WorldWideScience

Sample records for buses interim evaluation

  1. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of fast-charge battery electric buses compared to compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. Launched in 2015 in collaboration with the California Air Resources Board, this study aims to improve understanding of the overall use and effectiveness of fast-charge electric buses and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation.

  2. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  3. To Evaluate Zero Emission Propulsion and Support Technology for Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Chandler; Leslie Eudy

    2006-11-01

    This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California, in partnership with the San Mateo County Transit District in San Carlos, California. VTA has been operating three fuel cell transit buses in extra revenue service since February 28, 2005. This report provides descriptions of the equipment used, early experiences, and evaluation results from the operation of the buses and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure from March 2005 through July 2006.

  4. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  5. Reliability Evaluation Of The City Transport Buses Under Actual Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarz Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.

  6. COMPARISON OF CLEAN DIESEL BUSES TO CNG BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, D.; Parsley, W.; Bush,C; Zupo, D.

    2003-08-24

    Using previously published data on regulated and unregulated emissions, this paper will compare the environmental performance of current generation transit buses operated on compressed natural gas (CNG) to current generation transit buses operated on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and incorporating diesel particulate filters (DPF). Unregulated emissions evaluated include toxic compounds associated with adverse health effects (carbonyl, PAH, NPAH, benzene) as well as PM particle count and size distribution. For all regulated and unregulated emissions, both technologies are shown to be comparable. DPF equipped diesel buses and CNG buses have virtually identical levels of PM mass emissions and particle number emissions. DPF-equipped diesel buses have lower HC and CO emissions and lower emissions of toxic substances such as benzene, carbonyls and PAHs than CNG buses. CNG buses have lower NOx emissions than DPF-equipped buses, though CNG bus NOx emissions are shown to be much more variable. In addition, this paper will compare the capital and operating costs of CNG and DPF-equipped buses. The cost comparison is primarily based on the experience of MTA New York City Transit in operating CNG buses since 1995 and DPF-equipped buses fueled with ULSD since 2001. Published data on the experience of other large transit agencies in operating CNG buses is used to validate the NYCT experience. The incremental cost (compared to ''baseline'' diesel) of operating a typical 200-bus depot is shown to be six times higher for CNG buses than for ''clean diesel'' buses. The contributors to this increased cost for CNG buses are almost equally split between increased capital costs for purchase of buses and installation of fueling infrastructure, and increased operating costs for purchase of fuel, bus maintenance, and fuel station maintenance.

  7. Interim Reliability Evaluation Program procedures guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents procedures for conducting analyses of a scope similar to those performed in Phase II of the Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP). It documents the current state of the art in performing the plant systems analysis portion of a probabilistic risk assessment. Insights gained into managing such an analysis are discussed. Step-by-step procedures and methodological guidance constitute the major portion of the document. While not to be viewed as a cookbook, the procedures set forth the principal steps in performing an IREP analysis. Guidance for resolving the problems encountered in previous analyses is offered. Numerous examples and representative products from previous analyses clarify the discussion

  8. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  9. Diesel vs. compressed natural gas for school buses: a cost-effectiveness evaluation of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing emissions from school buses is a priority for both state and federal regulators. Two popular alternative technologies to conventional diesel (CD) are emission controlled diesel (ECD), defined here to be diesel buses equipped with continuously regenerating particle filters, and engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper uses a previously published model to quantify the impact of particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions on population exposure to ozone and to primary and secondary PM, and to quantify the resulting health damages, expressed in terms of lost quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Resource costs include damages from greenhouse gas-induced climate change, vehicle procurement, infrastructure development, and operations. I find that ECD and CNG produce very similar reductions in health damages compared to CD, although CNG has a modest edge because it may have lower NOx emissions. However, ECD is far more cost effective ($400,000-900,000 cost per QALY saved) than CNG (around $4 million per QALY saved). The results are uncertain because the model used makes a series of simplifying assumptions and because emissions data and cost data for school buses are very limited

  10. Evaluation of retrofit crankcase ventilation controls and diesel oxidation catalysts for reducing air pollution in school buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbath, Kim; Hannigan, Michael P.; Milford, Jana B.

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates the effect of retrofit closed crankcase ventilation filters (CCFs) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) on the in-cabin air quality in transit-style diesel school buses. In-cabin pollution levels were measured on three buses from the Pueblo, CO District 70 fleet. Monitoring was conducted while buses were driven along their regular routes, with each bus tested three times before and three times after installation of control devices. Ultrafine number concentrations in the school bus cabins were 33-41% lower, on average, after the control devices were installed. Mean mass concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were 56% lower, organic carbon (OC) 41% lower, elemental carbon (EC) 85% lower, and formaldehyde 32% lower after control devices were installed. While carbon monoxide concentrations were low in all tests, mean concentrations were higher after control devices were installed than in pre-retrofit tests. Reductions in number, OC, and formaldehyde concentrations were statistically significant, but reductions in PM2.5 mass were not. Even with control devices installed, during some runs PM2.5 and OC concentrations in the bus cabins were elevated compared to ambient concentrations observed in the area. OC concentrations inside the bus cabins ranged from 22 to 58 μg m -3 before and 13 to 33 μg m -3 after control devices were installed. OC concentrations were correlated with particle-bound organic tracers for lubricating oil emissions (hopanes) and diesel fuel and tailpipe emissions (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons). Mean concentrations of hopanes, PAH, and aliphatic hydrocarbons were lower by 37, 50, and 43%, respectively, after the control devices were installed, suggesting that both CCFs and DOCs were effective at reducing in-cabin OC concentrations.

  11. Performance evaluation of the JPL interim digital SAR processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.; Barkan, B.; Curlander, J.; Jin, M.; Pang, S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of the Interim Digital SAR Processor (IDP) was evaluated. The IDP processor was originally developed for experimental processing of digital SEASAT SAR data. One phase of the system upgrade which features parallel processing in three peripheral array processors, automated estimation for Doppler parameters, and unsupervised image pixel location determination and registration was executed. The method to compensate for the target range curvature effect was improved. A four point interpolation scheme is implemented to replace the nearest neighbor scheme used in the original IDP. The processor still maintains its fast throughput speed. The current performance and capability of the processing modes now available on the IDP system are updated.

  12. Criteria for evaluation of interim radwaste solidification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of a permanent volume reduction and/or solidification system has become increasingly complex and difficult for utilities over the years. Factors affecting the selection include the system capital cost, projected transportation costs, projected burial costs and on-site storage options. Complicating the evaluation are the increase in emerging radwaste technologies, uncertainties in future regulations and uncertainties associated with the establishment of regional compacts, such as burial site location, cost of burial and volume allotments. The complexity of this evaluation has led some utilities to delay the selection of a permanent system and to seek other less expensive short-term solutions. Other utilities have made the difficult decision to purchase a permanent system, but find themselves in need of temporary waste processing capability until their permanent system becomes operational, which can take as long as five years. This paper outlines the criteria for evaluating interim radwaste options versus permanent facilities and explains why Duke Power Company has elected to utilize an interim portable volume reduction (VR) service at Duke's Oconee Nuclear Station in South Carolina

  13. Evaluation of city buses installed diesel particulate filter systems on fleet test; Diesel particulate filter system wo tosaishita rosen bus no soko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, H. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An environmental air quality of suspended particulate matter is insufficient in the big city area. To reduce the particulate matter, improvement of engine and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system are carrying. The purpose of this report is to investigate a possibility of practical use of the city buses installed DPF systems. From March 1995, investigation for practical use of these DPF systems on a route buses was carried in regular service operation of the Tokyo and Yokohama Transportation Bureau. The investigation items are service situation, smoke density and preparation inspection. From the result for 2 years service operation, each DPF systems needed some failure correspondence. but these were not fatal problem on using the DPF system. Then the subject of relative to durability and reliability became clear, and the performance of a low particulate emission DPF system obtained the high value evaluation for users. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Was Busing the Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    On 15 April 2002, the Dayton Board of Education, the Ohio State Department of Education, and the NAACP reached an agreement ending busing for racial balance in the city schools. Participants agreed that the era for litigated desegregation was over because busing had failed to raise academic achievement of African American children and court…

  15. Intra-Service Section 7 Evaluation Consultation/Conference/Concurrence : Walnut Creek NWR Interim Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Section 7 Evaluation for the Neal Smith NWR Interim Hunting Plan states that the hunting program is not likely to adversely affect listed species on the...

  16. Process evaluation of the Bonneville Power Administration Interim Residential Weatherization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerman, D.I.; Bronfman, B.H.

    1984-08-01

    A process evaluation of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Interim Residential Weatherization Program was conducted between December of 1983 and March of 1984. For this evaluation seven of the utility participants were visited, as were the four BPA area offices serving those utilities. Interviews were also conducted with key staff members at BPA headquarters in Portland. This report describes the Interim Program and the elements of the BPA organizational structure involved in management of the program. It deals also with the implementation process at the seven utilities involved in the evaluation; perceptions of the key actors as to the strengths and weaknesses of the program; the adequacy of the BPA reimbursement for utility administrative expenses; and finally lessons for the Long-Term Program, the BPA residential program which followed the Interim Program in October 1983.

  17. Interior noise profile of buses in Curitiba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannin, Paulo H. T.; Giovanini, Clifton R.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Ferreira, Jose C.

    2002-11-01

    Evaluating the noise levels to which the bus drivers of Curitiba are exposed to during their working days is the main scope of this study. The city is served by an internationally known public transportation system featuring 1902 buses, which attend 1.9 million people per day. Two measurements have been taken inside each one of the 60 buses surveyed, one close to the driver and another one at the back of the bus. The results have showed that the dose levels the drivers are exposed to were below 50% in 92% out of the buses, but the normalized exposure levels were over 65 dB(A) in all cases. This level is considered as the threshold of comfort according to the Brazilian legislation on occupancy health NR-17--Ergonomics. The surveyed buses have been divided into three categories, according to their characteristics: feeder, rapid, and bi-articulated. A total of 20 buses within each category have been surveyed. Among the different categories, it has been found that the feeders have presented the highest noise levels. (To be presented in Portuguese.)

  18. AN EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL BUTYL ETHER: INTERIM FINAL POSITION PAPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to determine the merit of a petition to remove ethylene glycol ether (EGBE) from the Agency's Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) list, EPA has developed an interim final position paper, An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, t...

  19. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life

  20. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  1. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  2. An Evaluation of the Individual Training Account/Eligible Training Provider Demonstration. Final Interim Report.

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald D'Amico; Alexandria Martinez; Jeffrey Salzman; Robin Wagner

    2001-01-01

    Presents interim findings from an evaluation of 13 grantees' efforts to deliver training services through the use of Individual Training Accounts, which participants can use to procure the training of their choice, as long as it is state-approved. Describes policies and practices at about the midpoint of the grant period. Discusses how eligible programs were selected and reviews the information available to participants for use in making training choices.

  3. An Evaluation of the Individual Training Account/Eligible Training Provider Demonstration: Final Interim Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald D'Amico; Alexandria Martinez; Jeffrey Salzman; Robin Wagner

    2001-01-01

    Presents interim findings from an evaluation of 13 grantees' efforts to deliver training services through the use of Individual Training Accounts, which participants can use to procure the training of their choice, as long as it is state-approved. Describes policies and practices at about the midpoint of the grant period. Discusses how eligible programs were selected and reviews the information available to participants for use in making training choices.

  4. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  5. Interim structural evaluation of pool swell loads on suppression chamber of Peach Bottom Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interim structural evaluation has been conducted to establish the effects of pool swell loads on the suppression chamber system of a typical Mark I plant. The plant selected for the analyses was the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 3. In order to provide results in a timely manner, the geometry was adopted from an existing finite element model of a suppression chamber such that the model closely represented, though not identically, the Peach Bottom Plant. A brief summary of the results obtained from the various analyses is presented for the three main structural components of the suppression chamber, i.e., the support columns, the reinforcing ring, and the cylindrical shell

  6. Interim structural evaluation of pool swell loads on suppression chamber of Peach Bottom Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontoudakis, J.; Higginbotham, A.B.

    1976-04-01

    An interim structural evaluation has been conducted to establish the effects of pool swell loads on the suppression chamber system of a typical Mark I plant. The plant selected for the analyses was the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 3. In order to provide results in a timely manner, the geometry was adopted from an existing finite element model of a suppression chamber such that the model closely represented, though not identically, the Peach Bottom Plant. A brief summary of the results obtained from the various analyses is presented for the three main structural components of the suppression chamber, i.e., the support columns, the reinforcing ring, and the cylindrical shell.

  7. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2. GSFLS visit findings and evaluations. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This report describes a global framework that evaluates spent fuel disposition requirements, influencing factors and strategies. A broad sampling of foreign governmental officials, electric utility spokesmen and nuclear power industry officials responsible for GSFLS policies, plans and programs were surveyed as to their views with respect to national and international GSFLS related considerations. The results of these GSFLS visit findings are presented herein. These findings were then evaluated in terms of technical, institutional and legal/regulatory implications. The GSFLS evaluations, in conjunction with perceived US spent fuel objectives, formed the basis for selecting a set of GSFLS strategies which are reported herein.

  8. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2. GSFLS visit findings and evaluations. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This report describes a global framework that evaluates spent fuel disposition requirements, influencing factors and strategies. A broad sampling of foreign governmental officials, electric utility spokesmen and nuclear power industry officials responsible for GSFLS policies, plans and programs were surveyed as to their views with respect to national and international GSFLS related considerations. The results of these GSFLS visit findings are presented herein. These findings were then evaluated in terms of technical, institutional and legal/regulatory implications. The GSFLS evaluations, in conjunction with perceived US spent fuel objectives, formed the basis for selecting a set of GSFLS strategies which are reported herein

  9. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs

  11. 76 FR 72006 - Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... COMMISSION Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon... Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air and Demonstrations of Compliance with 10 CFR 20... that existing guidance does not sufficiently detail how the NRC staff reviews surveys of radon...

  12. BAE/Orion Hybrid Electric Buses at New York City Transit: A Generational Comparison (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2008-03-01

    Paper describes the evaluation of hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by New York City Transit (NYCT) in an order group of 200 (Gen II) and compares their performance to those of similar hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by NYCT in an order group of 125 (Gen I).

  13. Environmental benefits of natural gas for buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment comparing diesel buses with buses fueled by natural gas. The data for the emission of pollutants are based on the MEET Project of the European Commission (EC), supplemented by data measured for diesel and gas buses in Paris. The benefits of the gas fueled bus are then quantified using the damage cost estimates of the ExternE Project of the EC. A diesel bus with emissions equal to Standard EURO2 of the EC is compared with the same bus equipped with a natural gas engine, for use in Paris and in Toulouse. The damage cost of a diesel bus is significant, in the range of 0.4-1.3 euro/km. Natural gas allows an appreciable reduction of the emissions, lowering the damage cost by a factor of about 2.5 (Toulouse) to 5.5 (Paris). An approximate rule is provided for transferring the results to other cities. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of the evolution of the emissions standard towards EURO3, 4 and 5, as well as the effect of uncertainties. Finally a comparison is presented between a EURO2 diesel bus with particle filter, and a gas fueled bus with the MPI engine of IVECO, a more advanced and cleaner technology. With this engine the damage costs of the gas fueled bus are about 3-5 times lower than those of the diesel with particle filter, even though the latter has already very low emissions.(author)

  14. Safety evaluation of interim stabilization of non-stabilized single-shell watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides a summation of the status of safety issues associated with interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs (organic, ferrocyanide, and flammable gas), as extracted from recent safety analyses, including the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis efforts

  15. Radiation shielding and dose rate evaluation at the interim storage facility for spent fuel from Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present studies necessary to license the Interim Storage Facility for the Spent Fuel (CANDU type) from Cernavoda NPP are developed in our country.The spent fuel from Cernavoda NPP is discharged into Spent Fuel Bay in Service Building of the plant, where it remains several years for cooling. After this period, the bundles of spent fuel are to be transferred to the Interim Storage Facility.The dry interim storage solution seems to be the most appropriate variant for Cernavoda NPP.The design of the Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facility must meet the applicable safety requirements in order to ensure radiological protection of the personnel, public and environment during all phases of the facility achievement. In this paper we intend to present the calculation of radiation shielding at the spent fuel interim storage facility for two technical solutions: - Concrete Monolithic Module and Concrete Storage Cask. In order to quantify the fuel composition after irradiation, the isotope generation and depletion code ORIGEN 2.1 has been used, taking into account a cooling time of 7 years and 9 years, respectively, for these two variants. The shielding calculations have been performed using the computer codes QAD-5K and MICROSHIELD-4. The evaluations refer only to gamma radiation because the resulting neutron source (from (α,n) reactions and spontaneous fission) is insignificant as compared to the gamma source. The final results consist in the minimum thickness of the shielding and the corresponding external dose rates, ensuring a design average dose rate based on national and international regulations. (authors)

  16. Further evaluation of the proposed interim consolidation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chairman and the Ranking Minority Member, House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, asked GAO to answer nine questions on the proposed interim consolidation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These questions sought additional information and explanation of matters discussed in GAO's September 11, 1980 report on the subject. GAO still believes both the proposed and an alternative NRC interim consolidation option could help strengthen NRC, but points out several unresolved issues

  17. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  18. Early interim 18F-FDG PET in Hodgkin's lymphoma: evaluation on 304 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of early (interim) PET restaging during first-line therapy of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in clinical practice has considerably increased because of its ability to provide early recognition of treatment failure allowing patients to be transferred to more intensive treatment regimens. Between June 1997 and June 2009, 304 patients with newly diagnosed HL (147 early stage and 157 advanced stage) were treated with the ABVD regimen at two Italian institutions. Patients underwent PET staging and restaging at baseline, after two cycles of therapy and at the end of the treatment. Of the 304 patients, 53 showed a positive interim PET scan and of these only 13 (24.5%) achieved continuous complete remission (CCR), whereas 251 patients showed a negative PET scan and of these 231 (92%) achieved CCR. Comparison between interim PET-positive and interim PET-negative patients indicated a significant association between PET findings and 9-year progression-free survival and 9-year overall survival, with a median follow-up of 31 months. Among the early-stage patients, 19 had a positive interim PET scan and only 4 (21%) achieved CCR; among the 128 patients with a negative interim PET scan, 122 (97.6%) achieved CCR. Among the advanced-stage patients, 34 showed a persistently positive PET scan with only 9 (26.4%) achieving CCR, whereas 123 showed a negative interim PET scan with 109 (88.6%) achieving CCR. Our results demonstrate the role of an early PET scan as a significant step forward in the management of patients with early-stage or advanced-stage HL. (orig.)

  19. Safety evaluation for the interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the basis for interim stabilization of tank 241-C-103. The document covers the removal of the organic liquid layer and the aqueous supernatant from tank 241-C-103. Hazards are identified, consequences are calculated and controls to mitigate or prevent potential accidents are developed

  20. Criticality safety evaluation for long term storage of FFTF fuel in interim storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been postulated that a degradation phenomenon, referred to as ''hot cell rot'', may affect irradiated FFTF mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel during dry interim storage. ''Hot cell rot'' refers to a variety of phenomena that degrade fuel pin cladding during exposure to air and inert gas environments. It is thought to be a form of caustic stress corrosion cracking or environmentally assisted cracking. Here, a criticality safety analysis was performed to address the effect of the ''hot cell rot'' phenomenon on the long term storage of irradiated FFTF fuel in core component containers. The results show that seven FFTF fuel assemblies or six Ident-69 pin containers stored in core component containers within interim storage casks will remain safely subcritical

  1. Safety evaluation of interim stabilization of non-stabilized single-shell watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides results of a review of recently completed safety analyses related to hazards associated with Interim Stabilization of Single analyses related to hazards included oh the Hanford Site Waste Tank-Watch Shell Tanks (SSTs) that are included on the Hanford List. The purpose of the review was to identify and summarize conclusions regarding the safety of interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs, and to highlight applicable limitations, restrictions, and controls. The scope of this review was restricted to SSTs identified List in the categories of flammable gas ferrocyanide, and organic salts. High heat tanks were not included in the scope. A Watch List tank is defined as an underground storage tank containing waste that requires special safety precautions because it may have a serious potential for release of high level radioactive waste because of uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. Special restrictions have been placed on these tanks

  2. Dry interim spent fuel storage casks. Licensing, evaluation and operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German concept for the external dry interim storage of spent fuel and high level wastes is based on the used of monolithic ductile iron casks which are licensed according to the transport regulations and the national Atomic Energy Act. The casks ensure the safe confinement of the radioactive inventory over long term storage periods of up to 40 years. Essential for that purpose is the double barrier containment system, consisting of two independent lids sealed with long term resistant metallic gaskets and equipped with an interspace pressure monitoring device. Since the establishment of this dry interim storage concept in Germany in the early 1980s, a great deal of experience has been accumulated and now spent fuel elements from the THTR reactor at Hamm-Uentrop and from the AVR research reactor at Juelich are loaded into CASTOR-THTR/AVR casks under dry conditions and stored in the licensed external dry interim storage facilities in Ahaus and Juelich. These are now routine procedures that started in 1992 and has so far comprise more than 200 casks. A great deal of operational experience exists and has also been gained in process optimization without any serious problems. Much more difficult are the drying and evacuation procedures for casks loaded under wet conditions in the spent fuel storage pond of a nuclear power plant. In this case, special operational procedures involving humidity measurements are applied. Different loading operations in several German power plants have been carried out since 1982 and the first wet loaded cask proposed for storage in the licensed external dry interim storage facility at Gorleben came into operation in July 1994. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  3. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant. PMID:21608490

  4. Evaluation of Equivalent Dose Rate of Interim Dry Storage Casks Loaded with Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equivalent dose rate calculations of the CASTOR RBMK-1500 and CONSTOR RBMK-1500 casks were performed using SCALE 4.3 computer codes system. These casks are planned for an interim storage of spent nuclear fuel at Ignalina NPP. The dose rate calculations were made on the sidelong, upper and lower surface of the cask and at the certain distance. Results show that dose rate values on the surface of the cask are much less then permissible value 1000 μSv/h when average burnup of fuel assembly is 20 GWd/tU. (author)

  5. Interim Guidelines for the Evaluation and Testing of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, J Erin; Dziuban, Eric J; Fischer, Marc; Cragan, Janet D; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Cannon, Michael J; Frey, Meghan T; Renquist, Christina M; Lanciotti, Robert S; Muñoz, Jorge L; Powers, Ann M; Honein, Margaret A; Moore, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States who are caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy. These guidelines include recommendations for the testing and management of these infants. Guidance is subject to change as more information becomes available; the latest information, including answers to commonly asked questions, can be found online (http://www.cdc.gov/zika). Pediatric health care providers should work closely with obstetric providers to identify infants whose mothers were potentially infected with Zika virus during pregnancy (based on travel to or residence in an area with Zika virus transmission [http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices]), and review fetal ultrasounds and maternal testing for Zika virus infection (see Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak*) (1). Zika virus testing is recommended for 1) infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications born to women who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission while pregnant; or 2) infants born to mothers with positive or inconclusive test results for Zika virus infection. For infants with laboratory evidence of a possible congenital Zika virus infection, additional clinical evaluation and follow-up is recommended. Health care providers should contact their state or territorial health department to facilitate testing. As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. PMID:26820387

  6. Quantitative analyses at baseline and interim PET evaluation for response assessment and outcome definition in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative analyses on FDG PET for response assessment are increasingly used in clinical studies, particularly with respect to tumours in which radiological assessment is challenging and complete metabolic response is rarely achieved after treatment. A typical example is malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), an aggressive tumour originating from mesothelial cells of the pleura. We present our results concerning the use of semiquantitative and quantitative parameters, evaluated at the baseline and interim PET examinations, for the prediction of treatment response and disease outcome in patients with MPM. We retrospectively analysed data derived from 131 patients (88 men, 43 women; mean age 66 years) with MPM who were referred to our institution for treatment between May 2004 and July 2013. Patients were investigated using FDG PET at baseline and after two cycles of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. Responses were determined using modified RECIST criteria based on the best CT response after treatment. Disease control rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated for the whole population and were correlated with semiquantitative and quantitative parameters evaluated at the baseline and interim PET examinations; these included SUVmax, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), percentage change in SUVmax (ΔSUVmax) and percentage change in TLG (ΔTLG). Disease control was achieved in 84.7 % of the patients, and median PFS and OS for the entire cohort were 7.2 and 14.3 months, respectively. The log-rank test showed a statistically significant difference in PFS between patients with radiological progression and those with partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) (1.8 vs. 8.6 months, p < 0.001). Baseline SUVmax and TLG showed a statistically significant correlation with PFS and OS (p < 0.001). In the entire population, both ΔSUVmax and ΔTLG were correlated with disease control based on best CT response (p < 0.001). ΔSUVmax was significantly

  7. Evaluation of the D-Area Expanded Operable Unit for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Constituents of Concern: Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive approach is being developed to evaluate SRS sites with inorganic constituents of concern (COCs) for potential implementation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy. In order to invoke MNA, the operative, or controlling, attenuation mechanisms at a given site must be identified and demonstrated using a technically defensible approach and site-specific data. This report details ongoing research in the application of this approach at the D-Area expanded operable unit (DEXOU). Initial screening of the DEXOU described in this interim report indicates that natural attenuation of inorganic COCs (low pH, Cr, Ni, Se, and As) is occurring to a significant degree. This work is part of continuing efforts to characterize the natural attenuation processes, both abiotic and biotic, occurring at this location and likely occurring at other SRS sites with inorganic COCs

  8. Decommissioning costs of WWER-440 nuclear power plants. Interim report: Data collection and preliminary evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the interest in decommissioning costs within Member States, especially in WWER- 440 operating countries that face the complex decision about continued operation vs. decommissioning in the near future, the IAEA launched the task to prepare a technical document on decommissioning costs of WWER-440 nuclear power plants. The main objectives of this publication were to present the decommissioning costs of WWER-440 NPPs in a uniform manner, i.e. using the cost item and cost group system of the Interim Technical Document on Nuclear Decommissioning 'A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes' developed jointly by the EC, the IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), and providing, as such, a basis for understanding decommissioning costs differences. Member States operating WWER-440 NPPs or having such units under shutdown or even under decommissioning conditions have been requested to provide cost estimates and other input data in order to facilitate understanding of their cost figures. Both decommissioning options, i.e. immediate decommissioning and safe enclosure, have been considered. In the aforementioned joint Interim Technical Document, cost items related to activities that are carried out with a similar emphasis, whether or not tied to a similar time schedule for decommissioning, or that are based on overall activities that cannot be categorised in a specific time period, are grouped as follows: pre-decommissioning actions; facility shutdown activities; procurement of general equipment and material; dismantling activities; waste processing, storage and disposal; site security, surveillance and maintenance; site restoration, cleanup and landscaping; project management, engineering and site support; research and development; fuel and nuclear material; other costs. Before starting implementation of the study, agreement was obtained on general financial, technical and social boundary conditions that should be used in order to facilitate

  9. Clean School Bus USA: Tomorrow's Buses for Today's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is ensuring that all new buses meet tighter standards developed to reduce diesel emissions and improve safety. Today's new buses are cleaner--60 times cleaner than buses built before 1990--and feature additional emergency exits, improved mirror systems, and pedestrian safety devices. But replacing…

  10. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA.

  11. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA

  12. Unit Monitors Manchester-Format Data Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit card converts data signals into convenient hexadecimal form for troubleshooting. Bus-monitoring unit converts data signals from Manchester II format used on data bus into hexadecimal format. Monitoring circuit causes hexadecimal words to display on video terminal, where test engineer compares them with hexadecimal records for troubleshooting. Circuit monitors one bus or two buses simultaneously.

  13. The New Energy Buses in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of “low carbon” economy, new energy vehicles are increasingly favored by the Chinese government and manufacturers. New energy buses have become an important channel for the promotion of new energy utilizations. Based on the summary of policies, this paper conducts a thorough resea...

  14. Performance and economic evaluation of the seahorse natural gas hot water heater conversion at Fort Stewart. Interim report, 1994 Summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE laboratories that participate in the New Technologies Demonstration Program, providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied under that program. This interim report provides the results of a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology-a hot water heater conversion system to convert electrically heated hot water tanks to natural gas fuel. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Stewart, a US Army base in Georgia, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were Gas Fired Products, developers of the technology; the Public Service Company of North Carolina; Atlanta Gas Light Company; the Army Corps of Engineers; Fort Stewart; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  15. Quantitative analyses at baseline and interim PET evaluation for response assessment and outcome definition in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Perrino, Matteo; Gianoncelli, Letizia; Lorenzi, Elena; Gemelli, Maria; Santoro, Armando [Humanitas Research Hospital, Oncology, Rozzano (Italy); Ceresoli, Giovanni Luca [Humanitas Gavazzeni, Oncology, Bergamo (Italy); Giordano, Laura [Humanitas Research Hospital, Biostatistics, Rozzano (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative analyses on FDG PET for response assessment are increasingly used in clinical studies, particularly with respect to tumours in which radiological assessment is challenging and complete metabolic response is rarely achieved after treatment. A typical example is malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), an aggressive tumour originating from mesothelial cells of the pleura. We present our results concerning the use of semiquantitative and quantitative parameters, evaluated at the baseline and interim PET examinations, for the prediction of treatment response and disease outcome in patients with MPM. We retrospectively analysed data derived from 131 patients (88 men, 43 women; mean age 66 years) with MPM who were referred to our institution for treatment between May 2004 and July 2013. Patients were investigated using FDG PET at baseline and after two cycles of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. Responses were determined using modified RECIST criteria based on the best CT response after treatment. Disease control rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated for the whole population and were correlated with semiquantitative and quantitative parameters evaluated at the baseline and interim PET examinations; these included SUV{sub max}, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), percentage change in SUV{sub max} (ΔSUV{sub max}) and percentage change in TLG (ΔTLG). Disease control was achieved in 84.7 % of the patients, and median PFS and OS for the entire cohort were 7.2 and 14.3 months, respectively. The log-rank test showed a statistically significant difference in PFS between patients with radiological progression and those with partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) (1.8 vs. 8.6 months, p < 0.001). Baseline SUV{sub max} and TLG showed a statistically significant correlation with PFS and OS (p < 0.001). In the entire population, both ΔSUV{sub max} and ΔTLG were correlated with disease control based on best CT response (p < 0

  16. [Evaluation of labor-related and physical risk factors for cardiovascular disease in drivers of urban transport buses in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquimim, Andréia Farias; Barral, Ana Beatris Cezar Rodrigues; Gomes, Kênnya Caroline; Rezende, Mayra Costa de

    2012-08-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate risk factors for cardiovascular disease among bus drivers in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais. A semi-structured questionnaire covering personal, anthropometric, professional and labor-related data was used, in addition to a questionnaire on the level of stress. 53 bus drivers were surveyed and the average age was 30 to 39 years of age. 81.1% were non-smokers; 58% of the sample were teetotalers; and 50% took regular exercise. In the assessment of BMI, 40 drivers (75.4%) were overweight. The prevalence in eating habits revealed excess consumption of sugar (66.0%), fat (64.2%), coffee (69.8%), salt (60.4%), coca cola (64.2%) and soft drinks (54.7%). Among reports of chronic diseases, no diabetic (98.1%) or hypertensive (94.3%) drivers were observed. Most of the sample (69.7%) had normal stress levels. With respect to laboratory data, the vast majority of drivers had hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. HDL levels were satisfactory, and the LDL revealed normal and desirable levels in more than half of the sample. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease was low. PMID:22899155

  17. Interim Evaluation of the Secondary 2 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S.: Insights Based on the Experimental Implementation Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Sun, Rachel C. F.; Siu, Andrew M. H.

    2008-01-01

    An interim evaluation was conducted to understand the implementation quality of the Tier 1 Program (Secondary 2 Curriculum) of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs) in the Experimental Implementation Phase. Twenty-five schools were randomly selected to participate in personal and/or telephone interviews to provide information on the implementation details of the program and perceived attributes of the worker-support scheme (“Co-Walker Scheme”)....

  18. Bacterial Quality of Drinking Water in Bushehr Intercity Buses in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Ranjbar Vakilabadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Road transportation and specifically bus travel accounts for the bulk of travel. Contaminated drinking water consumption is one of the issues that threaten health, and always there is pollution possibility in drinking water in buses. This study evaluated the microbial quality of consumed drinking water in buses and also compared it with available standards. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. By considering similar studies, 95% confidence interval and based on the samples size formula for tradition of proportion, 80 buses from 122 buses that entered Bushehr Passenger Depot from other cities or exited it were randomly selected. Over a three-month period, samples were taken from drinking water in these buses. Temperature, pH, residual chlorine, total coliform (TC, and fecal coliform (E. coli in each sample were measured in accordance with the standard method. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS Version 16, and the t-test was performed for statistical difference. Results: The results showed that residual chlorine in 97.5% was zero and pH values of the samples were in the range of 6.8-8.7. TC and E. coli numbers in 12.5% and 8.8% of the samples were higher than those of standards, respectively. Conclusion: Use of ice, washing time of the drinking water tank (daily or weekly, and method of usage and storage of drinking water (with 20-liter tanks had significant effects on the bacterial loads of the drinking water in the tanks (p value <0.05. Some factors such as tank material, driver's education and age, type and model of the bus, filling time of the tank (daily or weekly, the method of filling and emptying the tank (complete clearing out of the tank or otherwise, and distance had no significant effect on the quality of the drinking water in the buses.

  19. Early interim {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Hodgkin's lymphoma: evaluation on 304 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Stefoni, Vittorio; Broccoli, Alessandro; Argnani, Lisa; Baccarani, Michele [University of Bologna, Institute of Hematology and Medical Oncology ' ' L. e A. Seragnoli' ' , Policlinico ' ' Sant' Orsola-Malpighi' ' , Bologna (Italy); Rigacci, Luigi; Puccini, Benedetta [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria ' ' Careggi' ' , Hematology Department, Florence (Italy); Castagnoli, Antonio [Ospedale ' ' Misericordia e Dolce' ' , Nuclear Medicine, Prato (Italy); Vaggelli, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria ' ' Careggi' ' , Nuclear Medicine, Florence (Italy); Zanoni, Lucia; Fanti, Stefano [Policlinico ' ' Sant' Orsola-Malpighi' ' , Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    The use of early (interim) PET restaging during first-line therapy of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in clinical practice has considerably increased because of its ability to provide early recognition of treatment failure allowing patients to be transferred to more intensive treatment regimens. Between June 1997 and June 2009, 304 patients with newly diagnosed HL (147 early stage and 157 advanced stage) were treated with the ABVD regimen at two Italian institutions. Patients underwent PET staging and restaging at baseline, after two cycles of therapy and at the end of the treatment. Of the 304 patients, 53 showed a positive interim PET scan and of these only 13 (24.5%) achieved continuous complete remission (CCR), whereas 251 patients showed a negative PET scan and of these 231 (92%) achieved CCR. Comparison between interim PET-positive and interim PET-negative patients indicated a significant association between PET findings and 9-year progression-free survival and 9-year overall survival, with a median follow-up of 31 months. Among the early-stage patients, 19 had a positive interim PET scan and only 4 (21%) achieved CCR; among the 128 patients with a negative interim PET scan, 122 (97.6%) achieved CCR. Among the advanced-stage patients, 34 showed a persistently positive PET scan with only 9 (26.4%) achieving CCR, whereas 123 showed a negative interim PET scan with 109 (88.6%) achieving CCR. Our results demonstrate the role of an early PET scan as a significant step forward in the management of patients with early-stage or advanced-stage HL. (orig.)

  20. Busing: Ground Zero in School Desegregation. A Literature Review With Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunterton, C. Stanley; And Others

    The contents of this document are organized in six sections. Section one, "Overview," discusses the parameters of the busing controversy. It indicates that the basic issue in the busing debate is racial desegregation in our nation's schools. Section two, "Busing in Perspective," examines the history, scope, and cost of busing; the law and busing;…

  1. Communicating radon risk effectively: a mid-course evaluation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A panel of 2300 homeowners was divided into subgroups to test the effectiveness of six alternative ways of explaining the risk from naturally occurring radon gas. The research design focused on two dimensions: qualitative vs. quantitative and directive vs. evaluative. These characteristics led to 4 experimental booklets, which were compared with EPA's Citizen's Guide and a one-page fact sheet. The evaluation examined how much people learned about radon; whether they could form risk perceptions consistent with their home's measured radon level; and whether they felt they had enough information to make a decision about mitigation. The fact sheet did not perform well on any of these evaluation criteria. None of the five booklets clearly was best for all 3 evaluation criteria; the report discusses the implications for designing an effective radon-risk communication program

  2. Interim Test Procedures for Evaluating Electrical Performance and Grid Integration of Vehicle-to-Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, S.; Kramer, W.; Kroposki, B.; Martin, G.; McNutt, P.; Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Hoke, A.

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a test plan for V2G testing. The test plan is designed to test and evaluate the vehicle's power electronics capability to provide power to the grid, and to evaluate the vehicle's ability to connect and disconnect from the utility according to a subset of the IEEE Std. 1547 tests.

  3. Methodology for evaluation of the reliability and safety of interim and final repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology is based on a set of macro models, mathematical methods and computer codes describing events and processes of radionuclide migration from the repository to the biosphere and evaluating the exposure doses to the population from the area in case of an emergency scenario. The basic macromodels are: Near Field; Intermediate Field; Far Field and Biosphere. The development and effects of corrosion processes, considering complex corrosion as well as local corrosion, are emphasized. The basic modules in the set of computer codes used are: FEMWATER (Sandia NL, USA) modelling radionuclide migration from the repository; PAGAN, which includes the codes DISPERSE and SURFACE, modelling radionuclide migration by surface waters; and GEN II PRESTO, which evaluates the direct dispersion of radioactivity into the atmosphere by the Gaussian model. On the basis of methodology proposed a qualitative assessment of the safety and reliability of the radwaste repository can be made. 5 figs., 45 refs. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on the Hanford Reach, 1997-1999 Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Paul; Nugent, John; Price, William (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1999-02-15

    Pilot work conducted in 1997 to aid the development of the study for the 1998 Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on The Hanford Reach. The objectives of the 1997 work were to: (1) identify juvenile chinook production and rearing areas..., (2) identify sampling sites and develop the statistical parameters necessary to complete the study, (3) develop a study plan..., (4) conduct field sampling activities...

  5. Community Addiction Response Programme CARP Killinarden: review and interim evaluation report, final revised draft.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowden, Matt

    1997-01-01

    Funded by the Combat Poverty Agency, this report presented a review and evaluation of the Community Addiction Response Programme (CARP) in Killinarden, Tallaght, in south-west Dublin. The report examined the historical background to the programme and looked at its development as a particular response to the issue of drug misuse in the area. Data were gathered using internal documentation, such as reports, proposals and minutes; semi-structured interviews with staff, team members, professional...

  6. Report of interim evaluation of Horonobe Underground Research Project Plan in FY2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research results on the ground in the first step, until 2004 FY, and the research program of drift work in the second step are evaluated. On the first step, development of the geological environment research technologies, the monitoring technologies and the basic engineering technologies in the deep underground, long period stability of geological environment, and improvement of the geological disposal technologies, and the stability evaluation methods are investigated and these research results were high in estimation. The research program in the second step contains to obtain the geological environment data at sinking shaft, the effects of sinking on the geological environment, validity of the geological environment model in the first step and around the shaft are estimated. Validity of monitoring technologies of geological environment on the ground, engineering technologies of work, maintenance and management of shaft are evaluated. The fault, upheaval, submergence, change of sea level and climate are determined by earthquakes measurements, GPS and time-stratigraphic classification. The geological disposal technologies are improved by storage of data, better model and verification of engineering element techniques. Test program of materials transition in the geological disposal system is work out. (S.Y.)

  7. Update: Interim Guidance for the Evaluation and Management of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection - United States, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kate; Oliver, Sara E; Lewis, Lillianne; Barfield, Wanda D; Cragan, Janet; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Staples, J Erin; Fischer, Marc; Peacock, Georgina; Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E; Zaki, Sherif; Moore, Cynthia A; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2016-01-01

    CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (1). Laboratory testing is recommended for 1) infants born to mothers with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy and 2) infants who have abnormal clinical or neuroimaging findings suggestive of congenital Zika syndrome and a maternal epidemiologic link suggesting possible transmission, regardless of maternal Zika virus test results. Congenital Zika syndrome is a recently recognized pattern of congenital anomalies associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy that includes microcephaly, intracranial calcifications or other brain anomalies, or eye anomalies, among others (2). Recommended infant laboratory evaluation includes both molecular (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [rRT-PCR]) and serologic (immunoglobulin M [IgM]) testing. Initial samples should be collected directly from the infant in the first 2 days of life, if possible; testing of cord blood is not recommended. A positive infant serum or urine rRT-PCR test result confirms congenital Zika virus infection. Positive Zika virus IgM testing, with a negative rRT-PCR result, indicates probable congenital Zika virus infection. In addition to infant Zika virus testing, initial evaluation of all infants born to mothers with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy should include a comprehensive physical examination, including a neurologic examination, postnatal head ultrasound, and standard newborn hearing screen. Infants with laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection should have a comprehensive ophthalmologic exam and hearing assessment by auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing before 1 month of age. Recommendations for follow-up of infants with laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection depend on whether abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika syndrome

  8. Evaluating interim upgrades to the US Coast Guard's oil spill remote sensing capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Safety Branch (ESB) at the U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center (R ampersand D Center) has established the Comprehensive Marine Environmental Response Project to address a broad spectrum of Coast Guard requirements for technology to improve its oil spill response capabilities. One element of this project addresses the requirement for an improved oil spill surveillance capability. This project element seeks to identify the Coast Guard's operational requirements for oil spill remote sensing, to determine the functional system capabilities needed to meet those requirements, and to evaluate sensor technologies that have near-term potential for providing those capabilities. Current staffing consists of a full-time Senior Research Engineer

  9. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report. Pebble bed reactor fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel cycles were evaluated for the Pebble Bed Gas Cooled Reactor under development in the Federal Republic of Germany. The basic fuel cycle specified for the HTR-K and PNP is well qualified and will meet the requirements of these reactors. Twenty alternate fuel cycles are described, including high-conversion cycles, net-breeding cycles, and proliferation-resistant cycles. High-conversion cycles, which have a high probability of being successfully developed, promise a significant improvement in resource utilization. Proliferation-resistant cycles, also with a high probability of successful development, compare very favorably with those for other types of reactors. Most of the advanced cycles could be adapted to first-generation pebble bed reactors with no significant modifications

  10. Transuranic storage and assay facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-12

    The Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF) Interim Safety Basis document provides the authorization basis for the interim operation and restriction on interim operations for the TRUSAF. The TRUSAF ISB demonstrates that the TRUSAF can be operated safely, protecting the workers, the public, and the environment. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF Hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1987) is superseded by this document.

  11. Interim findings of an evaluation of the U.S. EnergyGuide label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, Christine; Payne, Christopher T.; Thorne, Jennifer

    2000-08-20

    The United States has labeled appliances with the EnergyGuide labels since 1980. Consensus is growing that this label is confusing to consumers and has little impact on purchase decisions. Many researchers have documented that alternative labeling approaches are effective in other countries. The authors comprehensively evaluated the U.S. appliance labeling program for white goods, heating and cooling equipment, and water heaters, with emphasis on products sold through retail outlets. To date, our research has included consumer focus groups and semi-structured interviews with various market actors to assess how best to communicate energy information. With consumers and retail sales staff, five graphical designs were tested a European-style, letter based graphic; an Australian-style star-based graphic; a speedometer-style graphic; a thermometer-style graphic; and the current U.S. style. With manufacturers and contractors, we did not directly test alternate designs. Instead, we asked their opinion of and experience with the current EnergyGuide labeling program.

  12. Evaluation of coatings to control zebra mussel colonization: Year two interim report, 1990-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, E.G.

    1992-05-25

    A study was carried out to identify coatings which are effective in protecting structures from zebra mussel fouling. Plates coated with antifouling paints were tested at Ontario Hydro's Nanticoke thermal generating station in 1990 and 1991 and were rated for their ability to resist mussel fouling or provide easily cleaned surfaces. Of the paints evaluated in 1990, only two silicones demonstrated good resistance to fouling, with the few mussels which did attach easily dislodged. Silicon-coated trash racks, after a year in use, were found to be in good condition and virtually free of mussels. All other coatings failed to prevent strong mussel attachment and were excluded from the 1991 trials. In addition to the two successful 1990 coatings, four silicones, a zinc silicate and a polyurethane were tested. The two silicones that were successful in 1990 continued to be in 1991. Three of the four 1991 silicones and the zinc silicate showed excellent resistance to mussel attachment, however mussels attached to the remaining silicone and the polyurethane with maximum percentage covers of 45% and 40%, respectively. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs

  14. Interim report of evaluation of research and development problems in 2002 FY. Research and development of collaboration with Russian Institutes for Russian weapon plutonium demolition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of above theme was carried out by data from JNC and discussion at the evaluation committee, which is composed by 14 members. The evaluation method, procedure, items, evaluation standard and results are stated. BFS-2 critical experiment was finished. Three bodies irradiation examination had been finished and the post-irradiation examination will be begun soon. Technical possibility of 1.3 ton weapon plutonium disposition by MOX reactor core was confirmed. Possibility of BN reactor core fuel design was discussed and confirmed by data of hybrid reactor core and fuel design obtained. Safety analysis of BN600 hybrid reactor core was carried out and compared with analytical results of Russia. The last design step of production line for equipment of RIAR facility was attained and a part of them began to be bought. The references consist of interim evaluation of R and D problem, measures of evaluation results, supplementary explanation data, explanation data of problem and OHP. (S.Y.)

  15. COORDINATION OF THE WORK OF BUSES IN CITY ROUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad DASHDAMIROV

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the work of bus routes passing through a street. Optimality criterion was chosen for the development of appropriate models of effective work of buses on the land. The paper proposes a new model costing time passengers at bus stops. A method of technique was developed to coordinate the buses running on the combined section of route.

  16. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-06-01

    This Interim Report summarizes the research and development activities of the Superconducting Super Collider project carried out from the completion of the Reference Designs Study (May 1984) to June 1985. It was prepared by the SSC Central Design Group in draft form on the occasion of the DOE Annual Review, June 19--21, 1985. Now largely organized by CDG Divisions, the bulk of each chapter documents the progress and accomplishments to date, while the final section(s) describe plans for future work. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides a basic brief description of the SSC, its physics justification, its origins, and the R&D organization set up to carry out the work. Chapter 2 gives a summary of the main results of the R&D program, the tasks assigned to the four magnet R&D centers, and an overview of the future plans. The reader wishing a quick look at the SSC Phase I effort can skim Chapter 1 and read Chapter 2. Subsequent chapters discuss in more detail the activities on accelerator physics, accelerator systems, magnets and cryostats, injector, detector R&D, conventional facilities, and project planning and management. The magnet chapter (5) documents in text and photographs the impressive progress in successful construction of many model magnets, the development of cryostats with low heat leaks, and the improvement in current-carrying capacity of superconducting strand. Chapter 9 contains the budgets and schedules of the COG Divisions, the overall R&D program, including the laboratories, and also preliminary projections for construction. Appendices provide information on the various panels, task forces and workshops held by the CDG in FY 1985, a bibliography of COG and Laboratory reports on SSC and SSC-related work, and on private industrial involvement in the project.

  17. [Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Benefits Analysis for Battery Electric Buses Based on Travel Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-dan; Tian, Liang; Lü, Bin; Yang, Jian-xin

    2015-09-01

    Battery Electric Bus (BEB) has become one of prior options of urban buses for its "zero emission" during the driving stage. However, the environmental performance of electric buses is affected by multi-factors from the point of whole life cycle. In practice, carrying capacity of BEB and power generation structures can both implement evident effects on the energy consumption and pollutants emission of BEB. Therefore, take the above factors into consideration, in this article, Life Cycle Assessment is employed to evaluate the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of BEB. Results indicate that, travel service is more reasonable as the functional unit, rather than mileage, since the carrying capacity of BEB is 15% lower than the diesel buses. Moreover, compared with diesel buses, the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of battery electric buses are all different due to different regional power structures. Specifically, the energy benefits are 7. 84%, 11. 91%, 26. 90%, 11. 15%, 19. 55% and 20. 31% respectively in Huabei, Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang power structure. From the point of comprehensive emissions reduction benefits, there is no benefit in Huabei power structure, as it depends heavily on coal. But in other areas, the comprehensive emissions reduction benefits of BEB are separately 3. 46%, 26. 81%, 1. 17%, 13. 74% and 17. 48% in Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang. Therefore, it suggests that, enlargement of carrying capacity should be taken as the most prior technology innovation direction for BEB, and the grids power structure should be taken into consideration when the development of BEB is in planning. PMID:26717718

  18. Criteria for preparation and evaluation of radiological emergency response plans and preparedness in support of nuclear power plants. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide a common reference and interim guidance source for: state and local governments and nuclear facility operators in the development of radiological emergency response plans and preparedness in support of nuclear power plants; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other Federal agency personnel engaged in the review of state, local government, and licensee plans and preparedness

  19. Cataract surgery: interim results and complications of a randomised controlled trial. Oxford Cataract Treatment and Evaluation Team (OCTET).

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    A randomised controlled trial in progress for more than five years, with no loss to follow-up (except death), assessed 333 eyes treated by three methods of cataract surgery. They were (A) intracapsular extraction and contact lens usage, (B) intracapsular extraction and implantation of an iris supported lens (Federov I), and (C) extracapsular extraction and implantation of an iridocapsular lens (Binkhorst 2-loop). The purpose of the paper is to report interim visual results, complications, and...

  20. Study of hydride re orientation and mechanical property to evaluate spent fuel integrity during interim Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating condition of modern PWRs is getting severer for the nuclear fuel cladding to meet the needs for an economical power generation. As the operating condition, oxide and the subsequent hydrogen caused by the waterside corrosion are generated in the cladding, which decreases the initial ductility of the cladding. Such an oxide and hydrogen act as a negative effect on the cladding safety under the Back End Fuel Cycle. In Korea, 23 nuclear power plants are in operation and lots of spent fuels are on the onsite storage. The onsite storage capacity in Korea is supposed to be full around at the year of 2016 and interim storage facilities could be considered to be constructed before 2016. Therefore, the dry storage concept is becoming a major technical consideration for intermediate spent fuel storage at present. In relation to this, studies on the effects of interim dry storage conditions to spent fuel integrity have recently been initiated in Korea. During the interim dry storage condition, the fuel cladding failure is affected by oxide thickness, hydride content and hydride re-orientation, among that the most important factor of the fuel cladding failure is the hydride reorientation, because the hydride reorientation behavior is shown by decrease cladding temperature in dry storage. however, the hydride reorientation mechanism was not clearly defined. To achieve this, it should be secured that the base technology for integrity assessment in dry storage. In this study, the hydride re orientation and its effect on the mechanical property of fuel cladding was studied

  1. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  2. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  3. Evaluation and Analysis of SEASAT-A Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SSMR) Antenna Pattern Correction (APC) Algorithm. Sub-task 4: Interim Mode T Sub B Versus Cross and Nominal Mode T Sub B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzis, J. L.; Kitzis, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    The brightness temperature data produced by the SMMR Antenna Pattern Correction algorithm are evaluated. The evaluation consists of: (1) a direct comparison of the outputs of the interim, cross, and nominal APC modes; (2) a refinement of the previously determined cos beta estimates; and (3) a comparison of the world brightness temperature (T sub B) map with actual SMMR measurements.

  4. New concept for the ground connection in Scania’s trucks and buses

    OpenAIRE

    LLORENTE, ANDRÉS

    2014-01-01

    Regarding the ground electrical connection in trucks and buses, the requirements of earthing in heavy-duty vehicles were gathered and evaluated. The most important problems in the state-of-the-art grounding devices are corrosion, electrical resistance and uncertainty in the mounting process, altogether with depreciation over time. The goal is to come up with new concepts that can give a more reliable and better ground connection into the frame with faster, easier and safer manufacturing opera...

  5. Investigations of emergency destruction methods for recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions: Interim emergency destruction methods - evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.R.; Cooper, P.W.; Kipp, M.E. [and others

    1995-07-01

    At the request of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Office, the Sandia Explosives Containment System Design Team investigated mature destruction systems for destroying recovered chemical warfare munitions (CWM). The goal of the investigations was to identify and examine available techniques for the destruction of recovered CWM. The result of this study is a recommendation for an interim solution, a solution for use on any munitions found while an optimal, long-term solution is developed. Sandia is also performing the long-term solution study to develop a system that destroys CWM, contains the blast and fragments, and destroys the chemical agent without insult to the environment.

  6. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Third interim report (October 1979): analysis of individual component cost and/or energy efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This interim report provides documentation on the third task, Analysis of Individual Component Cost and/or Energy Efficiencies, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes the development of both cost and energy loss models for the distribution and customer utilization system elements as well as the analysis of critical performance variables for the types of motors in end use elements, as a function of voltage level. The purpose of this task is to provide individual component cost and energy models which will be incorporated in the global system optimization program under Task 4. A major output of this task is a mathematical model for each component's cost and/or energy losses and a graphical representation of each model.

  7. Comparative study of the work load between one-man buses and two-man buses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno,Mitsuo

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences in physiological and safety conditions of one-man buses and two-man buses were examined from the view point of occupational fatigue. This survey consisted of a work load study which included a time study, study of subsidiary behavior, auditory task, memory test, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR and physiological function tests and a self-administered questionnaire which involved items concerning safety and subjective fatigue complaints. The visual and postural restrictions in the one-man bus were greater than in the two-man bus. The mental capacity of the one-man bus drivers was found to be less. Greater mental fatigue and stress were observed in the one-man bus. More subjective fatigue complaints were observed in the one-man bus. More cases of near accidents were observed in the one-man bus. From these results it was concluded that the one-man bus caused bus drivers a greater mental and physical work load.

  8. Avaliação da exposição de passageiros ao ruído no interior de ônibus do transporte público do município de Itajubá Evaluating noise exposure levels inside the buses for urban transport in the city of Itajuba-MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os níveis de exposição sonora no interior dos ônibus de transporte urbano na cidade de Itajubá - MG, contemplando conforto e risco à saúde. MÉTODO: uma amostra de itinerários foi determinada para que dosimetrias fossem empreendidas para avaliar a exposição. Os critérios de incômodo e de perda auditiva se referenciaram pelos estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. RESULTADOS: em 15 linhas avaliadas, totalizando mais de 23 h de avaliação, o nível sonoro variou de 78 a 84 dB(A. A média aritmética dos valores obtidos foi de 81 ± 0,9 dB(A. Conclusão: os ônibus avaliados não oferecem conforto adequado no que concerne aos parâmetros acústicos. Há a necessidade de oferecer veículos mais bem projetados de modo a reduzir o nível de ruído emitido pelo veículo.PURPOSE: to evaluate the noise exposure levels inside the buses for urban transport in the city of Itajuba - MG. METHOD: a sample of the itineraries was determined to carry out dosimetries in order to assess such exposure. The criteria for discomfort and hearing loss were referenced by those set out by the World Health Organization (WHO. RESULTS: evaluation on 15 itineraries, totaling over 23 hours of evaluation, the noise level ranged from 78 to 84 dB(A. The arithmetic mean for the obtained values was 81 ± 0.9 dB(A. CONCLUSIONS: the evaluated buses do not offer appropriate comfort in what concerns the acoustic parameters. There is a need to provide better vehicles being designed to reduce the noise level emitted by the vehicle.

  9. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2013-05-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel-1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs) showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg

  10. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel−1 and for the CNG buses 41

  11. The evaluation of the electronic prescription service in primary care: interim report on the findings from the evaluation in early implementer sites

    OpenAIRE

    Hibberd, Ralph; Barber, Nick; Cornford, Tony; Lichtner, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    This report provides and interim account of some aspects of research undertaken in to the adoptions and use of the electronic prescription service (EPS) in England. The role of EPS is a fundamentally simple one. It allows the transmission of prescription messages and digitally-signed prescriptions from primary care prescribers, via a central network and server infrastructure, the Spine, from where they can be downloaded by dispensing contractors including community pharmacists, dispensing app...

  12. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

    1992-11-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths`s ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

  13. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

    1992-11-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths's ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

  14. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Evaluation of tuff as a medium for a nucolear waste repository: interim status report on the properties of tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the second in a series of summary briefings to the National Academy of Science's (NAS) Committee on Radioactive Waste Management dealing with feasibility of disposal of heat-producing radioactive waste in silicic tuff. The interim status of studies of tuff properties determined on samples obtained from Yucca Mountain and Rainier Mesa (G-tunnel) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are discussed. In particular, progress is described on resolving issues identified during the first briefing to the NAS which include behavior of water in tuff when heated, the effect of the presence or absence of water and joints on the thermal/physical properties of tuff and the detailed/complex sorptive properties of highly altered and unaltered tuff. Initial correlations of thermal/physical and sorptive properties with the highly variable porosity and mineralogy are described. Three in-situ, at-depth field experiments, one nearly completed and two just getting underway are described. In particular, the current status of mineralogy and petrology, geochemistry, thermal and mechanical, radiation effects and water behavior studies are described. The goals and initial results of a Mine Design Working Group are discussed. Regional factors such as seismicity, volcanism and hydrology are not discussed

  16. Evaluation of tuff as a medium for a nuclear waste repository: interim status report on the properties of tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J.K.; Wolfsberg, K. (eds.)

    1980-07-01

    This report is the second in a series of summary briefings to the National Academy of Science`s (NAS) Committee on Radioactive Waste Management dealing with feasibility of disposal of heat-producing radioactive waste in silicic tuff. The interim status of studies of tuff properties determined on samples obtained from Yucca Mountain and Rainier Mesa (G-tunnel) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are discussed. In particular, progress is described on resolving issues identified during the first briefing to the NAS which include behavior of water in tuff when heated, the effect of the presence or absence of water and joints on the thermal/physical properties of tuff and the detailed/complex sorptive properties of highly altered and unaltered tuff. Initial correlations of thermal/physical and sorptive properties with the highly variable porosity and mineralogy are described. Three in-situ, at-depth field experiments, one nearly completed and two just getting underway are described. In particular, the current status of mineralogy and petrology, geochemistry, thermal and mechanical, radiation effects and water behavior studies are described. The goals and initial results of a Mine Design Working Group are discussed. Regional factors such as seismicity, volcanism and hydrology are not discussed.

  17. Containment integrity evaluation of MSF-type cask for interim storage and transport of PWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many spent fuel storage pools in nuclear plant facilities are now reaching their full capacity in Japan. As a solution of this issue, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, ltd. (MHI) has developed a high integrity dual purpose cask for interim storage and transport of PWR spent fuel. As for the dual purpose cask, the conformity with the requirements for leak-tightness during transport specified in IAEA Safety Standards (Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1) has to be verified by drop tests and/or numerical simulations. A Full-scale drop test is a valid and feasible way for demonstrating a containment performance because it is difficult to scale down a closure system, especially the dimensions and characteristics of the metallic O-rings attached to the lids, according to the scaling law. Therefore, MHI conducted full-scale drop tests and demonstrated the conformity with the leak-tightness requirements. The closure system of the MSF-21P cask has been designed on the basis of the full-scale drop test results and its containment integrity has been verified by dynamic Finite Element (FE) analyses based on the full-scale drop test results

  18. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  19. Air quality in inter-city buses : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various studies have suggested that air quality inside automobiles and school buses may be poorer than ambient or nearby air quality, and that concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants in city buses may be sufficiently elevated to pose concerns for vehicle occupants and operators. This paper presented the results of preliminary investigation of levels of some pollutants in inter-city buses to determine whether a fuller investigation is warranted. Another objective of the investigation was to develop methods for assessing air quality within road vehicles. Students carried monitoring equipment on 28 inter-city trips made by Greyhound Canada buses during July and August 2004. The equipment recorded average levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), as well as concentrations of particulate matter. Bus routes were selected that allowed for an average of 10 hours of total sampling time in a day. Data was recorded on pumps, run times and routes taken. Results indicated that levels of CO in the buses were much lower than the national standard of acceptable levels for CO. Levels of NO2 were on average lower, but 5 of the 19 recorded values exceeded acceptable levels. Average particulate levels recorded in the buses were considered acceptable, although some of the recorded levels were higher than desirable. It was concluded that further work on in-vehicle levels of NO2 and particulate matter could be warranted. Although several procedural and equipment problems were encountered, the methods used in the investigation appeared to be valid, and were thought to be suitable for further work on in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants. 21 refs

  20. Air quality in inter-city buses : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-29

    Various studies have suggested that air quality inside automobiles and school buses may be poorer than ambient or nearby air quality, and that concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants in city buses may be sufficiently elevated to pose concerns for vehicle occupants and operators. This paper presented the results of preliminary investigation of levels of some pollutants in inter-city buses to determine whether a fuller investigation is warranted. Another objective of the investigation was to develop methods for assessing air quality within road vehicles. Students carried monitoring equipment on 28 inter-city trips made by Greyhound Canada buses during July and August 2004. The equipment recorded average levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), as well as concentrations of particulate matter. Bus routes were selected that allowed for an average of 10 hours of total sampling time in a day. Data was recorded on pumps, run times and routes taken. Results indicated that levels of CO in the buses were much lower than the national standard of acceptable levels for CO. Levels of NO{sub 2} were on average lower, but 5 of the 19 recorded values exceeded acceptable levels. Average particulate levels recorded in the buses were considered acceptable, although some of the recorded levels were higher than desirable. It was concluded that further work on in-vehicle levels of NO{sub 2} and particulate matter could be warranted. Although several procedural and equipment problems were encountered, the methods used in the investigation appeared to be valid, and were thought to be suitable for further work on in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants. 21 refs.

  1. The economic and environmental feasibility of biogas buses in Liege

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, Martine; Limbourg, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Everyday, many students at the University of Liège have to drive to the Sart-Tilman village to attend their courses. These journeys are responsible for the emission of harmful particles which have negative impacts on climate and human health. This paper analyzes the economic and environmental feasibility of using biogas buses for public transport in Liège. The idea of implementing biogas buses is based on the proposed recycling of organic waste by the company INTRADEL, which manages and treat...

  2. Assessing Children's Exposure to Ultrafine Particles and Other Air Pollutants in School Buses and at Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qunfang

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter < 100 nm). Children are particularly at risk due to their immature respiratory systems and greater breathing rates per body weight. This study aims to assess children's exposure to UFPs and other air pollutants in school buses and at schools. 24 school buses were employed to represent commonly used school buses in the United States. UFPs and other air pollutants in and around school buses were measured w...

  3. Transuranic waste storage and assay facility (TRUSAF) interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRUSAF ISB is based upon current facility configuration and procedures. The purpose of the document is to provide the basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and the authorization basis for the TRUSAF at the Hanford Site. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1977) is superseded by this document

  4. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  5. Active screening of magnetic field near power stations generator buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study technique for a prototyping system of active screening of power-frequency magnetic field distortions near power station generator buses via controllable magnetic field sources is presented. Results of experimental research on a proto-typing active screening system with different control algorithms are given.

  6. Children's Awareness of Watergate, Busing, Energy, Inflation, and the Bicentennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Robert V.; Weaver, V. Phillips

    1977-01-01

    A research study assessed the awareness of a group of fourth through sixth graders about current events, including busing, energy, inflation, and the Bicentennial. Awareness was found to differ significantly according to location of school and grade in school. Causes for the differences may include life style, curricular emphases, and teacher…

  7. Evaluation of an ensemble of regional climate model simulations over South America driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis: model performance and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solman, Silvina A.; Sanchez, E.; Samuelsson, P.; da Rocha, R. P.; Li, L.; Marengo, J.; Pessacg, N. L.; Remedio, A. R. C.; Chou, S. C.; Berbery, H.; Le Treut, H.; de Castro, M.; Jacob, D.

    2013-09-01

    The capability of a set of 7 coordinated regional climate model simulations performed in the framework of the CLARIS-LPB Project in reproducing the mean climate conditions over the South American continent has been evaluated. The model simulations were forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset for the period 1990-2008 on a grid resolution of 50 km, following the CORDEX protocol. The analysis was focused on evaluating the reliability of simulating mean precipitation and surface air temperature, which are the variables most commonly used for impact studies. Both the common features and the differences among individual models have been evaluated and compared against several observational datasets. In this study the ensemble bias and the degree of agreement among individual models have been quantified. The evaluation was focused on the seasonal means, the area-averaged annual cycles and the frequency distributions of monthly means over target sub-regions. Results show that the Regional Climate Model ensemble reproduces adequately well these features, with biases mostly within ±2 °C and ±20 % for temperature and precipitation, respectively. However, the multi-model ensemble depicts larger biases and larger uncertainty (as defined by the standard deviation of the models) over tropical regions compared with subtropical regions. Though some systematic biases were detected particularly over the La Plata Basin region, such as underestimation of rainfall during winter months and overestimation of temperature during summer months, every model shares a similar behavior and, consequently, the uncertainty in simulating current climate conditions is low. Every model is able to capture the variety in the shape of the frequency distribution for both temperature and precipitation along the South American continent. Differences among individual models and observations revealed the nature of individual model biases, showing either a shift in the distribution or an overestimation

  8. Evaluation of Shear Strength Threshold of Concern for Retrieval of Interim-Stored K-Basin Sludge in the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-11-01

    K-Basin sludge will be recovered into the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and will be stored in the T Plant for interim storage (at least 10 years). Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show that high uranium content K Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has "paste" and "chunks" with shear strengths of approximately 3~5 kPa and 380 ~ 770 kPa, respectively. High uranium content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185°C, 10 h) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. After interim storage at T Plant, the sludge in the STSCs will be mobilized by water jets impinging the sludge. The objective of the evaluation was to determine the range of sludge shear strength for which there is high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from STSCs. The shear strength at which the sludge can be retrieved is defined as the "shear strength threshold of concern." If the sludge shear strength is greater than the value of the shear strength threshold of concern, a water-jet retrieval system will be unlikely to mobilize the sludge up to the container’s walls. The shear strength threshold of concern can be compared with the range of possible shear strengths of K-Basin stored sludge to determine if the current post interim-storage, water-jet retrieval method is adequate. Fourteen effective cleaning radius (ECR) models were reviewed, and their validity was examined by applying them to Hanford 241-SY-101 and 241-AZ-101 Tanks to reproduce the measured ECR produced by the mixer pumps. The validation test identified that the Powell-3 and Crowe-2 ECR models are more accurate than other ECR models reviewed. These ECR models were used to address a question as to whether the effective cleaning radius of a water jet is sufficient or if it can be readily expanded

  9. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA 3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro II–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmental Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 8.0 ± 3.1 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF =2.8 ± 1.6 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 × 1015 (kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode size-resolved EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm.

    Emission

  10. Continued evaluation of compact heat exchangers for OTEC application. Interim progress report, February 15, 1977--August 15, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Heronemus, W.E.

    1977-08-01

    Progress on the continued UMass technical evaluation of compact heat exchangers for OTEC applications is summarized. Objectives of this study include: (1) Analytical and experimental evaluation of the performance characteristics of compact heat exchangers (using ammonia as a working fluid) over the entire range of OTEC system conditions, (2) An evaluation of the applicable manufacturing processes, maintenance requirements and arrangement concepts for large scale compact heat exchangers with specific emphasis on their total economics. This progress report also includes a technical report on compact heat exchanger design information for OTEC application. Contained in this report are a review of previous compact heat exchanger work, a literature review of applicable two phase evaporating and condensing technical publications, and recommendations for compact heat exchanger analytical design procedure.

  11. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach in the Columbia River, 1998 Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John; Newsome, Todd; Nugent, Michael (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2001-07-27

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the second year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fish species, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1998 field season.

  12. Job Enrichment: Evaluation with Implications for Air Force Job Redesign. Interim Report, 1 January 1975-30 April 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Thomas W.; Zumbro, Patrick A.

    The main text of this report consists of a review and evaluation of job enrichment as an approach to job redesign, with implications for Air Force research and application. In addition, two appendixes are included: the first, a supplemental historical discussion; the second, a ninety-six-item annotated bibliography. Specific objectives are to…

  13. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  14. Transmission Loss Allocation Based on Buses Injected Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Aazami

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method is proposed to allocate transmission loss in pool-based electricity markets. This method is based on using the impedance matrix of the network and the admittance equivalent circuit seen from the network buses. After performing load flow equations, the losses of each bus are calculated using the impedance matrix of the network and the reduced admittance matrix and the injected currents from each bus. These losses are properly and fairly shared between network buses for fair loss allocation in proportion to the percent of penetration the currents of each bus. Furthermore, using partial derivatives of the active power losses with respect to the bus currents’ coefficients, a sensitivity analysis has been done for proving the fairness of the proposed method. In addition to its simplicity, the suggested method assigns the losses properly and fairly between the buses. Finally, this method has been tested on a benchmark IEEE 14-bus network, and the results are compared with other existing methods.

  15. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  16. Standard guide for evaluation of materials used in extended service of interim spent nuclear fuel dry storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Part of the total inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is stored in dry cask storage systems (DCSS) under licenses granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this guide is to provide information to assist in supporting the renewal of these licenses, safely and without removal of the SNF from its licensed confinement, for periods beyond those governed by the term of the original license. This guide provides information on materials behavior under conditions that may be important to safety evaluations for the extended service of the renewal period. This guide is written for DCSS containing light water reactor (LWR) fuel that is clad in zirconium alloy material and stored in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), at an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). The components of an ISFSI, addressed in this document, include the commercial SNF, canister, cask, and all parts of the storage installation including the ISFSI pad. The language of t...

  17. Overview about the environmental analysis within the project CUTE : Clean urban transport for Europe using fuel cell driven buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Established to demonstrate the readiness of the fuel cell technology as an almost emission-free and low-noise transport system in public transportation, the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) represents the first large scale fleet application of fuel cell driven vehicles. The firm IKP is responsible for the evaluation of new technology concerning fuel cell driven buses in its entirety and over its complete life cycle, to ensure that the goals of environmentally friendly and resource saving of transportation are achieved. A comparison with conventional alternatives, such as diesel driven buses, and compressed natural gas buses was performed. Life cycle assessment in accordance with Deutsches Institut fur Normung e.V. (DIN) International Standardization Organization (ISO) 14040 series was used for the ecological, technical and economic analysis. The potential of the new fuel cell technology in the reduction of air polluting emissions such as sulphur dioxide and summer smog causing nitrogen oxides in highly populated inner city areas was investigated, along with the quantification of the abatement of carbon dioxide at European level and contribution to Kyoto commitments. 7 refs., 8 figs

  18. FDG PET/CT is useful for the interim evaluation of response to therapy in patients affected by haematogenous spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina; Ambrosini, Valentina; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola Malpighi, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Boriani, Luca; Gasbarrini, Alessandro; Boriani, Stefano [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Oncologic and Degenerative Spine Surgery, Bologna (Italy); Salvadori, Caterina; Zamparini, Eleonora; Rorato, Giada; Tumietto, Fabio; Cristini, Francesco; Viale, Pierluigi [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola Malpighi, Infectious Diseases Unit, Bologna (Italy); Scudeller, Luigia [Policlinico San Matteo Pavia Fondazione IRCCS, Pavia (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Antibiotic therapy in patients affected by discitis is often empirical. Therefore, early evaluation of response to therapy is important. In many patients inflammatory indexes are low during all the phases of the diseases or are altered by concomitant diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the possible role of FDG PET/CT for the early evaluation of response to therapy in patients affected by infective discitis, in comparison to C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels. Enrolled in the study were 38 patients diagnosed with haematogenous infective discitis. Of the 38 patients, 7 had tubercular infection, 1 fungal infection and 30 pyogenic discitis. Four patients were excluded because the second PET/CT scan was not performed. Thus 34 patients (18 women, mean age 64 years) were analysed. All the patients included underwent a FDG PET/CT scan and determination of CRP level at baseline and again 2 to 4 weeks after the start of therapy. The PET results in terms of SUV of the first and second scans (SUV1 and SUV2) and delta-SUVmax were compared to the inflammatory indexes and clinical status during therapy. The mean SUVmax at diagnosis was 8.6 {+-} 3.7. The mean CRP level at diagnosis was 3.8 {+-} 3.8 mg/dl. A progressive clinical response was seen in 26 patients and 8 patients showed no response. SUV1 was not correlated with the baseline CRP level (CRP1, p = 0.7) and SUV2 was not correlated with the CRP level at the time of the second scan (CRP2, p = 0.4). In responders, SUV2 and CRP2 were significantly lower than SUV1 and CRP1 (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively). ROC curves for delta-SUVmax showed a sensitivity of 82 % and a specificity of 82 % with a cut-off of 34 %. ROC curves for SUV2 showed a sensitivity of 83 % and a specificity of 46 % with a cut-off of 6.4. ROC curves for delta-CRP showed a sensitivity of 67 % and a specificity of 89 % with a cut-off of 74 %. ROC curves for CRP2 showed a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 70 % with a cut-off of 0.7 mg

  19. Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere

  20. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  1. Application of Spatial Data Modeling Systems, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and Transportation Routing Optimization Methods for Evaluating Integrated Deployment of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations and Advanced Nuclear Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this siting study work is to support DOE in evaluating integrated advanced nuclear plant and ISFSI deployment options in the future. This study looks at several nuclear power plant growth scenarios that consider the locations of existing and planned commercial nuclear power plants integrated with the establishment of consolidated interim spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights that inform the process for determining and optimizing candidate areas for new advanced nuclear power generation plants and consolidated ISFSIs to meet projected US electric power demands for the future.

  2. Application of Spatial Data Modeling Systems, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and Transportation Routing Optimization Methods for Evaluating Integrated Deployment of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations and Advanced Nuclear Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Peterson, Steven K [ORNL; Scaglione, John M [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this siting study work is to support DOE in evaluating integrated advanced nuclear plant and ISFSI deployment options in the future. This study looks at several nuclear power plant growth scenarios that consider the locations of existing and planned commercial nuclear power plants integrated with the establishment of consolidated interim spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights that inform the process for determining and optimizing candidate areas for new advanced nuclear power generation plants and consolidated ISFSIs to meet projected US electric power demands for the future.

  3. Fine particle concentrations in buses and taxis in Florence, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondelli, M. Cristina; Chellini, Elisabetta; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Cenni, Isabella; Gasparrini, Antonio; Nava, Silvia; Garcia-Orellana, Isabel; Lupi, Andrea; Grechi, Daniele; Mallone, Sandra; Jantunen, Matti

    On October 2004, a sampling survey was carried out in Florence to estimate urban fine particle exposure concentrations inside commuting vehicles during workdays characterized by heavy traffic. Portable samplers were positioned inside four regularly scheduled diesel-powered buses and four taxis during eight weekdays. Each sampler consisted of a 2.5 μm size pre-separator cyclone, a direct-reading data logging photometer (pDR-1200), and a 4 L min -1 filter sampler for the determination of PM 2.5 mass concentration. Based on reflectance analysis measurements, a PM 2.5 Black Smoke Index was determined for each filter, and the elemental composition of the PM 2.5 was analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). PM 2.5 mass concentrations inside the vehicles correlated well with the urban ambient air PM 2.5 concentrations measured at the fixed-site monitoring stations. The PM 2.5 excess above the urban ambient level was on average 32 μg m -3 (range: 22-52 μg m -3) and 20 μg m -3 (range: 11-29 μg m -3) in buses and taxis, respectively. The PM 2.5-bound sulfur concentration was also higher in the buses than in the taxis. Based on daily Time-Microenvironment-Activity-Diary (TMAD) data, the Florentines spend on average 9.7% of their day in traffic, and the corresponding average exposure is approximately 12% of their daily PM 2.5 personal exposure. The obtained data could be used to plan interventions to minimize the PM 2.5 citizen exposures in commuting.

  4. Prediction of Conducted Emissions in Satellite Power Buses

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Spadacini; Flavia Grassi; Diego Bellan; Pignari, Sergio A.; Filippo Marliani

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a modeling methodology for the prediction of conducted emissions (CE) in a wide frequency range (up to 100 MHz), which are generated by dc/dc converters and propagate along the power buses of satellites. In particular, the dc/dc converter seen as a source of CE is represented by a behavioral model, whose parameters can be identified by two unit-level experimental procedures performed in controlled test setups. A simplified multiconductor transmission-line (MTL) model is deve...

  5. The Effect of Incorporation, Orientation and Silane Treatment of Glass Fibers on the Fracture Resistance of Interim Fixed Partial Dentures

    OpenAIRE

    Basant, Gupta; Reddy, Y G

    2011-01-01

    Fracture of interim fixed partial dentures (FPD) is of important concern to the dental surgeon, especially with long-span fixed partial dentures or areas of heavy occlusal stress. Polymers used in interim FPDs, reinforced with glass fibers have shown to have a positive effect on the fracture resistance of interim FPDs. Since little research has been done on the influence of silane treated glass fibers on the fracture resistance of interim FPDs, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect ...

  6. A case study of real-world tailpipe emissions for school buses using a 20% biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio; Kuhns, Hampden D; Moosmüller, Hans; Witt, Jay; Nussbaum, Nicholas J; Oliver Chang, M-C; Parthasarathy, Gayathri; Nathagoundenpalayam, Suresh Kumar K; Nikolich, George; Watson, John G

    2007-10-15

    Numerous laboratory studies report carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter emission reductions with a slight nitrogen oxides emission increase from engines operating with biodiesel and biodiesel blends as compared to using petroleum diesel. We conducted a field study on a fleet of school buses to evaluate the effects of biodiesel use on gaseous and particulate matter fuel-based emission factors under real-world conditions. The field experiment was carried out in two phases during winter 2004. In January (phase I), emissions from approximately 200 school buses operating on petroleum diesel were measured. Immediately after the end of the first phase measurement period, the buses were switched to a 20% biodiesel blend. Emission factors were measured again in March 2004 (phase II) and compared with the January emission factors. To measure gaseous emission factors we used a commercial gaseous remote sensor. Particulate matter emission factors were determined with a combination of the gaseous remote sensor, a Lidar (light detection and ranging), and transmissometer system developed at the Desert Research Institute of Reno, NV, U.S.A. Particulate matter emissions from school buses significantly increased (up to a factor of 1.8) after the switch from petroleum diesel to a 20% biodiesel blend. The fuel used during this campaign was provided by a local distributor and was independently analyzed at the end of the on-road experiment. The analysis found high concentrations of free glycerin and reduced flash points in the B 100 parent fuel. Both measures indicate improper separation and processing of the biodiesel product during production. The biodiesel fuels used in the school buses were not in compliance with the U.S.A. ASTM D6751 biodiesel standard that was finalized in December of 2001. The U.S.A. National Biodiesel Board has formed a voluntary National Biodiesel Accreditation Program for producers and marketers of biodiesel to ensure product quality and

  7. Bay Area Transit Agencies Propel Fuel Cell Buses Toward Commercialization (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration of the next generation of fuel cells buses. Several transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area are participating in demonstrating the largest single fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States.

  8. The Bus Stops Here: The Case for Biodiesel in School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that diesel exhaust from most of the nation's school buses may be hazardous to children's health. Documents studies on the nature and potential magnitude of the risk to children and proposes replacing petroleum diesel with biodiesel as the fuel for school buses. Presents the merits and practicality of switching to biodiesel as a healthier…

  9. Eastside, Westside... An Exercise in Applying Document Analysis Techniques in Educational Evaluation. Research on Evaluation Program Paper and Report Series. No. 78. Interim Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Keats

    This booklet is about document analysis and its utility as a method in education evaluation, and is intended for evaluators in local school districts, regional education agencies, and state departments of education. Document analysis is described as a technique that relies heavily upon a variety of written materials for data, insights, and…

  10. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  11. Verification of the new ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypta, C.; Calvet, J.-C.; Albergel, C.; Balsamo, G.; Boussetta, S.; Carrer, D.; Lafont, S.; Meurey, C.

    2011-02-01

    An evaluation of the global ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim (with a 0.5° grid) is performed over France, based on the high resolution (8 km) SAFRAN atmospheric reanalysis. The ERA-Interim precipitation, Incoming Solar Radiation (ISR), air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, are compared with their SAFRAN counterparts. Also, interpolated in situ ISR observations are used in order to consolidate the evaluation of this variable. The daily precipitation estimates produced by ERA-Interim over France correlate very well with SAFRAN. However, the values are underestimated by 27%. A GPCP-corrected version of ERA-Interim is less biased (13%). The ERA-Interim estimates of ISR correlate very well with SAFRAN and with in situ observations on a daily basis. Whereas SAFRAN underestimates the ISR by 6 Wm-2, ERA-Interim overestimates the ISR by 10 Wm-2. In order to assess the impact of the ERA-Interim errors, simulations of the ISBA-A-gs land surface model are performed over the SMOSREX grassland site in southwestern France using ERA-Interim (with and without GPCP rescaling) and SAFRAN. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are simulated, together with carbon dioxide fluxes. The rescaled ERA-Interim performs better than the original ERA-Interim and permits to achieve flux scores similar to those obtained with SAFRAN.

  12. Verification of the new ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis over France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Szczypta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the global ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim (with a 0.5° grid is performed over France, based on the high resolution (8 km SAFRAN atmospheric reanalysis. The ERA-Interim precipitation, Incoming Solar Radiation (ISR, air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, are compared with their SAFRAN counterparts. Also, interpolated in situ ISR observations are used in order to consolidate the evaluation of this variable. The daily precipitation estimates produced by ERA-Interim over France correlate very well with SAFRAN. However, the values are underestimated by 27%. A GPCP-corrected version of ERA-Interim is less biased (13%. The ERA-Interim estimates of ISR correlate very well with SAFRAN and with in situ observations on a daily basis. Whereas SAFRAN underestimates the ISR by 6 Wm−2, ERA-Interim overestimates the ISR by 10 Wm−2. In order to assess the impact of the ERA-Interim errors, simulations of the ISBA-A-gs land surface model are performed over the SMOSREX grassland site in southwestern France using ERA-Interim (with and without GPCP rescaling and SAFRAN. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are simulated, together with carbon dioxide fluxes. The rescaled ERA-Interim performs better than the original ERA-Interim and permits to achieve flux scores similar to those obtained with SAFRAN.

  13. Verification of the new ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis over France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Szczypta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the global ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim (with a 0.5° grid is performed over France, based on the high resolution (8 km SAFRAN atmospheric reanalysis. The ERA-Interim precipitation, Incoming Solar Radiation (ISR, air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, are compared with their SAFRAN counterparts. Also, interpolated in situ ISR observations are used in order to consolidate the evaluation of this variable. The daily precipitation estimates produced by ERA-Interim over France correlate very well with SAFRAN. However, the values are underestimated by 26%. A GPCP-corrected version of ERA-Interim is less biased (10–15%. The ERA-Interim estimates of ISR correlate very well with SAFRAN and with in situ observations on a daily basis. Whereas SAFRAN underestimates the ISR by 6–8 W m−2, ERA-Interim overestimates the ISR by 9–10 W m−2. In order to assess the impact of the ERA-Interim errors, simulations of the ISBA-A-gs land surface model are performed over the SMOSREX grassland site in southwestern France using ERA-Interim (with and without GPCP rescaling and SAFRAN. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are simulated, together with carbon dioxide fluxes. The rescaled ERA-Interim performs better than the original ERA-Interim and permits to achieve flux scores similar to those obtained with SAFRAN.

  14. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  15. Using Task Clarification, Goal Setting, and Feedback to Decrease Table Busing Times in a Franchise Pizza Restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Seth; Smith, Andrew; Ludwig, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of task-clarification, and manager verbal and graphic feedback on employee busing times at a pizza restaurant. Using an ABC design, task-clarification was provided in a memo, which described the process, priority, and goal time of busing. The busing time decreased slightly, from an average of 315 seconds…

  16. Technical and systems evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skolnik, E.G.; DiPietro, J.P. [Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    During FY 1998 Energetics performed a variety of technology-based evaluations for the Hydrogen Program. Three evaluations are summarized below: hydrogen bromine-based electricity storage, carbon-based hydrogen storage, and hydrogen-fueled buses.

  17. Effect of polyester fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties of interim fixed partial dentures

    OpenAIRE

    N. Gopichander; K.V. Halini Kumarai; Vasanthakumar, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different reinforcements currently available for interim fixed partial denture (FPD) materials do not provide the ideal strength for long-term use. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to develop a more ideal provisional material for long-term use with better mechanical properties. This study evaluated the effectiveness of polyester fiber reinforcement on different interim FPD materials. Methods: Thirty resin-bonded FPDs were constructed from three provisional interim F...

  18. Immobilized high-level waste interim storage alternatives generation and analysis and decision report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a study of alternative system architectures to provide onsite interim storage for the immobilized high-level waste produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization vendor. It examines the contract and program changes that have occurred and evaluates their impacts on the baseline immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) interim storage strategy. In addition, this report documents the recommended initial interim storage architecture and implementation path forward

  19. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs

  20. Immobilized high-level waste interim storage alternatives generation and analysis and decision report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    1999-05-18

    This report presents a study of alternative system architectures to provide onsite interim storage for the immobilized high-level waste produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization vendor. It examines the contract and program changes that have occurred and evaluates their impacts on the baseline immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) interim storage strategy. In addition, this report documents the recommended initial interim storage architecture and implementation path forward.

  1. Txatarra: vivienda transitoria con buses de transporte público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Arenas Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente análisis del proyecto Casa Linda parte de una exploración conceptual en torno a un hábitat sostenible, mediante la generación de un tipo de vivienda transitoria que reutiliza buses de transporte público destinados a ser reducidos a chatarra. La necesidad de replantear la labor de configurar espacios con materiales y formas predeterminados llevó a los autores a comprender cómo resultan insuficientes los medios tradicionales de construcción, en los que se acostumbra emplear materias primas en presentaciones estandarizadas y con acabados predefinidos que se adaptan a los requerimientos y necesidades del proyecto. Enfrentar el proyecto a partir del reciclaje de materiales y objetos (chatarra, de diversas dimensiones y en variadas condiciones, generó un proceso cuya característica principal es la imposibilidad de anticipar con exactitud los procesos constructivos y los acabados finales.

  2. Resistojet control and power for high frequency ac buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Resistojets are operational on many geosynchronous communication satellites which all use dc power buses. Multipropellant resistojets were selected for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) Space Station which will supply 208 V, 20 kHz power. This paper discusses resistojet heater temperature controllers and passive power regulation methods for ac power systems. A simple passive power regulation method suitable for use with regulated sinusoidal or square wave power was designed and tested using the Space Station multipropellant resistojet. The breadboard delivered 20 kHz power to the resistojet heater. Cold start surge current limiting, a power efficiency of 95 percent, and power regulation of better than 2 percent were demonstrated with a two component, 500 W breadboard power controller having a mass of 0.6 kg.

  3. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder - Occulter (TPF-O) mission has two Spacecraft (SC) buses, one for a space telescope and the other for a formation-flying occulter. SC buses typically supply the utilities (support structures, propulsion, attitude control, power, communications, etc) required by the payloads. Unique requirements for the occulter SC bus are to provide the large delta V required for the slewing maneuvers of the occulter, and comunications for formation flying. The TPF-O telescope SC bus shares some key features of the one for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): both support space telescopes designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths with comparable primary mirror apertures (2.4 m for HST, 2.4 - 4.0 m for TPF-O). However, TPF-O is expected to have a Wide Field Camera (WFC) with a Field of View (FOV) much larger than that of HST. Ths WFC is also expected to provide fine guidance. TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth Lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large science FOV require higher performance communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. The velocity required for reachng SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require both TPF-O elements to have compact, low-mass designs. Finally, it is possible that TPF-O may utilize a modular design derived fiom that of HST to allow servicing in the SEL2 orbit.

  4. ETF interim design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-day ETF Interim Design Review was conducted on July 23-25, 1980, at the Sheraton Potomac Inn in Rockville, Maryland. The intent of the review was to provide a forum for an in-depth assessment and critique of all facets of the ETF design by members of the fusion community. The review began with an opening plenary session at which an overview of the ETF design was presented by D. Steiner, manager of the ETF Design Center, complemented by a physics overview by P.H. Rutherford, chairman of the ETF/INTOR Physics Committee. This was followed by six concurrent review sessions over the next day and a half. The review closed with a plenary session at which the Design Review Board presented its findings. This document consists of the viewgraphs for the opening plenary session and an edited version of the presentations made by Steiner and Rutherford

  5. A report on (interim) evaluation of research and development subjects in fiscal year 2000. Evaluation subject on the 'Safety research in fast breeder reactor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety research as a basis R and D supporting development of the fast breeder reactor (FBR) has been practiced at aims of development, admittance and operation/maintenance of a fast experimental reactor, 'Joyo' and a fast breeder prototype reactor, 'Monju' and of reflection to a proof reactor plan promoted by the electric utility. However, at present, in order to reflect FBR cycle actual use strategy survey research, decision of importance in research is promoted to effectively reflect their research results to judgment and investigation on consistency of various candidate concepts. Here was carried out on some evaluations on research program and practicing method of coming five years on conventional research results, reflection to the second period of the actual use strategy survey research, and practice of national safety research yearly plan at a center of past five years on contribution to FBR development and safety regulation in Japan. Here were described on aim and meaning of the R and D, establishment of target, planning, practicing system, and results. (G.K.)

  6. Quantitative characterization of the reliability of simplex buses and stars to compare their benefits in fieldbuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldbuses targeted to highly dependable distributed embedded systems are shifting from bus to star topologies. Surprisingly, despite the efforts into this direction, engineers lack of analyses that quantitatively characterize the system reliability achievable by buses and stars. Thus, to guide engineers in developing adequate bus and star fieldbuses, this work models, quantifies and compares the system reliability provided by simplex buses and stars for the case of the Controller Area Network (CAN). It clarifies how relevant dependability-related aspects affect reliability, refuting some intuitive ideas, and revealing some previously unknown bus and star benefits. - Highlights: • SANs models that quantify the reliability of simplex buses/stars in fieldbuses. • Models cover system relevant dependability-related features abstracted in the literature. • Results refute intuitive ideas about buses and stars and show some unexpected effects. • Models and results can guide the design of reliable simplex bus/stars fieldbuses

  7. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2009-10-01

    This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

  8. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel

  9. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONRAD EA

    2008-08-12

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

  10. On-road pollutant emission and fuel consumption characteristics of buses in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijuan Wang; Yunshan Ge; Jianwei Tan; Mingliang Fu; Asad Naeem Shah; Yan Ding; Hong Zhao; Bin Liang

    2011-01-01

    On-road emission and fuel consumption (FC) levels for Euro Ⅲ and Ⅳ buses fueled on diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG)were compared, and emission and FC characteristics of buses were analyzed based on approximately 28,700 groups of instantaneous data obtained in Beijing using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). The experimental results revealed that NOx and PM emissions from CNG buses were decreased by 72.0% and 82.3% respectively, compared with Euro Ⅳ diesel buses. Similarly,these emissions were reduced by 75.2% and 96.3% respectively, compared with Euro Ⅲ diesel buses. In addition, CO2, CO, HC,NOx, PM emissions and FC of Euro Ⅳ diesel buses were reduced by 26.4%, 75.2%, 73.6%, 11.4%, 79.1%, and 26.0%, respectively,relative to Euro Ⅲ diesel buses. The CO2, CO, HC, NOx, PM emissions and FC factors all decreased with bus speed increased, while increased as bus acceleration increased. At the same time, the emission/FC rates as well as the emission/FC factors exhibited a strong positive correlation with the vehicle specific power (VSP). They all were the lowest when VSP < 0, and then rapidly increased as VSP increased. Furthermore, both the emission/FC rates and emission/FC factors were the highest at accelerations, higher at cruise speeds,and the lowest at decelerations for non-idling buses. These results can provide a base reference to further estimate bus emission and FC inventories in Beijing.

  11. Cool Science: K-12 Climate Change Art Displayed on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cool science is an art contest where K12 students create placards (7" x 22") to educate the public about climate change. Students are prompted to create their artwork in response to questions such as: What is the evidence for climate change? How does climate change impact your local community? What can you do to reduce the impacts of climate change? In each of three years, 500-600 student entrees have been submitted from more than 12 school districts across Massachusetts. A panel of judges including scientists, artists, rapid transit representatives, and educators chooses elementary, middle, and high school winners. Winners (6), runners-up (6), and honorable mentions (12) and their families and teachers are invited to an annual Cool Science Award Ceremony to be recognized and view winning artwork. All winning artwork is posted on the Cool Science website. The winning artwork (2 per grade band) is converted into placards (11" x 28") and posters (2.5' x 12') that are placed on the inside (placards) and outside (posters) of buses. Posters are displayed for one month. So far, Cool Science was implemented in Lowell, MA where over 5000 public viewers see the posters daily on the sides of Lowell Rapid Transit Authority (LRTA) buses, making approximately 1,000,000 impressions per year. Cool Science acts to increase climate literacy in children as well as the public, and as such promotes intergenerational learning. Using art in conjunction with science learning about climate change appears to be effective at engaging not just traditionally high achieving science students, but also those interested in the creative arts. Hearing winners' stories about how they created their artwork and what this contest meant to them supports the idea that Cool Science attracts a wide diversity of students. Parents discuss climate change with their children. Multiple press releases announcing the winners further promotes the awareness of climate change throughout school districts and their

  12. Evaluation of HY-2A Scatterometer Wind Vectors Using Data from Buoys, ERA-Interim and ASCAT during 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Xing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The first Chinese operational Ku-band scatterometer on board Haiyang-2A (HY-2A, launched in August 2011, is designed for monitoring the global ocean surface wind. This study estimates the quality of the near-real-time (NRT retrieval wind speed and wind direction from the HY-2A scatterometer for 36 months from 2012 to 2014. We employed three types of sea-surface wind data from oceanic moored buoys operated by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC and the Tropical Atmospheric Ocean project (TAO, the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF reanalysis data (ERA-Interim, and the advanced scatterometer (ASCAT to calculate the error statistics including mean bias, root mean square error (RMSE, and standard deviation. In addition, the rain effects on the retrieval winds were investigated using collocated Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH precipitation data. All data were collocated with the HY-2A scatterometer wind data for comparison. The quality performances of the HY-2A NRT wind vectors data (especially the wind speeds were satisfactory throughout the service period. The RMSEs of the HY-2A wind speeds relative to the NDBC, TAO, ERA-Interim, and ASCAT data were 1.94, 1.73, 2.25, and 1.62 m·s−1, respectively. The corresponding RMSEs of the wind direction were 46.63°, 43.11°, 39.93°, and 47.47°, respectively. The HY-2A scatterometer overestimated low wind speeds, especially under rainy conditions. Rain exerted a diminishing effect on the wind speed retrievals with increasing wind speed, but its effect on wind direction was robust at low and moderate wind speeds. Relative to the TAO buoy data, the RMSEs without rain effect were reduced to 1.2 m·s−1 and 39.68° for the wind speed direction, respectively, regardless of wind speed. By investigating the objective laws between rain and the retrieval winds from HY-2A, we could improve the quality of wind retrievals through future studies.

  13. Interim Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, R J; Alekou, A; Andreopoulos, C; Ankenbrandt, C M; Antusch, S; Apollonio, M; Aslaninejad, M; Back, J; Ballett, P; Barker, G; Beard, K B; Benedetto, E; Bennett, J R J; Berg, J S; Bhattacharya, S; Blackmore, V; Blennow, M; Blondel, A; Bogacz, A; Bonesini, M; Bontoiu, C; Booth, C; Bromberg, C; Brooks, S; Bross, A; Caretta, O; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Choubey, S; Cline, D; Cobb, J; Coloma, P; Coney, L; Cummings, M A C; Davenne, T; de Gouvea, A; Densham, C; Ding, X; Donini, A; Dornan, P; Dracos, M; Dufour, F; Eccleston, R; Edgecock, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Ellis, M; Fernandez-Martinez, E; Fernow, R; Flanagan, G; Gallardo, J C; Gandhi, R; Garoby, R; Gavela, B; Geer, S; Gilardoni, S; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Goswami, S; Graves, V B; Gupta, R; Hanson, G; Harrison, P; Hart, T; Hernandez, P; Huber, P; Indumathi, D; Johnson, R P; Johnstone, C; Karadzhov, Y; Kelliher, D; Kirk, H; Kopp, J; Kudenko, Y; Kuno, Y; Kurup, A; Kyberd, P; Laing, A; Li, T; Lindner, M; Long, K; Pavon, J Lopez; Loveridge, P; Machida, S; Majumdar, D; Maltoni, M; Martin-Albo, J; Martini, M; Matev, R; McDonald, K T; McFarland, A; Meloni, D; Mezzetto, M; Migliozzi, P; Mishra, S R; Mokhov, N; Mondal, N; Morfin, J; Mori, Y; Morozov, V; Neuffer, D; Ota, T; Palladino, V; Parke, S; Pascoli, S; Pasternak, J; Peltoniemi, J; Petti, R; Planche, T; Popovic, M; Pozimski, J; Prior, G; Prior, C; Rees, G; Rigolin, S; Roberts, T J; Roblin, Y; Rogers, C; Samulyak, R; Schwetz, T; Simos, N; Sinha, N; Skoro, G; Snopok, P; Soler, F J P; Souchlas, N; Strait, J; Stratakis, D; Striganov, S; Tang, J; Thomason, J W G; Tortora, L; Tsenov, R; Winter, W; Witte, H; Yasuda, O; Yoshikawa, C Y; Zisman, M

    2011-01-01

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was established by the community at the ninth "International Workshop on Neutrino Factories, super-beams, and beta- beams" which was held in Okayama in August 2007. The IDS-NF mandate is to deliver the Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility on the timescale of 2012/13. In addition, the mandate for the study [3] requires an Interim Design Report to be delivered midway through the project as a step on the way to the RDR. This document, the IDR, has two functions: it marks the point in the IDS-NF at which the emphasis turns to the engineering studies required to deliver the RDR and it documents baseline concepts for the accelerator complex, the neutrino detectors, and the instrumentation systems. The IDS-NF is, in essence, a site-independent study. Example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL, have been identified to allow site-specific issues to be addressed in the cost analysis that will be presented in the RDR. The choice of example sites shou...

  14. Prediction of Conducted Emissions in Satellite Power Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Spadacini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a modeling methodology for the prediction of conducted emissions (CE in a wide frequency range (up to 100 MHz, which are generated by dc/dc converters and propagate along the power buses of satellites. In particular, the dc/dc converter seen as a source of CE is represented by a behavioral model, whose parameters can be identified by two unit-level experimental procedures performed in controlled test setups. A simplified multiconductor transmission-line (MTL model is developed to account for the propagation of CE in shielded bundles of twisted-wire pairs used as power cables. The whole power system is represented by the interconnection of the circuit models of dc/dc converters, cables, and Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit (PCDU. By solving the obtained network, frequency spectra of CE can be predicted. Experimental results are reported to substantiate the accuracy of the proposed unit-level dc/dc converter model and the MTL model of cables. Finally, a system-level test setup composed of three dc/dc converters connected to a PCDU is considered, and predicted CE are compared versus experimental measurements.

  15. An alternative fuel for urban buses-biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, L.G.; Weber, J.A.; Russell, M.D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative biodiesel fueling performance and operational data have been collected from urban mass transit buses at Bi-State Development Agency in St. Louis Missouri. A total of 10 vehicles were selected for fueling; 5-6V92 TA Detroit Diesel engines have been fueled with a 20/80 biodiesel/diesel fuel blend and 5-6V92 TA Detroit Diesel control vehicles have been fueled on petroleum based low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD). The real-world impact of a biodiesel blend on maintenance, reliability, cost, fuel economy and safety compared to LSD will be presented. In addition, engine exhaust emissions data collected by the University of West Virginia Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored mobile emissions laboratory will be presented. Operational data from Bi-State Development Agency is collected by the University of Missouri and quality control procedures are performed prior to placing the data in the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC). The AFDC is maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. This effort, which enables transit operators to review a real-world comparison of biodiesel and LSD, has been funded by the National Biodiesel Board with funds provided by the United Soybean Board with national checkoff dollars and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  16. CNG/diesel buses for Texas school districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, the preponderance of trucks, buses and other heavy duty vehicles are powered by diesel engines. The reasons for the change from gasoline to diesel engines are all basically economic, due to the longer life and lower operating costs of diesel engines, as compared to gasoline engines. This provides a compelling reason to continue to use these engines, even if powered by fuel other than diesel. A major strategy within the industry has been the various attempts to adapt diesel engines to alternative fuels. These conversions have been largely to either methanol or natural gas, with propane joining the race just recently. This strategy takes advantage of the remaining life of existing vehicles by converting engines rather than purchasing a new engine (and/or vehicle) designed for and dedicated to an alternate fuel. Although diesel engines have been converted to run on natural gas, there are substantial challenges that must be met. The following describes some of the technical approaches being used for diesel engine conversions

  17. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  18. Multi-criteria analysis of alternative-fuel buses for public transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological development of buses with new alternative fuels is considered in this paper. Several types of fuels are considered as alternative-fuel modes, i.e., electricity, fuel cell (hydrogen), and methanol. Electric vehicles may be considered the alternative-fuel vehicles with the lowest air pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles provide an alternate mode, at least for the period of improving the technology of electric vehicles. A hybrid electric vehicle is defined as a vehicle with the conventional internal combustion engine and an electric motor as its major sources of power. Experts from different decision-making groups performed the multiple attribute evaluation of alternative vehicles. AHP is applied to determine the relative weights of evaluation criteria. TOPSIS and VIKOR are compared and applied to determine the best compromise alternative fuel mode. The result shows that the hybrid electric bus is the most suitable substitute bus for Taiwan urban areas in the short and median term. But, if the cruising distance of the electric bus extends to an acceptable range, the pure electric bus could be the best alternative

  19. Ontario interim market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario's White Paper outlined the government's plan to restructure the electric power industry to an open market by the year 2000. Bill 35, when passed, will be the legislation required to start the process of electricity restructuring laid out in the White Paper. In the section dealing with the Independent Market Operator, the White Paper states that the Ontario government, as a transitional step to an open market, will introduce an element of competition into the industry by establishing an interim market for replacement power and impose a discipline on Ontario Hydro. Unfortunately, this transitional step did not live up to its billing and has had a minimal impact on both Ontario Hydro and the marketplace. Nevertheless, the experiment has provided a peek into the future of electricity and power pricing in Ontario, by making price information available and posted on the Internet. This paper examines how informative this experience has been and looks at the year just past in perspective. One of the notable developments was that the threat of a power shortage as a result of shutting down seven of Ontario Hydro's nuclear reactors, did not materialize. Ontario Hydro's fossil fuel generation plants were able to step into the breach and generate enough energy to make up for the reduction in nuclear production, and did so within the allowable limit for acid gas emissions. Some interesting developments in pricing electric power exported to the US in the summer of of 1998 are also reviewed for what they can teach us about the value of transparency and full price disclosure. 2 figs

  20. Single-shell tank interim stabilization risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Risk Analysis is to provide a cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-2358, Rev. 1, Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization Project Plan (Project Plan) (Ross et al. 1998). The analysis compares the required cost profile by fiscal year (Section 4.2) and revised schedule completion date (Section 4.5) to the Project Plan. The analysis also evaluates the executability of the Project Plan and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation

  1. Single-shell tank interim stabilization risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basche, A.D.

    1998-07-31

    The purpose of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Risk Analysis is to provide a cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-2358, Rev. 1, Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization Project Plan (Project Plan) (Ross et al. 1998). The analysis compares the required cost profile by fiscal year (Section 4.2) and revised schedule completion date (Section 4.5) to the Project Plan. The analysis also evaluates the executability of the Project Plan and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation.

  2. An Interim President Sets the Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardo, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    An interim president often plays a crucial role in leading a college or university. In some instances, the interim can address and resolve troublesome issues and thus clear the way for the new president to generate progress. In others, the interim stays the course so that the institution maintains its momentum and seizes strategic opportunities to…

  3. Interim analysis in long-term clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this dissertation is to evaluate the usefulness of both stopping rules and estimation methods in long-term clinical trials with interim analyses. The ASPECT trial, a long-term clinical trial to assess the effect of anticoagulant therapy on mortality in patients after myoca

  4. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-10-19

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a stationary-wireless- power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep was performed over many different battery sizes, charging power levels, and number/location of bus stop charging stations. The net present cost was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under favorable and high unfavorable market penetration assumptions. The analysis identifies fuel saving opportunities with plug-in hybrid electric bus scenarios at cumulative net present costs not too dissimilar from those for conventional buses.

  5. Influence of malfunctions of the maintenance activities on the urban buses fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Crişan; Nicolae, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Optimization of activities with the aim to provide quality service in conditions of high profitability, is one of the main objectives chased by managers in transportation companies. As a consequence, directing the attention towards monitoring of maintenance activities of vehicles fleet, can achieve desired results. Two of the most important issues related to the maintenance activity, is the increase of reliability and reduction of fuel consumption of the vehicles fleet. Aforementioned actions represents a way forward for raising the quality and profitability of services offered. In this paper, the main ways of monitoring the fuel consumption, in order to reduce it and increase the reliability of transportation vehicles fleet, are presented. For the evaluation of the maintenance system and the degree of influence of malfunctions recorded on the fuel consumption, using the Pareto -ABC method, following case study on a fleet of buses for urban public transport has been conducted. Results obtained highlights the deficiencies of the maintenance process carried out and constitutes a solid base for the reorganization of the maintenance activity, involving preventive maintenance activities, in order to contribute decisively to the results targeted by the management of transport companies.

  6. A review of proposed Glen Canyon Dam interim operating criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Tomasko, D.; Hayse, J.; Durham, L.

    1992-04-01

    Three sets of interim operating criteria for Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River have been proposed for the period of November 1991, to the completion of the record of decision for the Glen Canyon Dam environmental impact statement (about 1993). These criteria set specific limits on dam releases, including maximum and minimum flows, up-ramp and down-ramp rates, and maximum daily fluctuation. Under the proposed interim criteria, all of these parameters would be reduced relative to historical operating criteria to protect downstream natural resources, including sediment deposits, threatened and endangered fishes, trout, the aquatic food base, and riparian plant communities. The scientific bases of the three sets of proposed operating criteria are evaluated in the present report:(1) criteria proposed by the Research/Scientific Group, associated with the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES); (2) criteria proposed state and federal officials charged with managing downstream resources; and (3) test criteria imposed from July 1991, to November 1991. Data from Phase 1 of the GCES and other sources established that the targeted natural resources are affected by dam operations, but the specific interim criteria chosen were not supported by any existing studies. It is unlikely that irreversible changes to any of the resources would occur over the interim period if historical operating criteria remained in place. It is likely that adoption of any of the sets of proposed interim operating criteria would reduce the levels of sediment transport and erosion below Glen Canyon Dam; however, these interim criteria could result in some adverse effects, including the accumulation of debris at tributary mouths, a shift of new high-water-zone vegetation into more flood-prone areas, and further declines in vegetation in the old high water zone.

  7. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.

    2010-11-01

    This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

  8. Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and merged total ozone data sets - evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech), 1961-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaníček, K.; Metelka, L.; Skřivánková, P.; Staněk, M.

    2012-09-01

    Homogenized data series of total ozone measurements taken by the regularly and well calibrated Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at Hradec Králové (Czech) and the data from the re-analyses ERA-40 and ERA-Interim were merged and compared to investigate differences between the particular data sets originated in Central Europe, the Northern Hemisphere (NH) mid-latitudes. The Dobson-to-Brewer transfer function and the algorithm for approximation of the data from the re-analyses were developed, tested and applied for creation of instrumentally consistent and completed total ozone data series of the 50-yr period 1961-2010 of observations. This correction has reduced the well-known seasonal differences between Dobson and Brewer data below the 1% calibration limit of the spectrophotometers. Incorporation of the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim total ozone data on days with missing measurements significantly improved completeness and reliability of the data series mainly in the first two decades of the period concerned. Consistent behaviour of the original and corrected/merged data sets was found in the pre-ozone-hole period (1961-1985). In the post-Pinatubo (1994-2010) era the data series show seasonal differences that can introduce uncertainty in estimation of ozone recovery mainly in the winter-spring season when the effect of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments is expected. All the data sets confirm substantial depletion of ozone also in the summer months that gives rise to the question about its origin. The merged and completed data series of total ozone will be further analyzed to quantify chemical ozone losses and contribution of natural atmospheric processes to the ozone depletion over the region. This case study points out the importance of selection and evaluation of the quality and consistency of the input data sets used in estimation of long-term ozone changes including recovery of the ozone layer over the selected areas. Data are available from the PANGAEA

  9. Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and merged total ozone data sets – evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech, 1961–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vaníček

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Homogenized data series of total ozone measurements taken by the regularly and well calibrated Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at Hradec Králové (Czech and the data from the re-analyses ERA-40 and ERA-Interim were merged and compared to investigate differences between the particular data sets originated in Central Europe, the Northern Hemisphere (NH mid-latitudes. The Dobson-to-Brewer transfer function and the algorithm for approximation of the data from the re-analyses were developed, tested and applied for creation of instrumentally consistent and completed total ozone data series of the 50-yr period 1961–2010 of observations. This correction has reduced the well-known seasonal differences between Dobson and Brewer data below the 1% calibration limit of the spectrophotometers. Incorporation of the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim total ozone data on days with missing measurements significantly improved completeness and reliability of the data series mainly in the first two decades of the period concerned. Consistent behaviour of the original and corrected/merged data sets was found in the pre-ozone-hole period (1961–1985. In the post-Pinatubo (1994–2010 era the data series show seasonal differences that can introduce uncertainty in estimation of ozone recovery mainly in the winter-spring season when the effect of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments is expected. All the data sets confirm substantial depletion of ozone also in the summer months that gives rise to the question about its origin. The merged and completed data series of total ozone will be further analyzed to quantify chemical ozone losses and contribution of natural atmospheric processes to the ozone depletion over the region. This case study points out the importance of selection and evaluation of the quality and consistency of the input data sets used in estimation of long-term ozone changes including recovery of the ozone layer over the selected areas. Data are available

  10. Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and assimilated total ozone data sets - evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech), 1961-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaníček, K.; Metelka, L.; Skřivánková, P.; Staněk, M.

    2012-05-01

    Homogenized data series of total ozone measurements taken by the regularly and well calibrated Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at Hradec Králové (Czech) and the data from the re-analyses ERA-40 and ERA-Interim were assimilated and combined to investigate differences between the particular data sets over Central Europe, the NH mid-latitudes. The Dobson-to-Brewer transfer function and the algorithm for approximation of the data from the re-analyses were developed, tested and applied for creation of instrumentally consistent and completed total ozone data series of the 50-yr period 1961-2010 of observations. The assimilation has reduced the well-known seasonal differences between Dobson and Brewer data below the 1% calibration limit of the spectrophotometers. Incorporation of the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim total ozone data on days with missing measurements significantly improved completeness and reliability of the data series mainly in the first two decades of the period concerned. Consistent behaviour of the original and assimilated data sets was found in the pre-ozone-hole period (1961-1985). In the post-Pinatubo (1994-2010) era the data series show seasonal differences that can introduce uncertainty in estimation of ozone recovery mainly in the winter-spring season when the effect of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments is expected. All the data sets confirm substantial depletion of ozone also in the summer months that gives rise to the question about its origin. The assimilated and completed data series of total ozone will be further analyzed to quantify chemical ozone losses and contribution of natural atmospheric processes to the ozone depletion over the region. This case study points out importance of selection and evaluation of the quality and consistency of the input data sets used in estimation of long-term ozone changes including recovery of the ozone layer over the selected areas. Data are available from the PANGAEA database at http://dx.doi.org/10

  11. Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and assimilated total ozone data sets – evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech, 1961–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vaníček

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Homogenized data series of total ozone measurements taken by the regularly and well calibrated Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at Hradec Králové (Czech and the data from the re-analyses ERA-40 and ERA-Interim were assimilated and combined to investigate differences between the particular data sets over Central Europe, the NH mid-latitudes. The Dobson-to-Brewer transfer function and the algorithm for approximation of the data from the re-analyses were developed, tested and applied for creation of instrumentally consistent and completed total ozone data series of the 50-yr period 1961–2010 of observations. The assimilation has reduced the well-known seasonal differences between Dobson and Brewer data below the 1% calibration limit of the spectrophotometers. Incorporation of the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim total ozone data on days with missing measurements significantly improved completeness and reliability of the data series mainly in the first two decades of the period concerned. Consistent behaviour of the original and assimilated data sets was found in the pre-ozone-hole period (1961–1985. In the post-Pinatubo (1994–2010 era the data series show seasonal differences that can introduce uncertainty in estimation of ozone recovery mainly in the winter-spring season when the effect of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments is expected. All the data sets confirm substantial depletion of ozone also in the summer months that gives rise to the question about its origin. The assimilated and completed data series of total ozone will be further analyzed to quantify chemical ozone losses and contribution of natural atmospheric processes to the ozone depletion over the region. This case study points out importance of selection and evaluation of the quality and consistency of the input data sets used in estimation of long-term ozone changes including recovery of the ozone layer over the selected areas. Data are available from the PANGAEA database

  12. Exposures due to emissions from ethanol and diesel fuelled buses in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otson, R. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Fellin, P.; Davis, C. [BOVAR Environmental, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Personal exposure and ambient concentrations of 105 chemical species were determined during September in Stockholm, a northern urban area. This unique study provided personal exposure data equivalent to 8 person-days each on diesel and ethanol buses, and 12 person-days on streets in the urban area. If used judiciously, these data, and the ambient data, are useful for risk assessment, as well as for validation of dispersion models. The concentrations for many species were relatively low, when compared to results from other studies of outdoor concentrations in urban areas. This was probably due to the meteorological conditions during the study which favoured low concentrations. Personal exposures were generally higher than ambient concentrations, probably because of the proximity of subjects to sources of contaminants. As expected, alcohol compounds were found at greater levels in ethanol fueled buses and at bus stops on routes with predominantly ethanol fueled buses. No trends were evident for exposures of VOCs or PAC on diesel and ethanol buses. Exposures to particles at the bus stops were lower than exposures on buses, possibly due to the low traffic volumes at the bus stops, and the proximity of subjects on buses to other traffic. Upon factor analysis of the data, five factors explained the majority of the variance in the results, and showed associations between selected species and a few other parameters. These associations should be useful to design more efficient studies in the future. The chemical element mass balance results with measured profiles yielded uncertain results, but with literature profiles, the diesel and ethanol bus emissions accounted for a small fraction, i.e. < 5%, of the exposures 26 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Verification of the new ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis over France

    OpenAIRE

    Szczypta, C; J.-C. Calvet; Albergel, C.; Balsamo, G.; S. Boussetta; D. Carrer; S. Lafont; Meurey, C.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of the global ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim (with a 0.5° grid) is performed over France, based on the high resolution (8 km) SAFRAN atmospheric reanalysis. The ERA-Interim precipitation, Incoming Solar Radiation (ISR), air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, are compared with their SAFRAN counterparts. Also, interpolated in situ ISR observations are used in order to consolidate the evaluation of this variable. The daily precipitation estimates produced by ERA-I...

  14. Verification of the new ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis over France

    OpenAIRE

    Szczypta, C; Calvet, J.-C.; Albergel, C.; Balsamo, G.; S. Boussetta; D. Carrer; S. Lafont; Meurey, C.

    2011-01-01

    An evaluation of the global ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim (with a 0.5° grid) is performed over France, based on the high resolution (8 km) SAFRAN atmospheric reanalysis. The ERA-Interim precipitation, Incoming Solar Radiation (ISR), air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, are compared with their SAFRAN counterparts. Also, interpolated in situ ISR observations are used in order to consolidate the evaluation of this variable. The daily precipitation estimates produced by ERA-I...

  15. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Real-World Particle Number and Mass Emissions from City Buses in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Liisa; Dittrich, Aleš; Niemi, Jarkko V; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Järvinen, Anssi; Kousa, Anu; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Exhaust emissions of 23 individual city buses at Euro III, Euro IV and EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) emission levels were measured by the chasing method under real-world conditions at a depot area and on the normal route of bus line 24 in Helsinki. The buses represented different technologies from the viewpoint of engines, exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS) and fuels. Some of the EEV buses were fueled by diesel, diesel-electric, ethanol (RED95) and compressed natural gas (CNG). At the depot area the emission factors were in the range of 0.3-21 × 10(14) # (kg fuel)(-1), 6-40 g (kg fuel)(-1), 0.004-0.88 g (kg fuel)(-1), 0.004-0.56 g (kg fuel)(-1), 0.01-1.2 g (kg fuel)(-1), for particle number (EFN), nitrogen oxides (EFNOx), black carbon (EFBC), organics (EFOrg), and particle mass (EFPM1), respectively. The highest particulate emissions were observed from the Euro III and Euro IV buses and the lowest from the ethanol and CNG-fueled buses, which emitted BC only during acceleration. The organics emitted from the CNG-fueled buses were clearly less oxidized compared to the other bus types. The bus line experiments showed that lowest emissions were obtained from the ethanol-fueled buses whereas large variation existed between individual buses of the same type indicating that the operating conditions by drivers had large effect on the emissions. PMID:26682775

  16. High-Resolution Dynamical Downscaling of ERA-Interim Using the WRF Regional Climate Model for the Area of Poland. Part 1: Model Configuration and Statistical Evaluation for the 1981-2010 Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryza, Maciej; Wałaszek, Kinga; Ojrzyńska, Hanna; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Werner, Małgorzata; Dore, Anthony J.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we present the results of high-resolution dynamical downscaling of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, for the area of Poland, with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The model is configured using three nested domains, with spatial resolution of 45 km × 45 km, 15 km × 15 km and 5 km × 5 km. The ERA-Interim database is used for boundary conditions. The results are evaluated by comparison with station measurements for the period 1981-2010. The model is capable of reproducing the main climatological features of the study area. The results are in very close agreement with the measurements, especially for the air temperature. For all four meteorological variables, the model performance captures seasonal and daily cycles. For the air temperature and winter season, the model underestimates the measurements. For summer, the model shows higher values, compared with the measurements. The opposite is the case for relative humidity. There is a strong diurnal pattern in mean error, which changes seasonally. The agreement with the measurements is worse for the seashore and mountain areas, which suggests that the 5 km × 5 km grid might still have an insufficient spatial resolution. There is no statistically significant temporal trend in the model performance. The larger year-to-year changes in the model performance, e.g. for the years 1982 and 2010 for the air temperature should therefore be linked with the natural variability of meteorological conditions.

  17. Optimal Memoryless Encoding for Low Power Off-Chip Data Buses

    CERN Document Server

    Chee, Yeow Meng; Ling, Alan C H

    2007-01-01

    Off-chip buses account for a significant portion of the total system power consumed in embedded systems. Bus encoding schemes have been proposed to minimize power dissipation, but none has been demonstrated to be optimal with respect to any measure. In this paper, we give the first provably optimal and explicit (polynomial-time constructible) families of memoryless codes for minimizing bit transitions in off-chip buses. Our results imply that having access to a clock does not make a memoryless encoding scheme that minimizes bit transitions more powerful.

  18. Investigation of the Public Library as a Linking Agent to Major Scientific, Educational, Social, and Environmental Data Bases. Two-Year Interim Report. Annex I: Evaluation Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Alice E.

    Four public libraries participated in a two-year investigation of the provision of on line reference services in a public library setting. To evaluate the utility and cost of the service, data were collected about search statistics, usage patterns, costs, and impact on the library. This volume of the report contains the evaluation methodology,…

  19. Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report 2nd Generation Implementing Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-09-14

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document.

  20. ITER Conceptual design: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interim report describes the results of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activities after the first year of design following the selection of the ITER concept in the autumn of 1988. Using the concept definition as the basis for conceptual design, the Design Phase has been underway since October 1988, and will be completed at the end of 1990, at which time a final report will be issued. This interim report includes an executive summary of ITER activities, a description of the ITER device and facility, an operation and research program summary, and a description of the physics and engineering design bases. Included are preliminary cost estimates and schedule for completion of the project

  1. Interim emergency preparedness and response plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key components of Ontario Hydro's Dam Safety Program is the Emergency Preparedness and Response Plans (EPRP). Preparing such a plan is time consuming and costly. This paper presents a simplified approach to prepare preliminary or interim EPRPs. The interim EPRPs consist of only the most critical components namely notification plans, action plans and interim inundation maps. The interim inundation maps are developed using simplified methods, assumptions and techniques. They provide a conservative but realistic estimate of the flooding that could occur as a result of a dam breach. Interim EPRPs can be produced in a fraction of the time of full EPRPs and can therefore be implemented quickly. The process described in this paper represents a major saving in time over the production of full EPRP, yet it results in effective interim plans that can act as final plans for small dam owners who do not have the the resources to prepare a comprehensive plan. 5 refs., 4 figs

  2. Smart Procurement of Naturally Generated Energy (SPONGE) for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses

    OpenAIRE

    Naoum-Sawaya, Joe; Crisostomi, Emanuele; Liu, Mingming; Gu, Yingqi; Shorten, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a recently introduced ECO-driving concept known as SPONGE in the context of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses (PHEB)'s.Examples are given to illustrate the benefits of this approach to ECO-driving. Finally, distributed algorithms to realise SPONGE are discussed, paying attention to the privacy implications of the underlying optimisation problems.

  3. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  4. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fu Chiu

    Full Text Available This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses. Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel.

  5. An introduction on the demonstration performance of fuel cell buses (FCB) in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990’s, hydrogen has found broad use in the traffic segment. Compared with conventional ones, hydrogen fuelled vehicles, a new generation of clean vehicles, produce no pollutants, with higher energy efficiency. In today’s world where the pollution is tougher, the "Zero Pollution" fuel cell buses display a

  6. BIODIESEL AS A SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE TO PETROLEUM DIESEL IN SCHOOL BUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel exhaust is potentially harmful to human health and is a significant air pollutant due to its composition of harmful chemical substances and impact on climate. One of the many current uses of diesel fuel in rural environments is in school buses; however, few studies hav...

  7. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs

  8. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs.

  9. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  10. Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge : Interim Plans : 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim plan for Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge cover an interim comprehensive conservation plan, a hunting and fishing plan and an interim compatibility...

  11. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This IM/IRAP/EA identifies and evaluates interim remedial actions for removal of residual free-phase VOC contamination from three different subsurface environments at OU2. The term ''residual'' refers to the non-aqueous phase contamination remaining in the soil matrix (by capillary force) subsequent to the passage of non-aqueous or free-phase liquid through the subsurface. In addition to the proposed actions, this IM/IRAP/EA presents an assessment of the No Action Alternative. This document also considers an interim remedial action for the removal of radionuclides from beneath the 903 Pad

  12. Detection of maximum loadability limits and weak buses using Chaotic PSO considering security constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The unique cost function is derived considering practical Security Constraints. → New innovative formulae of PSO parameters are developed for better performance. → The inclusion and implementation of chaos in PSO technique is original and unique. → Weak buses are identified where FACTS devices can be implemented. → The CPSO technique gives the best performance for all the IEEE standard test systems. - Abstract: In the current research chaotic search is used with the optimization technique for solving non-linear complicated power system problems because Chaos can overcome the local optima problem of optimization technique. Power system problem, more specifically voltage stability, is one of the practical examples of non-linear, complex, convex problems. Smart grid, restructured energy system and socio-economic development fetch various uncertain events in power systems and the level of uncertainty increases to a great extent day by day. In this context, analysis of voltage stability is essential. The efficient method to assess the voltage stability is maximum loadability limit (MLL). MLL problem is formulated as a maximization problem considering practical security constraints (SCs). Detection of weak buses is also important for the analysis of power system stability. Both MLL and weak buses are identified by PSO methods and FACTS devices can be applied to the detected weak buses for the improvement of stability. Three particle swarm optimization (PSO) techniques namely General PSO (GPSO), Adaptive PSO (APSO) and Chaotic PSO (CPSO) are presented for the comparative study with obtaining MLL and weak buses under different SCs. In APSO method, PSO-parameters are made adaptive with the problem and chaos is incorporated in CPSO method to obtain reliable convergence and better performances. All three methods are applied on standard IEEE 14 bus, 30 bus, 57 bus and 118 bus test systems to show their comparative computing effectiveness and

  13. Interim FDG-PET Scan in Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Hopes and Caveats

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Borght, T.; M. André; Bosly, A.

    2011-01-01

    FDG-PET has recently emerged as an important tool for the management of Hodgkins lymphoma. Although its use for initial staging and response evaluation at the end of treatment is well established, the place of interim PET for response assessment and subsequent treatment tailoring is still quite controversial. The use of interim PET after a few cycles of chemotherapy may allow treatment reduction for good responders, leading to lesser treatment toxicities as well as early treatment adaptation ...

  14. ”Swim for Health:’ programme evaluation of a multi-partner intervention utilising aquatic exercise in the north of England: Interim findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam B.; Sleap, Mike

    2008-01-01

    with a range of health needs, including obesity, and people aged over 50 years. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the success of the ‘Swim for Health’ initiative in achieving its stated aims. Methods were based upon a programme theory evaluation model. Attendance figures were analysed by...... groups, suggesting target populations utilised services as intended. Participants were largely female. Self-reported physical activity levels were higher in participants than non-participants. Perceptions of risk and of participants’ bodies were key barriers to participation. ‘Swim for Health’ is meeting......The Governing body for aquatic activity in the UK (the ASA) has initiated a number of health initiatives during the past two years. These initiatives are in response to modern health problems, including rising levels of obesity. Regular aquatic activity offers significant potential to reduce the...

  15. Interim report of evaluation of research and development of problem in FY 2002. Development of technologies of environmental conservation at Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center. R and D of technologies of radioactive waste proposal and decommissioning of the milling and conversion pilot plant and uranium enrichment pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized the evaluation results of the above problem with the reference data of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The evaluation committee of waste proposal treatment problem is composed of 12 members. The consideration process, evaluation method, evaluation items and an assessment are stated. The basic experimental data of centrifuge treatment techniques was obtained. The data of remove and stripping of hold up uranium for inventory evaluation and application ability of IF7 was collecting. On use of fluoride contamination, a basic data should be collected and evaluation of effects of mixing of large amount of fluoride into solid considered. Five reference data such as the interim evaluation of R and D problems, a measure for evaluation results, an explanation of JNC, R and D of above technologies and OHP are contained. (S.Y.)

  16. Review of the SKB SR-Can interim report: Evaluation by the Nuclear Inspectorate and the Radiation Protection Authority of SKB's updated methods for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the Nuclear Inspectorate and the Radiation Protection Authority comments on the present stage of the safety analysis for an encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuels and a underground repository. According to the evaluation of the authorities, the SKB methods for safety analysis are well structured and logical and have good potentials as starting points for future safety analyses. However, important parts of the methods need further developments before they can be used for licensing applications. Important progress has been made in several areas compared to the latest safety analysis, SR97, for instance regarding the method for systematic identification and description of all the processes and conditions that need to be considered in the analysis. SKB has also produced improved methods for documentation of different types of expert evaluations and for selection of data for model calculations. Like the international group of experts we see shortcomings in the SKB method for identification and selection of scenarios. The authorities believe that SKB should show, in a systematic and traceable way, that all unfavourable processes, conditions et cetera that have been identified, and could be of importance for the scenario, have been thoroughly evaluated. The authorities see weaknesses in the quality assurance of the interimistic report, that complicates the evaluation of the methods for safety analysis. There are also ambiguities in how SKB plan to optimize/select the best technologies and the role of the safety analysis in this connection. Finally, the authorities give recommendation on how SKB should present the model and methods for analysis that are not yet developed

  17. 105-C Reactor interim safe storage project technology integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Technology Integration Plan involves the decontamination, dismantlement, and interim safe storage of a surplus production reactor. A major goal is to identify and demonstrate new and innovative D and D technologies that will reduce costs, shorten schedules, enhance safety, and have the potential for general use across the RL complex. Innovative technologies are to be demonstrated in the following areas: Characterization; Decontamination; Waste Disposition; Dismantlement, Segmentation, and Demolition; Facility Stabilization; and Health and Safety. The evaluation and ranking of innovative technologies has been completed. Demonstrations will be selected from the ranked technologies according to priority. The contractor team members will review and evaluate the demonstration performances and make final recommendations to DOE

  18. Comparison of Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas, biodiesel and diesel buses of the Madrid transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comparative study on the use of three after-treatment technologies: i) EGR + DPF, ii) SCR + Urea and iii) 3-way catalyst when implemented in urban buses, to determinate the energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), direct Land Use Change (dLUC), abiotic depletion of fossil energy by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The process of production, conditioning and transporting of the fuels used by the buses (diesel, biodiesel (B100), a blended biodiesel at 20% (B20) and natural gas) were also analyzed (Well-to-Tank analysis) along with the environmental impact due to its combustion in the bus (Tank-to-Wheel analysis). The environmental impact of the manufacturing, maintenance and recycling process of the urban buses and exhaust after-treatment systems has also been evaluated. Main results shows that Life Cycle of SCR + Urea technology reduces environmental impact to a greater extent than its global Life Cycle increases it when gasoil is used resulting in a final balance more efficient than the other options, the same behavior is observed with the use of B20 and B100 but only when 0%dLUC is assumed since if the percentage of dLUC increases the effectiveness of the SCR + Urea technology in the reduction of environmental impact tend to decrease. -- Highlights: ► We examine the environmental impact caused by the Life Cycle of each technology, fossil fuel, biofuel and vehicle. ► Biodiesel environmental impact depends largely on land transformed for grow crops. ► Using SCR + Urea technology and gasoil as a fuel in the bus further reduces the environmental impact.

  19. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: Interim results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (> 20 μm) cleared quickly with T1/2 estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T1/2 > 1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • We evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite produced pathological response - Wagner 4 interstitial fibrosis by 32d

  20. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  1. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility interim operational safety requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Covey, L I

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt and inspection of cesium and strontium capsules from private irradiators; decontamination of the capsules and equipment; surveillance of the stored capsules; and maintenance activities. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines (EGs) are included.

  2. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-06-11

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83.

  3. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83

  4. Addendum to IFMIF-CDA interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the second IFMIF-CDA Design Integration Workshop, the conceptual design and contents of 'IFMIF-CDA Interim Report' were examined and discussed at both general and group meetings. Based on these discussion, the final IFMIF-CDA Report will be modified from the 'Interim Report'. This report describes the outline of these modification. (author)

  5. 7 CFR 1738.21 - Interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... followed: (1) Interim construction shall be conducted in accordance with RUS Bulletin 1738-2 and 7 CFR part... be covered by an Environmental Report prepared in accordance with 7 CFR part 1794 and approved by RUS... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim financing. 1738.21 Section...

  6. 15 CFR 904.322 - Interim action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim action. 904.322 Section 904... Sanctions and Denials Permit Sanction for Violations § 904.322 Interim action. (a) To protect marine resources during the pendency of an action under this subpart, in cases of willfulness, or as...

  7. THESAURUS OF ERIC DESCRIPTORS (INTERIM) JANUARY 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967

    THE "THESAURUS OF ERIC DESCRIPTORS (INTERIM)" SUPERSEDES, AND REPRESENTS A REFINEMENT OF, THE "THESAURUS OF ERIC DESCRIPTORS." THE INTERIM ISSUE IS A PRELIMINARY ERIC SYSTEM TOOL AND IS NOT TO BE CONSIDERED A COMPLETE REPRESENTATION OF THE FINAL PRODUCT. THIS REFINEMENT IS THE RESULT OF TWO MAJOR PROJECTS--(1) THE INCORPORATION OF SUGGESTIONS…

  8. Etude expérimentale de l'atomisation des sprays agricoles : buse à turbulence et buse anti-dérive

    OpenAIRE

    Vallet, A.

    2010-01-01

    / En comparaison à la pollution des eaux, la pollution de l'air par les pesticides est encore une préoccupation émergente. Or, une grande partie des pesticides contamine l'air, notamment lors de leur application. La quantité et la façon dont les pesticides arrivent dans l'air sont fortement dépendantes de la taille et de la vitesse des gouttes en sortie de buse. En effet, bien que les plus petites gouttes soient indispensables à une bonne couverture du végétal ciblé, il est clair que celles-c...

  9. Interim assessment of prospective phase Ⅱ trial evaluating efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concurrent capecitabine for stage Ⅱ/Ⅲ gastric cancer after radical surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acute toxicities of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concurrent capecitabine for stage Ⅱ/Ⅲ gastric cancer (AJCC 7th) after radical surgery and to decide whether to continue phase Ⅱ trial. Methods: From 2009 to 2011, 35 patients with gastric cancer (10 stage Ⅱ patients and 25 stage Ⅲ patients) were included in prospective phase Ⅱ trial to receive chemoradiotherapy. In radiotherapy, the patients received IMRT to the anastomosis,tumor bed, and regional lymph nodes at a dose of 45 Gy/25 fractions. In concurrent chemotherapy, the patients received capecitabine at 1 600 mg/m2 in two divided doses per day for 5 weeks; in adjuvant chemotherapy, the patients received fluorouracil or capecitabine ± oxaliplatin (4-8 cycles). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival rates, and the log-rank test was used for univariate prognostic analysis. A disease-free survival (DFS) of 52.9% was used as the lower limit for continuing study. Results: With a median follow-up of 21 months, the follow-up rate was 94%. Radiotherapy was not completed in 3 patients. The 2-year DFS and overall survival (OS) were 70% and 86%, respectively. The incidence rates of grade 3 acute gastrointestinal, hematologic, and overall toxicities were 11%, 11%, and 26%, respectively. The prognostic analysis showed that signet-ring cell carcinoma and positive lymph node ratio were adverse prognostic factors for DFS, and advanced T stage (T4) was the adverse prognostic factor for OS. Conclusions: The 2-year DFS was greater than 52.9% among all patients with gastric cancer who received IMRT with concurrent capecitabine after radical surgery, and the toxicities were tolerable. Thus, phase Ⅱ trial could be continued. (authors)

  10. Next Generation Melter Optioneering Study - Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D20 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  11. Glass packages in interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO2. The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  12. Efficiency improvement of transport service by trolley buses based on the levels of their power demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Aulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Use efficiency improvement of trolley buses in passenger traffic based on power levels of electric energy input and terms adjustment of their maintenance. Methodology. In order to achieve this goal conformance of electric energy input by trolleybus to the transported amount of passengers taking into account characteristics of the route is offered to establish. The major indicators of the trolleybus operation are: speed of a race on lines, number of tractive motor firing, voltage and amperage in the network that were taken with accountants from a dashboard. Research results were tabulated and recorded with DVR. Along with the study of power consumption of electric energy input by a trolleybus passenger count was carried out too. Findings. The directly proportional dependence between the level of energy consumption by a trolleybus and the number of passengers for constant performance route was determined. Originality. As the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the trolleybus operation on the route is proposed to use the ratio between electricity consumption and number of passengers for these characteristics of the route. This is confirmed experimentally. The obtained formulas give the possibility to balance the force work and consequently the volume of energy consumption during the trolleybus movement on the rise and the descent. Practical value. The proposed criterion can be used to adjust the terms of maintenance on the individual program, that means individual maintenance (IM. Type of work performed at the IM should be determined on the basis of diagnostic data of the vehicle (V. The principles of IM were formulated: 1 the primary task is planned and preventative strategy to identify and eliminate troubleshooting and technical actions; 2 operational control of the vehicle (V technical condition on the basis of prediction of its state using the proposed criteria, that takes into account the dependence of power consumption to

  13. Trolley buses in Milan. Zero emission rides through the city; Trolleybusse in Mailand. Voellig emissionsfrei durch die Stadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Martin; Boehm, Martin [Vossloh Kiepe GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Since June 2009, 30 new hybrid trolley buses made by the Van Hool and Vossloh Kiepe consortium have been in service in Milan. Test rides in the Milan city network proved that much energy can be saved by using the energy-storing high-performance supercapacitors. The convincing vehicle concept, featuring a serial arrangement of the driving components, has recently made the city order 15 more trolley buses for Milan and another nine for Parma. (orig.)

  14. Preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here after a preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the photomultipliers of the TILECAL calorimeter. After some generalities, different commercial buses are reviewed (CAN, ARCET, WorldFIP, Profibus and LonWorks). The Profibus and LonWorks solution are more extensively studies as a possible solution for the high voltage system of the TILE hadronic calorimeter. (authors)

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  17. From prototype to product. The development of low emission natural gas- and biogas buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, M. [Strateco Development AB, Haninge (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to show the development of natural gas and bio gas buses and trucks since the termination of the `Co-Nordic GasBus Project`, to which KFB was a major contributor and one of the initiators. Sweden have some 325 heavy duty methane vehicles of which almost 100 are bio gas operated. Scania and Volvo have produced, or have orders for, 500 gas buses to 6 different countries since 1990. The Project objectives were obtained and the significantly reduced emission levels aimed for, were shown. The international bus manufacturing industry followed, and have since shown the same low levels of emissions from gas bus engines. Sweden has taken the lead in the use of bio gas, by operating nearly 100 buses and trucks. Bio gas is still an underestimated fuel when it comes to supply, as it can provide fuel for 50% of the domestic use of diesel oil. Future development need to include control systems for more stable emissions, lower weight cylinders, less costly compressors, cleaning equipment and storage cylinders as well as more fuel efficient engines that can reduce mainly the discharge of CO2, NOx and CH4 further. Societal costs, regardless of who pays, for methane operated buses is still somewhat higher compared with best use of diesel + CRT technology. As commercialization develops, it is expected that the price of the vehicle will be reduced and emissions improved. It is therefore expected that the stake holders costs will be lower then that of diesel technology in the future

  18. 13 CFR 120.890 - Source of interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Source of interim financing. 120... Development Company Loan Program (504) Interim Financing § 120.890 Source of interim financing. A Project may use interim financing for all Project costs except the Borrower's contribution. Any source...

  19. Performance of optimised SCR retrofit buses under urban driving and controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Priestman, Max; Williams, Martin L.; Stewart, Gregor B.; Beevers, Sean D.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive real-world emissions results from urban buses retrofitted with an optimised low-NO2 selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The SCRT system combines a CRT (Continuously Regenerating Trap) to reduce particle emissions and SCR to reduce NOx emissions. The optimised low-NO2 SCRT was designed to work under urban conditions where the vehicle exhaust gas temperature is often too low for many SCR systems to work efficiently. The system was extensively tested through on-road and test track measurements using a vehicle emission remote sensing instrument capable of measuring both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Over 700 on-road measurements of the SCRT system were made in London. Compared with identical buses operating under the same conditions fitted with a CRT, NO2 emissions were reduced by 61% and total NOx by 45%. Under test track conditions reductions in NOx of 77% were observed. The test track results do reveal however that compared with an original Euro III bus without a CRT, the SCRT retrofit bus emissions of NO2 are 50% higher. Engine-out and tailpipe measurements of several important engine parameters under test track conditions showed the important effect of SCR inlet temperature on NOx conversion efficiency. Overall, we conclude that retrofitting urban buses to use low-NO2 SCRT systems is an effective method for delivering NOx and NO2 emissions reduction.

  20. Impact of Reconfigurable Function on Meshes with Row/Column Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Matsumae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the difference in computational power between the mesh-connected parallel computers equipped with dynamically reconfigurable bus systems and those with static ones. The mesh with separable buses (MSB is the mesh-connected computer with dynamically reconfigurable row/column buses. The broadcasting buses of the MSB can be dynamically sectioned into smaller bus segments by program control. We examine the impact of reconfigurable capability on the computational power of the MSB model, and investigate how computing power of the MSB decreases when we deprive the MSB of its reconfigurability. We show that any single step of the MSB of size n×n can be simulated in O(log n time by the MSB without its reconfigurable function, which means that the MSB of size n×n can work withO(log n step slowdown even if its dynamic reconfigurable function is disabled.

  1. Effect of Interim Annealing on Mechanical Strength of TFA-MOD Derived YBCO Coated Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Y.; Nakaoka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Kiss, T.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    TFA-MOD derived YBCO tapes are expected for many applications due to cost-efficiency. In some applications, uniformity and mechanical strength are required for tapes. A 205 m-long YBCO tape was fabricated with high and uniform Ic performance throughout the tape by adopting the interim annealing before the conversion process. The effect of the interim annealing on the crystal growth mechanism of YBCO has been studied focusing on the relationship between the interim annealing conditions and delamination, in this work. Delamination strength was evaluated in the samples prepared with and without interim annealing by the stud pull method. Measurements were carried out on 50 different points for each sample and the results were analyzed statistically. The difference between the two samples was remarkably seen in the delamination strength below 60 MPa. The conventionally annealed sample had more points with low delamination strength below 60 MPa than the interim annealed one. The cross sectional images of both samples observed by SEM showed that there were few pores within the interim annealed superconducting layer, although conventional superconducting layer had many pores. These results suggest that the pores within YBCO layer might be origins to be propagated for delamination at low strength.

  2. AN INTERIM REPORT ON SOFT SYSTEMS EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljem Rupnik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As application areas rapidly grow beyond the theoretical framework of fundamental decision theory we are very often temptated to see whether or not soft systems may promise some efficient modelling of real life problems. The pioneering bust towards soft systems methodology has come from the needs of mathematical sociology. Its contemporary definition as well as its applied architecture have been dealt with as in a paper proposed.

  3. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  4. Interim Dry Storage of Spent Fuel in Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French option for the back end of the fuel cycle is reprocessing of used fuel and recycling the fissile material, except some very specific fuel stored in vaults (dry conditions). Used fuel management solutions studied by AREVA for various countries allow for either direct transport to the reprocessing plant, or interim storage and transport after storage of used fuel. Interim storage solutions are wet storage or dry storage (DSC, metal casks or vault systems). When the decision on used fuel management has been postponed, some extension of interim storage duration is considered, therefore it becomes necessary to study used fuel and cask material behaviour and deterioration mechanisms. One objective of this R&D was to review research efforts on spent fuel behaviour and Dry storage experience in casks. Particularly we were interested in the assessment of retrievability of fuel after storage for further use. A review therefore, was made of the effect of storage time/ temperatures and of loading/ drying operation on used fuel integrity. R&D programmes were also carried out on the evaluation of cask materials in long term, especially materials susceptible to degradation

  5. Interim and End States, Sellafield, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sellafield PFSP is an uncovered external pond, currently in the pre-decommissioning waste retrieval phase. Further consideration is now being given to the next phases of decommissioning, including defining interim states and the end state for the facility

  6. Russian River Interim Action Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An interim action plan is presented to guide the 1979 management of the Kenai National Moose Ranges portion of the lower Russian River and its confluence with the...

  7. CANDU spent fuel dry storage interim technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU heavy water reactor is developed by Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) it has 40 years of design life. During operation, the reactor can discharge a lot of spent fuels by using natural uranium. The spent fuel interim storage should be considered because the spent fuel bay storage capacity is limited with 6 years inventory. Spent fuel wet interim storage technique was adopted by AECL before 1970s, but it is diseconomy and produced extra radiation waste. So based on CANDU smaller fuel bundle dimension, lighter weight, lower burn-up and no-critical risk, AECL developed spent fuel dry interim storage technique which was applied in many CANDU reactors. Spent fuel dry interim storage facility should be designed base on critical accident prevention, decay heat removal, radiation protection and fissionable material containment. According to this introduction, analysis spent fuel dry interim storage facility and equipment design feature, it can be concluded that spent fuel dry interim storage could be met with the design requirement. (author)

  8. Analysis of the cost of hydrogen infrastructure for buses in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegan, S.; Hart, D.; Pearson, P.; Joffe, D.

    The use of hydrogen (H 2) as transport fuel is often said to suffer from the 'chicken and egg' problem: vehicles that depend on H 2 cannot go on the roads due to the lack of an adequate infrastructure, and the almost non-existent fleet of H 2 vehicles on the roads makes it economically unsound to build a H 2 infrastructure. Although both hydrogen vehicles (fuel cell and internal combustion engine) and the related infrastructure have been (and are being) developed and some are commercially available, cost is seen as a major barrier. With today's technologies, H 2 only becomes competitive with petrol and diesel when produced at large quantities, suitable for supplying e.g. thousands of H 2 buses. The question is, how might this point be reached, and are there least cost infrastructural pathways to reach it. This paper tries to address the latter question, using the early development of a H 2 infrastructure for buses in London as a case study. The paper presents some of the analyses and results from a Ph.D. project (in progress) being undertaken at Imperial College London, funded by EPSRC (Grant GR/R50790/01). The results presented here illustrate that cost of hydrogen production and delivery vary mainly with levels of hydrogen demand and delivery distances, as well as other logistic criteria; least cost production-delivery pathways have been identified for various hydrogen demand scenarios and refuelling station set-ups. Another important conclusion is that the pattern of converting a group of refuelling stations to hydrogen (e.g. a group of refuelling stations for buses in London) has a significant effect on the unit cost of hydrogen.

  9. Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and merged total ozone data sets – evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech), 1961–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Vaníček, K.; L. Metelka; Skřivánková, P.; M. Staněk

    2012-01-01

    Homogenized data series of total ozone measurements taken by the regularly and well calibrated Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at Hradec Králové (Czech) and the data from the re-analyses ERA-40 and ERA-Interim were merged and compared to investigate differences between the particular data sets originated in Central Europe, the Northern Hemisphere (NH) mid-latitudes. The Dobson-to-Brewer transfer function and the algorithm for approximation of the data from the re-analyses were developed,...

  10. Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and assimilated total ozone data sets – evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech), 1961–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Vaníček, K.; L. Metelka; Skřivánková, P.; M. Staněk

    2012-01-01

    Homogenized data series of total ozone measurements taken by the regularly and well calibrated Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at Hradec Králové (Czech) and the data from the re-analyses ERA-40 and ERA-Interim were assimilated and combined to investigate differences between the particular data sets over Central Europe, the NH mid-latitudes. The Dobson-to-Brewer transfer function and the algorithm for approximation of the data from the re-analyses were developed, tested and applied for cr...

  11. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sam Alessi; Tami Grimmett; Leng Vang; Dave McGrath

    2010-09-01

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V&V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  12. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V and V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  13. Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The September 1985 Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is the third revision of this document. In the future, the HWMP will be updated on an annual basis or as major changes in disposal planning at Hanford Site require. The most significant changes in the program since the last release of this document in December 1984 include: (1) Based on studies done in support of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS), the size of the protective barriers covering contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, and single-shell tanks has been increased to provide a barrier that extends 30 m beyond the waste zone. (2) As a result of extensive laboratory development and plant testing, removal of transuranic (TRU) elements from PUREX cladding removal waste (CRW) has been initiated in PUREX. (3) The level of capital support in years beyond those for which specific budget projections have been prepared (i.e., fiscal year 1992 and later) has been increased to maintain Hanford Site capability to support potential future missions, such as the extension of N Reactor/PUREX operations. The costs for disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes are identified in four major areas in the HWMP: waste storage and surveillance, technology development, disposal operations, and capital expenditures

  14. Operational integrity using field buses; Integridade operacional utilizando barramentos de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Carlos Henrique [Coester Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The device information is collected using standardized Filed Buses with high data transmission capacity, which allows the analysis of his operational status in real time. The quantity of information generated by the devices for the maintenance area is increasing and this data quantity transferred through the field bus should not interfere in the network performance to the point of degrade his control function. In this way, is presented a technique that can be used in different protocols, which allow sending of maintenance data using a small band of the communication channel. Operational integrity can be achieved using predictive maintenance techniques based on the collected data. (author)

  15. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Bottiglione; Tommaso Contursi; Angelo Gentile; Giacomo Mantriota

    2014-01-01

    In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Sou...

  16. Cost estimation of interim dry storage for Atucha I NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint effort between NASA and CNEA has been performed in order to evaluate and fix the strategy of interim spent fuel storage for Atucha I nuclear power plant. In this work the cost estimation on the proposed system was performed in order to fix the parameter and design criteria for the next engineering step. The main results achieved show that both alternatives are all in the same range of costs per unit of mass to be stored, the impact on electricity cost is less than 1 US mills/KWh and the scaling factor achieved is 0.85. (author)

  17. Interim report on cold trap alternatives, sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an interim report on the modifications which are being made to an existing sodium loop so that a new method of removing hydrogen from sodium can be evaluated in a flowing sodium system. Some preliminary results on the performance of this type of cold trap alternative in a static sodium system are reported. Some tentative reactor design parameters for this type of getter device are presented based on the static test results. The life of such a unit is calculated to be substantially greater than that of a cold trap of equal volume

  18. Long-term interim storage concepts with conditioning strategies ensuring compatibility with subsequent disposal or reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the CEA studies carried out under research topic 3 (long-term interim storage) of the 1991 French radioactive waste management law is to demonstrate the industrial feasibility of a comprehensive, flexible interim storage facility by thoroughly evaluating and comparing all the basic components of various interim storage concepts. In this context, the CEA is considering reference solutions or concepts based on three primary components (the package, the interim storage facility and the site) suitable for determining the specifications of a very long-term solution. Some aspects are examined in greater detail, such as the implementation of long-term technologies, conditioning processes ensuring the absence of water and contamination in the facility, or allowance for radioactive decay of the packages. The results obtained are continually compiled in reports substantiating the design options. These studies should also lead to an overall economic assessment in terms of the capital and operating cost requirements, thereby providing an additional basis for selecting the design options. The comparison with existing industrial facilities highlights the technical and economic progress represented by the new generation of interim storage units. (authors)

  19. Development of a driving cycle for intra-city buses in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesamani, K. S.; Subramanian, K. P.

    2011-10-01

    In India the emissions rate and fuel consumption of intra-city buses are estimated using the European driving cycles, which don't represent Indian driving conditions and in-use operation of vehicles. This leads to underestimation or overestimation of emissions and fuel consumption. In this context, this paper offers some insight into the driving characteristics of intra-city buses using a Global Positioning System. The study has revealed that irrespective of road type and time of travel, a higher percentage of time is spent in idle mode. This is primarily due to alighting and boarding of passengers at regular intervals and fixed delays caused by traffic lights. More than 90 percent of trips have an average speed of less than 30 km h -1. This study has also developed an intra-city bus driving cycle for Chennai and compared it with some well-known international driving cycles. It has revealed that Chennai has unique driving characteristics and, therefore, it may not be appropriate to adopt a driving cycle of another country or city.

  20. Interim Financial Reporting in Function of Proper Decision Makind

    OpenAIRE

    Kacanski, Slobodan; Tomašević, Stevan; Vlaović-Begović, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the attributes of interim financial reporting, as well as performs overview and interpretation of International Accounting Standard 34 which deals with this issue. The paper emphasizes risk and effects of interim financial statements implementation in decision making process. Time and cost limitations significantly influence the level of reliability on interim repors since those reports were not audited. This paper analyses the attributes of interim financial reporting,...

  1. Interim-Management: A paradox for leadership research?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns, Jürgen; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    The study focuses on Interim-Management as a so far rarely discussed phenomenon of the flexible firm. Contradicting popular leadership perception, the authors argue that Interim-Management does not constitute a leadership paradox but can be explained by established organization theory. In particular, transaction cost economics as well as resource-based view help explain the utilization of Interim-Management. Furthermore, the authors show that Interim-Management constitutes a response to reduc...

  2. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  3. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.L.

    1995-01-03

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location.

  4. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location

  5. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  6. Environmental assessment for 881 Hillside (High Priority Sites) interim remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the impact of an interim remedial action proposed for the High Priority Sites (881 Hillside Area) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This interim action is to be conducted to minimize the release of hazardous substances from the 881 Hillside Area that pose a potential long-term threat to public health and the environment. This document integrates current site characterization data and environmental analyses required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or ''Superfund'' process, into an environmental assessment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Characterization of the 881 Hillside Area is continuing. Consequently, a final remedial action has not yet been proposed. Environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim remedial action and reasonable alternatives designed to remove organic and inorganic contaminants, including radionuclides, from alluvial groundwater in the 881 Hillside Area are addressed. 24 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs

  7. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

  8. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited

  9. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-10-14

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included.

  10. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included

  11. Interim Policy Options for Commercialization of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, Roger

    This interim report reviews the major incentive policy options available to accelerate market penetration of solar heating and cooling (SHAC) systems. Feasible policy options designed to overcome existing barriers to commercial acceptance and market penetration are identified and evaluated. The report is divided into seven sections, each dealing…

  12. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  13. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  14. Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

    2013-03-20

    This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

  15. Bus Lanes with Intermittent Priority: Screening Formulae and an Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, Michael; Daganzo, Carlos F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates strategies for operating buses on signal-controlled arterials using special lanes that are made intermittently available to general traffic. The advantage of special bus lanes, intermittent or dedicated, is that they free buses from traffic interference; the disadvantage is that they disrupt traffic. We find that intermittent lanes, unlike dedicated ones, do not significantly reduce street capacity. Intermittence, however, increases the average traffic density at which th...

  16. Is the public willing to pay for hydrogen buses? A comparative study of preferences in four cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Garra, Tanya [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: tanya.ogarra@imperial.ac.uk; Mourato, Susana [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Garrity, Lisa [Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150, WA (Australia); Schmidt, Patrick [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Daimlerstrasse 15, D 85521 Ottobrunn (Germany); Beerenwinkel, Anne [University of Wuppertal, Fachbereich G-Bildungswissenschaften, Lehrstuhl fuer Lehr-, Lern- und Unterrichtsforschung, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Altmann, Matthias [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Daimlerstrasse 15, D 85521 Ottobrunn (Germany); Hart, David [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Graesel, Cornelia [University of Wuppertal, Fachbereich G-Bildungswissenschaften, Lehrstuhl fuer Lehr-, Lern- und Unterrichtsforschung, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Whitehouse, Simon [Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150, WA (Australia)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents results from the international AcceptH2 study (http://www.accepth2.com) of acceptability and preferences for hydrogen fuel cell (FC) buses. Using the contingent valuation method, this paper compares public willingness to pay (WTP) for the air pollution reductions associated with a scenario of large-scale introduction of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) FC buses in four cities: Berlin, London, Luxembourg and Perth. Results indicate that bus users in all cities have a positive WTP for H{sub 2} buses, and that values (adjusted to the cost of living in each city) are very similar across geographical locations (ranging from WTP an extra Euro 0.29 to Euro 0.35 per single bus fare). Non-bus users were also interviewed in London and Perth, in order to capture values for the whole populations in these cities. Combined results for bus users and non-bus users confirm that overall residents in these cities are willing to pay extra (in taxes) to support the large-scale introduction of H{sub 2}-buses.

  17. Is the public willing to pay for hydrogen buses? A comparative study of preferences in four cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Garra, Tanya; Mourato, Susana; Hart, David [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Garrity, Lisa; Whitehouse, Simon [Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150, WA (Australia); Schmidt, Patrick; Altmann, Matthias [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Daimlerstrasse 15, D 85521 Ottobrunn (Germany); Beerenwinkel, Anne; Graesel, Cornelia [University of Wuppertal, Fachbereich G - Bildungswissenschaften, Lehrstuhl fuer Lehr-, Lern- und Unterrichtsforschung,Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents results from the international AcceptH2 study (http://www.accepth2.com) of acceptability and preferences for hydrogen fuel cell (FC) buses. Using the contingent valuation method, this paper compares public willingness to pay (WTP) for the air pollution reductions associated with a scenario of large-scale introduction of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) FC buses in four cities: Berlin, London, Luxembourg and Perth. Results indicate that bus users in all cities have a positive WTP for H{sub 2} buses, and that values (adjusted to the cost of living in each city) are very similar across geographical locations (ranging from WTP an extra EUR0.29 to EUR0.35 per single bus fare). Non-bus users were also interviewed in London and Perth, in order to capture values for the whole populations in these cities. Combined results for bus users and non-bus users confirm that overall residents in these cities are willing to pay extra (in taxes) to support the large-scale introduction of H{sub 2}-buses. (author)

  18. Is the public willing to pay for hydrogen buses? A comparative study of preferences in four cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results from the international AcceptH2 study (http://www.accepth2.com) of acceptability and preferences for hydrogen fuel cell (FC) buses. Using the contingent valuation method, this paper compares public willingness to pay (WTP) for the air pollution reductions associated with a scenario of large-scale introduction of hydrogen (H2) FC buses in four cities: Berlin, London, Luxembourg and Perth. Results indicate that bus users in all cities have a positive WTP for H2 buses, and that values (adjusted to the cost of living in each city) are very similar across geographical locations (ranging from WTP an extra Euro 0.29 to Euro 0.35 per single bus fare). Non-bus users were also interviewed in London and Perth, in order to capture values for the whole populations in these cities. Combined results for bus users and non-bus users confirm that overall residents in these cities are willing to pay extra (in taxes) to support the large-scale introduction of H2-buses

  19. Physical characterization of fine particulate matter inside the public transit buses fueled by biodiesel in Toledo, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the physical characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM) collected inside the urban-public transit buses in Toledo, OH. These buses run on 20% biodiesel blended with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) (B20). For risk analysis, it is crucial to know the modality of the size distribution and the shape factor of PM collected inside the bus. The number-size distribution, microstructure, and aspect ratio of fine PM filter samples collected in the urban-public transit buses were measured for three years (2007-2009), using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Only the reproducible results from repeated experiments on ESEM and size distribution obtained by the GRIMM dust monitor were used in this study. The size distribution was found bi-modal in the winter and fall months and was primarily uni-modal during spring and summer. The aspect ratio for different filter samples collected inside the bus range from 2.4 to 3.6 in average value, with standard deviation ranging from 0.9 to 7.4. The square-shaped and oblong-shaped particles represent the single inhalable particle's morphology characteristics in the air of the Toledo transit buses.

  20. Loss of interim status (LOIS) under RCRA. RCRA Information Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires owners and operators of facilities that treat store, or disposal of hazardous waste (TSDFs) to obtain an operating permit. Recognizing that it would take EPA many years to issue operating permits to all RCRA facilities, Congress created ``interim status`` under Section 3005(e) of the Act. Interim status allows facilities to operate under Subtitle C of RCRA until their permits are issued or denied. This information brief defines interim status and describes how failure to meet interim status requirements may lead to loss of interim status (LOIS).

  1. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people

  2. ITER interim design report package documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-8), the ITER Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis, ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions and the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-9). 8 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Interim Storage Facility decommissioning. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the Interim Storage Facility were completed. Activities included performing a detailed radiation survey of the facility, removing surface and imbedded contamination, excavating and removing the fuel storage cells, restoring the site to natural conditions, and shipping waste to Hanford, Washington, for burial. The project was accomplished on schedule and 30% under budget with no measurable exposure to decommissioning personnel

  4. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  5. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  6. 12 CFR 268.505 - Interim relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim relief. 268.505 Section 268.505 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES..., eligibility for a within-grade increase, or the completion of the service requirement for career tenure,...

  7. 7 CFR 1735.75 - Interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... preliminary approval from RUS. See § 1735.90 (g) See 7 CFR part 1737 for regulations on interim financing for... completed RUS Form 490, “Application for Telephone Loan or Loan Guarantee.” See 7 CFR part 1737. (3) The... on any investments in nonrural areas. See 7 CFR 1737. (4) The information required in § 1735.74...

  8. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  9. 24 CFR 35.1330 - Interim controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-lead hazards only if they effectively control access to areas with soil-lead hazards. Examples of land... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim controls. 35.1330 Section 35.1330 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and...

  10. Avaliação dos fatores de risco laborais e físicos para doenças cardiovasculares em motoristas de transporte urbano de ônibus em Montes Claros (MG Evaluation of labor-related and physical risk factors for cardiovascular disease in drivers of urban transport buses in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Farias Alquimim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo buscou avaliar os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares em motoristas de ônibus em Montes Claros (MG. Foi empregado um questionário semiestruturado abordando dados pessoais, antropométricos, profissionais e laborais; e outro referente ao grau de estresse. Foram pesquisados 53 motoristas de ônibus e a média de idade foi de 30 a 39 anos, e dessa população, 81,1% diziam não ser fumantes, 58% não consumiam bebida alcoólica e 50% praticavam algum tipo de exercício. Na avaliação do IMC 40 motoristas (75,4% estavam com excesso de peso. A prevalência dos hábitos alimentares foi de excesso consumo de açúcar (66,0%, de gordura (64,2%, de café (69,8%, de sal (60,4%, de Coca Cola (64,2% e de refrigerante (54,7%. Dentre os relatos de doenças crônicas não foram observados motoristas diabéticos (98,1% e nem hipertensos (94,3%. A maioria da amostragem, 69,7% teve nível de estresse normal. Em relação aos dados laboratoriais, a grande maioria dos motoristas apresentou hipertrigliceridemia e hipercolesterolemia. Os níveis de HDL estavam satisfatórios, e o de LDL apresentou nível normal e desejável em mais da metade da amostra. A prevalência para doença cardiovascular mostrou-se baixa.The scope of this study was to evaluate risk factors for cardiovascular disease among bus drivers in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais. A semi-structured questionnaire covering personal, anthropometric, professional and labor-related data was used, in addition to a questionnaire on the level of stress. 53 bus drivers were surveyed and the average age was 30 to 39 years of age. 81.1% were non-smokers; 58% of the sample were teetotalers; and 50% took regular exercise. In the assessment of BMI, 40 drivers (75.4% were overweight. The prevalence in eating habits revealed excess consumption of sugar (66.0%, fat (64.2%, coffee (69.8%, salt (60.4%, coca cola (64.2% and soft drinks (54.7%. Among reports of chronic diseases, no

  11. The EURATOM interim verification system of Natrium declarations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Euratom's inspection scheme at the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant THORP makes use of the Near Real Time Material Accountancy (NRTMA) tool developed by the operator to obtain In-Process Inventory (IPI) information in plutonium containing areas that are not accessible during operation. From a verification point of view, appropriate authentication of the data provided, NRTMA is sufficient to fulfil the timeliness component of the safeguards approach without further need to stop the process and carry out interim inventories, the flow component being covered by routine verification activities on a continuous inspection basis. Since commissioning time, the validation of the NRTMA process models, data collection methods, computational techniques and data transmission protocols has been the subject of extensive analyses and agreement procedures involving several departments of the Euratom Safeguards Office (ESO). The Terms of Reference regarding the use of NRTMA by E.S.O are recorded in the NRTMA Framework Document. In this context, the Data Evaluation Sector of ESO was assigned the task of studying the statistical models and anomaly resolutions tools used by NRTMA. The analysis rested on the description of a condensed operational process model and a related statistical model for the measurement errors and their propagation. It included the definition of particular testing variables suitable for safeguards anomaly detection and sensitivity studies based on Monte Carlo simulations. The conclusion of Euratom's statistical analysis was that, although BNFL's NRTMA data collection system is perfectly adequate for interim inventory data declaration, its anomaly detection margin, which was primarily designed to provide a very conservative process control tool, is too narrow for safeguards purposes. This high sensitivity, which, from the operator's point of view, may a desirable feature for taking early corrective action, would create a resource and efficiency problem

  12. Assessing factors causing severe injuries in crashes of high-deck buses in long-distance driving on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsing-Chung

    2014-01-01

    High-deck buses that have a higher center of gravity traveling at an excessive speed have a higher likelihood of causing serious and fatal accidents when drivers lose control of the vehicle. In addition, drivers who suffer from fatigue in long-distance driving increase the likelihood of serious accident. This paper examines the effects of risk factors contributing to severe crashes associated with high-deck buses used for long-distance driving on freeways. An ordered logit and latent class models are used to examine significant factors on the severity of injuries in crashes related to high-deck buses. Driver fatigue, drivers or passengers not wearing a seat belt, reckless driving, drunk driving, crashes occurred between midnight and dawn, and crashes occurred at interchange ramps were found to significantly affect the severity of injuries in crashes involving high-deck buses. Safety policies to prevent severe injuries in crashes involving high deck buses used for long-distance runs on freeways include: (1) restricting drivers from exceeding the limit of daily driving hours and mandating sufficient rest breaks; (2) installing an automatic sleep-warning device in the vehicle; (3) drivers with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or sleep disorders should be tested and treated before they are allowed to perform long hours of driving tasks; (4) educating the public or even amending the seatbelt legislation to require all passengers to wear a seat belt and thus reduce the chance of ejection from a high-deck bus and prevent serious injuries in a crash while traveling at a higher speed on freeways. PMID:24144498

  13. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  14. Performance study about biodiesel impact on buses engines using dynamometer tests and fleet consumption data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Driving cycle affects the fuel impacts on engine emissions and performance. ► Incorporation of biodiesel can improve efficiency for some engine regimes. ► Biodiesel oxygen content probably increases combustion efficiency in engine. ► The consumption of the fleet agrees with the dynamometer results. ► NOx emissions are very sensitive to engine operating conditions. - Abstract: The problem of reducing harmful emissions, mainly particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOxs) originated in compression ignition combustion engines, and also the mandatory intention of lowering the CO2 impacts of road transportation define the need to improve our knowledge on biodiesel use in engines. A 6 in line cylinders Volvo engine was submitted to a 100 min cycle with 27 stabilized steps for seven different fuel blends from pure fossil diesel (B0) to pure biodiesel (B100), considering also B10, B15, B20, B30, B50 fuel blends. The cycle imposed tries to simulate a normal use of a bus in an urban and extra-urban circuit, considering different engine rotation and loads applied. An analysis on consumption data obtained of a fleet was made. The fleet had near 200 buses, used different fuel blends, and operated in the north of Portugal. Results reveal that the cycle imposed reflects very well the tendency of consumption, allowing to confirm the methodology and also to check influences on consumption, mainly associated with possibilities to decrease CO2 emissions by using some biodiesel blends on buses. This allows increasing the quality of data in vehicle real use and tightening the uncertainties on the actual effects of using biodiesel.

  15. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  16. 1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ''dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.'' This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD

  17. Experience collecting interim data on mortality: an example from the RALES study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulbertus Henri

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study (RALES randomized 822 patients to receive 25 mg spironolactone daily and 841 to receive placebo. The primary endpoint was death from all causes. Randomization began on March 24, 1995; recruitment was completed on December 31, 1996; follow-up was scheduled to continue through December 31, 1999. Evidence of a sizeable benefit on mortality emerged early in the RALES. The RALES data safety monitoring board (DSMB, which met semiannually throughout the trial, used a prespecified statistical guideline to recommend stopping for efficacy. At the DSMB's request, its meetings were preceded by an 'endpoint sweep', that is, a census of all participants to confirm their vital status. Methods We used computer simulation to evaluate the effect of the sweeps. Results The sweeps led to an estimated 5 to 8% increase in the number of reported deaths at the fourth and fifth interim analyses. The data crossed the statistical boundary at the fifth interim analysis. If investigators had reported all deaths within the protocol-required 24-h window, the DSMB might have recommended stopping after the fourth interim analysis. Discussion Although endpoint sweeps can cause practical problems at the clinical centers, sweeps are very useful if the intervals between patient visits or contact are long or if endpoints require adjudication by committee, reading center, or central laboratory. Conclusion We recommend that trials with interim analyses institute active reporting of the primary endpoints and endpoint sweeps.

  18. Interim storage facility for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel generated from the operation of a nuclear power plant is to be treated in the reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Aomori. At present, spent fuel is stored in the nuclear power plant until it is reprocessed. However the amount of spent fuel generated exceeds the capacity of the reprocessing plant. Hence an additional spent fuel storage facility is needed for the nuclear fuel cycle. The spent fuel interim storage facility is the first institution in Japan that stores spent fuel outside of the nuclear power plant site. Our company has received an order for internal equipment for this facility. This paper introduces an overview of the interim storage facility for spent fuel. (author)

  19. Pathways to deep decarbonization - Interim 2014 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interim 2014 report by the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP), coordinated and published by IDDRI and the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), presents preliminary findings of the pathways developed by the DDPP Country Research Teams with the objective of achieving emission reductions consistent with limiting global warming to less than 2 deg. C. The DDPP is a knowledge network comprising 15 Country Research Teams and several Partner Organizations who develop and share methods, assumptions, and findings related to deep decarbonization. Each DDPP Country Research Team has developed an illustrative road-map for the transition to a low-carbon economy, with the intent of taking into account national socio-economic conditions, development aspirations, infrastructure stocks, resource endowments, and other relevant factors. The interim 2014 report focuses on technically feasible pathways to deep decarbonization

  20. Gaz de France interim financial report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This financial report contains the unaudited condensed financial statements of Gaz de France Group for the first half ended June 30, 2007, which were reviewed by the audit committee on August 27, 2007 and by the board of directors at its meeting on August 28, 2007. It includes forward-looking statements concerning the objectives, strategies, financial position, future operating results and the operations of Gaz de France Group. These statements reflect the Group's current perception of its activities and the markets in which it operates, as well as various estimates and assumptions considered to be reasonable. Content: interim management report (highlights of the first half of 2007, revenues and results for the period, financial structure, data on outstanding stock, outlook); interim consolidated financial statements (consolidated statements of income, consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of cash flows, recognized income and expenses, statements of changes in shareholders' equity, note to the consolidated financial statements); statement by the person responsible for the interim financial report; statutory auditors' report. (J.S.)

  1. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport : A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Rogge; Sebastian Wollny; Dirk Uwe Sauer

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure plan...

  2. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report #2, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-06-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006, comparing similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. It covers November 2007 through February 2010. Results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and road calls), and a summary of achievements and challenges encountered during the demonstration.

  3. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wires by flexible thread levels.Diagrams are constructed with the purpose to find ymax and criteria of electro-dynamic resistance of flexible buses (permissible impulse of electro-dynamic forces and current of electro-dynamic resistance is determined.

  4. A vehicle-specific power approach to speed- and facility-specific emissions estimates for diesel transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Frey, H Christopher; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2008-11-01

    Emissions during a trip often depend on transient vehicle dynamics that influence the instantaneous engine load. Vehicle specific power (VSP) is a proxy variable for engine load that has been shown to be highly correlated with emissions. This study estimates roadway link average emission rates for diesel-fueled transit buses based on link mean speeds, using newly defined VSP modes from data gathered by a portable emissions monitoring system. Speed profiles were categorized by facility type and mean travel speed, and stratified into discrete VSP modes. VSP modal average emission rates and the time spent in the corresponding VSP modes were then used to make aggregate estimates of total and average emission rates for a road link. The average emission rates were sensitive to link mean speed, but not to facility type. A recommendation is made regarding the implementation of link average emission rates in conjunction with transportation models for the purpose of estimating regional emissions for diesel transit buses. PMID:19031891

  5. Urban transportation system optimum: The effect of accounting for the interaction of buses and cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Angelo Guevara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se usa un método iterativo para calcular tarifas Pigouvianascuando las vías son compartidas por autos y buses. Se comparan escenarios en los cuales: 1 la tarifa es calculada considerando sólo la externalidad sobre otros vehículos; 2 la tarifa considera además la externalidad sobre los pasajeros de los vehículos; 3 no se aplican tarifas; y 4 no se aplican tarifas, pero algunas pistas son reservadas para el uso exclusivo de buses. El método es aplicado primero a un modelo idealizado que considera homogenidad de la demanda y cierto grado de heterogenidad en la oferta. Luego el método es aplicado en un experimento con datos reales basado en un modelo simultáneo de cuatro etapas calibrado para la ciudad de Santiago, Chile. Todos los experimentos muestran que cuando se considera la externalidad sobre los pasajeros de los vehículos, las tarifas Pigouvianas crecen sustancialmente en las vías de uso mixto, lo cual se traduce en un menor flujo de automóviles en dichas vías. Por otro lado, las simulaciones con el modelo idealizado muestran que el efecto de la reservación de pistas depende fuertemente del diseño considerado. Respecto de la tarificación Pigouviana, el experimento con datos reales muestra, sorprendentemente, que dicha política resultaría ser inferior a un escenario en el cual no se aplican tarifas. Este resultado podría atribuirse a: 1 que el modelo con datos reales representa una situación de equilibrio general y en cambio las tarifas Pigouvianas se calculan usando un enfoque de equilibrio parcial; 2 limitaciones de modelación en el experimento con datos reales; o 3 una manifestación del contraejemplo de Coase para los impuestos Pigouvianos. El artículo termina discutiendo el impacto de estos resultados en el análisis de políticas de transporte urbano.

  6. Compilation of interim technical research memoranda. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four interim technical research memoranda are presented that describe the results of numerical simulations designed to investigate the dynamics of energetic plasma beams propagating across magnetic fields

  7. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Sergey; E. G. Ponomarenko; W. M. Sammur; P. I. Klimkovich

    2005-01-01

    The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wi...

  8. Itinerant vending of medicines inside buses in Nigeria: vending strategies, dominant themes and medicine-related information provided

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuff KB; Wassi Sanni A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine vending strategies and marketing themes employed by itinerant bus vendors, and assess the accuracy and completeness of information provided on medicines being sold in an urban setting in Nigeria. Methods Cross-sectional study and content analysis of itinerant vending of medicines inside buses recorded with a mobile telephone on purposively selected routes in a mega city with an estimated 18 million residents in southwestern Nigeria over a 2-month period. Two coders inde...

  9. From Forced Busing to Free Choice in Public Schools: Quasi-Experimental Evidence of Individual and General Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Lavy

    2006-01-01

    In 1994 the city of Tel Aviv replaced its existing school integration program based on inter-district busing, with a new program that allowed students to choose freely between schools in and out of district. This paper explores the impact of this program on high school outcomes while distinguishing the effect of choice on individual students from general equilibrium effects on affected districts. The identification is based on a regression discontinuity design that yields comparison groups dr...

  10. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  11. Integrated system of safety features for spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the spent fuel interim storage facility (SFISF) must meet the applicable safety requirements in order to ensure radiological protection of the personnel, public and environment during all phases of the facility. To elaborate the safety documentation necessary for licensing, we were trying to chose the most appropriate approach related to safety features for SFISF, based on national and international regulations, standards and recommendations, as well as on the experience of other countries with similar facilities and finally, on our own experience in designing other nuclear objectives in Romania. The paper presents the issues that we consider important for the safety evaluation and are developed as a detailed diagram. The diagram contains in a logical succession the following issues: - fundamental principles of radioprotection; - fundamental safety principles of radioactive waste management; - safety objectives of SFISF; - safety criteria for SFISF; - safety requirements for SFISF; - siting criteria for SFISF; - siting requirements for SFISF. (authors)

  12. Evaluating the agreement between measurements and models of net ecosystem exchange at different times and time scales using wavelet coherence: an example using data from the North American Carbon Program Site-Level Interim Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Stoy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Earth system processes exhibit complex patterns across time, as do the models that seek to replicate these processes. Model output may or may not be significantly related to observations at different times and on different frequencies. Conventional model diagnostics provide an aggregate view of model-data agreement, but usually do not identify the time and frequency patterns of model misfit, leaving unclear the steps required to improve model response to environmental drivers that vary on characteristic frequencies. Wavelet coherence can quantify the times and frequencies at which models and measurements are significantly different. We applied wavelet coherence to interpret the predictions of twenty ecosystem models from the North American Carbon Program (NACP Site-Level Interim Synthesis when confronted with eddy covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE from ten ecosystems with multiple years of available data. Models were grouped into classes with similar approaches for incorporating phenology, the calculation of NEE, and the inclusion of foliar nitrogen (N. Models with prescribed, rather than prognostic, phenology often fit NEE observations better on annual to interannual time scales in grassland, wetland and agricultural ecosystems. Models that calculate NEE as net primary productivity (NPP minus heterotrophic respiration (HR rather than gross ecosystem productivity (GPP minus ecosystem respiration (ER fit better on annual time scales in grassland and wetland ecosystems, but models that calculate NEE as GPP – ER were superior on monthly to seasonal time scales in two coniferous forests. Models that incorporated foliar nitrogen (N data were successful at capturing NEE variability on interannual (multiple year time scales at Howland Forest, Maine. Combined with previous findings, our results suggest that the mechanisms driving daily and annual NEE variability tend to be correctly simulated, but the magnitude of these fluxes is often

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE FEASIBILITY OF ESTABLISHMENT OF CONCEPTS OF LOGISTICS LEAN MANUFACTURING OF SUPPLY INTERNAL FROM A ASSEMBLER’S COMPANY OF BUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILLIAN GABRIEL MIRANDA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work had as study object a assembler’s company of buses that is currently is in a big expansion process with lack of new ideas. Then, it comes the opportunity to combine this work with the needs and ambitions of the company. Therefore, will be a detailed study on the logistics of internal movement, analyzing what are the tools of logistics management used in the present, evaluating how is the performance from them and where there is the possibility of improvement in the supply process, based on the concepts of lean manufacturing and/or materials management tools. It will be assess also the possible barriers in the systems, through a survey of values in the activities performed by employees, evaluating fault points in the process, searching for appropriate and logical solutions to these issues. It is known that the complexity is high, and the consistency of this study to do proposals for a possible reorganization in the distribution system and planning, presenting theoretical and logical means for the possible benefits that the company would have to achieve excellence in the system of internal movement, obtaining thus more competitive in the market, increase productivity, providing areas for production and reduced lead time (period between the start of an activity until its end of supply. For the optimization of logistics must be synergy by all employees and also senior management and a study aimed at improving the supply system. The chances of success are high with these factors reconciled.

  14. An interim safety analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients administrating oral vitamin K with or without sorafenib

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Dong-Hwan; Hwang, Shin; Song, Gi-Won; Ryoo, Baek-Yeol; Kim, Nayoung; Tak, Eunyoung; Hong, Hea-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Vitamin K may plays a role in controlling hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth. In this study, we intended to present 5-year experience of 72 patients receiving oral vitamin K with or without sorafenib. Its end-point was to evaluate the safety of combination therapy using sorafenib and vitamin K. Methods An interim analysis was performed as a single-arm cross-sectional study, including 72 HCC patients who underwent liver resection or transplantation and administered ora...

  15. The Homestake Interim Laboratory and Homestake DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2011-12-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead South Dakota is proposed for the National Science Foundation's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The gold mine provides expedient access to depths in excess of 8000 feet below the surface (>7000 mwe). Homestake's long history of promoting scientific endeavours includes the Davis Solar Neutrino Experiment, a chlorine-based experiment that was hosted at the 4850 Level for more than 30 years. As DUSEL, Homestake would be uncompromised by competition with mining interests or other shared uses. The facility's 600-km of drifts would be available for conversion for scientific and educational uses. The State of South Dakota, under Governor Rounds' leadership, has demonstrated exceptionally strong support for Homestake and the creation of DUSEL. The State has provided funding totalling $46M for the preservation of the site for DUSEL and for the conversion and operation of the Homestake Interim Laboratory. Motivated by the strong educational and outreach potential of Homestake, the State contracted a Conversion Plan by world-recognized mine-engineering contractor to define the process of rehabilitating the facility, establishing the appropriate safety program, and regaining access to the facility. The State of South Dakota has established the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to oversee the transfer of the Homestake property to the State and the rehabilitation and preservation of the facility. The Homestake Scientific Collaboration and the State of South Dakota's Science and Technology Authority has called for Letters of Interest from scientific, educational and engineering collaborations and institutions that are interested in hosting experiments and uses in the Homestake Interim Facility in advance of the NSF's DUSEL, to define experiments starting as early as 2007. The Homestake Program Advisory Committee has reviewed these Letters and their initial report has been released. Options for

  16. Radon measurements in schools: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides school officials, groups such as Parent-Teacher Associations, and other interested person with interim information on how to measure radon in schools and what to do if elevated levels are found. The first sections of the document contain facts about radon and the health risks associated with radon exposure. The next sections summarize what is known about radon in schools and provide guidance for conducting radon measurements. The last sections describe how to interpret the measurement results and suggest techniques that can be used to reduce radon concentrations if elevated levels are found

  17. National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has the mission of supporting Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science research in high-energy-density plasmas. To execute those missions, the facility must provide diagnostic instrumentation capable of observing and resolving in time events and radiation emissions characteristic of the plasmas of interest. The diagnostic instrumentation must conform to high standards of operability and reliability within the NIF environment. These exacting standards, together with the facility mission of supporting a diverse user base, has led to the need for a central organization charged with delivering diagnostic capability to the NIF. The National NIF Diagnostics Program (NNDP) has been set up under the aegis of the NIF Director to provide that organization authority and accountability to the wide user community for NIF. The funds necessary to perform the work of developing diagnostics for NIF will be allocated from the National NIF Diagnostics Program to the participating laboratories and organizations. The participating laboratories and organizations will design, build, and commission the diagnostics for NIF. Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize NIF Core Diagnostics Systems and Cryogenic Target Handing Systems, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems has been initiated and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National NIF Diagnostics Program Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope

  18. Site development interim removable dental prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquinelli, Kirk L; Sze, Alexander J; Matosian, Alex J

    2016-07-01

    Transitioning a patient with partial edentulism through hard and soft tissue grafting to an implant restoration with an interim removable dental prosthesis (IRDP) presents a challenge to the restorative dentist. The management of grafted sites requires care, and without the appropriate design, an IRDP may impede surgical outcomes and place the graft at risk for displacement or necrosis. A site development IRDP (SDIRDP) for a grafted site must fulfill restorative goals and promote the surgical objectives for site development. A technique is described for fabricating an SDIRDP that facilitates surgical procedures and maintains prosthetic goals. PMID:26831920

  19. National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, B

    2002-04-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has the mission of supporting Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science research in high-energy-density plasmas. To execute those missions, the facility must provide diagnostic instrumentation capable of observing and resolving in time events and radiation emissions characteristic of the plasmas of interest. The diagnostic instrumentation must conform to high standards of operability and reliability within the NIF environment. These exacting standards, together with the facility mission of supporting a diverse user base, has led to the need for a central organization charged with delivering diagnostic capability to the NIF. The National NIF Diagnostics Program (NNDP) has been set up under the aegis of the NIF Director to provide that organization authority and accountability to the wide user community for NIF. The funds necessary to perform the work of developing diagnostics for NIF will be allocated from the National NIF Diagnostics Program to the participating laboratories and organizations. The participating laboratories and organizations will design, build, and commission the diagnostics for NIF. Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize NIF Core Diagnostics Systems and Cryogenic Target Handing Systems, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems has been initiated and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National NIF Diagnostics Program Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope

  20. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste

  1. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-05-15

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste.

  2. 47 CFR 51.715 - Interim transport and termination pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... has neither established transport and termination rates based on forward-looking economic cost studies... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim transport and termination pricing. 51... Telecommunications Traffic § 51.715 Interim transport and termination pricing. (a) Upon request from...

  3. The Federal interim storage facility for radioactive waste under construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short description of the design of the Federal interim storage facility for radioactive waste, the security aspects and the storage material is given. The interim storage facility is currently under construction in Wuerenlingen at the Paul Scherrer Institute. figs., tabs., 27 refs

  4. Staff Reactions to Interim Leadership in a Student Affairs Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robin D.

    2011-01-01

    Interim leadership appointments in higher education are a common strategy used to fill leadership gaps in executive positions. Because student affairs executives are particularly vulnerable to high turnover rates, interim appointments are becoming more widespread. Even with the prevalence of this trend, little attention has been given to the…

  5. Fuel consumption reduction in urban buses by using power split transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fuel consumption is highly influenced by transmission layout and control. • Continuous Variable Transmission allows control of the working point of the engine. • Hydromechanical CVT was numerically tested and compared with usual mechanical solutions. • CVT solution proved to reduce fuel consumption, improving the I.C.E. mean efficiency. • Results obtained from standard emission test cycles: New York and Manhattan Buses. - Abstract: The reduction of fuel consumption of urban vehicles is one of the challenges of the society today. Many promising technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells are the focus of a lot of research and investments, but high costs prevent their development on a large scale, especially in heavy duty vehicles. Simpler solutions, such as continuously variable transmissions, are then interesting alternatives: they preserve some of the advantages of hybrid solutions significantly reducing the overall cost of the system. Since these technologies allow the decoupling of the engine’s velocity from that of the wheels, optimised management of the engine becomes feasible, leading to lower fuel consumption than that of traditional solutions. This work compares the hydromechanical transmission with a traditional power shift in an application where efficiency and comfort are required: a city bus. The performance of a vehicle with a dual stage hydromechanical transmission has been investigated by means of a model implemented in the AMESim environment. A second model of a vehicle with a power shift transmission has been taken as reference solution. During the simulation of two standard test cycles, the first vehicle showed the lower fuel consumption, due to its better engine management, and to the operation of the torque converter during starts, which lowers the efficiency of the reference vehicle

  6. Dynamics of Flexible Rotor Systems with an Interim Mass Unbalanced Disk Using a Spectral Element Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkyu Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A frequency domain spectral element model is developed for a rotor system that consists of two spinning shafts and an interim disk or blade system. In this study, the shafts are represented by spinning Timoshenko beam models, and the interim disk system is represented by a uniform thick rigid disk with an unbalanced mass. In our derivation of the governing equations of motion of the disk system, the disk is considered to be wobbling about the geometric center of the disk at which the spinning shafts are attached. The high accuracy of the proposed spectral element model is evaluated by comparison with the natural frequencies obtained using the conventional finite element method (FEM. The spectral element model is then used to investigate the effects of the unbalanced mass on the natural frequencies and dynamic responses of an example rotor system.

  7. Second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear fuel waste disposal concept chosen for development and assessment in Canada involves the isolation of corrosion-resistant containers of waste in a vault located deep in plutonic rock. As the concept and the assessment tools are developed, periodic assessments are performed to permit evaluation of the methodology and provide feedback to those developing the concept. The ultimate goal of these assessments is to predict what impact the disposal system would have on man and the environment if the concept were implemented. The second assessment was performed in 1984 and is documented in the Second Interim assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal Volumes 1 to 4. This volume, entitled Summary, is a condensation of Volumes 2, 3 and 4. It briefly describes the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, and the methods and results of the second interim pre-closure and post-closure assessments of that concept. 46 refs

  8. Application of NUREG/CR-5999 interim fatigue curves to selected nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent test data indicate that the effects of the light water reactor (LWR) environment could significantly reduce the fatigue resistance of materials used in the reactor coolant pressure boundary components of operating nuclear power plants. Argonne National Laboratory has developed interim fatigue curves based on test data simulating LWR conditions, and published them in NUREG/CR-5999. In order to assess the significance of these interim fatigue curves, fatigue evaluations of a sample of the components in the reactor coolant pressure boundary of LWRs were performed. The sample consists of components from facilities designed by each of the four U.S. nuclear steam supply system vendors. For each facility, six locations were studied, including two locations on the reactor pressure vessel. In addition, there are older vintage plants where components of the reactor coolant pressure boundary were designed to codes that did not require an explicit fatigue analysis of the components. In order to assess the fatigue resistance of the older vintage plants, an evaluation was also conducted on selected components of three of these plants. This report discusses the insights gained from the application of the interim fatigue curves to components of seven operating nuclear power plants

  9. Release of radionuclides following severe accident in interim storage facility. Source term determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the severe accidents that can cause the release of radionuclides from an interim storage facility, with a consequent relevant radiological impact on the population, there is the impact of an aircraft on the facility. In this work, a safety assessment analysis for the case of an aircraft crash into an interim storage facility is tackled. To this aim a methodology, based upon DOE, IAEA and NUREG standard procedures and upon conservative yet realistic hypothesis, has been developed in order to evaluate the total radioactivity, source term, released to the biosphere in consequence of the impact, without recurring to the use of complicated numerical codes. The procedure consists in the identification of the accidental scenarios, in the evaluation of the consequent damage to the building structures and to the waste packages and in the determination of the total release of radionuclides through the building-atmosphere interface. The methodology here developed has been applied to the case of an aircraft crash into an interim storage facility currently under design. Results show that in case of perforation followed by a fire incident the total released activity would be greater of some orders of magnitude with respect to the case of mere perforation. (author)

  10. Retention of long-term interim restorations with sodium fluoride enriched interim cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strash, Carolyn

    Purpose: Interim fixed dental prostheses, or "provisional restorations", are fabricated to restore teeth when definitive prostheses are made indirectly. Patients undergoing extensive prosthodontic treatment frequently require provisionalization for several months or years. The ideal interim cement would retain the restoration for as long as needed and still allow for ease of removal. It would also avoid recurrent caries by preventing demineralization of tooth structure. This study aims to determine if adding sodium fluoride varnish to interim cement may assist in the retention of interim restorations. Materials and methods: stainless steel dies representing a crown preparation were fabricated. Provisional crowns were milled for the dies using CAD/CAM technology. Crowns were provisionally cemented onto the dies using TempBond NE and NexTemp provisional cements as well as a mixture of TempBond NE and Duraphat fluoride varnish. Samples were stored for 24h then tested or thermocycled for 2500 or 5000 cycles before being tested. Retentive strength of each cement was recorded using a universal testing machine. Results: TempBond NE and NexTemp cements performed similarly when tested after 24h. The addition of Duraphat significantly decreased the retention when added to TempBond NE. NexTemp cement had high variability in retention over all tested time periods. Thermocycling for 2500 and 5000 cycles significantly decreased the retention of all cements. Conclusions: The addition of Duraphat fluoride varnish significantly decreased the retention of TempBond NE and is therefore not recommended for clinical use. Thermocycling significantly reduced the retention of TempBond NE and NexTemp. This may suggest that use of these cements for three months, as simulated in this study, is not recommended.

  11. Occupational Noise Exposure Evaluation in Drivers of Bus Transportation of Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ebrahimi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Noise in large cities is considered by the World Health Organization to be the third most hazardous type of pollution. Buses are an interesting object of study in the theme of noise pollution. They are at the same time a source of urban environmental (traffic noise and occupational noise exposure source for drivers. The object of this study is Occupational noise exposure evaluation in drivers of bus transportation of Tehran city."nMaterials and Methods: Noise levels in 90 buses were sampled in three separate sub-sample including (130 Ikaroos buses (230 Man buses (330 Shahab buses, which were selected by simple random sampling. Noise exposure level was normalized to a nominal 8-h working day (LEX, 8h. Simultaneous Octave Frequency Analysis were measured and sound intensity level (SIL for bus drivers were calculated. Results, which are obtained from separate buses were compared together and too with standard levels."nResults: the normalized noise exposure levels (LEX, 8h in Ikaroos bus drivers(82dB A were higher than that of in in Man bus drivers (77/6dB A and this Values were higher than that of in Shahab bus drivers(75dB A.SIL values for Ikaroos bus drivers were higher than other that of other bus drivers. Results obtained of Frequency Analysis showed that age of buses in mid frequencies ws a meaningful on noise increase."nConclusion: Results showed that type and age of buses were effective factors in drivers. noise exposure levels (LEX, 8h, which was consistent with previous studies in this field.

  12. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  13. Interim report and accounts 1993/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interim set of accounts and reports is presented here for 1993/1994 for the health science company Amersham International. The company's research programs focus on developments in life science research, nuclear medicine and industrial quality and safety assurance, with particular expertise in the application of radioactivity to labelling and detection at the molecular level. This report which covers the half-year to 30 September 1993 shows promising financial results, with turnover, operating profits and earnings per share all having risen. All life science markets report growth although difficult trading conditions are being reported in Europe. Two products in the Healthcare business have achieved progress, a pain palliation agent for bone metastases has been launched in the United States, and European approval has been gained for a new technetium based heart imaging agent. Further growth is expected for the company. (UK)

  14. Spent Fuel Behaviour During Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Review of spent fuel data relevant for future storage in Spain Perform destructive and non-destructive examinations on irradiated and non-irradiated fuel rods relevant to Spanish spent fuel management. Research approach: Among the programmes initiated in the last years (finished or about to be finished) one may highlight the following ones: • Isotopic measurements on high burnup fuels: up to 75 GW·d·t(U)-1 PWR and 53 GW·d·t(U)-1 BWR peak values; • Mechanical tests on high burnup PWR (ZIRLO) cladding and BWR (Zry-2) cladding samples; • Mechanical tests on unirradiated ZIRLO rods. Influence of hydrides content; • Modelling of mechanical tests with unirradiated claddings; • Interim storage creep modelling; • Burnup measurement equipment; • Fuel database

  15. Transport and interim storage casks in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Swiss utilities have chosen two different ways for the management of their spent fuel after initial on-site cooling: either reprocessing at La Hague plant (COGEMA) and Sellafield plant (COGEMA); or interim storage at the Central Interim Storage Facility called 'Zwischenlager Wuerenlingen AG' ( ZWILAG). Following international call for tenders, COGEMA LOGISTICS were awarded contracts for the supply of dual-purpose transport and storage casks for the interim storage of various spent fuel assemblies. All these casks belong to the family of the TN 24 dual purpose spent fuel storage casks in operation in the USA and in Belgium as well. They offer utilities a modular solution for the interim storage of spent fuel in robust metal casks which are fully suitable for off site transports. This flexible product can be readily adapted to suit individual user needs. The Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL) has purchased six licensed dual-purpose TN97L spent fuel casks (97 BWR type fuel assemblies capacity). Three of them are already in operation at ZWILAG. COGEMA LOGISTICS has also delivered a dual-purpose TN52L spent fuel casks (52 BWR type fuel assemblies capacity) presently used for transport of spent fuel for reprocessing. The Goesgen Nuclear Power Plant (KKG) has purchased four licensed dual-purpose TN24G spent fuel casks (37 PWR type fuel assemblies capacity). They are all in operation at ZWILAG. The Muehleberg Nuclear Power Plant (BKW/KKM) has purchased 2 TN24BH spent fuel casks (69 BWR type fuel assemblies capacity). At the time of this abstract, cold trials are carried out involving the shuttle transport cask TN9/4 procured by COGEMA LOGISTICS as well. This paper will present the main features of these casks and the main steps of their development and implementation: 1) Main features of the casks: - The basic structure is a thick steel cylindrical forging with a welded on forged bottom and two forged steel lids. Containment and gamma shielding features of

  16. Hierarchies of belief and interim rationalizability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Ely

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In games with incomplete information, conventional hierarchies of belief are incomplete as descriptions of the players' information for the purposes of determining a player's behavior. We show by example that this is true for a variety of solution concepts. We then investigate what is essential about a player's information to identify behavior. We specialize to two player games and the solution concept of interim rationalizability. We construct the universal type space for rationalizability and characterize the types in terms of their beliefs. Infinite hierarchies of beliefs over conditional beliefs, which we call Delta-hierarchies, are what turn out to matter. We show that any two types in any two type spaces have the same rationalizable sets in all games if and only if they have the same Delta-hierarchies.

  17. Licensing procedure for interim stores in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coalition agreement of October 1998 signed by the parties in government contains a provision about the treatment of spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants which, in principle, seeks to avoid transports and terminate, which would also end transports to France and the UK, by July 1, 2005. After that date, all fuel elements arising are to be managed by direct disposal. Pending the start of operation of a suitable repository, this concept requires safekeeping of spent fuel elements in appropriate storage facilities. The consensus agreement between the federal government and the power utilities contains this approach with the goal of building on-site storage facilities. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), as the competent supervisory authority under Sec. 6 of the Atomic Energy Act, has received licensing applications for temporary and on-site stores, respectively, as decentralized interim stores for all nuclear power plant sites in Germany (with the exception of Muelheim-Kaerlich, for which special regulations exist). Three technical concepts, namely two variants of a hall structure, a tunnel concept for Neckarwestheim, and a temporary store, must be examined by BfS in a licensing procedure including as its main steps public participation, examination of the preconditions for a permit, and drafting of the licensing decision. In addition, on-site stores require that an environmental impact assessment be carried out. Proceedings are conducted at BfS largely in parallel and speedily by a project group set up. BfS intends to finish all steps involving public participation still this year. When all preconditions have been met for licensing decisions to be granted, and with an assumed construction period of two years, on-site interim stores ought to be available from 2005 on. (orig.)

  18. AGR-1 Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machael Abbott

    2009-08-01

    Projects for the very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) program provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR Program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are (1) qualified for use, (2) stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and (3) analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the data streams associated with the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-1) experiment, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY09 qualification status of the AGR-1 data to date. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category, which is assigned by the data generator, and include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing, to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documentation that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent QA program. The interim qualification status of the following four data streams is reported in this document: (1) fuel fabrication data, (2) fuel irradiation data, (3) fission product monitoring system (FPMS) data, and (4) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) operating conditions data. A final report giving the NDMAS qualification status of all AGR-1 data (including cycle 145A) is planned for February 2010.

  19. Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan (HWMTP) is a companion document to the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP). A reference plan for management and disposal of all existing and certain projected future radioactive Hanford Site Defense Wastes (HSDW) is described and discussed in the HWMP. Implementation of the reference plan requires that various open technical issues be satisfactorily resolved. The principal purpose of the HWMTP is to present detailed descriptions of the technology which must be developed to close each of the technical issues associated with the reference plan identified in the HWMP. If alternative plans are followed, however, technology development efforts including costs and schedules must be changed accordingly. Technical issues addressed in the HWMTP and HWMP are those which relate to disposal of single-shell tank wastes, contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, double-shell tank wastes, encapsulated 137CsCl and 90SrF2, stored and new solid transuranic (TRU) wastes, and miscellaneous wastes such as contaminated sodium metal. Among the high priority issues to be resolved are characterization of various wastes including early determination of the TRU content of future cladding removal wastes; completion of development of vitrification (Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant) and grout technology; control of subsidence in buried waste sites; and development of criteria and standards including performance assessments of systems proposed for disposal of HSDW. Estimates of the technology costs shown in this report are made on the basis that all identified tasks for all issues associated with the reference disposal plan must be performed. Elimination of, consolidation of, or reduction in the scope of individual tasks will, of course, be reflected in corresponding reduction of overall technology costs

  20. New energy-saving and environmentally friendly technologies for buses and trucks; Nieuwe energiezuinige en milieuvriendelijke technologien voor bussen en vracthtwagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, R.; De Keukeleere, D.; Lenaers, G.

    1998-09-01

    The point of departure was the statement that people find public transport buses highly polluting. A lot of attention went to the advantages and the disadvantages of buses and trucks on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas. These fuels don`t cause any particle emissions from the combustion process. To quantify the other environmental advantages of gas technology, the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO) carried out measurements of different bus technologies. Fuel consumption, emission of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides and hydrocarbons of 8 buses were measured in the Brussels traffic. 3 technologies of the early nineties were taken as a reference: the Euro-1 diesel, the current Brussels public transport company natural gas bus and a LPG bus. Comparisons were made with the modern diesel bus (Euro-2) and the newest buses on natural gas and LPG. To achieve minimal emissions, the best available technology for buses on natural gas or LPG is multipoint injection, the constructors of engines for heavy-duty traffic are changing from carburetor to fuel injection. The best available gas technologies has emissions that can be 50 to 95 per cent lower than the most modern diesel bus. Users mentioned problems at the introduction of vehicles on gas, such as lower reliability and availability. The cost price continues to be a disadvantage of buses and trucks on gas. The extra consumption of fuel doesn`t necessarily imply higher costs. Often fuel suppliers and distributors offer a favourable unit price, which includes the cost for the infrastructure. The purchase price of the vehicle remains higher and the workplaces must be adjusted for maintenance and repairs of vehicles on gas. The bus or truck on diesel is very reliable and cheaper to use than a similar vehicle on gas. The environmental perspectives are much less marked. Heavy-duty traffic emits nitrogen oxides and particles. With respect to these harmful substances in particular, constructors must

  1. Model for low temperature oxidation during long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode during about one century. The metal lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies performed in the frame of the COCON program. An advanced model based on the description of elementary mechanisms involved in scale growth at low temperatures, like partial interfacial control of the oxidation kinetics and/or grain boundary diffusion, is developed in order to increase the reliability of the long term extrapolations deduced from basic models developed from short time experiments. Since only few experimental data on dry oxidation are available in the temperature range of interest, experiments have also been performed to evaluate the relevant input parameters for models like grain size of oxide scale, considering iron as simplified material. (authors)

  2. Interim main report of the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Allan (ed.) [and others

    2004-08-01

    This document is an interim report on the safety assessment SR-Can (SR in the acronym stands for Safety Report and Can is short for canister). The final SR-Can report will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of the present interim report is to demonstrate the methodology for safety assessment so that it can be reviewed before it is used in a license application. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. Preliminary data from the Forsmark site, presently being investigated by SKB as one of the candidate for a KBS-3 repository are used to some extent as examples. However, the collected data are yet too sparse to allow an evaluation of safety for this site. An important aim of this report is to demonstrate the proper handling of requirements on the safety assessment in applicable regulations. Therefore, regulations issued by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority are duplicated in an Appendix. The principal acceptance criterion requires that 'the annual risk of harmful effects after closure does not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk'. 'Harmful effects' refer to cancer and hereditary effects. Following the introductory chapter 1, this report outlines the methodology for the SR-Can assessment in chapter 2, and presents in chapters 3, 4 and 5 the initial state of the system and the plans and methods for handling external influences and internal processes, respectively. Function indicators are introduced in chapter 6 and a preliminary evaluation of these is given in chapter 7. The material presented in the first seven chapters is utilised in the scenario selection

  3. Interim main report of the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an interim report on the safety assessment SR-Can (SR in the acronym stands for Safety Report and Can is short for canister). The final SR-Can report will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of the present interim report is to demonstrate the methodology for safety assessment so that it can be reviewed before it is used in a license application. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. Preliminary data from the Forsmark site, presently being investigated by SKB as one of the candidate for a KBS-3 repository are used to some extent as examples. However, the collected data are yet too sparse to allow an evaluation of safety for this site. An important aim of this report is to demonstrate the proper handling of requirements on the safety assessment in applicable regulations. Therefore, regulations issued by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority are duplicated in an Appendix. The principal acceptance criterion requires that 'the annual risk of harmful effects after closure does not exceed 10-6 for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk'. 'Harmful effects' refer to cancer and hereditary effects. Following the introductory chapter 1, this report outlines the methodology for the SR-Can assessment in chapter 2, and presents in chapters 3, 4 and 5 the initial state of the system and the plans and methods for handling external influences and internal processes, respectively. Function indicators are introduced in chapter 6 and a preliminary evaluation of these is given in chapter 7. The material presented in the first seven chapters is utilised in the scenario selection in chapter 8. Hydrogeological

  4. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  5. Load demand profile for a large charging station of a fleet of all-electric plug-in buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Rios

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a general procedure to compute the load demand profile from a parking lot where a fleet of buses with electric propulsion mechanisms are charged. Such procedure is divided in three different stages, the first one models the daily energy utilisation of the batteries based on Monte Carlo simulations and route characteristics. The second one models the process in the charging station based on discrete event simulation of queues of buses served by a lot of available chargers. The third step computes the final demand profile in the parking lot because of the charging process based on the power consumption of batteries’ chargers and the utilisation of the available charges. The proposed procedure allows the computation of the number of required batteries’ chargers to be installed in a charging station placed at a parking lot in order to satisfy and ensure the operation of the fleet, the computation of the power demand profile and the peak load and the computation of the general characteristics of electrical infrastructure to supply the power to the station.

  6. Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel before Final Disposal in Germany - Regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For spent nuclear fuel management in Germany the concept of dry interim storage in dual purpose casks before direct disposal is applied. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is the competent authority for licensing of interim storage facilities. The competent authority for surveillance of operation is the responsible authority of the respective federal state (Land). Currently operation licenses for storage facilities have been granted for a storage time of 40 years and are based on safety demonstrations for all safety issues as safe enclosure, shielding, sub-criticality and decay heat removal under consideration of operation conditions. In addition, transportability of the casks for the whole storage period has to be provided. Due to current delay in site selection and exploration of a disposal site, an extension of the storage time beyond 40 years could be needed. This will cause appropriate actions by the licensee and the competent authorities as well. A brief description of the regulatory base of licensing and surveillance of interim storage is given from the regulators view. Furthermore the current planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high level waste and its interconnections between storage and disposal concepts are shortly explained. Finally the relevant aspects for licensing of extended storage time beyond 40 years will be discussed. Current activities on this issue, which have been initiated by the Federal Government, will be addressed. On the regulatory side a review and amendment of the safety guideline for interim storage of spent fuel has been performed and the procedure of periodic safety review is being implemented. A guideline for implementing an ageing management programme is available in a draft version. Regarding safety of long term storage a study focussing on the identification and evaluation of long term effects as well as gaps of knowledge has been finished in 2010. A continuation and update is currently underway

  7. Data Analysis of GPM Constellation Satellites-IMERG and ERA-Interim precipitation products over West of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Ehsan; Steinacker, Reinhold; Saghafian, Bahram

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is a critical component of the Earth's hydrological cycle. The primary requirement in precipitation measurement is to know where and how much precipitation is falling at any given time. Especially in data sparse regions with insufficient radar coverage, satellite information can provide a spatial and temporal context. Nonetheless, evaluation of satellite precipitation is essential prior to operational use. This is why many previous studies are devoted to the validation of satellite estimation. Accurate quantitative precipitation estimation over mountainous basins is of great importance because of their susceptibility to hazards. In situ observations over mountainous areas are mostly limited, but currently available satellite precipitation products can potentially provide the precipitation estimation needed for meteorological and hydrological applications. One of the newest and blended methods that use multi-satellites and multi-sensors has been developed for estimating global precipitation. The considered data set known as Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals (IMERG) for GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) is routinely produced by the GPM constellation satellites. Moreover, recent efforts have been put into the improvement of the precipitation products derived from reanalysis systems, which has led to significant progress. One of the best and a worldwide used model is developed by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). They have produced global reanalysis daily precipitation, known as ERA-Interim. This study has evaluated one year of precipitation data from the GPM-IMERG and ERA-Interim reanalysis daily time series over West of Iran. IMERG and ERA-Interim yield underestimate the observed values while IMERG underestimated slightly and performed better when precipitation is greater than 10mm. Furthermore, with respect to evaluation of probability of detection (POD), threat score (TS), false alarm ratio (FAR) and probability

  8. Interim Land Use Plan : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Interim Land Use Plan for Muscatatuck NWR provides a brief history of the Refuge; summarizes present land conditions, needs, and habitat types; and provides an...

  9. Strategic Review of Medical Training and Career Structure Interim Report

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2013-01-01

    Click here to download Strategic Review of Medical Training and Career Structure Interim Report PDF 44kb Click here to download Strategic Review of Medical Training and Career Structure Terms of Reference PDF 59KB

  10. Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Materials And Runoff Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  11. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge : Interim hunting plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim hunting plan for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) outlines hunting guidelines for the Refuge....

  12. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards

  13. Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge : Interim Public Access Plan : 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim plan covers public access for Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge. Sections include introduction, safety briefing protocols, entry procedure, types of...

  14. Interim research assessment 2003-2005 - Computer Science

    OpenAIRE

    Mouthaan, A.J.; Hartel, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report primarily serves as a source of information for the 2007 Interim Research Assessment Committee for Computer Science at the three technical universities in the Netherlands. The report also provides information for others interested in our research activities.

  15. Security of radioactive sources: Interim guidance for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a brief summary of the material contained in IAEA-TECDOC-1355, Security of Radioactive Sources: Interim Guidance for Comment, covering the topics of threat assessment, Security Groups and performance objectives, and security based categorization. (author)

  16. TANK FARM INTERIM SURFACE BARRIER MATERIALS AND RUNOFF ALTERNATIVES STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLM MJ

    2009-06-25

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  17. Technical bases for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience base for water storage of spent nuclear fuel has evolved since 1943. The technology base includes licensing documentation, standards, technology studies, pool operator experience, and documentation from public hearings. That base reflects a technology which is largely successful and mundane. It projects probable satisfactory water storage of spent water reactor fuel for several decades. Interim dry storage of spent water reactor fuel is not yet licensed in the US, but a data base and documentation have developed. There do not appear to be technological barriers to interim dry storage, based on demonstrations with irradiated fuel. Water storage will continue to be a part of spent fuel management at reactors. Whether dry storage becomes a prominent interim fuel management option depends on licensing and economic considerations. National policies will strongly influence how long the spent fuel remains in interim storage and what its final disposition will be

  18. Operable Unit 3: Proposed Plan/Environmental Assessment for interim remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a Proposed Plan and an Environmental Assessment for an interim remedial action to be undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) within Operable Unit 3 (OU3) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This proposed plan provides site background information, describes the remedial alternatives being considered, presents a comparative evaluation of the alternatives and a rationnale for the identification of DOE's preferred alternative, evaluates the potential environmental and public health effects associated with the alternatives, and outlines the public's role in helping DOE and the EPA to make the final decision on a remedy

  19. The effects of urban driving conditions on the operating characteristics of conventional and hybrid electric city buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Operating characteristics of conventional and hybrid electric buses were examined. • Recovery of braking energy offers an excellent opportunity to improve fuel economy. • Speed and altitude profiles of routes have dramatic impacts on the energy recovery. • Capacity of the auxiliary power source has a dramatic impact on the energy recovery. • Round-trip efficiency of the regenerative braking system was calculated to be 27%. - Abstract: The basic operating characteristics of a conventional bus (CB) and a hybrid electric bus (HEB) were examined under urban driving conditions. To perform this examination, real-time operating data from the buses were collected on the Campus-Return route of the Sakarya Municipality. The main characteristics examined were the traction, braking, engine, engine generator unit (EGU), motor/generator (M/G), and ultracapacitor (Ucap) energies and efficiencies of the buses. The route elevation profile and the frequency of stop-and-go operations of the buses were found to have dramatic impacts on the braking and traction energies of the buses. The declining profile of the Campus-Return route provided an excellent opportunity for energy recovery by the regenerative braking system of the HEB. However, owing to the limits on the capacities and efficiencies of the hybrid drive train components and the Ucap, the bus braking energies were not recovered completely. Braking energies as high as 2.2 kW h per micro-trip were observed, but less than 1 kW h of braking energy per micro-trip was converted to electricity by the M/G; the rest of the braking energy was wasted in frictional braking. The maximum energy recovered and stored in the Ucap per micro-trip was 0.5 kW h, but the amount of energy recovered and stored per micro-trip was typically less than 0.2 kW h for the entire route. The cumulative braking energy recovered and stored in the Ucap for the Campus-Return route was 52% of the available brake energy, which was 13.02 kW h

  20. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.

    1999-09-14

    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  1. DOE Hanford Site tank farm interim stabilization during 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three single-shell nuclear waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site were interim stabilized during 1990 using a jet pump system. This paper discusses the pumping system, processes, stabilization criteria, and problems encountered during interim stabilization of these tanks. An upgraded pumping system was used that was developed from a previous jet pumping campaign completed in 1985. 6 figs

  2. ITER interim design report package and relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication documents the technical basis which underlay the Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis submitted to the ITER Councils (IC-8 and IC-9) Records of decisions and the ''ITER Interim Design Report Package''. This publication contains ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions, TAC-8 Report, SRG Report, CP's Report on Tentative Sequence of Events and Parties' Views on the IDR Package and Parties' Technical Comments on the IDR Package. Figs, tabs

  3. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-07

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines.

  4. Packaging, transportation and interim storage of unconditioned and conditioned wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods and experiences for packaging, transport and possibilities for interim storage of unconditioned wastes are described. After the waste treatment and immobilization, it is packaged for transport and final disposal following the requirements of the IAEA transport regulations and national regulations. The characteristics of some common types of containe and shielding systems, and some techniques for interim storage of conditioned wastes, are presented. (Author)

  5. RATIO BETWEEN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES AND INTERIM FINANCIAL REPORTING

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia-Elena GRIGORAS-ICHIM

    2010-01-01

    In economic and financial communication, the common language is represented by accounting rules which consent the process of converting the operations afferent to economic development in figures (the situation of the one which prepares the interim financial reports) and a process to convert figures in economic transactions (the situation of the one using the interim financial reports). Therefore arises necessarily the “accounting standardization process” involving a complex of rules capable t...

  6. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines

  7. Interim report on the accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations (the Investigation Committee) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) was established by the Cabinet decision on May 24, 2011. Its objectives are: to conduct investigation for finding out the causes of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS) and Fukushima Dai-ni Nuclear Power Station (Fukushima Dai-ni NPS) of TEPCO as well as the causes of accident damage; and to make policy recommendations for limiting the expansion of damage and preventing reoccurrence of similar accidents. The Investigation Committee has conducted its investigation and evaluation since its first meeting on June 7, 2011. Its activities included: site visits to the Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni NPSs, as well as to other facilities; hearing of heads of local governments around the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS; and hearing of people concerned through interviews mainly arranged by the Secretariat. As of December 16, 2011, the number of interviewees reached 456. The investigation and evaluation by the Investigation Committee are still ongoing and the Interim Report does not cover every item that the Committee aims at investigating and evaluating. Fact-finding of even some of those items discussed in the Interim Report are not yet completed. The Investigation Committee continues to conduct its investigation and evaluation and will issue its Final Report in the summer of 2012. This brief executive summary covers mainly considerations and evaluation of the issues in Chapter VII of the Interim Report, with brief reference to Chapters I to VI. The Investigation Committee recommendations are printed in bold. (author)

  8. Interim measure work plan/design for Agra, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-18

    This Interim Measure Work Plan/Design (IMWP/D) is supplemental to the Argonne document Interim Measure Conceptual Design for Remediation of Source Area Contamination at Agra, Kansas. The IMWP/D includes information required by Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Policy BER-RS-029, Policy and Scope of Work for Interim Measures. Specific to Policy BER-RS-029 is the requirement for several documents that will ensure that an adequate amount and type of data are collected for implementation of the IMWP/D and that data quality and safe conditions are prevailed. Such information is included in the IMWP/D as follows: Appendix A: Data Acquisition Plan--Design Testing Requirements; Appendix B: Basis of Design; Appendix C: Permits; Appendix D: Quality Assurance Project Plan; Appendix E: Health and Safety Plan; and Appendix F: Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Schedule. The proposed remedial technology for this project is the installation of five large-diameter boreholes (LDBs) in a source area that has been identified on the property formerly used for grain storage by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The goal of the LDB technology is the remediation of the source area by removal of mass quantities of contaminated soil from the vadose zone and treatment of any remaining contaminated soils that are adjacent to the source area to achieve a carbon tetrachloride concentration below 200 {micro}g/kg. Secondary to the soil remediation is the remediation of groundwater at and adjacent to the source areas. The LDB technology serves the following purposes: (1) The physical removal of contaminated soil from the identified source area. (2) Replacement of less permeable native materials (silty clay, clayey silt, and silty sand) with more permeable materials to facilitate the capture of volatilized contaminants in the vertical borehole. (3) Removal of contaminants volatilized by air sparging (AS) and extracted from the

  9. SWSA 6 interim corrective measures environmental monitoring: FY 1990 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Spalding, B.P.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents the results and conclusions from a multifaceted monitoring effort associated with the high-density polyethylene caps installed in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as an interim corrective measure (ICM). The caps were installed between November 1988 and June 1989 to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for closure of those areas of SWSA 6 that had received RCRA-regulated wastes after November 1980. Three separate activities were undertaken to evaluate the performance of the caps: (1) wells were installed in trenches to be covered by the caps, and water levels in these intratrench wells were monitored periodically; (2) samples were taken of the leachate in the intratrench wells and were analyzed for a broad range of radiological and chemical contaminants; and (3) water levels in wells outside the trenches were monitored periodically. With the exception of the trench leachate sampling, each of these activities spanned the preconstruction, construction, and postconstruction periods. Findings of this study have important implications for the ongoing remedial investigation in SWSA 6 and for the design of other ICMs. 51 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region

  11. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  12. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Vienna, John D.; Cooley, Scott K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Russell, Renee L.

    2001-07-24

    The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region.

  13. SWSA 6 interim corrective measures environmental monitoring: FY 1990 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results and conclusions from a multifaceted monitoring effort associated with the high-density polyethylene caps installed in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as an interim corrective measure (ICM). The caps were installed between November 1988 and June 1989 to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for closure of those areas of SWSA 6 that had received RCRA-regulated wastes after November 1980. Three separate activities were undertaken to evaluate the performance of the caps: (1) wells were installed in trenches to be covered by the caps, and water levels in these intratrench wells were monitored periodically; (2) samples were taken of the leachate in the intratrench wells and were analyzed for a broad range of radiological and chemical contaminants; and (3) water levels in wells outside the trenches were monitored periodically. With the exception of the trench leachate sampling, each of these activities spanned the preconstruction, construction, and postconstruction periods. Findings of this study have important implications for the ongoing remedial investigation in SWSA 6 and for the design of other ICMs. 51 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Conceptual design of interim storage facility for CNAI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduced storage capacity available in the two spent fuel pools of argentine PHWR Atucha-1 power plant, the current plans for extending the reactor operation beyond its design lifetime, and the government decision on Atucha-2 NPP construction ending, have motivated the evaluation of a dry storage option for the interim management of spent fuel assemblies. Two different designs are presently being analyzed by an expert working group, from both technical and economical points of views. Authors are proposing a modular system consisting of an arrangement of reinforced concrete structures into which welded metallic canisters loaded with 37 spent fuel assemblies each stored in horizontal position. The reinforced concrete module is designed to provide the necessary physical protection and biological shielding to the loaded canisters during long-term storage, as well as passive means to remove the spent fuel decay heat by a combination of radiation, conduction and natural air convection. In this works are presented advances in the conceptual designs for a spent nuclear fuel system to Atucha I nuclear power plant. (author)

  15. Pre-conceptual study on the review framework for the radiation shielding safety of the PWR spent fuel cask interim storage in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, 20 nuclear power plants are in operation and lots of spent fuels are on the onsite storage. The onsite storage capacity in Korea is supposed to be full around at the year of 2016 and interim storage facilities could be considered to be constructed before 2016. A review framework to evaluate the radiation shielding safety of the interim storage facilities is developed in this study. It includes acceptance criteria, review procedures and activities of independent analyses. A case study is performed to apply the review framework. Modeling the review reference storage, evaluating the source terms and calculating the photon fluxes are performed. It is shown that the application of the review framework could satisfy the regulatory demand that would arise in the near future in the review area of the radiation shielding safety of the interim storage in Korea. (author)

  16. On-road, in-use gaseous emission measurements by remote sensing of school buses equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and diesel particulate filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Daniel A; Provinsal, Melissa N

    2009-12-01

    A remote sensing device was used to obtain on-road and in-use gaseous emission measurements from three fleets of schools buses at two locations in Washington State. This paper reports each fleet's carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) mean data. The fleets represent current emission retrofit technologies, such as diesel particulate filters and diesel oxidation catalysts, and a control fleet. This study shows that CO and HC emissions decrease with the use of either retrofit technology when compared with control buses of the same initial emission standards. The CO and HC emission reductions are consistent with published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency verified values. The total oxides of nitrogen (NOx), NO, and the NO2/NOx ratio all increase with each retrofit technology when compared with control buses. As was expected, the diesel particulate filters emitted significantly higher levels of NO2 than the control fleet because of the intentional conversion of NO to NO2 by these systems. Most prior research suggests that NOx emissions are unaffected by the retrofits; however, these previous studies have not included measurements from retrofit devices on-road and after nearly 5 yr of use. Two 2006 model-year buses were also measured. These vehicles did not have retrofit devices but were built to more stringent new engine standards. Reductions in HCs and NOx were observed for these 2006 vehicles in comparison to other non-retrofit earlier model-year vehicles. PMID:20066912

  17. An Analysis of Challenges Faced by Students Learning in Virtual and Open Distance Learning System: A Case of Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo, Obediah; Makwerere, David; Parwada, Matavire; Parwada, Cosmas

    2013-01-01

    After realizing that the traditional modes of tuition in Zimbabwe's andragogy had either gone obsolete or over-crowded, BUSE ventured into a "virtualised" model of open and distance learning as a way of out-doing other competing universities. However, as the programme was rolled out, there came a myriad of challenges affecting the…

  18. 340 Waste Handling Facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the interim safety basis (ISB) for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (340 Facility). An ISB is a documented safety basis that provides a justification for the continued operation of the facility until an upgraded final safety analysis report is prepared that complies with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The ISB for the 340 Facility documents the current design and operation of the facility. The 340 Facility ISB (ISB-003) is based on a facility walkdown and review of the design and operation of the facility, as described in the existing safety documentation. The safety documents reviewed, to develop ISB-003, include the following: OSD-SW-153-0001, Operating Specification Document for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (WHC 1990); OSR-SW-152-00003, Operating Limits for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (WHC 1989); SD-RE-SAP-013, Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Railroad Liquid Waste Tank Cars (Mercado 1993); SD-WM-TM-001, Safety Assessment Document for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (Berneski 1994a); SD-WM-SEL-016, 340 Facility Safety Equipment List (Berneski 1992); and 340 Complex Fire Hazard Analysis, Draft (Hughes Assoc. Inc. 1994)

  19. Research on HLW and ILW Interim Storage Complementary to Deep Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Act (28 June 2006), interim storage is a research route for the sustainable management of HLW and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste (ILW) in France, along with partitioning/transmutation and reversible disposal in a deep geological formation. Interim storage is intended to play a complementary role to the geological reversible repository. ANDRA is responsible for defining and coordinating the research on both interim storage and reversible disposal of HLW/ILW. A long storage duration as considered before 2006 (up to 300 years) is no more an objective for the research. The paper details the role of interim storage complementary to the reversible repository, with respect to the origin and characteristics of various HLW and ILW to be considered. In particular, it will make it possible for HLW to benefit of thermal decay. ANDRA cooperates with the operators of existing storage facilities at production sites. Working groups have been created. The objectives are the following: - to learn from the experience gained at designing, building and operating the facilities, - to check the capability of existing and projected facilities to meet with the requirements of the National plan for the management of the radioactive matters and waste. In 2008, French waste producers updated the National inventory of radioactive waste and matters. According to the Act, they have incorporated an inventory of their storage facilities. ANDRA has made a review of these inventories to provide the Government with an evaluation of needs for new facilities. ANDRA has also investigated new design options of storage facilities on both production and disposal sites. On the repository site, interim storage above ground and in shallow geological formation have been studied. The waste packages are stored as produced, eventually secured in handling cask, or over-packed for disposal in steel (HLW) or concrete containers (ILW). A service life as long as one hundred years may

  20. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  1. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  2. Safety research activities for Japanese regulations of spent fuel interim storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) carries out (a) preparation of technical documents, (b) technical evaluations of standards (prepared by academic societies), etc. and (c) other R and D activities, to support Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA: which controls the regulations for Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facilities). In 2012 fiscal year, JNES carried out dynamic test of spent fuel to examine the integrity of spent fuel under cask drop accidents, and preparation for PWR spent fuel storage test to prove long term integrity of spent fuel and cask itself. Some of these tests will be also carried out in 2013 fiscal year and after. (author)

  3. Interim results from the characterization testing of the Engineering Development (EDM) rubidium clocks for satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Edward D., Jr.; Danzy, Fredrick

    1990-01-01

    Some interim results from the environmental testing program to evaluate the Engineering Design Model (EDM) of the EG and G Spaceborne Rubidium Clock are presented. This effort is in support of the Global Positioning System (GPS) BLOCK IIR program and is intended to characterize the performance of EG and G design for BLOCK IIR satellite applications. Two EG and G EDM units are currently under test at NRL's Clock Test Facility to measure the long-term frequency stability, drift, and frequency versus temperature characteristics.

  4. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist

  5. Continuation of the summarizing interim report on previous results of the Gorleben site survey as of May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to results from the 1983 interim report, this report contains, in order to supplement the surface explorations, seismic reflection measurements, hydrogeologic and seismologic investigations, sorption experiments, and studies of glacial development in the site region and of long-term safety of final waste repositories in salt domes. The site's high grade of suitability for becoming a final radioactive waste repository, the legal basis as well as quality assurance are evaluated. (orig.)

  6. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Interim Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Mark; Phillips, Michelle; Smith, Anita; Castori, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA) is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project consisting of seven long-term three-way partnerships between the Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and an informal science education institution (ISEI) partnered with an institution of higher education (IHE). Together, educators from the…

  7. The Proposal to Create the Czech Accounting Standards – Interim Financial Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Gláserová

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of the position and role of interim financial statements in the Czech financial reporting.The paper created a proposal for the creation of a new Czech Accounting Standard – “Interim Financial Statements”. Its purpose is both to unify the existing fragmented legislation issues examined under the Czech law and also to define the essential terms of the lack of interim financial statements. This is the definition of the interim reporting period, the obligation o...

  8. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany; Zwischenlagerung von radioaktiven Abfaellen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-12-15

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  9. International Peer Review of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's SR-Can interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB has produced an interim safety assessment report as part of its work to develop a licence application for the construction of a spent nuclear fuel encapsulation plant. The purpose of the interim report is to set out and demonstrate SKB's proposed methodology for long-term safety assessment. The aim of producing an interim report is to allow the Swedish regulatory authorities (SKI and SSI) to review and comment on SKB's proposed methodology before it is used in support of a formal licence application. To help inform their review of SKB's proposed methodology, the authorities appointed an international review team (IRT) to carry out a review of SKB's interim safety assessment report. Comments from the IRT are presented in this document and will be considered by the regulatory authorities in developing their own view of SKB's proposed methodology. The IRT's review included examination of SKB's documentation (the 'Interim Main Report of the Safety Assessment SR-Can' and four supporting documents) and hearings with SKB staff and contractors. The hearings provided an opportunity for the IRT to discuss the SR-Can safety assessment with the authors and contributors to SKB's work. As directed by SKI and SSI, the IRT's review focused on methodological aspects and sought to determine whether SKB's proposed safety assessment methodology: (i) is fit for the purpose of supporting a licence application; (ii) has a reasonable prospect of leading to a safety assessment that is sufficiently comprehensive, reproducible, traceable and transparent; (iii) is compatible with the authorities' regulations and guidance. No evaluation of long term safety or site acceptability was attempted by the IRT. At the request of SKI and SSI, the IRT's review considered and made recommendations on the following issues: Description of the initial state of the repository and its components; Description of features, events and processes (FEPs) relevant to repository evolution; Strategy for safety

  10. Fear of permanence: The challenge of siting interim facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines an increasingly urgent and surprisingly difficult task: siting potentially hazardous facilities that are intended to operate for a limited period, such as a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility (MRS) for radioactive waste. Other examples are at-reactor radioactive waste storage facilities (e.g., dry cask storage) an interim storage facilities for plutonium recovered from retired nuclear weapons. Conventional wisdom holds that such facilities will be easier to site than facilities that are intended to be permanent, such as a radioactive waste repository. Yet the record to date has not provided much support for this expectation. Efforts to site an MRS are approaching the decade mark, despite several acts of Congress and the implementation of a variety of innovative institutional mechanisms designed to facilitate the siting process. And there is no end in sight exclamation point As the title of this paper suggests, we argue that a distinctive challenge to siting interim facilities is meeting the concern of interested publics that the facility may turn out not to be interim and instead achieve de facto permanence. Unless this concern is successfully addressed, siting an interim facility becomes just as difficult as siting as permanent facility because the concerned publics have to assume the worst (that the interim facility will be permanent) and act accordingly. Our analysis of this challenge is in four parts. First, we describe a generalized scenario that captures the logic of the dilemma. Second, we briefly recount four cases where the scenario is being played out (or has the potential to do so). Third, we explore several more specific siting issues through the lens of the interim facilities dilemma. Fourth, we draw conclusions and policy implications

  11. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses

  12. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE's Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  13. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrick (ed.)

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses.

  14. 24 CFR 960.257 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim reexaminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... move to an appropriate size unit. (b) Interim reexaminations. A family may request an interim... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family income and composition... and Reexamination § 960.257 Family income and composition: Regular and interim reexaminations....

  15. 40 CFR 57.302 - Performance level of interim constant controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance level of interim constant... Performance level of interim constant controls. (a) Maximum feasible efficiency. Each NSO shall require: that the smelter operate its interim constant control systems at their maximum feasible...

  16. Corporate Risk Disclosure: A Content Analysis of Swedish Interim Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Khaledi, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the determinants of the level of corporate risk disclosure (CRD) in the interim reports of Swedish non-financial companies. A quantitative research approach is used, the sample data of which consist of 166 firms with 4,849 interim reports over a 10-year period. By utilizing the notion of risk and its definition, I have distinguished three categories of risk, namely risk as uncertainty, risk as threat and risk as opportunity. A systematic content analysis...

  17. Interim safety basis for fuel supply shutdown facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ISB in conjunction with the new TSRs, will provide the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the Facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements. It is concluded that the risk associated with the current operational mode of the Facility, uranium closure, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within Risk Acceptance Guidelines. The Facility is classified as a Moderate Hazard Facility because of the potential for an unmitigated fire associated with the uranium storage buildings

  18. 20 CFR 410.490 - Interim adjudicatory rules for certain part B claims filed by a miner before July 1, 1973, or by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Pneumoconiosis § 410.490 Interim adjudicatory rules for certain part B claims filed by a miner before July 1... tests not presently available to evaluate disability due to pneumoconiosis, and that such claims must be... pneumoconiosis, or to have been totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis at the time of his death, or his...

  19. Up-front fludarabine impairs stem cell harvest in multiple myeloma: report from an interim analysis of the NMSG 13/03 randomized placebo controlled phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Hans Erik; Knudsen, Lene Meldgaard; Mylin, Anne Kærsgaard; Gimsing, Peter; Gregersen, Henrik; Abildgaard, Niels; Andersen, Niels Frost; Plesner, Torben; Vangsted, Annette Juul; Mouritz-Andersen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    The impact of chemotherapy resistant B cells in multiple myeloma (MM) needs to be evaluated by in vivo targeted therapy. Here we report the conclusions from a phase II randomized, placebo controlled trial adding fludarabine to the induction with cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone. Based on an interim...

  20. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.; Schechter, P.; Baltay, C.; Bean, R.; Bennett, D.; Brown, R.; Conselice, C.; Donahue, M.; Gaudi, S.; Lauer, T.; Perlmutter, S.; Rauscher, B.; Rhodes, J.; Roellig, T.; Stern, D.; Sumi, T.; Gerhels, N.; Sambruna, R.; Barry, R. K.; Content, D.; Grady, K; Jackson, C.; Kruk, J.; Melton, M.; Rioux, N.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite (IRAS), the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), Herschel, Spitzer, and Wide-field Infrared Sur-vey Explorer (WISE) are all space missions that have produced stunning new scientific advances by going to space to observe in the infrared. This interim report describes progress as of June 2011 on developing a requirements flowdown and an evaluation of scientific performance. An Interim Design Reference Mission (IDRM) configuration is presented that is based on the specifications of NWNH with some refinements to optimize the design in accordance with the new scientific requirements. Analysis of this WFIRST IDRM concept is in progress to ensure the capability of the observatory is compatible with the science requirements. The SDT and Project will continue to refine the mission concept over the coming year as design, analysis and simulation work are completed, resulting in the SDT s WFIRST Design Reference Mission (DRM) by the end of 2012.

  1. Preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter; Etude preliminaire d`un reseau de terrain pour le systeme de controle des hautes tensions du calorimetre hadronique d`Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevet, F.; Chadelas, R.; Montarou, G.

    1996-12-31

    We present here after a preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the photomultipliers of the TILECAL calorimeter. After some generalities, different commercial buses are reviewed (CAN, ARCET, WorldFIP, Profibus and LonWorks). The Profibus and LonWorks solution are more extensively studies as a possible solution for the high voltage system of the TILE hadronic calorimeter. (authors).

  2. Stabilization of in-tank residuals and external-tank soil contamination: FY 1997 interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interim report evaluates various ways to stabilize decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm as part of a preliminary evaluation of end-state options for the Hanford tanks. Five technical areas were considered: (1) emplacement of smart grouts and/or other materials, (2) injection of chemical-getters into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing), (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks, (4) the use of engineered barriers over the tanks, and (5) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five technical areas. Detailed cost/benefit analyses of the recommended technologies are not provided in this evaluation, performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  3. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility

  4. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport—A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rogge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure planning. The analysis is based on real-world data of the bus network in Muenster, a mid-sized city in Germany. The outcomes underline the necessity to focus on entire vehicle schedules instead on individual trips. The tradeoff between required battery capacity and charging power is explained in detail. Furthermore, the impact on the electricity grid is discussed based on the load profiles of a selected charging station and a combined load profile of the entire network.

  5. ASPECTS CONCERNING INTERIM FINANCIAL REPORTING IN ROMANIA: STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristita Rotila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms employed for the communication of accounting information that is necessary for users in their economic decision-making process consist of the financial statements of an entity. All legal entities, no matter the domain of their activity, have the obligation to draw up annual financial statements for every completed financial year. For certain categories of entities, reporting obligations are also required for periods other than the annual reporting, throughout the financial year. It is the case of interim financial reporting. At the level of the international accounting framework, the aspects related to interim financial reporting are the subject of a separate standard, namely, IAS 34 Interim Financial Reporting. In Romania, the current system of accounting regulations concerning the annual financial statements comprises accounting regulations that comply with the European directives and which apply to the various categories of entities, on the one hand and, on the other, accounting regulations in line with the IFRS, which are applicable to other classes of entities from certain activity sectors. The accounting regulations that apply to each category refer to, among other things, the contents and the format of financial statements that have to be presented. Analysing the system of norms and regulations, this article identifies the requirements concerning interim financial reporting in Romania, with reference to the different types of entities.

  6. Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline

  7. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline

  8. Single Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VLADIMIROFF, D.T.; BOYLES, V.C.

    2000-05-22

    This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  9. The Children's Behavioral Classification Project: An Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Ralph Mason

    1977-01-01

    Described in the interim report of the Children's Behavioral Classification Project (CBCP) is the CBCP instrument, a duplicated list of 274 behavioral items and three demographic items which provides a profile of the emotionally disordered child based on observations by the parent or parent-surrogate. (SBH)

  10. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  11. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-12-27

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository.

  12. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... registered by its manufacturer under 40 CFR part 79 according to the specifications in paragraphs (c) (1... hearing procedures shall be informal, and the hearing shall not be subject to or governed by 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program....

  13. Minish Named Interim Head of Admissions at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2004-01-01

    Roberta M.Minish, of Blacksburg, Va., associate dean emeritus of Virginia Tech's former College of Human Sciences and Education, has been named interim director of undergraduate admissions at the university, effective Jan. 19. She fills the position left vacant in December with the resignation of Karen Torgersen.

  14. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

  15. On-site interim stores for spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since June 14 this year, the subject of a nuclear power consensus has been mentioned in the headlines less frequently than in past years. On that day, the government and operators of power plants agreed in Berlin on residual amounts of electricity to be produced and on management of the spent fuel elements of the nineteen German nuclear power plants. One sub-item under the heading of waste management, which continues to arouse debates not only at nuclear power plant sites despite the consensus reached, and which may become vitally important to the operation of plants, will be covered in more detail below: the construction of so-called decentralized interim stores. When present contracts with French and British firms on nuclear fuel reprocessing have been fulfilled and reprocessing has been phased out, these interim stores are to minimize the number of transports within Germany, a notorious source of general unrest, and are supposed to accommodate the spent fuel elements until a suitable repository will have been built where they can then be stored permanently. The whole development of a management concept for spent nuclear fuel in the Federal Republic of Germany, and the requirements to be met by decentralized interim stores, are explained in the article. The resultant standardized concept of dry interim cask storage is outlined in the light of its legal and technical criteria. Finally, the site-dependent variants of this concept are presented, and the status and the special features of the ongoing licensing procedures are explained. (orig.)

  16. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a... vessel had been requisitioned for title under section 902(a) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 App. U.S.C. 1242(a)) at the time of the attachment of the insurance under said policy:...

  17. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-05-11

    This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  18. At what extent the benefits of introducing alternative light-duty vehicles offset those of increasing the buses average occupancy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Characterization of fuel consumption, emissions and daily distance, of road fleet by probability distribution functions. • The co-benefit of congestion level decrease due to mode-shifting from LDV to bus is explored. • A potential decrease in NOx + PM of 23% is foreseen, by 50% LDV replacement or mode-shifting (bus occupancy 40–80%). • A decrease of CO2 is foreseen as being 20%, by 50% LDV replacement or mode-shifting (bus occupancy 30–60%). • Electricity mix relaying on renewables will increase the window were the energy and CO2 benefits match to 35%. - Abstract: This paper quantifies the energy and emissions benefits of introducing electric drive vehicles (pure electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell) on a conventional light-duty fleet (LDV) versus promoting the intensification of the public transportation use by means of mode-shifting and increased average bus occupancy. The impact is assessed in terms of energy, local pollutants, HC, CO, NOx, PM, and global emissions of CO2. The specific fleet of Portugal is used as case study. This fleet has roughly 6 million LDV (30% diesel, 70% gasoline) and 15,000 buses, with a mobility indicator of 106 thousand million passengerxkm (pkm). Probability density functions for energy consumption and emissions are derived for conventional, electric drive vehicles, and buses, avoiding considering one representative vehicle of each. Scenarios of 30–50% conventional fleet replacement is compared against scenarios of bus occupancy increase from 20% to 80%. The increased bus occupancy is made by mode-shifting from conventional LDV vehicles keeping the mobility pkm and bus supply. The co-benefit of congestion level decrease due to mode-shifting is explored. The effect of different electricity mixes is also analyzed. The methodology used allowed obtaining likelihood functions for energy consumption and emissions for each scenario and offset areas where the benefits match. The use of the methodology for

  19. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  20. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  1. Technological capability assessment of suppliers to support product development: case study on a buses and coaches manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Comerlato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management has become a critical issue in the global collaboration scenario. Suppliers are not expected to provide just commodities or pre-defined components, but also collaborative engineering design solutions within the product development cycle. Thus, the selection criteria for defining supply partner go beyond the production and logistic capabilities, but must also include technical and engineering competence. This, in some sense, can be considered a common scenario of big companies, but is still challenging when dealing with SME´s. This work discusses how SME´s can be included in a supply chains taking in consideration a set of parameters to assess their technical competence related to product development collaboration. A set of eight parameters has been proposed to assess the engineering team competence, physical and technological structure and further legal responsibility. For each parameter values and weights were defined also. The assessment was applied to three companies that are suppliers of a buses and coaches manufacturer from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The results show that even when dealing with objective parameters, the suppliers and costumer can have different perceptions about same issues.

  2. Cna 1 spent fuel element interim dry storage system thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the moment, the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant (Cnea-I) located in the city of Lima, has enough room to store its spent fuel (Sf) in their two pools spent fuel until about 2015.In case of life extension a spend fuel element interim dry storage system is needed.Nucleolectrica Argentina S.A. (N A-S A) and the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Cnea), have proposed different interim dry storage systems.These systems have to be evaluated in order to choose one of them.The present work's objective is the thermal analysis of one dry storage alternative for the Sf element of Cna 1.In this work a simple model was developed and used to perform the thermal calculations corresponding to the system proposed by Cnea.This system considers the store of sealed containers with 37 spent fuels in concrete modules.Each one of the containers is filled in the pool houses and transported to the module in a transference cask with lead walls.Fulfill the maximum cladding temperature requirement (<200 degrade C) for a total 2140 W thermal power

  3. The subtropical cloud regime transition: A 10-year view from AIRS, MODIS and ERA-Interim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, M. M.; Kahn, B. H.; Yue, Q.; Suselj, K.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a synergistic approach using multiple satellite observations to describe the statistical behavior of cloud and thermodynamic fields within the subtropical cloud regime transition. Cloud parameters obtained from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are combined with atmospheric thermodynamic profile retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to quantify changes in the statistical moments over a decade of observations. The analysis is done across the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus in several areas around the globe. We analyze differences in the statistical behavior of cloud parameters, lower tropospheric stability, variations in temperature (T) and water vapor (q) profiles, and high-spectral-resolution infrared radiances, and demonstrate differences and similarities among the different cloud types. The statistics are compared to European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting Interim Re-analysis (ERA-Interim) data in the same region and time period for the same cloud types. This type of a statistical comparison of provides additional important constraints that are useful for the assessment of satellite retrievals and evaluating atmospheric variability in climate models.

  4. INTERIM STORAGE AND LONG TERM DISPOSAL OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D

    2006-08-22

    Aluminum clad research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is currently being consolidated in wet storage basins (pools). Approximately 20 metric tons (heavy metal) of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) is being consolidated for treatment, packaging, interim storage, and preparation for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. The storage and disposal of Al-SNF are subject to requirements that provide for safety and acceptable radionuclide release. The options studied for interim storage of SNF include wet storage and dry storage. Two options have also been studied to develop the technical basis for the qualification and repository disposal of aluminum spent fuel. The two options studied include Direct Disposal and Melt-Dilute treatment. The implementation of these options present relative benefits and challenges. Both the Direct Disposal and the Melt-Dilute treatment options have been developed and their technical viability assessed. Adaptation of the melt-dilute technology for the treatment of spent fuel offers the benefits of converting the spent fuel into a proliferation resistant form and/or significantly reducing the volume of the spent fuel. A Mobile Melt-Dilute system concept has emerged to realize these benefits and a prototype system developed. The application of the melt-dilute technology for the treatment of legacy nuclear materials has been evaluated and also offers the promise for the safe disposal of these materials.

  5. Neoadjuvant treatment for unresectable rectal cancer: An interim analysis of a multicentre randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present an interim analysis of the trial comparing two neoadjuvant therapies for unresectable rectal cancer. Methods: Patients with fixed cT3 or cT4 or locally recurrent rectal cancer without distant metastases were randomized to either 5 × 5 Gy and 3 courses of FOLFOX4 (schedule I) or 50.4 Gy delivered in 28 fractions given simultaneously with 5-Fu, leucovorin and oxaliplatin (schedule II). Surgery in both groups was performed 12 weeks after the beginning of radiation and 6 weeks after neoadjuvant treatment. Results: 49 patients were treated according to schedule I and 48 according to schedule II. Grade III+ acute toxicity was observed in 26% of patients in group I and in 25% in group II. There were two toxic deaths, both in group II. The microscopically radical resection (primary endpoint) rate was 73% in group I and 71% in group II. Overall and severe postoperative complications were recorded in 27% and 9% of patients vs. 16% and 7%, respectively. Pathological complete response was observed in 21% of the patients in group I and in 9% in group II. Conclusions: The interim analysis revealed no major differences in acute toxicity and local efficacy between the two evaluated strategies

  6. Interim assessment of the VAL automated guideway transit system. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anagnostopoulos, G.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes an interim assessment of the VAL (Vehicules Automatiques Legers or Light Automated Vehicle) AGT system which is currently under construction in Lille, France, and which is to become fully operational in December 1983. This report contains a technical description and performance data resulting from a demonstration test program performed concurrently in August 1980. VAL is the first driverless AGT urban system application in France. The system operates at grade, elevated, and in tunnels on an exclusive concrete dual-lane guideway that is 12.7 kilometers long. The configuration of the system is a push-pull loop operating between 17 on-line stations. The system is designed to provide scheduled operation at 60-second headways and a normal one-way capacity of 7440 passengers per hour per direction with 55 percent of the passengers seated. Two pneumatic-tired vehicles are coupled into a single vehicle capable of carrying 124 passengers at line speeds of 60 km/hr. During the course of the demonstration test program, VAL demonstrated that it could achieve high levels of dependability and availability and could perform safely under all perceivable conditions.

  7. Safety research activities for Japanese regulations of spent fuel interim storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) carries out (a) preparation of technical documents, (b) technical evaluations of standards (prepared by academic societies), etc. and (c) other R and D activities, to support Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA: which prepares necessary regulations for Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facilities). In 2010 fiscal year, JNES completed technical evaluation of the standard (prepared by Atomic Energy Society of Japan) used for the storage facility (dual purpose cask system) being constructed in Mutsu-City and R and D for UT test of welded canister lids which is required for concrete cask storage facilities. And also, JNES is preparing dynamic test of spent fuel to examine the integrity of spent fuel at cask drop accidents and PWR spent fuel storage test to prove long term integrity of spent fuel and cask itself. The results of these tests will be reported in 2011 and 2012 fiscal year. (author)

  8. Introducing Systematic Aging Management for Interim Storage Facilities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany twelve at-reactor and three central (away from reactor) dry storage facilities are in operation, where the fuel is stored in combined transport-and-storage casks. The safety of the storage casks and facilities has been approved and is licensed for up to 40 years operating time. If the availability of a final disposal facility for the stored wastes (spent fuel and high-level wastes from reprocessing) will be further delayed the renewal of the licenses can become necessary in future. Since 2001 Germany had a regulatory guideline for at-reactor dry interim storage of spent fuel. In this guideline some elements of ageing were implemented, but no systematic approach was made for a state-of-the-art ageing management. Currently the guideline is updated to include all kind of storage facilities (central storages as well) and all kinds of high level waste (also waste from reprocessing). Draft versions of the update are under discussion. In these drafts a systematic ageing management is seen as an instrument to upgrade the available technical knowledge base for possible later regulatory decisions, should it be necessary to prolong storage periods to beyond the currently approved limits. It is further recognized as an instrument to prevent from possible and currently unrecognized ageing mechanisms. The generation of information on ageing can be an important basis for the necessary safety-relevant verifications for long term storage. For the first time, the demands for a systematic monitoring of ageing processes for all safety-related components of the storage system are described. In addition, for inaccessible container components such as the seal system, the neutron shielding, the baskets and the waste inventory, the development of a monitoring program is recommended. The working draft to the revised guideline also contains recommendations on non-technical ageing issues such as the long-term preservation of knowledge, long term personnel planning and long term

  9. Ad interim legal remedy in case of large projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Action for ad interim judicial relief in response to large projects approved of by the authorities very frequently take several years until a decision is taken by the court. Experience has shown that this applies in particular to large projects such as the construction of nuclear power plants, large-size industrial plants, or airports. It has become regular practice by the authorities concerned to issue an order for immediate execution upon the plan approving decision and granting of licence for said projects, in accordance with section 80, sub-section (2), no.4 of the VwGO. The problems thus created with regard to interim legal remedy sought by the parties concerned are of great significance. The book in hand discusses the question as to whether the practice of the administrative authorities and the courts satisfies the requirements embodied in the law, to provide for efficient legal protection. (orig./HSCH)

  10. Penalty Inflation Adjustments for Civil Money Penalties. Interim Final Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-27

    In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, and further amended by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, section 701: Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act Improvements Act of 2015, this interim final rule incorporates the penalty inflation adjustments for the civil money penalties contained in the Social Security Act PMID:27373014

  11. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste

  12. 105-H Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following information documents the decontamination and decommissioning of the 105-H Reactor facility, and placement of the reactor core into interim safe storage. The D and D of the facility included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and restoration of the site. The ISS work also included construction of the safe storage enclosure, which required the installation of a new roofing system, power and lighting, a remote monitoring system, and ventilation components.

  13. Dry storage of spent fuel elements: interim facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the existing facilities to storage nuclear fuel elements at Argentina's nuclear power stations, a new interim storage facility has been planned and projected by the Argentinean Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) that will be constructed by private group. This article presents the developments and describes the activities undertaken until the national policy approach to the final decision for the most suitable alternative to be adopted. (B.C.A.). 09 refs, 01 fig, 09 tabs

  14. Conditioning of radioactive waste for long - term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are currently 4800 drums of treated radioactive waste originating from the operation and subsequent decommissioning of Siemens' former nuclear fuel fabrication plant in Hanau (Siemens RB) that are in interim storage at two sites in Germany. Some of this waste is in an interim store at the Karlsruhe Research Center operated by its Decontamination Division (HDB). The store also contains around 30,000 drums of radwaste from the research center itself as well as local institutions. Germany's Federal Government anticipates that interim storage will be necessary for a further 30 years until a suitable final repository goes into operation. However, since the waste drums were not designed for such a long period of storage, other steps must now be taken to ensure safe interim storage in the long term. The objective is to condition the existing waste drums as well as future waste arisings in accordance with the 1989 regulatory guideline on non-heat-generating radioactive waste such that they satisfy the acceptance criteria applicable since 1995 for final disposal at the Konrad repository. The drums are to be immobilized in concrete inside Konrad containers designed for long-term corrosion resistance in order to obtain waste packages that can be safely stored for a prolonged period without maintenance. If the activity limit for the container is not reached, low-level waste can be added as an aggregate to the concrete, which occupies around half the volume of each container, in order to save storage capacity at the repository. This waste conditioning, to be performed at HDB and Siemens RB, will convert around 65% of all non-heat-generating waste in Germany to a form that is suitable for final storage and is maintenance-free. (orig.)

  15. Safety concept for interim storage facilities in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of the Environment is planning to construct the Interim Storage Facility for soil and waste generated in Fukushima prefecture, due to the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. This paper describes the result of study for the safety concepts. Concrete components are estimation of soil/waste generation, soil characterization, structure and location of facilities, radioactive safety assessment, operational management, approach for transportation concept, basic principle of environmental conservation measures. (author)

  16. Interim dry storage system technologies and innovations VARNA 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main concepts of the TN24 Family and NUHOMS System are explained in the paper. It is discussed how the NPPs specific requirements and economics trends contributes to the growing families of interim dry storage systems delivered under COGEMA LOGICTICS license. It is concluded that modular solutions are currently dominating because they are derived from main concepts evolved over time, benefited from both the transport aspects with internationally recognised stringent regulations, and various specific ISFSI requirements and economic trends

  17. Bucy named interim assistant vice president, head of sponsored programs

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Linda Bucy of Christiansburg, Va., director of post award administration in the Office of Sponsored Programs (OSP), has been appointed interim assistant vice president and director of the Office of Sponsored Programs. She replaces David Richardson, assistant vice president for sponsored program administration in the Office of the Vice President for Research, who has accepted a position at Penn State University as assistant vice president for research and director of the Office of Sponsored Pr...

  18. AN INTERIM THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY FORMULATION FOR SUPERCRITICAL n-HEXANE

    OpenAIRE

    Azzedine Abbaci; Anissa Acidi; Aicha Rizi; Salaheddine Azzouz

    2010-01-01

    Accurate information on the thermodynamic properties of supercritical fluids is highly sought for the chemical technology, especially, supercritical extraction technology. The thermodynamic properties of fluids near the critical region are strongly affected by the presence of fluctuations and therefore, can not be described by conventional equation. We have investigated an interim formulation for the behavior of the thermodynamic properties of n-hexane in the vicinity of the critical region. ...

  19. Interim prediction method for low frequency core engine noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, R. G.; Clark, B. J.; Dorsch, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey on low-frequency core engine noise is presented. Possible sources of low frequency internally generated noise in core engines are discussed with emphasis on combustion and component scrubbing noise. An interim method is recommended for predicting low frequency core engine noise that is dominant when jet velocities are low. Suggestions are made for future research on low frequency core engine noise that will aid in improving the prediction method and help define possible additional internal noise sources.

  20. Transformationale Führung als Erfolgsfaktor des Interim Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bollinger, Jan Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde untersucht, wie Führung zur Bewältigung von Unternehmenskrisen und Umsetzung von Veränderungen im Kontext des Interim Management beitragen kann. Dazu wurde die Theorie transformationaler Führung um aufgabenbezogene und indirekte Führung und den Einsatz von Positionsmacht ergänzt. Damit wurden diese erfolgskritischen Führungsdimensionen erstmals in einem gemeinsamen theoretischen Rahmen verbunden und die Auswirkungen einer kombinierten Anwendung untersucht. Die...

  1. Loss of approval for interim storage by time schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Act ''Gesetz zur Suche und Auswahl eines Standortes fuer ein Endlager fuer Waerme entwickelnde radioaktive Abfaelle'' on the search and selection of a site for a repository for heat-generating radioactive waste as also other acts insert a new topic for interim site storage. The operation should be restricted for 40 years. This part of the act is analysed with respect to future requirements for the storage of waste.

  2. Species management in aquatic habitats WRc RD Interim 1997

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This is the Species management in aquatic Habitats WRc Interim 1997 document produced by the Environment Agency in 1997. This document reports progress on R&D Project 640, which aims to provide information on species of conservation value of particular relevance to the Environment Agency, in relation to its activities affecting aquatic environments. A range of stand-alone outputs is being produced, comprising Species Action Plans, practical management guidelines for Agency staff and third par...

  3. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  4. Interim storage and transport casks in Switzerland. COGEMA logistics experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss utilities have chosen two different ways for the management of their spent fuel after initial on-site cooling: (1) reprocessing at La Hague plant (COGEMA) and Sellafield plant (BNFL); (2) interim storage at the Central Interim Storage Facility called 'Zwischenlager Wuerenlingen AG' ( ZWILAG). Following international call for tenders by Swiss utilities, COGEMA LOGISTICS has been awarded several contracts for the supply of dual-purpose transport and storage casks for the interim storage of various spent fuel assemblies. All these casks belong to the family of the TN 24 dual purpose spent fuel storage casks in operation in the USA and in Belgium as well. They offer utilities a modular solution for the interim storage of spent fuel in robust metal casks which are fully suitable for off site transports. This flexible product can be readily adapted to suit individual user needs. The Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL) has purchased nine licensed dual-purpose TN 97L spent fuel casks (97 BWR type fuel assemblies capacity). Three of them are already in operation at ZWILAG. COGEMA LOGISTICS has also delivered a dual-purpose TN 52L spent fuel casks (52 BWR type fuel assemblies capacity) presently used for transport of spent fuel for reprocessing. The Goesgen Nuclear Power Plant (KKG) has purchased four licensed dual-purpose TN 24G spent fuel casks (37 PWR type fuel assemblies capacity). They are all in operation at ZWILAG. The Muehleberg Nuclear Power Plant (BKW/KKM) has purchased two TN 24BH spent fuel casks (69 BWR type fuel assemblies capacity). At the time of this abstract, cold trials are carried out involving the shuttle transport cask TN 9/4 procured by COGEMA LOGISTICS as well. (author)

  5. Something not written in Hatamura Investigation Committee interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatamura Investigation Committee on the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station issued interim report. This article reviewed section 4-6 of interim report; problems of response to the accident, problems of hazard control measures and inappropriate precautionary measures against tsunami and severe accidents, and referred to something not written in the report; (1) whether core meltdown could be prevented by appropriate response to the accident?, (2) scope of evacuation area at the accident was too much underestimated and almost impossible to establish evacuation system in reality and (3) inappropriate design standard of tsunami. The report implied such conclusions; (1) almost no possibility to prevent core meltdown even without misjudgement after earthquake and tsunami, (2) almost impossible to establish evacuation system prepared for next accident with realistic cost and (3) request to revise design standard of tsunami based on latest knowledge and establish measures required from the standard. Preventive design against human errors was requisite for artificial system and safety engineering should be learned from experiences. Probability of accident occurrence at nuclear power station would be extremely low with safer design but damages suffered from reactor accident were widely different from other accidents and huge enough to be comparable to a large-scale natural disaster. Interim report proposed to prepare for actually possible accidents assuming continuation of reactor operation but most assured measure for next accident not to occur was obliged to stop the reactor operation. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Interim data report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlund, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    This document is the interim data report in the project SR-Can. The purpose of the data report is to present input data, with uncertainty estimates, for the SR-Can assessment calculations. Besides input data, the report also describes the standardised procedures used when deriving the input data and the corresponding uncertainty estimates. However, in the present interim version of the report (written in the initial stage of the project when site characterisation has yet not been completed) the standardised procedures have not been possible to apply for most of the data and, in order to present a compilation of the data used in the assessment, much of the input data is presented without following the standardised procedures. This will however be changed for the final version of the SR-Can data report, in order to show the methodology that will be used in the final version one example of how input data will be presented is included (migration data for buffer) . The recommended input data for the assessment calculations are, for the interim version, mainly based on SR 97 Beberg data, these are merely presented without any background or uncertainty discussion (this is presented in the SR 97 data report)

  7. 1990 annual ground-water report K-1407-B and K-1407-C interim status units Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) Rules Governing Hazardous Waste Management require that specific ground-water information for interim status units be reported in conjunction with the annual hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal report (TN 1200-1-11-.05(6)(e)1 and 2). To be included in the report are, the data from annual/semiannual ground-water sampling, results of statistical analyses, and an evaluation of ground-water surface elevations for units in detection monitoring. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. manages the K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the Department of Energy. Two interim status units at K-25 require ground-water monitoring, the K-1407-B and K-1407-C Holding Ponds. Both of these units were surface impoundments that have been drained and the waste sludges removed in response to the November 8, 1988, interim status closure milestone. The K-1407-C Pond was drained in mid-1987 and sludge removal activities were completed in November of 1988. The K-1407-B Pond was drained inOctober 1988, and sludge removal activities were completed in August of 1989. Both units have undergone soil sampling to verify complete sludge removal which would allow them to be ''clean closed'' under interim status regulations. Analytical results of soil samples from K-1407-C Pond are currently being evaluated and soil samples from K-1407-B Pond are undergoing laboratory analysis at this time. This report presents the results of the ground-water monitoring conducted at each unit in compliance with interim status regulations

  8. DATA MINING METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL MODEL OF COST PREDICTION IN SHIP INTERIM PRODUCT ASSEMBLY

    OpenAIRE

    Damir Kolich; Nikša Fafandjel; Y. Lawrence Yao

    2016-01-01

    In order to accurately predict costs of the thousands of interim products that are assembled in shipyards, it is necessary to use skilled engineers to develop detailed Gantt charts for each interim product separately which takes many hours. It is helpful to develop a prediction tool to estimate the cost of interim products accurately and quickly without the need for skilled engineers. This will drive down shipyard costs and improve competitiveness. Data mining is used extensively for developi...

  9. The Interim Financial Reporting in the Spirit of the IAS 34 Norm

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The role of an interim financial reporting is to allow the information users to acknowledge the activity of an entity on period shorter than financial exercise from the perspective of the available profits and cash flows generated as well as from the point of view of its financial position and liquidity. The interim financial reporting includes a complete or condensed set of financial statements which target to update the last financial reporting, usually the annual report. The interim financ...

  10. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The evaluation period in this report (January 2008 through February 2009) has been chosen to coincide with a UTC Power propulsion system changeout that occurred on January 15, 2008.

  11. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Interim rules amending ERISA disclosure requirements for group health plans--DoL. Interim rules with request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This document contains interim rules governing the content of the summary plan description (SPD) for group health plans, the furnishing of summaries of material reductions in covered services or benefits by group health plans, and the disclosure of SPD and related information through electronic media. The rules contained in this document implement amendments to the disclosure provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) enacted as part of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act of 1996 (NMHPA). Interested persons are invited to submit comments on the interim rules for consideration by the Department in developing final rules. The rules contained in this document are being adopted on an interim basis to accommodate statutorily established time frames intended to ensure that sponsors and administrators of group health plans, as well as participants and beneficiaries covered by such plans, have timely guidance concerning compliance with the recently enacted amendments to ERISA. PMID:10166825

  13. Safety research activities for Japanese regulations of spent fuel interim storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) carries out (a) preparation of technical documents, (b) technical evaluations of standards (prepared by academic societies), etc. and (c) other R and D activities, to support Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA: which prepares necessary regulations for Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facilities). In 2011 fiscal year, JNES carried out R and D for UT test of welded canister lids which is required for concrete cask storage facilities. And also, JNES carried out dynamic test of spent fuel to examine the integrity of spent fuel at cask drop accidents and PWR spent fuel storage test to prove long term integrity of spent fuel and cask itself. Some of these tests will be carried out in 2012 fiscal year and after. (author)

  14. Second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear fuel waste disposal concept chosen for development and assessment in Canada involves the isolation of corrosion-resistant containers of waste in a vault located deep in plutonic rock. As the concept and the assessment tools are developed, periodic assessments are performed to permit evaluation of the methodology and provide feedback to those developing the concept. The ultimate goal of these assessments is to predict what impact the disposal system would have on man and the environment if the concept were implemented. The second such assessment was completed in 1984 and is documented in the Second Interim Assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal - Volumes 1-4. This, the third volume of the report, summarizes the pre-closure environmental and safety assessments completed by Ontario Hydro for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The preliminary results and their sigificance are discussed. 85 refs

  15. Second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear fuel waste disposal concept chosen for development and assessment in Canada involves the isolation of corrosion-resistant containers of waste in a vault located deep in plutonic rock. As the concept and the assessment tools are developed, periodic assessments are performed to permit evaluation of the methodology and provide feedback to those developing the concept. The ultimate goal of these assessments is to predict what impact the disposal system would have on man and the environment if the concept were implemented. The second such assessment was performed in 1984 and is documented in the Second Interim Assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal - Volumes 1-4. This volume, entitled Post-Closure Assessment, describes the methods, models and data used to perform the second post-closure assessment. The results are presented and their significance is discussed. Conclusions and planned improvements are listed. 72 refs

  16. Updated version of an interim connection space LabPQR for spectral color reproduction: LabLab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Wan, Xiaoxia; Li, Junfeng; Liang, Jingxing

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new interim connection space (ICS) called LabLab, which is an updated version of LabPQR, to overcome the drawback that the last three dimensions of LabPQR have no definite colorimetric meanings. We extended and improved the method by which the first three dimensions of LabPQR are deduced to obtain an ICS consisting of two sets of CIELAB values under different illuminants, and the reconstructed spectra from LabLab were obtained by minimizing colorimetric errors by means of the computational formula of the CIE-XYZ tristimulus values combined with least-squares best fit. The improvement obtained from the proposed method was tested to compress and reconstruct the reflectance spectra of the 1950 Natural Color System color chips and more than 50,000 ISO SOCS color patches as well as six multispectral images acquired by multispectral image acquisition systems using 1600 glossy Munsell color chips as training samples. The performance was evaluated by the mean values of color differences between the original and reconstructed spectra under the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer and the CIE standard illuminants D50, D55, D65, D75, F2, F7, F11, and A as well as five multichip white LED light sources. The mean and maximum values of the root mean square errors between the original and reconstructed spectra were also calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed three LabLab interim connection spaces significantly outperform principal component analysis, LabPQR, XYZLMS, Fairman-Brill, and LabRGB in colorimetric reconstruction accuracy at the cost of slight reduction of spectral reconstruction accuracy and illuminant independence of color differences of the suggested LabLab interim connection spaces outperform other interim connection spaces. In addition, the presented LabLab interim connection spaces could be quite compatible with the extensively used colorimetric management system since each dimension has definite colorimetric

  17. Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space

  18. Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Miller, W.O.; Unal, C.; Fujita, R.K.

    1995-01-13

    This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space.

  19. Assessment report of research and development activities. Activity: Quantum Beam Science Research' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'JAEA') consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Quantum Beam Science Research (hereinafter referred to as 'Committee') for interim assessment of 'Quantum Beam Science Research', in accordance with General Guideline for Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research program of the Quantum Beam Science Research, which includes the management of the Quantum Beam Science Directorate (hereinafter referred to as 'QuBS') and the research activities in the area of Quantum Beam Science during October, 2005 to September, 2007. The Committee evaluated the management and research activities in Quantum Beam Science based on the documents and oral presentations prepared by QuBS. This evaluation report presents the summary and the submitted by the Committee. (author)

  20. Assessment report of research and development on 'nuclear safety research' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research and Development (R and D) Activities for Nuclear Safety', for interim assessment of R and D on nuclear safety research in accordance with 'General Guideline for Evaluation of Government R and D Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by Japan. In response to JAEA's request, the Committee assessed mainly the progress of the R and D project according to guidelines, which addressed the rationale behind the R and D project, the relevance of the project outcome and the efficiency of the project implementation during the period of the current midterm plan. As a result, the Committee concluded that the progress of the R and D project is satisfactory. This report describes the results of evaluation by the Committee. In addition, the appendix of this report contains presentations used for the evaluation, and responses from JAEA on the comments from the member of the Committee. (author)

  1. Fuel sorting evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of functions and requirements associated with sorting fuel from the Hanford K Basins is presented to support design issue resolution decisions for achieving interim fuel storage. Potential requirements are recommended for implementation in design activities. The recommendations are provided as input to a management decision process where decisions are finalized and the sorting issue is closed

  2. Assessment report on research and development activities. Activity: 'Advanced science research' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as “JAEA”) consulted an assessment committee, “Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Advanced Science Research” (hereinafter referred to as “Committee”) for interim assessment of “Advanced Science Research,” in accordance with “General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities” by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, “Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology” and “Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities” by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research programs and activities of the Advanced Science Research Center (hereinafter referred to as “ASRC”) for the period of two years from April 2010. The Committee evaluated the management and the research programs of the ASRC based on the explanatory documents prepared by the ASRC and the oral presentations with questions-and-answers by the Director and the research group leaders. This report summarizes the result of the assessment by the Committee with the Committee report attached from page 7. (author)

  3. Assessment report of research and development activities. Activity: advanced science research' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'JAEA') consults an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Advanced Science Research' (hereinafter referred to as 'Committee') for interim assessment of 'Advanced Science Research,' in accordance with General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research program of the Advanced Science Research Center (hereinafter referred to as 'ASRC') during the period of two years from October 2005 to September 2007. The Committee evaluated the management and research activities of the ASRC based on the explanatory documents prepared by the ASRC, the oral presentations with questions-and-answers by the Director and the research group leaders, and interviews from group members through on-site visits by the Committee members. One CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  4. Assessment report of research and development activities. Activity: 'Fusion research and development' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'JAEA') asked the assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research and Development Activities for Fusion' (hereinafter referred to as 'Committee') for interim assessment of 'Research and Development of the technical system for extraction of fusion energy,' in accordance with 'General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government R and D Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research program of the Fusion Research and Development Directorate (hereinafter referred to as 'FRDD') during the period of four years from October 2005 to August 2009. The Committee evaluated the management and research activities of the FRDD based on the explanatory documents prepared by the FRDD, the oral presentations with questions-and-answers by the Director General and the Deputy Director Generals. (author)

  5. Assessment report of research and development activities. Activity: 'Nuclear science and engineering research' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'JAEA') consults an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Nuclear Science and Engineering' (hereinafter referred to as 'Committee') for interim assessment of 'Nuclear Science and Engineering,' in accordance with 'General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by the JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research program of the Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate (hereinafter referred to as 'NSED') and Center for Computational Science and e-Systems (hereinafter referred to as 'CCSE') during the period of about four years from September 2008 to September 2012. The Committee evaluated the management and research activities of the NSED and the CCSE based on explanatory documents prepared by the NSED and the CCSE, and oral presentations with questions-and-answers by unit managers etc. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  6. Environmental survey of two interim dumpsites, Middle Atlantic Bight from 05 November 1973 to 10 November 1973 (NODC Accession 7501280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A second oceanographic survey cruise was made to an interim municipal sludge dumpsite and initially to an interim dumpsite for the disposal of industrial acid waste...

  7. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    NASA has developed a set of 14 draft roadmaps to guide the development of space technologies under the leadership of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Each of these roadmaps focuses on a particular technology area (TA). The roadmaps are intended to foster the development of advanced technologies and concepts that address NASA's needs and contribute to other aerospace and national needs. OCT requested that the National Research Council conduct a study to review the draft roadmaps, gather and assess relevant community input, and make recommendations and suggest priorities to inform NASA's decisions as it finalizes its roadmaps. The statement of task states that "based on the results of the community input and its own deliberations, the steering committee will prepare a brief interim report that addresses high-level issues associated with the roadmaps, such as the advisability of modifying the number or technical focus of the draft NASA roadmaps." This interim report, which does not include formal recommendations, addresses that one element of the study charge. NASA requested this interim report so that it would have the opportunity to make an early start in modifying the draft roadmaps based on feedback from the panels and steering committee. The final report will address all other tasks in the statement of task. In particular, the final report will include a prioritization of technologies, will describe in detail the prioritization process and criteria, and will include specific recommendations on a variety of topics, including many of the topics mentioned in this interim report. In developing both this interim report and the final report to come, the steering committee draws on the work of six study panels organized by technical area, loosely following the organization of the 14 roadmaps, as follows: A Panel 1: Propulsion and Power TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems TA02 In-Space Propulsion Technologies TA03 Space Power and Energy Storage Systems TA13

  8. Summary Interim Report on Findings and Interim Themes from Phase 1 of the review of Allied Health Professions (AHP) support for children/young people with a statement of special educational needs (SEN)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    Summary Interim Report on Findings and Interim Themes from Phase 1 of the review of Allied Health Professions (AHP) support for children/young people with a statement of special educational needs (SEN)This interim report is outlining the service principles agreed by the Project Board and the themes identified throughout engagement and information gathering.

  9. TropFlux: air-sea fluxes for the global tropical oceans-description and evaluation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PraveenKumar, B.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Murty, V.S.N.; McPhaden, M.J.

    This paper evaluates several timely, daily air-sea heat flux products (NCEP, NCEP2, ERA-Interim and OAFlux/ISCCP) against observations and present the newly developed TropFlux product. This new product uses bias-corrected ERA-interim and ISCCP data...

  10. Costs of RCRA corrective action: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report estimates the cost of the corrective action provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for all non-federal facilities in the United States. RCRA is the federal law which regulates the treatment, storage, disposal, and recovery of hazardous waste. The 1984 amendment to RCRA, known as the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments, stipulates that facilities that treat, store or dispose of hazardous wastes (TSDs) must remediate situations where hazardous wastes have escaped into the environment from their solid waste management units (SWMUs). The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA 1990a), among others, believes that the costs of RCRA corrective action could rival the costs of SUPERFUND. Evaluated herein are costs associated with actual remedial actions. The remedial action cost estimating program developed by CH2M Hill is known as the Cost of Remedial Action Model (CORA). It provides cost estimates, in 1987 dollars, by technology used to remediate hazardous waste sites. Rules were developed to categorize each SWMU in the RTI databases by the kinds of technologies that would be used to remediate them. Results were then run through CORA using various assumptions for variable values that could not be drawn from the RTI databases and that did not have CORA supplied default values. Cost estimates were developed under several scenarios. The base case assumes a TSD and SWMU universe equal to that captured in the RTI databases, a point of compliance at the SWMU boundary with no ability to shift wastes from SWMU to SWMU, and a best-as-practical clean-up to health-based standards. 11 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs

  11. Interim Financial Reporting in the Perspective of harmonization of the Romanian Accountancy with the International Financial Reporting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bunea-Bontas, Cristina Aurora

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the interim financial reporting is to present, timely and regularly, information concerning the enterprise’s capacity to generate earnings and cash flows and its financial position and liquidity. International Accounting Standard 34 “Interim Financial Reporting” concerns the financial statements for an interim period. According to IAS 34, the interim financial report includes a complete or condensed set of financial statements, elaborated for a shorter period than a full...

  12. Republic of Congo; Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines Congo’s Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (I-PRSP). Congo’s I-PRSP explains the features and causes of poverty in Congo. It provides a short- and medium-term vision of development as well as a strategic orientation for a return to sustainable and equitable growth. The main objective is steady poverty reduction. The choice and implementation of strategic orientations and priority actions in the I-PRSP are consistent with the government’s commitment to rebuilding the ...

  13. Dosimetry at an interim storage for spent nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králík, M; Kulich, V; Studeny, J; Pokorny, P

    2007-01-01

    The Czech nuclear power plant Dukovany started its operation in 1985. All fuel spent from 1985 up to the end of 2005 is stored at a dry interim storage, which was designed for 60 CASTOR-440/84 casks. Each of these casks can accommodate 84 fuel assemblies from VVER 440 reactors. Neutron-photon mixed fields around the casks were characterized in terms of ambient dose equivalent measured by standard area dosemeters. Except this, neutron spectra were measured by means of a Bonner sphere spectrometer, and the measured spectra were used to derive the corresponding ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons. PMID:17526479

  14. US PRACTICE FOR INTERIM WET STORAGE OF RRSNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.

    2010-08-05

    Aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the United States and stored at Department of Energy storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper summarizes the current practices to provide for continued safe interim wet storage in the U.S. Aluminum fuel stored in poor quality water is subject to aggressive corrosion attack and therefore water chemistry control systems are essential to maintain water quality. Fuel with minor breaches are safely stored directly in the basin. Fuel pieces and heavily damaged fuel is safely stored in isolation canisters.

  15. AN INTERIM THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY FORMULATION FOR SUPERCRITICAL n-HEXANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzedine Abbaci

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information on the thermodynamic properties of supercritical fluids is highly sought for the chemical technology, especially, supercritical extraction technology. The thermodynamic properties of fluids near the critical region are strongly affected by the presence of fluctuations and therefore, can not be described by conventional equation. We have investigated an interim formulation for the behavior of the thermodynamic properties of n-hexane in the vicinity of the critical region. For this reason we have used the so-called “crossover model” to describe the thermodynamic properties of n-hexane in a wide range of temperatures and densities around the critical point.

  16. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  17. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-09-12

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  18. 42 CFR 417.572 - Budget and enrollment forecast and interim reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of each contract period. The forecast must be based on financial and statistical data and records... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget and enrollment forecast and interim reports... forecast and interim reports. (a) Annual submittal. The HMO or CMP must submit an annual operating...

  19. 32 CFR 643.36 - Policy-Interim leasing of excess properties to facilitate economic readjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Interim leasing of excess properties to facilitate economic readjustment. 643.36 Section 643.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.36 Policy—Interim leasing of...

  20. 78 FR 40199 - Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim Staff Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim Staff Guidance AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Regulatory Commission (NRC) requests public comment on Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim... given in NUREG-1927 ``Standard Review Plan for Renewal of Spent Fuel Dry Cask Storage System...

  1. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis

  2. 76 FR 59394 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Publication of the Extension of Interim Waiver...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... multiple defrost cycles, and requested comments on Samsung's petition. 76 FR 16760 (March 25, 2011... comment period on its interim final rule for the refrigerator test procedure. 76 FR 57612 (Sept. 15, 2011...: Publication of the Extension of Interim Waiver Granted to Samsung Electronics America, Inc. From...

  3. Worldwide survey of dry interim storage of fuel elements from power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel elements with approx. 10,500 t of heavy metal are discharged annually from power reactors worldwide. The total amount existing is approximately 220,000 t. The capacity increase of decay storage pools by compact storage is about to meet limits in technical terms and with respect to licensing. External interim storage of spent fuel elements is becoming more and more important. There is a certain tendency worldwide to use interim stores on the sites of nuclear power plants in order to overcome the need for transports on public traffic routes. In Germany, this trend is enforced by the lack of central stores accessible where and when the need arises. Most interim stores use dry interim storage. In Central and Western Europe, casks are employed almost exclusively; in the United States, more canisters than casks are used. More and more systems are employed which allow both storage and transports (dual purpose systems). In the future, multipurpose systems could well become the systems of choice which, in addition, allow direct disposal of the inventory in the packages used for transport and interim storage. In Germany, important preconditions have been created in the development of the POLLUX trademark cask. No safety-related problems are expected to arise for either wet or dry interim storage. As a consequence, interim storage periods of up to 100 years seem to be possible without any technical problems especially for dry interim storage. Tentative plans along these lines are being developed in France and in the United States. (orig.)

  4. Interim Action Proposed Plan for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) is to describe the preferred interim remedial action for addressing the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  5. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-06-02

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  6. Interim format and content for a physical security plan for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document serves as interim guidance to assist the licensee or applicant in the preparation of a physical security plan. It is to be used in conjunction with interim acceptance criteria for physical security programs, which will be distributed at a later date

  7. Effects of Interim Assessments on the Achievement Gap: Evidence from an Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, all states operate accountability systems that measure and report school and student performance annually. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of interim assessments on the achievement gap. The authors examine the impact of interim assessments throughout the…

  8. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  9. 78 FR 290 - National Conference on Weights and Measures 98th Interim Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Conference on Weights and Measures 98th Interim Meeting AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The 2013 Interim Meeting of the National Conference on Weights and Measures (NCWM) will be held January...

  10. 76 FR 81477 - National Conference on Weights and Measures 97th Interim Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Conference on Weights and Measures 97th Interim Meeting AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Interim Meeting of the 97th National Conference on Weights and Measures (NCWM) will be held January 22...

  11. 76 FR 540 - National Conference on Weights and Measures 2011 Interim Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Conference on Weights and Measures 2011 Interim Meeting AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Conference on Weights and Measures (NCWM) 2011 Interim Meeting will be held January 23 to 26,...

  12. Assessment report of research and development on 'the abolition measures of nuclear facilities and associated technology development' and 'radioactive waste treatment and disposal and associated technology development' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) consulted the 'Evaluation Committee for Nuclear Cycle Backend Program Promotion' to perform the interim evaluation of 'the abolition measures of nuclear facilities and associated technology development' project and 'radioactive waste treatment and disposal and associated technology development' project in accordance with the 'Guideline for evaluation of government R and D activities', the 'Guideline for evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)' and the 'Operational rule for evaluation of R and D activities' by JAEA. In response to JAEA's request, the Committee decided the evaluation method and performed the interim evaluation of both projects from the viewpoints of purposes, plans, results and so on. As a result of review, the Committee concluded that both projects were proceeded adequately. (author)

  13. Activities Related to Safety Regulations of Spent Fuel Interim Storage at Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major research activities in safety regulation of spent fuel interim storage at JNES are presented. In Japan, the first license application was approved by the government in May 2010 and the design and construction method will be submitted to the regulatory authority NISA soon. A commencement of its operation is expected at December 2012. In its plan, dual purpose metal casks for storage and transport will be stored in a concrete building for about 50 years, and then they will be transported to a spent fuel reprocessing facility. When they will be shipped out after the storage, no visual inspection for cask internals will be scheduled. Major reason of no visual inspection is to avoid any radiation exposure from contingent incident during opening the casks lid. JNES as TSO has conducted research activities to support NISA. Before the license application, those activities focused on three areas. The first area was to investigate fundamental safety function of the cask, that is, confinement, shielding, heat removal and subcriticality. Especially, a long term performance of the safety function was key issues. The second one was to confirm integrity of spent fuel cladding during the storage. The third one was to improves and verify the computer codes and/or methods for safety evaluation of the spent fuel interim storage facilities. In usual safety review process in Japan, NISA sometimes asks JNES to perform independent analysis and check the adequacy of the safety analysis conducted by licensees. After the approval of the license application, the applicant should have approvals of “design and construction method”, the welding inspection of the cask and the pre-service inspection. JNES is now supporting to prepare the criteria of the design and construction method. (author)

  14. Interim data monitoring to enroll higher-risk participants in HIV prevention trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umo-Otong John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower-than-expected incidence of HIV undermines sample size calculations and compromises the power of a HIV prevention trial. We evaluated the effectiveness of interim monitoring of HIV infection rates and on-going modification of recruitment strategies to enroll women at higher risk of HIV in the Cellulose Sulfate Phase III study in Nigeria. Methods We analyzed prevalence and incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, demographic and sexual behavior characteristics aggregated over the treatment groups on a quarterly basis. The site investigators were advised on their recruitment strategies based on the findings of the interim analyses. Results A total of 3619 women were screened and 1644 enrolled at the Ikeja and Apapa clinics in Lagos, and at the Central and Peripheral clinics in Port Harcourt. Twelve months after study initiation, the overall incidence of HIV was less than one-third of the pre-study assumption, with rates of HIV that varied substantially between clinics. Due to the low prevalence and incidence rates of HIV, it was decided to close the Ikeja clinic in Lagos and to find new catchment areas in Port Harcourt. This strategy was associated with an almost two-fold increase in observed HIV incidence during the second year of the study. Conclusion Given the difficulties in estimating HIV incidence, a close monitoring of HIV prevalence and incidence rates during a trial is warranted. The on-going modification of recruitment strategies based on the regular analysis of HIV rates appeared to be an efficient method for targeting populations at greatest risk of HIV infection and increasing study power in the Nigeria trial. Trial Registration The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov registry under #NCT00120770 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00120770

  15. Fast Flux Test Facility interim examination and maintenance cell: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fast Flux Test Facility Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell was designed to perform interim examination and/or disassembly of experimental core components for final analysis elsewhere, as well as maintenance of sodium-wetted or neutron-activated internal reactor parts and plant support hardware. The Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell equipment developed and used for the first ten years of operation has been primarily devoted to the disassembly and examination of core component test assemblies. While no major reactor equipment has required remote repair or maintenance, the Interim Examina Examination and Maintenance Cell has served as the remote repair facility for its own in-cell equipment, and several innovative remote repairs have been accomplished. The Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell's demonstrated versatility has shown its capability to support a challenging future. 12 refs., 9 figs

  16. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rzyski, B.M. [IPEN/ CNEN-SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2006-07-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  17. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996

  18. Climate change : we are at risk : interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between November 2002 and May 2003 the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry travelled across Canada to hear the views of farmer organizations, rural associations, ecotourism groups and environmental organizations regarding concerns about climate change and the impact it may have on the agriculture and forestry sectors and rural communities. The Committee also examined potential adaptation strategies focusing on primary production, practices, technologies, ecosystems and other related areas. Farmers and forest operators are already facing changes in market conditions, domestic regulations, trade policies and technology. This interim report expressed the concerns of farmers and forest operators. It includes a review of the Saguenay flood of 1996, the Red River flood of 1997, the ice storm of 1998, and droughts since 1999. It also includes a discussion on climate change and its biophysical and economic effects on agriculture, forestry, water resources, rural communities, and Aboriginal communities. This interim report also briefly outlines the Kyoto Protocol, the emissions trading system, and the decarbonization of global energy systems. It emphasized the need for integrated research and government policies and programs that encourage adaptation to climate change. The final report will be released in October 2003 and will provide specific recommendations to ensure that Canada responds to the concerns of farmers and forest operators and to ensure continued prosperity in these sectors. refs., figs

  19. The interim fuel storage facility of the PBMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PBMR's spent fuel and partially burnt fuel are stored in the sphere storage system (SSS), which acts as the interim fuel storage facility of the plant. It is unique in the world since the fuel is stored in bulk containers (called storage tanks), each capable of holding more than 500,000 spheres for a period of about 80 years. The SSS has the ability to transfer the contents of one tank to another tank, and to return partially burnt fuel back to the reactor core for re-fuelling. The storage tanks are individually sealed carbon steel pressure vessels. They form the final barrier of any fission products that have diffused from the fuel spheres. Sub-criticality is achieved through the geometric cross-section of the tank, and by taking credit for fuel burn-up. Protection from the corrosive environment where the PBMR Demonstration plant will be built is achieved by actively cooling the tank with clean dry air. In the event of an active cooling failure, louvres open automatically and cooling is done passively via natural convection making use of the chimney-effect. Sufficient radiation protection is provided around each tank to facilitate maintenance and inspection operations where needed. The design of the SSS is nearing the end of its basic design phase, and for some components, detail design work has already commenced. The design complies with all spent fuel storage requirements and is seen as a cost-effective solution for the interim storage of PBMR spent fuel

  20. Glass packages in interim storage; Les verres dans les stockages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO{sub 2}. The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ``source term`` models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs.

  1. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  2. Climate change : we are at risk : interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, D.; Wiebe, J.

    2003-06-01

    Between November 2002 and May 2003 the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry travelled across Canada to hear the views of farmer organizations, rural associations, ecotourism groups and environmental organizations regarding concerns about climate change and the impact it may have on the agriculture and forestry sectors and rural communities. The Committee also examined potential adaptation strategies focusing on primary production, practices, technologies, ecosystems and other related areas. Farmers and forest operators are already facing changes in market conditions, domestic regulations, trade policies and technology. This interim report expressed the concerns of farmers and forest operators. It includes a review of the Saguenay flood of 1996, the Red River flood of 1997, the ice storm of 1998, and droughts since 1999. It also includes a discussion on climate change and its biophysical and economic effects on agriculture, forestry, water resources, rural communities, and Aboriginal communities. This interim report also briefly outlines the Kyoto Protocol, the emissions trading system, and the decarbonization of global energy systems. It emphasized the need for integrated research and government policies and programs that encourage adaptation to climate change. The final report will be released in October 2003 and will provide specific recommendations to ensure that Canada responds to the concerns of farmers and forest operators and to ensure continued prosperity in these sectors. refs., figs.

  3. Nuclear waste: Is there a need for federal interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Congress created the Monitored Retrievable Storage Review Commission to provide a report on the need for a Federal monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS) as part of the Nation's nuclear waste management system. The Commission concludes that the MRS as presently described in the law, which links the capacity and schedule of operation of the MRS to a permanent geologic repository, cannot be justified. The Commission finds, however, that while no single factor would favor an MRS over the No-MRS option, cumulatively the advantages of an MRS would justify the building of an MRS if: there were no linkages between the MRS and the repository; the MRS could be constructed at an early date; and the opening of the repository were delayed considerably beyond its presently scheduled date of operation. The Commission therefore recommends that the Congress take the following actions: Authorize construction of a Federal Emergency Storage facility with a capacity limit of 2,000 metric tons of uranium; Authorize construction of a User-Funded Interim Storage facility with a capacity limit of 5,000 metric tons of uranium; Reconsider the subject of interim storage by the year 2000

  4. Interim storage of power reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and its potential application to SNF separations and closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interim, centralized, engineered (dry cask) storage facilities for USA light water power reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) should be implemented to complement and to offer much needed flexibility while the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is funded to complete its evaluation of the Yucca Mountain License and to subject it to public hearings. The interim sites should use the credo reproduced in Table 1 [Bunn, M., 2001. Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Harvard University and University of Tokyo] and involve both the industry and government. The sites will help settle the 50 pending lawsuits against the government and the $11 billion of potential additional liabilities for SNF delay damages if Yucca Mountain does not being operation in 2020 [DOE, 2008a. Report to Congress on the Demonstration of the Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Decommissioned Nuclear Power Stations (December)]. Under the developing consensus to proceed with closed fuel cycles, it will be necessary to develop SNF separation facilities with stringent requirements upon separation processes and upon generation of only highly resistant waste forms. The location of such facilities at the interim storage sites would offer great benefits to those sites and assure their long term viability by returning them to their original status. The switch from once-through to closed fuel cycle will require extensive time and development work as illustrated in 'The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy' [DOE, 2005. The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles. DOE (September)]. A carefully crafted long term program, funded for at least 5 years, managed by a strong joint government-industry team, and subjected to regular independent reviews should be considered to assure the program stability and success. The new uncertainty about Yucca Mountain role raises two key issues: (a) what to do with the weapons and other high level government wastes

  5. Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work with identification and structuring of features, events and processes (FEPs) that has been carried out within the scope of the SR-Can safety assessment up to the time of the interim reporting of the project. The overall objective of the work is to develop a database of features, events and processes in a format that would facilitate both a systematic analysis of FEPs and documentation of the FEP analysis as well as facilitate revisions and updates to be made in connection with new safety assessments. This overall objective also includes the development of procedures for a systematic FEP analysis as well as to apply these procedures in order to arrive at an SR-Can version of the FEP database. The work started by implementing the content of the SR 97 Process report into a database format suitable for import and processing of FEP information from other sources. The SR 97 version of the database was systematically audited against the NEA database with Project FEPs, version 1.2. In addition, an earlier audit of the SR 97 process report against the interaction matrices developed for a deep repository of the KBS-3 type was revisited and updated. Relevant FEPs from the audit were sorted into three main categories in the SR-Can database i) FEPs related to the initial states of the repository system, ii) FEPs related to internal processes of the repository system, and iii) FEPs related to external impacts on the repository system. These groups of FEPs were further processed for making decisions on how to handle these FEPs in the assessment. Biosphere processes were not included in the SR 97 Process report and there is thus not the same basis for updating these descriptions as for the engineered barriers and the geosphere. All biosphere FEPs from the audit have therefore been compiled in a single category in the database, but remain to be further handled. FEPs were also categorised as irrelevant or as being related to methodology on a general

  6. Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina (ed.) [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    This report describes the work with identification and structuring of features, events and processes (FEPs) that has been carried out within the scope of the SR-Can safety assessment up to the time of the interim reporting of the project. The overall objective of the work is to develop a database of features, events and processes in a format that would facilitate both a systematic analysis of FEPs and documentation of the FEP analysis as well as facilitate revisions and updates to be made in connection with new safety assessments. This overall objective also includes the development of procedures for a systematic FEP analysis as well as to apply these procedures in order to arrive at an SR-Can version of the FEP database. The work started by implementing the content of the SR 97 Process report into a database format suitable for import and processing of FEP information from other sources. The SR 97 version of the database was systematically audited against the NEA database with Project FEPs, version 1.2. In addition, an earlier audit of the SR 97 process report against the interaction matrices developed for a deep repository of the KBS-3 type was revisited and updated. Relevant FEPs from the audit were sorted into three main categories in the SR-Can database i) FEPs related to the initial states of the repository system, ii) FEPs related to internal processes of the repository system, and iii) FEPs related to external impacts on the repository system. These groups of FEPs were further processed for making decisions on how to handle these FEPs in the assessment. Biosphere processes were not included in the SR 97 Process report and there is thus not the same basis for updating these descriptions as for the engineered barriers and the geosphere. All biosphere FEPs from the audit have therefore been compiled in a single category in the database, but remain to be further handled. FEPs were also categorised as irrelevant or as being related to methodology on a general

  7. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  8. Interim Storage of RH-TRU 72B Canisters at the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an evaluation performed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) office for potential interim storage of remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) 72B waste canisters at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The evaluation included the conceptual design of a devoted canister storage facility and an assessment of the existing RHTRU waste storage facilities for storage of canisters. The concept for the devoted facility used modular concrete silos located on an above-grade storage pad. The assessment of the existing facilities considered the potential methods, facility modifications, and conceptual equipment that might be used for storage of 400 millisievert per hour (mSv/hr) canisters. The results of the evaluation indicated that the initial investment into a devoted facility was relatively high as compared to the certainty that significant storage capacity was necessary prior to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) accepting RH-TRU waste for disposal. As an alternative, the use of individual concrete overpacks provided an incremental method that could be used with the existing storage facilities and outside storage pads. For the concrete overpack concepts considered, the cylindrical design stored in a vertical orientation was determined to be the most effective

  9. 46 CFR 30.30-9 - Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation. 30.30-9 Section 30.30-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Interim Procedures for Evaluating Vessel Personnel Licensing and Certification Programs of Foreign Countries § 30.30-9 Evaluation....

  10. Realization of the German Concept for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel - Current Situation and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German government has determined a phase out of nuclear power. With respect to the management of spent fuel it was decided to terminate transports to reprocessing plants by 2005 and to set up interim storage facilities on power plant sites. This paper gives an overview of the German concept for spent fuel management focused on the new on-site interim storage concept and the applied interim storage facilities. Since the end of the year 1998, the utilities have applied for permission of on-site interim storage in 13 storage facilities and 5 storage areas; one application for the interim storage facility Stade was withdrawn due to the planned final shut down of Stade nuclear power plant in autumn 2003. In 2001 and 2002, 3 on-site storage areas and 2 on-site storage facilities for spent fuel were licensed by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). A main task in 2002 and 2003 has been the examination of the safety and security of the planned interim storage facilities and the verification of the licensing prerequisites. In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, BfS has also examined the attack with a big passenger airplane. Up to now, these aircraft crash analyses have been performed for three on-site interim storage facilities; the fundamental results will be presented. It is the objective of BfS to conclude the licensing procedures for the applied on-site interim storage facilities in 2003. With an assumed construction period for the storage buildings of about two years, the on-site interim storage facilities could then be available in the year 2005

  11. Project management plan for Reactor 105-C Interim Safe Storage project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor 105-C (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington) will be placed into an interim safe storage condition such that (1) interim inspection can be limited to a 5-year frequency; (2) containment ensures that releases to the environmental are not credible under design basis conditions; and (3) final safe storage configuration shall not preclude or significantly increase the cost for any decommissioning alternatives for the reactor assembly.This project management plan establishes plans, organizational responsibilities, control systems, and procedures for managing the execution of Reactor 105-C interim safe storage activities to meet programmatic requirements within authorized funding and approved schedules

  12. Interim storage is not long-term disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting in June 30, 1994 South Carolina enforced an embargo on regular shipments of low-level radioactive waste to the Barnwell repository. The failure of 31 states and their respective compacts to provide access to a long-term disposal facility as stipulated by the low-level radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 promotes waste disposal gridlock and anticipates another waste disposal crisis. This article discusses the problem using the following topics: Appalachian Compact Users of Radioactive Isotopes (ACURI) Association's interest; the problem of denial of access to Barnwell; pro and contra interim storage; vital services and benefits at risk; issues at the ACURI meeting; nobel Prize winners use radioactive materials; if perception is reality, politics is prevalent

  13. Interim report on food irradiation research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development of food irradiation in Japan have been carried out systematically and overall since September, 1967, when the subject was designated as a special atomic energy research by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. For (Irish) potatoes in particular, the purpose was attained, and the first ''irradiated food'' was put in 1973 on the market. Its significance is the stabilization of price in the off-season. In addition, six other items are being strenuously studied: onion, rice, wheat, Vienna sausage, fish-paste product, and tangerine. While the results so far are satisfactory, further studies are necessary on the soundness of irradiated foods in view of the current status of research and development. The interim report covers the results up to the end of fiscal 1977 from the initial fiscal year 1967. (Mori, K

  14. SWSA 6 interim corrective measures environmental monitoring: FY 1991 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, interim corrective measures (ICMs) were implemented at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SWSA 6 site was regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The ICMs consist of eight large high-density polyethylene sheets placed as temporary caps to cover trenches known to contain RCRA-regulated materials. Environmental monitoring for FY 1991 consisted of collecting water levels at 13 groundwater wells outside the capped areas and 44 wells in or near the capped areas in order to identify any significant loss of hydrologic isolation of the wastes. Past annual reports show that the caps are only partially effective in keeping the waste trenches dry and that many trenches consistently or intermittently contain water

  15. SWSA 6 interim corrective measures environmental monitoring: FY 1991 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapp, R.B.; Marshall, D.S.

    1992-06-01

    In 1988, interim corrective measures (ICMs) were implemented at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SWSA 6 site was regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The ICMs consist of eight large high-density polyethylene sheets placed as temporary caps to cover trenches known to contain RCRA-regulated materials. Environmental monitoring for FY 1991 consisted of collecting water levels at 13 groundwater wells outside the capped areas and 44 wells in or near the capped areas in order to identify any significant loss of hydrologic isolation of the wastes. Past annual reports show that the caps are only partially effective in keeping the waste trenches dry and that many trenches consistently or intermittently contain water.

  16. The interim storage facility at the Beznau nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Switzerland, the nuclear power plants (NPPs) are responsible for storage of their own wastes. In addition to the centralised ZWILAG facility at Wuerenlingen, which is planned jointly by the five operating plants, each NPP has its own on-site storage capacity. The example considered in this article is the interim storage facility at the Beznau power plant. At Beznau, the first stage of the ZWIBEZ project involved the opening of a store for low-level waste in March 1993. Future stages will provide additional capacity for intermediate-level and high-level wastes (and spent fuel elements). The store for intermediate-level waste will not be constructed, provided there is no further delay in the realisation of the ZWILAG facility. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Licensing Procedures for Interim Storage of Spent Fuel in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the waste management concept in Germany spent fuel is stored in interim storage facilities for 40 years until disposal in a geological repository. The storage concept bases on dry storage of the spent fuel in metallic transport and storage casks, standing upright in halls of reinforced concrete. Storage of spent fuel as well as significant modifications of the storage require a license according to art. 6 of the Atomic Energy Act. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz - BfS) is the competent licensing authority. The mode of the licensing procedure — whether formalized or non-formalized — depends on the necessity to carry out an environmental impact assessment. Formalized licensing procedures include a public participation procedure. In the following, the licensing prodecures are illustrated and a short overview over the current licensing procedures conducted by BfS is given. (author)

  18. Interim report - geotechnical site assessment methodology. Vol.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interim report summarizing the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in Cornwall. The geological setting of the test site in the Cornubian granite batholith is described. The effect of structure imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses is discussed and the scanline survey method of obtaining data on discontinuities in the rock mass is described. The requirement for remote geophysical methods of characterizing the mass is discussed and initial experiments using seismic and ultrasonic velocity measurements are reported. Computer programs to perform statistical analysis of the discontinuity patterns are described. Overcoring and hydraulic fracturing methods of determining the in-situ stress are briefly described and the results of a programme of in-situ stress measurements using the overcoring method are reported. (author)

  19. Radiation analysis for a generic centralized interim storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents the radiation analysis performed for the storage area of a generic Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The purpose of the analysis is to establish the CISF Protected Area and Restricted Area boundaries by modeling a representative SNF storage array, calculating the radiation dose at selected locations outside the storage area, and comparing the results with regulatory radiation dose limits. The particular challenge for this analysis is to adequately model a large (6000 cask) storage array with a reasonable amount of analysis time and effort. Previous analyses of SNF storage systems for Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations at nuclear plant sites (for example in References 5.1 and 5.2) had only considered small arrays of storage casks. For such analyses, the dose contribution from each storage cask can be modeled individually. Since the large number of casks in the CISF storage array make such an approach unrealistic, a simplified model is required

  20. Corrosion behaviour of metallic containers during long term interim storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main corrosion phenomena are encountered in long term interim storage conditions: dry oxidation by the air when the temperature of high level nuclear wastes containers is high enough (roughly higher than 100 C) and corrosion phenomena as those encountered in outdoor atmospheric corrosion when the temperature of the container wall is low enough and so condensation is possible on the container walls. Results obtained with dry oxidation in air lead to predict small damages (less than 1μm on steels over 100 years at 100 C) and no drastic changes with pollutants. For atmospheric corrosion, first developments deal with a pragmatic method that gives assessments of the indoor atmospheric corrosivities. (author)