanup activities are applicable to any FUSRAP action that includes site cleanup

  11. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Maywood, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1984, was continued in 1989 at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in the Borough of Maywood and the Township of Rochelle Park, New Jersey. MISS is currently used for storage of soils contaminated with low-level radioactivity. MISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials are present. The monitoring program at MISS measures thoron and radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and thorium, uranium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. The radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual to verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess its potential effects on public health. This report presents the results of the environmental monitoring program conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) during calendar year 1989. Environmental monitoring began at MISS in 1984. 19 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Criteria for Corrosion Protection of Aluminum-Clad Spent Nuclear Fuel in Interim Wet Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Storage of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other locations in the U. S. and around the world has been a concern over the past decade because of the long time interim storage requirements in water. Pitting corrosion of production aluminum-clad fuel in the early 1990''s at SRS was attributed to less than optimum quality water and corrective action taken has resulted in no new pitting since 1994. The knowledge gained from the corrosion surveillance testing and other investigations at SRS over the past 8 years has provided an insight into factors affecting the corrosion of aluminum in relatively high purity water. This paper reviews some of the early corrosion issues related to aluminum-clad spent fuel at SRS, including fundamentals for corrosion of aluminum alloys. It updates and summarizes the corrosion surveillance activities supporting the future storage of over 15,000 research reactor fuel assemblies from countries over the world during the next 15-20 years. Criteria are presented for providing corrosion protection for aluminum-clad spent fuel in interim storage during the next few decades while plans are developed for a more permanent disposition

  13. Interim solidification of SRP waste with silica, bentonite, or phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.

    1976-03-01

    One option for interim waste management at the Savannah River Plant is in-tank solidification of the liquid waste solutions. This would reduce the mobility of these highly radioactive solutions until techniques for their long-term immobilization and storage are developed and implemented. Interim treatments must permit eventual retrieval of waste and subsequent incorporation into a high-integrity form. This study demonstrated the solidification of simulated alkaline waste solutions by reaction with silica, bentonite, and phosphoric acid. Alkaline waste can be solidified by reaction with silica gel, silica flour, or sodium silicate solution. Solidified products containing waste salt can be retrieved by slurrying with water. Alkaline supernate (solution in equilibrium with alkaline sludge in SRP waste tanks) can be solidified by reaction with bentonite to form cancrinite powder. The solidified waste can be retrieved by slurrying with water. Alkaline supernate can be solidified by partial evaporation and reaction with phosphoric acid. Water is incorporated into hydrated complexes of trisodium phosphate. The product is soluble, but actual plant waste would not solidify completely because of decay heat. Reaction of simulated alkaline waste solutions with silica gel, silica flour, or bentonite increases the volume by a factor of approximately 6 over that of evaporated waste; reaction with phosphoric acid results in a volume 1.5 times that of evaporated waste. At present, the best method for in-tank solidification is by evaporation, a method that contributes no additional solids to the waste and does not compromise any waste management options

  14. Re-use of pilot data and interim analysis of pivotal data in MRMC studies: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Samuelson, Frank; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    Novel medical imaging devices are often evaluated with multi-reader multi-case (MRMC) studies in which radiologists read images of patient cases for a specified clinical task (e.g., cancer detection). A pilot study is often used to measure the effect size and variance parameters that are necessary for sizing a pivotal study (including sizing readers, non-diseased and diseased cases). Due to the practical difficulty of collecting patient cases or recruiting clinical readers, some investigators attempt to include the pilot data as part of their pivotal study. In other situations, some investigators attempt to perform an interim analysis of their pivotal study data based upon which the sample sizes may be re-estimated. Re-use of the pilot data or interim analyses of the pivotal data may inflate the type I error of the pivotal study. In this work, we use the Roe and Metz model to simulate MRMC data under the null hypothesis (i.e., two devices have equal diagnostic performance) and investigate the type I error rate for several practical designs involving re-use of pilot data or interim analysis of pivotal data. Our preliminary simulation results indicate that, under the simulation conditions we investigated, the inflation of type I error is none or only marginal for some design strategies (e.g., re-use of patient data without re-using readers, and size re-estimation without using the effect-size estimated in the interim analysis). Upon further verifications, these are potentially useful design methods in that they may help make a study less burdensome and have a better chance to succeed without substantial loss of the statistical rigor.

  15. The effects of fuel characteristics and engine operating conditions on the elemental composition of emissions from heavy duty diesel buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.C.H. Lim; G.A. Ayoko; L. Morawska; Z.D. Ristovski; E.R. Jayaratne [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences

    2007-08-15

    The effects of fuel characteristics and engine operating conditions on elemental composition of emissions from twelve heavy duty diesel buses have been investigated. Two types of diesel fuels - low sulfur diesel (LSD) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels with 500 ppm and 50 ppm sulfur contents respectively and 3 driving modes corresponding to 25%, 50% and 100% power were used. Elements present in the tailpipe emissions were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and those found in measurable quantities included Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ti, Ni, Pb, Be, P, Se, Ti and Ge. Multivariate analyses using multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) facilitated the extraction of information about the structure of the data. MCDM showed that the emissions of the elements were strongly influenced by the engine driving conditions while the PCA loadings plots showed that the emission factors of the elements were correlated with those of other pollutants such as particle number, total suspended particles, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx. Partial least square analysis revealed that the emission factors of the elements were strongly dependent on the fuel parameters such as the fuel sulfur content, fuel density, distillation point and cetane index. Strong correlations were also observed between these pollutants and the engine power or exhaust temperature. The study provides insights into the possible role of fuel sulfur content in the emission of inorganic elements from heavy duty diesel vehicles. 39 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Walking school buses as a form of active transportation for children-a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Liz; Norgate, Sarah H; Cherrett, Tom; Davies, Nigel; Winstanley, Christopher; Harding, Mike

    2015-03-01

    Walking school buses (WSBs) offer a potentially healthier way for children to get to school while reducing traffic congestion. A number of pressing societal challenges make it timely to evaluate evidence of their value. Studies that focused solely on WSBs were identified through online and manual literature searches. Twelve WSB studies involving a total of 9169 children were reviewed. Study aims, designs, methods, outcomes, and barriers and facilitators were examined. WSBs were found to be associated with increased prevalence of walking to school and general activity levels although not always significantly. Time constraints emerged as barriers to WSBs, impacting on recruitment of volunteers and children to the WSBs. Facilitators of WSBs included children enjoying socializing and interacting with the environment. Preliminary evidence of the health value of WSBs was demonstrated, along with recommendations for the design of future studies. By tackling barriers of time constraints, volunteer recruitment, and parents' safety concerns while at the same time, increasing convenience and time savings for families, future WSBs are likely to be more sustainable and taken up by more schools. Implications for future innovation in school health were identified. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  17. Environmental survey of two interim dumpsites, Middle Atlantic Bight from 05 November 1973 to 10 November 1973 (NODC Accession 7501280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A second oceanographic survey cruise was made to an interim municipal sludge dumpsite and initially to an interim dumpsite for the disposal of industrial acid waste...

  18. 42 CFR 93.401 - Interaction with other offices and interim actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interaction with other offices and interim actions. 93.401 Section 93.401 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Human Services General Information § 93.401 Interaction with other offices and interim actions. (a) ORI...

  19. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis

  20. 18 CFR 300.20 - Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates. 300.20 Section 300.20 Conservation of Power and Water... Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation; or (ii) Deny the Administrator's interim rate request...