WorldWideScience

Sample records for buses interim evaluation

  1. Interim Evaluation Results from New Flyer/Allison Hybrid Buses at King County Metro: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Eudy, L.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric articulated transit buses operated by King County Metro.

  2. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of fast-charge battery electric buses compared to compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. Launched in 2015 in collaboration with the California Air Resources Board, this study aims to improve understanding of the overall use and effectiveness of fast-charge electric buses and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation.

  3. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  4. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  5. Evaluation of Orion/BAE Hybrid Buses and Orion CNG Buses at New York City Transit: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Chandler, K.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses the NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric transit buses operated by New York City Transit.

  6. To Evaluate Zero Emission Propulsion and Support Technology for Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Chandler; Leslie Eudy

    2006-11-01

    This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California, in partnership with the San Mateo County Transit District in San Carlos, California. VTA has been operating three fuel cell transit buses in extra revenue service since February 28, 2005. This report provides descriptions of the equipment used, early experiences, and evaluation results from the operation of the buses and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure from March 2005 through July 2006.

  7. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  8. Reliability Evaluation Of The City Transport Buses Under Actual Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarz Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.

  9. Efficiency evaluation of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, Tobias Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The following report evaluates the efficiency of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector on a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the combination of CHP power plants and electric driven buses reach an overall efficiency of about 51% throughout the production chain (Well-to-Wheel), including heat distribution losses. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency for conventional gas turbines without heat recovery decreases to around 28%. For gas fuelled buses the Well-to-Wheel efficiency is about 30%. The Co2-emissions are evaluated based on the example of a #Left Double Quotation Mark#Volvo B10L CNG#Right Double Quotation Mark# gas bus and the electric driven #Left Double Quotation Mark#Eurabus 600#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The low energy consumption of the electric driven bus results in Co2-emissions of only 181.4 g Co2/km (Grid-to-Wheel). Depending on the utilised power plant technology the overall Co2-emissions (Well-to-Wheel) amount to 307.5 g Co2/km for a CHP power plant and 553.5 g Co2/km for a conventional gas turbine. On the other hand, gas fuelled buses emit about 1.25 kg Co2/km (Tank-to-Wheel), which is eightfold the emissions of an electrical bus. The Well-to-Tank emissions further increase to about 1.32 kg Co2/km. The emission calculation is based on real gas consumption data from a Norwegian public transport utility. The results indicate that the combination of CHP plants and electrical buses provide a much higher efficiency while reducing Co2-emissions. (author)

  10. COMPARISON OF CLEAN DIESEL BUSES TO CNG BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, D.; Parsley, W.; Bush,C; Zupo, D.

    2003-08-24

    Using previously published data on regulated and unregulated emissions, this paper will compare the environmental performance of current generation transit buses operated on compressed natural gas (CNG) to current generation transit buses operated on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and incorporating diesel particulate filters (DPF). Unregulated emissions evaluated include toxic compounds associated with adverse health effects (carbonyl, PAH, NPAH, benzene) as well as PM particle count and size distribution. For all regulated and unregulated emissions, both technologies are shown to be comparable. DPF equipped diesel buses and CNG buses have virtually identical levels of PM mass emissions and particle number emissions. DPF-equipped diesel buses have lower HC and CO emissions and lower emissions of toxic substances such as benzene, carbonyls and PAHs than CNG buses. CNG buses have lower NOx emissions than DPF-equipped buses, though CNG bus NOx emissions are shown to be much more variable. In addition, this paper will compare the capital and operating costs of CNG and DPF-equipped buses. The cost comparison is primarily based on the experience of MTA New York City Transit in operating CNG buses since 1995 and DPF-equipped buses fueled with ULSD since 2001. Published data on the experience of other large transit agencies in operating CNG buses is used to validate the NYCT experience. The incremental cost (compared to ''baseline'' diesel) of operating a typical 200-bus depot is shown to be six times higher for CNG buses than for ''clean diesel'' buses. The contributors to this increased cost for CNG buses are almost equally split between increased capital costs for purchase of buses and installation of fueling infrastructure, and increased operating costs for purchase of fuel, bus maintenance, and fuel station maintenance.

  11. In-Use Fleet Evaluation of Fast-Charge Battery Electric Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Kelly, Kenneth; Eudy; Leslie

    2016-06-27

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2015, NREL launched an in-service evaluation of 12 battery electric buses (BEBs) compared to conventional compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of fast-charge BEBs and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation. To date, NREL researchers have analyzed more than 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. Foothill Transit purchased the BEBs with grant funding from the Federal Transit Administration's Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction Program.

  12. Interim Policy for Evaluation of Stereoisomeric Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim approach for determining data requirements for non-racemic mixtures of stereoisomeric pesticides. These data are needed in order to assess the risk posed to ecosystems and drinking water sources by these mixtures.

  13. TWRS HLW interim storage facility search and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to identify and provide an evaluation of interim storage facilities and potential facility locations for the vitrified high-level waste (HLW) from the Phase I demonstration plant and Phase II production plant. In addition, interim storage facilities for solidified separated radionuclides (Cesium and Technetium) generated during pretreatment of Phase I Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant feed was evaluated.

  14. Tier One Performance Screen Initial Operational Test and Evaluation: 2011 Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Battery (ASVAB) Content, Structure, and Scor ing The ASVAB is a multiple aptitude battery of nine tests administered by the MEPCOM. Most military...Technical Report 1306 Tier One Performance Screen Initial Operational Test and Evaluation: 2011 Interim Report Deirdre J...to) August 2009 to May 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tier One Performance Screen Initial Operational Test and Evaluation: 2011 Interim

  15. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  16. EPA Interim Evaluation of 2012-2013 Milestone Progress in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides the EPA interim evaluations of the 2012-2013 milestones for the Chesapeake Bay TMDL. These interim assessments provide a mid-point check on the progress made on the 2012-2013 milestones, recognizing the achievements made in 2012.

  17. Intra-Service Section 7 Evaluation Consultation/Conference/Concurrence : Walnut Creek NWR Interim Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Section 7 Evaluation for the Neal Smith NWR Interim Hunting Plan states that the hunting program is not likely to adversely affect listed species on the Refuge....

  18. Evaluation of city buses installed diesel particulate filter systems on fleet test; Diesel particulate filter system wo tosaishita rosen bus no soko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, H. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An environmental air quality of suspended particulate matter is insufficient in the big city area. To reduce the particulate matter, improvement of engine and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system are carrying. The purpose of this report is to investigate a possibility of practical use of the city buses installed DPF systems. From March 1995, investigation for practical use of these DPF systems on a route buses was carried in regular service operation of the Tokyo and Yokohama Transportation Bureau. The investigation items are service situation, smoke density and preparation inspection. From the result for 2 years service operation, each DPF systems needed some failure correspondence. but these were not fatal problem on using the DPF system. Then the subject of relative to durability and reliability became clear, and the performance of a low particulate emission DPF system obtained the high value evaluation for users. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes--an interim analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Home, Philip D; Pocock, Stuart J; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis raised concern regarding an increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes associated with rosiglitazone treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted an unplanned interim analysis of a randomized, multicenter, open-label, non......BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis raised concern regarding an increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes associated with rosiglitazone treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted an unplanned interim analysis of a randomized, multicenter, open...... group). The primary end point was hospitalization or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: Because the mean follow-up was only 3.75 years, our interim analysis had limited statistical power to detect treatment differences. A total of 217 patients in the rosiglitazone group and 202 patients...... group and the control group regarding myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes or any cause. There were more patients with heart failure in the rosiglitazone group than in the control group (hazard ratio, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.57). CONCLUSIONS: Our interim findings from this ongoing...

  20. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, S; Hak, C

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO2, O3, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde>150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20-30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion.

  1. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  2. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  3. Nondestructive evaluation of creep-fatigue damage: an interim report. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1977-02-01

    In view of the uncertainties involved in designing against creep-fatigue failure and the consequences of such failures in Class 1 nuclear components that operate at elevated temperature, the possibility of intermittent or even continuous non-destructive examination of these components has been considered. In this interim report some preliminary results on magnetic force and ultrasonic evaluation of creep-fatigue damage in an LMFBR steam generator material are presented. These results indicate that the non-destructive evaluation of pure creep damage will be extremely difficult. A set of biaxial creep-fatigue tests that are designed to discriminate between various failure theories is also described.

  4. Comprehensive computerized medical imaging: interim hypothetical economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Rebecca N.; Fisher, Paul D.; Nosil, Josip

    1990-08-01

    The 422-bed Victoria General Hospital (VGH) and Siemens Electric Limited have since 1983 been piloting the implementation of comprehensive computerized medical imaging, including digital acquisition of diagnostic images, in British Columbia. Although full PACS is not yet in place at VGH, experience to date habeen used to project annual cost figures (including capital replacement) for a fully-computerized department. The resulting economic evaluation has been labelled hypothetical to emphasize that some key cost components were estimated rather than observed; this paper presents updated cost figures based on recent revisions to proposed departmental equipment configuration which raised the cost of conventional imaging equipment by 0.3 million* and lowered the cost of computerized imaging equipment by 0.8 million. Compared with conventional diagnostic imaging, computerized imaging appears to raise overall annual costs at VGH by nearly 0.7 million, or 11.6%; this is more favourable than the previous results, which indicated extra annual costs of 1 million (16.9%). Sensitivity analysis still indicates that all reasonable changes in the underlying assumptions result in higher costs for computerized imaging than for conventional imaging. Computerized imaging offers lower radiation exposure to patients, shorter waiting times, and other potential advantages, but as yet the price of obtaining these benefits remains substantial.

  5. Evaluating real-world CO2 and NOX emissions for public transit buses using a remote wireless on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuhanzi; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Chen, Qizheng; Niu, Tianlin; Huang, Xu; Zhang, Shida; Zhang, Liangjun; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2016-11-01

    The challenge to mitigate real-world emissions from vehicles calls for powerful in-use compliance supervision. The remote on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach, with wireless data communications, is one of the promising next-generation monitoring methods. We collected second-by-second profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions, driving conditions and engine performance for three conventional diesel and three hybrid diesel buses participating in a remote OBD pilot program in Nanjing, China. Our results showed that the average CO2 emissions for conventional diesel and hybrid diesel buses were 816 ± 83 g km(-1) and 627 ± 54 g km(-1), respectively, under a typical driving pattern. An operating mode binning analysis indicated that CO2 emissions reduction by series-parallel hybrid technology was largely because of the significant benefits of the technology under the modes of low speed and low power demand. However, significantly higher CO2 emissions were observed for conventional diesel buses during rush hours, higher than 1200 g km(-1). The OBD data suggested no improvement in NOX emission reduction for hybrid buses compared with conventional buses; both were approximately 12 g km(-1) because of poor performance of the selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in the real world. Speed-dependent functions for real-world CO2 and NOX emissions were also constructed. The CO2 emissions of hybrid buses were much less sensitive to the average speed than conventional buses. If the average speed decreased from 20 km h(-1) to 10 km h(-1), the estimated CO2 emission factor for conventional buses would be increased by 34%. Such a change in speed would increase NOX emissions for conventional and hybrid buses by 38% and 56%, respectively. This paper demonstrates the useful features of the remote OBD system and can inform policy makers how to take advantage of these features in monitoring in-use vehicles.

  6. Interim Evaluation of the Project P.A.T.H.S.: Findings Based on Different Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interim evaluation studies were carried out in order to examine the implementation details of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes in Hong Kong. Quantitative results of the interim evaluation findings based on eight datasets collected from 2006 to 2009 are reported in this paper. Three hundred and seventy-eight schools were randomly selected to provide information on the implementation details of the program via face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, and self-completed questionnaires. Results showed that a majority of the workers perceived that the students had positive responses to the program and the program was helpful to the students. In conjunction with other process evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the implementation quality of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. is high. The present study also provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

  7. Interim progress report on the Vancouver Island Biodiesel Evaluation Study (VIBES) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlow, W. [City of Victoria, BC (Canada). Engineering Dept.

    2005-04-05

    The Vancouver Island Biodiesel Evaluation Study (VIBES) was launched in December 2004 by fleet operators and local political and community leaders to increase the public interest in biodiesel. The study provided a trial period to better understand the viability of using biodiesel in fleets, including school buses. The test involves a total of 17 test vehicles and 12 baseline vehicles. Nearly 200,000 litres of pre-blended B20 will be used by the vehicles during the field test in which vehicle performance, mileage and fuel consumption will be monitored over several industry sectors and vehicle types. This report reflects the progress of the VIBES project through the first 4 months and includes the experiences and findings of participants as well as the progress on the development of an emissions tracking and trading framework. This evaluation represents the largest cross-sector biodiesel evaluation study to date in Canada. The focus for the final 2 months of the project has shifted to expanding community participation through a One Tank Challenge, developing a User's Guide, and sharing the VIBES experience with other jurisdictions. The long-term objective of VIBES is to build a sufficient market base to support the development of a local biodiesel plant to ensure fleets have access to a cost competitive and efficient supply of quality biodiesel. The feedback thus far has been very positive and the City of Victoria is challenging other fleets to try biodiesel. tabs., figs.

  8. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2. GSFLS visit findings and evaluations. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This report describes a global framework that evaluates spent fuel disposition requirements, influencing factors and strategies. A broad sampling of foreign governmental officials, electric utility spokesmen and nuclear power industry officials responsible for GSFLS policies, plans and programs were surveyed as to their views with respect to national and international GSFLS related considerations. The results of these GSFLS visit findings are presented herein. These findings were then evaluated in terms of technical, institutional and legal/regulatory implications. The GSFLS evaluations, in conjunction with perceived US spent fuel objectives, formed the basis for selecting a set of GSFLS strategies which are reported herein.

  9. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. 76 FR 72006 - Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... members of the public from radon-222 and radon-222 progeny from UR facilities including: (1) Surveys of... COMMISSION Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon... Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air and Demonstrations of Compliance with 10 CFR...

  11. Cost Sensitivity Analysis for Consolidated Interim Storage of Spent Fuel: Evaluating the Effect of Economic Environment Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumberland, Riley M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Kent Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jarrell, Joshua J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joseph, III, Robert Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report evaluates how the economic environment (i.e., discount rate, inflation rate, escalation rate) can impact previously estimated differences in lifecycle costs between an integrated waste management system with an interim storage facility (ISF) and a similar system without an ISF.

  12. Interim Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd

    2009-01-01

    The Registry for College and University Presidents places former executives in interim presidential and other senior-level posts and is familiar with the challenges interim executives and institutions encounter in times of leadership transitions. However, the one big advantage interims bring to institutions, says Registry Vice President Kevin J.…

  13. FY 14 interim report : Evaluation of treatments to mitigate negative plant-soil feedbacks and improve reconstruction seeding success at Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Interim report for fiscal year 2014 on the research "Evaluation of treatments to mitigate negative plant-soil feedbacks and improve reconstruction seeding success at...

  14. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  15. Interim Rationalizability

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Dekel; Drew Fudenberg; Stephen Morris

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes the solution concept of interim rationalizability, and shows that all type spaces that have the same hierarchies of beliefs have the same set of interim rationalizable outcomes. This solution concept characterizes common knowledge of rationality in the universal type space.

  16. Processor arrays with asynchronous TDM optical buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, S. Q.

    1997-04-01

    We propose a pipelined asynchronous time division multiplexing optical bus. Such a bus can use one of the two hardwared priority schemes, the linear priority scheme and the round-robin priority scheme. Our simulation results show that the performances of our proposed buses are significantly better than the performances of known pipelined synchronous time division multiplexing optical buses. We also propose a class of processor arrays connected by pipelined asynchronous time division multiplexing optical buses. We claim that our proposed processor array not only have better performance, but also have better scalabilities than the existing processor arrays connected by pipelined synchronous time division multiplexing optical buses.

  17. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  18. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Fourth interim report (August 1980): assessment of optimum distribution configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This interim report provides documentation on the fourth task, Assessment of Optimum Distribution Configuration, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes the development of a computer model for assessment of life cycle costs for the distribution and utilization systems, the development of an optimization algorithm to enable distribution system configuration optimization and a net energy analysis to determine potential net energy savings. Input data for this task derive from Task 3. The major output of this task is a documented computer code.

  19. Interim Guidelines for the Evaluation and Testing of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, J Erin; Dziuban, Eric J; Fischer, Marc; Cragan, Janet D; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Cannon, Michael J; Frey, Meghan T; Renquist, Christina M; Lanciotti, Robert S; Muñoz, Jorge L; Powers, Ann M; Honein, Margaret A; Moore, Cynthia A

    2016-01-29

    CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States who are caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy. These guidelines include recommendations for the testing and management of these infants. Guidance is subject to change as more information becomes available; the latest information, including answers to commonly asked questions, can be found online (http://www.cdc.gov/zika). Pediatric health care providers should work closely with obstetric providers to identify infants whose mothers were potentially infected with Zika virus during pregnancy (based on travel to or residence in an area with Zika virus transmission [http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices]), and review fetal ultrasounds and maternal testing for Zika virus infection (see Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak*) (1). Zika virus testing is recommended for 1) infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications born to women who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission while pregnant; or 2) infants born to mothers with positive or inconclusive test results for Zika virus infection. For infants with laboratory evidence of a possible congenital Zika virus infection, additional clinical evaluation and follow-up is recommended. Health care providers should contact their state or territorial health department to facilitate testing. As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition.

  20. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  1. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA.

  2. Quantitative analyses at baseline and interim PET evaluation for response assessment and outcome definition in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Perrino, Matteo; Gianoncelli, Letizia; Lorenzi, Elena; Gemelli, Maria; Santoro, Armando [Humanitas Research Hospital, Oncology, Rozzano (Italy); Ceresoli, Giovanni Luca [Humanitas Gavazzeni, Oncology, Bergamo (Italy); Giordano, Laura [Humanitas Research Hospital, Biostatistics, Rozzano (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative analyses on FDG PET for response assessment are increasingly used in clinical studies, particularly with respect to tumours in which radiological assessment is challenging and complete metabolic response is rarely achieved after treatment. A typical example is malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), an aggressive tumour originating from mesothelial cells of the pleura. We present our results concerning the use of semiquantitative and quantitative parameters, evaluated at the baseline and interim PET examinations, for the prediction of treatment response and disease outcome in patients with MPM. We retrospectively analysed data derived from 131 patients (88 men, 43 women; mean age 66 years) with MPM who were referred to our institution for treatment between May 2004 and July 2013. Patients were investigated using FDG PET at baseline and after two cycles of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. Responses were determined using modified RECIST criteria based on the best CT response after treatment. Disease control rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated for the whole population and were correlated with semiquantitative and quantitative parameters evaluated at the baseline and interim PET examinations; these included SUV{sub max}, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), percentage change in SUV{sub max} (ΔSUV{sub max}) and percentage change in TLG (ΔTLG). Disease control was achieved in 84.7 % of the patients, and median PFS and OS for the entire cohort were 7.2 and 14.3 months, respectively. The log-rank test showed a statistically significant difference in PFS between patients with radiological progression and those with partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) (1.8 vs. 8.6 months, p < 0.001). Baseline SUV{sub max} and TLG showed a statistically significant correlation with PFS and OS (p < 0.001). In the entire population, both ΔSUV{sub max} and ΔTLG were correlated with disease control based on best CT response (p < 0

  3. Clean School Bus USA: Tomorrow's Buses for Today's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is ensuring that all new buses meet tighter standards developed to reduce diesel emissions and improve safety. Today's new buses are cleaner--60 times cleaner than buses built before 1990--and feature additional emergency exits, improved mirror systems, and pedestrian safety devices. But replacing…

  4. The New Energy Buses in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of “low carbon” economy, new energy vehicles are increasingly favored by the Chinese government and manufacturers. New energy buses have become an important channel for the promotion of new energy utilizations. Based on the summary of policies, this paper conducts a thorough resea...... price. We draw the conclusions that clear direction and detailed plans will enhance the new energy bus promotion and rising oil prices will promote new energy buses as well.......With the advent of “low carbon” economy, new energy vehicles are increasingly favored by the Chinese government and manufacturers. New energy buses have become an important channel for the promotion of new energy utilizations. Based on the summary of policies, this paper conducts a thorough...... research on the technology and promotion achievements on new energy buses. We have found that the promotion achievements have difference with plans and gaps exist in different cities. In the paper we discuss the policy efficiency, the correlation between achievements, policies and the influence from oil...

  5. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  6. The School Busing Controversy: 1970-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buncher, Judith F., Ed.

    Even though transportation of school children was long accepted by the public prior to the conflict over school integration, the school bus became a symbol representing the divergent emotions of both the integrationists and the supporters of "neighborhood schools." Busing was used as a means of overcoming the resistance and procrastination of…

  7. A Busing Program for Child Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alan S.; Hung, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The University of British Columbia (Canada) dental school has implemented a clinical experience program in which children in grades 2-4 are bused to the university for dental treatment. The program has helped maintain undergraduate pediatric dental experiences, benefited the children's dental health, and cost parents less than traditional dental…

  8. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2011-11-01

    This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

  9. The territorial cooperation policy of the EU with the countries of South East Europe: An interim evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotios Angelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the programming period 2007-2013 the Cohesion Policy of the EU was adopted and the policy of territorial cooperation with third countries was implemented. Within this framework, the EU co-finances (through the European Regional Development Fund, the pre-accession instrument and the instrument of European Neighbourhood Policy a series of cross-border, interregional and transnational cooperation programmes in Southeast Europe. The South East European countries are eligible for all these programmes, but the only programme that includes all countries in the region is the South East Europe Programme 2007-2013. The aim of this study is to conduct an interim evaluation of these programmes and present suggestions for the new programming period for the Cohesion Policy 2014-2020. Section 2 describes the EU policy of territorial cooperation with non-EU countries. Section 3 reviews the framework of EU policies and programmes fostering regional integration and territorial cohesion in Southeast Europe. Section 4 presents the area, aim, objectives and priority axes of the programme, while Section 5 offers an assessment of the implementation and effectiveness of the programme. Section 6 also includes some critical observations and policy proposals.

  10. Interim Test Procedures for Evaluating Electrical Performance and Grid Integration of Vehicle-to-Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, S.; Kramer, W.; Kroposki, B.; Martin, G.; McNutt, P.; Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Hoke, A.

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a test plan for V2G testing. The test plan is designed to test and evaluate the vehicle's power electronics capability to provide power to the grid, and to evaluate the vehicle's ability to connect and disconnect from the utility according to a subset of the IEEE Std. 1547 tests.

  11. Evaluation of Flexural Strength of Thermocycled Interim Resin Materials Used in Prosthetic Rehabilitation- An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Krishna Kishore; Anne, Gopinadh; Anche, Sampath Chowdary; Chiramana, Sandeep; Muvva, Suresh Babu; Zakkula, Srujana; Jyothula, Ravi Rakesh Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Provisional restoration is an analytical component of fixed prosthodontics serving as a ground plan for the design of fixed dental prosthesis. Flexural strength is critical in case of long standing fixed dental prosthesis, to appreciate success of full mouth rehabilitation cases and temporomandibular joint dysfunction therapies. Aim The present study was to evaluate the flexural strength of different provisional restorative resins used for prosthetic rehabilitation. Materials and Methods Forty identical samples (n=10 for each material) measuring 25mm×2mm×2mm according to ADA/ANSI specification no. 27 were fabricated using autopolymerizing Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) (Group A); heat activated PMMA (Group B); autopolymerizing Bis-GMA composite resin (Group C) and light activated Urethane Dimethacrylate Resin (UDMA) (Group D). For 14 days all these samples were stored in artificial saliva. Ten samples from each material were subjected to thermal cycling for 2500 cycles (5°C to 55°C). Later, a standard three point bending test was conducted on all the specimens with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.75mm/min. Statistical analysis used included Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results The mean flexural strength of specimens confirmed higher flexural strength for Group C (102.98 Mpa) followed by Group B (91.86 Mpa), Group A (79.13 Mpa) and Group D (60.01 Mpa). There were significant differences between any two materials tested (p <0.05). Comparison between mean flexural strength values between four groups revealed significant difference between the interim materials (p <0.05). Conclusion The greatest flexural strength was observed for Bis-GMA composite resins followed by heat cure methacrylate resins, autopolymerizing methacrylate resins and was least for light cure resins. While fabricating provisional restorations, these greater values should be considered for better outcome of the treatment. PMID:27790588

  12. Update: Interim Guidance for the Evaluation and Management of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection - United States, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kate; Oliver, Sara E; Lewis, Lillianne; Barfield, Wanda D; Cragan, Janet; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Staples, J Erin; Fischer, Marc; Peacock, Georgina; Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E; Zaki, Sherif; Moore, Cynthia A; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2016-08-26

    CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (1). Laboratory testing is recommended for 1) infants born to mothers with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy and 2) infants who have abnormal clinical or neuroimaging findings suggestive of congenital Zika syndrome and a maternal epidemiologic link suggesting possible transmission, regardless of maternal Zika virus test results. Congenital Zika syndrome is a recently recognized pattern of congenital anomalies associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy that includes microcephaly, intracranial calcifications or other brain anomalies, or eye anomalies, among others (2). Recommended infant laboratory evaluation includes both molecular (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [rRT-PCR]) and serologic (immunoglobulin M [IgM]) testing. Initial samples should be collected directly from the infant in the first 2 days of life, if possible; testing of cord blood is not recommended. A positive infant serum or urine rRT-PCR test result confirms congenital Zika virus infection. Positive Zika virus IgM testing, with a negative rRT-PCR result, indicates probable congenital Zika virus infection. In addition to infant Zika virus testing, initial evaluation of all infants born to mothers with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy should include a comprehensive physical examination, including a neurologic examination, postnatal head ultrasound, and standard newborn hearing screen. Infants with laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection should have a comprehensive ophthalmologic exam and hearing assessment by auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing before 1 month of age. Recommendations for follow-up of infants with laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection depend on whether abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika syndrome

  13. Tier One Performance Screen Initial Operational Test and Evaluation: 2012 Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    the WPA is part of the TOPS IOT &E, WPA scores will not be considered for enlistment eligibility. The WPA is scheduled for administration at MEPS...Tailored Adaptive Personality Assessment System (TAPAS), for an initial operational test and evaluation ( IOT &E), beginning administration to applicants in...for both selection and classification purposes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Personnel , Manpower, Selection and classification SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on the Hanford Reach, 1997-1999 Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Paul; Nugent, John; Price, William (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1999-02-15

    Pilot work conducted in 1997 to aid the development of the study for the 1998 Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on The Hanford Reach. The objectives of the 1997 work were to: (1) identify juvenile chinook production and rearing areas..., (2) identify sampling sites and develop the statistical parameters necessary to complete the study, (3) develop a study plan..., (4) conduct field sampling activities...

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  16. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  17. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-06-01

    This Interim Report summarizes the research and development activities of the Superconducting Super Collider project carried out from the completion of the Reference Designs Study (May 1984) to June 1985. It was prepared by the SSC Central Design Group in draft form on the occasion of the DOE Annual Review, June 19--21, 1985. Now largely organized by CDG Divisions, the bulk of each chapter documents the progress and accomplishments to date, while the final section(s) describe plans for future work. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides a basic brief description of the SSC, its physics justification, its origins, and the R&D organization set up to carry out the work. Chapter 2 gives a summary of the main results of the R&D program, the tasks assigned to the four magnet R&D centers, and an overview of the future plans. The reader wishing a quick look at the SSC Phase I effort can skim Chapter 1 and read Chapter 2. Subsequent chapters discuss in more detail the activities on accelerator physics, accelerator systems, magnets and cryostats, injector, detector R&D, conventional facilities, and project planning and management. The magnet chapter (5) documents in text and photographs the impressive progress in successful construction of many model magnets, the development of cryostats with low heat leaks, and the improvement in current-carrying capacity of superconducting strand. Chapter 9 contains the budgets and schedules of the COG Divisions, the overall R&D program, including the laboratories, and also preliminary projections for construction. Appendices provide information on the various panels, task forces and workshops held by the CDG in FY 1985, a bibliography of COG and Laboratory reports on SSC and SSC-related work, and on private industrial involvement in the project.

  18. Interim findings of an evaluation of the U.S. EnergyGuide label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, Christine; Payne, Christopher T.; Thorne, Jennifer

    2000-08-20

    The United States has labeled appliances with the EnergyGuide labels since 1980. Consensus is growing that this label is confusing to consumers and has little impact on purchase decisions. Many researchers have documented that alternative labeling approaches are effective in other countries. The authors comprehensively evaluated the U.S. appliance labeling program for white goods, heating and cooling equipment, and water heaters, with emphasis on products sold through retail outlets. To date, our research has included consumer focus groups and semi-structured interviews with various market actors to assess how best to communicate energy information. With consumers and retail sales staff, five graphical designs were tested a European-style, letter based graphic; an Australian-style star-based graphic; a speedometer-style graphic; a thermometer-style graphic; and the current U.S. style. With manufacturers and contractors, we did not directly test alternate designs. Instead, we asked their opinion of and experience with the current EnergyGuide labeling program.

  19. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs

  20. How Busing Burdened Blacks: Critical Race Theory and Busing for Desegregation in Nashville-Davidson County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses critical race theory, court opinions, newspapers, and interviews to explain how the burden of busing for desegregation was placed upon Blacks in Nashville, Tennessee and why the agenda of the litigants in the Kelley v. Metropolitan Board of Education cases shifted over time. The deliberate pace of the initial desegregation…

  1. Communication Buses and Protocols for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mason

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews existing digital communication buses which are commonly used in sensor networks, discusses sensor network architectures, and introduces a new sensor bus for low power microsystem applications. The new intra-module multi-element microsystem (IM2 bus is nine-line interface with 8b serial data which implements several advanced features such as power management and plug-n-play while maintaining minimum hardware overhead at the sensor node. Finally, some issues in wireless sensor networking are discussed. The coverage of these issues provides a guideline for choosing the appropriate bus for different sensor network applications.

  2. School Buses Answer Calls for Help in Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    Five days after Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans, a convoy of 142 air-conditioned school buses from the 209,000-student Texas district rumbled to life. Loaded with food and bottled water, staffed by 350 school employees, and accompanied by bus-repair trucks and a phalanx of school police cars, the yellow buses traveled all night to reach the…

  3. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements...

  4. Dynamic Extra Buses Scheduling Strategy in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic extra buses scheduling strategy to improve the transit service of transit routes. In this strategy, in order to decide when to dispatch an extra bus, the service reliability of transit route is assessed firstly. A model aimed at maximizing the benefit of the extra buses scheduling strategy is constructed to determine how many stops extra buses need to skip from the terminal to accommodate passengers at the following stops. A heuristic algorithm is defined and implemented to estimate the service reliability of transit route and to optimize the initial stop of extra buses scheduling strategy. Finally, the strategy is tested on two examples: a simple and a real-life transit route in the Dalian city in China. The results show that the extra buses scheduling strategy based on terminal stops with a reasonable threshold can save 8.01% waiting time of passengers.

  5. [Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Benefits Analysis for Battery Electric Buses Based on Travel Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-dan; Tian, Liang; Lü, Bin; Yang, Jian-xin

    2015-09-01

    Battery Electric Bus (BEB) has become one of prior options of urban buses for its "zero emission" during the driving stage. However, the environmental performance of electric buses is affected by multi-factors from the point of whole life cycle. In practice, carrying capacity of BEB and power generation structures can both implement evident effects on the energy consumption and pollutants emission of BEB. Therefore, take the above factors into consideration, in this article, Life Cycle Assessment is employed to evaluate the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of BEB. Results indicate that, travel service is more reasonable as the functional unit, rather than mileage, since the carrying capacity of BEB is 15% lower than the diesel buses. Moreover, compared with diesel buses, the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of battery electric buses are all different due to different regional power structures. Specifically, the energy benefits are 7. 84%, 11. 91%, 26. 90%, 11. 15%, 19. 55% and 20. 31% respectively in Huabei, Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang power structure. From the point of comprehensive emissions reduction benefits, there is no benefit in Huabei power structure, as it depends heavily on coal. But in other areas, the comprehensive emissions reduction benefits of BEB are separately 3. 46%, 26. 81%, 1. 17%, 13. 74% and 17. 48% in Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang. Therefore, it suggests that, enlargement of carrying capacity should be taken as the most prior technology innovation direction for BEB, and the grids power structure should be taken into consideration when the development of BEB is in planning.

  6. Electric Buses in Urban Transport, The Situation and Development Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jakub Slavlk

    2014-01-01

    A study called "E-mobilita v MHD" (e-mobility in urban mass transit) has been conducted by the author's private consultancy to inform Czech public transport operators about the technologies and operational experience to date and stimulate the e-bus utilization as well as their involvement in e-bus research and development projects. The study covers trolley-buses, diesel hybrids and e-buses including fuel cell buses. These electric urban buses have been compared with combustion engine vehicles represented by diesel and CNG (compressed natural gas) buses, in terms of energy consumption and cost, greenhouse gas emissions, noise and life cycle cost. Relations between urban transport e-mobility and the "smart grid" concept have been presented as well. Comprehensive reports prepared on the European Union and the USA levels have been the basis for the study, completed by information from the field research, focused especially on the bus operational reliability and other parameters important for a transport operator and covering, interalia, 12 case studies. The results show electric buses as a promising urban transport mode with massive technology development overcoming their operational limitations. Synergies between electric buses and other urban systems, such as power supply, are notable as well.

  7. The Intentional Interim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The author spent years in central-office administration, most recently in an interim position. Some interim administrators simply see themselves as placeholders until the real deal is hired, giving the organization the opportunity to coast. There are others who see themselves as change agents and cannot wait to undo or redo what their predecessor…

  8. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advance Science Research. Result evaluation, interim evaluation, in-advance evaluation in fiscal year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 13 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the accomplishments of the research completed in Fiscal Year 2001, the accomplishments of the research started in Fiscal Year 2000, and the adequacy of the programs of the research to be started in Fiscal Year 2003 at Advanced Science Research Center of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of eight specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from May to July 2002. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on June 4, 2002, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on August 5, 2002. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research. (author)

  9. Battery buses and light hybrid buses in modern town traffic. Batteriebusse und Leichthybridbusse im modernen Stadtverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R. (Neoplan Gottlob Anwaerter GmbH und Co., Stuttgart (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    Apart from the manufacture of standardised line buses, Neoplan has been intensively concerned with the development of ultra-light vehicle bodies. The individual technical steps have been tested and brought from the experimental stage to readiness for mass-production by four different types of application and 10 experimental vehicles which are used in genuine daily use in traffic concerns. 1. Battery changing technique; 2. Diesel-electric power transmission and developing a wheel motor drive; 3. Diesel-electric power transmission with multiple energy supply (hybrid system). (orig./BWI)

  10. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Comparative study of the work load between one-man buses and two-man buses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno,Mitsuo

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences in physiological and safety conditions of one-man buses and two-man buses were examined from the view point of occupational fatigue. This survey consisted of a work load study which included a time study, study of subsidiary behavior, auditory task, memory test, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR and physiological function tests and a self-administered questionnaire which involved items concerning safety and subjective fatigue complaints. The visual and postural restrictions in the one-man bus were greater than in the two-man bus. The mental capacity of the one-man bus drivers was found to be less. Greater mental fatigue and stress were observed in the one-man bus. More subjective fatigue complaints were observed in the one-man bus. More cases of near accidents were observed in the one-man bus. From these results it was concluded that the one-man bus caused bus drivers a greater mental and physical work load.

  12. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2013-05-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel-1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs) showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg

  13. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel−1 and for the CNG buses 41

  14. RELIABILITY OF BRAKE SYSTEMS OF BUSES OF GROUP MAZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bessarab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world safety of maintained vehicles has the major value. For motor vehicles of the Republic of Belarus this problem is also actual. Maintenance of high reliability of brake systems of cars in operation is one of ways of the decision of a problem of increase of traffic safety.The analysis of reliability of brake systems of buses MAZ is carried out following the results of the state maintenance service in 2010 and the analysis of premature returns from routes of movement of buses MAZ-103 and МАZ-104 one of the motor transportation enterprises of a city of Minsk. Principal causes of structural parameters modification of brake pneumatic system of buses, the brake mechanism and elements АBS are considered.

  15. Evaluation of Shear Strength Threshold of Concern for Retrieval of Interim-Stored K-Basin Sludge in the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-11-01

    K-Basin sludge will be recovered into the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and will be stored in the T Plant for interim storage (at least 10 years). Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show that high uranium content K Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has "paste" and "chunks" with shear strengths of approximately 3~5 kPa and 380 ~ 770 kPa, respectively. High uranium content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185°C, 10 h) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. After interim storage at T Plant, the sludge in the STSCs will be mobilized by water jets impinging the sludge. The objective of the evaluation was to determine the range of sludge shear strength for which there is high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from STSCs. The shear strength at which the sludge can be retrieved is defined as the "shear strength threshold of concern." If the sludge shear strength is greater than the value of the shear strength threshold of concern, a water-jet retrieval system will be unlikely to mobilize the sludge up to the container’s walls. The shear strength threshold of concern can be compared with the range of possible shear strengths of K-Basin stored sludge to determine if the current post interim-storage, water-jet retrieval method is adequate. Fourteen effective cleaning radius (ECR) models were reviewed, and their validity was examined by applying them to Hanford 241-SY-101 and 241-AZ-101 Tanks to reproduce the measured ECR produced by the mixer pumps. The validation test identified that the Powell-3 and Crowe-2 ECR models are more accurate than other ECR models reviewed. These ECR models were used to address a question as to whether the effective cleaning radius of a water jet is sufficient or if it can be readily expanded

  16. RELIABILITY OF BRAKE SYSTEMS OF BUSES OF GROUP MAZ

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bessarab

    2013-01-01

    All over the world safety of maintained vehicles has the major value. For motor vehicles of the Republic of Belarus this problem is also actual. Maintenance of high reliability of brake systems of cars in operation is one of ways of the decision of a problem of increase of traffic safety.The analysis of reliability of brake systems of buses MAZ is carried out following the results of the state maintenance service in 2010 and the analysis of premature returns from routes of movement of buses M...

  17. Evaluation of early response to concomitant chemoradiotherapy by interim {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with locally advanced oesophageal carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca, Xavier; Hennequin, Christophe; Rivera, Sofia; Baruch-Hennequin, Valerie [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Department of Radiation Oncology, Paris (France); Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Nuclear Medicine Department, Paris (France); Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Paris (France); University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haut-Leveque Hospital, CHU Bordeaux (France); Vercellino, Laetitia [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Nuclear Medicine Department, Paris (France); Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Paris (France); Gornet, Jean-Marc [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Gastroenterology Department, Paris (France); Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Paris (France); Cattan, Pierre; Chirica, Mircea [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Surgery Department, Paris (France); Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Paris (France); Quero, Laurent [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Department of Radiation Oncology, Paris (France); Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Paris (France)

    2013-04-15

    The best way to assess the response to chemoradiotherapy of locally advanced oesophageal carcinomas is not known. We used {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT to evaluate the metabolic response during chemoradiotherapy and tried to correlate this response to survival. Patients with biopsy-proven oesophageal carcinoma underwent FDG PET/CT with evaluation of the standardized uptake value (SUV) before any treatment (SUV1) and during chemoradiotherapy after two cycles of 5-fluorouracil (FU)/cisplatin and 20 Gy (SUV2). Metabolic response was defined as 1-(SUV2/SUV1). Surgery was discussed after 40 Gy and three cycles of chemotherapy. Results of interim PET were not considered for the therapeutic decision. Among 72 patients who underwent a first FDG PET/CT before any treatment, 59 (82 %) could receive the second FDG PET/CT examination. Median survival was 22.2 months with 1-year and 2-year survivals of 70 and 46 %, respectively. Nineteen patients (32 %) underwent surgery. Mean SUV1 and SUV2 were 12.3 {+-} 6.2 and 6 {+-} 4.1, respectively (p < 0.001). Using a cut-off for metabolic response of 50 %, sensitivity and specificity for survival were 0.7 and 0.58. The 2-year overall survival of good responders was 62 % as compared to 27 % for poor metabolic responders. A multivariate analysis was performed, including T and N stages, surgery, histology and metabolic response: only metabolic response was significantly (p = 0.009) associated with 2-year survival. Early evaluation of metabolic response had a great prognostic value and could help identify good responders to chemoradiotherapy. (orig.)

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Diesel and Electric Public Transportation Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act identifies diesel powered motor vehicles, including transit buses, as significant sources of several criteria pollutants which contribute to ground level ozone formation or smog. The effects of air pollution in urban areas are often more significant due to con...

  19. No Breathing in the Aisles: Diesel Exhaust inside School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M.; Campbell, Todd R.; Feuer, Gail Ruderman; Masters, Julie; Samkian, Artineh; Paul, Kavita Ann

    There is evidence that diesel exhaust causes cancer and premature death, and also exacerbates asthma and other respiratory illness. Noting that the vast majority of the nation's school buses run on diesel fuel, this report details a study examining the level of diesel exhaust to which children are typically exposed as they travel to and from…

  20. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  1. Evaluation questions ''I'' concerning the interim job enterprises proposing personnel of A or B category to work in nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien

    2002-01-01

    This document is a reference evaluation of a list of questions on the following subject: management, organization, medical survey, formation and information of the personnel, contract dispositions, CEFRI demands respect control. (A.L.B.)

  2. Continued evaluation of compact heat exchangers for OTEC application. Interim progress report, February 15, 1977--August 15, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Heronemus, W.E.

    1977-08-01

    Progress on the continued UMass technical evaluation of compact heat exchangers for OTEC applications is summarized. Objectives of this study include: (1) Analytical and experimental evaluation of the performance characteristics of compact heat exchangers (using ammonia as a working fluid) over the entire range of OTEC system conditions, (2) An evaluation of the applicable manufacturing processes, maintenance requirements and arrangement concepts for large scale compact heat exchangers with specific emphasis on their total economics. This progress report also includes a technical report on compact heat exchanger design information for OTEC application. Contained in this report are a review of previous compact heat exchanger work, a literature review of applicable two phase evaporating and condensing technical publications, and recommendations for compact heat exchanger analytical design procedure.

  3. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach in the Columbia River, 1998 Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John; Newsome, Todd; Nugent, Michael (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2001-07-27

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the second year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fish species, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1998 field season.

  4. Job Enrichment: Evaluation with Implications for Air Force Job Redesign. Interim Report, 1 January 1975-30 April 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Thomas W.; Zumbro, Patrick A.

    The main text of this report consists of a review and evaluation of job enrichment as an approach to job redesign, with implications for Air Force research and application. In addition, two appendixes are included: the first, a supplemental historical discussion; the second, a ninety-six-item annotated bibliography. Specific objectives are to…

  5. A Process Evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity. Interim Report II, Part A: Program Case Studies. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Lynn, Ed.

    These 8 case studies are part of a series of documents on the evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC), a Head Start demonstration program aimed at providing educational and developmental continuity between children's Head Start and primary school experiences. Each case study reviews the planning year at a PDC demonstration site in one…

  6. A Process Evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity. Interim Report II, Part A: Program Case Studies. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Lynn, Ed.

    These 7 case studies are part of a series of documents on the evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC), a Head Start demonstration program aimed at providing educational and developmental continuity between children's Head Start and primary school experiences. Each case study reviews the planning year at a PDC demonstration site in one…

  7. School Choice in New York City after Two Years: An Evaluation of the School Choice Scholarships Program. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David; Peterson, Paul; Mayer, Daniel; Chou, Julia; Howell, William G.

    This report describes the second-year results for an evaluation of the School Choice Scholarships Foundation (SCSF) program to award 1,300 scholarships so that children of low-income families in grades 1 through 4 in New York City public schools could transfer to private schools. Because the scholarships were awarded through a lottery, the…

  8. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA 3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro II–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmental Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 8.0 ± 3.1 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF =2.8 ± 1.6 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 × 1015 (kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode size-resolved EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm.

    Emission

  9. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  10. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  11. Standard guide for evaluation of materials used in extended service of interim spent nuclear fuel dry storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Part of the total inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is stored in dry cask storage systems (DCSS) under licenses granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this guide is to provide information to assist in supporting the renewal of these licenses, safely and without removal of the SNF from its licensed confinement, for periods beyond those governed by the term of the original license. This guide provides information on materials behavior under conditions that may be important to safety evaluations for the extended service of the renewal period. This guide is written for DCSS containing light water reactor (LWR) fuel that is clad in zirconium alloy material and stored in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), at an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). The components of an ISFSI, addressed in this document, include the commercial SNF, canister, cask, and all parts of the storage installation including the ISFSI pad. The language of t...

  12. FDG PET/CT is useful for the interim evaluation of response to therapy in patients affected by haematogenous spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina; Ambrosini, Valentina; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola Malpighi, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Boriani, Luca; Gasbarrini, Alessandro; Boriani, Stefano [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Oncologic and Degenerative Spine Surgery, Bologna (Italy); Salvadori, Caterina; Zamparini, Eleonora; Rorato, Giada; Tumietto, Fabio; Cristini, Francesco; Viale, Pierluigi [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola Malpighi, Infectious Diseases Unit, Bologna (Italy); Scudeller, Luigia [Policlinico San Matteo Pavia Fondazione IRCCS, Pavia (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Antibiotic therapy in patients affected by discitis is often empirical. Therefore, early evaluation of response to therapy is important. In many patients inflammatory indexes are low during all the phases of the diseases or are altered by concomitant diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the possible role of FDG PET/CT for the early evaluation of response to therapy in patients affected by infective discitis, in comparison to C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels. Enrolled in the study were 38 patients diagnosed with haematogenous infective discitis. Of the 38 patients, 7 had tubercular infection, 1 fungal infection and 30 pyogenic discitis. Four patients were excluded because the second PET/CT scan was not performed. Thus 34 patients (18 women, mean age 64 years) were analysed. All the patients included underwent a FDG PET/CT scan and determination of CRP level at baseline and again 2 to 4 weeks after the start of therapy. The PET results in terms of SUV of the first and second scans (SUV1 and SUV2) and delta-SUVmax were compared to the inflammatory indexes and clinical status during therapy. The mean SUVmax at diagnosis was 8.6 {+-} 3.7. The mean CRP level at diagnosis was 3.8 {+-} 3.8 mg/dl. A progressive clinical response was seen in 26 patients and 8 patients showed no response. SUV1 was not correlated with the baseline CRP level (CRP1, p = 0.7) and SUV2 was not correlated with the CRP level at the time of the second scan (CRP2, p = 0.4). In responders, SUV2 and CRP2 were significantly lower than SUV1 and CRP1 (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively). ROC curves for delta-SUVmax showed a sensitivity of 82 % and a specificity of 82 % with a cut-off of 34 %. ROC curves for SUV2 showed a sensitivity of 83 % and a specificity of 46 % with a cut-off of 6.4. ROC curves for delta-CRP showed a sensitivity of 67 % and a specificity of 89 % with a cut-off of 74 %. ROC curves for CRP2 showed a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 70 % with a cut-off of 0.7 mg

  13. Application of Spatial Data Modeling Systems, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and Transportation Routing Optimization Methods for Evaluating Integrated Deployment of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations and Advanced Nuclear Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Peterson, Steven K [ORNL; Scaglione, John M [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this siting study work is to support DOE in evaluating integrated advanced nuclear plant and ISFSI deployment options in the future. This study looks at several nuclear power plant growth scenarios that consider the locations of existing and planned commercial nuclear power plants integrated with the establishment of consolidated interim spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights that inform the process for determining and optimizing candidate areas for new advanced nuclear power generation plants and consolidated ISFSIs to meet projected US electric power demands for the future.

  14. Verification of the new ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis over France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Szczypta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the global ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim (with a 0.5° grid is performed over France, based on the high resolution (8 km SAFRAN atmospheric reanalysis. The ERA-Interim precipitation, Incoming Solar Radiation (ISR, air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, are compared with their SAFRAN counterparts. Also, interpolated in situ ISR observations are used in order to consolidate the evaluation of this variable. The daily precipitation estimates produced by ERA-Interim over France correlate very well with SAFRAN. However, the values are underestimated by 26%. A GPCP-corrected version of ERA-Interim is less biased (10–15%. The ERA-Interim estimates of ISR correlate very well with SAFRAN and with in situ observations on a daily basis. Whereas SAFRAN underestimates the ISR by 6–8 W m−2, ERA-Interim overestimates the ISR by 9–10 W m−2. In order to assess the impact of the ERA-Interim errors, simulations of the ISBA-A-gs land surface model are performed over the SMOSREX grassland site in southwestern France using ERA-Interim (with and without GPCP rescaling and SAFRAN. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are simulated, together with carbon dioxide fluxes. The rescaled ERA-Interim performs better than the original ERA-Interim and permits to achieve flux scores similar to those obtained with SAFRAN.

  15. Verification of the new ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypta, C.; Calvet, J.-C.; Albergel, C.; Balsamo, G.; Boussetta, S.; Carrer, D.; Lafont, S.; Meurey, C.

    2011-02-01

    An evaluation of the global ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim (with a 0.5° grid) is performed over France, based on the high resolution (8 km) SAFRAN atmospheric reanalysis. The ERA-Interim precipitation, Incoming Solar Radiation (ISR), air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, are compared with their SAFRAN counterparts. Also, interpolated in situ ISR observations are used in order to consolidate the evaluation of this variable. The daily precipitation estimates produced by ERA-Interim over France correlate very well with SAFRAN. However, the values are underestimated by 27%. A GPCP-corrected version of ERA-Interim is less biased (13%). The ERA-Interim estimates of ISR correlate very well with SAFRAN and with in situ observations on a daily basis. Whereas SAFRAN underestimates the ISR by 6 Wm-2, ERA-Interim overestimates the ISR by 10 Wm-2. In order to assess the impact of the ERA-Interim errors, simulations of the ISBA-A-gs land surface model are performed over the SMOSREX grassland site in southwestern France using ERA-Interim (with and without GPCP rescaling) and SAFRAN. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are simulated, together with carbon dioxide fluxes. The rescaled ERA-Interim performs better than the original ERA-Interim and permits to achieve flux scores similar to those obtained with SAFRAN.

  16. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  17. Interim Assessments: A User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Interim assessments are hot in American schools. Also called benchmark or periodic tests, these assessments are given every four to nine weeks to check on students' progress. Although interim assessments are an important tool for school improvement, they are easy to misuse. In the author's work coaching principals in a number of districts, he has…

  18. Guidance: Interim Municipal Settlement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interim guidance and fact sheets regarding settlements involving municipalities or municipal waste under Section 122 CERCLA as amended by SARA. Interim policy sets forth the criteria by which EPA generally determines whether to exercise enforcement discretion to pursue MSW generators and transporters as PRPs.

  19. Transforming Writing: Interim Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Transforming Writing is a two-year action research project which aims to develop a model for the teaching and learning of writing that more fully incorporates a focus on embedded formative assessment. In the first year of the project, the 12 participating schools developed a model of writing underpinned by Talk for Writing, an approach developed…

  20. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  1. 76 FR 4369 - Interim Deputation Agreements; Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Interim Deputation Agreements; Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines... publication of the Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines and the Interim Model Deputation Agreements... of 2010. Three Interim Model Deputation Agreements will be used: one agreement for tribes in...

  2. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim goals. 385.38 Section 385... System and Water Availability Consistent With the Goals and Purpose of the Plan § 385.38 Interim goals... Interim Goals Agreement establishing interim goals to facilitate inter-agency planning, monitoring,...

  3. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing

  4. International validation study for interim PET in ABVD-treated, advanced-stage hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggi, Alberto; Gallamini, Andrea; Chauvie, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    At present, there are no standard criteria that have been validated for interim PET reporting in lymphoma. In 2009, an international workshop attended by hematologists and nuclear medicine experts in Deauville, France, proposed to develop simple and reproducible rules for interim PET reporting...... in lymphoma. Accordingly, an international validation study was undertaken with the primary aim of validating the prognostic role of interim PET using the Deauville 5-point score to evaluate images and with the secondary aim of measuring concordance rates among reviewers using the same 5-point score....... This paper focuses on the criteria for interpretation of interim PET and on concordance rates....

  5. Fabrication of an Implant-Supported Fixed Interim Prosthesis Using a Duplicate Denture: An Alternative Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thobity, Ahmad M

    2016-06-22

    The fabrication of an implant-supported fixed complete denture prosthesis involves multiple clinical and laboratory steps. One of the main steps is to provide the patient with an interim fixed prosthesis to evaluate the patient's esthetic and functional needs as well as to enhance the patient's psychology before proceeding to the definitive prosthesis. Different techniques for fabricating interim prostheses have been described in the literature. This report describes an alternative technique that uses a duplicate denture made of self-curing acrylic resin to fabricate an implant-supported fixed interim prosthesis. The interim prosthesis was later used as a blueprint for the definitive implant-supported hybrid prosthesis.

  6. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  7. Bay Area Transit Agencies Propel Fuel Cell Buses Toward Commercialization (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration of the next generation of fuel cells buses. Several transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area are participating in demonstrating the largest single fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States.

  8. 78 FR 719 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... amendments to its emission standards for urban bus engines in a series of rulemakings. The rulemakings at... public transit agencies that operate urban buses and other transit vehicles; additionally,...

  9. 78 FR 44112 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... for emission standards and related test procedures contained in its urban bus regulations as they affect the 2002 and later model years. Urban buses are conventionally powered by a heavy-duty...

  10. Can Interim Assessments Be Used for Instructional Change? Policy Brief. RB-51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Margaret E.; Olah, Leslie Nabors; Riggan, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the use of interim assessments and the policy supports that promote their use to change instruction, focusing on elementary school mathematics. The authors use the term "interim assessments" to refer to assessments that: a) evaluate student knowledge and skills, typically within a…

  11. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONRAD EA

    2008-08-12

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

  12. Using Task Clarification, Goal Setting, and Feedback to Decrease Table Busing Times in a Franchise Pizza Restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Seth; Smith, Andrew; Ludwig, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of task-clarification, and manager verbal and graphic feedback on employee busing times at a pizza restaurant. Using an ABC design, task-clarification was provided in a memo, which described the process, priority, and goal time of busing. The busing time decreased slightly, from an average of 315 seconds…

  13. The Busing Controversy. [NAESP] School Leadership Digest [Second Series, Number 6. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    To understand the controversy over busing, it is necessary to understand the relationship between busing and the issues that are actually at the root of the controversy: desegregation and freedom of choice. Much of the political activity surrounding busing is a subtle transfer of attention away from the basic issue of desegregation. Other…

  14. Sequential interim analyses of survival data in DNA microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Klaus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovery of biomarkers that are correlated with therapy response and thus with survival is an important goal of medical research on severe diseases, e.g. cancer. Frequently, microarray studies are performed to identify genes of which the expression levels in pretherapeutic tissue samples are correlated to survival times of patients. Typically, such a study can take several years until the full planned sample size is available. Therefore, interim analyses are desirable, offering the possibility of stopping the study earlier, or of performing additional laboratory experiments to validate the role of the detected genes. While many methods correcting the multiple testing bias introduced by interim analyses have been proposed for studies of one single feature, there are still open questions about interim analyses of multiple features, particularly of high-dimensional microarray data, where the number of features clearly exceeds the number of samples. Therefore, we examine false discovery rates and power rates in microarray experiments performed during interim analyses of survival studies. In addition, the early stopping based on interim results of such studies is evaluated. As stop criterion we employ the achieved average power rate, i.e. the proportion of detected true positives, for which a new estimator is derived and compared to existing estimators. Results In a simulation study, pre-specified levels of the false discovery rate are maintained in each interim analysis, where reduced levels as used in classical group sequential designs of one single feature are not necessary. Average power rates increase with each interim analysis, and many studies can be stopped prior to their planned end when a certain pre-specified power rate is achieved. The new estimator for the power rate slightly deviates from the true power rate but is comparable to other estimators. Conclusions Interim analyses of microarray experiments can provide

  15. Solar array deployment qualification for the LMX of buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy

    2005-07-01

    The solar array deployment system for the LMX line of buses deploys rigid Solar Array Wing Assemblies (SAWAs). Each SAWA has a set of Solar Array Deployment Mechanisms (SADM), which consists of two hinges, a strut, and two Hold Down Release Mechanisms (HDRMs). To qualify the SADM for flight, each mechanism component was qualified individually, then assembled to a qualification SAWA on Special Test Equipment (STE) and deployed in a thermal vacuum chamber at ambient, hot, and cold temperatures. These mechanisms were designed, built, and tested by the Power and Mechanisms part of the Power, Thermal, Structures & Mechanisms Product Center, which develops products for both internal and external customers. This paper will discuss the qualification effort for the LMX Solar Array deployment, including qualification hardware and STE. It will focus on unique challenges presented by each aspect of the qualification, and lessons learned from the hardware integration and the qualification testing.

  16. Txatarra: vivienda transitoria con buses de transporte público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Arenas Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente análisis del proyecto Casa Linda parte de una exploración conceptual en torno a un hábitat sostenible, mediante la generación de un tipo de vivienda transitoria que reutiliza buses de transporte público destinados a ser reducidos a chatarra. La necesidad de replantear la labor de configurar espacios con materiales y formas predeterminados llevó a los autores a comprender cómo resultan insuficientes los medios tradicionales de construcción, en los que se acostumbra emplear materias primas en presentaciones estandarizadas y con acabados predefinidos que se adaptan a los requerimientos y necesidades del proyecto. Enfrentar el proyecto a partir del reciclaje de materiales y objetos (chatarra, de diversas dimensiones y en variadas condiciones, generó un proceso cuya característica principal es la imposibilidad de anticipar con exactitud los procesos constructivos y los acabados finales.

  17. Resistojet control and power for high frequency ac buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Resistojets are operational on many geosynchronous communication satellites which all use dc power buses. Multipropellant resistojets were selected for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) Space Station which will supply 208 V, 20 kHz power. This paper discusses resistojet heater temperature controllers and passive power regulation methods for ac power systems. A simple passive power regulation method suitable for use with regulated sinusoidal or square wave power was designed and tested using the Space Station multipropellant resistojet. The breadboard delivered 20 kHz power to the resistojet heater. Cold start surge current limiting, a power efficiency of 95 percent, and power regulation of better than 2 percent were demonstrated with a two component, 500 W breadboard power controller having a mass of 0.6 kg.

  18. Interim Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, R J; Alekou, A; Andreopoulos, C; Ankenbrandt, C M; Antusch, S; Apollonio, M; Aslaninejad, M; Back, J; Ballett, P; Barker, G; Beard, K B; Benedetto, E; Bennett, J R J; Berg, J S; Bhattacharya, S; Blackmore, V; Blennow, M; Blondel, A; Bogacz, A; Bonesini, M; Bontoiu, C; Booth, C; Bromberg, C; Brooks, S; Bross, A; Caretta, O; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Choubey, S; Cline, D; Cobb, J; Coloma, P; Coney, L; Cummings, M A C; Davenne, T; de Gouvea, A; Densham, C; Ding, X; Donini, A; Dornan, P; Dracos, M; Dufour, F; Eccleston, R; Edgecock, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Ellis, M; Fernandez-Martinez, E; Fernow, R; Flanagan, G; Gallardo, J C; Gandhi, R; Garoby, R; Gavela, B; Geer, S; Gilardoni, S; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Goswami, S; Graves, V B; Gupta, R; Hanson, G; Harrison, P; Hart, T; Hernandez, P; Huber, P; Indumathi, D; Johnson, R P; Johnstone, C; Karadzhov, Y; Kelliher, D; Kirk, H; Kopp, J; Kudenko, Y; Kuno, Y; Kurup, A; Kyberd, P; Laing, A; Li, T; Lindner, M; Long, K; Pavon, J Lopez; Loveridge, P; Machida, S; Majumdar, D; Maltoni, M; Martin-Albo, J; Martini, M; Matev, R; McDonald, K T; McFarland, A; Meloni, D; Mezzetto, M; Migliozzi, P; Mishra, S R; Mokhov, N; Mondal, N; Morfin, J; Mori, Y; Morozov, V; Neuffer, D; Ota, T; Palladino, V; Parke, S; Pascoli, S; Pasternak, J; Peltoniemi, J; Petti, R; Planche, T; Popovic, M; Pozimski, J; Prior, G; Prior, C; Rees, G; Rigolin, S; Roberts, T J; Roblin, Y; Rogers, C; Samulyak, R; Schwetz, T; Simos, N; Sinha, N; Skoro, G; Snopok, P; Soler, F J P; Souchlas, N; Strait, J; Stratakis, D; Striganov, S; Tang, J; Thomason, J W G; Tortora, L; Tsenov, R; Winter, W; Witte, H; Yasuda, O; Yoshikawa, C Y; Zisman, M

    2011-01-01

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was established by the community at the ninth "International Workshop on Neutrino Factories, super-beams, and beta- beams" which was held in Okayama in August 2007. The IDS-NF mandate is to deliver the Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility on the timescale of 2012/13. In addition, the mandate for the study [3] requires an Interim Design Report to be delivered midway through the project as a step on the way to the RDR. This document, the IDR, has two functions: it marks the point in the IDS-NF at which the emphasis turns to the engineering studies required to deliver the RDR and it documents baseline concepts for the accelerator complex, the neutrino detectors, and the instrumentation systems. The IDS-NF is, in essence, a site-independent study. Example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL, have been identified to allow site-specific issues to be addressed in the cost analysis that will be presented in the RDR. The choice of example sites shou...

  19. Technical and systems evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skolnik, E.G.; DiPietro, J.P. [Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    During FY 1998 Energetics performed a variety of technology-based evaluations for the Hydrogen Program. Three evaluations are summarized below: hydrogen bromine-based electricity storage, carbon-based hydrogen storage, and hydrogen-fueled buses.

  20. Evaluation of HY-2A Scatterometer Wind Vectors Using Data from Buoys, ERA-Interim and ASCAT during 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Xing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The first Chinese operational Ku-band scatterometer on board Haiyang-2A (HY-2A, launched in August 2011, is designed for monitoring the global ocean surface wind. This study estimates the quality of the near-real-time (NRT retrieval wind speed and wind direction from the HY-2A scatterometer for 36 months from 2012 to 2014. We employed three types of sea-surface wind data from oceanic moored buoys operated by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC and the Tropical Atmospheric Ocean project (TAO, the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF reanalysis data (ERA-Interim, and the advanced scatterometer (ASCAT to calculate the error statistics including mean bias, root mean square error (RMSE, and standard deviation. In addition, the rain effects on the retrieval winds were investigated using collocated Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH precipitation data. All data were collocated with the HY-2A scatterometer wind data for comparison. The quality performances of the HY-2A NRT wind vectors data (especially the wind speeds were satisfactory throughout the service period. The RMSEs of the HY-2A wind speeds relative to the NDBC, TAO, ERA-Interim, and ASCAT data were 1.94, 1.73, 2.25, and 1.62 m·s−1, respectively. The corresponding RMSEs of the wind direction were 46.63°, 43.11°, 39.93°, and 47.47°, respectively. The HY-2A scatterometer overestimated low wind speeds, especially under rainy conditions. Rain exerted a diminishing effect on the wind speed retrievals with increasing wind speed, but its effect on wind direction was robust at low and moderate wind speeds. Relative to the TAO buoy data, the RMSEs without rain effect were reduced to 1.2 m·s−1 and 39.68° for the wind speed direction, respectively, regardless of wind speed. By investigating the objective laws between rain and the retrieval winds from HY-2A, we could improve the quality of wind retrievals through future studies.

  1. 32 CFR 776.82 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim suspension. 776.82 Section 776.82... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.82 Interim suspension. (a) Where the Rules Counsel determines there is... interim suspension, pending completion of a professional responsibility investigation. The...

  2. 22 CFR 127.8 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim suspension. 127.8 Section 127.8 Foreign... Interim suspension. (a) The Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance is authorized to order the interim suspension...

  3. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim relief. 1614.505 Section 1614.505 Labor Regulations... OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.505 Interim relief. (a)(1) When the agency appeals and the case... interim relief. (2) Service under the temporary or conditional restoration provisions of paragraph...

  4. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44... § 7.44 Interim relief. (a) When the Department appeals and the case involves removal, separation, or... outcome of the Department appeal. The employee may decline the offer of interim relief. (b) Service...

  5. 15 CFR 904.322 - Interim action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim action. 904.322 Section 904... Sanctions and Denials Permit Sanction for Violations § 904.322 Interim action. (a) To protect marine...) The Judge will order interim action under paragraph (a) of this section, only after finding that...

  6. 12 CFR 268.505 - Interim relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim relief. 268.505 Section 268.505 Banks... REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 268.505 Interim relief. (a)(1) When the Board appeals... offer of interim relief. (2) Service under the temporary or conditional restoration provisions...

  7. 15 CFR 908.5 - Interim reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim reports. 908.5 Section 908.5... SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.5 Interim reports. (a) Any person engaged in a... Administrator, not later than 45 days thereafter, an interim report setting forth as of such date...

  8. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2009-10-01

    This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

  9. Cool Science: K-12 Climate Change Art Displayed on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cool science is an art contest where K12 students create placards (7" x 22") to educate the public about climate change. Students are prompted to create their artwork in response to questions such as: What is the evidence for climate change? How does climate change impact your local community? What can you do to reduce the impacts of climate change? In each of three years, 500-600 student entrees have been submitted from more than 12 school districts across Massachusetts. A panel of judges including scientists, artists, rapid transit representatives, and educators chooses elementary, middle, and high school winners. Winners (6), runners-up (6), and honorable mentions (12) and their families and teachers are invited to an annual Cool Science Award Ceremony to be recognized and view winning artwork. All winning artwork is posted on the Cool Science website. The winning artwork (2 per grade band) is converted into placards (11" x 28") and posters (2.5' x 12') that are placed on the inside (placards) and outside (posters) of buses. Posters are displayed for one month. So far, Cool Science was implemented in Lowell, MA where over 5000 public viewers see the posters daily on the sides of Lowell Rapid Transit Authority (LRTA) buses, making approximately 1,000,000 impressions per year. Cool Science acts to increase climate literacy in children as well as the public, and as such promotes intergenerational learning. Using art in conjunction with science learning about climate change appears to be effective at engaging not just traditionally high achieving science students, but also those interested in the creative arts. Hearing winners' stories about how they created their artwork and what this contest meant to them supports the idea that Cool Science attracts a wide diversity of students. Parents discuss climate change with their children. Multiple press releases announcing the winners further promotes the awareness of climate change throughout school districts and their

  10. CNG buses fire safety : learnings from recent accidents in France and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Perrette, Lionel; Wiedemann, Helmut K.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The use of CNG in bus and private vehicles is growing steadily. Recent fire accidents involving CNG buses have shown that tanks may explode though compliant with current ECE UN R110 regulation. Such a repeated scenario is certainly not acceptable having in mind the tremendous amount of energy released when a compressed tank bursts. Investigation of German and French recent cases detailed in this article highlights potential improvements in current CNG buses fire safety...

  11. A review of proposed Glen Canyon Dam interim operating criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Tomasko, D.; Hayse, J.; Durham, L.

    1992-04-01

    Three sets of interim operating criteria for Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River have been proposed for the period of November 1991, to the completion of the record of decision for the Glen Canyon Dam environmental impact statement (about 1993). These criteria set specific limits on dam releases, including maximum and minimum flows, up-ramp and down-ramp rates, and maximum daily fluctuation. Under the proposed interim criteria, all of these parameters would be reduced relative to historical operating criteria to protect downstream natural resources, including sediment deposits, threatened and endangered fishes, trout, the aquatic food base, and riparian plant communities. The scientific bases of the three sets of proposed operating criteria are evaluated in the present report:(1) criteria proposed by the Research/Scientific Group, associated with the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES); (2) criteria proposed state and federal officials charged with managing downstream resources; and (3) test criteria imposed from July 1991, to November 1991. Data from Phase 1 of the GCES and other sources established that the targeted natural resources are affected by dam operations, but the specific interim criteria chosen were not supported by any existing studies. It is unlikely that irreversible changes to any of the resources would occur over the interim period if historical operating criteria remained in place. It is likely that adoption of any of the sets of proposed interim operating criteria would reduce the levels of sediment transport and erosion below Glen Canyon Dam; however, these interim criteria could result in some adverse effects, including the accumulation of debris at tributary mouths, a shift of new high-water-zone vegetation into more flood-prone areas, and further declines in vegetation in the old high water zone.

  12. Primer for the Interim Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltys, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Being successful in the role of an Interim Chair requires an approach to transitional leadership that is different from that of individuals filling the Chair role permanently. This article reviews pertinent literature on the topic. Method: The author reviewed the literature, cited pertinent articles, and supplemented with personal…

  13. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  14. Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and merged total ozone data sets – evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech, 1961–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vaníček

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Homogenized data series of total ozone measurements taken by the regularly and well calibrated Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at Hradec Králové (Czech and the data from the re-analyses ERA-40 and ERA-Interim were merged and compared to investigate differences between the particular data sets originated in Central Europe, the Northern Hemisphere (NH mid-latitudes. The Dobson-to-Brewer transfer function and the algorithm for approximation of the data from the re-analyses were developed, tested and applied for creation of instrumentally consistent and completed total ozone data series of the 50-yr period 1961–2010 of observations. This correction has reduced the well-known seasonal differences between Dobson and Brewer data below the 1% calibration limit of the spectrophotometers. Incorporation of the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim total ozone data on days with missing measurements significantly improved completeness and reliability of the data series mainly in the first two decades of the period concerned. Consistent behaviour of the original and corrected/merged data sets was found in the pre-ozone-hole period (1961–1985. In the post-Pinatubo (1994–2010 era the data series show seasonal differences that can introduce uncertainty in estimation of ozone recovery mainly in the winter-spring season when the effect of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments is expected. All the data sets confirm substantial depletion of ozone also in the summer months that gives rise to the question about its origin. The merged and completed data series of total ozone will be further analyzed to quantify chemical ozone losses and contribution of natural atmospheric processes to the ozone depletion over the region. This case study points out the importance of selection and evaluation of the quality and consistency of the input data sets used in estimation of long-term ozone changes including recovery of the ozone layer over the selected areas. Data are available

  15. Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and assimilated total ozone data sets – evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech, 1961–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vaníček

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Homogenized data series of total ozone measurements taken by the regularly and well calibrated Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at Hradec Králové (Czech and the data from the re-analyses ERA-40 and ERA-Interim were assimilated and combined to investigate differences between the particular data sets over Central Europe, the NH mid-latitudes. The Dobson-to-Brewer transfer function and the algorithm for approximation of the data from the re-analyses were developed, tested and applied for creation of instrumentally consistent and completed total ozone data series of the 50-yr period 1961–2010 of observations. The assimilation has reduced the well-known seasonal differences between Dobson and Brewer data below the 1% calibration limit of the spectrophotometers. Incorporation of the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim total ozone data on days with missing measurements significantly improved completeness and reliability of the data series mainly in the first two decades of the period concerned. Consistent behaviour of the original and assimilated data sets was found in the pre-ozone-hole period (1961–1985. In the post-Pinatubo (1994–2010 era the data series show seasonal differences that can introduce uncertainty in estimation of ozone recovery mainly in the winter-spring season when the effect of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments is expected. All the data sets confirm substantial depletion of ozone also in the summer months that gives rise to the question about its origin. The assimilated and completed data series of total ozone will be further analyzed to quantify chemical ozone losses and contribution of natural atmospheric processes to the ozone depletion over the region. This case study points out importance of selection and evaluation of the quality and consistency of the input data sets used in estimation of long-term ozone changes including recovery of the ozone layer over the selected areas. Data are available from the PANGAEA database

  16. High-Resolution Dynamical Downscaling of ERA-Interim Using the WRF Regional Climate Model for the Area of Poland. Part 1: Model Configuration and Statistical Evaluation for the 1981-2010 Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryza, Maciej; Wałaszek, Kinga; Ojrzyńska, Hanna; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Werner, Małgorzata; Dore, Anthony J.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we present the results of high-resolution dynamical downscaling of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, for the area of Poland, with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The model is configured using three nested domains, with spatial resolution of 45 km × 45 km, 15 km × 15 km and 5 km × 5 km. The ERA-Interim database is used for boundary conditions. The results are evaluated by comparison with station measurements for the period 1981-2010. The model is capable of reproducing the main climatological features of the study area. The results are in very close agreement with the measurements, especially for the air temperature. For all four meteorological variables, the model performance captures seasonal and daily cycles. For the air temperature and winter season, the model underestimates the measurements. For summer, the model shows higher values, compared with the measurements. The opposite is the case for relative humidity. There is a strong diurnal pattern in mean error, which changes seasonally. The agreement with the measurements is worse for the seashore and mountain areas, which suggests that the 5 km × 5 km grid might still have an insufficient spatial resolution. There is no statistically significant temporal trend in the model performance. The larger year-to-year changes in the model performance, e.g. for the years 1982 and 2010 for the air temperature should therefore be linked with the natural variability of meteorological conditions.

  17. Influence of malfunctions of the maintenance activities on the urban buses fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Crişan; Nicolae, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Optimization of activities with the aim to provide quality service in conditions of high profitability, is one of the main objectives chased by managers in transportation companies. As a consequence, directing the attention towards monitoring of maintenance activities of vehicles fleet, can achieve desired results. Two of the most important issues related to the maintenance activity, is the increase of reliability and reduction of fuel consumption of the vehicles fleet. Aforementioned actions represents a way forward for raising the quality and profitability of services offered. In this paper, the main ways of monitoring the fuel consumption, in order to reduce it and increase the reliability of transportation vehicles fleet, are presented. For the evaluation of the maintenance system and the degree of influence of malfunctions recorded on the fuel consumption, using the Pareto -ABC method, following case study on a fleet of buses for urban public transport has been conducted. Results obtained highlights the deficiencies of the maintenance process carried out and constitutes a solid base for the reorganization of the maintenance activity, involving preventive maintenance activities, in order to contribute decisively to the results targeted by the management of transport companies.

  18. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Funding for this effort is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration. The 2016 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2015 through July 2016. The results for these buses account for more than 550,000 miles traveled and 59,500 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from three demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; and American Fuel Cell Bus Project at the University of California at Irvine.

  19. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  20. ORNL fusion power demonstration study: interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STeiner, D.; Bettis, E. S.; Huxford, T. J.

    1977-03-01

    The purpose of the ORNL Fusion Power Demonstration Study (Demo study) is to develop a plan for demonstrating, in this century, the commercial feasibility of fusion power based on the tokamak concept. The two-year study was initiated in FY 1976, and this interim report summarizes the results for FY 1976. Major results include: (1) the outline of a three-phase plan for demonstrating the commercial feasibility of tokamak fusion power in this century; (2) a parametric analysis of tokamak costs which provides the economic basis for the demonstration plan; and (3) a critical evaluation of the technological directions, design approaches, and plasma characteristics which serve as the technical basis for the demonstration plan.

  1. Self-service fare collection on buses in Portland, Oregon. Final report, Septtember 1980-April 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, D.; Harper, W.; Schueftan, O.

    1986-09-01

    In 1980, the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) awarded grants to the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District (TRI-MET) to implement self-service fare collection (SSFC) on its bus system. TRI-MET, the transit authority serving Portland, Oregon, is the second authority in the United States to use SSFC and the first to use it on buses. TRI-MET expected SSFC to improve bus productivity, facilitate distance-based fares, and reduce fare evasion. Problems encountered with SSFC on buses in Portland included increased fare evasion, high enforcement costs, no productivity improvements, low surcharge/ fine collections, overburdened courts, and increased vandalism. These problems need to be overcome before SSFC can be successful on buses in other U.S. cities.

  2. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.

    2010-11-01

    This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

  3. Effectivness Of The Failure Rate On Maintenance Costs Of The City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaciuk Piotr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a failure rate and maintenance cost comparison for two types of city transport buses. The paper presents in detail a case study of well known bus brands used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin. A failure index of all functional and constructional systems of the vehicles and their technical availability with regards to calendar time was determined. The paper also presents analysis of the factors related to maintenance costs of buses, including costs of fluids, repair costs and maintenance service. It has been demonstrated, that both analyzed buses generate similar maintenance costs, while their failures and technical availability differ significantly in operational practice. These differences are particularly evident in relation to the cumulative costs of repairs.

  4. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility interim operational safety requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Covey, L I

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt and inspection of cesium and strontium capsules from private irradiators; decontamination of the capsules and equipment; surveillance of the stored capsules; and maintenance activities. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines (EGs) are included.

  5. 24 CFR 35.1330 - Interim controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... controls are used for a soil area that is subject to erosion, measures shall be taken to contain the soil... specified in § 35.1320, dust control, and lead-contaminated soil control. As provided by § 35.155, interim... be removed. (f) Soil-lead hazards. (1) Interim control treatments used to control soil-lead......

  6. Addendum to IFMIF-CDA interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Mizuho [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [eds.

    1996-08-01

    During the second IFMIF-CDA Design Integration Workshop, the conceptual design and contents of `IFMIF-CDA Interim Report` were examined and discussed at both general and group meetings. Based on these discussion, the final IFMIF-CDA Report will be modified from the `Interim Report`. This report describes the outline of these modification. (author)

  7. 45 CFR 1623.6 - Interim funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim funding. 1623.6 Section 1623.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION SUSPENSION PROCEDURES § 1623.6 Interim funding. (a) Pending the completion of suspension proceedings under this...

  8. Locating Interim Assessments within Teachers' Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggan, Matthew; Olah, Leslie Nabors

    2011-01-01

    Promising research on the teaching and learning impact of classroom-embedded formative assessment has spawned interest in a broader array of assessment tools and practices, including interim assessment. Although researchers have begun to explore the impact of interim assessments in the classroom, like other assessment tools and practices, they…

  9. High level waste interim storge architecture selection - decision report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1996-09-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has embarked upon a course to acquire Hanford Site tank waste treatment and immobilization services using privatized facilities (RL 1996a). This plan contains a two-phased approach. Phase I is a proof-of-principle/connnercial demonstration- scale effort and Phase II is a fiill-scale production effort. In accordance with the planned approach, interim storage and disposal of various products from privatized facilities are to be DOE fumished. The high-level waste (BLW) interim storage options, or alternative architectures, were identified and evaluated to provide the framework from which to select the most viable method of Phase I BLW interim storage (Calmus 1996). This evaluation, hereafter referred to as the Alternative Architecture Evaluation, was performed to established performance and risk criteria (technical merit, cost, schedule, etc.). Based on evaluation results, preliminary architectures and path forward reconunendations were provided for consideration in the architecture decision- maldng process. The decision-making process used for selection of a Phase I solidified BLW interim storage architecture was conducted in accordance with an approved Decision Plan (see the attachment). This decision process was based on TSEP-07,Decision Management Procedure (WHC 1995). The established decision process entailed a Decision Board, consisting of Westinghouse Hanford Company (VY`HC) management staff, and included appointment of a VTHC Decision Maker. The Alternative Architecture Evaluation results and preliminary recommendations were presented to the Decision Board members for their consideration in the decision-making process. The Alternative Architecture Evaluation was prepared and issued before issuance of @C-IP- 123 1, Alternatives Generation and Analysis Procedure (WI-IC 1996a), but was deemed by the Board to fully meet the intent of WHC-IP-1231. The Decision Board members concurred with the bulk of the Alternative Architecture

  10. Particle and gaseous emissions from compressed natural gas and ultralow sulphur diesel-fuelled buses at four steady engine loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, E R; Ristovski, Z D; Meyer, N; Morawska, L

    2009-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from thirteen compressed natural gas (CNG) and nine ultralow sulphur diesel in-service transport buses were monitored on a chassis dynamometer. Measurements were carried out at idle and at three steady engine loads of 25%, 50% and 100% of maximum power at a fixed speed of 60 km h(-1). Emission factors were estimated for particle mass and number, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen for two types of CNG buses (Scania and MAN, compatible with Euro 2 and 3 emission standards, respectively) and two types of diesel buses (Volvo Pre-Euro/Euro1 and Mercedez OC500 Euro3). All emission factors increased with load. The median particle mass emission factor for the CNG buses was less than 1% of that from the diesel buses at all loads. However, the particle number emission factors did not show a statistically significant difference between buses operating on the two types of fuel. In this paper, for the very first time, particle number emission factors are presented at four steady state engine loads for CNG buses. Median values ranged from the order of 10(12) particles min(-)(1) at idle to 10(15) particles km(-)(1) at full power. Most of the particles observed in the CNG emissions were in the nanoparticle size range and likely to be composed of volatile organic compounds The CO2 emission factors were about 20% to 30% greater for the diesel buses over the CNG buses, while the oxides of nitrogen emission factors did not show any difference due to the large variation between buses.

  11. 40 CFR 270.71 - Operation during interim status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation during interim status. 270... (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Interim Status § 270.71 Operation during interim status. (a) During the interim status period the facility shall not: (1)...

  12. Succesvol interim-management : Meesterschap in een tijdelijke context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaveling, J.

    2010-01-01

    Als flexibele optie om het management van organisaties aan te vullen, past interim-management helemaal in deze tijd. Maar wat maakt een interim-managementopdracht succesvol? ‘Succesvol interim-management’ is een studie naar de succesfactoren van interim-management. In de literatuur worden verschille

  13. 40 CFR 270.73 - Termination of interim status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination of interim status. 270.73... (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Interim Status § 270.73 Termination of interim status. Interim status terminates when: (a) Final administrative disposition of...

  14. Scoren met interim-management : De weg naar tevreden opdrachtgevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaveling, J.

    2010-01-01

    Tegenwoordig kijkt niemand in organisaties meer op van de aanwezigheid van interim-managers. Interim-management biedt dé flexibiliteit om het management van organisaties aan te vullen. Maar wat maakt interim-managementopdrachten succesvol? Daarover gaat 'Scoren met interim-management: de weg naar te

  15. 33 CFR 1.05-45 - Interim rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim rule. 1.05-45 Section 1... PROVISIONS Rulemaking § 1.05-45 Interim rule. (a) An interim rule may be issued when it is in the public... example, an interim rule may be issued in instances when normal procedures for notice and comment prior...

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  17. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  18. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  19. 40 CFR 52.263 - Priority treatment for buses and carpools-Los Angeles Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 52.263 Priority treatment for buses and carpools—Los Angeles Region. (a) Definitions: (1) “Carpool” means a vehicle containing three or more persons. (2) “Bus/carpool lane” means a lane on a street or... agencies to which legal authority has been delegated, shall establish the following system of...

  20. 76 FR 77888 - Student Transportation of America, Inc.-Control-Dairyland Buses, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Student Transportation of America, Inc.--Control--Dairyland Buses, Inc... Transaction. SUMMARY: Student Transportation of America, Inc., a motor carrier of passengers (Student... 1182.8. DATES: Comments must be filed by January 27, 2012. Student Transportation may file a reply...

  1. Leadership Thrust of Urban School Educators for Meeting the Challenge of Busing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Joseph C.

    Based on a nationwide survey of urban school administrators, personal experiences of the author, and a review of relevant desegregation literature, this paper explores the role of administrators in the achievement of the objectives of busing for school desegregation. Findings cited from the survey include: (1) peak periods of conflict occur in the…

  2. An introduction on the demonstration performance of fuel cell buses (FCB) in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990’s, hydrogen has found broad use in the traffic segment. Compared with conventional ones, hydrogen fuelled vehicles, a new generation of clean vehicles, produce no pollutants, with higher energy efficiency. In today’s world where the pollution is tougher, the "Zero Pollution" fuel cell buses display a

  3. Seat Belts in School Buses: A Technical Analysis of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splaine, Pam; Frankel, Steven M.

    This report, prepared for the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools superintendent and board members, identifies the questions concerning seat belt use in school buses, examines relevant literature, and draws some conclusions. According to the literature, seat belts are one of many alternative and interdependent safety devices built into…

  4. 76 FR 53102 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; School Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... belt use, the effects on bus discipline, the attitudes of other stakeholders, the loss of capacity... the past 34 years that compartmentalization and the school bus safety standards have been in effect... requiring seat belts on large school buses would protect passengers against an unreasonable risk of death...

  5. 26 CFR 41.4483-2 - Exemption for certain transit-type buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the same facts as those stated in Example (1), except that the X Transit Company commences operation... the same facts as those stated in Example (1), except that the X Transit Company commences operation... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption for certain transit-type buses....

  6. Concordance of interim and final estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Vivian K; Cowling, Benjamin J; Feng, Shuo; Sullivan, Sheena G

    2016-04-21

    The World Health Organization's Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System meets twice a year to generate a recommendation for the composition of the seasonal influenza vaccine. Interim vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates provide a preliminary indication of influenza vaccine performance during the season and may be useful for decision making. We reviewed 17 pairs of studies reporting 33 pairs of interim and final estimates using the test-negative design to evaluate whether interim estimates can reliably predict final estimates. We examined features of the study design that may be correlated with interim estimates being substantially different from their final estimates and identified differences related to change in study period and concomitant changes in sample size, proportion vaccinated and proportion of cases. An absolute difference of no more than 10% between interim and final estimates was found for 18 of 33 reported pairs of estimates, including six of 12 pairs reporting VE against any influenza, six of 10 for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, four of seven for influenza A(H3N2) and two of four for influenza B. While we identified inconsistencies in the methods, the similarities between interim and final estimates support the utility of generating and disseminating preliminary estimates of VE while virus circulation is ongoing.

  7. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: Interim results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, David M., E-mail: davidb@itox.ch [Consultant in Toxicology, 1208 Geneva (Switzerland); Rogers, Rick, E-mail: rarogers5@yahoo.com [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA 02494 (United States); Sepulveda, Rosalina [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA 02494 (United States); Kunzendorf, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Kunzendorf@GSA-Ratingen.de [GSA Gesellschaft für Schadstoffanalytik mbH, D-40882 Ratingen (Germany); Bellmann, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Ernst, Heinrich, E-mail: Heinrich.ernst@item.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Phillips, James I., E-mail: jim.phillips@nioh.nhls.ac.za [National Institute for Occupational Health, National Health Laboratory Service (South Africa); Department of Biomedical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2014-04-01

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (> 20 μm) cleared quickly with T{sub 1/2} estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T{sub 1/2} > 1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • We evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite produced pathological response - Wagner 4 interstitial fibrosis by 32d.

  8. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  9. U.S. DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chet Motloch; Ira D. Bloom; Vince Battaglia; Ganesan Nagasubramanian; Tien Q. Duong

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program is currently evaluating the performance of the second generation of Lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells consist of a baseline chemistry and one variant chemistry. These cells were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOC) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar-life cells are clamped at an opencircuit voltage corresponding to 60% SOC and undergo a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells are continuously pulsed using a profile that is centered around 60% SOC. The accelerated-life cells are following the calendar-life test procedures, but using the cycle-life pulse profile. Life testing is interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to quantify changes in capacity, resistance, and power. The RPTs consist of a C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at 60% SOC. Capacity-, power-, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-based performance results are reported.

  10. Russian River Interim Action Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An interim action plan is presented to guide the 1979 management of the Kenai National Moose Range's portion of the lower Russian River and its confluence with the...

  11. DOE UST interim subsurface barrier technologies workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-09-01

    This document contains information which was presented at a workshop regarding interim subsurface barrier technologies that could be used for underground storage tanks, particularly the tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Reservation.

  12. An Interim Report on Pennsylvania's Framework for Leadership: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-ru, Teh; Chiang, Hanley; Lipscomb, Stephen; Gill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A new study analyzed data from the 2012/13 pilot of the Framework for Leadership (FFL), Pennsylvania's tool for evaluating the leadership practices of principals and assistant principals. Based on the FFL scores of 336 principals and 69 assistant principals evaluated by their supervisors in the 2012/13 school year, this interim report found that…

  13. 78 FR 56752 - Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors Reviews AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft Interim Staff Guidance; request for comment... comment on, draft Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) ESP/COL-ISG-027, ``Interim Staff Guidance...

  14. AN INTERIM REPORT ON SOFT SYSTEMS EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljem Rupnik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As application areas rapidly grow beyond the theoretical framework of fundamental decision theory we are very often temptated to see whether or not soft systems may promise some efficient modelling of real life problems. The pioneering bust towards soft systems methodology has come from the needs of mathematical sociology. Its contemporary definition as well as its applied architecture have been dealt with as in a paper proposed.

  15. Prognostic value of interim and restaging PET/CT in Hodgkin lymphoma. Results of the CHEAP (Chemotherapy Effectiveness Assessment by PET/CT) study - long term observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenyi, Z; Barna, S; Garai, I; Simon, Z; Jona, A; Magyari, F; Gergely, M; Nagy, Z; Keresztes, K; Pettendi, P; Illes, A

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have determined the prognostic value of interim and restaging PET/CT in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma using current standard of care therapy outside clinical trials. We analyzed the effect of the results of interim and restaging PET/CT on the survival (overall- and relapse-free) in patients who received standard first-line treatment based on the stage of disease and risk factors. We investigated the differences between the relapse and non-relapse groups based on the clinical pathological characteristics of patients who had positive interim PET/CT results.Between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011, the staging, interim and restaging PET/CT scans of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma were analyzed. The Deauville criteria were used for the evaluation of interim PET/CT scans. One hundred and thirteen Hodgkin lymphoma patients underwent staging, interim and restaging PET/CT scans. None of the therapy was modified based on the interim PET/CT results. The median follow-up time was 43.5 months. A total of 62 early stage patients and 51 advanced stage patients were identified. The five-year overall survival rates were 93.4% in the interim PET negative group and 58% in the interim PET positive group (pinterim PET positive group, patients over 40 years of age had a significantly higher probability of relapse (p=0.057).The routine clinical use of interim PET/CT is highly recommended based on our investigation. However, patients with positive interim PET/CT results required frequent additional evaluations.

  16. Gaseous emissions from compressed natural gas buses in urban road and highway tests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tingting; Chai, Fahe; Hu, Jingnan; Jia, Ming; Bao, Xiaofeng; Li, Zhenhua; He, Liqang; Zu, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The natural gas vehicle market is rapidly developing throughout the world, and the majority of such vehicles operate on compressed natural gas (CNG). However, most studies on the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles rely on laboratory chassis dynamometer measurements, which do not accurately represent actual road driving conditions. To further investigate the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles, two CNG city buses and two CNG coaches were tested on public urban roads and highway sections. Our results show that when speeds of 0-10km/hr were increased to 10-20km/hr, the CO2, CO, nitrogen oxide (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission factors decreased by (71.6±4.3)%, (65.6±9.5)%, (64.9±9.2)% and (67.8±0.3)%, respectively. In this study, The Beijing city buses with stricter emission standards (Euro IV) did not have lower emission factors than the Chongqing coaches with Euro II emission standards. Both the higher emission factors at 0-10km/hr speeds and the higher percentage of driving in the low-speed regime during the entire road cycle may have contributed to the higher CO2 and CO emission factors of these city buses. Additionally, compared with the emission factors produced in the urban road tests, the CO emission factors of the CNG buses in highway tests decreased the most (by 83.2%), followed by the THC emission factors, which decreased by 67.1%.

  17. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sam Alessi; Tami Grimmett; Leng Vang; Dave McGrath

    2010-09-01

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V&V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  18. Problems Incident to Urban School Desegregation: An Institute for School Administrators of the Buffalo and Niagara Falls Public Schools. Interim Report Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Troy V.

    An Institute funded under Title IV of the 1964 Civil Rights Act was held during 1968-69 in order to concentrate on the attitudes of the administrative leadership of the schools involved in a busing program. The purpose of the Institute was to initiate and evaluate action programs to facilitate the implementation of the School System's…

  19. Seal capability of interim post and core crown with temporary cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Bönecker-Valverde

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro seal capability of interim post and core crown restorations. Eighty teeth were selected and divided into 8 groups. Four experimental groups received interim posts and core crowns. Half of each group was decoronated at the cementum-enamel junction, groups PCCH and PCZO. The other half was sectioned 2 mm coronal to the cementum-enamel junction, groups PCrZO and PCrCH. The interim post and core crowns were luted with Rely X Temp NE, groups PCrZO and PCZO; Hydro C was used for Groups PCrCH and PCCH. The control groups, PC and PCr, received uncoated post and core crowns; groups OTg and OT were left without interim post and core crowns and were totally open. Infiltration was accessed by dye exposure followed by demineralization of the teeth. The length of the infiltration was measured using digital images taken from the specimens. The images were inserted into the Image Tool 3.0 software. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and Dunn's multiple comparison method were used to test for significant differences among test groups (P < .05. Groups PCrZO and PCrCH showed the least dye penetration, followed by groups PCZO and PCCH. Teeth restored with interim post and core crowns will be subject to leakage. Ethics Committee: 095/2008.

  20. Radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the predictive value of interim survival assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Ryo; Murakami, Ryuji; Saito, Tetsuo; Murakami, Daizo; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Baba, Yuji; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Hirai, Toshinori; Semba, Akiko; Yumoto, Eiji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-09-01

    Pretreatment characteristics are suggested as predictive and/or prognostic factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, individual tumor radiosensitivities have previously not been considered. As boost planning is recommended for NPC, we performed interim assessments of magnetic resonance (MR) images for boost planning and retrospectively evaluated their predictive value for the survival of NPC patients. Radiation therapy via elective nodal irradiation (median dose: 39.6 Gy) with/without chemotherapy was used to treat 63 NPC patients. Boost irradiation (median total dose: 70 Gy) was performed based on the interim assessment. The largest lymph node (LN) was measured on MR images acquired at the time of interim assessment. The site of first failure was local in 8 (12.7%), regional in 7 (11.1%), and distant in 12 patients (19.0%). All 7 patients with regional failure harbored LNs ≥15 mm at interim assessment. We divided the 63 patients into two groups based on LN size [large (≥15 mm), n = 10 and small (interim assessment could predict survival in NPC patients.

  1. 17 CFR 210.10-01 - Interim financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information presented not misleading. Registrants may presume that users of the interim financial information... the following exceptions: (1) Interim financial statements required by this rule need only be provided... not be shown separately. (5) The interim financial information shall include disclosures either on...

  2. 40 CFR 270.72 - Changes during interim status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes during interim status. 270.72... (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Interim Status § 270.72 Changes during interim status. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the owner or operator of...

  3. 78 FR 49782 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing this notice for use of, and to solicit public comment on the draft Interim...

  4. 10 CFR 590.403 - Emergency interim orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency interim orders. 590.403 Section 590.403 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.403 Emergency interim... and issue an emergency interim order authorizing the import or export of natural gas. After...

  5. 7 CFR 900.70 - Applications for interim relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for interim relief. 900.70 Section 900.70... Applications for interim relief. (a) Filing the application. A person who has filed a petition pursuant to... statement of the objections, if any, of the Administrator to the application for interim relief, and may...

  6. 40 CFR 270.70 - Qualifying for interim status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifying for interim status. 270.70... (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Interim Status § 270.70 Qualifying for interim status. (a) Any person who owns or operates an “existing HWM facility” or a...

  7. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2000-03-15

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area.

  8. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  9. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.L.

    1995-01-03

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location.

  10. Cost Implications of an Interim Storage Facility in the Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, Joshua J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joseph, III, Robert Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Rob L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petersen, Gordon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutt, Mark [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cotton, Thomas [Complex Systems Group, Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the cost implications of incorporating a consolidated interim storage facility (ISF) into the waste management system (WMS). Specifically, the impacts of the timing of opening an ISF relative to opening a repository were analyzed to understand the potential effects on total system costs.

  11. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  12. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-10-14

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included.

  13. Interim Land Use Control Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    This Interim Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP) has been prepared to inform current and potential future users of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Contractors Road Heavy Equipment (CRHE) Area (SWMU 055; "the Site") of institutional controls that have been implemented at the Site1. Although there are no current unacceptable risks to human health or the environment associated with the CRHE Area, an interim institutional land use control (LUC) is necessary to prevent human health exposure to volatile organic compound (VOC)-affected groundwater at the Site. Controls will include periodic inspection, condition certification, and agency notification.

  14. Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from CNG transit buses equipped with three-way catalysts compared to lean-burn engines and oxidation catalyst technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Hu, Shaohua; Kado, Norman Y.; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Collins, John F.; Gautam, Mridul; Herner, Jorn D.; Ayala, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled transit buses with stoichiometric combustion engines and three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust control systems were measured using a chassis dynamometer testing facility and compared to the data from earlier CNG engine and exhaust control technologies. Gaseous and particulate matter emissions from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were lower by more than 99% compared to buses with lean-burn engines. Elemental and organic carbons (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were effectively controlled and significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Potential mutagenicity measured using a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella/microsome assay was lower by more than 99% for buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC, compared to buses with lean-burn engines and OxC.

  15. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  16. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable.

  17. Analysis of the cost of hydrogen infrastructure for buses in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegan, S.; Hart, D.; Pearson, P.; Joffe, D.

    The use of hydrogen (H 2) as transport fuel is often said to suffer from the 'chicken and egg' problem: vehicles that depend on H 2 cannot go on the roads due to the lack of an adequate infrastructure, and the almost non-existent fleet of H 2 vehicles on the roads makes it economically unsound to build a H 2 infrastructure. Although both hydrogen vehicles (fuel cell and internal combustion engine) and the related infrastructure have been (and are being) developed and some are commercially available, cost is seen as a major barrier. With today's technologies, H 2 only becomes competitive with petrol and diesel when produced at large quantities, suitable for supplying e.g. thousands of H 2 buses. The question is, how might this point be reached, and are there least cost infrastructural pathways to reach it. This paper tries to address the latter question, using the early development of a H 2 infrastructure for buses in London as a case study. The paper presents some of the analyses and results from a Ph.D. project (in progress) being undertaken at Imperial College London, funded by EPSRC (Grant GR/R50790/01). The results presented here illustrate that cost of hydrogen production and delivery vary mainly with levels of hydrogen demand and delivery distances, as well as other logistic criteria; least cost production-delivery pathways have been identified for various hydrogen demand scenarios and refuelling station set-ups. Another important conclusion is that the pattern of converting a group of refuelling stations to hydrogen (e.g. a group of refuelling stations for buses in London) has a significant effect on the unit cost of hydrogen.

  18. Characteristics of cabin air quality in school buses in Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Donghyun; Siegel, Jeffrey; Spinhirne, Jarett; Webb, Alba; McDonald-Buller, Elena

    This study assessed in-cabin concentrations of diesel-associated air pollutants in six school buses with diesel engines during a typical route in suburban Austin, Texas. Air exchange rates measured by SF 6 decay were 2.60-4.55 h -1. In-cabin concentrations of all pollutants measured exhibited substantial variability across the range of tests even between buses of similar age, mileage, and engine type. In-cabin NO x concentrations ranged from 44.7 to 148 ppb and were 1.3-10 times higher than roadway NO x concentrations. Mean in-cabin PM 2.5 concentrations were 7-20 μg m -3 and were generally lower than roadway levels. In-cabin concentrations exhibited higher variability during cruising mode than frequent stops. Mean in-cabin ultrafine PM number concentrations were 6100-32,000 particles cm -3 and were generally lower than roadway levels. Comparison of median concentrations indicated that in-cabin ultrafine PM number concentrations were higher than or approximately the same as the roadway concentrations, which implied that, by excluding the bias caused by local traffic, ultrafine PM levels were higher in the bus cabin than outside of the bus. Cabin pollutant concentrations on three buses were measured prior to and following the phased installation of a Donaldson Spiracle Crankcase Filtration System and a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst. Following installation of the Spiracle, the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst provided negligible or small additional reductions of in-cabin pollutant levels. In-cabin concentration decreases with the Spiracle alone ranged from 24 to 37% for NO x and 26 to 62% and 6.6 to 43% for PM 2.5 and ultrafine PM, respectively. Comparison of the ranges of PM 2.5 and ultrafine PM variations between repetitive tests suggested that retrofit installation could not always be conclusively linked to the decrease of pollutant levels in the bus cabin.

  19. Operational integrity using field buses; Integridade operacional utilizando barramentos de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Carlos Henrique [Coester Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The device information is collected using standardized Filed Buses with high data transmission capacity, which allows the analysis of his operational status in real time. The quantity of information generated by the devices for the maintenance area is increasing and this data quantity transferred through the field bus should not interfere in the network performance to the point of degrade his control function. In this way, is presented a technique that can be used in different protocols, which allow sending of maintenance data using a small band of the communication channel. Operational integrity can be achieved using predictive maintenance techniques based on the collected data. (author)

  20. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  1. 340 Waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1996-10-04

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  2. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  3. The Interim Superintendent: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Gary; Nix, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the vitally important role that the superintendent plays in the overall functioning and wellbeing of any school district, the filling of that position should never be done in haste. Due to the importance of this process and the time it requires, school districts often employ an interim superintendent. In this single case study, one…

  4. Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

    2013-03-20

    This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

  5. Experience collecting interim data on mortality: an example from the RALES study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulbertus Henri

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study (RALES randomized 822 patients to receive 25 mg spironolactone daily and 841 to receive placebo. The primary endpoint was death from all causes. Randomization began on March 24, 1995; recruitment was completed on December 31, 1996; follow-up was scheduled to continue through December 31, 1999. Evidence of a sizeable benefit on mortality emerged early in the RALES. The RALES data safety monitoring board (DSMB, which met semiannually throughout the trial, used a prespecified statistical guideline to recommend stopping for efficacy. At the DSMB's request, its meetings were preceded by an 'endpoint sweep', that is, a census of all participants to confirm their vital status. Methods We used computer simulation to evaluate the effect of the sweeps. Results The sweeps led to an estimated 5 to 8% increase in the number of reported deaths at the fourth and fifth interim analyses. The data crossed the statistical boundary at the fifth interim analysis. If investigators had reported all deaths within the protocol-required 24-h window, the DSMB might have recommended stopping after the fourth interim analysis. Discussion Although endpoint sweeps can cause practical problems at the clinical centers, sweeps are very useful if the intervals between patient visits or contact are long or if endpoints require adjudication by committee, reading center, or central laboratory. Conclusion We recommend that trials with interim analyses institute active reporting of the primary endpoints and endpoint sweeps.

  6. 78 FR 41125 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Medical Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... COMMISSION Interim Enforcement Policy for Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Medical Event Reporting AGENCY... Commission (NRC) is issuing an interim Enforcement Policy that allows the staff to exercise enforcement...'s permanent implant brachytherapy program. This interim policy affects NRC licensees that...

  7. The Interim Financial Statements: The Case of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Rogdaki, E.I.; Kazantzis, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The following paper refers to the accounting and auditing issues which emerge in the preparation of the interim financial statements of the companies: Firstly, the interim financial statements are defined as being the financial statements that provide useful information about the financial position and the financial results of a company which are realized and accrued during the fiscal year. The interim financial statements can be prepared on a monthly basis, on a quarterly basis or covering a...

  8. Design of a Mobile Low-Cost Sensor Network Using Urban Buses for Real-Time Ubiquitous Noise Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Alías, Francesc; Angulo, Ignacio

    2016-12-29

    One of the main priorities of smart cities is improving the quality of life of their inhabitants. Traffic noise is one of the pollutant sources that causes a negative impact on the quality of life of citizens, which is gaining attention among authorities. The European Commission has promoted the Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END) to inform citizens and to prevent the harmful effects of noise exposure. The measure of acoustic levels using noise maps is a strategic issue in the END action plan. Noise maps are typically calculated by computing the average noise during one year and updated every five years. Hence, the implementation of dynamic noise mapping systems could lead to short-term plan actions, besides helping to better understand the evolution of noise levels along time. Recently, some projects have started the monitoring of noise levels in urban areas by means of acoustic sensor networks settled in strategic locations across the city, while others have taken advantage of collaborative citizen sensing mobile applications. In this paper, we describe the design of an acoustic low-cost sensor network installed on public buses to measure the traffic noise in the city in real time. Moreover, the challenges that a ubiquitous bus acoustic measurement system entails are enumerated and discussed. Specifically, the analysis takes into account the feature extraction of the audio signal, the identification and separation of the road traffic noise from urban traffic noise, the hardware platform to measure and process the acoustic signal, the connectivity between the several nodes of the acoustic sensor network to store the data and, finally, the noise maps' generation process. The implementation and evaluation of the proposal in a real-life scenario is left for future work.

  9. Avaliação dos fatores de risco laborais e físicos para doenças cardiovasculares em motoristas de transporte urbano de ônibus em Montes Claros (MG Evaluation of labor-related and physical risk factors for cardiovascular disease in drivers of urban transport buses in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Farias Alquimim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo buscou avaliar os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares em motoristas de ônibus em Montes Claros (MG. Foi empregado um questionário semiestruturado abordando dados pessoais, antropométricos, profissionais e laborais; e outro referente ao grau de estresse. Foram pesquisados 53 motoristas de ônibus e a média de idade foi de 30 a 39 anos, e dessa população, 81,1% diziam não ser fumantes, 58% não consumiam bebida alcoólica e 50% praticavam algum tipo de exercício. Na avaliação do IMC 40 motoristas (75,4% estavam com excesso de peso. A prevalência dos hábitos alimentares foi de excesso consumo de açúcar (66,0%, de gordura (64,2%, de café (69,8%, de sal (60,4%, de Coca Cola (64,2% e de refrigerante (54,7%. Dentre os relatos de doenças crônicas não foram observados motoristas diabéticos (98,1% e nem hipertensos (94,3%. A maioria da amostragem, 69,7% teve nível de estresse normal. Em relação aos dados laboratoriais, a grande maioria dos motoristas apresentou hipertrigliceridemia e hipercolesterolemia. Os níveis de HDL estavam satisfatórios, e o de LDL apresentou nível normal e desejável em mais da metade da amostra. A prevalência para doença cardiovascular mostrou-se baixa.The scope of this study was to evaluate risk factors for cardiovascular disease among bus drivers in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais. A semi-structured questionnaire covering personal, anthropometric, professional and labor-related data was used, in addition to a questionnaire on the level of stress. 53 bus drivers were surveyed and the average age was 30 to 39 years of age. 81.1% were non-smokers; 58% of the sample were teetotalers; and 50% took regular exercise. In the assessment of BMI, 40 drivers (75.4% were overweight. The prevalence in eating habits revealed excess consumption of sugar (66.0%, fat (64.2%, coffee (69.8%, salt (60.4%, coca cola (64.2% and soft drinks (54.7%. Among reports of chronic diseases, no

  10. Hydrogen propulsion systems for transit buses - results of operation in passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipp, E.; Gruber, C. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Advance Development (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Hydrogen is a source of energy which can in the long term play a major role in the energy and transport industries. It can be generated without using fossil products and against the background of ever shorter oil reserves it reduces the supply risks for transport and industry. Further advantages of hydrogen as a fuel for motor vehicles are its potential for reduction of greenhouse gases and pollutants from traffic. The hydrogen project at Munich airport aims to demonstrate the technical feasibility of autonomous hydrogen generation combined with operation of vehicles. MAN is participating in this project with two low-floor articulated buses with hydrogen engines. A further vehicles from Neoplan has also been fitted with MAN H{sub 2} driveline technology. The vehicles will be used for carrying passengers on the airport apron from early 1999 to the end of 2000 and are expected to supply important information on the use of hydrogen in day-to-day transport. (orig.)

  11. Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) in public buses of Pamplona, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, M A; Elustondo, D; Bermejo, R; Santamaría, J M

    2008-10-01

    This study examines the exposure level of passengers and drivers to VOC in public buses in a medium-size metropolitan area (Northern Spain). In-vehicle monitoring was performed on different routes, on peak and non-peak hours, during January and February 2007. A total of 112 air samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analysed by thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography/mass selective detector (GC/MSD) technique. Statistical differences were found among route to route concentrations, with those routes with major prevalence in the commercial area of the city displaying higher values; differences between peak and non-peak hours were also observed. A decrease in VOC concentrations was also registered during the weekend. BTEX ratios were estimated and found to be related to traffic emissions and similar for all the surveyed routes. Correlations confirmed traffic as the main emission source for BTEX and trimethylbenzene, their concentrations being highly associated to changes in meteorological conditions.

  12. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  13. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  14. 47 CFR 51.715 - Interim transport and termination pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim transport and termination pricing. 51.715 Section 51.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... Telecommunications Traffic § 51.715 Interim transport and termination pricing. (a) Upon request from...

  15. General certification procedure of enterprises and interim job enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien

    2002-01-01

    This procedure defines the certification global process of enterprises employing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities and interim job enterprises proposing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities. This certification proves the enterprises ability to satisfy the specification ''E'' of the CEFRI and the interim job enterprises to satisfy the specification ''I'' of the CEFRI. (A.L.B.)

  16. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§ 660.707... harvest of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) using longline gear deployed on the high seas of the Pacific...

  17. 47 CFR 73.404 - Interim hybrid IBOC DAB operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.404 Interim hybrid IBOC DAB operation. (a) The... test operation pursuant to § 73.1620, may commence interim hybrid IBOC DAB operation with digital... No. 99-325. FM stations are permitted to operate with hybrid digital effective radiated power...

  18. National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, B

    2002-04-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has the mission of supporting Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science research in high-energy-density plasmas. To execute those missions, the facility must provide diagnostic instrumentation capable of observing and resolving in time events and radiation emissions characteristic of the plasmas of interest. The diagnostic instrumentation must conform to high standards of operability and reliability within the NIF environment. These exacting standards, together with the facility mission of supporting a diverse user base, has led to the need for a central organization charged with delivering diagnostic capability to the NIF. The National NIF Diagnostics Program (NNDP) has been set up under the aegis of the NIF Director to provide that organization authority and accountability to the wide user community for NIF. The funds necessary to perform the work of developing diagnostics for NIF will be allocated from the National NIF Diagnostics Program to the participating laboratories and organizations. The participating laboratories and organizations will design, build, and commission the diagnostics for NIF. Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize NIF Core Diagnostics Systems and Cryogenic Target Handing Systems, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems has been initiated and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National NIF Diagnostics Program Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope

  19. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  20. Evaluating the agreement between measurements and models of net ecosystem exchange at different times and time scales using wavelet coherence: an example using data from the North American Carbon Program Site-Level Interim Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Stoy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Earth system processes exhibit complex patterns across time, as do the models that seek to replicate these processes. Model output may or may not be significantly related to observations at different times and on different frequencies. Conventional model diagnostics provide an aggregate view of model-data agreement, but usually do not identify the time and frequency patterns of model misfit, leaving unclear the steps required to improve model response to environmental drivers that vary on characteristic frequencies. Wavelet coherence can quantify the times and frequencies at which models and measurements are significantly different. We applied wavelet coherence to interpret the predictions of twenty ecosystem models from the North American Carbon Program (NACP Site-Level Interim Synthesis when confronted with eddy covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE from ten ecosystems with multiple years of available data. Models were grouped into classes with similar approaches for incorporating phenology, the calculation of NEE, and the inclusion of foliar nitrogen (N. Models with prescribed, rather than prognostic, phenology often fit NEE observations better on annual to interannual time scales in grassland, wetland and agricultural ecosystems. Models that calculate NEE as net primary productivity (NPP minus heterotrophic respiration (HR rather than gross ecosystem productivity (GPP minus ecosystem respiration (ER fit better on annual time scales in grassland and wetland ecosystems, but models that calculate NEE as GPP – ER were superior on monthly to seasonal time scales in two coniferous forests. Models that incorporated foliar nitrogen (N data were successful at capturing NEE variability on interannual (multiple year time scales at Howland Forest, Maine. Combined with previous findings, our results suggest that the mechanisms driving daily and annual NEE variability tend to be correctly simulated, but the magnitude of these fluxes is often

  1. Urban transportation system optimum: The effect of accounting for the interaction of buses and cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Angelo Guevara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se usa un método iterativo para calcular tarifas Pigouvianascuando las vías son compartidas por autos y buses. Se comparan escenarios en los cuales: 1 la tarifa es calculada considerando sólo la externalidad sobre otros vehículos; 2 la tarifa considera además la externalidad sobre los pasajeros de los vehículos; 3 no se aplican tarifas; y 4 no se aplican tarifas, pero algunas pistas son reservadas para el uso exclusivo de buses. El método es aplicado primero a un modelo idealizado que considera homogenidad de la demanda y cierto grado de heterogenidad en la oferta. Luego el método es aplicado en un experimento con datos reales basado en un modelo simultáneo de cuatro etapas calibrado para la ciudad de Santiago, Chile. Todos los experimentos muestran que cuando se considera la externalidad sobre los pasajeros de los vehículos, las tarifas Pigouvianas crecen sustancialmente en las vías de uso mixto, lo cual se traduce en un menor flujo de automóviles en dichas vías. Por otro lado, las simulaciones con el modelo idealizado muestran que el efecto de la reservación de pistas depende fuertemente del diseño considerado. Respecto de la tarificación Pigouviana, el experimento con datos reales muestra, sorprendentemente, que dicha política resultaría ser inferior a un escenario en el cual no se aplican tarifas. Este resultado podría atribuirse a: 1 que el modelo con datos reales representa una situación de equilibrio general y en cambio las tarifas Pigouvianas se calculan usando un enfoque de equilibrio parcial; 2 limitaciones de modelación en el experimento con datos reales; o 3 una manifestación del contraejemplo de Coase para los impuestos Pigouvianos. El artículo termina discutiendo el impacto de estos resultados en el análisis de políticas de transporte urbano.

  2. Mechanised charging stations enable point-to-point service for battery operated buses; Mechanisierte Ladestationen eroeffnen Batteriebussen den Linienbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, S. [Gottlob Auwaerter GmbH und Co., Stuttgart (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Buses operated by an electrical battery do not any longer have a major disadvantage: the relatively short period of use/application. By means of mobile exchange charging stations the batteries of the buses do not have to be recharged for hours at installed charging stations or to be exchanged on a rather complicated way by forklifts. The battery exchange is as easy as filling up a car tank with diesel and can be carried out by the bus-driver himself within a few minutes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Batterie-elektrisch betriebene Busse haben einen gefuerchteten Nachteil verloren: die relativ geringe Einsatzzeit. Durch die mobile Wechsel-/Ladestation muessen die Busse nunmehr nicht mehr stundenlang an fest installierten Ladestationen `nachtanken` oder dort umstaendliche Batteriewechsel mit Hilfe von Gabelstaplern in Kauf nehmen. Der Batteriewechsel ist so einfach wie das Tanken von Dieselkraftstoff und wird von dem Busfahrer sebst in wenigen Minuten vorgenommen. (orig.)

  3. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wires by flexible thread levels.Diagrams are constructed with the purpose to find ymax and criteria of electro-dynamic resistance of flexible buses (permissible impulse of electro-dynamic forces and current of electro-dynamic resistance is determined.

  4. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Sergey; E. G. Ponomarenko; W. M. Sammur; P. I. Klimkovich

    2005-01-01

    The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wi...

  5. Variability of particle number emissions from diesel and hybrid diesel-electric buses in real driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Gao, H Oliver; Holmén, Britt A

    2008-08-01

    A linear mixed model was developed to quantify the variability of particle number emissions from transit buses tested in real-world driving conditions. Two conventional diesel buses and two hybrid diesel-electric buses were tested throughout 2004 under different aftertreatments, fuels, drivers, and bus routes. The mixed model controlled the confounding influence of factors inherent to on-board testing. Statistical tests showed that particle number emissions varied significantly according to the after treatment, bus route, driver, bus type, and daily temperature, with only minor variability attributable to differences between fuel types. The daily setup and operation of the sampling equipment (electrical low pressure impactor) and mini-dilution system contributed to 30-84% of the total random variability of particle measurements among tests with diesel oxidation catalysts. By controlling for the sampling day variability, the model better defined the differences in particle emissions among bus routes. In contrast, the low particle number emissions measured with diesel particle filters (decreased by over 99%) did not vary according to operating conditions or bus type but did vary substantially with ambient temperature.

  6. A Model for the Stop Planning and Timetables of Customized Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Customized buses (CBs) are a new mode of public transportation and an important part of diversified public transportation, providing advanced, attractive and user-led service. The operational activity of a CB is planned by aggregating space–time demand and similar passenger travel demands. Based on an analysis of domestic and international research and the current development of CBs in China and considering passenger travel data, this paper studies the problems associated with the operation of CBs, such as stop selection, line planning and timetables, and establishes a model for the stop planning and timetables of CBs. The improved immune genetic algorithm (IIGA) is used to solve the model with regard to the following: 1) multiple population design and transport operator design, 2) memory library design, 3) mutation probability design and crossover probability design, and 4) the fitness calculation of the gene segment. Finally, a real-world example in Beijing is calculated, and the model and solution results are verified and analyzed. The results illustrate that the IIGA solves the model and is superior to the basic genetic algorithm in terms of the number of passengers, travel time, average passenger travel time, average passenger arrival time ahead of schedule and total line revenue. This study covers the key issues involving operational systems of CBs, combines theoretical research and empirical analysis, and provides a theoretical foundation for the planning and operation of CBs. PMID:28056041

  7. The life cycle assessment of alternative fuel chains for urban buses and trolleybuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliucininkas, L; Matulevicius, J; Martuzevicius, D

    2012-05-30

    This paper describes a comparative analysis of public transport alternatives in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. An LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) inventory analysis of fuel chains was undertaken using the midi urban bus and a similar type of trolleybus. The inventory analysis of fuel chains followed the guidelines provided by the ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 standards. The ReCiPe Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology was used to quantify weighted damage originating from five alternative fuel chains. The compressed biogas fuel chain had the lowest weighted damage value, namely 45.7 mPt/km, whereas weighted damage values of the fuel chains based on electricity generation for trolleybuses were 60.6 mPt/km (for natural gas) and 78.9 mPt/km (for heavy fuel oil). The diesel and compressed natural gas fuel chains exhibited considerably higher damage values of 114.2 mPt/km and 132.6 mPt/km, respectively. The comparative life cycle assessment of fuel chains suggested that biogas-powered buses and electric trolleybuses can be considered as the best alternatives to use when modernizing the public transport fleet in Kaunas.

  8. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  9. Retention of long-term interim restorations with sodium fluoride enriched interim cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strash, Carolyn

    Purpose: Interim fixed dental prostheses, or "provisional restorations", are fabricated to restore teeth when definitive prostheses are made indirectly. Patients undergoing extensive prosthodontic treatment frequently require provisionalization for several months or years. The ideal interim cement would retain the restoration for as long as needed and still allow for ease of removal. It would also avoid recurrent caries by preventing demineralization of tooth structure. This study aims to determine if adding sodium fluoride varnish to interim cement may assist in the retention of interim restorations. Materials and methods: stainless steel dies representing a crown preparation were fabricated. Provisional crowns were milled for the dies using CAD/CAM technology. Crowns were provisionally cemented onto the dies using TempBond NE and NexTemp provisional cements as well as a mixture of TempBond NE and Duraphat fluoride varnish. Samples were stored for 24h then tested or thermocycled for 2500 or 5000 cycles before being tested. Retentive strength of each cement was recorded using a universal testing machine. Results: TempBond NE and NexTemp cements performed similarly when tested after 24h. The addition of Duraphat significantly decreased the retention when added to TempBond NE. NexTemp cement had high variability in retention over all tested time periods. Thermocycling for 2500 and 5000 cycles significantly decreased the retention of all cements. Conclusions: The addition of Duraphat fluoride varnish significantly decreased the retention of TempBond NE and is therefore not recommended for clinical use. Thermocycling significantly reduced the retention of TempBond NE and NexTemp. This may suggest that use of these cements for three months, as simulated in this study, is not recommended.

  10. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report #2, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-06-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006, comparing similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. It covers November 2007 through February 2010. Results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and road calls), and a summary of achievements and challenges encountered during the demonstration.

  11. AGR-1 Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machael Abbott

    2009-08-01

    Projects for the very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) program provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR Program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are (1) qualified for use, (2) stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and (3) analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the data streams associated with the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-1) experiment, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY09 qualification status of the AGR-1 data to date. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category, which is assigned by the data generator, and include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing, to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documentation that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent QA program. The interim qualification status of the following four data streams is reported in this document: (1) fuel fabrication data, (2) fuel irradiation data, (3) fission product monitoring system (FPMS) data, and (4) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) operating conditions data. A final report giving the NDMAS qualification status of all AGR-1 data (including cycle 145A) is planned for February 2010.

  12. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge : Interim hunting plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim hunting plan for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) outlines hunting guidelines for the Refuge....

  13. Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge : Interim Public Access Plan : 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim plan covers public access for Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge. Sections include introduction, safety briefing protocols, entry procedure, types of...

  14. Interim Report - Assess Wet Pine Savanna Response to Refuge Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Interim report provides the summary of plant inventory within a pine savanna on the MS Sandhill Crane NWR in 2011. 136 species of plants were noted in the survey.

  15. Interim Land Use Plan : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Interim Land Use Plan for Muscatatuck NWR provides a brief history of the Refuge; summarizes present land conditions, needs, and habitat types; and provides an...

  16. TANK FARM INTERIM SURFACE BARRIER MATERIALS AND RUNOFF ALTERNATIVES STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLM MJ

    2009-06-25

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  17. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.; Schechter, P.; Baltay, C.; Bean, R.; Bennett, D.; Brown, R.; Conselice, C.; Donahue, M.; Gaudi, S.; Lauer, T.; Perlmutter, S.; Rauscher, B.; Rhodes, J.; Roellig, T.; Stern, D.; Sumi, T.; Gerhels, N.; Sambruna, R.; Barry, R. K.; Content, D.; Grady, K; Jackson, C.; Kruk, J.; Melton, M.; Rioux, N.

    2011-01-01

    The New Worlds, New Horizons (NWNH) in Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Decadal Survey prioritized the community consensus for ground-based and space-based observatories. Recognizing that many of the community s key questions could be answered with a wide-field infrared survey telescope in space, and that the decade would be one of budget austerity, WFIRST was top ranked in the large space mission category. In addition to the powerful new science that could be accomplished with a wide-field infrared telescope, the WFIRST mission was determined to be both technologically ready and only a small fraction of the cost of previous flagship missions, such as HST or JWST. In response to the top ranking by the community, NASA formed the WFIRST Science Definition Team (SDT) and Project Office. The SDT was charged with fleshing out the NWNH scientific requirements to a greater level of detail. NWNH evaluated the risk and cost of the JDEM-Omega mission design, as submitted by NASA, and stated that it should serve as the basis for the WFIRST mission. The SDT and Project Office were charged with developing a mission optimized for achieving the science goals laid out by the NWNH re-port. The SDT and Project Office opted to use the JDEM-Omega hardware configuration as an initial start-ing point for the hardware implementation. JDEM-Omega and WFIRST both have an infrared imager with a filter wheel, as well as counter-dispersed moderate resolution spectrometers. The primary advantage of space observations is being above the Earth's atmosphere, which absorbs, scatters, warps and emits light. Observing from above the atmosphere enables WFIRST to obtain precision infrared measurements of the shapes of galaxies for weak lensing, infrared light-curves of supernovae and exoplanet microlensing events with low systematic errors, and infrared measurements of the H hydrogen line to be cleanly detected in the 1interim report describes progress as of June 2011 on developing a requirements

  18. Interim main report of the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Allan (ed.) [and others

    2004-08-01

    This document is an interim report on the safety assessment SR-Can (SR in the acronym stands for Safety Report and Can is short for canister). The final SR-Can report will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of the present interim report is to demonstrate the methodology for safety assessment so that it can be reviewed before it is used in a license application. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. Preliminary data from the Forsmark site, presently being investigated by SKB as one of the candidate for a KBS-3 repository are used to some extent as examples. However, the collected data are yet too sparse to allow an evaluation of safety for this site. An important aim of this report is to demonstrate the proper handling of requirements on the safety assessment in applicable regulations. Therefore, regulations issued by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority are duplicated in an Appendix. The principal acceptance criterion requires that 'the annual risk of harmful effects after closure does not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk'. 'Harmful effects' refer to cancer and hereditary effects. Following the introductory chapter 1, this report outlines the methodology for the SR-Can assessment in chapter 2, and presents in chapters 3, 4 and 5 the initial state of the system and the plans and methods for handling external influences and internal processes, respectively. Function indicators are introduced in chapter 6 and a preliminary evaluation of these is given in chapter 7. The material presented in the first seven chapters is utilised in the scenario selection

  19. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-07

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines.

  20. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.

    1999-09-14

    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  1. Operable Unit 3: Proposed Plan/Environmental Assessment for interim remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a Proposed Plan and an Environmental Assessment for an interim remedial action to be undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) within Operable Unit 3 (OU3) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This proposed plan provides site background information, describes the remedial alternatives being considered, presents a comparative evaluation of the alternatives and a rationnale for the identification of DOE`s preferred alternative, evaluates the potential environmental and public health effects associated with the alternatives, and outlines the public`s role in helping DOE and the EPA to make the final decision on a remedy.

  2. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed.

  3. Prediction of Emissions from Biodiesel Fueled Transit Buses Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisek Mudgal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of freight transportation and passenger cars has led to air pollution, green house gas emissions (especially CO2 and fuel supply concerns. Research has been carried out on biodiesel which is shown to generate lower emissions. However, the amount of emissions generated is not well understood which entails more vigorous data collection and development of emissions models. A comprehensive data collection plan was developed and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and PM10 from biodiesel fueled transit buses were collected using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS. Linear models were developed and tested for each emission. However, the models could not capture the emissions spikes well resulting in very low R2 values. Artificial neural networks (ANNs based models were then employed on this data because of their ability to handle nonlinearity and not requiring assumptions on the input data as needed by statistical models. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the input parameters, number of hidden layers, learning rate and learning algorithm to arrive at an optimum ANN architecture. The optimal architecture for this study was found to be two hidden layers with 50 hidden nodes for each of NOx, HC, CO, and PM and one hidden layer for CO2. The emissions were predicted using best-performance ANN models for each emission. Scatter-plots of observed versus predicted values showed R2 of 0.96, 0.94, 0.82, 0.98 and 0.78 for NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and PM emissions, respectively. Histogram on prediction error showed low frequency for large errors.

  4. Interim measure work plan/design for Agra, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-18

    This Interim Measure Work Plan/Design (IMWP/D) is supplemental to the Argonne document Interim Measure Conceptual Design for Remediation of Source Area Contamination at Agra, Kansas. The IMWP/D includes information required by Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Policy BER-RS-029, Policy and Scope of Work for Interim Measures. Specific to Policy BER-RS-029 is the requirement for several documents that will ensure that an adequate amount and type of data are collected for implementation of the IMWP/D and that data quality and safe conditions are prevailed. Such information is included in the IMWP/D as follows: Appendix A: Data Acquisition Plan--Design Testing Requirements; Appendix B: Basis of Design; Appendix C: Permits; Appendix D: Quality Assurance Project Plan; Appendix E: Health and Safety Plan; and Appendix F: Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Schedule. The proposed remedial technology for this project is the installation of five large-diameter boreholes (LDBs) in a source area that has been identified on the property formerly used for grain storage by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The goal of the LDB technology is the remediation of the source area by removal of mass quantities of contaminated soil from the vadose zone and treatment of any remaining contaminated soils that are adjacent to the source area to achieve a carbon tetrachloride concentration below 200 {micro}g/kg. Secondary to the soil remediation is the remediation of groundwater at and adjacent to the source areas. The LDB technology serves the following purposes: (1) The physical removal of contaminated soil from the identified source area. (2) Replacement of less permeable native materials (silty clay, clayey silt, and silty sand) with more permeable materials to facilitate the capture of volatilized contaminants in the vertical borehole. (3) Removal of contaminants volatilized by air sparging (AS) and extracted from the

  5. Quantifying the bias in the estimated treatment effect in randomized trials having interim analyses and a rule for early stopping for futility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, S D; Han, H; Briel, M; Guyatt, G H

    2017-04-30

    In this paper, we consider the potential bias in the estimated treatment effect obtained from clinical trials, the protocols of which include the possibility of interim analyses and an early termination of the study for reasons of futility. In particular, by considering the conditional power at an interim analysis, we derive analytic expressions for various parameters of interest: (i) the underestimation or overestimation of the treatment effect in studies that stop for futility; (ii) the impact of the interim analyses on the estimation of treatment effect in studies that are completed, i.e. that do not stop for futility; (iii) the overall estimation bias in the estimated treatment effect in a single study with such a stopping rule; and (iv) the probability of stopping at an interim analysis. We evaluate these general expressions numerically for typical trial scenarios. Results show that the parameters of interest depend on a number of factors, including the true underlying treatment effect, the difference that the trial is designed to detect, the study power, the number of planned interim analyses and what assumption is made about future data to be observed after an interim analysis. Because the probability of stopping early is small for many practical situations, the overall bias is often small, but a more serious issue is the potential for substantial underestimation of the treatment effect in studies that actually stop for futility. We also consider these ideas using data from an illustrative trial that did stop for futility at an interim analysis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R; Piepel, Gregory F; Vienna, John D; Cooley, Scott K; Kim, Dong-Sang; Russell, Renee L

    2001-07-24

    The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region.

  7. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  8. Filling the gaps in meteorological continuous data measured at FLUXNET sites with ERA-Interim reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuichard, N.; Papale, D.

    2015-07-01

    Exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere are monitored by eddy covariance technique at the ecosystem level. Currently, the FLUXNET database contains more than 500 registered sites, and up to 250 of them share data (free fair-use data set). Many modelling groups use the FLUXNET data set for evaluating ecosystem models' performance, but this requires uninterrupted time series for the meteorological variables used as input. Because original in situ data often contain gaps, from very short (few hours) up to relatively long (some months) ones, we develop a new and robust method for filling the gaps in meteorological data measured at site level. Our approach has the benefit of making use of continuous data available globally (ERA-Interim) and a high temporal resolution spanning from 1989 to today. These data are, however, not measured at site level, and for this reason a method to downscale and correct the ERA-Interim data is needed. We apply this method to the level 4 data (L4) from the La Thuile collection, freely available after registration under a fair-use policy. The performance of the developed method varies across sites and is also function of the meteorological variable. On average over all sites, applying the bias correction method to the ERA-Interim data reduced the mismatch with the in situ data by 10 to 36 %, depending on the meteorological variable considered. In comparison to the internal variability of the in situ data, the root mean square error (RMSE) between the in situ data and the unbiased ERA-I (ERA-Interim) data remains relatively large (on average over all sites, from 27 to 76 % of the standard deviation of in situ data, depending on the meteorological variable considered). The performance of the method remains poor for the wind speed field, in particular regarding its capacity to conserve a standard deviation similar to the one measured at FLUXNET stations. The ERA-Interim reanalysis data de-biased at

  9. 76 FR 62760 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, AZ; Application for Temporary/Interim...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    .../Interim Manufacturing Authority; Sub-Zero, Inc.; (Refrigerators); Goodyear, AZ An application has been... County Foreign Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 277, requesting temporary/ interim manufacturing...

  10. Updated version of an interim connection space LabPQR for spectral color reproduction: LabLab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Wan, Xiaoxia; Li, Junfeng; Liang, Jingxing

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new interim connection space (ICS) called LabLab, which is an updated version of LabPQR, to overcome the drawback that the last three dimensions of LabPQR have no definite colorimetric meanings. We extended and improved the method by which the first three dimensions of LabPQR are deduced to obtain an ICS consisting of two sets of CIELAB values under different illuminants, and the reconstructed spectra from LabLab were obtained by minimizing colorimetric errors by means of the computational formula of the CIE-XYZ tristimulus values combined with least-squares best fit. The improvement obtained from the proposed method was tested to compress and reconstruct the reflectance spectra of the 1950 Natural Color System color chips and more than 50,000 ISO SOCS color patches as well as six multispectral images acquired by multispectral image acquisition systems using 1600 glossy Munsell color chips as training samples. The performance was evaluated by the mean values of color differences between the original and reconstructed spectra under the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer and the CIE standard illuminants D50, D55, D65, D75, F2, F7, F11, and A as well as five multichip white LED light sources. The mean and maximum values of the root mean square errors between the original and reconstructed spectra were also calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed three LabLab interim connection spaces significantly outperform principal component analysis, LabPQR, XYZLMS, Fairman-Brill, and LabRGB in colorimetric reconstruction accuracy at the cost of slight reduction of spectral reconstruction accuracy and illuminant independence of color differences of the suggested LabLab interim connection spaces outperform other interim connection spaces. In addition, the presented LabLab interim connection spaces could be quite compatible with the extensively used colorimetric management system since each dimension has definite colorimetric

  11. Tender for cleaning up business. New techniques and tender to reduce the emission of buses; Aanbesteding schoon busvervoer. Nieuwe technieken en aanbesteding bieden kansen voor emissiereductie bij bussen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorel, F.G.; Van den Broek, C.B.W.; Jansen, L. [Provincie Zuid-Holland, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2000-03-01

    Air pollution in urban areas in the Netherlands still causes health-problems, and the present air quality does not meet the new standards in the European Union. Every part of society (industry, traffic etc.) therefore has to contribute in reducing emissions. Regarding buses there are several options. New buses can be build with an engine suitable for LPG, or new and existing diesel buses can be equipped with so called 'Continuous Regenerating Traps' (CRT-filters). This article focuses on the new possibility of provinces and municipalities in the Netherlands to facilitate the introduction of these new techniques. For the first time, these governments are planning to call for tenders of bus companies publicly. In order to be granted permission to provide public transport in a certain area, a bus company has to agree upon reducing its present average bus emissions to a certain (fixed) extent. 10 refs.

  12. British Columbia S-2000 monitoring project, vol. 1, performance summary: Interim report, June 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuch, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    The S-2000 program was established to promote cooperation between CANMET, electrical utilities, and provincial governments interested in evaluation on whether solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems are suited to the reduction of peak electrical load levels and pollutant emission control through cost-effective energy displacement. Current activity consists of cooperative pilot projects between government and utilities to install and monitor several SDHW systems across Canada. As a first step to demonstrate the potential of SDHW in British Columbia, eight systems were purchased by B.C. Hydro and West Kootenay Power and installed on private residences throughout the province. This interim report summarizes the monitoring results from June-December 1993.

  13. New energy-saving and environmentally friendly technologies for buses and trucks; Nieuwe energiezuinige en milieuvriendelijke technologien voor bussen en vracthtwagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, R.; De Keukeleere, D.; Lenaers, G.

    1998-09-01

    The point of departure was the statement that people find public transport buses highly polluting. A lot of attention went to the advantages and the disadvantages of buses and trucks on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas. These fuels don`t cause any particle emissions from the combustion process. To quantify the other environmental advantages of gas technology, the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO) carried out measurements of different bus technologies. Fuel consumption, emission of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides and hydrocarbons of 8 buses were measured in the Brussels traffic. 3 technologies of the early nineties were taken as a reference: the Euro-1 diesel, the current Brussels public transport company natural gas bus and a LPG bus. Comparisons were made with the modern diesel bus (Euro-2) and the newest buses on natural gas and LPG. To achieve minimal emissions, the best available technology for buses on natural gas or LPG is multipoint injection, the constructors of engines for heavy-duty traffic are changing from carburetor to fuel injection. The best available gas technologies has emissions that can be 50 to 95 per cent lower than the most modern diesel bus. Users mentioned problems at the introduction of vehicles on gas, such as lower reliability and availability. The cost price continues to be a disadvantage of buses and trucks on gas. The extra consumption of fuel doesn`t necessarily imply higher costs. Often fuel suppliers and distributors offer a favourable unit price, which includes the cost for the infrastructure. The purchase price of the vehicle remains higher and the workplaces must be adjusted for maintenance and repairs of vehicles on gas. The bus or truck on diesel is very reliable and cheaper to use than a similar vehicle on gas. The environmental perspectives are much less marked. Heavy-duty traffic emits nitrogen oxides and particles. With respect to these harmful substances in particular, constructors must

  14. 76 FR 45199 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  15. 78 FR 10554 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  16. 78 FR 13073 - Interim Guidance for Revised Implementation of the International Convention for the Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Interim Guidance for Revised Implementation of the International Convention for the.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard announces the availability of CG-CVC Policy Letter 13-01, ``Interim Guidance for... force on January 1, 2013. CG-CVC Policy Letter 13-01 provides interim guidance to assist U.S....

  17. 76 FR 74834 - Interim Staff Guidance on Aging Management Program for Steam Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Aging Management Program for Steam Generators AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Interim staff guidance; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2011-02, ``Aging...

  18. 76 FR 28661 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area, California AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  19. 75 FR 15420 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will release an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on March 29, 2010. The interim change updates Section A, Paragraph N, Fuel Surcharge, in accordance with Section...

  20. 77 FR 65366 - Interim Procedures for Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ...)] RIN 0625-XC003 Interim Procedures for Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel... Agreements. ACTION: Notice of Interim Procedures and Request for Comments. SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the interim procedures the Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements (``CITA'')...

  1. 76 FR 776 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 that will become effective January 1, 2011. The interim change updates the personnel security requirements for...

  2. 75 FR 24667 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on April 26, 2010. The interim change adds safety requirements for Motor Carriers authorized to provide...

  3. 76 FR 40777 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... 3150-AG48 Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Commission) is revising its interim Enforcement Policy on enforcement discretion for certain fire protection... amendment requests (LARs). This interim policy affects licensees that are transitioning to use the...

  4. 75 FR 10476 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on February 17, 2010. The interim change removes Motor Surveillance Service (MVS) from Item 107 and replaces Item...

  5. 77 FR 74512 - Interim Policy Leasing for Renewable Energy Data Collection Facility on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Interim Policy Leasing for Renewable Energy Data Collection Facility on... et seq.). On November 6, 2007, the Minerals Management Service, now BOEM, announced an interim policy... to the interim policy and, thus, has initiated the need for an EA. On April 7, 2011, Southern...

  6. 75 FR 63080 - Interim Final Rule for Reporting Pre-Enactment Swap Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 44 RIN 3038-AD24 Interim Final Rule for Reporting Pre-Enactment Swap Transactions AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Interim final rule; request for public comment... an interim final rule to implement new statutory provisions introduced by Title VII of the...

  7. 78 FR 53038 - Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions; California; San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions; California; San Joaquin Valley AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset sanctions and to defer...

  8. 76 FR 22802 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Minimum Days Off Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 RIN 3150-AI94 Interim Enforcement Policy for Minimum Days Off Requirements AGENCY... for managing worker fatigue at operating nuclear power plants. This interim policy affects licensees... adopt this interim alternative approach has the potential for introducing adverse consequences if...

  9. 76 FR 76046 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  10. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on October 1, 2010. The interim change adds Item 180, Rail In-Transit Visibility (Rail ITV) Reporting, to Section...

  11. 75 FR 36643 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Distribution Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will release an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on Monday, June 28, 2010. The interim change updates Section A, Part VI, Paragraph A, Advancing Charges...

  12. 77 FR 66588 - Interim Procedures for Considering Requests Under the Commercial Availability Provision of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ...)] RIN 0625-XC004 Interim Procedures for Considering Requests Under the Commercial Availability Provision... Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Notice of Interim Procedures and Request for Comments. SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the interim procedures the Committee for the Implementation of Textile...

  13. 78 FR 28198 - Interim Procedures for Considering Requests Under the Commercial Availability Provision of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...)] RIN 0625-XC005 Interim Procedures for Considering Requests Under the Commercial Availability Provision... Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Notice of Interim Procedures and Request for Comments. SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the interim procedures the Committee for the Implementation of Textile...

  14. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrick (ed.)

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses.

  15. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-03-27

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  16. Up-front fludarabine impairs stem cell harvest in multiple myeloma: report from an interim analysis of the NMSG 13/03 randomized placebo controlled phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Hans Erik; Knudsen, Lene Meldgaard; Mylin, Anne Kærsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The impact of chemotherapy resistant B cells in multiple myeloma (MM) needs to be evaluated by in vivo targeted therapy. Here we report the conclusions from a phase II randomized, placebo controlled trial adding fludarabine to the induction with cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone. Based on an interim...

  17. The PDF4LHC Working Group Interim Recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Botje, Michiel; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Feltesse, Joel; Forte, Stefano; Glazov, Alexander; Huston, Joey; McNulty, Ronan; Sjostrand, Torbjorn; Thorne, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This note provides an interim summary of the current recommendations of the PDF4LHC working group for the use of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and of PDF uncertainties at the LHC, for cross section and cross section uncertainty calculations. It also contains a succinct user guide to the computation of PDF uncertainties and correlations using available PDF sets. A companion note (the PDF4LHC Working Group Interim Report) summarizes predictions for benchmark cross sections at the LHC (7 TeV) at NLO using modern PDFs currently available from 6 PDF fitting groups.

  18. Treatment of defective fuel rods for interim storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchow, K.; Hummel, W. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we look exclusively at the treatment of defective fuel rods for long-term dry interim storage at the nuclear power plant, in order to avoid off-site transports. AREVA has developed a technique that allows verifiably adequate drying of the defective fuel rods and reconstructs the barrier for retaining radioactive materials. This is done by individually encapsulating the defective fuel rods and achieving gas-tightness by seal welding. This guarantees the retention of radioactive materials during the storage period of at least 40 years in a transport and storage flask in an interim storage facility at site. (orig.)

  19. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  20. Long Term Assessment of ERS-1 and ERS-2 Wind and Wave Products Using ERA-Interim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballa, Saleh; Hersbach, Hans; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond

    2010-12-01

    The ERS mission is a great opportunity for the meteorological and ocean-wave communities. In particular, the wind and wave products from both ERS-1 and ERS-2 provide an invaluable data set. The quality of the fast delivery (FD) products of scatterometer wind (UWI), SAR Wave Mode (UWA) and radar altimeter wind and wave (URA) and the off- line OPR (Ocean Product) altimeter wind and wave products were already assessed against the consistent ECMWF 40-Year Reanalysis (ERA-40) wind fields and presented by Hersbach et al. [1]. The recent availability of the higher quality ECMWF interim reanalysis (ERA- Interim) motivated us to repeat the same exercise to get a better evaluation of the quality of ERS wind and wave products.

  1. Seat Belts in School Buses: A Study by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction Prepared for the Wisconsin Legislature: S.B.7. Bulletin No. 9078.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William T.

    The hypothesis of this study was that installation and use of seat belts in all large school buses are needed to prevent injuries and deaths to children in accidents as a result of no seat belts. Basic questions and summary arguments for and against the use of seat belts are listed. An analysis of research studies done on seat belts in school…

  2. Interim analysis for binary outcome trials with a long fixed follow-up time and repeated outcome assessments at pre-specified times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Sameer; Julian, Jim A; Gu, Chushu; Thabane, Lehana; Levine, Mark N

    2014-01-01

    In trials with binary outcomes, assessed repeatedly at pre-specified times and where the subject is considered to have experienced a failure at the first occurrence of the outcome, interim analyses are performed, generally, after half or more of the subjects have completed follow-up. Depending on the duration of accrual relative to the length of follow-up, this may be inefficient, since there is a possibility that the trial will have completed accrual prior to the interim analysis. An alternative is to plan the interim analysis after subjects have completed follow-up to a time that is less than the fixed full follow-up duration. Using simulations, we evaluated three methods to estimate the event proportion for the interim analysis in terms of type I and II errors and the probability of early stopping. We considered: 1) estimation of the event proportion based on subjects who have been followed for a pre-specified time (less than the full follow-up duration) or who experienced the outcome; 2) estimation of the event proportion based on data from all subjects that have been randomized by the time of the interim analysis; and 3) the Kaplan-Meier approach to estimate the event proportion at the time of the interim analysis. Our results show that all methods preserve and have comparable type I and II errors in certain scenarios. In these cases, we recommend using the Kaplan-Meier method because it incorporates all the available data and has greater probability of early stopping when the treatment effect exists.

  3. Gifted Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeister, Kristie Speirs; Burney, Virginia Hays

    2012-01-01

    Faced with significant budget challenges, many districts cannot afford to hire an outside consultant to conduct a formal evaluation of their gifted programs. As an interim solution, districts may wish to conduct their own in-house program evaluation. "Gifted Program Evaluation: A Handbook for Administrators and Coordinators" is designed to assist…

  4. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  5. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.

    1999-03-18

    The SRS Interim Sanitary Landfill opened in Mid-1992 and operated until 1998 under Domestic Waste Permit No. 025500-1120. Several contaminants have been detected in the groundwater beneath the unit.The well sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Procedure 3Q5, Hydrogeologic Data Collection.

  6. Single Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VLADIMIROFF, D.T.; BOYLES, V.C.

    2000-05-22

    This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  7. 40 CFR 266.103 - Interim status standards for burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.103... boiler or industrial furnace that on or before August 21, 1991 is either in operation burning or... a boiler or industrial furnace is located at a facility that already has a permit or interim...

  8. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-12-27

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository.

  9. ASPECTS CONCERNING INTERIM FINANCIAL REPORTING IN ROMANIA: STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristita Rotila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms employed for the communication of accounting information that is necessary for users in their economic decision-making process consist of the financial statements of an entity. All legal entities, no matter the domain of their activity, have the obligation to draw up annual financial statements for every completed financial year. For certain categories of entities, reporting obligations are also required for periods other than the annual reporting, throughout the financial year. It is the case of interim financial reporting. At the level of the international accounting framework, the aspects related to interim financial reporting are the subject of a separate standard, namely, IAS 34 Interim Financial Reporting. In Romania, the current system of accounting regulations concerning the annual financial statements comprises accounting regulations that comply with the European directives and which apply to the various categories of entities, on the one hand and, on the other, accounting regulations in line with the IFRS, which are applicable to other classes of entities from certain activity sectors. The accounting regulations that apply to each category refer to, among other things, the contents and the format of financial statements that have to be presented. Analysing the system of norms and regulations, this article identifies the requirements concerning interim financial reporting in Romania, with reference to the different types of entities.

  10. Building an Interim Assessment System: A Workbook for School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    As someone with a stake in a school district's systems, a person probably does not have all the answers around what is necessary to build an effective interim assessment system. Neither does this workbook. But it is intended to have the right questions. More precisely, this workbook contains the vision, infrastructure, and resource questions…

  11. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a... chapter. (b) Insurance risks. Insurance risks covered by the terms of the standard form of war risk hull... insurance additional to the war risk hull insurance provided under this subpart, and payment of claim......

  12. System architecture for the Canadian interim mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatmadar, M.; Gordon, K.; Skerry, B.; Eldamhougy, H.; Bossler, D.

    1988-05-01

    The system architecture for the Canadian Interim Mobile Satellite Service (IMSS) which is planned for commencement of commercial service in late 1989 is reviewed. The results of an associated field trial program which was carried out to determine the limits of coverage and the preliminary performance characteristics of the system are discussed.

  13. 17 CFR 210.8-03 - Interim financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... presented in the annual financial statements that exceeds 20% of sales or gross revenues, provision for... accounting principles or practices. (Financial institutions should substitute net interest income for sales... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim financial...

  14. Penalty Inflation Adjustments for Civil Money Penalties. Interim Final Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-27

    In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, and further amended by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, section 701: Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act Improvements Act of 2015, this interim final rule incorporates the penalty inflation adjustments for the civil money penalties contained in the Social Security Act

  15. Robust Clamping Force Control of an Electro-Mechanical Brake System for Application to Commercial City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjune Eum

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sensor-less robust force control method for improving the control performance of an electro-mechanical brake (EMB which is applicable to commercial city buses. The EMB generates the accurate clamping force commanded by a driver through an independent motor control at each wheel instead of using existing mechanical components. In general, an EMB undergoes parameter variation and a backdrivability problem. For this reason, the cascade control strategy (e.g., force-position cascade control structure is proposed and the disturbance observer is employed to enhance control robustness against model variations. Additionally, this paper proposed the clamping force estimation method for a sensor-less control, i.e., the clamping force observer (CFO. Finally, in order to confirm the performance and effectiveness of a proposed robust control method, several experiments are performed and analyzed.

  16. Real-world operation conditions and on-road emissions of Beijing diesel buses measured by using portable emission measurement system and electric low-pressure impactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Johnson, Kent C; Shah, Asad Naeem; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao

    2011-03-15

    On-road measurement is an effective method to investigate real-world emissions generated from vehicles and estimate the difference between engine certification cycles and real-world operating conditions. This study presents the results of on-road measurements collected from urban buses which propelled by diesel engine in Beijing city. Two widely used Euro III emission level buses and two Euro IV emission level buses were chosen to perform on-road emission measurements using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous pollutant and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for particulate matter (PM) number emissions. The results indicate that considerable discrepancies of engine operating conditions between real-world driving cycles and engine certification cycles have been observed. Under real-world operating conditions, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions can easily meet their respective regulations limits, while brake specification nitrogen oxide (bsNO(x)) emissions present a significant deviation from its corresponding limit. Compared with standard limits, the real-world bsNO(x) emission of the two Euro III emission level buses approximately increased by 60% and 120% respectively, and bsNO(x) of two Euro IV buses nearly twice standard limits because Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system not active under low exhaust temperature. Particle mass were estimated via particle size distribution with the assumption that particle density and diameter is liner. The results demonstrate that nanometer size particulate matter make significant contribution to total particle number but play a minor role to total particle mass. It is suggested that specific certified cycle should be developed to regulate bus engines emissions on the test bench or use PEMS to control the bus emissions under real-world operating conditions.

  17. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  18. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  19. Comparison of conditional bias-adjusted estimators for interim analysis in clinical trials with survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Masashi; Gosho, Masahiko; Hirakawa, Akihiro

    2017-02-17

    Group sequential designs are widely used in clinical trials to determine whether a trial should be terminated early. In such trials, maximum likelihood estimates are often used to describe the difference in efficacy between the experimental and reference treatments; however, these are well known for displaying conditional and unconditional biases. Established bias-adjusted estimators include the conditional mean-adjusted estimator (CMAE), conditional median unbiased estimator, conditional uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimator (CUMVUE), and weighted estimator. However, their performances have been inadequately investigated. In this study, we review the characteristics of these bias-adjusted estimators and compare their conditional bias, overall bias, and conditional mean-squared errors in clinical trials with survival endpoints through simulation studies. The coverage probabilities of the confidence intervals for the four estimators are also evaluated. We find that the CMAE reduced conditional bias and showed relatively small conditional mean-squared errors when the trials terminated at the interim analysis. The conditional coverage probability of the conditional median unbiased estimator was well below the nominal value. In trials that did not terminate early, the CUMVUE performed with less bias and an acceptable conditional coverage probability than was observed for the other estimators. In conclusion, when planning an interim analysis, we recommend using the CUMVUE for trials that do not terminate early and the CMAE for those that terminate early. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  1. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives. (JGB)

  2. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  3. EAPD interim seminar and workshop in Brussels May 9 2015

    OpenAIRE

    van Loveren, C.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim This was to collect information for the 9th European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry Interim Seminar and Workshops to discuss the state of art on non-invasive caries therapy to be used if possible to formulate clinical guidelines by European experts in paediatric dentistry Methods Based on systematic reviews and additional papers were assessed for methods to prevent caries initiation and caries progression both in the state of pre-cavitation and cavitation without invasive technologies. R...

  4. 105-H Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Ison

    2008-11-08

    The following information documents the decontamination and decommissioning of the 105-H Reactor facility, and placement of the reactor core into interim safe storage. The D&D of the facility included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and restoration of the site. The ISS work also included construction of the safe storage enclosure, which required the installation of a new roofing system, power and lighting, a remote monitoring system, and ventilation components.

  5. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-17

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste.

  6. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  7. Uncertainty in particle number modal analysis during transient operation of compressed natural gas, diesel, and trap-equipped diesel transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Qu, Yingge

    2004-04-15

    The relationships between transient vehicle operation and ultrafine particle emissions are not well-known, especially for low-emission alternative bus technologies such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel buses equipped with particulate filters/traps (TRAP). In this study, real-time particle number concentrations measured on a nominal 5 s average basis using an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for these two bus technologies are compared to that of a baseline catalyst-equipped diesel bus operated on ultralow sulfur fuel (BASE) using dynamometer testing. Particle emissions were consistently 2 orders of magnitude lower for the CNG and TRAP compared to BASE on all driving cycles. Time-resolved total particle numbers were examined in terms of sampling factors identified as affecting the ability of ELPI to quantify the particulate matter number emissions for low-emitting vehicles such as CNG and TRAP as a function of vehicle driving mode. Key factors were instrument sensitivity and dilution ratio, alignment of particle and vehicle operating data, sampling train background particles, and cycle-to-cycle variability due to vehicle, engine, after-treatment, or driver behavior. In-cycle variability on the central business district (CBD) cycle was highest for the TRAP configuration, but this could not be attributed to the ELPI sensitivity issues observed for TRAP-IDLE measurements. Elevated TRAP emissions coincided with low exhaust temperature, suggesting on-road real-world particulate filter performance can be evaluated by monitoring exhaust temperature. Nonunique particle emission maps indicate that measures other than vehicle speed and acceleration are necessary to model disaggregated real-time particle emissions. Further testing on a wide variety of test cycles is needed to evaluate the relative importance of the time history of vehicle operation and the hysteresis of the sampling train/dilution tunnel on ultrafine particle emissions. Future studies should

  8. 佛山市发展公交车尾气削减潜力分析%Emission Reduction Potentiality by Developing Buses in Foshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包艳萍; 刘永红; 黄建彰; 徐伟嘉

    2013-01-01

    Emission factors of buses, motorcycles and passenger cars of Foshan City, Guangdong Province were calculated with COPERT Ⅳ model integrated with information regarding amounts and annual mileages, case analysis was done for their emission, environmental effects and emissions reduction potentiality of buses.Results indicated that buses emission in Foshan in 2011 was 804.57 t CO,283.85 t VOC,3 365.32 t NOx and 73.00 t PM.Emissions of CO and VOC of buses were less than that of motorcycles and passenger cars, but emission of NOx was more.Emission of buses for one person travelling one kilometer would decrease by 32.00%,51.43% and 57.50% by increasing the number of passengers from 17 to 25,35 and 45.Annual emissions could be reduced by 611.66 t CO, 151.6 t VOC, 1,231.18 t NOx and 58.39 t PM respectively by changing all the emission standard of diesel buses from lower to Euro Ⅳ.Annual emissions could be reduced by 293.71 t CO, 2 086.87 t NOx and 70.34 t PM by changing diesel buses to environmentally-friendly vehicle (EEV) CNG buses, but annual emissions of VOC increased by 228.01 t.%采用COPERTⅣ模型计算佛山市公交车、摩托车和小型客车排放因子,结合保有量、年平均行驶里程计算其排放量,对佛山市公交车出行环境效果及尾气削减潜力进行情景分析.结果表明:2011年佛山市公交车CO 、VOC 、NOx和PM的排放量为804.57、283.85、3 365.32和73.00 t.单人单次公交车出行CO和VOC的排放量较摩托车和小型客车低,但NOx则较高.公交车载客人数从17人上升至25、35、45人,单人单次出行每公里排放量分别下降32.00%、51.43%和57.50%.佛山市低排放标准的柴油公交车全部更换成国Ⅳ排放标准柴油车、CO、VOC、NOx和PM的年排放量分别削减611.66、151.6、1 231.18和58.39 t.EEV标准天然气公交车替代柴油公交车可减少NOx和PM的排放,但对VOC的削减并无优势.佛山市现有柴油公交车更换

  9. Preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter; Etude preliminaire d`un reseau de terrain pour le systeme de controle des hautes tensions du calorimetre hadronique d`Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevet, F.; Chadelas, R.; Montarou, G.

    1996-12-31

    We present here after a preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the photomultipliers of the TILECAL calorimeter. After some generalities, different commercial buses are reviewed (CAN, ARCET, WorldFIP, Profibus and LonWorks). The Profibus and LonWorks solution are more extensively studies as a possible solution for the high voltage system of the TILE hadronic calorimeter. (authors).

  10. Technological capability assessment of suppliers to support product development: case study on a buses and coaches manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Comerlato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management has become a critical issue in the global collaboration scenario. Suppliers are not expected to provide just commodities or pre-defined components, but also collaborative engineering design solutions within the product development cycle. Thus, the selection criteria for defining supply partner go beyond the production and logistic capabilities, but must also include technical and engineering competence. This, in some sense, can be considered a common scenario of big companies, but is still challenging when dealing with SME´s. This work discusses how SME´s can be included in a supply chains taking in consideration a set of parameters to assess their technical competence related to product development collaboration. A set of eight parameters has been proposed to assess the engineering team competence, physical and technological structure and further legal responsibility. For each parameter values and weights were defined also. The assessment was applied to three companies that are suppliers of a buses and coaches manufacturer from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The results show that even when dealing with objective parameters, the suppliers and costumer can have different perceptions about same issues.

  11. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2009-08-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fifth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from October 2008 through June 2009. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous four evaluation reports.

  12. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fourth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from April 2008 through October 2008. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous three evaluation reports.

  13. Environmental survey of two interim dumpsites, Middle Atlantic Bight from 05 November 1973 to 10 November 1973 (NODC Accession 7501280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A second oceanographic survey cruise was made to an interim municipal sludge dumpsite and initially to an interim dumpsite for the disposal of industrial acid waste...

  14. 32 CFR 643.36 - Policy-Interim leasing of excess properties to facilitate economic readjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Interim leasing of excess properties to facilitate economic readjustment. 643.36 Section 643.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.36 Policy—Interim leasing of...

  15. 77 FR 15997 - Interim Procedures for Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Interim Procedures for Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and... AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Notice of interim procedures... the procedures the Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements (``CITA'' or ``the...

  16. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  17. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-06-02

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  18. Interim storage of wastes and refuse derived fuels; Zwischenlagerung von Abfaellen und Ersatzbrennstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, K.J.; Versteyl, A.; Beckmann, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    Authors comment on interim storage of municipal wastes and refuse derived fuels. Topics of the 16 contributions are: Logistics and engineering, planning, estimation of storage time, cost and commitment, amend ment of the regulations, penal risks of interim storage, material flow management at waste incinerators, fire prevention, environmental risk, insurances. (uke)

  19. The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia Rafiullah; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2013-01-01

    Interim assessments are increasingly common in U.S. schools. We use high-quality data from a large-scale school-level cluster randomized experiment to examine the impact of two well-known commercial interim assessment programs on mathematics and reading achievement in Indiana. Results indicate that the treatment effects are positive but not…

  20. 78 FR 56750 - Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is issuing for use of, and to solicit public comment on, draft...

  1. 76 FR 59119 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it has released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1. The...

  2. Effects of Interim Assessments on the Achievement Gap: Evidence from an Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, all states operate accountability systems that measure and report school and student performance annually. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of interim assessments on the achievement gap. The authors examine the impact of interim assessments throughout the…

  3. NDRC Released the Interim Measures on Voluntary Emission Reductions of GHG Trading and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    National Development and Reform Commission issued the Interim Measures on Voluntary Emission Reduction of GHG Trading and Management (hereafter referred to as" Interim Measures") on June, 13th, 2012, which is formulated to encourage project-based voluntary emission reductions and ensure the proper operation of trading activities.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 265, App. III Appendix III to Part 265—EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards Parameter Maximum level (mg/l) Arsenic 0.05 Barium 1.0 Cadmium 0.01 Chromium...

  5. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis July 2012...WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT If a Bacillus anthracis incident occurs in the United States or within its territories, the public health and

  6. Effects of Interim Assessments across the Achievement Distribution: Evidence From an Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia R.; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a large-scale experiment conducted in Indiana in 2009-2010 to examine the impact of two interim assessment programs (mCLASS and Acuity) across the mathematics and reading achievement distributions. Specifically, we focus on whether the use of interim assessments has a particularly strong effect on improving outcomes for low…

  7. TropFlux: air-sea fluxes for the global tropical oceans-description and evaluation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PraveenKumar, B.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Murty, V.S.N.; McPhaden, M.J.

    This paper evaluates several timely, daily air-sea heat flux products (NCEP, NCEP2, ERA-Interim and OAFlux/ISCCP) against observations and present the newly developed TropFlux product. This new product uses bias-corrected ERA-interim and ISCCP data...

  8. 77 FR 55232 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-03; Compliance With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... COMMISSION Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-03; Compliance With...: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff... Final Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate (JLD) Interim Staff Guidance (ISG),...

  9. 77 FR 55231 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-02; Compliance With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... COMMISSION Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-02; Compliance With...: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate interim staff... Final Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance (JLD-ISG),...

  10. 76 FR 56114 - Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  11. 76 FR 35922 - Interim Staff Guidance Regarding the Environmental Report for Applications To Construct and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...: 2011-15227] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0135] Interim Staff Guidance Regarding the...: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Interim staff guidance; request for public comment. SUMMARY: The U... Interim Staff Guidance (ISG), NPR-ISG-2011-001, ``Staff Guidance Regarding the Environmental Report...

  12. 76 FR 56116 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  13. 75 FR 2557 - Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has developed an interim policy for the access and sharing of information... reach the Docket Management Facility by that date. ADDRESSES: This notice and the interim policy...

  14. 77 FR 24857 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  15. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    NASA has developed a set of 14 draft roadmaps to guide the development of space technologies under the leadership of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Each of these roadmaps focuses on a particular technology area (TA). The roadmaps are intended to foster the development of advanced technologies and concepts that address NASA's needs and contribute to other aerospace and national needs. OCT requested that the National Research Council conduct a study to review the draft roadmaps, gather and assess relevant community input, and make recommendations and suggest priorities to inform NASA's decisions as it finalizes its roadmaps. The statement of task states that "based on the results of the community input and its own deliberations, the steering committee will prepare a brief interim report that addresses high-level issues associated with the roadmaps, such as the advisability of modifying the number or technical focus of the draft NASA roadmaps." This interim report, which does not include formal recommendations, addresses that one element of the study charge. NASA requested this interim report so that it would have the opportunity to make an early start in modifying the draft roadmaps based on feedback from the panels and steering committee. The final report will address all other tasks in the statement of task. In particular, the final report will include a prioritization of technologies, will describe in detail the prioritization process and criteria, and will include specific recommendations on a variety of topics, including many of the topics mentioned in this interim report. In developing both this interim report and the final report to come, the steering committee draws on the work of six study panels organized by technical area, loosely following the organization of the 14 roadmaps, as follows: A Panel 1: Propulsion and Power TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems TA02 In-Space Propulsion Technologies TA03 Space Power and Energy Storage Systems TA13

  16. The PDF4LHC Working Group Interim Report

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, Sergey; Ball, Richard D; Bertone, Valerio; Blumlein, Johannes; Botje, Michiel; Butterworth, Jon; Cerutti, Francesco; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Del Debbio, Luigi; Feltesse, Joel; Forte, Stefano; Glazov, Alexander; Guffanti, Alberto; Gwenlan, Claire; Huston, Joey; Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro; Lai, Hung-Liang; Latorre, Jose I; McNulty, Ronan; Nadolsky, Pavel; Moch, Sven-Olaf; Pumplin, Jon; Radescu, Voica; Rojo, Juan; Sjostrand, Torbjorn; Stirling, W J; Stump, Daniel; Thorne, Robert S; Ubiali, Maria; Vicini, Alessandro; Watt, Graeme; Yuan, C -P

    2011-01-01

    This document is intended as a study of benchmark cross sections at the LHC (at 7 TeV) at NLO using modern parton distribution functions currently available from the 6 PDF fitting groups that have participated in this exercise. It also contains a succinct user guide to the computation of PDFs, uncertainties and correlations using available PDF sets. A companion note, also submitted to the archive, provides an interim summary of the current recommendations of the PDF4LHC working group for the use of parton distribution functions and of PDF uncertainties at the LHC, for cross section and cross section uncertainty calculations.

  17. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-09-12

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  18. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1996-09-16

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single- and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and its performance as early as possible in the project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  19. US PRACTICE FOR INTERIM WET STORAGE OF RRSNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.

    2010-08-05

    Aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the United States and stored at Department of Energy storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper summarizes the current practices to provide for continued safe interim wet storage in the U.S. Aluminum fuel stored in poor quality water is subject to aggressive corrosion attack and therefore water chemistry control systems are essential to maintain water quality. Fuel with minor breaches are safely stored directly in the basin. Fuel pieces and heavily damaged fuel is safely stored in isolation canisters.

  20. AN INTERIM THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY FORMULATION FOR SUPERCRITICAL n-HEXANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzedine Abbaci

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information on the thermodynamic properties of supercritical fluids is highly sought for the chemical technology, especially, supercritical extraction technology. The thermodynamic properties of fluids near the critical region are strongly affected by the presence of fluctuations and therefore, can not be described by conventional equation. We have investigated an interim formulation for the behavior of the thermodynamic properties of n-hexane in the vicinity of the critical region. For this reason we have used the so-called “crossover model” to describe the thermodynamic properties of n-hexane in a wide range of temperatures and densities around the critical point.

  1. Dosimetry at an interim storage for spent nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králík, M; Kulich, V; Studeny, J; Pokorny, P

    2007-01-01

    The Czech nuclear power plant Dukovany started its operation in 1985. All fuel spent from 1985 up to the end of 2005 is stored at a dry interim storage, which was designed for 60 CASTOR-440/84 casks. Each of these casks can accommodate 84 fuel assemblies from VVER 440 reactors. Neutron-photon mixed fields around the casks were characterized in terms of ambient dose equivalent measured by standard area dosemeters. Except this, neutron spectra were measured by means of a Bonner sphere spectrometer, and the measured spectra were used to derive the corresponding ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons.

  2. Interim data monitoring to enroll higher-risk participants in HIV prevention trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umo-Otong John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower-than-expected incidence of HIV undermines sample size calculations and compromises the power of a HIV prevention trial. We evaluated the effectiveness of interim monitoring of HIV infection rates and on-going modification of recruitment strategies to enroll women at higher risk of HIV in the Cellulose Sulfate Phase III study in Nigeria. Methods We analyzed prevalence and incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, demographic and sexual behavior characteristics aggregated over the treatment groups on a quarterly basis. The site investigators were advised on their recruitment strategies based on the findings of the interim analyses. Results A total of 3619 women were screened and 1644 enrolled at the Ikeja and Apapa clinics in Lagos, and at the Central and Peripheral clinics in Port Harcourt. Twelve months after study initiation, the overall incidence of HIV was less than one-third of the pre-study assumption, with rates of HIV that varied substantially between clinics. Due to the low prevalence and incidence rates of HIV, it was decided to close the Ikeja clinic in Lagos and to find new catchment areas in Port Harcourt. This strategy was associated with an almost two-fold increase in observed HIV incidence during the second year of the study. Conclusion Given the difficulties in estimating HIV incidence, a close monitoring of HIV prevalence and incidence rates during a trial is warranted. The on-going modification of recruitment strategies based on the regular analysis of HIV rates appeared to be an efficient method for targeting populations at greatest risk of HIV infection and increasing study power in the Nigeria trial. Trial Registration The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov registry under #NCT00120770 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00120770

  3. ERA-Interim forced H-TESSEL and WRF schemes for modeling ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M. J.; Dutra, E.; Vieira, G.; Miranda, P.; Fragoso, M.; Ramos, M.

    2009-04-01

    Permafrost is central to the carbon cycle and to the climate system and is recognized by the WCRP/WMO as a key element of the Earth System in which research efforts should focus. Compared with the Arctic, very little is known about the distribution, thickness, and properties of permafrost in the Antarctic. The main reason for this is the scarce network of permafrost temperature monitoring boreholes, as well as the short number of active layer monitoring sites. According to the IPCC in the last decades regions underlain by permafrost have been reduced in extent, and a warming of the ground has been observed in many areas. This study focus on Livingston and Deception Islands (South Shetlands), located in the Antarctic Peninsula region, one of the Earth's regions where warming has been more significant in the last 50 years. Our work is integrated in a project focusing on studying the influence of climate change on permafrost temperatures, which includes systematic and long-term terrain monitoring and also modeling using mesoscale meteorological models. A significant contribution will be the evaluation of the possibilities for using the mesoscale modeling approaches to other areas of the Antarctic Peninsula where no data exist on permafrost temperatures. Climate variability of the Antarctic Peninsula region was studied using the new reanalysis product from ECMWF Era-Interim and observational data from meteorological monitoring sites and boreholes run by our group. Monthly and annual cycles of near surface climate variables are compared. The modeling approach includes the H-TESSEL (Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land) and the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting), both forced with ERA-Interim for modeling ground temperatures in the study region. Simulations of both land surface and mesoscale models are compared with the observational data of soil temperatures. Preliminary results are presented and show that our approach can provide a good tool

  4. Early interim 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is prognostically superior to international prognostic score in advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: a report from a joint Italian-Danish study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Annika; Gallamini, Andrea; Hutchings, Martin

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Starting from November 2001, 260 newly diagnosed patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) were consecutively enrolled in parallel Italian and Danish prospective trials to evaluate the prognostic role of an early interim 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG...

  5. Willingness to Pay and Public Acceptance for Hydrogen Buses: A Case Study of Perugia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bigerna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transportation is characterized by a positive externality on the environment, health, social security, land use and social inclusion. The increasing interest in global warming has caused attention to be paid to the introduction of the hydrogen bus (H2B. When introducing new environmental technologies, such as H2B, it is often necessary to assess the environmental benefits related to this new technology. However, such benefits are typically non-priced due to their public good nature. Therefore, we have to address this problem using the contingent valuation (CV method. This method has been developed within environmental economics as a means to economically assess environmental changes, which are typically not traded in the market. So far, several big cities have been analyzed to evaluate the perceived benefit related to H2B introduction, but to the best of our knowledge, no one has performed a CV analysis of a historical city where smog also damages historical buildings. This paper presents the results obtained using a multi-wave survey. We have investigated user preferences to elicit their willingness to pay for H2B introduction in Perugia, taking into account all types of negative externalities due to the traffic pollution. The results confirm that residents in Perugia are willing to pay extra to support the introduction of H2B.

  6. Climate change : we are at risk : interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, D.; Wiebe, J.

    2003-06-01

    Between November 2002 and May 2003 the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry travelled across Canada to hear the views of farmer organizations, rural associations, ecotourism groups and environmental organizations regarding concerns about climate change and the impact it may have on the agriculture and forestry sectors and rural communities. The Committee also examined potential adaptation strategies focusing on primary production, practices, technologies, ecosystems and other related areas. Farmers and forest operators are already facing changes in market conditions, domestic regulations, trade policies and technology. This interim report expressed the concerns of farmers and forest operators. It includes a review of the Saguenay flood of 1996, the Red River flood of 1997, the ice storm of 1998, and droughts since 1999. It also includes a discussion on climate change and its biophysical and economic effects on agriculture, forestry, water resources, rural communities, and Aboriginal communities. This interim report also briefly outlines the Kyoto Protocol, the emissions trading system, and the decarbonization of global energy systems. It emphasized the need for integrated research and government policies and programs that encourage adaptation to climate change. The final report will be released in October 2003 and will provide specific recommendations to ensure that Canada responds to the concerns of farmers and forest operators and to ensure continued prosperity in these sectors. refs., figs.

  7. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rzyski, B.M. [IPEN/ CNEN-SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2006-07-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  8. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  9. Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1984-01-31

    This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

  10. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina (ed.) [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    This report describes the work with identification and structuring of features, events and processes (FEPs) that has been carried out within the scope of the SR-Can safety assessment up to the time of the interim reporting of the project. The overall objective of the work is to develop a database of features, events and processes in a format that would facilitate both a systematic analysis of FEPs and documentation of the FEP analysis as well as facilitate revisions and updates to be made in connection with new safety assessments. This overall objective also includes the development of procedures for a systematic FEP analysis as well as to apply these procedures in order to arrive at an SR-Can version of the FEP database. The work started by implementing the content of the SR 97 Process report into a database format suitable for import and processing of FEP information from other sources. The SR 97 version of the database was systematically audited against the NEA database with Project FEPs, version 1.2. In addition, an earlier audit of the SR 97 process report against the interaction matrices developed for a deep repository of the KBS-3 type was revisited and updated. Relevant FEPs from the audit were sorted into three main categories in the SR-Can database i) FEPs related to the initial states of the repository system, ii) FEPs related to internal processes of the repository system, and iii) FEPs related to external impacts on the repository system. These groups of FEPs were further processed for making decisions on how to handle these FEPs in the assessment. Biosphere processes were not included in the SR 97 Process report and there is thus not the same basis for updating these descriptions as for the engineered barriers and the geosphere. All biosphere FEPs from the audit have therefore been compiled in a single category in the database, but remain to be further handled. FEPs were also categorised as irrelevant or as being related to methodology on a general

  12. The interim test effect: testing prior material can facilitate the learning of new material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A; Pyc, Mary A

    2011-12-01

    A wealth of prior research has shown that testing can improve subsequent learning of the initially tested material. In contrast, only one recent study has shown that an interim test over prior material can improve learning of subsequent new material (i.e., an interim-test effect). Five experiments replicated and extended this initial work by exploring the extent to which interim test effects generalize to complex text material. Participants were prompted to recall each section of an expository text before moving on to study the next section, or were only prompted to recall after the final section. In all experiments, recall of the final, target section was greater when prior sections had received interim tests versus no interim tests. Experiment 3 established that the effect was due to interim testing in particular rather than to intervening activity in general. Experiment 4 established that the effect was not due to test expectancy differences. In contrast to prior research, Experiment 4 also provided evidence that the effect is not due to release from proactive interference. We discuss other possible mechanisms underlying interim-test effects with text, including shifting to more effective encoding strategies.

  13. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The evaluation period in this report (January 2008 through February 2009) has been chosen to coincide with a UTC Power propulsion system changeout that occurred on January 15, 2008.

  14. Taxol (paclitaxel) in patients with metastatic breast carcinoma who have failed prior chemotherapy: interim results of a multinational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, M

    1994-10-01

    A multinational, randomized study has been conducted to compare the effectiveness and safety of two doses of Taxol (paclitaxel) (135 and 175 mg/m2, given as a 3-hour intravenous infusion every 3 weeks) in patients with metastatic breast carcinoma who had previously undergone treatment with one or two chemotherapeutic regimens. A total of 471 patients were enrolled in the study; the first 117 were included in an interim analysis that was planned in the protocol to identify any extreme efficacy differences between the treatment arms. Most (85%) of these initial patients were ambulatory with a performance status of 0 or 1 and multiple sites of disease. Duration of treatment ranged from 1 to 7 courses (median, 4). Of the 113 patients who received Taxol 135 mg/m2 (n = 56) or 175 mg/m2 (n = 57), 111 were evaluable for an overall response rate of 27%, with 3 complete and 27 partial responses. In this interim analysis no significant difference in response rate between the two treatment groups was detected. The primary toxicity encountered was neutropenia that was rapidly reversible and not associated with treatment delays. It was concluded that at these doses Taxol is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for the management of metastatic breast cancer in previously treated patients.

  15. Interim analysis based on the weighted log-rank test for delayed treatment effects under staggered patient entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mizuki; Matsuyama, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Fleming and Harrington's G(ρ,γ) class of weighted log-rank tests is appropriate for detecting delayed treatment effects such as those seen in cancer vaccines. A conditional power (CP) and an alpha spending function (ASF) approach are useful for interim analyses that are conducted with the aim of early termination due to futility and efficacy, respectively. However, calculation of the CP and the total Type I error probability are often not considered for delayed effects under the staggered patient entry. In this article, we first propose methods for calculating the CP analytically based on the weighted log-rank test. We compared the performances of the proposed methods with two other methods (i.e., usual log-rank test and optimal one) under the delayed alternatives. Our simulations demonstrated that the CP based on the weighted log-rank test was more powerful than that of the usual log-rank test and was comparable to the CP based on the optimal log-rank test. Second, we quantitatively evaluated the degree to which the Type I error probability was inflated when an ASF approach with forced independent increments assumption was applied to the weighted log-rank test. The proposed method will provide valuable tools in the decision-making stage of the interim analysis.

  16. Alternative Energy Busing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  17. Buses, Bikes or Boots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEAL

    2010-01-01

    @@ If you have been in Beijing for any length of time, you will have come to realize that there are several modes of trans-portation available to commuters, all of them relatively inexpensive, especially when compared to fares in the Western world. The choice is not only a matter of frugality, but also of convenience, comfort and speed.

  18. Making the Buses Run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues concerning outsourcing student transportation services: cost; management needs and capabilities; goals; and politics. Critical areas of transportation management are highlighted such as personnel management, student management and discipline, risk management, fleet analysis, and routing and scheduling. (GR)

  19. The Interim : until you achieve an operationally responsive ground system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Bob; Clarke, Kelly; Lei, Jordan; Miyamoto, Charles; Owen-Mankovich, Kyran

    2008-01-01

    Everyone wants to achieve a 'Responsive' Ground Data System (GDS), but that takes time. What do you do in the interim? Our group, called the Integration, Test and Deployment Team (ITD), is a group of responsive engineers whose primary focus is to assist JPL projects to successfully adapt, test, integrate and deploy their ground data system. The team configures and adapts the GDS for a project, so that analysts, engineers and scientist do not need to be experts in the GDS to operate it. The team has developed a human interface to accommodate all types of users. It provides Graphical User Interfaces (GUI's) for those that want GUI's, command line interfaces for those that want control, and selection button interfaces for other users. The cornerstone of a responsive Ground Data System is responsive people. Without individuals who can be aware of a project's changing needs and requirements, how can the GDS become responsive

  20. Radiation analysis for a generic centralized interim storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, S.G.; Lopez, P. [TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., Vienna, VA (United States); Eble, R.G. [Duke Engineering and Services, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper documents the radiation analysis performed for the storage area of a generic Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The purpose of the analysis is to establish the CISF Protected Area and Restricted Area boundaries by modeling a representative SNF storage array, calculating the radiation dose at selected locations outside the storage area, and comparing the results with regulatory radiation dose limits. The particular challenge for this analysis is to adequately model a large (6000 cask) storage array with a reasonable amount of analysis time and effort. Previous analyses of SNF storage systems for Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations at nuclear plant sites (for example in References 5.1 and 5.2) had only considered small arrays of storage casks. For such analyses, the dose contribution from each storage cask can be modeled individually. Since the large number of casks in the CISF storage array make such an approach unrealistic, a simplified model is required.

  1. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-07-25

    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions.

  2. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Lee

    2005-09-15

    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  3. Interim report for defining brine and oil threats in the Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge [2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following interim report is a list of activities being performed in conjunction with the study of oil brine effects on crayfish in the Patoka River National...

  4. LANDFILLS AS BIOREACTORS: RESEARH AT THE OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY; FIRST INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interim report resulting from a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between US EP A's Officeof Research and Development - National Risk Management Research Laboratory and a n ongoing field demonstrationof municipal waste landfills being operated as bioreact...

  5. Flammable gas deflagration consequence calculations for the tankwaste remediation system basis for interim operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-23

    This paper calculates the radiological dose consequences and the toxic exposures for deflagration accidents at various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities. These will be used in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System Basis for Interim Operation.

  6. Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge : Environmental Action Statement, Environmental Assessment, Interim Hunting and Fishing Plan : 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains the Environmental Action Statement, Environmental Assessment, and Interim Hunting and Fishing Plan for Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge from...

  7. LHC HXSWG interim recommendations to explore the coupling structure of a Higgs-like particle

    CERN Document Server

    David, A; Duehrssen, M; Grazzini, M; Grojean, C; Passarino, G; Schumacher, M; Spira, M; Weiglein, G; Zanetti, M

    2012-01-01

    This document presents an interim framework in which the coupling structure of a Higgs-like particle can be studied. After discussing different options and approximations, recommendations on specific benchmark parametrizations to be used to fit the data are given.

  8. Quantitative Framework for Retrospective Assessment of Interim Decisions in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, Roger

    2016-11-01

    This article presents a quantitative way of modeling the interim decisions of clinical trials. While statistical approaches tend to focus on the epistemic aspects of statistical monitoring rules, often overlooking ethical considerations, ethical approaches tend to neglect the key epistemic dimension. The proposal is a second-order decision-analytic framework. The framework provides means for retrospective assessment of interim decisions based on a clear and consistent set of criteria that combines both ethical and epistemic considerations. The framework is broadly Bayesian and addresses a fundamental question behind many concerns about clinical trials: What does it take for an interim decision (e.g., whether to stop the trial or continue) to be a good decision? Simulations illustrating the modeling of interim decisions counterfactually are provided.

  9. Interim report for defining brine and oil threats in the Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge [2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following interim report is a list of activities being performed in conjunction with the study of oil brine effects on crayfish in the Patoka River National...

  10. Basis for Interim Operation for the K-Reactor in Cold Standby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, B.

    1998-10-19

    The Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) document for K Reactor in Cold Standby and the L- and P-Reactor Disassembly Basins was prepared in accordance with the draft DOE standard for BIO preparation (dated October 26, 1993).

  11. 75 FR 30372 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196 Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority ATC Logistics & Electronics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution); Notice of Approval On March 30, 2010, the Executive... & Electronics, operator of Site 2, FTZ 196, requesting temporary/interim manufacturing (T/IM) authority...

  12. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  13. Will interim storage sites become ultimate storage sites?; Werden aus Zwischenlager Endlager?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W.P. [ia GmbH - Wissensmanagement und Ingenieurleistungen, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    According to a Prognos study, the maximum interim storage capacity required in Germany in 2008 will be 4 - 5 million cubic metres. Interim storage is necessary because there are not sufficient options for disposal. The stored waste will be combusted, so that German incinerators will be capable of running at full capacity until 2013. From mere disposal systems, incinerators are rapidly becoming waste-to-energy systems that will make a contribution to power supply. (orig.)

  14. Controversies on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Hugo J A; Kwee, Thomas C

    2016-12-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma, even in advanced-stage, is a highly curable malignancy, but treatment is associated with short-term toxicity and long-term side effects. Early predictive markers are required to identify those patients who do not require the full-length standard therapy (and thus qualify for therapy de-escalation) and those patients who will not be cured by standard therapy (and thus qualify for therapy escalation). Multiple trials have assessed the value of (18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after a few cycles of chemotherapy (also known as 'interim FDG-PET') in predicting outcome in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. Furthermore, multiple interim FDG-PET-adapted trials, in which patients with positive interim FDG-PET scans are assigned to escalated therapies, and patients with negative interim FDG-PET scans are assigned to de-escalated therapies, have recently been published or are currently ongoing, with generally heterogeneous results. The present article reports the currently available evidence (and controversies) on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with positive and negative interim FDG-PET findings following continuation of standard chemotherapy or escalated/de-escalated therapy.

  15. Interim FDG-PET in Hodgkin lymphoma: a compass for a safe navigation in clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallamini, Andrea; Kostakoglu, Lale

    2012-12-13

    Despite the rewarding results achieved in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), concerns have been raised regarding the long-term complications induced by therapy. Hence, the current challenge is to develop a new therapeutic strategy maintaining excellent patient outcome while reducing potentially life-threatening late adverse effects. Therefore, it would be beneficial to identify chemoresistant or refractory patients early during therapy for appropriate and timely escalation of treatment. Recently, compelling data have emerged on the prognostic role of interim [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) performed early during the course of treatment to predict ultimate outcome, even proving superior to conventional prognostic factors. Several ongoing prospective trials are exploring the feasibility of treatment de-escalation strategies in patients with a negative interim PET, as well as therapy escalation in advanced-stage HL patients who have a positive interim PET result. In this article, the published reports on the contribution of interim PET to the design of ongoing response-adapted clinical trials are reviewed. Moreover, some of the unresolved issues revolving around the suboptimal positive predictive value of interim PET are addressed with an emphasis on the interpretation criteria. A final remark on the appropriate use of interim PET is also provided.

  16. DATA MINING METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL MODEL OF COST PREDICTION IN SHIP INTERIM PRODUCT ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kolich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately predict costs of the thousands of interim products that are assembled in shipyards, it is necessary to use skilled engineers to develop detailed Gantt charts for each interim product separately which takes many hours. It is helpful to develop a prediction tool to estimate the cost of interim products accurately and quickly without the need for skilled engineers. This will drive down shipyard costs and improve competitiveness. Data mining is used extensively for developing prediction models in other industries. Since ships consist of thousands of interim products, it is logical to develop a data mining methodology for a shipyard or any other manufacturing industry where interim products are produced. The methodology involves analysis of existing interim products and data collection. Pre-processing and principal component analysis is done to make the data “user-friendly” for later prediction processing and the development of both accurate and robust models. The support vector machine is demonstrated as the better model when there are a lower number of tuples. However as the number of tuples is increased to over 10000, then the artificial neural network model is recommended.

  17. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  18. Assessment of marginal stability and permeability of an interim restorative endodontic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, R B; Safavi, K E; Spångberg, L S

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the marginal stability and permeability of a new interim restorative endodontic material, Tempit (Centrix Inc., Milford, Conn.), and to compare the findings with the results of two commonly used restorative endodontic materials, Cavit (Premier Dental Products Co., Philadelphia, Pa.) and IRM (Intermediate Restorative Material Capsules, The Caulk Co., Division of Dentsply International Inc., Milford, Del.) This study was performed in several steps. First, the endodontic access cavities were prepared and restored on 80 extracted mandibular molars. The samples were exposed to methylene blue dye solution for 6 days, thermocycled, and sectioned; the dye penetration and diffusion were measured along the margins and into the body of the materials. The second experiment was a special study performed in standardized glass tubes to better evaluate the marginal and body dye penetration into the materials by increasing the length of the fillings. To eliminate the possibility of hygroscopic setting mechanisms of materials, samples were first allowed to set under water before dye was introduced. Cavit and Tempit showed a substantial amount of dye diffusion into the body of the materials. Cavit exhibited the best sealing ability at all times. The marginal and body dye penetration were significantly different for the Tempit material in all experiments than Cavit (p IRM demonstrated the least body penetration of all three materials (p material (p = 0.6 and p = 0.1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Interim Report of the Commission to Review the Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohon, Jared L. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Glauthier, T. J. [TJG Energy Associates, LLC., Bloomberg, VA (United States); Augustine, Norman R. [U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Washington, DC (United States); Austin, Wanda M. [Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA (United States); Elachi, Charles [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Fleury, Paul A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hockfield, Susan J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Meserve, Richard A. [Covington and Burling LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, Cherry A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-27

    The Commission to Review the Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories was charged by Congress in January 2014 to evaluate the mission, capabilities, size, performance, governance, and agency oversight of the 17 Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories. Given the incredibly broad scope and aggressive timeline (the original deadline was February 2015), the Secretary of Energy and Congress agreed to split the task into two phases. This interim report contains the preliminary observations and recommendations gleaned from Phase 1 of the study, which consisted of a literature review; visits to five of the National Laboratories; semi-structured interviews with staff from across the National Laboratories, DOE, other Federal agencies, companies, other non-governmental organizations, and additional interested parties; and presentations at monthly public Commission meetings. The Commission notes that the purpose of the National Laboratories is to provide critical capabilities and facilities in service of DOE’s mission and the needs of the broader national and international science and technology (S&T) community, including other Federal agencies, academia, and private industry. The National Laboratories are successfully fulfilling that mission today. While the Commission believes significant improvements can be made to many aspects of DOE management and governance of the laboratories, those issues do not detract from the National Laboratories’ remarkable contributions to the American public. In Phase 2 the Commission will focus on ways to make the process of carrying out their missions more efficient and effective.

  20. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage.

  1. [Working conditions on public buses and common mental disorders among drivers and fare collectors: Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Silva, Luiz Sérgio da

    2013-12-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) contribute to overall burden of disease. The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of CMD among a sample of bus drivers and fare collectors in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigate whether traffic conditions and conditions inside buses were associated with the outcome. This non-probabilistic sample of 1,607 workers was estimated from the size of the effective workforce (n = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews used a digital questionnaire with online data processing. Overall prevalence of CMD was 23.6%. Bad traffic conditions lost statistical significance in the multivariate analysis, while higher income and adverse working conditions and inadequate safety remained associated with the outcome. Harmful behavior and vulnerable health situations were associated with CMD. This study of urban bus workers' health is a unique contribution that can provide backing for public policies targeting metropolitan populations.

  2. Albany Interim Landfill gas extraction and mobile power system: Using landfill gas to produce electricity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Albany Interim Landfill Gas Extraction and Mobile Power System project served three research objectives: (1) determination of the general efficiency and radius of influence of horizontally placed landfill gas extraction conduits; (2) determination of cost and effectiveness of a hydrogen sulfide gas scrubber utilizing Enviro-Scrub{trademark} liquid reagent; and (3) construction and evaluation of a dual-fuel (landfill gas/diesel) 100 kW mobile power station. The horizontal gas extraction system was very successful; overall, gas recovery was high and the practical radius of influence of individual extractors was about 50 feet. The hydrogen sulfide scrubber was effective and its use appears feasible at typical hydrogen sulfide concentrations and gas flows. The dual-fuel mobile power station performed dependably and was able to deliver smooth power output under varying load and landfill gas fuel conditions.

  3. Combined Modality Treatment for PET-Positive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Favorable Outcomes of Combined Modality Treatment for Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Positive Interim or Postchemotherapy FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halasz, Lia M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jacene, Heather A. [Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Catalano, Paul J. [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Van den Abbeele, Annick D. [Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); LaCasce, Ann [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mauch, Peter M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ng, Andrea K., E-mail: ang@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes of patients treated for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with combined modality therapy based on [{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) response. Methods and Materials: We studied 59 patients with aggressive NHL, who received chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) from 2001 to 2008. Among them, 83% of patients had stage I/II disease. Patients with B-cell lymphoma received R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic T-cell lymphoma received CHOP therapy. Interim and postchemotherapy FDG-PET or FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) scans were performed for restaging. All patients received consolidated involved-field RT. Median RT dose was 36 Gy (range, 28.8-50 Gy). Progression-free survival (PFS) and local control (LC) rates were calculated with and without a negative interim or postchemotherapy FDG-PET scan. Results: Median follow-up was 46.5 months. Thirty-nine patients had negative FDG-PET results by the end of chemotherapy, including 12 patients who had a negative interim FDG-PET scan and no postchemotherapy PET. Twenty patients were FDG-PET-positive, including 7 patients with positive interim FDG-PET and no postchemotherapy FDG-PET scans. The 3-year actuarial PFS rates for patients with negative versus positive FDG-PET scans were 97% and 90%, respectively. The 3-year actuarial LC rates for patients with negative versus positive FDG-PET scans were 100% and 90%, respectively. Conclusions: Patients who had a positive interim or postchemotherapy FDG-PET had a PFS rate of 90% at 3 years after combined modality treatment, suggesting that a large proportion of these patients can be cured with consolidated RT.

  4. DOUBLE TRACKS Test Site interim corrective action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The DOUBLE TRACKS site is located on Range 71 north of the Nellis Air Force Range, northwest of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). DOUBLE TRACKS was the first of four experiments that constituted Operation ROLLER COASTER. On May 15, 1963, weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium were dispersed using 54 kilograms of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. The explosion occurred in the open, 0.3 m above the steel plate. No fission yield was detected from the test, and the total amount of plutonium deposited on the ground surface was estimated to be between 980 and 1,600 grams. The test device was composed primarily of uranium-238 and plutonium-239. The mass ratio of uranium to plutonium was 4.35. The objective of the corrective action is to reduce the potential risk to human health and the environment and to demonstrate technically viable and cost-effective excavation, transportation, and disposal. To achieve these objectives, Bechtel Nevada (BN) will remove soil with a total transuranic activity greater then 200 pCI/g, containerize the soil in ``supersacks,`` transport the filled ``supersacks`` to the NTS, and dispose of them in the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site. During this interim corrective action, BN will also conduct a limited demonstration of an alternative method for excavation of radioactive near-surface soil contamination.

  5. The UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Iglesias Velasco

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The current situation in the Province of Kosovo in the Republic of Serbia within the Yugoslav State became unsustainable in the late 1990´s as a result of the repressive policies of the Serbian authorities toward the Kosovar Albanians. International efforts tofind a peaceful solution to the conflict were unsuccessful, in large measure on account of Serbian intransigence, and the intensification of the conflict with tragic consequences for the Kosovar civilian population led the Atlantic Alliance in the spring of 1999 to a carryout a military intervention of, to say the least, dubious legality under international law, which in turn forced Serbian leaders to bow to the application of the solution worked out by the international community in the Rambouillet Accords and set down in UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999 of June 10, 1999. This resolution provided for two international entities in the province, one a security force (KFOR and the other civilian, the UN Interim Administration Mission (UNMIK. This paper analyzes the mission’s mandate and structure as well as the evolution of the peace process.

  6. Kennedy Space Center Press Site (SWMU 074) Interim Measure Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Interim Measure (IM) activities conducted at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Press Site ("the Press Site"). This facility has been designated as Solid Waste Management Unit 074 under KSC's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action program. The activities were completed as part of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) Area Land Use Controls Implementation Plan (LUCIP) Elimination Project. The purpose of the VAB Area LUCIP Elimination Project was to delineate and remove soil affected with constituents of concern (COCs) that historically resulted in Land Use Controls (LUCs). The goal of the project was to eliminate the LUCs on soil. LUCs for groundwater were not addressed as part of the project and are not discussed in this report. This report is intended to meet the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Corrective Action Management Plan requirement as part of the KSC Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments permit and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) self-implementing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) cleanup requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761.61(a).

  7. On Information Aggregation and Interim Efficiency in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jimenez-Martinez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a population of agents that are engaged in a listening network. The agents wish to match their actions to the true value of some uncertain (exogenous parameter and to the actions of the other agents. Each agent begins with some initial information about the parameter and, in addition, is able to receive further information from their neighbors in the network. I derive a closed expression for the (interim social welfare loss that depends on the initial information structure and on the possible pieces of information that can be gathered under the network. Then, I explore how changes in the network may affect social welfare for extreme levels of complementarity in the agents’ actions. When the level of complementarity is very high, efficiency is achieved regardless of the network structure. For very low levels of complementarity in actions, efficiency can be either associated to more sparse or denser networks, depending on the size of the induced informative gains. The implications of this paper are relevant in security environments where agents are naturally interpreted as analysts who try to forecast the value of a parameter that describes a threat to security.

  8. 33 CFR 96.350 - Interim Document of Compliance certificate: what is it and when can it be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim Document of Compliance certificate: what is it and when can it be used? 96.350 Section 96.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...? § 96.350 Interim Document of Compliance certificate: what is it and when can it be used? (a) An...

  9. 76 FR 61342 - Foreign-Trade Zone 72 Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority Brevini Wind USA, Inc., (Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 72 Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority Brevini Wind USA, Inc., (Wind Turbine Gear Boxes); Notice of Approval On July 14, 2011, the Executive Secretary of the..., grantee of FTZ 72, requesting temporary/interim manufacturing (T/IM) authority, on behalf of Brevini...

  10. 76 FR 63676 - Final Division of Safety Systems Interim Staff Guidance DSS-ISG-2010-01: Staff Guidance Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION Final Division of Safety Systems Interim Staff Guidance DSS-ISG- 2010-01: Staff Guidance Regarding... final Division of Safety Systems Interim Staff Guidance, (DSS-ISG) DSS- ISG-2010-01, ``Staff Guidance... guidance to the NRC staff reviewer to address the increased complexity of recent spent fuel pool...

  11. 77 FR 55230 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-01; Compliance With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... COMMISSION Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-01; Compliance With...-Learned Project Directorate interim staff guidance; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing the Final Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate...

  12. 77 FR 71019 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-04; Guidance on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... COMMISSION Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-04; Guidance on...: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing the Final Japan...

  13. 78 FR 48201 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2013-01; Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2013-01; Guidance for... Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance (JLD-ISG), JLD-ISG-2013-01, ``Guidance for... to http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/isg/japan-lessons-learned.html and refer to...

  14. Interim Testing, Socio-Economic Status, and the Odds of Passing Grade 8 State Tests in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Gerard; Tienken, Christopher H.; Gencarelli, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature pertaining to the effect and influence of commercially-prepared interim assessments in mathematics and language arts literacy reveals a lack of quantitative data to determine the value of these products for school reform. This study examined the ability of commercially-prepared interim pretest and posttest assessments in…

  15. 76 FR 17160 - Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs... Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-021 titled ``Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs... Nuclear Power Plants,'' March 2007, Standard Review Plan (SRP), Section 8.3.1 and Sections 9.5.4 through...

  16. The WFIRST Interim Design Reference Mission: Capabilities, Constraints, and Open Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Office and Science Definition Team for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) are in the midst of a pre-Phase A study to establish a Design Reference Mission (DRM). An Interim report was released in June 2011, with a final report due later in 2012. The predicted performance of the Interim DRM Observatory will be described, including optical quality, observing efficiency, and sensitivity for representative observing scenarios. Observing constraints and other limitations on performance will also be presented, with an emphasis on potential Guest Observer programs. Finally, a brief status update will be provided on open trade studies of interest to the scientific community. The final DRM may differ from the Interim DRM presented here. However, the underlying requirements of the scientific programs are not expected to change, hence the capabilities of the IDRM are likely to be maintained even if the implementation changes in significant ways.

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF FINANCIAL INTERIM REPORTING FOR THE POSITION OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia‐Elena\tGRIGORAȘ‐ICHIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance that each company must grant to the strategic sources of information generates our concern for analysis of the interim financial reporting. In every enterprise, there are doubts on the usefulness of interim financial reports, given the following elements: the necessary time for their preparation (relatively long, their restricted character and the resources necessary to establish them. Finding a common solution to these problems and, implicitly, increasing the interest for interim financial reporting, can help to increase the economic performance of the company, either by reducing the unnecessary costs related to time, or by increasing communication and transparency with third parties. An appropriate management can act early in the direction of counteracting the negative effects in their company or prevention of any commercial or production failures, the overall economic trends in that field and increasing productivity. Starting from these premises, we propose a research in order to capture the main aspects related to the mentioned issues.

  18. E-Area Performance Assessment Interim Measures Assessment FY2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, M

    2006-01-31

    After major changes to the limits for various disposal units of the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) last year, no major changes have been made during FY2005. A Special Analysis was completed which removes the air pathway {sup 14}C limit from the Intermediate Level Vault (ILV). This analysis will allow the disposal of reactor moderator deionizers which previously had no pathway to disposal. Several studies have also been completed providing groundwater transport input for future special analyses. During the past year, since Slit Trenches No.1 and No.2 were nearing volumetric capacity, they were operationally closed under a preliminary closure analysis. This analysis was performed using as-disposed conditions and data and showed that concrete rubble from the demolition of 232-F was acceptable for disposal in the STs even though the latest special analysis for the STs had reduced the tritium limits so that the inventory in the rubble exceeded limits. A number of special studies are planned during the next years; perhaps the largest of these will be revision of the Performance Assessment (PA) for the ELLWF. The revision will be accomplished by incorporating special analyses performed since the last PA revision as well as revising analyses to include new data. Projected impacts on disposal limits of more recent studies have been estimated. No interim measures will be applied during this year. However, it is being recommended that tritium disposals to the Components-in-Grout (CIG) Trenches be suspended until a limited Special Analysis (SA) currently in progress is completed. This SA will give recommendations for optimum placement of tritiated D-Area tower waste. Further recommendations for tritiated waste placement in the CIG Trenches will be given in the upcoming PA revision.

  19. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  20. Using a Visible Light-Polymerized Resin to Fabricate an Interim Partial Removable Dental Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Aaron; Yu, Hui Wen; Elkassaby, Heba

    2017-02-01

    An interim partial removable dental prosthesis (RDP) is any dental prosthesis that replaces some teeth in a partially dentate arch designed to enhance esthetics, stabilization, and/or function for a limited period of time, after which it is to be replaced by a definitive dental prosthesis. This article describes a technique that uses a visible light-polymerized (VLP) resin as the base material for an interim partial RDP. This technique can be easily accomplished in a dental office or laboratory and results in a predictable dental prosthesis. This technique eliminates the need for laboratory processing.

  1. 1987 Federal interim storage fee study: A technical and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This document is the latest in a series of reports that are published annually by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This information in the report, which was prepared by E.R. Johnson Associates under subcontract to PNL, will be used by the DOE to establish a payment schedule for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel under the Federal Interim Storage (FIS) Program, which was mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The information in this report will be used to establish the schedule of charges for FIS services for the year commencing January 1, 1988. 13 tabs.

  2. Application of foams to the processing of fabrics. Interim report, October 1, 1977-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, M.W.

    1979-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to reduce the energy requirements for finishing fabrics by drastically reducing the water required to wet process the fabrics. Since less water is used, less energy is consumed in the evaporation of water. This is accomplished by replacing much of the water with air, making a foam and using it as the application medium. In the first six months of the project the practicality of foam fabric finishing on a commercial basis had been established. Limited yardage of fabrics equivalent in performance to conventionally wet finished fabrics were processed. In these mill trials, a range of foam fabric finishes including softeners, hand builders, durable press and shrink-resistant types were applied to cotton sheeting, corduroy and polyester/cellulosic blends, etc. In all cases, substantial energy savings were realized. Since the issuance of the first and second interim reports, commercial practice of foam fabric finishing continues to grow with cumulative total estimated as approaching 200,000,000 yards. A number of companies are currently using foam fabric finishing as a commercial production process. Additionally, the pilot range has been used to demonstrate foam fabric finishing to over twenty companies. The range has been used to demonstrate the foam acid dyeing of nylon carpets to several companies in this specialized area of textile processing. Active work still continues with these companies since the foam dyeing of carpets involves only about 1/5 the water used in the normal continuous dyeing of carpets. At the time of writing two carpet companies are actively working to evaluate foam dyeing on a mill scale. (LCL)

  3. Plutonium uranium extraction (PUREX) end state basis for interim operation (BIO) for surveillance and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DODD, E.N.

    1999-05-12

    This Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) was developed for the PUREX end state condition following completion of the deactivation project. The deactivation project has removed or stabilized the hazardous materials within the facility structure and equipment to reduce the hazards posed by the facility during the surveillance and maintenance (S and M) period, and to reduce the costs associated with the S and M. This document serves as the authorization basis for the PUREX facility, excluding the storage tunnels, railroad cut, and associated tracks, for the deactivated end state condition during the S and M period. The storage tunnels, and associated systems and areas, are addressed in WHC-SD-HS-SAR-001, Rev. 1, PUREX Final Safety Analysis Report. During S and M, the mission of the facility is to maintain the conditions and equipment in a manner that ensures the safety of the workers, environment, and the public. The S and M phase will continue until the final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project and activities are begun. Based on the methodology of DOE-STD-1027-92, Hazards Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, the final facility hazards category is identified as hazards category This considers the remaining material inventories, form and distribution of the material, and the energies present to initiate events of concern. Given the current facility configuration, conditions, and authorized S and M activities, there are no operational events identified resulting in significant hazard to any of the target receptor groups (e.g., workers, public, environment). The only accident scenarios identified with consequences to the onsite co-located workers were based on external natural phenomena, specifically an earthquake. The dose consequences of these events are within the current risk evaluation guidelines and are consistent with the expectations for a hazards category 2

  4. Spent fuel test - Climax: technical measurements. Interim report, Fiscal Year 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, W.C.; Butkovich, T.R.; Carlson, R.C.; Durham, W.B.; Ganow, H.C.; Hage, G.L.; Majer, E.L.; Montan, D.N.; Nyholm, R.A.; Rector, N.L.

    1984-02-01

    The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) is located 420 m below surface in the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site. The test is being conducted as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized April-May 1980. The spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized in March-April 1983 when test data indicated that test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase. The SFT-C operational objective of demonstrating the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner has been met. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. Technical objectives of the test led to development of a technical measurements program, which is the subject of this and three previous interim reports. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data have been recorded on a continuing basis for the 3-1/2 year duration of the test on more than 900 channels. Data acquisition from the test is now limited to instrumentation calibration and evaluation activities. Data now available for analysis are presented here. Highlights of activities this year include a campaign of in situ stress measurements, mineralogical and petrological studies of pretest core samples, microfracture analyses of laboratory irradiated cores, improved calculations of near-field heat transfer and thermomechanical response during the final months of heating as well as during a six-month cool-down period, metallurgical analyses of selected test components, and further development of the data acquisition and data management systems. 27 references, 68 figures, 10 tables.

  5. Comparison of cask and drywell storage concepts for a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The Department of Energy, through its Richland Operations Office is evaluating the feasibility, timing, and cost of providing a federal capability for storing the spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes that DOE may be obligated by law to manage until permanent waste disposal facilities are available. Three concepts utilizing a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facility have been developed and analyzed. The first concept, co-location with a reprocessing plant, has been developed by staff of Allied General Nuclear Services. the second concept, a stand-alone facility, has been developed by staff of the General Atomic Company. The third concept, co-location with a deep geologic repository, has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory with the assistance of the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Kaiser Engineers. The objectives of this study are: to develop preconceptual designs for MRS/IS facilities: to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facilities, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such facilities; and to estimate the life-cycle costs of the facilities when operated in response to a set of scenarios that define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, generally spanning the years 1989 to 2037. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life-cycle costs for the MRS/IS facilities. In the first scenario, the reprocessing plant is placed in service in 1989 and HLW canisters are stored until a repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at intervals as needed to meet the demand. In the second scenario, the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule.

  6. Assessing the effect of the 2001-06 Mexican health reform: an interim report card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Lozano, Rafael; González-Pier, Eduardo; Abbott-Klafter, Jesse; Barofsky, Jeremy T; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Feehan, Dennis M; Lee, Diana K; Hernández-Llamas, Hector; Murray, Christopher J L

    2006-11-25

    Since 2001, Mexico has been designing, legislating, and implementing a major health-system reform. A key component was the creation of Seguro Popular, which is intended to expand insurance coverage over 7 years to uninsured people, nearly half the total population at the start of 2001. The reform included five actions: legislation of entitlement per family affiliated which, with full implementation, will increase public spending on health by 0.8-1.0% of gross domestic product; creation of explicit benefits packages; allocation of monies to decentralised state ministries of health in proportion to number of families affiliated; division of federal resources flowing to states into separate funds for personal and non-personal health services; and creation of a fund to protect families against catastrophic health expenditures. Using the WHO health-systems framework, we used a wide range of datasets to assess the effect of this reform on different dimensions of the health system. Key findings include: affiliation is preferentially reaching the poor and the marginalised communities; federal non-social security expenditure in real per-head terms increased by 38% from 2000 to 2005; equity of public-health expenditure across states improved; Seguro Popular affiliates used more inpatient and outpatient services than uninsured people; effective coverage of 11 interventions has improved between 2000 and 2005-06; inequalities in effective coverage across states and wealth deciles has decreased over this period; catastrophic expenditures for Seguro Popular affiliates are lower than for uninsured people even though use of services has increased. We present some lessons for Mexico based on this interim evaluation and explore implications for other countries considering health reforms.

  7. [Assessing the effect of the 2001-06 Mexican health reform: an interim report card].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Lozano, Rafael; González-Pier, Eduardo; Abbott-Klafter, Jesse; Barofsky, Jeremy T; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Feehan, Dennis M; Lee, Diana K; Hernández-Llamas, Héctor; Murray, Christopher J L

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001, Mexico has been designing, legislating, and implementing a major health-system reform. A key component was the creation of Seguro Popular, which is intended to expand insurance coverage over seven years to uninsured people, nearly half the total population at the start of 2001. The reform included five actions: legislation of entitlement per family affiliated which, with full implementation, will increase public spending on health by 0.8-1.0% of gross domestic product; creation of explicit benefits packages; allocation of monies to decentralised state ministries of health in proportion to number of families affiliated; division of federal resources flowing to states into separate funds for personal and non-personal health services; and creation of a fund to protect families against catastrophic health expenditures. Using the WHO health-systems framework, a wide range of datasets to assess the effect of this reform on different dimensions of the health system was used. Key findings include: affiliation is preferentially reaching the poor and the marginalised communities; federal non-social security expenditure in real per-head terms increased by 38% from 2000 to 2005; equity of public-health expenditure across states improved; Seguro Popular affilates used more inpatient and outpatient services than uninsured people; effective coverage of 11 interventions has improved between 2000 and 2005-06; inequalities in effective coverage across states and wealth deciles has decreased over this period; catastrophic expenditures for Seguro Popular affiliates are lower than for uninsured people even though use of services has increased. We present some lessons for Mexico based on this interim evaluation and explore implications for other countries considering health reforms.

  8. Moisture Flux across Colombia in the new generation reanalysis ERA-Interim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Suárez, T.; Hoyos, I. C.; Rodriguez, B.

    2013-12-01

    The complex regional topography in Northern of South America plays an important role in transport atmospheric processes. The terrain structure controls the moisture flows by strengthening orographic pattern formation of rainfall and convective mesoscale fluxes. In Colombia, the orographic complexity is amplified by the division of the Andes in three branches, which added to the nearness to marine sources and the influence of global climatic phenomena, results in a great spatial and temporal variability of climate that is difficult to capture by modeling. In this contribution we assess the regional representation of moisture flux transport mechanisms from the new generation of reanalysis ERA-Interim, which offers qualitative advantages respect to other climate data sets in tropical areas especially respect to terrain elevation, closure of hydrological cycle representation and over-estimations in precipitation and moisture transport. Temporal and spatial variability of moisture flux divergence (MFD) field are explored in connection with other hydrological variables and global climate phenomena of regional impact. The seasonal moisture transport is mostly driven by the Intertropical Convergence Zone displacement, with dominant sources from the Caribbean Sea and Southeast Pacific whereas the Colombian Pacific is a permanent sink of moisture. Consistently with previous works, the moisture transport occurs mainly by low-level jets, but, contrary to what previous reports state, local humidity has several sources, for instance, the moisture transport over continental area of colombian Pacific has a strong contribution from the Caribbean Sea that intraseasonally is presented in major proportion than the Choco Jet's transport. The spatiotemporal patterns of MFD variability were evaluated through an EOF analysis whose main components are associated in order with: the North Tropical Atlantic and the El Nio Southern Oscillation.

  9. 循环球式电动助力转向器在纯电动客车上的应用%Application of Circulating Ball Type Electric Power Steering Gear to Pure Electric Buses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶成友

    2015-01-01

    In view of the problems of the traditional circulating ball type steering gear now used in pure electric bus-es, such as difficult arrangement, high cost and great electric power consumption,the author introduces a circulating ball type electric power steering gear on pure electric buses.%针对目前纯电动客车上采用的传统循环球式转向器存在布置难度大、成本高、耗电量大等问题,介绍一种循环球式电动助力转向器在纯电动客车上的解决方案。

  10. REVIEW OF FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY (FFTF) FUEL EXPERIMENTS FOR STORAGE IN INTERIM STORAGE CASKS (ISC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2005-10-24

    Appendix H, Section H.3.3.10.11 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), provides the limits to be observed for fueled components authorized for storage in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) spent fuel storage system. Currently, the authorization basis allows standard driver fuel assemblies (DFA), as described in the FSAR Chapter 17, Section 17.5.3.1, to be stored provided decay power per assembly is {le} 250 watts, post-irradiation time is four years minimum, average assembly burn-up is 150,000 MWD/MTHM maximum and the pre-irradiation enrichment is 29.3% maximum (per H.3.3.10.11). In addition, driver evaluation (DE), core characterizer assemblies (CCA), and run-to-cladding-breach (RTCB) assemblies are included based on their similarities to a standard DFA. Ident-69 pin containers with fuel pins from these DFAs can also be stored. Section H.3.3.10.11 states that fuel types outside the specification criteria above will be addressed on a case-by-case basis. There are many different types of fuel and blanket experiments that were irradiated in the FFTF which now require offload to the spent fuel storage system. Two reviews were completed for a portion of these special type fuel components to determine if placement into the Core Component Container (CCC)/Interim Storage Cask (ISC) would require any special considerations or changes to the authorization basis. Project mission priorities coupled with availability of resources and analysts prevented these evaluations from being completed as a single effort. Areas of review have included radiological accident release consequences, radiological shielding adequacy, criticality safety, thermal limits, confinement, and stress. The results of these reviews are available in WHC-SD-FF-RPT-005, Rev. 0 and 1, ''Review of FFTF Fuel Experiments for Storage at ISA'', (Reference I), which subsequently allowed a large portion of these components to be included in the authorization basis (Table H.3.3-21). The

  11. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-02-09

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan, under RCRA regulations in 40 CFR 265 Subpart F and WAC173-300-400, for the 216-B-63 Trench. This interim status facility is being sampled under detection monitoring criteria and this plan provides current program conditions and requirements.

  12. 76 FR 30184 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Interim Policy Leasing for Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Energy Program Interim Policy Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY... public in the leasing decision for an offshore technology testing facility located on the OCS, in... resources and socioeconomic conditions that could result from leasing and the technology testing...

  13. Study of New Youth Initiatives in Apprenticeship. Interim Report. Volume 2: Site Visit Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This second volume of the interim report provides detailed case study reports on each of the eight Youth Apprenticeship Projects. (Volume 1, an overview of data from the site visits, is available separately as CE 032 791.) Discussion areas covered in each site visit report are local context/operational environment, administrative information,…

  14. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY10 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Field, Jim G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Danny L. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection has constructed interim surface barriers over a portion of the T and TY tank farms as part of the Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The interim surface barriers (hereafter referred to as the surface barriers or barriers) are designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the soil zones containing radioactive contaminants and minimize the movement of the contaminants. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barriers at reducing soil moisture. Solar-powered systems were installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations in the T (i.e., instrument Nests TA, TB, TC, and TD) and the TY (i.e., instrument Nests TYA and TYB) Farms beneath the barriers and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nests TA and TYA are placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serve as controls, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barriers. Nest TB provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests TC, TD, and TYB are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barriers.

  15. 40 CFR 280.11 - Interim prohibition for deferred UST systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (2) Is cathodically protected against corrosion, constructed of noncorrodible material, steel clad... substance. (b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, an UST system without corrosion protection may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim prohibition for deferred...

  16. Engineering Task Plan for Hose In Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-16

    The document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of S/SX and U Tank Farms.

  17. Engineering Task Plan for Hose In Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUNG, M.P.

    2000-06-20

    This document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of nine tanks in the 241-S/SX Tank Farms.

  18. 78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally... federally obligated airports to construct solar energy systems on airport property. FAA is adopting an... for measuring ocular impact of proposed solar energy systems which are effective upon publication....

  19. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... approval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the... Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the 2007 PM 2.5 SIP'' (dated October 2011... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air...

  20. 78 FR 31886 - Interim Procedures for Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS [Docket : 130430427-3427-01; OMB Control : 0625-0274 (Expiration: 04/30/2016)] RIN 0625-XC006 Interim Procedures for Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard Actions on Imports From Panama AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile...

  1. Do Interim Assessments Influence Instructional Practice in Year One? Evidence from Indiana Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Gregory; Eno, Jared; Liu, Feng; Meyers, Coby; Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2013-01-01

    Recent work that has examined the impact of what are variously called periodic, interim, benchmark, or diagnostic assessments, typically administered three or four times during a school year, has produced mixed findings. For instance, one study reported small significant effects in mathematics in grades 3-8, but not in reading (Carlson et al.,…

  2. 76 FR 17841 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and...

  3. Interim Assessment Data: A Case Study on Modifying Instruction Based on Benchmark Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Tracey M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of data analysis in the jobs of instructional leaders has become as commonplace as teachers creating lesson plans and taking roll in the classroom. Teachers and building leaders routinely use interim assessment data to develop thoughtful and robust instructional plans that address identified areas of student need. The link between the…

  4. Interim Use Limitations for Eleven Threatened or Endangered Species in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interim use limitations may apply to pesticide products containing any of 75 active ingredients, in 8 listed counties. The limitations are in a Stipulated Injunction entered by the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California in 2010.

  5. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... operating under such refiner's corporate, trade, or brand name or that of any of its marketing...

  6. Who's Dean Today? Acting and Interim Management as Paradoxes of the Contemporary University

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Erica; Bridgstock, Ruth; Lawson, Alan; Evans, Terry; Taylor, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Interim, discontinuous or "acting" management is an increasingly ubiquitous feature of universities. This paper asks: What are the implications of this for good academic governance? Should we understand this managerial dance as a symptom of the collapse of good managerial order or, by contrast, as a symptom of the robustness and…

  7. FY2017 Defense Spending Under an Interim Continuing Resolution (CR): In Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    congressional consideration of a CR to fund the federal government through the opening months of the fiscal year is widely anticipated. This report...funding in many different ways. Under current practice, a CR is an appropriations law that provides either interim or full-year funding by referencing...3 Specific CR Considerations for DOD

  8. A Study of the Transitional Adjustment of a Professional Group to its Altered Role. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Morris J.

    This interim report discusses the adjustments auditing firms are making as a result of the advent of the computer. Data were obtained from (1) a review of the literature, (2) attendance at professional association meetings, and (3) a series of interviews with accountants. The findings to date indicate that the normative patterns governing the…

  9. First-year students’ essay writing practices: Formative feedback and interim literacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Esambe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The varying literacy standards that undergraduate students represent are a reflection of their interim grasp of academic literacy (Paxton 2007. The aim of this study is to analyse a small group of undergraduate first-year students’ depiction of their interim grasp of academic writing and to reflect on how lecturers use formative feedback to respond to specific issues regarding students’ academic transitions within their discipline. Using an emancipatory methodology, this study was designed as a participatory action research. Qualitative data from focus group interviews with lecturers and photovoice presentations by first-year dental technology students were used to explore how students demonstrated their interim grasp of academic essay writing in a Health Science department at a university of technology. However, this article, which is part of a broader study, analyses a small class of first-year students’ depiction of their interim grasp of essay writing and reflects on how their lecturers use formative feedback to respond to these students’ academic transitions within their discipline. Using activity theory and morphogenetic realist theory to analyse essay writing activities during an intervention, the study reveals that images are potent artefacts that students and lecturers use to build meaningful dialogue during essay writing in an uneven terrain.

  10. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  11. Neutron spectrometry at the interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel

    CERN Document Server

    Králik, M; Studeny, J

    2002-01-01

    Dosimetric characteristics of neutron and photon components of mixed fields around casks for spent nuclear fuel have been determined at various places at the dry interim storage facility. The results obtained with metrological grade instruments were compared with data provided by usual survey meters for both neutrons and photons.

  12. AACP Special Taskforce on Diversifying Our Investment in Human Capital Interim Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carla; Adams, Jennifer

    2016-09-25

    The 2015-2017 AACP Special Taskforce on Diversifying our Investment in Human Capital was appointed for a two-year term, therefore the interim update from the Taskforce. A full report will be provided in 2017 in the form of a white paper for academic pharmacy on diversifying our investment in human capital.

  13. 78 FR 894 - Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution... of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California... such as unpaved roads and disturbed soils in open and agricultural areas in Imperial County....

  14. 78 FR 72897 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Interim Product Reporting for Human Drug Compounding Outsourcing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Human Drug Compounding Outsourcing Facilities Under Section 503B of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic... entitled ``Interim Product Reporting for Human Drug Compounding Outsourcing Facilities Under Section 503B... register as outsourcing facilities (outsourcing facilities). DATES: Although you can comment on...

  15. 40 CFR 265.383 - Interim status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste. (a) Owners or operators of thermal treatment devices subject to this subpart may burn EPA Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim status thermal...

  16. The interim service preferences of parents waiting for children's mental health treatment: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles E; Chen, Yvonne; Deal, Ken; Rimas, Heather; McGrath, Patrick; Reid, Graham; Lipman, Ellen; Corkum, Penny

    2013-08-01

    Parents seeking help for children with mental health problems are often assigned to a waiting list. We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model preferences for interim services that might be used while waiting for the formal assessment and treatment process to begin. A sample of 1,059 parents (92 % mothers) seeking mental health services for 4 to 16 year olds chose between hypothetical interim services composed by experimentally varying combinations of the levels of 13 interim service attributes. Latent Class analysis yielded a four-segment solution. All segments preferred interim options helping them understand how agencies work, enhancing their parenting knowledge and skill, and providing an opportunity to understand or begin dealing with their own difficulties. The Group Contact segment (35.1 %) preferred interim services in meetings with other parents, supported by phone contacts, frequent checkup calls, and wait-time updates. Virtual Contact parents (29.2 %) preferred to meet other parents in small internet chat groups supported by e-mail contact. Membership in this segment was linked to higher education and computer skills. Frequent Contact parents (24.4 %) preferred face-to-face interim services supported by weekly progress checks and wait time updates. Limited Contact parents (11.3 %) were less intent on using interim services. They preferred to pursue interim services alone, with contacts by phone, supported by fewer check-up calls and less frequent wait time updates. All segments were more likely to enroll in interim services involving their child.

  17. Natural gas engines; An eco-friendly alternative for buses, communal and distribution vehicles. Erdgasmotoren; Eine umweltfreundliche Alternative fuer Busse, Kommunal- und Verteilerfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signer, M. (Iveco Motorenforschung AG, Arbon (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas engines for buses, communal and distribution vehicles are an eco-friendly alternative. The exhaust emission values are distinctly lower than the Euro 2-Limit Values for 1995/1996 and lower than the discussed Euro 3 limits. As a result of the change to spark ignition and the reduced engine efficiency obtained, the natural gas engines consume 20 and more per cent energy. The CO[sub 2] emission are, however, comparable with those of a diesel engine. The vehicle fuel tanks are voluminous and heavy. Compromises must be made for the installation in vehicles which results in a reduction of the payload. Cost-favourable and lighter tanks would increase the attractivity of such vehicles. The natural gas vehicle is, at least today, dependent on a central refueling system (compressor station) at the vehicle operator or in his nearer neighbourhood. For the general and flexible operation of any type of utility vehicle, the diesel engine is and remains the optimum solution in view of ecology and economy. (orig.)

  18. Tactical/Combat Engines Cetane Window Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    custom diesel fuels typically used in Homogeneous Charge Coupled Ignition ( HCCI ) research engines . These fuels are characterized by a very heavy...UNCLASSIFIED TACTICAL/COMBAT ENGINES CETANE WINDOW EVALUATION INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 436 by Gregory A. Hansen, Douglas Yost...report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED TACTICAL/COMBAT ENGINES CETANE WINDOW

  19. Interim Report: Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants Improved Binary Cycle Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Greg L. Mines

    2010-09-01

    As geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop are utilized for power generation, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. This is expected to be the case with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resources. These resources will likely require wells drilled to depths greater than encountered with hydrothermal resources, and will have the added costs for stimulation to create the subsurface reservoir. It is postulated that plants generating power from these resources will likely utilize the binary cycle technology where heat is rejected sensibly to the ambient. The consumptive use of a portion of the produced geothermal fluid for evaporative heat rejection in the conventional flash-steam conversion cycle is likely to preclude its use with EGS resources. This will be especially true in those areas where there is a high demand for finite supplies of water. Though they have no consumptive use of water, using air-cooling systems for heat rejection has disadvantages. These systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at the higher dry-bulb temperature), increased parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power generation on both a diurnal and annual basis (larger variation in the dry-bulb temperature). This is an interim report for the task ‘Air-Cooled Condensers in Next- Generation Conversion Systems’. The work performed was specifically aimed at a plant that uses commercially available binary cycle technologies with an EGS resource. Concepts were evaluated that have the potential to increase performance, lower cost, or mitigate the adverse effects of off-design operation. The impact on both cost and performance were determined for the concepts considered, and the scenarios identified where a particular concept is best suited. Most, but not all, of the concepts evaluated are associated with the rejection of heat. This report specifically addresses three of the concepts evaluated: the use of

  20. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R D

    2002-07-16

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft{sup 2} and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available.

  1. Advising a Bus Company on Number of Needed Buses: How High-School Physics Students' Deal With a "Complex Problem"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balukovic, Jasmina; Slisko, Josip; Hadzibegovic, Zalkida

    2011-01-01

    Since 2003, international project PISA evaluates 15-year old students in solving problems that include "decision taking", "analysis and design of systems" and "trouble-shooting". This article presents the results of a pilot research conducted with 215 students from first to fourth grade of a high school in Sarajevo…

  2. Age of stratospheric air in the ERA-Interim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, M.; Legras, B.; Chedin, A.

    2012-07-01

    The age of stratospheric air is calculated over 22 yr of the ERA-Interim reanalysis using an off-line Lagrangian transport model and heating rates. At low and mid-latitudes, the mean age of air is in good agreement with observed ages from aircraft flights, high altitude balloons and satellite observations of CO2 and SF6. The mid-latitude age spectrum in the lower stratosphere exhibits a long tail with a peak at 0.5 yr, which is maximum at the end of the winter, and a secondary flat maximum between 4 and 5 yr due to the combination of fast and slow branches of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and the reinforced barrier effect of the jet. At higher altitudes, the age spectrum exhibits the footprint of the annual modulation of the deep Brewer-Dobson circulation. The variability of the mean age is analysed through a decomposition in terms of annual cycle, QBO, ENSO and trend. The annual modulation is the dominating signal in the lower stratosphere and in the tropical pipe with amplitude up to one year. The phase of the oscillation is opposite in both hemisphere beyond 20° and is also reversed below and above 25 km with maximun arising in mid-March in the Northern Hemisphere and in mid-September in the Southern Hemisphere. The tropical pipe signal is in phase with the lower southern stratosphere and the mid northern stratosphere. The maximum amplitude of the QBO modulation is of about 0.5 yr and is mostly concentrated within the tropics between 25 and 35 km. It lags the QBO wind at 30 hPa by about 8 months. The ENSO signal is small and limited to the lower northen stratosphere. The trend is significant and negative, of the order of -0.3 to -0.5 yr dec-1, within the lower stratosphere in the Southern Hemisphere and under 40° N in the Northern Hemisphere below 25 km. It is positive (of the order of 0.3 yr dec-1) in the mid stratosphere but there is no region of consistent significance. This suggests that the shallow and deep Brewer-Dobson circulations may evolve in

  3. Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas (NPS, GRD, GRI, HOSP, HOSP digital map) adapted from the interim Arkansas Geological Survey DGM-HSR-003 by Johnson and Hanson (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR)...

  4. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  5. Data Collection, Testing, and Analysis of Hybrid Electric Trucks and Buses Operating in California Fleets. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duran, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cosgrove, Jon [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sindler, Petr [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Russell, Robert [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Johnson, Kent [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The objective of this project was to evaluate and quantify the emission impacts of commercially available hybrid medium- and heavy-duty vehicles relative to their non-hybrid counterparts. This effort will allow the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and other agencies to more effectively encourage development and commercial deployment of the most efficient, lowest emitting hybrid technologies needed to meet air quality and climate goals.

  6. Variations in the rates of passenger usage of portable Technology on intercity buses, trains and planes: Implications for transportation planning

    OpenAIRE

    Schwieterman, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, the use of portable electronic devices by passengers on intercity transportation services has risen markedly. To support the use of such devices, carriers have installed Wi-Fi systems, power outlets, and cell-phone signal boosters for passenger use. To fill a void in research about the effects of portable electronic technology on intercity travel behavior, this study evaluates newly collected data for 7,028 passengers on bus, train, and air trips. It explores how ...

  7. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE C-400 INTERIM REMEDIAL PROJECT PHASE I RESULTS, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart,L.; Richards, W.

    2010-10-29

    The groundwater and soil in the vicinity of the C-400 Building at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), is contaminated with substantial quantities of industrial solvents, primarily trichoroethene (TCE). This solvent 'source' is recognized as a significant challenge and an important remediation target in the overall environmental cleanup strategy for PGDP. Thus, the cleanup of the C-400 TCE Source is a principal focus for the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, and for PGDP regulators and stakeholders. Using a formal investigation, feasibility study and decision process, Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) was selected for the treatment of the soil and groundwater in the vicinity of C-400. ERH was selected as an interim action to remove 'a significant portion of the contaminant mass of TCE at the C-400 Cleaning Building area through treatment' with the longer term goal of reducing 'the period the TCE concentration in groundwater remains above its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL).' ERH is a thermal treatment that enhances the removal of TCE and related solvents from soil and groundwater. The heterogeneous conditions at PGDP, particularly the high permeability regional gravel aquifer (RGA), are challenging to ERH. Thus, a phased approach is being followed to implement this relatively expensive and complex remediation technology. Conceptually, the phased approach encourages safety and efficiency by providing a 'lessons learned' process and allowing appropriate adjustments to be identified and implemented prior to follow-on phase(s) of treatment. More specifically, early deployment targeted portions of the challenging RGA treatment zone with relatively little contamination reducing the risk of adverse collateral impacts from underperformance in terms of heating and capture. Because of the importance and scope of the C-400 TCE source remediation activities, DOE chartered an Independent Technical Review (ITR) in

  8. Dedicated-site, interim storage of high-level nuclear waste as part of the management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, E A

    1980-11-01

    Dedicated-site interim storage of high-level reprocessed nuclear waste and of spent fuel rods is proposed as a long-term integral part of the systems approach of the national nuclear waste isolation program. Separation of interim sites for retrievable storage from permanent-disposal repositories should enhance ensurance of the performance of the latter; maintenance of retrievability at separate sites also has many advantages in both safety and possible use of waste as resources. Interim storage sites probably will not be needed beyond about 100 years from now, so the institutional and technical considerations involved in their choice should be much less stringent than those for the selection of permanent sites. Development of interim sites must be concurrent with unabated effort to identify and to develop permanent repositories.

  9. 76 FR 59254 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference,...

  10. Detailed Rules for the Implementing the Interim Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Value-added Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Article 1 The Detailed Rules are formulated according to the provisions of the Interim Regulations of the People's Republic of Chi-na on Value-added Tax (hereinafter referred to as the Regulations).

  11. Verification of ERA-Interim Reanalysis Data over China%ERA-Interim 气温数据在中国区域的适用性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高路; 郝璐

    2014-01-01

    运用中国756个观测站点的逐月平均气温数据,对比分析了ERA-Interim再分析资料的误差。结果发现: ERA-Interim再分析资料能够很好地反映观测值的年际变化,相关性达到0.955~0.995。 ERA-Interim在580个站点的冷偏差或暖偏差小于1℃,占站点总数的76.7%,可信度较高。64个站点的冷偏差或暖偏差大于5℃,可信度较低。 ERA-Interim在东部地区的暖偏差多于西部地区,冷偏差的高值主要集中在西部地区的高海拔站点。海拔低于200 m的站点偏差最小,适用性好,多数海拔3000 m以上的站点呈现较大冷偏差,适用性较差。通过回归分析发现,观测站点与ERA-Interim格点的高度差是导致误差的主要原因,因此通过高程校正能够有效降低误差,提高ERA-Interim适用性。%In this paper , the monthly average temperatures derived from 756 meteorological stations over China were compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the verification .The bias analysis indi-cated that the ERA-Interim reanalysis data could capture the inter-annual variability of observations very well with high temporal correlation values ( 0.955~0.995 ) .ERA-Interim shows the good relia-bility at 580 ( 76.7%) stations with cooler or warmer bias smaller than 1℃.The weak reliability was found at 64 stations with cooler or warmer bias higher than 5 ℃.ERA-Interim reanalysis data has warmer bias in eastern China than in western China , and greater cooler biases distribute at the high el-evated stations in the west of China .ERA-Interim is more suitable for lower elevated stations (3 000 m) .The main reason for the bias is height differences among elevations of observations and ERA-Interim grid heights using linear regression analysis .There-fore, the bias could be significantly reduced via the elevation correction method .

  12. Climatology of precipitating convective clouds in ERA-Interim derived from the Emanuel and Živković-Rothman parameterisation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Anne; Seibert, Petra

    2016-04-01

    The convective parameterisation scheme of Emanuel and Živković-Rothman (1999) was designed to represent cumulus convection with a special focus on convective water fluxes. This scheme is implemented in the Lagrangian particle transport and dispersion model FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model, http://flexpart.eu) to calculate a redistribution matrix used for the transport simulation. In order to improve the wet scavenging through convective clouds in this model, we are statistically evaluating a global data set of cloud base and cloud top heights of precipitating clouds derived from the EZ99 scheme and based on ECMWF's ERA-Interim data. They have a spectral resolution of about 80 km and 60 vertical levels available every 6 hours. The results will be evaluated as a function of season and geographical region.

  13. General certification procedure of enterprises and interim job enterprises; Procedure generale de certification des entreprises et entreprises de travail temporaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This procedure defines the certification global process of enterprises employing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities and interim job enterprises proposing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities. This certification proves the enterprises ability to satisfy the specification ''E'' of the CEFRI and the interim job enterprises to satisfy the specification ''I'' of the CEFRI. (A.L.B.)

  14. Interim decision-making strategies in adaptive designs for population selection using time-to-event endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uozumi, Ryuji; Hamada, Chikuma

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive designs in oncology clinical trials with interim analyses for population selection could be used in the development of targeted therapies if a predefined biomarker hypothesis exists. In this article, we consider an interim analysis using overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and both OS and PFS, to determine whether the whole population or only the biomarker-positive population should continue into the subsequent stage of the trial, whereas the final decision is made based on OS data only. In order to increase the probability of selecting the most appropriate population at the interim analysis, we propose an interim decision-making strategy in adaptive designs with correlated endpoints considering the post-progression survival (PPS) magnitudes. In our approach, the interim decision is made on the basis of predictive power by incorporating information on OS as well as PFS to supplement the incomplete OS data. Simulation studies assuming a targeted therapy demonstrated that our interim decision-making procedure performs well in terms of selecting the proper population, especially under a scenario in which PPS affects the correlation between OS and PFS.

  15. Correlates of Nine-Month Retention following Interim Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment in Opioid Dependence: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Håkansson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interim medication-only treatment has been suggested for the initiation of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT in opioid-dependent subjects, but this rarely has been studied using buprenorphine instead of methadone. Following a pilot trial assessing interim buprenorphine-naloxone treatment in order to facilitate transfer into OMT, we here aimed to study retention, and potential correlates of retention, in full-scale treatment. Thirty-six patients successfully referred from a waiting list through an interim treatment phase were followed for nine months in OMT. Baseline characteristics, as well as urine analyses during the interim phase and during full-scale OMT, were studied as potential correlates of retention. The nine-month retention in OMT was 83 percent (n=30. While interim-phase urine samples positive for benzodiazepines did not significantly predict dropout from full-scale OMT (p=0.09, urine samples positive for benzodiazepines within full-scale OMT were significantly associated with dropout (p<0.01, in contrast to other substances and baseline characteristics. Retention remained high through nine months in this pilot study sample of patients referred through buprenorphine-naloxone interim treatment, but use of benzodiazepines is problematic, and the present data suggest that it may be associated with treatment dropout.

  16. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  17. 400-MWe Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). 1200-MWt Phase 2A interim studies. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The Phase 2A interim studies of the Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) consisted of a number of separate task studies addressing the design concepts developed during the Phase 1 study reported in BAW--1445. The purpose of the interim studies was to better establish overall concept feasibility from both a hardware and economic standpoint, to make modification and additions to the design where appropriate, and to understand and reduce the technical risks in critical areas of the design. The work on these task studies included input from Barberton, Mt. Vernon, and the Alliance Research Center as well as United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C). The UE and C work was carried out under a separate DOE contract.

  18. Interim analysis: A rational approach of decision making in clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amal; Chakraborty, Bhaswat S.

    2016-01-01

    Interim analysis of especially sizeable trials keeps the decision process free of conflict of interest while considering cost, resources, and meaningfulness of the project. Whenever necessary, such interim analysis can also call for potential termination or appropriate modification in sample size, study design, and even an early declaration of success. Given the extraordinary size and complexity today, this rational approach helps to analyze and predict the outcomes of a clinical trial that incorporate what is learned during the course of a study or a clinical development program. Such approach can also fill the gap by directing the resources toward relevant and optimized clinical trials between unmet medical needs and interventions being tested currently rather than fulfilling only business and profit goals. PMID:27833889

  19. Functions and requirements document for interim store solidified high-level and transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Fewell, M.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-17

    The functions, requirements, interfaces, and architectures contained within the Functions and Requirements (F{ampersand}R) Document are based on the information currently contained within the TWRS Functions and Requirements database. The database also documents the set of technically defensible functions and requirements associated with the solidified waste interim storage mission.The F{ampersand}R Document provides a snapshot in time of the technical baseline for the project. The F{ampersand}R document is the product of functional analysis, requirements allocation and architectural structure definition. The technical baseline described in this document is traceable to the TWRS function 4.2.4.1, Interim Store Solidified Waste, and its related requirements, architecture, and interfaces.

  20. Leveraging Information Technology to Enable Army Transformation: Capabilities and Challenges for the Interim Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    is to examine the Interim Force and determine whether or not the higher technical performance expected to be gained from information technology will...which this force is being developed, underscore the capabilities information technology brings to the transformation effort, and examine the...challenges information technology presents Army planners and leaders as they further develop the campaign plan and execute the program. This study will

  1. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Midwestern high-level radioactive waste transportation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  2. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I. Interim definition of terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.

    1980-12-19

    This report documents interim definitions of terms in the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). Intent is to establish a common-based terminology integral to the probabilistic methods that predict more realistically the behavior of nuclear power plants during an earthquake. These definitions are a response to a request by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards at its meeting held November 15-16, 1979.

  3. EAPD interim seminar and workshop in Brussels May 9 2015 Non-invasive caries treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Loveren, C.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim This was to collect information for the 9th European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry Interim Seminar and Workshops to discuss the state of art on non-invasive caries therapy to be used if possible to formulate clinical guidelines by European experts in paediatric dentistry Methods Based on systematic reviews and additional papers were assessed for methods to prevent caries initiation and caries progression both in the state of pre-cavitation and cavitation without invasive technologies. R...

  4. Interim Restorative Approach for the Management of Congenitally Missing Permanent Mandibular Incisors: Presentation of Three Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Prashanth Prakash; Jayadev M. Hallur; Rachana Narse Gowda

    2011-01-01

    Congenital missing of mandibular permanent incisors with retained primary incisors may jeopardize the esthetic appearance and psychological development of children, especially during the years of transition into adolescence. The retained primary teeth are necessary for the maintenance and normal development of alveolar bone, which in turn is essential for future definitive rehabilitation. In such situations, an interim restoration may be provided before any definitive treatment is given to co...

  5. Operations and Maintenance Concept Plan for the Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) Interim Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANIN, L.F.

    2000-08-30

    This O&M Concept looks at the future operations and maintenance of the IHLW/CSB interim storage facility. It defines the overall strategy, objectives, and functional requirements for the portion of the building to be utilized by Project W-464. The concept supports the tasks of safety basis planning, risk mitigation, alternative analysis, decision making, etc. and will be updated as required to support the evolving design.

  6. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Interim Report

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James; Baltay, Charles; Bean, Rachel; Bennett, David; Brown, Robert; Conselice, Christopher; Donahue, Megan; Gaudi, Scott; Lauer, Tod; Perlmutter, Saul; Rauscher, Bernard; Rhodes, Jason; Roellig, Thomas; Stern, Daniel; Sumi, Takahiro; Tanner, Angelle; Wang, Yun; Wright, Edward; Gehrels, Neil; Sambruna, Rita; Traub, Wesley

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, NASA created a Science Definition Team (SDT) for WFIRST, the Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope, recommended by the Astro 2010 Decadal Survey as the highest priority for a large space mission. The SDT was chartered to work with the WFIRST Project Office at GSFC and the Program Office at JPL to produce a Design Reference Mission (DRM) for WFIRST. This paper describes an Interim DRM. The DRM will be completed in 2012.

  7. Detailed Rules for Implementing the Interim Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Business Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Article 1 The Detailed Rules are formulated in accordance with the Interim Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Busi-ness Tax (hereinafter referred to as the Regulations). Article 2 "Services" as mentioned in Article 1 of the Regulations refers to services within the scope of taxable items in the trans-portation, construction, finance and insurance, posts and tele-communications, culture and sports, entertainment and service industries (hereinafter referred to as taxable services).

  8. Interim restorative approach for the management of congenitally missing permanent mandibular incisors: presentation of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Prashanth; Hallur, Jayadev M; Gowda, Rachana Narse

    2011-01-01

    Congenital missing of mandibular permanent incisors with retained primary incisors may jeopardize the esthetic appearance and psychological development of children, especially during the years of transition into adolescence. The retained primary teeth are necessary for the maintenance and normal development of alveolar bone, which in turn is essential for future definitive rehabilitation. In such situations, an interim restoration may be provided before any definitive treatment is given to comfort the young patient during this transition period. Interim restorations may include resin-modified additions to the existing teeth as well as more sophisticated restorations such as resin-retained bridge and removable partial dentures. However, this restoration differs for different clinical situations based on various factors such as age and patient compliance, and also consideration has to be given for the growth changes of the child. The aim of this present paper is to discuss the esthetic management of three cases with bilateral agenesis of permanent mandibular incisors and retained primary incisors with composite interim restoration.

  9. Interim Restorative Approach for the Management of Congenitally Missing Permanent Mandibular Incisors: Presentation of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital missing of mandibular permanent incisors with retained primary incisors may jeopardize the esthetic appearance and psychological development of children, especially during the years of transition into adolescence. The retained primary teeth are necessary for the maintenance and normal development of alveolar bone, which in turn is essential for future definitive rehabilitation. In such situations, an interim restoration may be provided before any definitive treatment is given to comfort the young patient during this transition period. Interim restorations may include resin-modified additions to the existing teeth as well as more sophisticated restorations such as resin-retained bridge and removable partial dentures. However, this restoration differs for different clinical situations based on various factors such as age and patient compliance, and also consideration has to be given for the growth changes of the child. The aim of this present paper is to discuss the esthetic management of three cases with bilateral agenesis of permanent mandibular incisors and retained primary incisors with composite interim restoration.

  10. Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fred Genesee

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Evaluation in TESOL settings is a process of collecting,analysing and interpreting information about teaching and learning in order to make informed decisions that enhance student achievement and the success of educational programmes (Rea-Dickins and Germaine 1993; Genesee and Upshur 1996;O'Malley and Valdez-Pierce 1996).Three simple examples help explicate the varied forms evaluation can take in TESOL settings:

  11. The Research of Electric Buses Power Plant Charging Optimization Based on Load Shifting%考虑削峰填谷的电动公交换电站充电优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗淼; 雷霞; 何建平; 李菲

    2015-01-01

    The electric buses which work in battery swapping mode achieve rapid growth in the field of public transportation. The normal operation of electric buses power plant is related to many factors, such as the replacement of the battery,battery charging and power load and so on. In order to improve the economy of power plant operation, the daily charging demands of electric buses are ana-lyzed and calculated. We set up the charging model of double objective optimization considering load shifting to minimum the charging costand reduce the load fluctuation. Lastly, the weight factor transformation method is utilized to analyze the example based on genetic algorithm and the simulation results show that the optimized charging cost can be saved 30 % with the sharpening peak effect.%采用换电模式的电动公交车在公共交通领域内发展迅速。电动公交换电站的正常运营与电池更换、充电和电网负荷等多方面因素有关。为提高电动公交换电站运营的经济性,首先分析和计算电动公交车的日换电量需求,然后以充电成本最小和减小负荷波动为目标建立考虑削峰填谷作用的双目标充电优化模型,最后利用遗传算法的权重系数变换法对实例进行求解。实例仿真计算结果表明,优化后的充电成本可节约30%,同时达到削峰填谷作用。

  12. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia.

  13. Modified glass ionomer and orthodontic band: An interim alternative for the treatment of molar incisor hypomineralization. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Orellana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH is a developmental condition resulting in defects in the enamel characterized by demarcated opacities mainly affecting first permanent molars and occasionally permanent incisors in 1 of every 6 children worldwide. Affected molars have greater susceptibility to post eruptive breakdown, extensive caries and, in severe cases, are difficult to restore. When the MIH-affected molar presents severe crown destruction, it is necessary to perform an intermediate restoration to preserve the remaining dental structure in order to maintain occlusion, proper hygiene and periodontal health. The case of an 11-year-old patient with severe MIH is reported. The patient had extensive crown destruction by caries in tooth 1.6 without clinical or radiographic signs of pulp pathology. After an initial preventive intervention, enamel without dentin support and carious dentin were removed from tooth 1.6. Subsequently, crown restoration was performed with resin-modified glass ionomer, followed by the cementation of an orthodontic band. After 18 months of follow-up, the patient reported no pain or discomfort. The restoration was preserved intact, maintaining occlusal functionality, pulp and gingival health. Conclusion: The interim treatment, cementing an orthodontic band over a tooth restored with glass ionomer seems to favor retention and compressive strength, keeping the MIH-affected molar asymptomatic for at least 18 months. Further studies evaluating this treatment option in similar clinical situations are recommended.

  14. Itinerant vending of medicines inside buses in Nigeria: vending strategies, dominant themes and medicine-related information provided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff KB

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine if a pharmacist assisted psychiatric clinic would improve adherence to medications and quality of life over 6 months. The primary study endpoints were the change from baseline in Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS, Brief Evaluation of Medication Influences and Beliefs (BEMIB, World Health Organization Quality of Life - BREF (WHOQOL-BREF scales as well as hospitalizations and emergency room visits. Secondary endpoints included metabolic and physiologic parameters.Methods: A prospective, single-center study conducted at an outpatient psychiatric clinic. Subjects were required to attend 3 clinic visits (baseline, 3 and 6 months with the pharmacist. Subject and medication histories were obtained at each visit. Subjects’ records within the local health system were reviewed for emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Metabolic parameters were assessed at each visit.Results: Twenty-seven subjects enrolled and twenty subjects completed. Total MARS score at baseline and study end were 7.90 and 8.65, respectively. At baseline, 10 (50% were nonadherent based on the BEMIB and 9 (45% were nonadherent at 6 months. Statistically significant improvements were seen in 2 domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Reductions in both ER visits and hospitalizations were achieved. There were significant improvements in total cholesterol and LDL.Conclusions: Improvements were seen in two domains of the WHOQOL-BREF – physical capacity and psychological well-being over the 6 month period. While improvements were seen in various rating scales, due to small sample sizes, these were insignificant improvements. Reductions in hospitalizations and ER visits were also seen during the study and up to 6 months post study. Statistically significant improvements were also seen in both total cholesterol and LDL. The lack of improvement in many of the study outcomes reflects the difficulty of the mental health population to adhere to treatment recommendations

  15. Posttreatment PET/CT Rather Than Interim PET/CT Using Deauville Criteria Predicts Outcome in Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Prospective Study Comparing PET/CT with Conventional Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Sameer; Bhethanabhotla, Sainath; Kumar, Rakesh; Agarwal, Krishankant; Sharma, Punit; Thulkar, Sanjay; Malhotra, Arun; Dhawan, Deepa; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas

    2017-04-01

    Data about the significance of (18)F-FDG PET at interim assessment and end of treatment in pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are limited. Methods: Patients (≤18 y) with HL were prospectively evaluated with contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) and PET combined with low-dose CT (PET/CT) at baseline, after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, and after completion of treatment. Revised International Working Group (RIW) criteria and Deauville 5 point-scale for response assessment by PET/CT were used. All patients received doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine chemotherapy along with involved-field radiotherapy (25 Gy) for early stage (IA, IB, and IIA) and advanced stage (IIB-IV) with bulky disease. Results: Of the 57 enrolled patients, median follow-up was 81.6 mo (range, 11-97.5 mo). Treatment decisions were based on CECT. At baseline, PET/CT versus CECT identified 67 more disease sites; 23 patients (40.3%) were upstaged and of them in 9 patients (39%) upstaging would have affected treatment decision; notably none of these patients relapsed. The specificity of interim PET/CT based on RIW criteria (61.5%) and Deauville criteria (91.4%) for predicting relapse was higher than CECT (40.3%) (P = 0.03 and P interim PET/CT (RIW) response was 93.3 ± 4.1 versus 89.6 ± 3.8 (positive vs. negative scan, respectively; P = 0.44). The specificity of posttreatment PET/CT (Deauville) was 95.7% versus 76.4% by CECT (P = 0.006). Posttreatment PET/CT (Deauville) showed significantly inferior overall survival in patients with positive scan versus negative scan results (66.4 ± 22.5 vs. 94.5 ± 2.0, P = 0.029). Conclusion: Interim PET/CT has better specificity, and use of Deauville criteria further improves it. Escalation of therapy based on interim PET in pediatric HL needs further conclusive evidence to justify its use. Posttreatment PET/CT (Deauville) predicts overall survival and has better specificity in comparison to conventional imaging.

  16. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  17. Interim Manual for the DST: Decoding Skills Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ellis; And Others

    The Decoding Skills Test (DST) was developed to provide a detailed measurement of decoding skills which could be used in research on developmental dyslexia. Another purpose of the test is to provide a diagnostic-prescriptive instrument to be used in the evaluation of, and program planning for, children needing remedial reading. The test is…

  18. Utility of interim and end-of-treatment PET/CT in peripheral T-cell lymphomas: A review of 124 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Pedersen, Martin Bjerregård; Hutchings, Martin; Mylam, Karen Juul; Madsen, Jakob; Gang, Anne Ortved; Bøgsted, Martin; de Nully Brown, Peter; Loft, Annika; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Hendel, Helle Westergreen; Iyer, Victor; Gormsen, Lars Christian

    2015-11-01

    According to the updated guidelines for imaging in lymphoma, 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is recommended for staging and evaluation of treatment response in FDG-avid lymphomas. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the utility of PET/CT in nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL). Patients with newly diagnosed nodal PTCL (peripheral T-cell lymphoma NOS, anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, or angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma) seen at five Danish hematology centers during the period 2006 to 2012 were included, if they had been pretherapeutically staged with PET/CT. Medical records were reviewed for baseline clinical and follow-up information. Staging, interim (I-PET), and end-of-treatment PET/CT (E-PET) studies were centrally reviewed, and reported using the Deauville 5-point score (DS). A total of 124 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The median age was 58 years, and 88% received CHOP/CHOP-like therapy. Five years PFS and OS of the study population was 36.8% (95% CI 27.3-46.4) and 49.7% (95% CI 38.9-59.6), respectively. The presence of PET/CT-ascertained lung and/or liver involvement was associated with a worse outcome. The sensitivity of PET/CT for detecting biopsy-defined bone marrow involvement was only 18% (95% CI 4-43). An interim DS >3 was not prognostic for worse OS and PFS among CHOP/CHOP-like treated patients in uni- or multivariate analyses. A DS >3 after treatment predicted a worse prognosis. In conclusion, I-PET was not predictive of outcome in CHOP/CHOP-like treated PTCL patients when using the DS. Prospective studies are needed to determine the optimal use of PET/CT in PTCL including the role of quantitative PET/CT analysis.

  19. Evaluation of Aluminum-Boron Carbide Neutron Absorbing Materials for Interim Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lumin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science; Wierschke, Jonathan Brett [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science

    2015-04-08

    The objective of this work was to understand the corrosion behavior of Boral® and Bortec® neutron absorbers over long-term deployment in a used nuclear fuel dry cask storage environment. Corrosion effects were accelerated by flowing humidified argon through an autoclave at temperatures up to 570°C. Test results show little corrosion of the aluminum matrix but that boron is leaching out of the samples. Initial tests performed at 400 and 570°C were hampered by reduced flow caused by the rapid build-up of solid deposits in the outlet lines. Analysis of the deposits by XRD shows that the deposits are comprised of boron trioxide and sassolite (H3BO3). The collection of boron- containing compounds in the outlet lines indicated that boron was being released from the samples. Observation of the exposed samples using SEM and optical microscopy show the growth of new phases in the samples. These phases were most prominent in Bortec® samples exposed at 570°C. Samples of Boral® exposed at 570°C showed minimal new phase formation but showed nearly the complete loss of boron carbide particles. Boron carbide loss was also significant in Boral samples at 400°C. However, at 400°C phases similar to those found in Bortec® were observed. The rapid loss of the boron carbide particles in the Boral® is suspected to inhibit the formation of the new secondary phases. However, Material samples in an actual dry cask environment would be exposed to temperatures closer to 300°C and less water than the lowest test. The results from this study conclude that at the temperature and humidity levels present in a dry cask environment, corrosion and boron leaching will have no effect on the performance of Boral® and Bortec® to maintain criticality control.

  20. Interim Field Evaluation of Windrow Revetment. Missouri River, Section 32, Streambank Erosion Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    CLY’,ON ’v AT v 9 eo - 0 C-.~ .. 0. 00. ( i 0O 0 CEA CONY 0 0 0 .. 0 0r 1 ~ . L0ON~~ DEMONSTRATION SIT ::X___ __ 0 0 CEA CONT DIO CUT LEGEN ZLITCN TETIR...RIE loo 3lIRVE 00 RANGE *6 AVG. VEL. FOR CHANNEL = 3.90 FPS 10 NOV. 1976 RAN %Q’:=S%-SEE NOTE I QGP = 35.000 CFS SEE Qvs = 3S,00CFS rNOTE 4 QLrv

  1. Airworthiness and Flight Characteristics Evaluation. OH-58C Interim Scout Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    allowance of 2 minutes at MCP at sea ley . and reserve fuel of 0.5-hour at 2000 feet and 35°C) was 2.4 hours (.4 hours ltss than estimated) (para 18). 104...Comnand as soon as practical after completion of’test flying. DENNIS M. BOYLE Colonel, Armor Commanding 183 1OWPNUT FINPOMiuCI REPORT 12 JUL 78 DAVTE-TA... Boyle ) Edwards Air Force Base, CA 93523 1. Reference is made to your letter, dtd 18 Sep 78, subject: OH-58 Helicopter Seat. In response to your request

  2. Interim Record of Decision Davis Global Communications Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-21

    exposure estimates (developed in the exposure assessment) to estimate adverse effects from chemicals potentially originating from the site...3,000 pounds of carbon would be used each year. During changeout, the spent charbon would be replaced with new or regenerated carbon. The spent carbon...activated-carbon beds, were originally pro- posed, but during evaluation of this alternative advanced UV oxidation was determined to be the most suitable

  3. Interim Record of Decision Davis Global Communication Site. Draft Copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-18

    developed in the exposure assessment) to estimate adverse effects from chemicals potentially originating from the site. Noncarcinogenic effects were...would be used each year. During changeout, the spent charbon would be replaced with new or regenerated carbon. The spent carbon would be transported by...oxidation. Two other treatment methods, air stripping and granular activated-carbon beds, were originally proposed, but during evaluation of this

  4. Advanced membrane devices. Interim report for October 1996--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laciak, D.V.; Langsam, M.; Lewnard, J.J.; Reichart, G.C.

    1997-12-31

    Under this Cooperative Agreement, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has continued to investigate and develop improved membrane technology for removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas. The task schedule for this reporting period included a detailed assessment of the market opportunity (Chapter 2), continued development and evaluation of membranes and membrane polymers (Chapter 3) and a detailed economic analysis comparing the potential of Air Products membranes to that of established acid gas removal processes (Chapter 4).

  5. NINTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-08-06

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. One approach has been to periodically evaluate the leak performance of O-rings being aged in mock-up 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at elevated temperatures. Other methods such as compression-stress relaxation (CSR) tests and field surveillance are also on-going to evaluate O-ring behavior. Seventy tests using PCV mock-ups were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they continue to meet the leak-tightness criterion defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Due to material substitution, fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The earliest 300 °F GLT O-ring fixture failure was observed at 34 months. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 72 - 96 months, which bounds O-ring temperatures anticipated during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the 200 ºF fixtures will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures, thus providing additional time to failure data. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the

  6. Early interim FDG PET/CT prediction of treatment response and prognosis in pediatric Hodgkin disease - added value of low-dose CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilivitzki, Anat [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Haifa (Israel); Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Haifa (Israel); Radan, Lea; Israel, Ora [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Ben-Arush, Miriam; Ben-Barak, Ayelet [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Haifa (Israel)

    2013-01-15

    Interim 18F-FDG PET helps predict outcome and tailor treatment in adults with Hodgkin disease (HD). The purpose of this study was to assess predictive values of interim 18F-FDG PET/CT in children with HD and to define the potential added value to interim PET of low-dose CT. Children were prospectively enrolled August 2002-April 2007. PET/low-dose CT was performed at staging, after 2 cycles, at the end of treatment and during follow-up (mean 45 months). Treatment was unchanged regardless of interim results. PET and low-dose CT were read independently. Of 34 enrolled children (ages 3-17 years), 27 achieved complete response, 4 had progressive disease and 3 had relapse. Interim PET alone had positive and negative predictive values of 67% and 89%, respectively. Interim low-dose CT alone had positive and negative predictive values of 35% and 100%, respectively. Interim PET/CT had positive and negative predictive values of 75% and 96%, respectively. Early interim PET/CT was a good predictor of outcome. Integrated PET and low-dose CT improved the predictive value in children with HD. (orig.)

  7. WWC Review of the Report "The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The study, "The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading," examined the effects of using Diagnostic Assessment Tools (DAT) on mathematics and reading outcomes for students in 59 Indiana schools during the 2009-10 academic year. DAT consists of interim assessment tools--Wireless Generation's mCLASS for…

  8. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards. 86.1860-04 Section 86.1860-04 Protection of Environment... § 86.1860-04 How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards. (a) The fleet average standards referred to in this section are the corporate fleet average standards for...

  9. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-07-19

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities fro the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003.

  10. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration—Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2010-09-27

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank of the 241-T Tank Farm in 1973. Five tanks are assumed to have leaked in the TY Farm. Many of the contaminants from those leaks still reside within the vadose zone within the T and TY Tank Farms. The Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection seeks to minimize the movement of these contaminant plumes by placing interim barriers on the ground surface. Such barriers are expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plumes and moving them further. The soil water regime is monitored to determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barriers. Soil-water content and water pressure are monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. Four instrument nests were installed in the T Farm in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY2007; two nests were installed in the TY Farm in FY2010. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, and four heat-dissipation units. A meteorological station has been installed at the north side of the fence of the T Farm. This document summarizes the monitoring methods, the instrument calibration and installation, and the vadose zone monitoring plan for interim barriers in T farm and TY Farm.

  11. Miscanthus - Practical aspects of biofuel development: Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A.; Newman, R.

    2002-07-01

    A 4-year project to plant, grow, harvest and deliver a crop of Miscanthus (a tall perennial grass) to a power station and thus evaluate its potential as a biofuel began in April 1999. Progress to March 2002 is summarised. Miscanthus is envisaged as a possible replacement for straw as a fuel, and the combustion studies are to be carried out at a straw-fired power station in Cambridgeshire England. Work carried out to March 2002 focused on: (1) modifications at the power station to accept the miscanthus as a fuel and (2) planting, growing and future harvesting of the crop. Details of the growth of the miscanthus on a two-hectare site close to the power station are given. It is intended to burn the miscanthus in March or April 2002. The study is being carried out by Energy Power Resources Ltd. on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry.

  12. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  13. BMDO: New Mexico Technology Transfer Demonstration Project. Interim final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The BMDO-New Mexico Technology Transfer Demonstration Project(BMDO-NM) was a collaborative effort among the national laboratories to identify and evaluate the commercial potential of selected SDI-funded technologies. The project was funded by BMDO (formerly known as the Strategic Defense Initiative Office or SDIO), the Technology Enterprise Division (NM-TED) of the NM Economic Development Division, and the three National Laboratories. The project was managed and supervised by SAGE Management Partners of Albuquerque, and project funding was administered through the University of New Mexico. The BMDO-NM Demonstration Project focused on the development of a process to assist technology developers in the evaluation of selected BMDO technology programs so that commercialization decisions can be made in an accelerated manner. The project brought together BMDO, the NM-TED, the University of New Mexico, and three New Mexico Federal laboratories -- Los Alamos (DOE), Phillips (DOD) and Sandia (DOE). Each national laboratory actively participated throughout the project through its technology transfer offices. New Mexico was selected as the site for the Demonstration Program because of its three national and federal research laboratories engaged in BMDO programs, and the existing relationship among state govemment, the labs, universities and local economic development and business assistance organizations. Subsequent Commercialization and Implementation phases for the selected technologies from LANL and SNL were completed by SAGE and the Project Team. Funding for those phases was provided by the individual labs as well as BMDO and NM-TED in kind services. NM-TED played a proactive role in this New Mexico partnership. Its mandate is to promote technology-based economic development, with a commitment to facilitate the use of technology by industry and business statewide. TED assumed the role of program manager and executing agent for BMDO in this demonstration project.

  14. A Novel Technique for Immediate Loading Single Root Form Implants With an Interim CAD/CAM Milled Screw-Retained Crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussaefs, Periklis

    2016-08-01

    A technique is described where an interim abutment and crown are fabricated in the laboratory by utilizing computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology and placed the day of dental implant surgery. The design and contours of the interim crown are designed by the computer software to be identical to the contours of the tentatively designed definitive prosthesis. The interim crown satisfies esthetics immediately after dental implant surgery while allowing the tissue to heal and obtain contours similar to the contours of the definitive prosthesis. The interim crown can be either cement retained or screw retained. The presented technique describes fabrication of a screw-retentive interim crown. After osseointegration is confirmed, a definitive impression is made with a CAD/CAM impression coping. The definitive prosthesis is then fabricated.

  15. Interim measure 495/10 and the state-consumer as an inductor of economic polices

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to approach the modality of indirect intervention of the State in the economic domain, acting as a normative agent and economy inductive. It deals especially with the condition of the State being a consumer itself in order to influence the market, due to its elevated purchasing power. Based on the models of innovations brought about by the Interim Measure #495/2010, about the bidding laws # 8.666/93, this study aims to demonstrate how the public purchasin...

  16. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, N.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form.

  17. Interim obturator in an infant with Treacher Collins syndrome: Review and chairside modification in impression making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sudhir; Aras, Meena; Bakshi, Sonika

    2011-10-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome has been described as a syndrome involving 1st and 2nd branchial arches, affecting various organs in the craniofacial region. Affected infants report with nasal regurgitation and minimal dietary intake due to cleft palate, consequently show delayed and retarded growth. The situation is further complicated when the repair of the palatal defect is postponed due to delayed milestones. At this juncture, it is of paramount importance to intervene prosthetically and close the defect with the aid of an interim obturator. Herein we describe a simple, yet successful, chairside approach to make an impression of an infant without the aid of any kind of anesthesia.

  18. Emulytics for Cyber-Enabled Physical Attack Scenarios: Interim LDRD Report of Year One Results.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clem, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urias, Vincent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Atkins, William Dee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Symonds, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-08

    Sandia National Laboratories has funded the research and development of a new capability to interactively explore the effects of cyber exploits on the performance of physical protection systems. This informal, interim report of progress summarizes the project’s basis and year one (of two) accomplishments. It includes descriptions of confirmed cyber exploits against a representative testbed protection system and details the development of an emulytics capability to support live, virtual, and constructive experiments. This work will support stakeholders to better engineer, operate, and maintain reliable protection systems.

  19. Environmental Impact Statement. March 2011. Interim storage, encapsulation and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) shall be prepared and submitted along with applications for permissibility and a licence under the Environmental Code and a licence under the Nuclear Activities Act for new nuclear facilities. This Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB) to be included in the licence applications for continued operation of Clab (central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel) in Simpevarp in Oskarshamn Municipality and construction and operation of facilities for encapsulation (integrated with Clab) and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  20. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Activities of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been performed under an IEA collaboration since 1995. IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron (D{sup +})-lithium (Li) neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field (2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/year for Fe) in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} for testing candidate fusion materials. In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was started to reduce the key technology risk factors. This interim report summarizes the KEP activities until mid 2001 in the major project work-breakdown areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)