WorldWideScience

Sample records for buses by motive power

  1. Resistojet control and power for high frequency ac buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Resistojets are operational on many geosynchronous communication satellites which all use dc power buses. Multipropellant resistojets were selected for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) Space Station which will supply 208 V, 20 kHz power. This paper discusses resistojet heater temperature controllers and passive power regulation methods for ac power systems. A simple passive power regulation method suitable for use with regulated sinusoidal or square wave power was designed and tested using the Space Station multipropellant resistojet. The breadboard delivered 20 kHz power to the resistojet heater. Cold start surge current limiting, a power efficiency of 95 percent, and power regulation of better than 2 percent were demonstrated with a two component, 500 W breadboard power controller having a mass of 0.6 kg.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  3. Power is the Great Motivator

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; Burnham, David H.

    1976-01-01

    Empirical research shows good managers are motivated by a need for power, tempered by maturity and self-control. Workshops can help a manager discover whether he has the correct motivation profile and can help him become a better manager. (JG)

  4. MOTIVATIONAL LEXICON IN ANTHONY ROBBINS’ UNLIMITED POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Faidatun Naimah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the language learning process, motivation, one of psychological factors, has a great role in endorsing students to be a successful learner. Based on the issues, the choice of words that can influence the students to do the best is practically required by the teachers. So that, teacher as a motivator has a power to influence the students to take action for achieving their excellent learning, using what Anthony Robbins suggest on his book; Unlimited Power. The writer formulated the aims of this study as follow; (1 to identify the motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power from the psychological perspective, and (2 to describe how motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power take apart in the pedagogical field. This research used qualitative research to find out the data. The data analysis technique that researcher used is content analysis since they were texts in Unlimited Power. Researcher found three motivational lexicons used by Anthony Robbins in his book Unlimited Power; think, challenge, and remember. Think used as a tool to lead his readers to come to their memory, re-identify some main points, and consider about the certain thing. Challenge used to pump readers’ emotion, gave a test, and invited them to take action. Remember used as a tool to bring back a piece of information he provided before and try to keep it in readers’ mind. Anthony’s motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power also can use in the pedagogical field. Teacher can use them in the teaching-learning process as it determines the effectiveness of rewards for what students do and apparently influential factor for learning process.

  5. Achievement Motivation and EEG Spectral Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Vorobyeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Achievement motivation is a psychological category which implies a desire to achieve significant (powerful results in certain sphere. According to the results of psychophysiological research people who are motivated for success are very active before they are instructed by the researcher which proves that they aimed at the perception of the referent situation and the intense level of expectations. One of the vital issues today is a problem how genes influence human behaviour. Thus on the basis of contemporary researches we can conclude that such influence is regulated by brain processes.

  6. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  7. Electric Buses in Urban Transport, The Situation and Development Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jakub Slavlk

    2014-01-01

    A study called "E-mobilita v MHD" (e-mobility in urban mass transit) has been conducted by the author's private consultancy to inform Czech public transport operators about the technologies and operational experience to date and stimulate the e-bus utilization as well as their involvement in e-bus research and development projects. The study covers trolley-buses, diesel hybrids and e-buses including fuel cell buses. These electric urban buses have been compared with combustion engine vehicles represented by diesel and CNG (compressed natural gas) buses, in terms of energy consumption and cost, greenhouse gas emissions, noise and life cycle cost. Relations between urban transport e-mobility and the "smart grid" concept have been presented as well. Comprehensive reports prepared on the European Union and the USA levels have been the basis for the study, completed by information from the field research, focused especially on the bus operational reliability and other parameters important for a transport operator and covering, interalia, 12 case studies. The results show electric buses as a promising urban transport mode with massive technology development overcoming their operational limitations. Synergies between electric buses and other urban systems, such as power supply, are notable as well.

  8. The Spatial Power Motivation Scale: a semi-implicit measure of situational power motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoel, Christiane; Zimmer, Katharina; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new nonverbal and unobtrusive measure to assess power motive activation, the Spatial Power Motivation Scale (SPMS). The unique features of this instrument are that it is (a) very simple and economical, (b) reliable and valid, and (c) sensitive to situational changes. Study 1 demonstrates the instrument's convergent and discriminant validity with explicit measures. Study 2 demonstrates the instrument's responsiveness to situational power motive salience: anticipating and winning competition versus losing competition and watching television. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrate that thoughts of competition result in higher power motivation specifically for individuals with a high dispositional power motive.

  9. 78 FR 44112 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... for emission standards and related test procedures contained in its urban bus regulations as they affect the 2002 and later model years. Urban buses are conventionally powered by a heavy-duty...

  10. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  11. Employee motivation: a powerful new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohria, Nitin; Groysberg, Boris; Lee, Linda-Eling

    2008-01-01

    Motivating employees begins with recognizing that to do their best work, people must be in an environment that meets their basic emotional drives to acquire, bond, comprehend, and defend. So say Nohria and Groysberg, of Harvard Business School, and Lee, of the Center for Research on Corporate Performance. Using the results of surveys they conducted with employees at a wide range of Fortune 500 and other companies, they developed a model for how to increase workplace motivation dramatically. The authors identify the organizational levers that companies and frontline managers have at their disposal as they try to meet workers' deep needs. Reward systems that truly value good performance fulfill the drive to acquire. The drive to bond is best met by a culture that promotes collaboration and openness. Jobs that are designed to be meaningful and challenging meet the need to comprehend. Processes for performance management and resource allocation that are fair, trustworthy, and transparent address the drive to defend. Equipped with real-world company examples, the authors articulate how to apply these levers in productive ways. That application should not be selective, they argue, because a holistic approach gets you more than a piecemeal one. By using all four levers simultaneously, and thereby tackling all four drives, organizations can improve motivation levels by leaps and bounds. For example, a company that falls in the 50th percentile on employee motivation improves only to the 56th by boosting performance on one drive, but way up to the 88th percentile by doing better on all four drives. That's a powerful gain in competitive advantage that any business would relish.

  12. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wires by flexible thread levels.Diagrams are constructed with the purpose to find ymax and criteria of electro-dynamic resistance of flexible buses (permissible impulse of electro-dynamic forces and current of electro-dynamic resistance is determined.

  13. Processor arrays with asynchronous TDM optical buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, S. Q.

    1997-04-01

    We propose a pipelined asynchronous time division multiplexing optical bus. Such a bus can use one of the two hardwared priority schemes, the linear priority scheme and the round-robin priority scheme. Our simulation results show that the performances of our proposed buses are significantly better than the performances of known pipelined synchronous time division multiplexing optical buses. We also propose a class of processor arrays connected by pipelined asynchronous time division multiplexing optical buses. We claim that our proposed processor array not only have better performance, but also have better scalabilities than the existing processor arrays connected by pipelined synchronous time division multiplexing optical buses.

  14. Battery buses and light hybrid buses in modern town traffic. Batteriebusse und Leichthybridbusse im modernen Stadtverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R. (Neoplan Gottlob Anwaerter GmbH und Co., Stuttgart (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    Apart from the manufacture of standardised line buses, Neoplan has been intensively concerned with the development of ultra-light vehicle bodies. The individual technical steps have been tested and brought from the experimental stage to readiness for mass-production by four different types of application and 10 experimental vehicles which are used in genuine daily use in traffic concerns. 1. Battery changing technique; 2. Diesel-electric power transmission and developing a wheel motor drive; 3. Diesel-electric power transmission with multiple energy supply (hybrid system). (orig./BWI)

  15. Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    : Motivational interviewing as a counselling method with its techniques and underlying spirit was adapted by the school nurses and integrated in their practice. Three dilemmas were revealed with motivational interviewing for obesity prevention in children, which call for attention by researchers, managers......Title: Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses: Spirit, Techniques, and Dilemmas in the Prevention of Child Obesity Introduction : School nurses play a central role in school-based, preventive health services in Denmark (National Board of Health, 2011), and they may play an important role...... is that the techniques of the method are subordinated the spirit: “Motivational interviewing without this underlying spirit is no longer motivational interviewing” (Miller & Rose, 2009:535). From the three papers, we derived the keywords that characterize the spirit and the techniques of motivational interviewing...

  16. Successful innovation by motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Koudelková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is one of the most important factors for business growth. Human capital plays a significant role in the successful process of innovation. This article deals with employee motivation in the innovation process and the main scientific aim of this study is to present results of research that was undertaken in the Czech Republic at the beginning of 2013. Questionnaires were used for the survey and statistical analyses such as Chi square test or Hierarchical cluster analysis were used for data processing. This study also provides a theoretical and practical overview of business innovation in the Czech Republic.

  17. Real-world operation conditions and on-road emissions of Beijing diesel buses measured by using portable emission measurement system and electric low-pressure impactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Johnson, Kent C; Shah, Asad Naeem; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao

    2011-03-15

    On-road measurement is an effective method to investigate real-world emissions generated from vehicles and estimate the difference between engine certification cycles and real-world operating conditions. This study presents the results of on-road measurements collected from urban buses which propelled by diesel engine in Beijing city. Two widely used Euro III emission level buses and two Euro IV emission level buses were chosen to perform on-road emission measurements using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous pollutant and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for particulate matter (PM) number emissions. The results indicate that considerable discrepancies of engine operating conditions between real-world driving cycles and engine certification cycles have been observed. Under real-world operating conditions, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions can easily meet their respective regulations limits, while brake specification nitrogen oxide (bsNO(x)) emissions present a significant deviation from its corresponding limit. Compared with standard limits, the real-world bsNO(x) emission of the two Euro III emission level buses approximately increased by 60% and 120% respectively, and bsNO(x) of two Euro IV buses nearly twice standard limits because Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system not active under low exhaust temperature. Particle mass were estimated via particle size distribution with the assumption that particle density and diameter is liner. The results demonstrate that nanometer size particulate matter make significant contribution to total particle number but play a minor role to total particle mass. It is suggested that specific certified cycle should be developed to regulate bus engines emissions on the test bench or use PEMS to control the bus emissions under real-world operating conditions.

  18. COMPARISON OF CLEAN DIESEL BUSES TO CNG BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, D.; Parsley, W.; Bush,C; Zupo, D.

    2003-08-24

    Using previously published data on regulated and unregulated emissions, this paper will compare the environmental performance of current generation transit buses operated on compressed natural gas (CNG) to current generation transit buses operated on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and incorporating diesel particulate filters (DPF). Unregulated emissions evaluated include toxic compounds associated with adverse health effects (carbonyl, PAH, NPAH, benzene) as well as PM particle count and size distribution. For all regulated and unregulated emissions, both technologies are shown to be comparable. DPF equipped diesel buses and CNG buses have virtually identical levels of PM mass emissions and particle number emissions. DPF-equipped diesel buses have lower HC and CO emissions and lower emissions of toxic substances such as benzene, carbonyls and PAHs than CNG buses. CNG buses have lower NOx emissions than DPF-equipped buses, though CNG bus NOx emissions are shown to be much more variable. In addition, this paper will compare the capital and operating costs of CNG and DPF-equipped buses. The cost comparison is primarily based on the experience of MTA New York City Transit in operating CNG buses since 1995 and DPF-equipped buses fueled with ULSD since 2001. Published data on the experience of other large transit agencies in operating CNG buses is used to validate the NYCT experience. The incremental cost (compared to ''baseline'' diesel) of operating a typical 200-bus depot is shown to be six times higher for CNG buses than for ''clean diesel'' buses. The contributors to this increased cost for CNG buses are almost equally split between increased capital costs for purchase of buses and installation of fueling infrastructure, and increased operating costs for purchase of fuel, bus maintenance, and fuel station maintenance.

  19. Powerful Little Goodies! Information Packet. Motivate Reading!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida Learning Resources System/CROWN, Jacksonville.

    The document is designed to provide special education teachers with ideas and techniques for motivating reading at the elementary level. A student interest inventory is included, and motivation through reinforcement is explained. Techniques and suggestions for teachers include such items as making a slide show, making your own books, and using…

  20. 循环球式电动助力转向器在纯电动客车上的应用%Application of Circulating Ball Type Electric Power Steering Gear to Pure Electric Buses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶成友

    2015-01-01

    In view of the problems of the traditional circulating ball type steering gear now used in pure electric bus-es, such as difficult arrangement, high cost and great electric power consumption,the author introduces a circulating ball type electric power steering gear on pure electric buses.%针对目前纯电动客车上采用的传统循环球式转向器存在布置难度大、成本高、耗电量大等问题,介绍一种循环球式电动助力转向器在纯电动客车上的解决方案。

  1. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of fast-charge battery electric buses compared to compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. Launched in 2015 in collaboration with the California Air Resources Board, this study aims to improve understanding of the overall use and effectiveness of fast-charge electric buses and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation.

  2. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  3. 佛山市发展公交车尾气削减潜力分析%Emission Reduction Potentiality by Developing Buses in Foshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包艳萍; 刘永红; 黄建彰; 徐伟嘉

    2013-01-01

    Emission factors of buses, motorcycles and passenger cars of Foshan City, Guangdong Province were calculated with COPERT Ⅳ model integrated with information regarding amounts and annual mileages, case analysis was done for their emission, environmental effects and emissions reduction potentiality of buses.Results indicated that buses emission in Foshan in 2011 was 804.57 t CO,283.85 t VOC,3 365.32 t NOx and 73.00 t PM.Emissions of CO and VOC of buses were less than that of motorcycles and passenger cars, but emission of NOx was more.Emission of buses for one person travelling one kilometer would decrease by 32.00%,51.43% and 57.50% by increasing the number of passengers from 17 to 25,35 and 45.Annual emissions could be reduced by 611.66 t CO, 151.6 t VOC, 1,231.18 t NOx and 58.39 t PM respectively by changing all the emission standard of diesel buses from lower to Euro Ⅳ.Annual emissions could be reduced by 293.71 t CO, 2 086.87 t NOx and 70.34 t PM by changing diesel buses to environmentally-friendly vehicle (EEV) CNG buses, but annual emissions of VOC increased by 228.01 t.%采用COPERTⅣ模型计算佛山市公交车、摩托车和小型客车排放因子,结合保有量、年平均行驶里程计算其排放量,对佛山市公交车出行环境效果及尾气削减潜力进行情景分析.结果表明:2011年佛山市公交车CO 、VOC 、NOx和PM的排放量为804.57、283.85、3 365.32和73.00 t.单人单次公交车出行CO和VOC的排放量较摩托车和小型客车低,但NOx则较高.公交车载客人数从17人上升至25、35、45人,单人单次出行每公里排放量分别下降32.00%、51.43%和57.50%.佛山市低排放标准的柴油公交车全部更换成国Ⅳ排放标准柴油车、CO、VOC、NOx和PM的年排放量分别削减611.66、151.6、1 231.18和58.39 t.EEV标准天然气公交车替代柴油公交车可减少NOx和PM的排放,但对VOC的削减并无优势.佛山市现有柴油公交车更换

  4. [Team motivation and motivational strategies adopted by nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Felipa Daiana; Andrade, Marta Francisca da Conceição; Andrade, Joseilze Santos de; Vieira, Maria Jésia; Pimentel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative study held in an emergency hospital in Aracaju-SE, which aimed to know the perception of nurses about what is a motivated nursing team, to identify possible motivational policies used by them and if they are consistent with the policies proposed by Frederick Herzberg in his theory. Of the 20 nurses participants, the most understood the motivation as a set of techniques possible to shape the behavior of the individual at work, linking it to extrinsic factors and 60% did not consider his team motivated. The types of motivational policies that usually apply realized that these correspond to intrinsic factors aimed at self recovery and self realization of individuals in the tasks running.

  5. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2011-11-01

    This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

  6. School Buses Answer Calls for Help in Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    Five days after Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans, a convoy of 142 air-conditioned school buses from the 209,000-student Texas district rumbled to life. Loaded with food and bottled water, staffed by 350 school employees, and accompanied by bus-repair trucks and a phalanx of school police cars, the yellow buses traveled all night to reach the…

  7. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  8. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Sergey; E. G. Ponomarenko; W. M. Sammur; P. I. Klimkovich

    2005-01-01

    The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wi...

  9. Achievement motivation revisited : New longitudinal data to demonstrate its predictive power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hustinx, P.W.J.; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2009-01-01

    During recent decades, the classical one-dimensional concept of achievement motivation has become less popular among motivation researchers. This study aims to revive the concept by demonstrating its predictive power using longitudinal data from two cohort samples, each with 20,000 Dutch secondary s

  10. The impact of explicit and implicit power motivation on educational choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliszewski Norbert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of three studies was to examine the differences between business majors and non-business majors, in their level of implicit (measured by an Implicit Association Test [IAT], Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwarz, 1998 and explicit power motivation (measured by Power Motivation and Helping Power Motivation scales, Frieze & Boneva, 2001.It was predicted that there are no differences between these two groups in the general (implicit level of power motivation, but that differences exist in the way it is explicitly expressed: through desire for leadership and prominence vs. desire for helping. Results of Study 1 indicated that business majors (management, N=79 declared a higher leadership motive and a lower helping motive than non-business majors (history, psychology, linguistics, N=62.Study 2 addressed question whether the above differences in power motivation stem from socialization at the university level or from pre-selection. The relationship between high school students’ (N=134 academic major preferences and their power motivation was tested. It was found that the more they were business-oriented, the higher their scores were on leadership, and lower on helping scales. In Study 3, business majors (economics, N=75 and non-business majors (psychology, N=82 completed the same questionnaire as participants in previous studies, as well as performed the IAT. Non-business majors declared stronger explicit helping motive, while business majors expressed stronger prominence and leadership motives. Furthermore, for non-business majors, IAT results could be predicted by their helping score. Implications and possible limitations of the presented results are discussed.

  11. [Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Benefits Analysis for Battery Electric Buses Based on Travel Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-dan; Tian, Liang; Lü, Bin; Yang, Jian-xin

    2015-09-01

    Battery Electric Bus (BEB) has become one of prior options of urban buses for its "zero emission" during the driving stage. However, the environmental performance of electric buses is affected by multi-factors from the point of whole life cycle. In practice, carrying capacity of BEB and power generation structures can both implement evident effects on the energy consumption and pollutants emission of BEB. Therefore, take the above factors into consideration, in this article, Life Cycle Assessment is employed to evaluate the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of BEB. Results indicate that, travel service is more reasonable as the functional unit, rather than mileage, since the carrying capacity of BEB is 15% lower than the diesel buses. Moreover, compared with diesel buses, the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of battery electric buses are all different due to different regional power structures. Specifically, the energy benefits are 7. 84%, 11. 91%, 26. 90%, 11. 15%, 19. 55% and 20. 31% respectively in Huabei, Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang power structure. From the point of comprehensive emissions reduction benefits, there is no benefit in Huabei power structure, as it depends heavily on coal. But in other areas, the comprehensive emissions reduction benefits of BEB are separately 3. 46%, 26. 81%, 1. 17%, 13. 74% and 17. 48% in Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang. Therefore, it suggests that, enlargement of carrying capacity should be taken as the most prior technology innovation direction for BEB, and the grids power structure should be taken into consideration when the development of BEB is in planning.

  12. The influence of implicit motives on implicit instrumental conditioning: Testing a principle focusing on the power motive

    OpenAIRE

    Köllner, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis tested a principle according to which implicit motives influence implicit instrumental conditioning processes. Analyzing results from four studies I investigated possible scaling effects of implicit motives, motivational dispositions working outside of conscious awareness that select, energize and orient behavior, on implicit instrumental conditioning processes in a sequence learning paradigm. I focused on the power motive (n Power), the capacity to experience having impact on oth...

  13. The Research of Electric Buses Power Plant Charging Optimization Based on Load Shifting%考虑削峰填谷的电动公交换电站充电优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗淼; 雷霞; 何建平; 李菲

    2015-01-01

    The electric buses which work in battery swapping mode achieve rapid growth in the field of public transportation. The normal operation of electric buses power plant is related to many factors, such as the replacement of the battery,battery charging and power load and so on. In order to improve the economy of power plant operation, the daily charging demands of electric buses are ana-lyzed and calculated. We set up the charging model of double objective optimization considering load shifting to minimum the charging costand reduce the load fluctuation. Lastly, the weight factor transformation method is utilized to analyze the example based on genetic algorithm and the simulation results show that the optimized charging cost can be saved 30 % with the sharpening peak effect.%采用换电模式的电动公交车在公共交通领域内发展迅速。电动公交换电站的正常运营与电池更换、充电和电网负荷等多方面因素有关。为提高电动公交换电站运营的经济性,首先分析和计算电动公交车的日换电量需求,然后以充电成本最小和减小负荷波动为目标建立考虑削峰填谷作用的双目标充电优化模型,最后利用遗传算法的权重系数变换法对实例进行求解。实例仿真计算结果表明,优化后的充电成本可节约30%,同时达到削峰填谷作用。

  14. The School Busing Controversy: 1970-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buncher, Judith F., Ed.

    Even though transportation of school children was long accepted by the public prior to the conflict over school integration, the school bus became a symbol representing the divergent emotions of both the integrationists and the supporters of "neighborhood schools." Busing was used as a means of overcoming the resistance and procrastination of…

  15. The New Energy Buses in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of “low carbon” economy, new energy vehicles are increasingly favored by the Chinese government and manufacturers. New energy buses have become an important channel for the promotion of new energy utilizations. Based on the summary of policies, this paper conducts a thorough resea...... price. We draw the conclusions that clear direction and detailed plans will enhance the new energy bus promotion and rising oil prices will promote new energy buses as well.......With the advent of “low carbon” economy, new energy vehicles are increasingly favored by the Chinese government and manufacturers. New energy buses have become an important channel for the promotion of new energy utilizations. Based on the summary of policies, this paper conducts a thorough...... research on the technology and promotion achievements on new energy buses. We have found that the promotion achievements have difference with plans and gaps exist in different cities. In the paper we discuss the policy efficiency, the correlation between achievements, policies and the influence from oil...

  16. Mapping explicit social motives of achievement, power, and affiliation onto the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeser, Stefan; Langens, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Previous research has shown that explicit motives are meaningfully related to the five-factor model of personality. The present study extends this research by using different measures of the explicit social motives of achievement, power and affiliation, and by employing measures of both approach and avoidance of these motives. Correlational and factor analyses demonstrated that explicit motives of achievement, power, and affiliation, both approach and avoidance components of these motives, can be consistently mapped onto personality trait measures of the five-factor model. Implications of this general finding, along with some exceptions, are discussed with regard to further research.

  17. Communication Buses and Protocols for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mason

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews existing digital communication buses which are commonly used in sensor networks, discusses sensor network architectures, and introduces a new sensor bus for low power microsystem applications. The new intra-module multi-element microsystem (IM2 bus is nine-line interface with 8b serial data which implements several advanced features such as power management and plug-n-play while maintaining minimum hardware overhead at the sensor node. Finally, some issues in wireless sensor networking are discussed. The coverage of these issues provides a guideline for choosing the appropriate bus for different sensor network applications.

  18. 一种适用于具有弱环网和PV节点的配电网的增广雅可比矩阵潮流法%An Augmented Jacobian Method for Power Flow Analysis of Weakly Looped Distribution Systems with PV Buses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星莺; 余昆; 单渊达

    2002-01-01

    针对带弱环网和PV节点的配电网提出了一种增广雅可比矩阵潮流计算方法.将弱环网和PV节点的边界条件嵌入到雅可比矩阵中,并对雅可比矩阵的因子分解进行了详尽的设计.仿真结果表明了该算法的鲁棒性和计算效率.%A power flow analysis method for weakly looped distribution systems with PV buses is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is computationally more efficient and more robust compared with the conventional compensation methods. The robustness is achieved by embedding the boundary conditions of loops and PV buses into the Jacobian matrix. The computational efficiency is achieved by the carefully designed factorization of Jacobian matrix. Test results on a 33-bus system are presented.

  19. Evaluation of Orion/BAE Hybrid Buses and Orion CNG Buses at New York City Transit: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Chandler, K.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses the NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric transit buses operated by New York City Transit.

  20. Improving temporal cognition by enhancing motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avlar, Billur; Kahn, Julia B; Jensen, Greg; Kandel, Eric R; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Increasing motivation can positively impact cognitive performance. Here we employed a cognitive timing task that allows us to detect changes in cognitive performance that are not influenced by general activity or arousal factors such as the speed or persistence of responding. This approach allowed us to manipulate motivation using three different methods; molecular/genetic, behavioral and pharmacological. Increased striatal D2Rs resulted in deficits in temporal discrimination. Switching off the transgene improved motivation in earlier studies, and here partially rescued the temporal discrimination deficit. To manipulate motivation behaviorally, we altered reward magnitude and found that increasing reward magnitude improved timing in control mice and partially rescued timing in the transgenic mice. Lastly, we manipulated motivation pharmacologically using a functionally selective 5-HT2C receptor ligand, SB242084, which we previously found to increase incentive motivation. SB242084 improved temporal discrimination in both control and transgenic mice. Thus, while there is a general intuitive belief that motivation can affect cognition, we here provide a direct demonstration that enhancing motivation, in a variety of ways, can be an effective strategy for enhancing temporal cognition. Understanding the interaction of motivation and cognition is of clinical significance since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in both domains.

  1. The role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation: The case of the need for power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Schultheiss

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Implicit motives like the need for power (nPower scale affective responses to need-specific rewards or punishments and thereby influence activity in motivational-brain structures. In this paper, we review evidence specifically supporting a role of the striatum in nPower. Individual differences in nPower predict (a enhanced implicit learning accuracy, but not speed, on serial-response tasks that are reinforced by power-related incentives (e.g., winning or losing a contest; dominant or submissive emotional expressions in behavioral studies and (b activation of the anterior caudate in response to dominant emotional expressions in brain imaging research. We interpret these findings on the basis of Hikosaka, Nakamura, Sakai, and Nakahara's (2002; Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12(2, 217-222 model of central mechanisms of motor skill learning. The model assigns a critical role to the dorsoanterior striatum in dopamine-driven learning of spatial stimulus sequences. Based on this model, we suggest that the dorsoanterior striatum is the locus of nPower-dependent reinforcement. However, given the centrality of this structure in a wide range of motivational pursuits, we also propose that activity in the dorsoanterior striatum may not only reflect individual differences in nPower, but also in other implicit motives, like the need for achievement or the need for affiliation, provided that the proper incentives for these motives are present during reinforcement learning. We discuss evidence in support of such a general role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation.

  2. Reflections on the motive power of fire and other papers on the second law of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carnot, Sadi

    2005-01-01

    Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire,"" along with other papers in this volume, laid the foundation of modern thermodynamics. Highly readable, ""Reflections"" contains no arguments that depend on calculus, consisting mostly of statements couched in exact language. It represents a tribute to Carnot's capacity to generalize, and to see fundamental processes at work in complex mechanisms.""Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire"" examines the relation between heat and the work done by heat in high- and low-pressure steam engines, air-engines, and an internal combustion machine. Carnot establi

  3. Solar array deployment qualification for the LMX of buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy

    2005-07-01

    The solar array deployment system for the LMX line of buses deploys rigid Solar Array Wing Assemblies (SAWAs). Each SAWA has a set of Solar Array Deployment Mechanisms (SADM), which consists of two hinges, a strut, and two Hold Down Release Mechanisms (HDRMs). To qualify the SADM for flight, each mechanism component was qualified individually, then assembled to a qualification SAWA on Special Test Equipment (STE) and deployed in a thermal vacuum chamber at ambient, hot, and cold temperatures. These mechanisms were designed, built, and tested by the Power and Mechanisms part of the Power, Thermal, Structures & Mechanisms Product Center, which develops products for both internal and external customers. This paper will discuss the qualification effort for the LMX Solar Array deployment, including qualification hardware and STE. It will focus on unique challenges presented by each aspect of the qualification, and lessons learned from the hardware integration and the qualification testing.

  4. MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)

  5. Exploring the motivational brain: effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation in response to facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wirth, Michelle M; Waugh, Christian E; Stanton, Steven J; Meier, Elizabeth A; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that implicit power motivation (nPower), in interaction with power incentives, influences activation of brain systems mediating motivation. Twelve individuals low (lowest quartile) and 12 individuals high (highest quartile) in nPower, as assessed per content coding of picture stories, were selected from a larger initial participant pool and participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study during which they viewed high-dominance (angry faces), low-dominance (surprised faces) and control stimuli (neutral faces, gray squares) under oddball-task conditions. Consistent with hypotheses, high-power participants showed stronger activation in response to emotional faces in brain structures involved in emotion and motivation (insula, dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex) than low-power participants.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Diesel and Electric Public Transportation Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act identifies diesel powered motor vehicles, including transit buses, as significant sources of several criteria pollutants which contribute to ground level ozone formation or smog. The effects of air pollution in urban areas are often more significant due to con...

  7. How to Cut Costs by Saving School Bus Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiff, Hank

    A program started in Washington County, Maryland in 1980 has been successful in saving school bus fuel and bringing down transportation costs incurred by its fleet of 200 buses. Driver training and motivation, as well as a partial transfer to diesel buses, are at the heart of the program. The drivers are taught five fuel saving techniques: cut…

  8. Evaluating real-world CO2 and NOX emissions for public transit buses using a remote wireless on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuhanzi; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Chen, Qizheng; Niu, Tianlin; Huang, Xu; Zhang, Shida; Zhang, Liangjun; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2016-11-01

    The challenge to mitigate real-world emissions from vehicles calls for powerful in-use compliance supervision. The remote on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach, with wireless data communications, is one of the promising next-generation monitoring methods. We collected second-by-second profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions, driving conditions and engine performance for three conventional diesel and three hybrid diesel buses participating in a remote OBD pilot program in Nanjing, China. Our results showed that the average CO2 emissions for conventional diesel and hybrid diesel buses were 816 ± 83 g km(-1) and 627 ± 54 g km(-1), respectively, under a typical driving pattern. An operating mode binning analysis indicated that CO2 emissions reduction by series-parallel hybrid technology was largely because of the significant benefits of the technology under the modes of low speed and low power demand. However, significantly higher CO2 emissions were observed for conventional diesel buses during rush hours, higher than 1200 g km(-1). The OBD data suggested no improvement in NOX emission reduction for hybrid buses compared with conventional buses; both were approximately 12 g km(-1) because of poor performance of the selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in the real world. Speed-dependent functions for real-world CO2 and NOX emissions were also constructed. The CO2 emissions of hybrid buses were much less sensitive to the average speed than conventional buses. If the average speed decreased from 20 km h(-1) to 10 km h(-1), the estimated CO2 emission factor for conventional buses would be increased by 34%. Such a change in speed would increase NOX emissions for conventional and hybrid buses by 38% and 56%, respectively. This paper demonstrates the useful features of the remote OBD system and can inform policy makers how to take advantage of these features in monitoring in-use vehicles.

  9. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders' targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates.

  10. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2013-05-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel-1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs) showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg

  11. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel−1 and for the CNG buses 41

  12. Seat Belts in School Buses: A Study by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction Prepared for the Wisconsin Legislature: S.B.7. Bulletin No. 9078.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William T.

    The hypothesis of this study was that installation and use of seat belts in all large school buses are needed to prevent injuries and deaths to children in accidents as a result of no seat belts. Basic questions and summary arguments for and against the use of seat belts are listed. An analysis of research studies done on seat belts in school…

  13. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2016-01-01

    A standard way to realize communication in microgrid control is to use an external communication network, such as modems for wireless or power-line communication, whose implementation may be inefficient in terms of deployment cost, complexity, and system stability. In this chapter we present...... a communication solution, denoted as power talk, which is solely based on the use of the existing microgrid power equipment (i.e., power electronics and buses). The pivotal idea is to modulate information in the power-related parameters of the microgrid buses by use of the flexibility of power electronic...... interfaces. The focus of the chapter is on the design of power talk solutions for DC microgrids with droop control. Specifically, the chapter presents the power talk implementation through modification of the droop parameters of the primary control loop, and investigates the design of modulation schemes...

  14. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  15. The new pyramid: laying the groundwork with motivational power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, D

    1991-06-01

    To successfully implement a comprehensive, progressive management system, a manager must incorporate daily administrative or executive principles and duties with an array of motivational tactics. Various motivational strategies have been discussed since the generation of industrial psychological research, which is generally conceded to have had its genesis with Abraham Maslow. Maslow's simple premise regarding man's needs for self-esteem, security and affiliation is at the root of many theories and practicums in vogue today.

  16. Robustness Area Technique Developing Guidelines for Power System Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Murinelli Pesoti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel energy based technique called the Robustness Area (RA technique that measures power system robustness levels, as a helper for planning Power System Restorations (PSRs. The motivation is on account of the latest blackouts in Brazil, where the local Independent System Operator (ISO encountered difficulties related to circuit disconnections during the restoration. The technique identifies vulnerable and robust buses, pointing out system areas that should be firstly reinforced during PSR, in order to enhance system stability. A Brazilian power system restoration area is used to compare the guidelines adopted by the ISO with a more suitable new plan indicated by the RA tool. Active power and reactive power load margin and standing phase angle show the method efficiency as a result of a well balanced system configuration, enhancing the restoration performance. Time domain simulations for loop closures and severe events also show the positive impact that the proposed tool brings to PSRs.

  17. Increasing Students' Motivation by Using Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Aura Stella

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of motivation in the 9th grade students of Tomás Rueda Vargas School was the objective of this project, so we planned a series of workshops in Microsoft Word to apply in the computer lab. We observed that by working in groups of four in the computer lab, the students did the activities with enthusiasm. It could also be noticed that the workshops were effective in reinforcing English learning.

  18. Is refinancing solely motivated by misappropriation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Liu; Liang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Misappropriation has become the accepted explanation for the refinancing behavior of Chinese listed companies, although the evidence in support of such an explanation is worthy of further discussion. We argue that if a planned refinancing exercise does not become a reality, post-refinancing performance depends on the initial motivation for refinancing, i.e. misappropriation or the maximization of firm value. The success and failure samples provided by the approval system of the Chinese securities market provide us with a natural laboratory in which to distinguish between these two possible motivations for the refinancing behavior of Chinese listed firms. The results show the postrefinancing performance of firms in the success sample to be significantly better than the performance in the failure sample, with the difference even more significant when larger agency costs or more financial constraints exist. These findings indicate that Chinese listed companies do not engage in refinancing for misappropriation purposes alone. Rather, refinancing is more likely to be a rational choice made in full consideration of the costs and benefits. This paper provides new ideas for reexamining the motivations for the refinancing behavior of China’s listed firms. It also has one major policy implication. That is, relaxing and/or simplifying the country’s refinancing regulations could help to improve the efficiency of resource allocation in the Chinese securities market.

  19. [Motivation effect on power changes in the brain biopotentials in the figurative and verbal creativity tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, O M; Vol'f, N V; Tarasova, I V

    2007-01-01

    Effect of extrinsic motivation stimulating the most original problem solving during verbal and figurative divergent thinking was studied by EEG mapping. The righthanded university students (27 males and 26 females) participated in the experiments. An instruction "to create the most original solution" as compared to condition with an instruction "to create any solution" induced an increase in the baseline power of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 rhythms most pronounced in the posterior cortex. Task-related desynchronization of the alpha rhythms was higher but the beta-2 synchronization was lower after the former than after the latter instruction. Differences in the asymmetry of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 rhythms in the parietal and temporal regions of hemispheres suggested the right hemisphere dominance in intrinsic alertness and evoked activation related to divergent thinking. The findings were common and gender-independent in both figurative and verbal tasks suggesting a generalized influence of extrinsic motivation on creative activity.

  20. Unstable Power Threatens the Powerful and Challenges the Powerless: Evidence from Cardiovascular Markers of Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan eScheepers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Possessing social power has psychological and biological benefits. For example, during task interactions, people high in power are more likely to display a benign cardiovascular response pattern indicative of challenge whereas people low in power are more likely to display a maladaptive cardiovascular pattern indicative of threat (Scheepers, De Wit, Ellemers, & Sassenberg, 2012. Challenge is marked by high cardiac output (CO and low total peripheral resistance, while threat is marked by low CO and high TPR (Blascovich & Mendes, 2010. In the current work we addressed a possible moderator of the power-threat/challenge relationship, namely the stability of power. We examined the influence of the stability of power (roles could or could not change on cardiovascular responses during a dyadic task where one person was the chief designer (high power and one person was the assistant (low power. During the task, different cardiovascular-measures were taken (CO, TPR, Heart Rate [HR], Pre-Ejection Period [PEP]. Whereas participants in the unstable low power condition showed a stronger tendency towards challenge, participants in the unstable high power condition showed a stronger tendency towards threat. Moreover, participants in the stable low power condition showed cardiovascular signs of task disengagement. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of contextual variables in shaping the relationship between power and benign/maladaptive physiological responses.

  1. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders’ targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates. PMID:23160813

  2. Particle and gaseous emissions from compressed natural gas and ultralow sulphur diesel-fuelled buses at four steady engine loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, E R; Ristovski, Z D; Meyer, N; Morawska, L

    2009-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from thirteen compressed natural gas (CNG) and nine ultralow sulphur diesel in-service transport buses were monitored on a chassis dynamometer. Measurements were carried out at idle and at three steady engine loads of 25%, 50% and 100% of maximum power at a fixed speed of 60 km h(-1). Emission factors were estimated for particle mass and number, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen for two types of CNG buses (Scania and MAN, compatible with Euro 2 and 3 emission standards, respectively) and two types of diesel buses (Volvo Pre-Euro/Euro1 and Mercedez OC500 Euro3). All emission factors increased with load. The median particle mass emission factor for the CNG buses was less than 1% of that from the diesel buses at all loads. However, the particle number emission factors did not show a statistically significant difference between buses operating on the two types of fuel. In this paper, for the very first time, particle number emission factors are presented at four steady state engine loads for CNG buses. Median values ranged from the order of 10(12) particles min(-)(1) at idle to 10(15) particles km(-)(1) at full power. Most of the particles observed in the CNG emissions were in the nanoparticle size range and likely to be composed of volatile organic compounds The CO2 emission factors were about 20% to 30% greater for the diesel buses over the CNG buses, while the oxides of nitrogen emission factors did not show any difference due to the large variation between buses.

  3. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  4. The Motivational Power of Game Communities - Engaged through Game Jamming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    to develop games and to meet new people. We believe that the community building as well as the motivation and engagement due to social aspects and the desire to learn more about game development among participants at such events might have beneficial ripple effects, which are valuable to investigate more......Game jams have become a rapid growing phenomenon. Every year brings new and larger game jams. In this study, we closely followed the world’s largest single location game jam in order to explore the engagement among participants. The authors joined the organizing group of the Nordic Game Jam 2013...

  5. Motivating to learn chemistry by experimenting at home

    OpenAIRE

    Krašovec, Urša

    2013-01-01

    The thesis entitled “Motivation for learning chemistry by experimenting at home” looks into the motivation of pupils for learning chemistry and their motivational orientation towards learning the subject. Based on the questionnaires “Learning motivation”, “How do I learn chemistry” and “Subject realisation” we determined the following: how the pupils prefer to learn chemistry; whether they like it; which learning methods they find most motivational; what is their opinion about experimental wo...

  6. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA 3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro II–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmental Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 8.0 ± 3.1 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF =2.8 ± 1.6 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 × 1015 (kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode size-resolved EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm.

    Emission

  7. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable.

  8. Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

  9. Interim Evaluation Results from New Flyer/Allison Hybrid Buses at King County Metro: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Eudy, L.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric articulated transit buses operated by King County Metro.

  10. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  11. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  12. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.

    2010-11-01

    This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

  13. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  14. Clean School Bus USA: Tomorrow's Buses for Today's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is ensuring that all new buses meet tighter standards developed to reduce diesel emissions and improve safety. Today's new buses are cleaner--60 times cleaner than buses built before 1990--and feature additional emergency exits, improved mirror systems, and pedestrian safety devices. But replacing…

  15. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  16. A Busing Program for Child Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alan S.; Hung, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The University of British Columbia (Canada) dental school has implemented a clinical experience program in which children in grades 2-4 are bused to the university for dental treatment. The program has helped maintain undergraduate pediatric dental experiences, benefited the children's dental health, and cost parents less than traditional dental…

  17. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative…

  18. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative behaviors…

  19. Motivational Interviewing Approach Used by a Community Mental Health Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sharon Chay Huang; Lee, Mindy Wen Hui; Lim, Gentatsu Tan Xiong; Leong, Joseph Jern-Yi; Lee, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    The current study aimed to (a) evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing, as applied by a community mental health team (CMHT) based in Singapore; (b) reduce hospital admissions and length of hospital stay; and (c) improve global functioning and satisfaction of individuals with mental illness. The current study used a quasi-experimental method. A convenience sample of 120 participants was selected from the caseload of the CMHT. Participants received motivational interviewing sessions at least once every month for 1 year. Data on the number of hospital admissions, length of hospitalization, Global Assessment of Functioning, and patient satisfaction were collected at baseline and 6 and 12 months. Participants who underwent the CMHT services with motivational interviewing were more compliant to treatment, resulting in significant reduction in hospitalization and improvement in functionality. Motivational interviewing is effective in facilitating better illness management for patients in the community. Adoption of the motivational interviewing approach may potentially provide significant benefits for psychiatric support services in the community.

  20. Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from CNG transit buses equipped with three-way catalysts compared to lean-burn engines and oxidation catalyst technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Hu, Shaohua; Kado, Norman Y.; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Collins, John F.; Gautam, Mridul; Herner, Jorn D.; Ayala, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled transit buses with stoichiometric combustion engines and three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust control systems were measured using a chassis dynamometer testing facility and compared to the data from earlier CNG engine and exhaust control technologies. Gaseous and particulate matter emissions from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were lower by more than 99% compared to buses with lean-burn engines. Elemental and organic carbons (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were effectively controlled and significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Potential mutagenicity measured using a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella/microsome assay was lower by more than 99% for buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC, compared to buses with lean-burn engines and OxC.

  1. The introduction of gas-powered busses in Berne; Die Einfuehrung von Gasbussen bei Bernmobil - Ein Erfahrungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, D.; Kljun, N.; Keller, M.

    2008-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the experience gained from the operation of biogas-powered buses in Berne, Switzerland. The fleet conversion from diesel-engined buses to new vehicles powered by biogas from the city's wastewater treatment plant is discussed. Six operational aspects involved in the use of gas-powered buses in comparison with traditional diesel buses are examined and discussed. These include infrastructure adaptations, fuel and energy consumption, emissions and air-hygiene, operational changes, financial aspects and acceptance of the new vehicles both by operating personnel and the general public. Operational difficulties encountered after fire-damage to the gas filling equipment in the bus depot are noted. Fuel consumption is commented on and measurements made on emissions are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of biogas busses in comparison with diesel busses are discussed.

  2. Rationalization of motive power use in animal feed industry; Racionalizacao do uso de forca motriz em fabrica de racao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Carlos A.; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio F. de; Martins, Jose H. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mails: carlos, delly, alacerda, jmartins@vicosa.ufv.br

    2005-05-15

    The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pif Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: to adjust relays and to choose fuses, to schedule operation and to build storage facilities. (author)

  3. Unstable power threatens the powerful and challenges the powerless : evidence from cardiovascular markers of motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Daan; Röell, Charlotte; Ellemers, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Possessing social power has psychological and biological benefits. For example, during task interactions, people high in power are more likely to display a benign cardiovascular (CV) response pattern indicative of "challenge" whereas people low in power are more likely to display a maladaptive CV pa

  4. Spin motive force driven by skyrmion dynamics in magnetic nanodisks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yuhki; Ohe, Jun-ichiro

    2015-05-01

    The spin motive force driven by the dynamics of the skyrmion structure formed in a nanomagnetic disk is numerically investigated. Due to the existence of the magnetic structure along the disk edge, the collective mode of the magnetization is modified from that of the bulk skyrmion lattice obtained by using the periodic boundary condition. For a single-skyrmion disk, the dynamics of the skyrmion core and the edge magnetization induce the spin motive force, and a measurable AC voltage is obtained by two probes on the disk. For a multi-skyrmions disk, the phase-locked collective mode of skyrmions is found in the lowest resonant frequency where the amplitude of the AC voltage is enhanced by the cascade effect of the spin motive force. We also investigate the effect of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin motive force.

  5. Point by Point: Adding up Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionda, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Students often view their course grades as a mysterious equation of teacher-given grades, teacher-given grace, and some other ethereal components based on luck. However, giving students the power to earn points based on numerous daily/weekly assignments and attendance makes the grading process objective and personal, freeing the instructor to…

  6. The implicit Power Motive and Adolescents' Salivary Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress and Exercise in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Scheuermann, Katharina S; Machado, Sergio; Budde, Henning

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined the moderating effect of the power motive on salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress and exercise in adolescents. Fifty-seven high school students aged M = 14.8 years participated in the study. The Operant Motive Test was applied to measure the implicit power motive and the Personality Research Form was used to measure the explicit power motive. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after the stress stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. An exercise group ran 15 minutes at a defined heart rate of 65-75% HRmax. A psychosocial stress group worked on a standard intelligence test for the same amount of time under the assumption, that their test scores will be made public in class after the test. The control group participated in a regular class session. The implicit power motive was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels in the psychosocial stress group. The explicit power motive was not associated with cortisol responses. Findings suggest that the implicit power motive moderates the cortisol responses to acute stress in an adolescent age group with higher responses to psychosocial stress in comparison to exercise or control conditions.

  7. Efficiency evaluation of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, Tobias Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The following report evaluates the efficiency of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector on a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the combination of CHP power plants and electric driven buses reach an overall efficiency of about 51% throughout the production chain (Well-to-Wheel), including heat distribution losses. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency for conventional gas turbines without heat recovery decreases to around 28%. For gas fuelled buses the Well-to-Wheel efficiency is about 30%. The Co2-emissions are evaluated based on the example of a #Left Double Quotation Mark#Volvo B10L CNG#Right Double Quotation Mark# gas bus and the electric driven #Left Double Quotation Mark#Eurabus 600#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The low energy consumption of the electric driven bus results in Co2-emissions of only 181.4 g Co2/km (Grid-to-Wheel). Depending on the utilised power plant technology the overall Co2-emissions (Well-to-Wheel) amount to 307.5 g Co2/km for a CHP power plant and 553.5 g Co2/km for a conventional gas turbine. On the other hand, gas fuelled buses emit about 1.25 kg Co2/km (Tank-to-Wheel), which is eightfold the emissions of an electrical bus. The Well-to-Tank emissions further increase to about 1.32 kg Co2/km. The emission calculation is based on real gas consumption data from a Norwegian public transport utility. The results indicate that the combination of CHP plants and electrical buses provide a much higher efficiency while reducing Co2-emissions. (author)

  8. The motivation behind serial sexual homicide: is it sex, power, and control, or anger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Husted, David S; Safarik, Mark E; O'Toole, Mary Ellen

    2006-07-01

    Controversy exists in the literature and society regarding what motivates serial sexual killers to commit their crimes. Hypotheses range from the seeking of sexual gratification to the achievement of power and control to the expression of anger. The authors provide theoretical, empirical, evolutionary, and physiological support for the argument that serial sexual murderers above all commit their crimes in pursuit of sadistic pleasure. The seeking of power and control over victims is believed to serve the two secondary purposes of heightening sexual arousal and ensuring victim presence for the crime. Anger is not considered a key component of these offenders' motivation due to its inhibitory physiological effect on sexual functioning. On the contrary, criminal investigations into serial sexual killings consistently reveal erotically charged crimes, with sexual motivation expressed either overtly or symbolically. Although anger may be correlated with serial sexual homicide offenders, as it is with criminal offenders in general, it is not causative. The authors further believe serial sexual murderers should be considered sex offenders. A significant proportion of them appear to have paraphilic disorders within the spectrum of sexual sadism. "sexual sadism, homicidal type" is proposed as a diagnostic subtype of sexual sadism applicable to many of these offenders, and a suggested modification of DSM criteria is presented.

  9. A Dynamic Programming based method for optimizing power system restoration with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Li, Pengfei;

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper, the possibility to exploit the stochastic wind power during restoration was discussed, and a Dynamic Programming (DP) method was proposed to make wind power contribute in the restoration rationally as far as possible. In this paper, the method is tested and verified by a modified IEEE 30 Buses...

  10. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  11. How Busing Burdened Blacks: Critical Race Theory and Busing for Desegregation in Nashville-Davidson County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses critical race theory, court opinions, newspapers, and interviews to explain how the burden of busing for desegregation was placed upon Blacks in Nashville, Tennessee and why the agenda of the litigants in the Kelley v. Metropolitan Board of Education cases shifted over time. The deliberate pace of the initial desegregation…

  12. Wind power - a power source now enabled by power electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin

    2007-01-01

    the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging...... renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system.......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that it has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save...

  13. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements...

  14. Dynamic Extra Buses Scheduling Strategy in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic extra buses scheduling strategy to improve the transit service of transit routes. In this strategy, in order to decide when to dispatch an extra bus, the service reliability of transit route is assessed firstly. A model aimed at maximizing the benefit of the extra buses scheduling strategy is constructed to determine how many stops extra buses need to skip from the terminal to accommodate passengers at the following stops. A heuristic algorithm is defined and implemented to estimate the service reliability of transit route and to optimize the initial stop of extra buses scheduling strategy. Finally, the strategy is tested on two examples: a simple and a real-life transit route in the Dalian city in China. The results show that the extra buses scheduling strategy based on terminal stops with a reasonable threshold can save 8.01% waiting time of passengers.

  15. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.

    2011-01-01

    Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact......, as shown by much higher intercept values (2.51 vs. 0.99; P ... the restriction on social contact (full > head > muzzle). However, the finding that horses showed a similar and high motivation for all three types of social contact suggests that they are valued equally highly in a situation where the alternative is no social contact....

  16. Fostering Learner Autonomy by Strengthening Learners’Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠艳霞

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to discus some practical ways to develop the learners’autonomous English learning abilities. After ana-lyzed the motivation problems, the author strengthened learners’motivation through classroom teaching successfully by building good social relations, promoting negotiation, promoting interaction in the classroom and setting up adequate evaluation systems, etc. The author finds that using the content of regular college classroom teaching as a meaningful context for the development of responsibility can enhance the learning effect. The teacher’s guiding role in autonomous learning should never be ignored. Devel-oping autonomous English learning in vocational colleges in China is our long-term pedagogical goal.

  17. Wind Power - A Power Source Enabled by Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up. The deregul......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up....... The deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in bigger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from...... the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...

  18. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tate Deborah F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous motivation improve the likelihood of behavior modification. Methods This study assessed the outcomes of two internet behavioral weight loss interventions and assessed the effect of baseline motivation levels on program success. Eighty females (M (SD age 48.7 (10.6 years; BMI 32.0 (3.7 kg/m2; 91% Caucasian were randomized to one of two groups, a standard group or a motivation-enhanced group. Both received a 16-week internet behavioral weight loss program and attended an initial and a four-week group session. Weight and motivation were measured at baseline, four and 16 weeks. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test for moderation. Results There was significant weight loss at 16-weeks in both groups (p p = 0.57 (standard group 3.4 (3.6 kg; motivation-enhanced group 3.9 (3.4 kg. Further analysis was conducted to examine predictors of weight loss. Baseline controlled motivation level was negatively correlated with weight loss in the entire sample (r = -0.30; p = 0.01. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between study group assignment and baseline level of controlled motivation. Weight loss was not predicted by baseline level of controlled motivation in the motivation-enhanced group, but was significantly predicted by controlled motivation in the standard group. Baseline autonomous motivation did not predict weight change in either group. Conclusions This research found that, in participants with high levels of baseline controlled motivation

  19. A port-Hamiltonian approach to power network modeling and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, S.; Zonetti, D.; Ortega, R.; Scherpen, J.M.A.; van der Schaft, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic framework for modeling of power networks. The basic idea is to view the complete power network as a port-Hamiltonian system on a graph where edges correspond to components of the power network and nodes are buses. The interconnection constraints are given by the

  20. 76 FR 77888 - Student Transportation of America, Inc.-Control-Dairyland Buses, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Student Transportation of America, Inc.--Control--Dairyland Buses, Inc... Transaction. SUMMARY: Student Transportation of America, Inc., a motor carrier of passengers (Student... 1182.8. DATES: Comments must be filed by January 27, 2012. Student Transportation may file a reply...

  1. Exploring the motivation jungle: predicting performance on a novel task by investigating constructs from different motivation perspectives in tandem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuland, Hanneke J C; Dusseldorp, Elise; Martens, Rob L; Boekaerts, Monique

    2010-08-01

    Different theoretical viewpoints on motivation make it hard to decide which model has the best potential to provide valid predictions on classroom performance. This study was designed to explore motivation constructs derived from different motivation perspectives that predict performance on a novel task best. Motivation constructs from self-determination theory, self-regulation theory, and achievement goal theory were investigated in tandem. Performance was measured by systematicity (i.e. how systematically students worked on a problem-solving task) and test score (i.e. score on a multiple-choice test). Hierarchical regression analyses on data from 259 secondary school students showed a quadratic relation between a performance avoidance orientation and both performance outcomes, indicating that extreme high and low performance avoidance resulted in the lowest performance. Furthermore, two three-way interaction effects were found. Intrinsic motivation seemed to play a key role in test score and systematicity performance, provided that effort regulation and metacognitive skills were both high. Results indicate that intrinsic motivation in itself is not enough to attain a good performance. Instead, a moderate score on performance avoidance, together with the ability to remain motivated and effectively regulate and control task behavior, is needed to attain a good performance. High time management skills also contributed to higher test score and systematicity performance and a low performance approach orientation contributed to higher systematicity performance. We concluded that self-regulatory skills should be trained in order to have intrinsically motivated students perform well on novel tasks in the classroom.

  2. Researching the Quest: Are Community College Students Motivated by Question-and-Answer Reviews?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavendish, Don F., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Any effort to assess the motivational techniques employed by community college faculty is complicated by the inter-connectedness of motivational techniques and teaching techniques, as improved teaching results in improved motivation. Nonetheless, this research poses a motivation-related question: Does the use of daily question-and-answer reviews…

  3. Power Transfer Efficiency of Mutually Coupled Coils in an Aluminum AUV Hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    currently being used by electric buses, trains, and cars as a method for wirelessly charging these vehicles through an air gap [4]. The benefit of...coils and near-field magnetic coupling for power transfer in a system. IPT is currently being used by electric buses, trains, and cars as a method...1899 Nikola Tesla attempted to transmit power without wires. His goal was to transmit 300 kW of power using a 150 kHz carrier wave [7]. Tesla’s

  4. A robustness metric for cascading failures by targeted attacks in power networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koc, Y.; Warnier, M.; Kooij, R.E.; Brazier, F.M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Cascading failures are the main reason blackouts occur in power networks. The economic cost of such failures is in the order of tens of billion dollars annually. In a power network, the cascading failure phenomenon is related to both topological properties (number and types of buses, density of tran

  5. The Method for Motivation by Quality Function Deployment (QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akao Yoji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a study on proposing a method for motivation with the use of QFD. It was reported by three students who majored in MOT at Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University in 2009. QFD has been widely used in manufacture and service industries for making improvement with the existing products and programs. However, in this study, QFD was not used in the sense of “activation” to improve motivation. Rather, it took the viewpoint of “what is required by customers”, the central theme QFD, to approach the problem. With reference to the process of knowledge conversion suggested by the SECI Model, the study operated with the basic principles and steps of QFD. In the paper, the major steps of QFD leading to setting quality planning were outlined and the implication of the study was discussed.

  6. Quality assurance program guidelines for application to and use by manufacturers of rail/guideway vehicles, buses, automatic train control systems, and their major subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    Guidelines are presented for a quality assurance system to be implemented by the manufacturer in support of designing, developing, fabricating, assembling, inspecting, testing, handling, and delivery of equipment being procured for use in public urban mass transit systems. The guidelines apply to this equipment when being procured for: (1) use in revenue service; (2) demonstration of systems that will be revenue producing or used by the public; (3) use as a prototype for follow-on operational/revenue producing equipment procurements; and (4) qualification tests.

  7. 美国院校研究之借鉴与院校研究的中国化%Experience of American Institutional Research Motivated by Inner and Outer Driving Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为峰

    2011-01-01

    Driven by the inner and outer power,American institutional research persistently pursue the high scientificity in order to be accepted by the decision-makers of higher education institutions,stakeholders and the public,which could realize its value of res%美国院校研究在内外部驱动力的作用下,始终追求高度的科学化,以为高校决策者、相关权益群体及公众所认可,实现其研究价值。美国院校研究程式的科学和方法的量化颇具借鉴价值,但中国国情不同,院校研究的开展有自身的特点。中国院校研究的开展应以高等教育理论为优势依托,兼容定性研究与定量研究之所长,从问题、从实际出发,不断增强院校研究的内外部驱动力,更为科学、有效地开展院校研究,进而促进我国高校的发展。

  8. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  9. Bidirectional modulation of substantia nigra activity by motivational state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Rossi

    Full Text Available A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra.

  10. Ready for nuclear energy?: An assessment of capacities and motivations for launching new national nuclear power programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, Jessica, E-mail: Jewell_Jessica@ceu-budapest.ed [Central European University, Nador utca 9, 1051 Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-03-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency reports that as of July 2009 there were 52 countries interested in building their first nuclear power plant. This paper characterizes and evaluates these 'Newcomer Countries' in terms of their capacity and motivations to develop nuclear power. It quantifies factors historically associated with the development of nuclear energy programs and then benchmarks the Newcomers against these data. Countries with established nuclear power programs, particularly where nuclear facilities are privately owned, are typically larger, wealthier and politically stable economies with high government effectiveness. Nuclear power was historically launched during periods of high electricity consumption growth. Other indicators for the potential of nuclear power include: the size of the national grid, the presence of international grid connections and security of fuel supply for electricity production. We identify 10 Newcomers which most closely resemble the Established Nuclear Power Countries and thus are most likely to deploy nuclear energy, 10 countries where the development of nuclear energy is uncertain due to high political instability, 14 countries with lower capacities where pursuing nuclear energy may require especially strong international cooperation and 18 countries where the development of nuclear power is less likely due to their significantly lower capacities and motivations. - Research Highlights: {yields}Historically, nuclear power was used in larger, wealthier, politically stable economies. {yields}Nuclear power was typically launched in periods of high electricity demand growth. {yields}Only 10 out of 52 'Newcomer' countries share similar characteristics. {yields}10 other 'Newcomers' with high motivations and capacities are politically unstable. {yields}Nuclear power would need international help in 14 countries and is unlikely in the rest (18).

  11. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Funding for this effort is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration. The 2016 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2015 through July 2016. The results for these buses account for more than 550,000 miles traveled and 59,500 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from three demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; and American Fuel Cell Bus Project at the University of California at Irvine.

  12. Comparative study of the work load between one-man buses and two-man buses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno,Mitsuo

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences in physiological and safety conditions of one-man buses and two-man buses were examined from the view point of occupational fatigue. This survey consisted of a work load study which included a time study, study of subsidiary behavior, auditory task, memory test, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR and physiological function tests and a self-administered questionnaire which involved items concerning safety and subjective fatigue complaints. The visual and postural restrictions in the one-man bus were greater than in the two-man bus. The mental capacity of the one-man bus drivers was found to be less. Greater mental fatigue and stress were observed in the one-man bus. More subjective fatigue complaints were observed in the one-man bus. More cases of near accidents were observed in the one-man bus. From these results it was concluded that the one-man bus caused bus drivers a greater mental and physical work load.

  13. The life cycle assessment of alternative fuel chains for urban buses and trolleybuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliucininkas, L; Matulevicius, J; Martuzevicius, D

    2012-05-30

    This paper describes a comparative analysis of public transport alternatives in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. An LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) inventory analysis of fuel chains was undertaken using the midi urban bus and a similar type of trolleybus. The inventory analysis of fuel chains followed the guidelines provided by the ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 standards. The ReCiPe Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology was used to quantify weighted damage originating from five alternative fuel chains. The compressed biogas fuel chain had the lowest weighted damage value, namely 45.7 mPt/km, whereas weighted damage values of the fuel chains based on electricity generation for trolleybuses were 60.6 mPt/km (for natural gas) and 78.9 mPt/km (for heavy fuel oil). The diesel and compressed natural gas fuel chains exhibited considerably higher damage values of 114.2 mPt/km and 132.6 mPt/km, respectively. The comparative life cycle assessment of fuel chains suggested that biogas-powered buses and electric trolleybuses can be considered as the best alternatives to use when modernizing the public transport fleet in Kaunas.

  14. Gaseous emissions from compressed natural gas buses in urban road and highway tests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tingting; Chai, Fahe; Hu, Jingnan; Jia, Ming; Bao, Xiaofeng; Li, Zhenhua; He, Liqang; Zu, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The natural gas vehicle market is rapidly developing throughout the world, and the majority of such vehicles operate on compressed natural gas (CNG). However, most studies on the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles rely on laboratory chassis dynamometer measurements, which do not accurately represent actual road driving conditions. To further investigate the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles, two CNG city buses and two CNG coaches were tested on public urban roads and highway sections. Our results show that when speeds of 0-10km/hr were increased to 10-20km/hr, the CO2, CO, nitrogen oxide (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission factors decreased by (71.6±4.3)%, (65.6±9.5)%, (64.9±9.2)% and (67.8±0.3)%, respectively. In this study, The Beijing city buses with stricter emission standards (Euro IV) did not have lower emission factors than the Chongqing coaches with Euro II emission standards. Both the higher emission factors at 0-10km/hr speeds and the higher percentage of driving in the low-speed regime during the entire road cycle may have contributed to the higher CO2 and CO emission factors of these city buses. Additionally, compared with the emission factors produced in the urban road tests, the CO emission factors of the CNG buses in highway tests decreased the most (by 83.2%), followed by the THC emission factors, which decreased by 67.1%.

  15. RELIABILITY OF BRAKE SYSTEMS OF BUSES OF GROUP MAZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bessarab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world safety of maintained vehicles has the major value. For motor vehicles of the Republic of Belarus this problem is also actual. Maintenance of high reliability of brake systems of cars in operation is one of ways of the decision of a problem of increase of traffic safety.The analysis of reliability of brake systems of buses MAZ is carried out following the results of the state maintenance service in 2010 and the analysis of premature returns from routes of movement of buses MAZ-103 and МАZ-104 one of the motor transportation enterprises of a city of Minsk. Principal causes of structural parameters modification of brake pneumatic system of buses, the brake mechanism and elements АBS are considered.

  16. Reliability Evaluation Of The City Transport Buses Under Actual Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarz Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.

  17. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player’s payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value. PMID:28187166

  18. RELIABILITY OF BRAKE SYSTEMS OF BUSES OF GROUP MAZ

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bessarab

    2013-01-01

    All over the world safety of maintained vehicles has the major value. For motor vehicles of the Republic of Belarus this problem is also actual. Maintenance of high reliability of brake systems of cars in operation is one of ways of the decision of a problem of increase of traffic safety.The analysis of reliability of brake systems of buses MAZ is carried out following the results of the state maintenance service in 2010 and the analysis of premature returns from routes of movement of buses M...

  19. Substance use by college students: the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for athletic involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockafellow, Bradley D; Saules, Karen K

    2006-09-01

    Certain types of athletic involvement may confer risk for substance use by college students. This study investigated whether motivational factors play a role in the relationship between athletic involvement and substance use. Intercollegiate athletes (n=98) and exercisers (n=120) were surveyed about substance use and motivation for athletic involvement. Athletes and exercisers who were extrinsically motivated had significantly higher rates of alcohol use than their intrinsically motivated counterparts. Results suggest that college students who are extrinsically motivated for involvement in physical activity/athletics--particularly those involved in team sports--may be in need of targeted prevention efforts.

  20. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  1. Predictive power of task orientation, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to test the predictive power of dispositional orientations, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom in physical education classes, with a sample of 459 adolescents between 13 and 18 with a mean age of 15 years (SD = 0.88. The adolescents responded to four Likert scales: Perceptions of Success Questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Sport Motivation Scale and Intrinsic Satisfaction Questionnaire in Sport. The results showed the structural regression model showed that task orientation and general self-efficacy positively predicted self-determined motivation and this in turn positively predicted more fun and less boredom in physical education classes. Consequently, the promotion of an educational task-oriented environment where learners perceive their progress and make them feel more competent, will allow them to overcome the intrinsically motivated tasks, and therefore they will have more fun. Pedagogical implications for less boredom and more fun in physical education classes are discussed.

  2. Categorizing terrorist entities listed by the European Union according to terrorist groups’ underlying motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Rothenberger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available States and international organizations have compiled lists of a great variety of terrorist groups. The current European Union list includes 44 entities. This study analyzes the underlying motives of the terrorist organizations named in this list. In order to understand the groups’ motivations and consequently be able to advise on methods of countering them with communication strategies, we employ a three-item typology provided by Waldmann (2001. The results show that only five of the 44 groups were religiously motivated to commit terrorism. Most of the groups (n=20 had nationalist-separatist motives, and 19 groups displayed social-revolutionary motives. Based on the respective motives, differing counter-terrorism strategies are proposed, e.g., developing rhetorical counter-narratives that address and reduce the groups’ motivational and identity-generating characteristics.

  3. No Breathing in the Aisles: Diesel Exhaust inside School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M.; Campbell, Todd R.; Feuer, Gail Ruderman; Masters, Julie; Samkian, Artineh; Paul, Kavita Ann

    There is evidence that diesel exhaust causes cancer and premature death, and also exacerbates asthma and other respiratory illness. Noting that the vast majority of the nation's school buses run on diesel fuel, this report details a study examining the level of diesel exhaust to which children are typically exposed as they travel to and from…

  4. Generalized sensitivity evaluation of electrical power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grewal, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    The material presented in this thesis is a logical extension of and addition to previous work on network sensitivities as applied to power-system analysis and planning. The continuing tendency of supplementing the existing extra-high voltage a.c. transmission systems with high-voltage d.c. (HVDC) lines was taken into consideration, and various relevant component models were investigated using a new hybrid network formulation based on the methodology developed by Bandler and El-Kady. The load buses, frequently modeled as PQ buses at which both the real and reactive injected powers are known, and the generator buses characterized by a constant voltage magnitude and constant real injected power, have been dealt with by exploiting a special complex conjugate notation. In addition, the current, voltage and/or power relationships associated with the transmission network branches were investigated. A hybrid formulation for generalized power system component models were developed. This novel formulation not only encompasses the work established on the basis of one-port theory, but it is also capable of manipulating multiport, nonreciprocal, a.c. as well as integrated a.c.-d.c. bulk transmission networks.

  5. Optimizing the Power of Choice: Supporting Student Autonomy to Foster Motivation and Engagement in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Miriam; Boucher, Alyssa R.

    2015-01-01

    Choice plays a critical role in promoting students' intrinsic motivation and deep engagement in learning. Across a range of academic outcomes and student populations, positive impacts have been seen when student autonomy is promoted through meaningful and personally relevant choice. This article presents a theoretical perspective on the…

  6. The Power of Social and Motivational Relationships for Test-Anxious Adolescents' Academic Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances; Schneeweiss, David; Wood, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Based on cognitive evaluation theory (CET) and organismic integration theory (OIT)--both sub-theories of self-determination theory (SDT)--the present study examined whether the academic self-regulation of youth with test anxiety can be strengthened through social and motivational relationships with peers and teachers. This study employed a large…

  7. Mathematical formalization of theories of motivation proposed by Maslow and Herzberg

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kotliarov

    2008-01-01

    Maslow's theory is by far the most known theory of motivation, and the most common in the business and management practice. Herzberg's theory fits the observations and explains some aspects of human motivation left unexplained by Maslow. However, these theories have never been formalized on a strictly mathematical basis. The present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of sp...

  8. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment.

  9. Tertiary Control of Voltage Unbalance Compensation for Optimal Power Quality in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Tang, Fen; Savaghebi, Mehdi;

    2014-01-01

    the voltage unbalance limits in local buses and DG terminals. This method realizes multi-power-quality-level control in a multi-bus islanded system by optimally utilizing DGs as distributed compensators and saves the investment for additional compensation equipment. Hardware-in-the-loop results demonstrate...

  10. Tertiary control of voltage unbalance compensation for optimal power quality in islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Tang, Fen; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    DG considering the voltage unbalance limits in local buses and DG terminals. This method realizes multi-power-quality-level control in a multi-bus islanded system by optimally utilizing DGs as distributed compensators and saves the investment for additional compensation equipment. Hardware-in...

  11. Exploring the motivation jungle: Predicting performance on a novel task by investigating constructs from different motivation perspectives in tandem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuland, H.J.C. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Martens, R.L.; Boekaerts, M.

    2010-01-01

    Different theoretical viewpoints on motivation make it hard to decide which model has the best potential to provide valid predictions on classroom performance. This study was designed to explore motivation constructs derived from different motivation perspectives that predict performance on a novel

  12. 49 CFR 212.213 - Motive power and equipment (MP&E) inspector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231), and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to make reports of those... Standards, Locomotive Safety Standards, Safety Appliance Standards and Power Brake Standards. (3)...

  13. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel technology, and helps DOE to evaluate the merits of underlying technology. The successful completion of this program demonstrated the capability of EnerDel battery packs to satisfactorily supply all power and energy requirements of a real-world HEV-Bus drive profile. This program supports green solutions to metropolitan public transportation problems by demonstrating the effectiveness of EnerDel lithium ion batteries for HEV-Bus applications.

  14. Motivation of extended behaviors by anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Clay B; Yeung, Nick

    2012-02-01

    Intense research interest over the past decade has yielded diverse and often discrepant theories about the function of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In particular, a dichotomy has emerged between neuropsychological theories suggesting a primary role for ACC in motivating or 'energizing' behavior, and neuroimaging-inspired theories emphasizing its contribution to cognitive control and reinforcement learning. To reconcile these views, we propose that ACC supports the selection and maintenance of 'options' - extended, context-specific sequences of behavior directed toward particular goals - that are learned through a process of hierarchical reinforcement learning. This theory accounts for ACC activity in relation to learning and control while simultaneously explaining the effects of ACC damage as disrupting the motivational context supporting the production of goal-directed action sequences.

  15. Characteristics of cabin air quality in school buses in Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Donghyun; Siegel, Jeffrey; Spinhirne, Jarett; Webb, Alba; McDonald-Buller, Elena

    This study assessed in-cabin concentrations of diesel-associated air pollutants in six school buses with diesel engines during a typical route in suburban Austin, Texas. Air exchange rates measured by SF 6 decay were 2.60-4.55 h -1. In-cabin concentrations of all pollutants measured exhibited substantial variability across the range of tests even between buses of similar age, mileage, and engine type. In-cabin NO x concentrations ranged from 44.7 to 148 ppb and were 1.3-10 times higher than roadway NO x concentrations. Mean in-cabin PM 2.5 concentrations were 7-20 μg m -3 and were generally lower than roadway levels. In-cabin concentrations exhibited higher variability during cruising mode than frequent stops. Mean in-cabin ultrafine PM number concentrations were 6100-32,000 particles cm -3 and were generally lower than roadway levels. Comparison of median concentrations indicated that in-cabin ultrafine PM number concentrations were higher than or approximately the same as the roadway concentrations, which implied that, by excluding the bias caused by local traffic, ultrafine PM levels were higher in the bus cabin than outside of the bus. Cabin pollutant concentrations on three buses were measured prior to and following the phased installation of a Donaldson Spiracle Crankcase Filtration System and a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst. Following installation of the Spiracle, the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst provided negligible or small additional reductions of in-cabin pollutant levels. In-cabin concentration decreases with the Spiracle alone ranged from 24 to 37% for NO x and 26 to 62% and 6.6 to 43% for PM 2.5 and ultrafine PM, respectively. Comparison of the ranges of PM 2.5 and ultrafine PM variations between repetitive tests suggested that retrofit installation could not always be conclusively linked to the decrease of pollutant levels in the bus cabin.

  16. Motivational Factors in Career Decisions Made by Chinese Science Museum Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jiao; Anderson, David; Wu, Xinchun

    2016-01-01

    Conceptualized by the self-determination theory, this interpretive study examined 23 museum educators' perspectives from five Chinese science museums to understand their work motivation in relation to their professional practice of working in museums. Research outcomes showed that, Chinese science museum educators' work motivation followed a…

  17. Predicting Mathematics Achievement by Motivation and Self-Efficacy across Gender and Achievement Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…

  18. Operational integrity using field buses; Integridade operacional utilizando barramentos de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Carlos Henrique [Coester Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The device information is collected using standardized Filed Buses with high data transmission capacity, which allows the analysis of his operational status in real time. The quantity of information generated by the devices for the maintenance area is increasing and this data quantity transferred through the field bus should not interfere in the network performance to the point of degrade his control function. In this way, is presented a technique that can be used in different protocols, which allow sending of maintenance data using a small band of the communication channel. Operational integrity can be achieved using predictive maintenance techniques based on the collected data. (author)

  19. High voltage systems (tube-type microwave)/low voltage system (solid-state microwave) power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussberger, A. A.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    SPS satellite power distribution systems are described. The reference Satellite Power System (SPS) concept utilizes high-voltage klystrons to convert the onboard satellite power from dc to RF for transmission to the ground receiving station. The solar array generates this required high voltage and the power is delivered to the klystrons through a power distribution subsystem. An array switching of solar cell submodules is used to maintain bus voltage regulation. Individual klystron dc voltage conversion is performed by centralized converters. The on-board data processing system performs the necessary switching of submodules to maintain voltage regulation. Electrical power output from the solar panels is fed via switch gears into feeder buses and then into main distribution buses to the antenna. Power also is distributed to batteries so that critical functions can be provided through solar eclipses.

  20. Analysis of the cost of hydrogen infrastructure for buses in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegan, S.; Hart, D.; Pearson, P.; Joffe, D.

    The use of hydrogen (H 2) as transport fuel is often said to suffer from the 'chicken and egg' problem: vehicles that depend on H 2 cannot go on the roads due to the lack of an adequate infrastructure, and the almost non-existent fleet of H 2 vehicles on the roads makes it economically unsound to build a H 2 infrastructure. Although both hydrogen vehicles (fuel cell and internal combustion engine) and the related infrastructure have been (and are being) developed and some are commercially available, cost is seen as a major barrier. With today's technologies, H 2 only becomes competitive with petrol and diesel when produced at large quantities, suitable for supplying e.g. thousands of H 2 buses. The question is, how might this point be reached, and are there least cost infrastructural pathways to reach it. This paper tries to address the latter question, using the early development of a H 2 infrastructure for buses in London as a case study. The paper presents some of the analyses and results from a Ph.D. project (in progress) being undertaken at Imperial College London, funded by EPSRC (Grant GR/R50790/01). The results presented here illustrate that cost of hydrogen production and delivery vary mainly with levels of hydrogen demand and delivery distances, as well as other logistic criteria; least cost production-delivery pathways have been identified for various hydrogen demand scenarios and refuelling station set-ups. Another important conclusion is that the pattern of converting a group of refuelling stations to hydrogen (e.g. a group of refuelling stations for buses in London) has a significant effect on the unit cost of hydrogen.

  1. Dynamics of Determining Motives in Choosing the Medical Profession by Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloktunova N.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study motivation of students of medical schools in choice of profession of the doctor and dynamics of defining motives in educational space of university. Material and methods: 497 students of the 1 st course took part in comparative research (356 students of medical faculty and 141 students of pediatric faculty and 382 students of the 6th course (270 students of medical faculty and 112 students of pediatric faculty of Saratov state medical university n.a. V. I. Razumovsky. In research methods of questioning and statistical data processing have been used. Results: The comparative analysis of the maximum and minimum values of the main types of motivation in professional field choice allowed to determine leading motives in medical students, and also to reveal their dynamics connected with various stages of professionalizing in the course of receiving medical education. Conclusion: Professional self-determination of the student of medical school has a multi-vector focus of structure of motivation. Determination by internal motives is supplemented with influence of external motivation, both positive, and negative value. In students of the 6th course indicators of motives included «Prestige», «Opportunity to help people», «Possibility of use of professional skills out of work».

  2. To Evaluate Zero Emission Propulsion and Support Technology for Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Chandler; Leslie Eudy

    2006-11-01

    This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California, in partnership with the San Mateo County Transit District in San Carlos, California. VTA has been operating three fuel cell transit buses in extra revenue service since February 28, 2005. This report provides descriptions of the equipment used, early experiences, and evaluation results from the operation of the buses and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure from March 2005 through July 2006.

  3. Situating Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  4. Mathematical formalization of theories of motivation proposed by Maslow and Herzberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kotliarov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Maslow's theory is by far the most known theory of motivation, and the most common in the business and management practice. Herzberg's theory fits the observations and explains some aspects of human motivation left unexplained by Maslow. However, these theories have never been formalized on a strictly mathematical basis. The present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of special non-continuous functions. This description may be a good basis for HR software and may be useful for business and management.

  5. Mechanised charging stations enable point-to-point service for battery operated buses; Mechanisierte Ladestationen eroeffnen Batteriebussen den Linienbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, S. [Gottlob Auwaerter GmbH und Co., Stuttgart (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Buses operated by an electrical battery do not any longer have a major disadvantage: the relatively short period of use/application. By means of mobile exchange charging stations the batteries of the buses do not have to be recharged for hours at installed charging stations or to be exchanged on a rather complicated way by forklifts. The battery exchange is as easy as filling up a car tank with diesel and can be carried out by the bus-driver himself within a few minutes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Batterie-elektrisch betriebene Busse haben einen gefuerchteten Nachteil verloren: die relativ geringe Einsatzzeit. Durch die mobile Wechsel-/Ladestation muessen die Busse nunmehr nicht mehr stundenlang an fest installierten Ladestationen `nachtanken` oder dort umstaendliche Batteriewechsel mit Hilfe von Gabelstaplern in Kauf nehmen. Der Batteriewechsel ist so einfach wie das Tanken von Dieselkraftstoff und wird von dem Busfahrer sebst in wenigen Minuten vorgenommen. (orig.)

  6. Mitigation of Power System Oscillation Caused by Wind Power Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe;

    2013-01-01

    Wind power is increasingly integrated in modern power grids, which brings new challenges to the power system operation. Wind power is fluctuating because of the uncertain nature of wind, whereas wind shear and tower shadow effects also cause periodic fluctuations. These may lead to serious forced...... oscillation when the frequencies of the periodic fluctuations are close to the natural oscillation frequencies of the connected power system. By using modal analysis and time-domain simulations, this study studies the forced oscillation caused by the wind shear and tower shadow effects. Three forced...... oscillation mitigation controllers are proposed and compared. A model of direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm connected to the IEEE 10-machine 39-bus system is adopted as the test system. The calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0. Results are presented to show...

  7. Improvement of Machine Translation Evaluation by Simple Linguistically Motivated Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu-Yun Yang; Shu-Qi Sun; Jun-Guo Zhu; Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao; Xiao-Ning Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Adopting the regression SVM framework, this paper proposes a linguistically motivated feature engineering strategy to develop an MT evaluation metric with a better correlation with human assessments. In contrast to current practices of "greedy" combination of all available features, six features are suggested according to the human intuition for translation quality. Then the contribution of linguistic features is examined and analyzed via a hill-climbing strategy. Experiments indicate that, compared to either the SVM-ranking model or the previous attempts on exhaustive linguistic features, the regression SVM model with six linguistic information based features generalizes across different datasets better, and augmenting these linguistic features with proper non-linguistic metrics can achieve additional improvements.

  8. Blazar flares powered by plasmoids in relativistic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulou, Maria; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Powerful flares from blazars with short ($\\sim$ min) variability timescales are challenging for current models of blazar emission. Here, we present a physically motivated ab initio model for blazar flares based on the results of recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic magnetic reconnection. PIC simulations demonstrate that quasi-spherical plasmoids filled with high-energy particles and magnetic fields are a self-consistent by-product of the reconnection process. By coupling our PIC-based results (i.e., plasmoid growth, acceleration profile, particle and magnetic content) with a kinetic equation for the evolution of the electron distribution function we demonstrate that relativistic reconnection in blazar jets can produce powerful flares whose temporal and spectral properties are consistent with the observations. In particular, our model predicts correlated synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton flares of duration of several hours--days powered by the largest and slowest moving plasmoids th...

  9. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H;

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  10. MOTIVATION TO SHARE HOSPITAL BUILDING DESIGN KNOWLEDGE BY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN HONG KONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Yi Man LI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital building design is important as it is the place where bacteria and microorganisms concentrate. Poor ventilation system and layout traps disease causing pathogens, threatens the lives of many frontline workers such as doctors, nurses, and health care assistants. While design knowledge sharing by IT ensures a rapid knowledge sharing among designers from all over the world, what are their motivations? Few or no paper has studied this issue. This paper studies this base on 4 traditional motivation theories: Theory X, Theory Y, Reinforcement theory, Two factor theory. Results show that positive reinforcement theory and motivation factors in two factor theory provide better explanation.

  11. Mathematical Formalization Of Theories Of Motivation Proposed By Abraham Maslow And Frederick Herzberg

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kotliarov

    2008-01-01

    the present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of special non-continuous functions.

  12. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  13. Snow, buses, and mobile data services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomin, Vladislav

    2006-01-01

    and Daniel Robey [2002], in wich the authors use anecdotes to demonstrate what advanced service possibilities are afforded by ubiquitous technology as contrasted to the residue of social behavior.This story illustrates that the succes of establishing Information Society should not be measured by the number...... of available services to citizens over the wireline and mobile Internet. The ultimate measure for success must be the extent to which poeple are aware about the availability of relevant content and are using the services [Daniel and Wilson, 2003, p.285]....

  14. In-Use Fleet Evaluation of Fast-Charge Battery Electric Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Kelly, Kenneth; Eudy; Leslie

    2016-06-27

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2015, NREL launched an in-service evaluation of 12 battery electric buses (BEBs) compared to conventional compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of fast-charge BEBs and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation. To date, NREL researchers have analyzed more than 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. Foothill Transit purchased the BEBs with grant funding from the Federal Transit Administration's Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction Program.

  15. Buses and Boards Making the right choice

    CERN Document Server

    Gipper, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    From motherboard to backplane to blade based computer systems, the choices are numerous. This paper will cover the markets and trends within those markets that influence decisions made by board suppliers. Discussion will focus on the various form factors, the development and evolution of industry standards, and the consortia that support and develop these standards, including VITA, PICMG, and others. This paper will conclude with suggestions for choosing the right form factor for your application.

  16. An improved density matrix functional by physically motivated repulsive corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Oleg; Pernal, Katarzyna; Baerends, Evert Jan

    2005-05-22

    An improved density matrix functional [correction to Buijse and Baerends functional (BBC)] is proposed, in which a hierarchy of physically motivated repulsive corrections is employed to the strongly overbinding functional of Buijse and Baerends (BB). The first correction C1 restores the repulsive exchange-correlation (xc) interaction between electrons in weakly occupied natural orbitals (NOs) as it appears in the exact electron pair density rho(2) for the limiting two-electron case. The second correction C2 reduces the xc interaction of the BB functional between electrons in strongly occupied NOs to an exchange-type interaction. The third correction C3 employs a similar reduction for the interaction of the antibonding orbital of a dissociating molecular bond. In addition, C3 applies a selective cancellation of diagonal terms in the Coulomb and xc energies (not for the frontier orbitals). With these corrections, BBC still retains a correct description of strong nondynamical correlation for the dissociating electron pair bond. BBC greatly improves the quality of the BB potential energy curves for the prototype few-electron molecules and in several cases BBC reproduces very well the benchmark ab initio potential curves. The average error of the self-consistent correlation energies obtained with BBC3 for prototype atomic systems and molecular systems at the equilibrium geometry is only ca. 6%.

  17. Preliminary Physics Motivation and Engineering Design Assessment of the National High Power Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Woolley

    2009-06-11

    In April 2006, Dr. Ray Orbach, Director of the DOE Office of Science, challenged the fusion community to "propose a new facility... which will put the U.S. at the lead in world fusion science." Analysis of the gaps between expected ITER performance and the requirements of a demonstration power plant (Demo) pointed to the critical and urgent need to develop fusion-relvant plasma-material interface (PMI) solutions consistent with sustained high plasma performance. A survey of world fusion program indicated that present and planned experimental devices do not advance the PMI issue beyond ITER, and a major dedicated experimental facility is warranted. Such a facility should provide the flexibility and access needed to solve plasma boundary challenges related to divertor heat flux and particle exhaust while also developing methods to minimize hydrogenic isotope retention and remaining compatible with high plasma performance.

  18. Variability of particle number emissions from diesel and hybrid diesel-electric buses in real driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Gao, H Oliver; Holmén, Britt A

    2008-08-01

    A linear mixed model was developed to quantify the variability of particle number emissions from transit buses tested in real-world driving conditions. Two conventional diesel buses and two hybrid diesel-electric buses were tested throughout 2004 under different aftertreatments, fuels, drivers, and bus routes. The mixed model controlled the confounding influence of factors inherent to on-board testing. Statistical tests showed that particle number emissions varied significantly according to the after treatment, bus route, driver, bus type, and daily temperature, with only minor variability attributable to differences between fuel types. The daily setup and operation of the sampling equipment (electrical low pressure impactor) and mini-dilution system contributed to 30-84% of the total random variability of particle measurements among tests with diesel oxidation catalysts. By controlling for the sampling day variability, the model better defined the differences in particle emissions among bus routes. In contrast, the low particle number emissions measured with diesel particle filters (decreased by over 99%) did not vary according to operating conditions or bus type but did vary substantially with ambient temperature.

  19. Bay Area Transit Agencies Propel Fuel Cell Buses Toward Commercialization (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration of the next generation of fuel cells buses. Several transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area are participating in demonstrating the largest single fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States.

  20. 78 FR 719 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... amendments to its emission standards for urban bus engines in a series of rulemakings. The rulemakings at... public transit agencies that operate urban buses and other transit vehicles; additionally,...

  1. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einas Al-Eisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3±0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2 was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%. Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level.

  2. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  3. Optimal Power Flow Control by Rotary Power Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAZEMI, A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new power flow model for rotary power flow controller (RPFC. RPFC injects a series voltage into the transmission line and provides series compensation and phase shifting simultaneously. Therefore, it is able to control the transmission line impedance and the active power flow through it. An RPFC is composed mainly of two rotary phase shifting transformers (RPST and two conventional (series and shunt transformers. Structurally, an RPST consists of two windings (stator and rotor windings. The rotor windings of the two RPSTs are connected in parallel and their stator windings are in series. The injected voltage is proportional to the vector sum of the stator voltages and so its amplitude and angle are affected by the rotor position of the two RPSTs. This paper, describes the steady state operation and single-phase equivalent circuit of the RPFC. Also in this paper, a new power flow model, based on power injection model of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS controllers, suitable for the power flow analysis is introduced. Proposed model is used to solve optimal power flow (OPF problem in IEEE standard test systems incorporating RPFC and the optimal settings and location of the RPFC is determined.

  4. Predicting Failures in Power Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, Michael; Stepanov, Mikhail G

    2010-01-01

    Here we develop an approach to predict power grid weak points, and specifically to efficiently identify the most probable failure modes in load distribution for a given power network. This approach is applied to two examples: Guam's power system and also the IEEE RTS-96 system, both modeled within the static Direct Current power flow model. Our algorithm is a power network adaption of the worst configuration heuristics, originally developed to study low probability events in physics and failures in error-correction. One finding is that, if the normal operational mode of the grid is sufficiently healthy, the failure modes, also called instantons, are sufficiently sparse, i.e. the failures are caused by load fluctuations at only a few buses. The technique is useful for discovering weak links which are saturated at the instantons. It can also identify overutilized and underutilized generators, thus providing predictive capability for improving the reliability of any power network.

  5. Cooperative Control of Active Power Filters in Power Systems without Mutual Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Tlustý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedure for calculating controller parameters of the APFs implemented into a multibus industrial power system for harmonic voltage mitigation is presented. The node-voltage-detection control strategy is applied and the basic controller parameters are found under the condition that the demanded THD factors at the buses where the APFs are placed will be obtained. A cooperative control of several APFs without mutual communication is proposed, simulated, and experimentally verified. By tuning the controller gains without considering the power circuit parameters, all APFs used tend to share harmonic load currents approximately equally regardless of the operation modes of the nonlinear loads in different parts of the power system.

  6. Using Task Clarification, Goal Setting, and Feedback to Decrease Table Busing Times in a Franchise Pizza Restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Seth; Smith, Andrew; Ludwig, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of task-clarification, and manager verbal and graphic feedback on employee busing times at a pizza restaurant. Using an ABC design, task-clarification was provided in a memo, which described the process, priority, and goal time of busing. The busing time decreased slightly, from an average of 315 seconds…

  7. The Busing Controversy. [NAESP] School Leadership Digest [Second Series, Number 6. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    To understand the controversy over busing, it is necessary to understand the relationship between busing and the issues that are actually at the root of the controversy: desegregation and freedom of choice. Much of the political activity surrounding busing is a subtle transfer of attention away from the basic issue of desegregation. Other…

  8. D\\'emocrite et la puissance motrice du feu (Democrite and the motive power of fire)

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaud, Jacques; Philippe, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    This paper, whose purpose is mainly historical and pedagogical, suggests that concepts introduced in the ancient Greece by Anaximander (isolated flat earth) and Democritus (corpuscles and empty-space) could have led, from some observations and plausible generalizations, to the maximum efficiency and output work of heat engines obtained in the modern time by Carnot (1824). A prolog presents a simple heat engine. After introducing the concept of thermal equilibrium, a model of thermal engine consisting of corpuscle reservoirs is studied in a classical manner. We establish the ideal gas law from the Daniel Bernoulli corpuscular concept (1738) using the corpuscle \\emph{action} concept. This leads to the energy of a gas at any temperature.

  9. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brynne Catherine DiMenichi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a competitor. We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times—a previous indicator of increased attention— in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition’s effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster reaction times and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks.

  10. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMenichi, Brynne C; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a "competitor." We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times (RTs)-a previous indicator of increased attention-in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition's effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster RTs and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks.

  11. Txatarra: vivienda transitoria con buses de transporte público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Arenas Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente análisis del proyecto Casa Linda parte de una exploración conceptual en torno a un hábitat sostenible, mediante la generación de un tipo de vivienda transitoria que reutiliza buses de transporte público destinados a ser reducidos a chatarra. La necesidad de replantear la labor de configurar espacios con materiales y formas predeterminados llevó a los autores a comprender cómo resultan insuficientes los medios tradicionales de construcción, en los que se acostumbra emplear materias primas en presentaciones estandarizadas y con acabados predefinidos que se adaptan a los requerimientos y necesidades del proyecto. Enfrentar el proyecto a partir del reciclaje de materiales y objetos (chatarra, de diversas dimensiones y en variadas condiciones, generó un proceso cuya característica principal es la imposibilidad de anticipar con exactitud los procesos constructivos y los acabados finales.

  12. Human punishment is motivated by inequity aversion, not a desire for reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, N J; McAuliffe, K

    2012-10-23

    Humans involved in cooperative interactions willingly pay a cost to punish cheats. However, the proximate motives underpinning punitive behaviour are currently debated. Individuals who interact with cheats experience losses, but they also experience lower payoffs than the cheating partner. Thus, the negative emotions that trigger punishment may stem from a desire to reciprocate losses or from inequity aversion. Previous studies have not disentangled these possibilities. Here, we use an experimental approach to ask whether punishment is motivated by inequity aversion or by a desire for reciprocity. We show that humans punish cheats only when cheating produces disadvantageous inequity, while there is no evidence for reciprocity. This finding challenges the notion that punishment is motivated by a simple desire to reciprocally harm cheats and shows that victims compare their own payoffs with those of partners when making punishment decisions.

  13. Intrinsically motivated oculomotor exploration guided by uncertainty reduction and conditioned reinforcement in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddaoua, Nabil; Lopes, Manuel; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2016-02-03

    Intelligent animals have a high degree of curiosity--the intrinsic desire to know--but the mechanisms of curiosity are poorly understood. A key open question pertains to the internal valuation systems that drive curiosity. What are the cognitive and emotional factors that motivate animals to seek information when this is not reinforced by instrumental rewards? Using a novel oculomotor paradigm, combined with reinforcement learning (RL) simulations, we show that monkeys are intrinsically motivated to search for and look at reward-predictive cues, and that their intrinsic motivation is shaped by a desire to reduce uncertainty, a desire to obtain conditioned reinforcement from positive cues, and individual variations in decision strategy and the cognitive costs of acquiring information. The results suggest that free-viewing oculomotor behavior reveals cognitive and emotional factors underlying the curiosity driven sampling of information.

  14. THE MOTIVATIONAL MODEL OF YOUNG JAPANESE EFL LEARNERS: AFTER GETTING LESSONS BY HOMEROOM TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Adachi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study focuses on Japanese pupils’ motivation with other attitudinal attitudes about learning English. The writer surveyed the 5th and 6th grade pupils’ motivation and its effect factors at an elementary school in Japan at the end of the school year 2007 and 2008. The main focus of this study is to find the relationship between motivation and effect factors using both the 2007 and 2008 data and to examine differences of the pupils’ attitudes between 2007 and 2008. Since the 2008 school year, pupils have received lessons by not only an assistant language teacher (ALT but also their home room teachers (HRTs. The finding showed that the 2008 and 2007 results were similar in most valuables, but the value of “Motivation” increased in 2008 compared to the previous year. Furthermore, “people around the learner” influenced on motivation more positively. Finally, this study presented a model which could be suggested as one of the motivational models of Japanese pupils for English activities. The writer concluded that the involvement of HRTs brought about generally good effects on pupils’ attitudes in this elementary school at this point.

  15. Early Prevention Method for Power Systems Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrova, Evgenia

    a given operational conditions and predicts the resulting stability margins for the new steady state, while avoiding time consuming time domain simulations. The method has been validated on the Western Danish power system model, containing 464 buses. The case study of aperiodic small signal angular....... The predicted effect of the suggested countermeasure application is in a good agreement with the results obtained by RMS dynamic simulation. Developed method enables adaptive preventive control for near real-time stability maintenance. The achieved results are opening promising perspective for power system’s...... evolution to self-curing systems, for which the human factor involved in control, will keep diminishing....

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF ORAL HYGIENE STATUS IN CHILDREN INFLUENCED BY MOTIVATION PROGRAMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrinka M. Damyanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing and maintaining proper oral hygiene is related with the control of initiation and progression of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Objective: To accentuate on the application and effectiveness of standardized motivational program for oral hygiene in children with assessment of OHI-S Green-Vermillion. Methods: The study includes 200 children from 3 to 6 years of age. Comparison and evaluation of effectiveness of toothpastes with different fluoride concentrations regarding proper hygiene status in children. Application of OHI-S by Green-Vermillion. Examined children are divided into two groups. The first group consists of 100 children divided into two subgroups. The subgroup of children aged from 3 to 5 years washed their teeth with toothpaste containing 500 ppm F. The subgroup of children at the age of 6 used toothpaste containing 1000 ppm F. Concerning the second, control group of 100 children no specific motivation activities were provided. Results: Among children being influenced by standardized motivation program combined with application of toothpaste with 500 ppm F, 45% show better oral hygiene level. Among children influenced by standardized motivation program and toothpaste of 1000 ppm F, 20% of them are with improved oral hygiene status. Reduction of the OHI-S values in children from 3 to 5 years is established from 1.92 to 1.16. In children at the age of 6 OHI-S is reduced from 1.67 to 1.14. Conclusion: 1. All children improve their oral hygiene status after a period of training and motivation. 2. In children at high decay risk standardized motivation program should be combined with additional prophylactic approaches.

  17. Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) in public buses of Pamplona, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, M A; Elustondo, D; Bermejo, R; Santamaría, J M

    2008-10-01

    This study examines the exposure level of passengers and drivers to VOC in public buses in a medium-size metropolitan area (Northern Spain). In-vehicle monitoring was performed on different routes, on peak and non-peak hours, during January and February 2007. A total of 112 air samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analysed by thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography/mass selective detector (GC/MSD) technique. Statistical differences were found among route to route concentrations, with those routes with major prevalence in the commercial area of the city displaying higher values; differences between peak and non-peak hours were also observed. A decrease in VOC concentrations was also registered during the weekend. BTEX ratios were estimated and found to be related to traffic emissions and similar for all the surveyed routes. Correlations confirmed traffic as the main emission source for BTEX and trimethylbenzene, their concentrations being highly associated to changes in meteorological conditions.

  18. Motivational Influences on Performance Maintained by Food Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Stephen T.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch…

  19. Experimental Considerations Motivated by the Diphoton Excess at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Heidenreich, Ben; Reece, Matthew; Strassler, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We consider the immediate or near-term experimental opportunities offered by some scenarios that could explain the new diphoton excess at the LHC. If the excess is due to a new particle $X_s$ at 750 GeV, additional new particles are required, providing further signals. If connected with naturalness, the $X_s$ may be produced in top partner decays. Then a $t'\\bar t'$ signal, with $t'\\to t X_s$ and $X_s\\to gg$ dominantly, might be discovered by reinterpreting 13 TeV SUSY searches in multijet events with low MET and/or a lepton. If $X_s$ is a bound state of quirks, the signal events may be accompanied by an unusual number of soft tracks or soft jets. Other resonances including dilepton and photon+jet as well as dijet may lie at or above this mass, and signatures of hidden glueballs might also be observable. If the "photons" in the excess are actually long-lived particles decaying to photon pairs or to electron pairs, there are opportunities for detecting overlapping photons and/or unusual patterns of apparent ph...

  20. Experimental considerations motivated by the diphoton excess at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fan, JiJi; Heidenreich, Ben; Reece, Matthew; Strassler, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    We consider the immediate or near-term experimental opportunities offered by some scenarios that could explain the new diphoton excess at the LHC. If the excess is due to a new particle X s at 750 GeV, additional new particles are required, providing further signals. If connected with naturalness, the X s may be produced in top partner decays. Then a t^'overline{t}^' } signal, with t ' → tX s and X s → gg dominantly, might be discovered by reinterpreting 13 TeV SUSY searches in multijet events with low MET and/or a lepton. If X s is a bound state of quirks, the signal events may be accompanied by an unusual number of soft tracks or soft jets. Other resonances including dilepton and photon+jet as well as dijet may lie at or above this mass, and signatures of hidden glueballs might also be observable. If the "photons" in the excess are actually long-lived particles decaying to photon pairs or to electron pairs, there are opportunities for detecting overlapping photons and/or unusual patterns of apparent photon-conversions in either X s or 125 GeV Higgs decays. There is also the possibility of events with a hard "photon" recoiling against a narrow isolated HCAL-only "jet", which, after the jet's energy is corrected for its electromagnetic origin, would show a peak at 750 GeV.

  1. Improving electrofishing catch consistency by standardizing power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Randy W.; Gutreuter, Steve

    1995-01-01

    The electrical output of electrofishing equipment is commonly standardized by using either constant voltage or constant amperage, However, simplified circuit and wave theories of electricity suggest that standardization of power (wattage) available for transfer from water to fish may be critical for effective standardization of electrofishing. Electrofishing with standardized power ensures that constant power is transferable to fish regardless of water conditions. The in situ performance of standardized power output is poorly known. We used data collected by the interagency Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) in the upper Mississippi River system to assess the effectiveness of standardizing power output. The data consisted of 278 electrofishing collections, comprising 9,282 fishes in eight species groups, obtained during 1990 from main channel border, backwater, and tailwater aquatic areas in four reaches of the upper Mississippi River and one reach of the Illinois River. Variation in power output explained an average of 14.9% of catch variance for night electrofishing and 12.1 % for day electrofishing. Three patterns in catch per unit effort were observed for different species: increasing catch with increasing power, decreasing catch with increasing power, and no power-related pattern. Therefore, in addition to reducing catch variation, controlling power output may provide some capability to select particular species. The LTRMP adopted standardized power output beginning in 1991; standardized power output is adjusted for variation in water conductivity and water temperature by reference to a simple chart. Our data suggest that by standardizing electrofishing power output, the LTRMP has eliminated substantial amounts of catch variation at virtually no additional cost.

  2. Automatic Detection of Electric Power Troubles (ADEPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caroline; Zeanah, Hugh; Anderson, Audie; Patrick, Clint; Brady, Mike; Ford, Donnie

    1988-01-01

    Automatic Detection of Electric Power Troubles (A DEPT) is an expert system that integrates knowledge from three different suppliers to offer an advanced fault-detection system. It is designed for two modes of operation: real time fault isolation and simulated modeling. Real time fault isolation of components is accomplished on a power system breadboard through the Fault Isolation Expert System (FIES II) interface with a rule system developed in-house. Faults are quickly detected and displayed and the rules and chain of reasoning optionally provided on a laser printer. This system consists of a simulated space station power module using direct-current power supplies for solar arrays on three power buses. For tests of the system's ablilty to locate faults inserted via switches, loads are configured by an INTEL microcomputer and the Symbolics artificial intelligence development system. As these loads are resistive in nature, Ohm's Law is used as the basis for rules by which faults are located. The three-bus system can correct faults automatically where there is a surplus of power available on any of the three buses. Techniques developed and used can be applied readily to other control systems requiring rapid intelligent decisions. Simulated modeling, used for theoretical studies, is implemented using a modified version of Kennedy Space Center's KATE (Knowledge-Based Automatic Test Equipment), FIES II windowing, and an ADEPT knowledge base.

  3. Solving the surveillance dilemma for pro-environmental behaviour : The motivating power of in-group goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milovanovic, Marko; Steg, Linda; Spears, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers often employ extrinsic incentives, regulations and enforcements to promote sustainable energy use. Surveillance is one such classic means to encourage or enforce positive behaviour. However, such strategies backfire if they encourage extrinsic motivation, potentially alienating those w

  4. A Study on the Prediction of the Teaching Profession Attitudes by Communication Skills and Professional Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Latife Kabakli

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prediction of the attitudes regarding teaching profession by the communication skills and professional motivation of pedagogical formation students. 261 pre-service teachers receiving pedagogical formation training Istanbul at a private university in the 2014-2015 academic year were included in the research as…

  5. Management-by-Results and Performance Measurement in Universities--Implications for Work Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari; Kallio, Tomi J.

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the effects of management-by-results from the perspective of the work motivation of university employees. The study is based on extensive survey data among employees at Finnish universities. According to the results, performance measurement is based on quantitative rather than qualitative measures, and the current…

  6. Measuring Adjunct Instructor Job Satisfaction by Using Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Durrell

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to use Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory to investigate the different levels of job satisfaction among adjunct college instructors at eight institutions of higher education located in southeast Texas. Differences in job satisfaction were measured by instructor gender, ethnicity, age, teaching experience, type of…

  7. MusicGlove: motivating and quantifying hand movement rehabilitation by using functional grips to play music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Nizan; Chan, Vicky; Zondervan, Danny; Bachman, Mark; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2011-01-01

    People with stroke typically must perform much of their hand exercise at home without professional assistance as soon as two weeks after the stroke. Without feedback and encouragement, individuals often lose motivation to practice using the affected hand, and this disuse contributes to further declines in hand function. We developed the MusicGlove as a way to facilitate and motivate at home practice of hand movement. This low-cost device uses music as an interactive and motivating medium to guide hand exercise and to quantitatively assess hand movement recovery. It requires the user to practice functional movements, including pincer grip, key-pinch grip, and finger-thumb opposition, by using those movements to play different musical notes, played along to songs displayed by an interactive computer game. We report here the design of the glove and the results of a single-session experiment with 10 participants with chronic stroke. We found that the glove is well suited for use by people with an impairment level quantified by a Box and Blocks score of at least around 7; that the glove can be used to obtain a measure of hand dexterity (% of notes hit) that correlates strongly with the Box and Blocks score; and that the incorporation of music into training significantly improved both objective measures of hand motor performance and self-ratings of motivation for training in the single session.

  8. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2009-10-01

    This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

  9. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Tourism and Motivation in Cultural Destinations: towards those Visitors Attracted by Intangible Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Prada-Trigo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intangible heritage increasingly associated with tourism in a territory is today, an element that is attracting more and more visitors. However, there are still few studies that address issues such as the motivation of these tourists, especially in contexts like those of Latin America. The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between the motivation and satisfaction obtained by tourists who have visited the places associated with the Panama hat (recognized as an Intangible Heritage by UNESCO in 2012 in the city of Cuenca (Ecuador. The work creates a segmentation of tourists based on three dimensions: the cultural, another related to leisure and the last in reference to social and labor issues. For this, it applies a factorial analysis, cluster analysis and an analysis of variance (ANOVA with post-hoc multiple comparisons. The results show that the cultural aspect of motivation is the most important, being, however, the motivation for leisure issues which gives one a better assessment of their knowledge of the Panama hat, Cuenca's heritage or satisfaction with the trip.

  11. Cool Science: K-12 Climate Change Art Displayed on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cool science is an art contest where K12 students create placards (7" x 22") to educate the public about climate change. Students are prompted to create their artwork in response to questions such as: What is the evidence for climate change? How does climate change impact your local community? What can you do to reduce the impacts of climate change? In each of three years, 500-600 student entrees have been submitted from more than 12 school districts across Massachusetts. A panel of judges including scientists, artists, rapid transit representatives, and educators chooses elementary, middle, and high school winners. Winners (6), runners-up (6), and honorable mentions (12) and their families and teachers are invited to an annual Cool Science Award Ceremony to be recognized and view winning artwork. All winning artwork is posted on the Cool Science website. The winning artwork (2 per grade band) is converted into placards (11" x 28") and posters (2.5' x 12') that are placed on the inside (placards) and outside (posters) of buses. Posters are displayed for one month. So far, Cool Science was implemented in Lowell, MA where over 5000 public viewers see the posters daily on the sides of Lowell Rapid Transit Authority (LRTA) buses, making approximately 1,000,000 impressions per year. Cool Science acts to increase climate literacy in children as well as the public, and as such promotes intergenerational learning. Using art in conjunction with science learning about climate change appears to be effective at engaging not just traditionally high achieving science students, but also those interested in the creative arts. Hearing winners' stories about how they created their artwork and what this contest meant to them supports the idea that Cool Science attracts a wide diversity of students. Parents discuss climate change with their children. Multiple press releases announcing the winners further promotes the awareness of climate change throughout school districts and their

  12. CNG buses fire safety : learnings from recent accidents in France and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Perrette, Lionel; Wiedemann, Helmut K.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The use of CNG in bus and private vehicles is growing steadily. Recent fire accidents involving CNG buses have shown that tanks may explode though compliant with current ECE UN R110 regulation. Such a repeated scenario is certainly not acceptable having in mind the tremendous amount of energy released when a compressed tank bursts. Investigation of German and French recent cases detailed in this article highlights potential improvements in current CNG buses fire safety...

  13. Stability Enhancement Based on Virtual Impedance for DC Microgrids with Constant Power Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Huang, Lipei; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a converter-based DC microgrid is studied. By considering the impact of each component in DC microgrids on system stability, a multi-stage configuration is employed, which includes the source stage, interface converter stage between buses and common load stage. In order to study the overall stability of the above DC microgrid with constant power loads (CPLs), a comprehensive small-signal model is derived by analyzing the interface converters in each stage. The instability issue...

  14. Determination of the transient parameters of synchronous machines by the finite element method considering the characteristic effect in the shock absorber buses; Determinacao dos parametros transitorios de maquinas sincronas pelo metodo dos elementos finitos considerando o efeito pelicular nas barras amortecedoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeta, Silvio Ikuyo; Cardoso, Jose Roberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Foggia, Albert; Coulomb, Jean Louis; Reyne, Gilbert [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1995-12-31

    This work presents the determination of the parameters of a hydro generator through the simulation of the frequency response test. The special characteristic of this work is that it takes into consideration shock absorbers buses, which are sites of induced currents when the peculiar effect is present and require that sub-transients parameters are analysed. Simulation results are analysed and compared to the obtained values when the traditional three-phase short circuit test is used 8 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs.

  15. THE MOTIVE STRUCTURE OF THE PLAY “AUGUST: OSAGE COUNTY” BY TR. LETTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinova M. P.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the motive structure’s features in the play “August: Osage County” by a modern American writer Tr. Letts has been reviewed in this article. His drama is based on a compound of mass and elite, a playing and a moral. It allows to avoid the text’s tendentiousness and to keep the content. In the play “August: Osage County” Tr. Letts examines the family theme, which is very important for the American culture. The author reviews the destruction of family relationships as a sign of the society’s moral crisis. The main topic has been realized via motives (escapism, freedom, death, and incest, they create the semantic frame of the play and unite separate episodes of the plot’s development. The motives become special tools of the characters’ psychological analysis and are an explanation of the feelings’ contradictory. The image of the house has a special meaning. It’s the symbol of the human disunity and a destruction of the family relations. As a result the synthesis of the motives, symbolism, intertextuality, multilayer has been viewed as a particular tool of the author’s opinion realization and the philosophical implication’s creation

  16. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  17. ENGLISH LEARNING TASKS MEDIATED BY THE INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD: THE MOTIVATIONAL EFFECTS ON PROBLEM-SOLVING AND SHARING PERSONAL EXPERIENCES TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Freitas OLIVEIRA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some authors have already suggested that different learning tasks influence L2 learners motivation in distinct ways. In this article, we seek (a to understand how English learners motivation varies along two Problem-solving and Sharing Personal Experiences tasks mediated by the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB and (b to analyze what may have caused the variability of these learners motivation. We consider the diachronic, situational and complex dimension of motivation based on the concepts of the Process-oriented model of L2 motivation by Dörnyei and Ottó (1998, the motivational basis of tasks (JULKÜNEN, 2001; DÖRNYEI; TSENG, 2009 and the IWB as a motivating element in L2 classes (BEELAND JR., 2002; MERCER; HENNESSY; WARWICK, 2010. This cross-sectional mixed methods study was carried out in a private language school with 29 English learners. We used observation notes during the learning tasks and Situational Scales as instruments of data collection. Results indicate, for instance, that tasks have different situational motivation patterns in consequence of the choice of the task topic, the teacher support, (insufficient self-regulatory strategies to sustain motivation, among others.

  18. Vehicles are powered by dough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    Stl Biofuels Oy is the first company in the world to start manufacturing ethanol from biowaste generated by the food processing industry. Bioethanol plants scheduled to be built throughout Finland will get their raw material, for example, from bakeries, dairies and potato refining plants. Stl Biofuels Oy is a joint venture of the fuel distribution company Stl Oy and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. In Etanolix, the production economy of a large ethanol factory has been minimised to produce ethanol in a decentralised way economically and sensibly, close to the origin of waste. The installation can produce 500-10 000 tonnes of 50% ethanol a year. The size of the twenty plants outlined for Finland varies according to the availability of raw material. The average annual production will amount to 2 000 tonnes

  19. Impacts of motivational valence on the error-related negativity elicited by full and partial errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Yuya; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    Affect and motivation influence the error-related negativity (ERN) elicited by full errors; however, it is unknown whether they also influence ERNs to correct responses accompanied by covert incorrect response activation (partial errors). Here we compared a neutral condition with conditions, where correct responses were rewarded or where incorrect responses were punished with gains and losses of small amounts of money, respectively. Data analysis distinguished ERNs elicited by full and partial errors. In the reward and punishment conditions, ERN amplitudes to both full and partial errors were larger than in the neutral condition, confirming participants' sensitivity to the significance of errors. We also investigated the relationships between ERN amplitudes and the behavioral inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS). Regardless of reward/punishment condition, participants scoring higher on BAS showed smaller ERN amplitudes in full error trials. These findings provide further evidence that the ERN is related to motivational valence and that similar relationships hold for both full and partial errors.

  20. [Sexual motivation in male mice induced by the presence of the female].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, N K; Amstislavskaia, T G; Kucheriavyĭ, S A

    1998-01-01

    Receptive female mouse placed in a cage behind a partition which prevented physical contacts but allowed the female to be smelt and seen produced in CBA and A/He males an elevation of plasma testosterone level and increase in time spent near the partition (TSNP) in attempts to reach the female. Both in CBA and A/He males the TSNP was much higher than in controls with empty adjacent compartment or with a male in it. The number of approaches to the partition was also increased but not sex-depended reflecting the general motor excitement of animals. A 3-4-fold increase in the TSNP preceding blood testosterone elevation was found within the first 10 min of female exposure. It was suggested that sexual motivation in males induced by female exposure was not caused by testosterone increase. The TSNP in male mice produced by female exposure can be used as an adequate index of sexual motivation.

  1. MOTIVATIONAL PRACTICES USED BY EMPLOYERS FROM THE COUNTIES OF SATU MARE AND BIHOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the motivation of human resources in the companies from counties of Satu Mare and Bihor. Data were collected by applying a questionnaire to 114 companies located in the counties of Satu Mare and Bihor, within the project HURO/0901/264/2.2.2 implemented in partnership by "Vasile Goldis" Western University and University of Debrecen and financed by European Union through ERDF under Hungary-Romania 2007- 2013 Programme. Data were processed and analyzed by using the SPSS soft. We found that employers perceived as most efficient the following motivation instruments: a good communication between employees, basic wage, partial delegation of managerial tasks and optimal working conditions. The efficiency of the motivation instruments in the view of employers differs significantly across activity sectors. Thus, using the ANOVA test, we found that the variation of variables related to basic wage, performance rewarding, bonuses, partial delegation of managerial tasks, work competencies, fear of job loss, need for affiliation to a workgroup, the prestige outside the organisation, working a good reputation organisation, social benefits, home distance can be explained in a proportion ranged from 23,5% to 42,9% by the variation of variable associated to the activity sector.

  2. Investigating a New Model of Time-Related Academic Behavior: Procrastination and Timely Engagement by Motivational Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Kamden K.

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of time-related academic behavior (i.e., procrastination and timely engagement) in the academic context. Specifically, this study aimed to build a new model for understanding these behaviors in a motivational framework by using motivational orientation to frame these…

  3. Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number:W81XWH-09-2-0135 TITLE: Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs ...Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs 5b. GRANT NUMBER DR081215 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Denise Walker...consequences, (b) self-initiated change or enrollment in a treatment or self-help program, and (c) cessation of abuse of alcohol or other drugs

  4. On a directed tree problem motivated by a newly introduced graph product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoon H. Boode

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce and study a directed tree problem motivated by a new graph product that we have recently introduced and analysed in two conference contributions in the context of periodic real-time processes. While the two conference papers were focussing more on the applications, here we mainly deal with the graph theoretical and computational complexity issues. We show that the directed tree problem is NP-complete and present and compare several heuristics for this problem.

  5. MOTIVATION TO SHARE HOSPITAL BUILDING DESIGN KNOWLEDGE BY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN HONG KONG

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rita Yi Man; Rita PEIHUA Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Hospital building design is important as it is the place where bacteria and microorganisms concentrate. Poor ventilation system and layout traps disease causing pathogens, threatens the lives of many frontline workers such as doctors, nurses, and health care assistants. While design knowledge sharing by IT ensures a rapid knowledge sharing among designers from all over the world, what are their motivations? Few or no paper has studied this issue. This paper studies this base on 4 traditional ...

  6. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  7. Romance, risk, and replication: Can consumer choices and risk-taking be primed by mating motives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R; Vadillo, Miguel A; Riedel, Benjamin; Clymo, Ashley; Govind, Sinita; Hickin, Nisha; Tamman, Amanda J F; Puhlmann, Lara M C

    2015-12-01

    Interventions aimed at influencing spending behavior and risk-taking have considerable practical importance. A number of studies motivated by the costly signaling theory within evolutionary psychology have reported that priming inductions (such as looking at pictures of attractive opposite sex members) designed to trigger mating motives increase males' stated willingness to purchase conspicuous consumption items and to engage in risk-taking behaviors, and reduce loss aversion. However, a meta-analysis of this literature reveals strong evidence of either publication bias or p-hacking (or both). We then report 8 studies with a total sample of over 1,600 participants which sought to reproduce these effects. None of the studies, including one that was fully preregistered, was successful. The results question the claim that romantic primes can influence risk-taking and other potentially harmful behaviors.

  8. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  9. Power-optimal encoding for low-power address bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented a novel bus encoding method to reduce the switching activity on address buses and hence reduce power dissipation. Dynamic-sorting encoding (DSE) method reduces the power dissipation of address bus based on the dynamic reordering of the modified offset address bus lines. This method reorders the ten least significant bits of offset address according to the range of offset address, and the optimal sorting pattern is transmitted through the high bits of address bus without the need for redundant bus lines. The experimental results using an instruction set simulator and SPEC2000 benchmarks show that DSE method can reduce signal transitions on the address bus by 88.2%, and the actual overhead of the encoder circuit is estimated after encoder is designed and synthesized in 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The results show that DSE method outperforms the low-power encoding schemes presented in the past.

  10. Modulation of working memory function by motivation through loss-aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Daniel C; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive performance is affected by motivation. Few studies, however, have investigated the neural mechanisms of the influence of motivation through potential monetary punishment on working memory. We employed functional MRI during a delayed recognition task that manipulated top-down control demands with added monetary incentives to some trials in the form of potential losses of bonus money. Behavioral performance on the task was influenced by loss-threatening incentives in the form of faster and more accurate performance. As shown previously, we found enhancement of activity for relevant stimuli occurs throughout all task periods (e.g., stimulus encoding, maintenance, and response) in both prefrontal and visual association cortex. Further, these activation patterns were enhanced for trials with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. During the incentive cue, the amygdala and striatum showed significantly greater activation when money was at a possible loss on the trial. We also evaluated patterns of functional connectivity between regions responsive to monetary consequences and prefrontal areas responsive to the task. This analysis revealed greater delay period connectivity between and the left insula and prefrontal cortex with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. Overall, these results reveal that incentive motivation can modulate performance on working memory tasks through top-down signals via amplification of activity within prefrontal and visual association regions selective to processing the perceptual inputs of the stimuli to be remembered.

  11. Temporal dynamics of motivation-cognitive control interactions revealed by high-resolution pupillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Sarah Chiew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivational manipulations, such as the presence of performance-contingent reward incentives, can have substantial influences on cognitive control. Previous evidence suggests that reward incentives may enhance cognitive performance specifically through increased preparatory, or proactive, control processes. The present study examined reward influences on cognitive control dynamics in the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT, using high-resolution pupillometry. In the AX-CPT, contextual cues must be actively maintained over a delay in order to appropriately respond to ambiguous target probes. A key feature of the task is that it permits dissociable characterization of preparatory, proactive control processes (i.e., utilization of context and reactive control processes (i.e., target-evoked interference resolution. Task performance profiles suggested that reward incentives enhanced proactive control (context utilization. Critically, pupil dilation was also increased on reward incentive trials during context maintenance periods, suggesting trial-specific shifts in proactive control, particularly when context cues indicated the need to overcome the dominant target response bias. Reward incentives had both transient (i.e., trial-by-trial and sustained (i.e., block-based effects on pupil dilation, which may reflect distinct underlying processes. The transient pupillary effects were present even when comparing against trials matched in task performance, suggesting a unique motivational influence of reward incentives. These results suggest that pupillometry may be a useful technique for investigating reward motivational signals and their dynamic influence on cognitive control.

  12. Temporal dynamics of motivation-cognitive control interactions revealed by high-resolution pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Kimberly S; Braver, Todd S

    2013-01-01

    Motivational manipulations, such as the presence of performance-contingent reward incentives, can have substantial influences on cognitive control. Previous evidence suggests that reward incentives may enhance cognitive performance specifically through increased preparatory, or proactive, control processes. The present study examined reward influences on cognitive control dynamics in the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT), using high-resolution pupillometry. In the AX-CPT, contextual cues must be actively maintained over a delay in order to appropriately respond to ambiguous target probes. A key feature of the task is that it permits dissociable characterization of preparatory, proactive control processes (i.e., utilization of context) and reactive control processes (i.e., target-evoked interference resolution). Task performance profiles suggested that reward incentives enhanced proactive control (context utilization). Critically, pupil dilation was also increased on reward incentive trials during context maintenance periods, suggesting trial-specific shifts in proactive control, particularly when context cues indicated the need to overcome the dominant target response bias. Reward incentives had both transient (i.e., trial-by-trial) and sustained (i.e., block-based) effects on pupil dilation, which may reflect distinct underlying processes. The transient pupillary effects were present even when comparing against trials matched in task performance, suggesting a unique motivational influence of reward incentives. These results suggest that pupillometry may be a useful technique for investigating reward motivational signals and their dynamic influence on cognitive control.

  13. Blazar flares powered by plasmoids in relativistic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, Maria; Giannios, Dimitrios; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    Powerful flares from blazars with short (˜min) variability time-scales are challenging for current models of blazar emission. Here, we present a physically motivated ab initio model for blazar flares based on the results of recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic magnetic reconnection. PIC simulations demonstrate that quasi-spherical plasmoids filled with high-energy particles and magnetic fields are a self-consistent by-product of the reconnection process. By coupling our PIC-based results (i.e. plasmoid growth, acceleration profile, particle and magnetic content) with a kinetic equation for the evolution of the electron distribution function we demonstrate that relativistic reconnection in blazar jets can produce powerful flares whose temporal and spectral properties are consistent with the observations. In particular, our model predicts correlated synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton flares of duration of several hours-days powered by the largest and slowest moving plasmoids that form in the reconnection layer. Smaller and faster plasmoids produce flares of sub-hour duration with higher peak luminosities than those powered by the largest plasmoids. Yet, the observed fluence in both types of flares is similar. Multiple flares with a range of flux-doubling time-scales (minutes to several hours) observed over a longer period of flaring activity (days or longer) may be used as a probe of the reconnection layer's orientation and the jet's magnetization. Our model shows that blazar flares are naturally expected as a result of magnetic reconnection in a magnetically dominated jet.

  14. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T. [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D. [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  15. [Motivational interview: supporting change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice.

  16. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  17. Clustering Teachers' Motivations for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…

  18. College Students' Academic Motivation: Differences by Gender, Class, and Source of Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; LeBlanc, Michael; McKnight, Kelly R.; Lei, Ting

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe college students' (n = 856) gender, year in school and source of tuition funding in relation to their academic motivation. The design was cross-sectional and used cluster sampling. The Academic Motivation Scale was used to measure students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as well as amotivation. Three…

  19. Studying Motivational Strategies Used by Two Teachers in Differently Tracked Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Melanie; Eick, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated teacher and student perspectives on the motivation of high school students in differently tracked science courses. Participants were 2 highly motivational teachers who took part in interviews and classroom observations focusing on motivational strategies in their science classes. Student participants from each teacher's…

  20. LEARNER MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Zheng Min(Maggie):Initiation of the discus-sion topicDear Mr.Ma,I’m very sorry for this late initia-tion of discussion topics.Just come from one countyof Inner Mongolia near the city of Chi Feng.There isreally a lack of competent teachers of English in ruralareas,and in astonishment I saw many who barelyspeak English teaches English in middle schools.Asfor the topic of discussion,I’d like to focus on learn-er’s motivation,which is a vital factor in successfullearning.It is well known that motivation is classi-fied by Gardner & Lambert(1972)into"integrative"and"instrumental"ones.Other categorization in-

  1. Self-service fare collection on buses in Portland, Oregon. Final report, Septtember 1980-April 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, D.; Harper, W.; Schueftan, O.

    1986-09-01

    In 1980, the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) awarded grants to the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District (TRI-MET) to implement self-service fare collection (SSFC) on its bus system. TRI-MET, the transit authority serving Portland, Oregon, is the second authority in the United States to use SSFC and the first to use it on buses. TRI-MET expected SSFC to improve bus productivity, facilitate distance-based fares, and reduce fare evasion. Problems encountered with SSFC on buses in Portland included increased fare evasion, high enforcement costs, no productivity improvements, low surcharge/ fine collections, overburdened courts, and increased vandalism. These problems need to be overcome before SSFC can be successful on buses in other U.S. cities.

  2. Effectivness Of The Failure Rate On Maintenance Costs Of The City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaciuk Piotr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a failure rate and maintenance cost comparison for two types of city transport buses. The paper presents in detail a case study of well known bus brands used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin. A failure index of all functional and constructional systems of the vehicles and their technical availability with regards to calendar time was determined. The paper also presents analysis of the factors related to maintenance costs of buses, including costs of fluids, repair costs and maintenance service. It has been demonstrated, that both analyzed buses generate similar maintenance costs, while their failures and technical availability differ significantly in operational practice. These differences are particularly evident in relation to the cumulative costs of repairs.

  3. Analysis on the Motive Power of Chinese Physical Education Reform%中国体育教育改革的动力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀冲

    2016-01-01

    Physical education is the most important part of the school.Together with the moral education,the intellectual education and the aesthetic education,they make the students more and more well -rounded.After researching about the current physical education status of our country,this paper finds out that our physical education reform is affected by the ideology,the teaching model,the education appropriations and the system of education.The social development,the improvement of economic,the evolution of the education system;the decline of teenagers’physical status and the development needs of the physical education is the motive power of the physical education reform.%体育是学校教育的重要组成部分,与德育、智育、美育相互结合,共同促进人的全面发展。通过对我国体育教育现状进行研究,发现我国体育教育改革主要受思想观念、教学模式、经费以及制度的影响。社会的发展、经济水平的提升、制度的逐渐完善、青少年体质的不断下降以及体育教育自身发展的需求是推动体育教育改革的重要动力。

  4. Impact of reward and punishment motivation on behavior monitoring as indexed by the error-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Geoffrey F

    2011-09-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is thought to index a neural behavior monitoring system with its source in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). While ACC is involved in a wide variety of cognitive and emotional tasks, there is debate as to what aspects of ACC function are indexed by the ERN. In one model the ERN indexes purely cognitive function, responding to mismatch between intended and executed actions. Another model posits that the ERN is more emotionally driven, elicited when an action is inconsistent with motivational goals. If the ERN indexes mismatch between intended and executed actions, then it should be insensitive to motivational valence, e.g. reward or punishment; in contrast if the ERN indexes the evaluation of responses relative to goals, then it might respond differentially under differing motivational valence. This study used a flanker task motivated by potential reward and potential punishment on different trials and also examined the N2 and P3 to the imperative stimulus, the response Pe, and the FRN and P3 to the outcome feedback to assess the impact of motivation valence on other stages of information processing in this choice reaction time task. Participants were slower on punishment motivated trials and both the N2 and ERN were larger on punishment motivated trials, indicating that loss aversion has an impact on multiple stages of information processing including behavior monitoring.

  5. Maintaining Learners’Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zi-han

    2015-01-01

    Foreign language learning is a complex process and its success is determined by a variety of factors. The prime one of them is motivation ,which, as everyone knows, could be controlled by external forces so as to be taken advantage of. Motivation could prompt the learner to have his own learning goals and let him finish his learning task autonomously. All of that shows the im⁃portance of maintaining learners’motivation. This paper will demonstrate not only the definition and the types of motivation, but al⁃so the methods that could be used to stimulate and maintain the motivation.

  6. Modification of Male Courtship Motivation by Olfactory Habituation via the GABAA Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ichiro Tachibana

    Full Text Available A male-specific component, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA works as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA on a male suppresses the courtship motivation of other males and contributes to suppression of male-male homosexual courtship, while the absence of cVA on a female stimulates the sexual motivation of nearby males and enhances the male-female interaction. However, little is known how a male distinguishes the presence or absence of cVA on a target fly from either self-produced cVA or secondhand cVA from other males in the vicinity. In this study, we demonstrate that male flies have keen sensitivity to cVA; therefore, the presence of another male in the area reduces courtship toward a female. This reduced level of sexual motivation, however, could be overcome by pretest odor exposure via olfactory habituation to cVA. Real-time imaging of cVA-responsive sensory neurons using the neural activity sensor revealed that prolonged exposure to cVA decreased the levels of cVA responses in the primary olfactory center. Pharmacological and genetic screening revealed that signal transduction via GABAA receptors contributed to this olfactory habituation. We also found that the habituation experience increased the copulation success of wild-type males in a group. In contrast, transgenic males, in which GABA input in a small subset of local neurons was blocked by RNAi, failed to acquire the sexual advantage conferred by habituation. Thus, we illustrate a novel phenomenon in which olfactory habituation positively affects sexual capability in a competitive environment.

  7. Dietary supplement intake by recreationally trained men and motives behind these procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kurylas, Anna; Kwiatkowska-Pamuła, Anna; Gniza, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Kurylas Anna, Kwiatkowska-Pamuła Anna, Gniza Dorota. Dietary supplement intake by recreationally trained men and motives behind these procedures. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(1):84-97. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.231322 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4145         The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 754 (09.12.2016). 754 Journal of E...

  8. Influence of malfunctions of the maintenance activities on the urban buses fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Crişan; Nicolae, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Optimization of activities with the aim to provide quality service in conditions of high profitability, is one of the main objectives chased by managers in transportation companies. As a consequence, directing the attention towards monitoring of maintenance activities of vehicles fleet, can achieve desired results. Two of the most important issues related to the maintenance activity, is the increase of reliability and reduction of fuel consumption of the vehicles fleet. Aforementioned actions represents a way forward for raising the quality and profitability of services offered. In this paper, the main ways of monitoring the fuel consumption, in order to reduce it and increase the reliability of transportation vehicles fleet, are presented. For the evaluation of the maintenance system and the degree of influence of malfunctions recorded on the fuel consumption, using the Pareto -ABC method, following case study on a fleet of buses for urban public transport has been conducted. Results obtained highlights the deficiencies of the maintenance process carried out and constitutes a solid base for the reorganization of the maintenance activity, involving preventive maintenance activities, in order to contribute decisively to the results targeted by the management of transport companies.

  9. Deficits in discrimination after experimental frontal brain injury are mediated by motivation and can be improved by nicotinamide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Maass, William R; Jacobs, Eric A; Hoane, Michael R

    2014-10-15

    One of the largest challenges in experimental neurotrauma work is the development of models relevant to the human condition. This includes both creating similar pathophysiology as well as the generation of relevant behavioral deficits. Recent studies have shown that there is a large potential for the use of discrimination tasks in rats to detect injury-induced deficits. The literature on discrimination and TBI is still limited, however. The current study investigated motivational and motor factors that could potentially contribute to deficits in discrimination. In addition, the efficacy of a neuroprotective agent, nicotinamide, was assessed. Rats were trained on a discrimination task and motivation task, given a bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact TBI (+3.0 AP, 0.0 ML from bregma), and then reassessed. They were also assessed on motor ability and Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Experiment 1 showed that TBI resulted in large deficits in discrimination and motivation. No deficits were observed on gross motor measures; however, the vehicle group showed impairments in fine motor control. Both injured groups were impaired on the reference memory MWM, but only nicotinamide-treated rats were impaired on the working memory MWM. Nicotinamide administration improved performance on discrimination and motivation measures. Experiment 2 evaluated retraining on the discrimination task and suggested that motivation may be a large factor underlying discrimination deficits. Retrained rats improved considerably on the discrimination task. The tasks evaluated in this study demonstrate robust deficits and may improve the detection of pharmaceutical effects by being very sensitive to pervasive cognitive deficits that occur after frontal TBI.

  10. Motivator-manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs.

  11. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Sheng Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  12. A Model for the Stop Planning and Timetables of Customized Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Customized buses (CBs) are a new mode of public transportation and an important part of diversified public transportation, providing advanced, attractive and user-led service. The operational activity of a CB is planned by aggregating space–time demand and similar passenger travel demands. Based on an analysis of domestic and international research and the current development of CBs in China and considering passenger travel data, this paper studies the problems associated with the operation of CBs, such as stop selection, line planning and timetables, and establishes a model for the stop planning and timetables of CBs. The improved immune genetic algorithm (IIGA) is used to solve the model with regard to the following: 1) multiple population design and transport operator design, 2) memory library design, 3) mutation probability design and crossover probability design, and 4) the fitness calculation of the gene segment. Finally, a real-world example in Beijing is calculated, and the model and solution results are verified and analyzed. The results illustrate that the IIGA solves the model and is superior to the basic genetic algorithm in terms of the number of passengers, travel time, average passenger travel time, average passenger arrival time ahead of schedule and total line revenue. This study covers the key issues involving operational systems of CBs, combines theoretical research and empirical analysis, and provides a theoretical foundation for the planning and operation of CBs. PMID:28056041

  13. Survey/research on application of expert system to electric power technology. Part 1. ; Protoypical preparation of accident section discrimination system by personal computer edition. Expert system no denryoku gijutsu eno tekiyo ni kansuru chosater dot kenkyu (1). ; Keito jiko kukan hantei system (pasokon ban) no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, H. (The Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1991-03-20

    As the first step in the prototypical preparation of system accident recovery support system'', in order to support the accident phenomenon comprehension and recovery operation, to be done by the operators at the time of accident occurrence in the electric power system, accident section discrimination system by personal computer edition'' was prototypically prepared for the purpose of discussing the knowledge expression and inference method. That system is, at the time of system accident occurrence, to discriminate the accident section from the information of operated protective relay and tripped circuit breaker, and was structured of objective system model and about 100 production rules (knowledge under a form of if {yields} then''). As the rule was made not to depend upon a proper system, change in system structure and protection system can be corresponded to by change in objective system model only. Correct conclusion was obtained in 1 to 10 minutes, as a result of demonstration, made in about 50 cases of supposed accident, using a control system (12 buses, 2 power source buses, 12 power transmission circuits and 26 circuit breakers), based on the system in Takehara control station. 9 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Convergent processing of both positive and negative motivational signals by the VTA dopamine neuronal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong V Wang

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA have been traditionally studied for their roles in reward-related motivation or drug addiction. Here we study how the VTA dopamine neuron population may process fearful and negative experiences as well as reward information in freely behaving mice. Using multi-tetrode recording, we find that up to 89% of the putative dopamine neurons in the VTA exhibit significant activation in response to the conditioned tone that predict food reward, while the same dopamine neuron population also respond to the fearful experiences such as free fall and shake events. The majority of these VTA putative dopamine neurons exhibit suppression and offset-rebound excitation, whereas ∼25% of the recorded putative dopamine neurons show excitation by the fearful events. Importantly, VTA putative dopamine neurons exhibit parametric encoding properties: their firing change durations are proportional to the fearful event durations. In addition, we demonstrate that the contextual information is crucial for these neurons to respectively elicit positive or negative motivational responses by the same conditioned tone. Taken together, our findings suggest that VTA dopamine neurons may employ the convergent encoding strategy for processing both positive and negative experiences, intimately integrating with cues and environmental context.

  15. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  16. Improvement of self-organization, relations and learning motivation of different age students by integrative teaching methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voita D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrative teaching methodology was developed by qualified specialists and implemented in 17 Latvian schools during one study year. Students who participated in the learning of integrative teaching methodology were divided into 3 age groups: 3–4; 5–7 and 8–12 grade students. Students and teachers who participated in the teaching of integrative teaching methodology were questionnaire before and after using of this methodology. The questionnaires about self-organization problems, relations between students and behaviour of students were filled by teachers but the questionnaire about the learning motivation of students was filled by students themselves. The results of questionnaire showed that problems of self-organization, motivation, hyperactivity, attention deficiency, social anxiety, communication and depressive symptomatic of students who were taught according to the integrative teaching methodology of general schools have reduced in all age groups but in 5–7 and 8–12 grade groups of student's aggressive behaviour reduced as well. Self-organization and behaviour problems of students from special schools after realizing integrative teaching methodology have less reduced in comparison with students of general education schools. In general education schools as well as in special schools external learning motivation and internal learning motivation of all age students increased but am motivation or lack of motivation to learn decreased.

  17. Top-down response suppression mitigates action tendencies triggered by a motivating stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott M; Razhas, Ieva; Aron, Adam R

    2014-01-20

    Motivating stimuli provoke action tendencies that sometimes lead to unwanted behavior (e.g., eating chocolate when trying to diet). Implementing control over these provocations is essential to healthy functioning; however, few laboratory-based models of such control exist. Here we developed a novel task in which thirsty human subjects made instrumental responses to obtain a juice reward (Go trials) or were required to withhold responding (NoGo trials) in the presence of a rewarded (CS+) or unrewarded (CS-) conditioned stimulus. For Go trials, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation revealed a rapid increase in motor activity for CS+ versus CS-, preceding more vigorous instrumental responding. Critically, successful NoGo trials resulted in suppression of motor activity for CS+, but not CS-. Moreover, while there was broad excitation in the hand muscles in Go trials, suppression in NoGo trials was selective to the effector that could obtain reward. These results show that response suppression can be triggered by a motivational stimulus, thus providing a richer model of self-control than classic cognitive psychology paradigms.

  18. Activating Students' Motivation in Speaking in English for Tourism Class by Using Authentic Materials and Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志燕

    2008-01-01

    The author analyzes the existing problems in English for Tourism class and possible reasons why students are not highly motivated in oral communication practice:unconsciousness of the ongoing changing tourism industry, failure in their past learning, fear of losing faces,lack of words, structures and cultural background etc.Aiming to change the present situation and stimulate students'motivation in speaking, she offers some possible ways tO the problems based on her perspectives:(1)choose authenfic materials relevant to student's future career,(2)adapt a more current coulee book which is more authentically tourist-based in content.(3)adapt authentic video and TV tourist based materials related to the experience of tourism.(4)adapt authentic materials to make it more accessible and comprehemible by adaing some proper authendc materiaIs from difierent sources and tasks.(5)organize tearm activities based on authentic situations without changing the dialogue format in order to maintain redundancy of communication but in a real life focus.

  19. Water Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, etc. is a problem of high priority. One of the most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. Advanced water treatment system powered by Solar Energy and based on electrodialysis for water desalination and purification, is suggested. Technological and economic evaluations and the benefits of the suggested system are discussed. The Advanced Water Treatment System proposed clears water not only from different salts, but also from some infections, thus decreasing the count of diseases which are caused by the usage of non-clear water. Using Solar Energy makes the system stand alone which is convenient to use in places where power supply is problem.

  20. Inter ISO Market Coordination by Calculating Border Locational Marginal Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABIC, A. B.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the methodology for solving Locational Marginal Price (LMP differences (inconsistency of LMPs that arise at the boundary buses between separate power markets is proposed. The algorithm developed enables us to obtain consistent LMP values at the boundary buses between interconnected ISOs. A Primal-Dual Interior Point based optimal power flow (OPF is applied, with complete set of power system physical limit constraints, to solve a regional spot market. The OPF is implemented such that producer and consumer behaviors are modeled simultaneously, while the welfare is maximized. In this paper a generalized methodology for multiple ISOs case is proposed and later it is practically applied on two interconnected independent entities. The algorithm for approximation of cost coefficients of generators and dispatchable loads for neighboring ISOs is proposed. The developed algorithm enables participating ISOs to obtain LMPs at the boundary buses with other interconnected ISOs. By controlling interchange of electric power at the scheduled level, regional spot markets are resolved eliminating possible exercise of market power by individual interconnected ISOs. Results of proposed methodology are tested on the IEEE 118-bus power system.

  1. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  2. 40 CFR 52.263 - Priority treatment for buses and carpools-Los Angeles Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 52.263 Priority treatment for buses and carpools—Los Angeles Region. (a) Definitions: (1) “Carpool” means a vehicle containing three or more persons. (2) “Bus/carpool lane” means a lane on a street or... agencies to which legal authority has been delegated, shall establish the following system of...

  3. Leadership Thrust of Urban School Educators for Meeting the Challenge of Busing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Joseph C.

    Based on a nationwide survey of urban school administrators, personal experiences of the author, and a review of relevant desegregation literature, this paper explores the role of administrators in the achievement of the objectives of busing for school desegregation. Findings cited from the survey include: (1) peak periods of conflict occur in the…

  4. An introduction on the demonstration performance of fuel cell buses (FCB) in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990’s, hydrogen has found broad use in the traffic segment. Compared with conventional ones, hydrogen fuelled vehicles, a new generation of clean vehicles, produce no pollutants, with higher energy efficiency. In today’s world where the pollution is tougher, the "Zero Pollution" fuel cell buses display a

  5. Seat Belts in School Buses: A Technical Analysis of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splaine, Pam; Frankel, Steven M.

    This report, prepared for the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools superintendent and board members, identifies the questions concerning seat belt use in school buses, examines relevant literature, and draws some conclusions. According to the literature, seat belts are one of many alternative and interdependent safety devices built into…

  6. 76 FR 53102 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; School Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... belt use, the effects on bus discipline, the attitudes of other stakeholders, the loss of capacity... the past 34 years that compartmentalization and the school bus safety standards have been in effect... requiring seat belts on large school buses would protect passengers against an unreasonable risk of death...

  7. 26 CFR 41.4483-2 - Exemption for certain transit-type buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the same facts as those stated in Example (1), except that the X Transit Company commences operation... the same facts as those stated in Example (1), except that the X Transit Company commences operation... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption for certain transit-type buses....

  8. Active micromachines: Microfluidics powered by mesoscale turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Shendruk, Tyler N; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Dense active matter, from bacterial suspensions and microtubule bundles driven by motor proteins to cellular monolayers and synthetic Janus particles, is characterised by mesoscale turbulence, the emergence of chaotic flow structures. By immersing an ordered array of symmetric rotors in an active fluid, we introduce a microfluidic system that exploits spontaneous symmetry breaking in mesoscale turbulence to generate work. The lattice of rotors self-organises into a spin-state where neighbouring discs continuously rotate in permanent alternating directions due to combined hydrodynamic and elastic effects. Our virtual prototype demonstrates a new research direction for the design of micromachines powered by the nematohydrodynamic properties of active turbulence.

  9. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Felice Reddy, L; Fiszdon, Joanna M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies.

  10. Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Soltis, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    A unique safety flasher powered by photovoltaic cells and ultracapacitors has been developed. Safety flashers are used wherever there are needs to mark actually or potentially hazardous locations. Examples of such locations include construction sites, highway work sites, and locations of hazardous operations. Heretofore, safety flashers have been powered by batteries, the use of which entails several disadvantages: Batteries must be kept adequately charged, and must not be allowed to become completely discharged. Batteries have rather short cycle lives, and their internal constituents that react chemically to generate electricity deteriorate (and hence power-generating capacities decrease) over time. The performances of batteries are very poor at low temperatures, which often occur in the circumstances in which safety flashers are most needed. The disposal of batteries poses a threat to the environment. The development of the present photovoltaic/ultracapacitor- powered safety flasher, in which the ultracapacitors are used to store energy, overcomes the aforementioned disadvantages of using batteries to store energy. The ultracapacitors in this flasher are electrochemical units that have extremely high volumetric capacitances because they contain large-surface-area electrodes separated by very small gaps. Ultracapacitors have extremely long cycle lives, as compared to batteries; consequently, it will never be necessary to replace the ultracapacitors in the safety flasher. The reliability of the flasher is correspondingly increased, and the life-of-system cost and the adverse environmental effects of the flasher are correspondingly reduced. Moreover, ultracapacitors have excellent low-temperature characteristics, are maintenance-free, and provide consistent performance over time.

  11. Cognitive-motivational model of obesity. Motivational mechanisms and cognitive biases underlying the processing of food-related images by people with excess body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pawłowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a constantly escalating problem in all age groups. In the face of ubiquitous images of food, colourful advertisements of high-calorie meals and beverages, it is necessary to examine the role of the memory and attention mechanism in the processing of these stimuli. Knowledge regarding this subject will surely significantly contribute to the improvement of prevention and management of obesity programs designed to prevent secondary psychological difficulties, including depression. This paper presents cognitive-motivational model of obesity, according to which the description of mechanisms of eating disorders occurrence should include not only motivational factors but also the cognitive ones. The paper shows theoretical perspectives on the problem of obesity irrespective of its origin, as well as the latest empirical reports in this field. The presented survey demonstrates the lack of explicit research findings related to the processing of high and low-calorie food images by persons with excess weight. It seems that the knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved in the processing of these stimuli and the exploration of this phenomenon will allow to improve programs whose objective is to prevent obesity.

  12. Cognitive-motivational model of obesity. Motivational mechanisms and cognitive biases underlying the processing of food-related images by people with excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Monika; Kalka, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a constantly escalating problem in all age groups. In the face of ubiquitous images of food, colourful advertisements of high-calorie meals and beverages, it is necessary to examine the role of the memory and attention mechanism in the processing of these stimuli. Knowledge regarding this subject will surely significantly contribute to the improvement of prevention and management of obesity programs designed to prevent secondary psychological difficulties, including depression. This paper presents cognitive-motivational model of obesity, according to which the description of mechanisms of eating disorders occurrence should include not only motivational factors but also the cognitive ones. The paper shows theoretical perspectives on the problem of obesity irrespective of its origin, as well as the latest empirical reports in this field. The presented survey demonstrates the lack of explicit research findings related to the processing of high and low-calorie food images by persons with excess weight. It seems that the knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved in the processing of these stimuli and the exploration of this phenomenon will allow to improve programs whose objective is to prevent obesity.

  13. Power transformer protection by using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Power transformer protective relay should block the tripping during magnetizing inrush and rapidly operate the tripping during internal faults. Recently, the frequency environment of power system has been made more complicated and the quantity of 2nd frequency component in inrush state has been decreased because of the improvement of core steel. And then, traditional approaches will likely be maloperated in the case of magnetizing inrush with low second harmonic component and internal faults with high second harmonic component. This paper proposes a new relaying algorithm to enhance the fault detection sensitivities of conventional techniques by using a fuzzy logic approach. The proposed fuzzy-based relaying algorithm consists of flux-differential current derivative curve, harmonic restraint, and percentage differential characteristic curve. The proposed relaying was tested with MATLAB simulation software and showed a fast and accurate trip operation

  14. The MAN hydrogen propulsion system for city buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, H.; Held, W.; Pruemm, W. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktiengesellschaft, Nuernberg (Germany); Ruediger, H. [Linde AG, Hoellriegelskreuth (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktiengesellschaft has developed a hydrogen-powered bus as part of the Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project. The project is being sponsored by the European Union. The MAN hydrogen bus is based on a model SL standard-production city bus. The bus is driven by an internal combustion engine. The engine will run on either hydrogen or gasoline, to which end it has two independently-operating injection systems. The engine`s emission levels in both modes are well inside the applicable limits for commercial vehicles. The hydrogen is carried in the vehicle in liquid form at extremely low temperatures. The fuel tank system consists of three vacuum-insulated tanks, developed by Linde AG, who also developed the refueling system. A comprehensive safety concept has been compiled for the vehicle with the cooperation of TUV Bayern-Sachsen to ensure that the highest possible levels of safety are met. The bus has been accepted by TUV and has been in scheduled service since 1996. The vehicle has covered a distance of more than 10 000 km in the city of Erlangen without any safety-relevant incident or fault. (author)

  15. Enhancement of $h \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ by seesaw-motivated exotic scalars

    CERN Document Server

    Picek, Ivica

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of seesaw motivated exotic scalars in loop-mediated Higgs decays. We consider a simple TeV-scale seesaw model built upon the fermionic quintuplet mediator in conjunction with the scalar quadruplet, where we examine portions of the model parameter space for which the contributions of charged components of the scalar quadruplet significantly increase the $h \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ decay rate. The most significant change in the diphoton width comes from a doubly charged scalar \\Phi^{--} which should be the lightest component in the scalar quadruplet. There is a mild suppression of the $h \\to Z \\gamma$ decay width by a factor 0.9 -- 0.7 in the part of the parameter space where the $h \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ decay width is enhanced by a factor 1.25 -- 2.

  16. Enhancement of h→γγ by seesaw-motivated exotic scalars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picek, Ivica, E-mail: picek@phy.hr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O.B. 331, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Radovčić, Branimir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O.B. 331, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-02-26

    We examine the role of seesaw-motivated exotic scalars in loop-mediated Higgs decays. We consider a simple TeV-scale seesaw model built upon the fermionic quintuplet mediator in conjunction with the scalar quadruplet, where we examine portions of the model parameter space for which the contributions of charged components of the scalar quadruplet significantly increase the h→γγ decay rate. The most significant change in the diphoton width comes from a doubly charged scalar Φ{sup −−} which should be the lightest component in the scalar quadruplet. In the part of the parameter space where the h→γγ decay width is enhanced by a factor 1.25–2 there is a mild suppression of the h→Zγ decay width by a factor 0.9–0.7.

  17. Promoting Female Students' Learning Motivation towards Science by Exercising Hands-On Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-jin, Kuo; Chia-ju, Liu; Shi-an, Leou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design different hands-on science activities and investigate which activities could better promote female students' learning motivation towards science. This study conducted three types of science activities which contains nine hands-on activities, an experience scale and a learning motivation scale for data…

  18. Student Motivation in the Classroom as Affected by Student Voice in Reading Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Marlaina

    2013-01-01

    This is a qualitative research study conducted in an attempt to gather information concerning the motivational factors of students as it is linked to the choice of reading materials in the Developmental Reading classroom. Information concerning the motivation levels of students in one Summer term course was collected. The students were given the…

  19. Treatment Fidelity of Motivational Interviewing Delivered by a School Nurse to Increase Girls' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; LaDrig, Stacey M.; Berg-Smith, Steven Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Motivational interviewing, which involves the use of person-centered, directive counseling techniques, shows promise for changing adolescent behaviors. The purpose of this article was to describe the methodology and findings related to the treatment fidelity of three face-to-face motivational interviewing sessions involving middle school girls and…

  20. Interactional Motivation in Artificial Systems: Between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeon, Olivier; Marshall, James; Gay, Simon

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper introduces Interactional Motivation (IM) as a way to implement self-motivation in artificial systems. An interactionally motivated agent selects behaviors for the sake of enacting the behavior itself rather than for the value of the behavior’s outcome. IM contrasts with extrinsic motivation by the fact that it defines the agent’s motivation independently from the environment’s state. Because IM does not refer to the environment’s states, we argue that IM is ...

  1. Multi-Objective Differential Evolution for Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow in Deregulated Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselyn, J. Preetha; Devaraj, D.; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar

    2013-11-01

    Voltage stability is an important issue in the planning and operation of deregulated power systems. The voltage stability problems is a most challenging one for the system operators in deregulated power systems because of the intense use of transmission line capabilities and poor regulation in market environment. This article addresses the congestion management problem avoiding offline transmission capacity limits related to voltage stability by considering Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow (VSCOPF) problem in deregulated environment. This article presents the application of Multi Objective Differential Evolution (MODE) algorithm to solve the VSCOPF problem in new competitive power systems. The maximum of L-index of the load buses is taken as the indicator of voltage stability and is incorporated in the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem. The proposed method in hybrid power market which also gives solutions to voltage stability problems by considering the generation rescheduling cost and load shedding cost which relieves the congestion problem in deregulated environment. The buses for load shedding are selected based on the minimum eigen value of Jacobian with respect to the load shed. In the proposed approach, real power settings of generators in base case and contingency cases, generator bus voltage magnitudes, real and reactive power demands of selected load buses using sensitivity analysis are taken as the control variables and are represented as the combination of floating point numbers and integers. DE/randSF/1/bin strategy scheme of differential evolution with self-tuned parameter which employs binomial crossover and difference vector based mutation is used for the VSCOPF problem. A fuzzy based mechanism is employed to get the best compromise solution from the pareto front to aid the decision maker. The proposed VSCOPF planning model is implemented on IEEE 30-bus system, IEEE 57 bus practical system and IEEE 118 bus system. The pareto optimal

  2. Low power interconnect design

    CERN Document Server

    Saini, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    This book provides practical solutions for delay and power reduction for on-chip interconnects and buses.  It provides an in depth description of the problem of signal delay and extra power consumption, possible solutions for delay and glitch removal, while considering the power reduction of the total system.  Coverage focuses on use of the Schmitt Trigger as an alternative approach to buffer insertion for delay and power reduction in VLSI interconnects. In the last section of the book, various bus coding techniques are discussed to minimize delay and power in address and data buses.   ·         Provides practical solutions for delay and power reduction for on-chip interconnects and buses; ·         Focuses on Deep Sub micron technology devices and interconnects; ·         Offers in depth analysis of delay, including details regarding crosstalk and parasitics;  ·         Describes use of the Schmitt Trigger as a versatile alternative approach to buffer insertion for del...

  3. Motivating students' participation in a computer networks course by means of magic, drama and games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilas, Constantinos S; Politis, Anastasios

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic crisis has forced many universities to cut down expenses by packing students into large lecture groups. The problem with large auditoria is that they discourage dialogue between students and faculty and they burden participation. Adding to this, students in computer science courses usually find the field to be full of theoretical and technical concepts. Lack of understanding leads them to lose interest and / or motivation. Classroom experience shows that the lecturer could employ alternative teaching methods, especially for early-year undergraduate students, in order to grasp their interest and introduce basic concepts. This paper describes some of the approaches that may be used to keep students interested and make them feel comfortable as they comprehend basic concepts in computer networks. The lecturing procedure was enriched with games, magic tricks and dramatic representations. This approach was used experimentally for two semesters and the results were more than encouraging.

  4. Heat-flow equation motivated by the ideal-gas shock wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel

    2010-08-01

    We present an equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier's Law of heat conduction, in order to model shockwave propagation in gases. Our approach is motivated by the observation of a disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the temperature component in the direction of a planar shock wave, versus those in the transverse directions. This difference is most prominent near the shock front. We test our heat-flow equation for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which has been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes solutions. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of hard spheres under strong shockwave conditions.

  5. A Line Weighted Frequency Droop Controller for Decentralized Enforcement of Transmission Line Power Flow Constraints in Inverter-Based Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, Nathan G [ORNL; Grijalva, Prof. Santiago [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2013-01-01

    Recent works have shown that networks of voltagesource inverters implementing frequency droop control may be analyzed as consensus-like networks. Based on this understanding, we show that enforcement of network line power flows can be viewed as an edge-preservation problem in a -disk dynamic interaction graph. Inspired by other works solving similar problems in other domains, we propose a line weighted frequency droop controller such that a network of all active buses implementing this controller enforces the specified line power flow constraints without need for communication. We provide simulation results verifying that our proposed controller limits line power to enforce constraints, and otherwise acts as a traditional droop controller.

  6. Motivation and motoric tests in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation in sport performance has been an interesting topic for many investigators during the past decade. This area can be considered from different viewpoints: motivation for participation in sport activity, achievement motivation, competitiveness etc. Motivation plays an important role in all out tests, as well as in sport activities and at all levels of competition. Motivation climate, or positive social environment may influence and modulate motivation of individuals involved in sports. Experience has shown that conventional encouragement and feedback during the test may affect its outcome. According to Wingate research team recommendations, verbal encouragement, as a motivation factor, was given to all examined subjects during Wingate anaerobic test, which is considered the most reliable test for assessing anaerobic capacity. The investigated group consisted of 30 young men - medical students, who were not actively involved in any programmed sport activity. The investigated group included second-year students of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad chosen by random sampling. The Wingate anaerobic test was performed in all subjects, and changes of parameters when test was performed with verbal encouragement, were recorded. The results show statistically significant increase of Wingate test parameters when conducted with verbal encouragement: anaerobic power (622/669 W; relative anaerobic power (7.70/8.27 W/kg; slope of the power (95.5/114 W/s; relative slope of the power (1.18/1.40 W/s/kg; anaerobic capacity (12.7/13.2 kJ and relative anaerobic capacity (158/164 J/kg.

  7. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional. This di......This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional....... This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  8. Modulation of meso-limbic reward processing by motivational tendencies in young adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jane E; Zhu, Xun; Lynam, Donald; Kelly, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence is a particularly vulnerable period for the onset of substance use disorders and other psychopathology. Individual variability in motivational tendencies and temperament and significant changes in functional brain organization during adolescence are important factors to consider in the development of substance use and dependence. Recent conceptualizations suggest that sensitivity to reward is heightened in adolescence and that this motivation tendency may precipitate subsequent substance abuse. The present study examined the role of personality traits in mesolimbic neurobehavioral response on a monetary incentive delay (MID) task in young adolescents (11-14 years) and emerging adults (18-25 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. As a group, adolescents were not more sensitive to gains than losses compared to adults during either anticipatory and feedback phases; instead, compared to adults they showed less sensitivity to incentive magnitude in mesolimbic circuitry during anticipation and feedback stages. However, personality modulated this response such that adolescents high in impulsivity or low in avoidance tendencies showed greater gain sensitivity and adolescents high in avoidance showed greater loss sensitivity during cue anticipation. In adults, mesolimbic response was modulated by the impulsivity construct such that high-impulsive adults showed reduced magnitude sensitivity during both anticipation and feedback compared to low impulsive adults. The present findings suggest that impulsive personality significantly modulates mesolimbic reward response during both adolescence and adulthood but avoidance and approach tendencies also modulate this response in adolescents. Moreover, personality modulated incentive valence in adolescents but incentive magnitude in adults. Collectively, these findings suggest that mesolimbic reward circuitry function is modulated by somewhat different parameters in adolescence than in adulthood.

  9. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  10. Robust Clamping Force Control of an Electro-Mechanical Brake System for Application to Commercial City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjune Eum

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sensor-less robust force control method for improving the control performance of an electro-mechanical brake (EMB which is applicable to commercial city buses. The EMB generates the accurate clamping force commanded by a driver through an independent motor control at each wheel instead of using existing mechanical components. In general, an EMB undergoes parameter variation and a backdrivability problem. For this reason, the cascade control strategy (e.g., force-position cascade control structure is proposed and the disturbance observer is employed to enhance control robustness against model variations. Additionally, this paper proposed the clamping force estimation method for a sensor-less control, i.e., the clamping force observer (CFO. Finally, in order to confirm the performance and effectiveness of a proposed robust control method, several experiments are performed and analyzed.

  11. Effects of the feeling of invulnerability and the feeling of control on motivation to participate in experience-based analysis, by type of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, Safiétou; Kouabenan, Dongo Rémi

    2013-03-01

    Experience-based analysis (EBA) refers to a set of safety-management practices consisting of detecting, analyzing, and correcting the individual, material, and organizational causal factors of accidents in order to prevent their reoccurrence. Unfortunately, these practices do not always garner the adherence of employees. This article presents a study that examines the impact of risk perceptions on agents' motivation to participate in EBA in various production sectors. The study was conducted at two sites, a chemical factory and a nuclear power plant, by means of a questionnaire administered to 302 employees. The results indicated that the feeling of control was not only positively linked to the feeling of invulnerability, but that these two factors were negatively linked to risk perception. In addition, the actors in both production sectors were more motivated to participate in EBA of accidents linked to the core processes of their industry (which were more accurately perceived) than in EBA of ordinary accidents (accidents not specific to chemical or nuclear processes). Moreover, the agents' feeling of invulnerability and feeling of control both reduced EBA motivation for ordinary accidents to a greater extent than for chemical and radiation-related accidents. Recommendations are made in view of encouraging agents to get more involved in EBA.

  12. An interconnecting bus power optimization method combining interconnect wire spacing with wire ordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; Hao Bao-Tian; En Yun-Fei; Yang Yin-Tang; Li Yue-Jin

    2011-01-01

    On-chip interconnect buses consume tens of percents of dynamic power in a nanometer scale integrated circuit and they will consume more power with the rapid scaling down of technology size and continuously rising clock frequency,therefore it is meaningful to lower the interconnecting bus power in design. In this paper, a simple yet accurate interconnect parasitic capacitance model is presented first and then, based on this model, a novel interconnecting bus optimization method is proposed. Wire spacing is a process for spacing wires for minimum dynamic power, while wire ordering is a process that searches for wire orders that maximally enhance it. The method, i.e., combining wire spacing with wire ordering, focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with a consideration of bus performance requirements.The optimization method is verified based on various nanometer technology parameters, showing that with 50% slack of routing space, 25.71% and 32.65% of power can be saved on average by the proposed optimization method for a globalbus and an intermediate bus, respectively, under a 65-nm technology node, compared with 21.78% and 27.68% of power saved on average by uniform spacing technology. The proposed method is especially suitable for computer-aided designof nanometer scale on-chip buses.

  13. Voltage stability and controllability indices for multimachine power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vournas, C.D. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Electrical Energy Systems Lab.

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents a voltage stability index (VSI) and a voltage controllability index (VCI), related to the eigenvalues of mxm matrices in a multimachine power system made up of m synchronous generators and a number of infinite buses. System loads can have an arbitrary voltage sensitivity described by generalized voltage exponents. These nonlinear loads are linearized around an operating point and incorporated into a modified admittance matrix, which is subsequently reduced to the generator terminals using an efficient algorithm and sparsity techniques. The indices proposed are tested in a practical system and it is demonstrated that they provide a timely warning during a sequence of events leading to voltage collapse.

  14. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT.

  15. Optimal Dispatch of Competitive Power Markets by Using PowerWorld Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Shuhui

    2013-10-01

    The transition to competitive and retail markets for electric utilities around the world has been a difficult and controversial process. One of the difficulties that hindered the development and growth of competitive power markets is the absence of efficient computational tools to assist the design, analysis, and operation of competitive power markets. PowerWorld simulator is a software package that has strong analytical and visualization functions suitable for extensive power flow study of an electric power system. However, like many other power flow simulators, PowerWorld cannot be used directly for analysis and evaluation of a competitive power market. This article investigates mathematical models associated with a competitive power market and how these models can be converted and transformed in such a way that makes it possible to use PowerWorld for the competitive power market study. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, models of several small-scale competitive power markets are built in MatLab by using conventional approaches. Results generated by both PowerWorld and MatLab are compared. Finally, the article demonstrates how the PowerWorld simulator is used to investigate a larger and practical competitive power system.

  16. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed.

  17. Prediction of Emissions from Biodiesel Fueled Transit Buses Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisek Mudgal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of freight transportation and passenger cars has led to air pollution, green house gas emissions (especially CO2 and fuel supply concerns. Research has been carried out on biodiesel which is shown to generate lower emissions. However, the amount of emissions generated is not well understood which entails more vigorous data collection and development of emissions models. A comprehensive data collection plan was developed and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and PM10 from biodiesel fueled transit buses were collected using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS. Linear models were developed and tested for each emission. However, the models could not capture the emissions spikes well resulting in very low R2 values. Artificial neural networks (ANNs based models were then employed on this data because of their ability to handle nonlinearity and not requiring assumptions on the input data as needed by statistical models. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the input parameters, number of hidden layers, learning rate and learning algorithm to arrive at an optimum ANN architecture. The optimal architecture for this study was found to be two hidden layers with 50 hidden nodes for each of NOx, HC, CO, and PM and one hidden layer for CO2. The emissions were predicted using best-performance ANN models for each emission. Scatter-plots of observed versus predicted values showed R2 of 0.96, 0.94, 0.82, 0.98 and 0.78 for NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and PM emissions, respectively. Histogram on prediction error showed low frequency for large errors.

  18. Understanding gendered aspects of migration aspiration and motives of university students by multivariate statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đula Borozan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression in measuring, explaining and evaluating (i gender differences in expressing migration aspirations, and (ii a gender effect on migration motivation of university students in Croatia. The results supported the thesis that migration is a complex gendering process that assumes subjective assessment of the whole set of interrelated motives. According to logistic regression, gender is a significant predictor of migration aspirations among the selected demographic and socio-economic variables. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that gender and migration aspirations in interaction matter when it comes to migration motives, particularly related to the perceived importance of social networks. Females, and especially those who aspire to migrate, assessed these motives as more important than males.

  19. Individual and sex differences in the consequences of victimization: Moderation by approach and avoidance motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D

    2014-09-01

    Peer victimization is a known risk factor for various forms of maladjustment; however, the specific type of maladjustment may depend on individual differences in youth. This 2-wave longitudinal study examined the hypothesis that social approach-avoidance motivation, together with sex, would moderate the contribution of 3rd-grade victimization to 4th-grade maladjustment. Children (N = 574, M age = 8.94, SD = 0.37) reported on their victimization exposure, social approach-avoidance motivation, and depressive symptoms. Teachers reported on students' victimization exposure and aggressive behavior. Victimization predicted aggressive behavior only in boys with moderate to high approach motivation; victimization predicted depressive symptoms only in girls with moderate to high avoidance motivation. This research elucidates the diverse consequences associated with peer victimization and informs efforts to address these consequences in a targeted manner.

  20. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  1. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  2. HEAT RECOVERY FROM A NATURAL GAS POWERED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE BY CO2 TRANSCRITICAL POWER CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides details of energy accounting of a natural gas powered internal combustion engine and achievable work of a utilized CO2 power cycle. Based on experimental performance analysis of a new designed IKCO (Iran Khodro Company 1.7 litre natural gas powered engine, full energy accounting of the engine were carried out on various engine speeds and loads. Further, various CO2 transcritical power cycle configurations have been appointed to take advantages of exhaust and coolant water heat lost. Based on thermodynamic analysis, the amount of recoverable work obtainable by CO2 transcritical power cycles have been calculated on various engine conditions. The results show that as much as 18 kW power could be generated by the power cycle. This would be considerable amount of power especially if compared with the engine brake power.

  3. Improving Intrinsic Motivation among Sophomore Electrical Engineering Students by an Introductory Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Gero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology decided to open a new elective course designed for sophomore electrical engineering students. The course was devised to expose students to the discipline of electrical engineering and improve their motivation. The core of the course was a team-based design project of a window cleaning robot. The present mixed-method study indicates a significant improvement in intrinsic motivation of the students who took the course.

  4. A Virtual Instrument for DC Power Flow Solution Using LabVIEW Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slimane Souag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method for solving the power flow problem by the method of DC power flow using the graphical programming environment of LabVIEW as a virtual instrument (VI suitable for contingency analysis. The DC power flow greatly simplifies the power flow by making a number of approximations including 1 completely ignoring the reactive power balance equations, 2 assuming all voltage magnitudes are identically one per unit, 3 ignoring line losses and 4 ignoring tap dependence in the transformer reactance. Hence the DC power flow reduces the power flow problem to a set of linear equations. The effectiveness of the method developed is identified through its application to a 6 buses test system. The calculation results show excellent performance of the proposed method, in regard to computation time and quality of results.

  5. The Role of Implicit Motives in Strategic Decision-Making: Computational Models of Motivated Learning and the Evolution of Motivated Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual behavioral differences in humans have been linked to measurable differences in their mental activities, including differences in their implicit motives. In humans, individual differences in the strength of motives such as power, achievement and affiliation have been shown to have a significant impact on behavior in social dilemma games and during other kinds of strategic interactions. This paper presents agent-based computational models of power-, achievement- and affiliation-motivated individuals engaged in game-play. The first model captures learning by motivated agents during strategic interactions. The second model captures the evolution of a society of motivated agents. It is demonstrated that misperception, when it is a result of motivation, causes agents with different motives to play a given game differently. When motivated agents who misperceive a game are present in a population, higher explicit payoff can result for the population as a whole. The implications of these results are discussed, both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents with certain salient behavioral characteristics.

  6. Power System Transients Analysis by Wavelet Transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维荣; 宋永华; 赵蔚

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to Fourier transform, wavelet transform is especially suitable for transient analysis because of its time-frequency characteristics with automatically-adjusted window lengths. Research shows that wavelet transform is one of the most powerful tools for power system transient analysis. The basic ideas of wavelet transform are presented in the paper together with several power system applications. It is clear that wavelet transform has some clear advantages over other transforms in detecting, analyzing, and identifying various types of power system transients.

  7. Demographic and Motivation Differences Among Online Sex Offenders by Type of Offense: An Exploration of Routine Activities Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jordana N; Jasinski, Jana L

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the relationship between online sexual offenders' demographic background and characteristics indicative of motivation and offense type. Specifically, we investigate whether these characteristics can distinguish different online sexual offender groups from one another as well as inform routine activity theorists on what potentially motivates perpetrators. Using multinomial logistic regression, this study found that online sexual offenders' demographic backgrounds and characteristics indicative of motivation do vary by offense types. Two important implications of this study are that the term "online sexual offender" encompasses different types of offenders, including some who do not align with mainstream media's characterization of "predators," and that the potential offender within routine activity theory can be the focus of empirical investigation rather than taken as a given in research.

  8. Students' perceptions of rewards for academic performance by parents and teachers: relations with achievement and motivation in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly D; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N= 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for students' grades were common at all levels of schooling. Reward history related significantly to students' motivational orientation and performance in college, and these relations were generally stronger for boys than for girls. The authors discuss implications of these findings.

  9. Motivation in language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骊

    2008-01-01

    Motivation is one of the key affective factors in language learning, which has been highly regarded and widely researched by both linguists and language teachers. It is very necessary for language teachers and learners to be aware of the influence of the motivation.

  10. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared represent...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design.......We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...

  11. Students' Perceptions of Communications Provided by Faculty and Peer Leaders, Course Motivation, and Final Project Innovativeness in Capstone Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, Amanda Faith

    2011-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. The purpose of this study was to assess students' perceptions of communications provided by faculty and peer leaders in relationship to both students' perceptions of their course motivation as well as their perceptions of the innovativeness of their final project in single and multidisciplinary capstone courses. The…

  12. To Investigate the Views of Students Regarding Motivational Techniques Used by the Heads of Secondary Schools in Punjab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the views of students regarding motivational techniques used by the heads of secondary schools in Punjab. The main objective of this study was to identify the students' opinions about the performance of the teachers. The nature of this study was descriptive, and the population constituted 748,124…

  13. Motivational Factors and Worldview Dimensions Associated with Perceptions of Global Education Initiatives by U.S. College Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean Francois, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate motivational factors and worldview dimensions associated with perceptions of global education initiatives by college professors in the United States. The concept of "perceptions of global education initiatives" is used in this study to refer to attitudes toward institutional support for global…

  14. Students' Perceptions of Rewards for Academic Performance by Parents and Teachers: Relations with Achievement and Motivation in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly D.; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N = 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for…

  15. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research......How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...

  16. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Millonig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics on mobility decision processes (e.g. mode and route choice. Based on theoretical findings concerning player types and mobility styles we developed a framework for identifying effective game mechanics motivating users to explore mobility alternatives and take more informed and more sustainable mode or route choice decisions. The results will form the basis for implementing game mechanics in mobility information services motivating users to explore unfamiliar but more sustainable mobility options.

  17. "Why we stay": immigrants' motivations for remaining in communities impacted by anti-immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R; Lewis Valentine, Jessa; Padilla, Brian

    2013-07-01

    Although restrictive immigration policy is intended to reduce incentives for unauthorized immigrants to remain in the United States, many immigrants remain in their U.S. community despite the anti-immigration climate surrounding them. This study explores motivations shaping immigrants' intentions to stay in Arizona after passage of Senate Bill 1070 in 2010, one of the most restrictive immigration policies in recent decades. We conducted three focus groups in a large metropolitan city in Arizona with Mexican immigrant parents (N = 25). Themes emerging from the focus groups described multiple and interlocking personal, family and community, and contemporary sociopolitical motivations to stay in their community, and suggest that some important motivating factors have evolved as a result of immigrants' changing environment. Implications for research and social policy reform are discussed.

  18. Thermal behavior optimization in multi-MW wind power converter by reactive power circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens;

    2013-01-01

    as the induction generator and power device capacity. Then the effects of reactive power circulation towards current characteristic and thermal distribution of the two-level back-to-back power converter is analyzed and compared. Finally the thermal-oriented reactive power is introduced to the system...... in the conditions of constant wind speed and during wind gust. It is concluded that the thermal performance will be improved by injecting proper reactive power circulation in the wind turbine system and thereby be able to reduce the thermal cycling and enhance the reliability.......In the paper, an actively controlled reactive power influence to the thermal behavior of multi-MW wind power converter with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is investigated. The allowable range of internal reactive power circulation is firstly mapped depending on the DC-link voltage as well...

  19. The Perception of Same Gender Coaches by Iranian Skaters and its Influence on Sport Achievement Motivation and Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar HOMAYONI IZAD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the relationship between the perception of same gender coaches by male and female Iranian skaters and their sport achievement motivation and commitment. Participants: Fifty two female and forty two male skaters, age range 13 to 18 years, from the province of Isfahan in Iran. Materials: The following 3 questionnaires, tested for reliability and validity for the Iranian population and adapted for Farsi, were used: i Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand and Briere (2001 Interpersonal Behaviour Scale to measure social support of trainers, ii Gill and Deeter (1988 Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ to measure achievement motivation, and iii Scanlan, Simons, Car penter, Schmidt and Keeler (1993 Sport Commitment Model to measure sport commitment. Procedure: The questionnaires were administered to participants in person by the first author after training sessions in sport stadiums. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between perceived coaches' social support and sport achievement motivation and commitment for both male and female participants. However, on all of the above measures females scored significantly more positive ratings than their male c ounterparts. Results of regression analyses conducted separately for males and females showed that relatedness support is the strongest predictor for sport achievement motivation and commitment for males, whereas autonomy support was the strongest predicto r for sport commitment amongst females. Implications: These findings are of particular interest in understanding the impact of perceived coaching support for young male and female athletes, especially if coached exclusively by the same gender.

  20. Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pfitzner, Rene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-01

    We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.

  1. Civil Military Relations in Turkey: Motives Behind the Shift of Power from Military to Civilians After the Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    rank generals in lawsuits, regarding alleged coups against the incumbent government. C. METHOD OF ANALYSES This study employs the periodization...style of warfare, since Germany became the ally of the Empire, in that era. The famous German military strategist,Wilhelm Leopold Colmar Freiherr...officers, who had risen through the ranks . The latter had been favored by the old regime, being paid regularly and stationed in the First Army in

  2. Using a partner's facial emotion to elucidate social dominance motivation induced by an SSRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Chow, H; Wing, Y K; Bond, Alyson J

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies independently showed that acute treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) enhanced happy face recognition, and dominance behaviors which might reflect enhancement of reward sensitivity. The present study aimed to determine whether such a mechanism would be related to social resource acquisition induced by an SSRI. Forty healthy subjects were recruited for the experiment. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover nested within confederate type (happy, fearful, or sad) trial of a single-dose of 10mg escitalopram versus placebo was conducted with a two-week washout period. In each of the treatment groups, the subjects interacted socially with one of the three types of confederate in a waiting room for 3-minute. Then, they went to an individual laboratory and were led to believe that they played the Mixed-motive game with the confederate. The game measures punitive/cooperative behaviors by how participants allocate higher/lower game scores to the confederate and communicate cooperation/ingratiation/helplessness/sadness/blaming/extrapunitive, messages to the confederate. Significant treatment-by-confederate type interactions were observed through game score distributions and ingratiation messages to the confederate and attentive eye gaze. In the happy confederate condition, escitalopram increased ingratiation messages and lowered points awarded to the confederate. In the fearful confederate condition, escitalopram increased ingratiation messages and reduced time spent looking away from the confederate. No changes in these measures were found in the sad confederate condition. Therefore acute escitalopram treatment enhances reward sensitivity to the facial emotions of social partners which in turn increases social resource acquisition and social dominance towards happy but not fearful social partners.

  3. The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Rocha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the electrical architectures adopted in wind turbines and its impact on the harmonic flux at the connected electric network. The integration of wind electric generators with the power grid needs energy processing by power electronics. It shows that different types of wind turbine generator systems use different types of electronic converters. This work provides a discussion on harmonic distortion taking place on the generator side, as well as in the power grid side. Keywords: grid connection, harmonic distortion, power electronics and converters, wind energy conversion systems, wind power, wind technology, wind turbines

  4. Relationship between Learning Strategies and Motivation by Using Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Mohamad Azrien Mohamed; Nordin, Mohd Sahari; Ibrahim, Mohd Burhan

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed at examining the learning strategies constructs and to investigate the relationship between learning strategies and motivation in Arabic courses. The study uses a questionnaire as the information-gathering instrument, and the participants comprised students from two public universities in Peninsular Malaysia who are studying…

  5. Motivated by Meaning: Testing the Effect of Knowledge-Infused Rewards on Preschoolers' Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Aubry L.; Booth, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Research and theory suggest that young children are highly attuned to causality. This study explores whether this drive can motivate task engagement. Fifty-six 3- and 4-year-olds completed a motor task as many times as desired, viewing a picture of a novel item upon each completion. Forty-two randomly assigned children then received either: (a)…

  6. Improving flood risk communication by focusing on prevention-focused motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Terpstra, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to flood risk communication that gives particular emphasis to the distinction between prevention and promotion motivation. According to E. Tory Higgins (2012), the promotion system and the prevention system are assumed to coexist in every person, but one or the other

  7. Enhance students’ motivation to learn programming by using direct visual feed-back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; Reng, Lars

    2011-01-01

    was to establish a community of practice among the students and the teachers. A direct visual feedback and a higher level of merging between the artistic, creative, and technical lectures have been the focus of motivation as well as a complete restructuring of the elements of the technical lectures. The paper...

  8. LEGAL ORGANIZATIONAL FORMS AND MOTIVATIONS IN THE MANAGEMENT BY ECONOMIC STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhnov S. N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, on the basis of theoretical generalization and studying the real practice, we have considered an interrelated problem of functioning of legal organizational management forms and modern motivation instruments of staff with the aim of labour capacity increase

  9. Motivation for Knowledge Sharing by Expert Participants in Company-Hosted Online User Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingli

    2014-01-01

    Company-hosted online user communities are increasingly popular as firms continue to search for ways to provide their customers with high quality and reliable support in a low cost and scalable way. Yet, empirical understanding of motivations for knowledge sharing in this type of online communities is lacking, especially with regard to an…

  10. Engaging Online Adult Learners in Higher Education: Motivational Factors Impacted by Gender, Age, and Prior Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wenhao David

    2013-01-01

    As the number of online degree programs continues to grow among higher education institutions in the United States, engaging online adult learners to online degree programs is getting more difficult than before. Therefore, this study, situated in a land grant university, investigated the motivational factors that contribute to adult learners'…

  11. Language Learning Motivation: The Palestinian Context. Attitudes, Motivation, and Orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Musleh, Rana Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Given that motivation is held to be a major affective variable influencing SLA, the present study examines L2 motivation among Palestinian students from the age of 12 to 18 years old. Considering the present situation in Palestine, the motives that drive learners to study a foreign language will certainly be affected by the context (culture and values) in which the learning takes place. The present study involves the investigation of motivation towards learning English as a foreign language...

  12. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts Powered by Hot Neutrino-Cooled Coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Socrates, Aristotle

    2005-01-01

    Cosmological explosions such as core-collapse supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to be powered by the rapid conversion of roughly a solar mass' worth of gravitational binding energy into a comparatively small amount of outgoing observable kinetic energy. A fractional absorption of the emitted neutrinos, the particles which carry away the binding energy, by the expelled matter is a widely discussed mechanism for powering such explosions. Previous work addressing neutrino emission from core-collapse like environments assumes that the outgoing neutrino spectrum closely resembles a black body whose effective temperature is determined by both the rate of energy release and the surface area of the entire body. Unfortunately, this assumption minimizes the net efficiency for both neutrino-driven explosion mechanisms. Motivated by this fact, we qualitatively outline a scenario where a hot corona deforms the neutrino spectrum away from that of a cool thermal emitter. Our primary result is that in ...

  13. Motivation and Ways to Motivate Students of Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洪琼

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is critical in English learning of middle school,thus,how to effectively motivate students in English learning is an important problem.This study intends to find ways to motivate students of middle school.Self-report data were collected from 45 students in The Experiment Middle School Attached to Yunnan Normal University by using a close-ended questionnaire.

  14. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-09-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  15. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  16. Improvement of Power Flow Calculation with Optimization Factor Based on Current Injection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improvement in power flow calculation based on current injection method by introducing optimization factor. In the method proposed by this paper, the PQ buses are represented by current mismatches while the PV buses are represented by power mismatches. It is different from the representations in conventional current injection power flow equations. By using the combined power and current injection mismatches method, the number of the equations required can be decreased to only one for each PV bus. The optimization factor is used to improve the iteration process and to ensure the effectiveness of the improved method proposed when the system is ill-conditioned. To verify the effectiveness of the method, the IEEE test systems are tested by conventional current injection method and the improved method proposed separately. Then the results are compared. The comparisons show that the optimization factor improves the convergence character effectively, especially that when the system is at high loading level and R/X ratio, the iteration number is one or two times less than the conventional current injection method. When the overloading condition of the system is serious, the iteration number in this paper appears 4 times less than the conventional current injection method.

  17. Analysis of Facial Injuries Caused by Power Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiye; Choi, Jin-Hee; Hyun Kim, Oh; Won Kim, Sug

    2016-06-01

    The number of injuries caused by power tools is steadily increasing as more domestic woodwork is undertaken and more power tools are used recreationally. The injuries caused by the different power tools as a consequence of accidents are an issue, because they can lead to substantial costs for patients and the national insurance system. The increase in hand surgery as a consequence of the use of power tools and its economic impact, and the characteristics of the hand injuries caused by power saws have been described. In recent years, the authors have noticed that, in addition to hand injuries, facial injuries caused by power tools commonly present to the emergency room. This study aimed to review the data in relation to facial injuries caused by power saws that were gathered from patients who visited the trauma center at our hospital over the last 4 years, and to analyze the incidence and epidemiology of the facial injuries caused by power saws. The authors found that facial injuries caused by power tools have risen continually. Facial injuries caused by power tools are accidental, and they cause permanent facial disfigurements and functional disabilities. Accidents are almost inevitable in particular workplaces; however, most facial injuries could be avoided by providing sufficient operator training and by tool operators wearing suitable protective devices. The evaluation of the epidemiology and patterns of facial injuries caused by power tools in this study should provide the information required to reduce the number of accidental injuries.

  18. Optimal sharing of quantity risk for a coalition of wind power producers facing nodal prices

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E. Y.

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted that aggregation of geographically diverse wind energy resources offers compelling potential to mitigate wind power variability, as wind speed at different geographic locations tends to decorrelate with increasing spatial separation. In this paper, we explore the extent to which a coalition of wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation to mitigate the risk of quantity shortfall with respect to forward contract offerings for energy. We propose a simple augmentation of the existing two-settlement market system with nodal pricing to permit quantity risk sharing among wind power producers by affording the group a recourse opportunity to utilize improved forecasts of their ensuing wind energy production to collectively modify their forward contracted positions so as to utilize the projected surplus in generation at certain buses to balance the projected shortfall in generation at complementary buses. Working within this framework, we show that the problem of optimally sizing a set of forward contracts for a group of wind power producers reduces to convex programming and derive closed form expressions for the set of optimal recourse policies. We also asses the willingness of individual wind power producers to form a coalition to cooperatively offer contracts for energy. We first show that the expected profit derived from coalitional contract offerings with recourse is greater than that achievable through independent contract offerings. And, using tools from coalitional game theory, we show that the core for our game is non-empty.

  19. Life after Death by "PowerPoint"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author explores how to use "PowerPoint" to support the mathematics itself, not just to "present" but actually to "enhance" learning. For the purposes of this article, she has explored three tools: colour, animation and hyperlinks. (Contains 1 note.)

  20. Wireless Power Transmission for Power Supply: State of Art

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The wireless power supply is motivated by simple and comfortable use of many small electric appliances with low power input. This paper reviews the concepts which are suitable for wireless power transmission with respect to power supply of such appliances in small areas. The categorization of the concepts is made. The efficiency of the concepts is discussed on general base. The reference levels for exposure to electric and magnetic fields are mentioned, and maximal power delivered to an appli...

  1. Motivating Staff, Parents, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia Cavenaugh

    Two motivational theories considered particularly useful in administering early childhood programs are discussed, and guidelines for motivating staff, parents, and children are provided. First, the two-factor theory of motivation within organizations, as outlined by Herzberg (1959), is described. Offered in this section are a list of motivators…

  2. Why achievement motivation predicts success in business but failure in politics: the importance of personal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, David G

    2010-12-01

    Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed.

  3. Clustering Teachers' Motivations for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…

  4. Exploring Japanese University EFL Teacher Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Current studies show that it is becoming clear that language teachers give significant importance to learners' motivation level, interest levels, and attitudes toward their learning. Motivated teachers can have a powerful influence on students' career directions, and positively impact learners' motivations and interests. However, not many studies…

  5. Exploring Japanese University EFL Teacher Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Current studies show that it is becoming clear that language teachers give significant importance to learners' motivation level, interest levels, and attitudes toward their learning. Motivated teachers can have a powerful influence on students' career directions, and positively impact learners' motivations and interests. However,…

  6. Motive of the Predetermined Duel in Novels by Balzac, Lermontov and Dostoevsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazirov R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces to the domestic reader an unknown French work of Romain Nazirov titled “Trois duels (Balzac, Lermontov, Dostoievski”. Nazirov compares the variations of the theme “barren omnipotence” in the novel “The magic skin”, “A Hero of Our Time” and “Demons”, considering the episode of “predetermined duel” as the climax of the of the theme development. Comparative analysis gives the author a reason to believe that Lermontov describing duel in the “Hero of Our Time” was under the influence of a similar episode of the novel “The magic skin” by Balzac. However, according Nazirov, in the novel by Lermontov duel becomes a philosophical experiment of the hero. This observation naturally leads the author to Dostoevsky’s novels in which such experiments directly determine the fate of tragic ideologists, the central figures of these texts. Stavrogin’s duel Nazirov interprets as a result of creative debate of Dostoevsky with Balzac and Lermontov. “The magic skin” and “A Hero of Our Time” emphasized the inability to find a goal worthy of omnipotence of hero. “Demons” accentuate the motive of personal guilt, which renders meaningless all further goals and actions of the hero. However Nazirov’s interpretation of “Demons” is determined not only by moral issues. For the soviet literary scholarship in 1970s social the context of moral conflict of “Demons” is also important. This context defined by process of breakdown of traditional Russian society structures during the second half of the XIX century. Thus, the article presents a historical and literary-historical comment of the topic “barren omnipotence” of Balzac to Dostoevsky. In this work, there are all the typical characteristics of a mature scientific style of Nazirov: attention to the social aspects of the history of literature, historical approach to the actual literary phenomena, moral sharpening of artistic perspective.

  7. AC electrokinetic drug delivery in dentistry using an interdigitated electrode assembly powered by inductive coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Wu, Jie Jayne; Mirzajani, Hadi; Cheng, Cheng; Yuan, Quan; Kevorkyan, Stepan; Gaydarova, Radostina; Tomlekova, Desislava

    2016-10-01

    AC electrokinetics (ACEK) has been shown to deliver certain drugs into human teeth more effectively than diffusion. However, using electrical wires to power intraoral ACEK devices poses risks to patients. The study demonstrates a novel interdigitated electrode arrays (IDE) assembly powered by inductive coupling to induce ACEK effects at appropriate frequencies to motivate drugs wirelessly. A signal generator produces the modulating signal, which multiplies with the carrier signal to produce the amplitude modulated (AM) signal. The AM signal goes through the inductive link to appear on the secondary coil, then rectified and filtered to dispose of its carrier signal, and the positive half of the modulating signal appears on the load. After characterizing the device, the device is validated under light microscopy by motivating carboxylate-modified microspheres, tetracycline, acetaminophen, benzocaine, lidocaine and carbamide peroxide particles with induced ACEK effects. The assembly is finally tested in a common dental bleaching application. After applying 35 % carbamide peroxide to human teeth topically or with the IDE at 1200 Hz, 5 Vpp for 20 min, spectrophotometric analysis showed that compared to diffusion, the IDE enhanced whitening in specular optic and specular optic excluded modes by 215 % and 194 % respectively. Carbamide peroxide absorbance by the ACEK group was two times greater than diffusion as measured by colorimetric oxidation-reduction and UV-Vis spectroscopy at 550 nm. The device motivates drugs of variable molecular weight and structure wirelessly. Wireless transport of drugs to intraoral targets under ACEK effects may potentially improve the efficacy and safety of drug delivery in dentistry.

  8. Motivational Factors Affecting the Integration of a Learning Management System by Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gautreau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Online courses taught using a learning management system are common in higher education. Teaching online requires a new set of skills, knowledge, and professional growth. Faculty development programs often overlook factors that promote or inhibit the use of technologies among professors. This study identified the motivation factors that faculty consider relevant to their personal decision to adopt a learning management system. A needs assessment evaluation methodology was applied to investigate two research questions. The first question analyzed the demographics of the participants in this study including gender, age, tenure status, department, and years of experience using a technology and using an LMS. The second research question investigated the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that motivate faculty to adopt a learning management system in their instruction. Participants (N = 42 were tenured and tenure track faculty instructing at a four-year public university in California.

  9. The influence of motivating operations on generalization probes of specific mands by children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragale, Christina L; O'Reilly, Mark F; Aguilar, Jeannie; Pierce, Nigel; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of motivating operations on the generalization of newly taught mands across settings and communication partners for 3 children with autism. Two conditions were implemented prior to generalization probes. In the first condition, participants were given access to a preferred item until they rejected the item (i.e., abolishing operation). In the second condition, the item was not available to participants prior to generalization probes (i.e., establishing operation). The effects of these conditions on the generalization of newly taught mands were evaluated in a multielement design. Results indicated differentiated responding during generalization probes in which more manding with the target mand was observed following the presession no-access condition than in the presession access condition. These results support the consideration of motivating operations when assessing generalization of target mands to various untrained contexts.

  10. Motivating Company Personnel by Applying the Semi-self-organized Teams Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlander, Deniss

    The only way nowadays to improve stability of software development process in the global rapidly evolving world is to be innovative and involve professionals into projects motivating them using both material and non material factors. In this paper self-organized teams are discussed. Unfortunately not all kind of organizations can benefit directly from agile method including applying self-organized teams. The paper proposes semi-self-organized teams presenting it as a new and promising motivating factor allowing deriving many positive sides of been self-organized and partly agile and been compliant to less strict conditions for following this innovating process. The semi-self organized teams are reliable at least in the short-term perspective and are simple to organize and support.

  11. Motivating Students to Learn English by Responding to their Interests and Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Aguilar Magda

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available I observed that students from Barranquillita public school had a great lack of motivation, low interest in learning English and they did not like to interact in English class. They presumed that they could not learn a second language and it was not useful for them because they only wanted to finish school in order to go to work. In view of this, I considered it necessary to know my students´needs, likes, learning styles, preferences and dislikes better in order to design activities that would motivate their interest to learn English. Taking into account this issue, I decided to give my students the possibility to have contact and experience in the English language in order to increase their communicative competence.

  12. Learning the selection of actions for an autonomous social robot by reinforcement learning based on motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Castro González, Álvaro; Malfaz, María; Miguel A. Salichs

    2011-01-01

    Autonomy is a prime issue on robotics field and it is closely related to decision making. Last researches on decision making for social robots are focused on biologically inspired mechanisms for taking decisions. Following this approach, we propose a motivational system for decision making, using internal (drives) and external stimuli for learning to choose the right action. Actions are selected from a finite set of skills in order to keep robot's needs within an acceptable range. The robot u...

  13. The proton motive force generated in Leuconostoc oenos by L-malate fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salema, Madalena; Lolkema, Juke S.; San Romão, M.V.; Loureiro Dias, Maria C.

    1996-01-01

    In cells of Leuconostoc oenos, the fermentation of L-malic acid generates both a transmembrane pH gradient, inside alkaline, and an electrical potential gradient, inside negative. In resting cells, the proton motive force ranged from -170 mV to -88 mV between pH 3.1 and 5.6 in the presence of L-mala

  14. Promotion of Intrinsic Motivation of New Generation Learners for Learning Physics by Digital Physics Labs

    OpenAIRE

    Peciuliauskiene, Palmira

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the role of digital Physics experiments in the promotion of intrinsic motivation of secondary school age learners for learning Physics. The methodological basis of research is inquiry-based learning. The article focuses on the second level of inquiry-based learning referred to as structured inquiry. The study is based on the sociological approach, with the emphasis on the new generation (Generation Z) and their exclusive relationship to technology. The research problem ...

  15. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics ...

  16. Why Work with Undergraduate Researchers? Differences in Research Advisors’ Motivations and Outcomes by Career Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Charles N.; Laursen, Sandra L.; Thiry, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate research is often hailed as a solution to increasing the number and quality of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics graduates needed to fill the high-tech jobs of the future. Student benefits of research are well documented but the emerging literature on advisors’ perspectives is incomplete: only a few studies have included the graduate students and postdocs who often serve as research advisors, and not much is known about why research advisors choose to work with undergraduate researchers. We report the motivations for advising undergraduate researchers, and the related costs and benefits of doing so, from 30 interviews with research advisors at various career stages. Many advisors stated intrinsic motivations, but a small group of early-career advisors expressed only instrumental motivations. We explore what this means for how advisors work with student researchers, the benefits students may or may not gain from the experience, and the implications for training and retaining research advisors who can provide high-quality research experiences for undergraduate students. PMID:28213583

  17. Delegation and Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Angst, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the determinants of decision rights transfer and its effects on the motivation of an agent. The study is based on a laboratory experiment conducted on 130 subjects playing an innovative principal-agent game. Interestingly, the results show that agents do not favour...... a delegation and a decision is considered rather burdensome. Although the experiment could not give support for the behavioural hypothesis of higher effort provided by participants who receive choice subsequently, the survey illuminates the interaction between delegation motives, effort motivators, goals...

  18. Tax authorities' interaction with taxpayers: A conception of compliance in social dilemmas by power and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Katharina; Hofmann, Eva; Kirchler, Erich

    2015-02-01

    Tax compliance represents a social dilemma in which the short-term self-interest to minimize tax payments is at odds with the collective long-term interest to provide sufficient tax funds for public goods. According to the Slippery Slope Framework, the social dilemma can be solved and tax compliance can be guaranteed by power of tax authorities and trust in tax authorities. The framework, however, remains silent on the dynamics between power and trust. The aim of the present theoretical paper is to conceptualize the dynamics between power and trust by differentiating coercive and legitimate power and reason-based and implicit trust. Insights into this dynamic are derived from an integration of a wide range of literature such as on organizational behavior and social influence. Conclusions on the effect of the dynamics between power and trust on the interaction climate between authorities and individuals and subsequent individual motivation of cooperation in social dilemmas such as tax contributions are drawn. Practically, the assumptions on the dynamics can be utilized by authorities to increase cooperation and to change the interaction climate from an antagonistic climate to a service and confidence climate.

  19. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on children’s reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children’s reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children’s reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers h...

  20. Directed Motivational Currents: Using vision to create effective motivational pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Muir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vision, that is, the mental representation of the sensory experience of a future goal state (involving imagination and imagery, is currently at the forefront of motivational innovation, and in recent years it has been seen increasingly more often in the motivational tool kit of practicing language teachers. Theories such as Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self system have explored the power that creating effective visions can harness (see, e.g., Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014 and when viewed in conjunction with other current research avenues, such as future time perspective and dynamic systems theory, vision offers exciting potential. A Directed Motivational Current is a new motivational construct that we suggest is capable of integrating many current theoretical strands with vision: It can be described as a motivational drive which energises long-term, sustained behaviour (such as language learning, and through placing vision and goals as critical central components within this construct, it offers real and practical motivational potential. In this conceptual paper, we first discuss current understandings of vision and of Directed Motivational Currents, and then analyse how they may be optimally integrated and employed to create effective motivational pathways in language learning environments.

  1. Employee Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Charles H.

    1971-01-01

    Motivation is an area which has received some systematic psychological study only in the past seventy years. It is the purpose of this article to explore and examine some of the knowledge that has been acquired and to see how this knowledge may be applied. (24 references) (Author/NH)

  2. Utilizing Response to Intervention (RtI) as a Means of Studying Capacity Building and Motivation of Staff by School Leadership Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    This research study explored the concept of capacity building and motivation of staff by school leadership teams in the successful development and implementation of educational initiatives, specifically Response to Intervention (RtI). A great deal of scholarship has addressed leadership and its effect on motivation, but few studies have…

  3. Decrease in the damage of powerful turbogenerator stator caused by vibration in the end zones (analysis, hypotheses, experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Shumilov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the turbogenerators’ TВВ-1000-2Y3 failure has shown that the most vulnerable link in the stator is such of their elements as tightening prisms, the teeth of the end packet core, lead-out and connecting buses of the stator winding. The basic reason for the destruction of the elements mentioned is metal fatigue caused by excessive vibration under the influence of variable axial forces of electromagnetic origin. Preventing the destruction of the structural elements may be achieved by vibration monitoring and diagnostics.

  4. Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fibers BUsing Asymmetric Core Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Chun-Liu; Lu Chao; Yan Min; Wang Xiaoyan; Lou Junjun; Li Qin; Zhou Xiaoqun; Cai Qing; P.R.Chaudhuri

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber by utilizing the asymmetric core design. Based on spectral measurements of the polarization mode interfering, we estimate that the fiber has a beat length of about 0.33 mm at 1545 nm.

  5. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  6. The Role of Motivation in Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉红

    2004-01-01

    The role of motivation in language learning has been studied since the 1960s. It is indeed one of the most important areas of linguistics. This paper suggests strategies of motivating language learners and focuses on the role which motivation can play in language learning. The concept of motivation from different points of view is defined, a number of suggestions on how to motivate language learners are presented and the role of motivation based on various motivational theories are highlighted. With regard to the role of motivation in language learning, it is concluded that motivation plays an increasingly important role in many aspects, such as identifying with the target language society, achieving long-term and short-term goals, improving language learners' internal and external powers and exerting a group force. It also indicates that there should be more research areas to be examined and a long way is probably requlred to go in future theoretical and practical study.

  7. Motivation and library management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  8. Statistical Classification of Cascading Failures in Power Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Pfitzner, René; Chertkov, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new microscopic model of the outages in transmission power grids. This model accounts for the automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when the optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, initiated by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascadi...

  9. Simulation of Reactive Power Imbalances in the Transmission Power Grid Threatened by the Problem of Voltage Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lis; Mirosław Łabuzek

    2013-01-01

    The reactive power balance in the transmission power grid depends on the reactive power produced by the power stations and the value generated by the capacitive power lines and static compensators. Reactive transmission losses become greater than shunt capacitive generation at the turning-point of voltage stability. Then lowering bus voltages drive EPS into voltage collapse point. The paper presents the balance of reactive power depending on the power demand growth, which is then used to esti...

  10. Motivational Interviewing delivered by existing prison staff: a randomized controlled study of effectiveness on substance use after release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Lars Georg; Ernst, Denise; Sundqvist, Kristina; Farbring, Carl Åke

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 296 drug-using inmates in 14 Swedish prisons was randomized during 2004-2006 into three intervention groups; Motivational Interviewing delivered by counselors with workshop-only training, or by counselors with workshop training followed by peer group supervision, and controls. Drug and alcohol use was measured by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) at intake and at 10 months after release. Complete data from 114 clients were analyzed by a stepwise regression analysis. All three groups reduced alcohol and drug use. Limitations in the study are discussed and future research is suggested. The study is financed by grants from the Research Committee of the National Prison and Probation Administration.

  11. From W7-X to a HELIAS fusion power plant: motivation and options for an intermediate-step burning-plasma stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmer, F.; Beidler, C. D.; Dinklage, A.; Wolf, R.; The W7-X Team

    2016-07-01

    As a starting point for a more in-depth discussion of a research strategy leading from Wendelstein 7-X to a HELIAS power plant, the respective steps in physics and engineering are considered from different vantage points. The first approach discusses the direct extrapolation of selected physics and engineering parameters. This is followed by an examination of advancing the understanding of stellarator optimisation. Finally, combining a dimensionless parameter approach with an empirical energy confinement time scaling, the necessary development steps are highlighted. From this analysis it is concluded that an intermediate-step burning-plasma stellarator is the most prudent approach to bridge the gap between W7-X and a HELIAS power plant. Using a systems code approach in combination with transport simulations, a range of possible conceptual designs is analysed. This range is exemplified by two bounding cases, a fast-track, cost-efficient device with low magnetic field and without a blanket and a device similar to a demonstration power plant with blanket and net electricity power production.

  12. Racionalização do uso de força motriz em fábrica de ração Management of motive power use in animal feed industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Teixeira

    2005-08-01

    granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pi Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%. To achieve this goal it is also necessary: (i to adjust relays and to choose fuses, (ii to schedule operation and (iii to build storage facilities.

  13. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  14. Measuring adolescent science motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-02-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ('Gymnasium') completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one criterion, extracted a loading pattern, which in principle, followed the SMQ-II frame. Two items were dropped due to inappropriate loadings. The remaining SMQ-II seems to provide a consistent scale matching the findings in literature. Nevertheless, also possible shortcomings of the scale are discussed. Data showed a higher perceived self-determination in girls which seems compensated by their lower self-efficacy beliefs leading to equality of females and males in overall science motivation scores. Additionally, the Big Five personality traits and science motivation components show little relationship.

  15. Assessing implicit motives in U.S. college students: effects of picture type and position, gender and ethnicity, and cross-cultural comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Joyce S; Schultheiss, Oliver C

    2005-12-01

    We assessed implicit needs for power, achievement, and affiliation in 323 U.S. college students using a Picture Story Exercise (PSE; McClelland, Koestner, & Weinberger, 1989) consisting of 6 picture cues and Winter's (1994) content coding system. Picture cues differed markedly in the amount of motive imagery they elicited and picture motive profiles closely resembled those reported by Schultheiss and Brunstein (2001) for a German student sample. Picture position influenced the expression of power and affiliation motivation, with affiliation motivation being most strongly expressed at the beginning and power motivation being most strongly expressed in the middle of the PSE. Women had higher affiliation motive scores than men. Asian Americans had higher affiliation motive scores than Whites, and African Americans had higher levels of achievement motivation than Asian Americans or Whites. PSE motive measures showed little or no overlap with questionnaire measures of impulsivity and anxiety (Behavioral Inhibition System-Behavioral Activation System scales; Carver & White, 1994) or specific motivational orientations (Personality Research Form; Jackson, 1984). Comparisons with Schultheiss and Brunstein's (2001) German sample indicate that U.S. students have higher achievement motivation and lower power motivation and activity inhibition scores than German students.

  16. Improving flood risk communication by focusing on prevention-focused motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Botzen, W J Wouter; Terpstra, Teun

    2014-02-01

    This article proposes an approach to flood risk communication that gives particular emphasis to the distinction between prevention and promotion motivation. According to E. Tory Higgins, the promotion system and the prevention system are assumed to coexist in every person, but one or the other may be temporarily or chronically more accessible. These insights have far-reaching implications for our understanding of people's reasoning about risks. Flood risk communication framed in terms of prevention involves the notions of chance and harm, woven into a story about particular events that necessitate decisions to be more careful about safety issues and protect one's family and oneself from danger. The article describes how the insights worked out in practice, using a flood risk communication experiment among a sample from the general population in a highly populated river delta of the Netherlands. It had a posttest-only control group design (n = 2,302). The results showed that risk communication had a large effect on the participants' responses and that this effect was higher among chronic prevention-focused people than among others. Any information that increased the fit between a prevention-framed message and a person's chronic prevention motivation produced stronger situationally induced, prevention-focused responses. This may significantly improve communication about risks. In contrast, the notion of water city projects, featuring waterside living, had more appeal to promotion-focused people.

  17. Development of goal-directed action selection guided by intrinsic motivations: an experiment with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Focaroli, Valentina; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Di Pino, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Keller, Flavio

    2014-07-01

    Action selection is extremely important, particularly when the accomplishment of competitive tasks may require access to limited motor resources. The spontaneous exploration of the world plays a fundamental role in the development of this capacity, providing subjects with an increasingly diverse set of opportunities to acquire, practice and refine the understanding of action-outcome connection. The computational modeling literature proposed a number of specific mechanisms for autonomous agents to discover and target interesting outcomes: intrinsic motivations hold a central importance among those mechanisms. Unfortunately, the study of the acquisition of action-outcome relation was mostly carried out with experiments involving extrinsic tasks, either based on rewards or on predefined task goals. This work presents a new experimental paradigm to study the effect of intrinsic motivation on action-outcome relation learning and action selection during free exploration of the world. Three- and four-year-old children were observed during the free exploration of a new toy: half of them were allowed to develop the knowledge concerning its functioning; the other half were not allowed to learn anything. The knowledge acquired during the free exploration of the toy was subsequently assessed and compared.

  18. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. D.; Deyoung, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of beaming power from synchronous lunar orbits (the L1 and L2 Lagrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover is addressed. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor, the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometries, power needs, missions, and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with onboard power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  19. Performance and Analysis of Reactive Power Compensation by Unified Power Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Kumari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC is the most versatile of the FACTS controllers envisaged so far. The main function of the UPFC is to control the flow of real and reactive power by injection of a voltage in series with the transmission line. Both the magnitude and the phase angle of the voltage can be varied independently. Real and Reactive power flow control can allow for power flow in prescribed routes, loading of transmission lines close to their thermal limits and can be utilized for improving transient and small signal stability of the power system. In this paper UPFC is incorporated in a SMIB (Single Machine Infinite Bus system and the response of SMIB system has been recorded with and without UPFC, thereafter the comparison of both the output has been done. When no UPFC is installed, real and reactive power through the transmission line cannot be controlled. This paper presents control and performance of UPFC intended for installation on that transmission line to control power flow. Installing the UPFC makes it possible to control amount of active power flowing through the line. Simulations are carried out using MATLAB software to validate the performance of the UPFC.

  20. Differential role of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons in reward seeking motivated by cocaine versus palatable food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fardon, Rémi; Cauvi, Gabrielle; Kerr, Tony M; Weiss, Friedbert

    2016-08-24

    Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin (Orx/Hcrt) neurons are thought to mediate both food-reinforced behaviors and behavior motivated by drugs of abuse. However, the relative role of the Orx/Hcrt system in behavior motivated by food versus drugs of abuse remains unclear. This investigation addressed this question by contrasting hypothalamic Orx/Hcrt neuronal activation associated with reinstatement of reward seeking induced by stimuli conditioned to cocaine (COC) versus highly palatable food reward, sweetened condensed milk (SCM). Orx/Hcrt neuronal activation in the lateral hypothalamus, dorsomedial hypothalamus and perifornical area, determined by dual c-fos/orx immunocytochemistry, was quantified in rat brains, following reinstatement of reward seeking induced by a discriminative stimulus (S(+) ) conditioned to COC or SCM. The COC S(+) and SCM S(+) initially produced the same magnitude of reward seeking. However, over four subsequent tests, behavior induced by the SCM S(+) decreased to extinction levels, whereas reinstatement induced by the COC S(+) perseverated at undiminished levels. Following both the first and fourth tests, the percentage of Orx/Hcrt cells expressing Fos was significantly increased in all hypothalamic subregions in rats tested with the COC S(+) but not rats tested with the SCM S(+) . These findings point toward a role for the Orx/Hcrt system in perseverating, compulsive-like COC seeking but not behavior motivated by palatable food. Moreover, analysis of the Orx/Hcrt recruitment patterns suggests that failure of Orx/Hcrt neurons in the lateral hypothalamus to respond to inhibitory inputs from Orx/Hcrt neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus/perifornical area may contribute to the perseverating nature of COC seeking.

  1. On the Motivation Mechanism of Training Higher VocationalStudents’Soft Power%略论高职学生软实力培养的动力机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛宝志

    2016-01-01

    培养高职生软实力是当前高职教育的重要使命。高职院校不仅要构建高职生软实力培养的内部动力系统,充分发挥目标引导力、制度激励力、实践推动力和环境渗透力,而且要利用政府、企业、社会和家庭的力量,完善高职生软实力培养的外部动力系统,为高职生软实力培育提供政策支持、企业助力、社会影响和家庭教育。%Training the soft power of higher vocational students is the important mission of higher vocational e-ducation . Higher vocational colleges should not only build the inner power system of training the soft power of higher vocational students,giving full play to the target guidance,system motivation,practical impetus and environment penetration,but also make good use of the power of the government,enterprises,society and family to improve the external power system of training the soft power of higher vocational students,which can provide policy support, corporate power,social influence and family education for training the soft power of higher vocational students.

  2. High-speed extended-term time-domain simulation for online cascading analysis of power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuan

    A high-speed extended-term (HSET) time domain simulator (TDS), intended to become a part of an energy management system (EMS), has been newly developed for use in online extended-term dynamic cascading analysis of power systems. HSET-TDS includes the following attributes for providing situational awareness of high-consequence events: (i) online analysis, including n-1 and n-k events, (ii) ability to simulate both fast and slow dynamics for 1-3 hours in advance, (iii) inclusion of rigorous protection-system modeling, (iv) intelligence for corrective action ID, storage, and fast retrieval, and (v) high-speed execution. Very fast on-line computational capability is the most desired attribute of this simulator. Based on the process of solving algebraic differential equations describing the dynamics of power system, HSET-TDS seeks to develop computational efficiency at each of the following hierarchical levels, (i) hardware, (ii) strategies, (iii) integration methods, (iv) nonlinear solvers, and (v) linear solver libraries. This thesis first describes the Hammer-Hollingsworth 4 (HH4) implicit integration method. Like the trapezoidal rule, HH4 is symmetrically A-Stable but it possesses greater high-order precision (h4 ) than the trapezoidal rule. Such precision enables larger integration steps and therefore improves simulation efficiency for variable step size implementations. This thesis provides the underlying theory on which we advocate use of HH4 over other numerical integration methods for power system time-domain simulation. Second, motivated by the need to perform high speed extended-term time domain simulation (HSET-TDS) for on-line purposes, this thesis presents principles for designing numerical solvers of differential algebraic systems associated with power system time-domain simulation, including DAE construction strategies (Direct Solution Method), integration methods(HH4), nonlinear solvers(Very Dishonest Newton), and linear solvers(SuperLU). We have

  3. Development of Electric Power Units Driven by Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Takeuchi, Takao; Kaneko, Atsushi; Uchimura, Tomoyuki; Irie, Kiichi; Watanabe, Hiroyoshi

    For the development of a simple and compact power generator driven by waste heat, working fluids and an expander were studied, then a practical electric power unit was put to test. Many working fluids were calculated with the low temperature power cycle (evaporated at 77°C, condensed at 42°C),and TFE,R123,R245fa were selected to be suitable for the cycle. TFE(Trifluoroethanol CF3CH2OH) was adopted to the actual power generator which was tested. A radial turbine was adopted as an expander, and was newly designed and manufactured for working fluid TFE. The equipment was driven by hot water as heat source and cooling water as cooling source, and generated power was connected with electric utility. Characteristics of the power generating cycle and characteristics of the turbine were obtained experimentally.

  4. Power gets you high: the powerful are more inspired by themselves than by others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.; Oveis, C.; Homan, A.C.; van der Löwe, I.; Keltner, D.

    2015-01-01

    Inspiration is a source of admirable creation—but where do people get it from? We propose that power allows individuals to draw inspiration from the self. Four studies involving different social settings and operationalizations support this idea. Study 1 revealed that greater power is associated wit

  5. Context-based science education by newspaper story problems: A study on motivation and learning effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Kuhn

    2014-01-01

    In a quasi-experimental comparison of 6 physics classes of secondary level 1 (N=122; grade 10, topic: energy learning with newspaper based problems vs. conventional textbook problems (same content, lesson plan and teacher showed considerable positive effects. This holds for general motivation, including several subscales (p<0.01, ω2=0.52 as well as for achievement, including transfer (p<0.01, ω2=0.20. Moreover, these results show robustness towards to various individual and classroom features (e.g. gender, non-verbal intelligence and school type, and at least mid-term temporal stability. Newspaper story problems thus appear as a useful element of context-based science teaching.

  6. [Reply to “Wasting public money?” by Judith Totman] Politically motivated request?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Raymond S.

    Judith Totman Parrish (Forum,Eos, 86(32), 9 August 2005, p. 294) asks Thomas Crowley to provide evidence that the U.S. Rep. Joe Barton's (R.-N.Y) request for information from me, and from my colleagues Michael Mann and Malcolm Hughes, was politically motivated.Among a host of items, here are some of the things Barton specifically asked for: “…all financial support you have received related to your research, including, but not limited to, all private, state, and federal assistance, grants, contracts (including subgrants or subcontracts), or other financial awards or honoraria…the location of all data archives relating to each published study for which you were an author or co-author… [a list of all] requests…you or your co-authors [have] received for data relating to the climate change studies, what was your response, and why?”

  7. Motivated by meaning: testing the effect of knowledge-infused rewards on preschoolers' persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Aubry L; Booth, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    Research and theory suggest that young children are highly attuned to causality. This study explores whether this drive can motivate task engagement. Fifty-six 3- and 4-year-olds completed a motor task as many times as desired, viewing a picture of a novel item upon each completion. Forty-two randomly assigned children then received either: (a) causally rich information regarding the item, (b) causally weak information regarding the item, or (c) a tangible reward. The remaining 14 children participated in a baseline condition featuring no rewards. Preschoolers completed more trials when rewarded with causally rich than causally weak information, or when given no reward. Children also trended toward lengthier persistence in the causally rich than the tangible reward condition. Implications for theory and educational practice are discussed.

  8. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Kasturi, S. [MOS, Inc., Melville, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant`s electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant`s protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well.

  9. Local orbitals by minimizing powers of the orbital variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Kristensen, Kasper;

    2011-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a set of local orthonormal Hartree–Fock (HF) molecular orbitals can be obtained for both the occupied and virtual orbital spaces by minimizing powers of the orbital variance using the trust-region algorithm. For a power exponent equal to one, the Boys localization function...... is obtained. For increasing power exponents, the penalty for delocalized orbitals is increased and smaller maximum orbital spreads are encountered. Calculations on superbenzene, C60, and a fragment of the titin protein show that for a power exponent equal to one, delocalized outlier orbitals may...

  10. Modelling and Simulation of VSC-HVDC Connection for Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling and simulation of offshore wind power plants (WPP) connected to the onshore power system grid by VSC based HVDC transmission. Offshore wind power plant is modelled with several wind turbine generators connected to two separate collector buses with their own plant...... step-up transformers. VSC's are modelled using ideal IGBT switches supplied by the gate pulses from their respective controllers. A sequence of operation has been simulated from the starting up of the VSC-HVDC transmission, energizing the offshore grid and subsequent synchronization of the individual...... wind turbines. Simulation of power ramping up and down as well as steady state operation has been demonstrated. As an additional case, the primary reserve control logic has been implemented and simulated in PSCAD model....

  11. A General Overview of Motivation in Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王航

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the term of motivation in linguistics study has aroused the interests of scholars. Different studies of mo -tivation have been produced by different scholars. In this paper, the writer organizes the recent studies on motivation in linguistics. the paper is divided into three parts, the introduction of the term motivation, different types of motivation, and theories of moti -vation.

  12. Reactive power compensation of wind energy conversion system by using Unified Power Flow Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdarevic, N.; Majstrovic, M. [Energy Inst. Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia); Andersson, G. [ETH-Zentrum, Zurich (Switzerland). Power Systems Lab.

    2005-07-01

    Voltage control and reactive power compensation in a distribution network with embedded Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) represents the main concern of this paper. The WECS is a fixed speed/constant frequency system that is equipped with an induction generator driven by an unregulated wind turbine. The problem is viewed from short-term (10 seconds), mid-term (10 minutes) and long-term (48 hours) time domain responses of the system to different changes of wind speed and load daily cycles. Being disturbed by a variable wind speed, the WECS injects variable active and reactive power into the distribution network exposing nearby consumers to excessive voltage changes. In the FACTS-based solution approach, the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is used at the point of the WECS network connection to help solve technical issues related to voltage support and series reactive power flow control. (Author)

  13. Minimizing Power Consumption by Personal Computers: A Technical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gupta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the demand of “Green Computing”, which represents an environmentally responsible way of reducing power consumption, and involves various environmental issues such as waste management and greenhouse gases is increasing explosively. We have laid great emphasis on the need to minimize power consumption and heat dissipation by computer systems, as well as the requirement for changing the current power scheme options in their operating systems (OS. In this paper, we have provided a comprehensive technical review of the existing, though challenging, work on minimizing power consumption by computer systems, by utilizing various approaches, and emphasized on the software approach by making use of dynamic power management as it is used by most of the OSs in their power scheme configurations, seeking a better understanding of the power management schemes and current issues, and future directions in this field. Herein, we review the various approaches and techniques, including hardware, software, the central processing unit (CPU usage and algorithmic approaches for power economy. On the basis of analysis and observations, we found that this area still requires a lot of work, and needs to be focused towards some new intelligent approaches so that human inactivity periods for computer systems could be reduced intelligently.

  14. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...

  15. Wind Power Plant Prediction by Using Neural Networks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wan, Y. H.; Muljadi, E.

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a method of short-term wind power prediction for a wind power plant by training neural networks based on historical data of wind speed and wind direction. The model proposed is shown to achieve a high accuracy with respect to the measured data.

  16. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  17. Gambling kick or content motivation - what is really initialized by the introduction of software into medical biometry lessons???

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krummenauer, Frank

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Bachground: Teaching statistics to members of non-mathematical disciplines becomes increasingly based on the involvement of interactive learning software. The latter is expected to both increase understanding and motivation and thereby as well studential acceptance. The teaching model implemented at the Medical Biometry Department in Mainz will be used to consider the value of introducing an interactive software like SPSS® into biometry lessons by means of studential evaluations.Methods: After an introductory lecture series, the participants of the Medical Biometry (formerly "Biomathematics" practical courses are requested to solve real data exercises by means of the software SPSS®, where each lessons aims to the derivation of a result synopsis summarizing the results of the performed statistical analyses. In summer 2002 the students of this course were asked to fill out a standardized teaching quality assessment questionnaire on the acceptance of the previous lecture series, the practical course lessons and the involvement of the software.Results: Between the 7 parallel courses the fraction of students reporting "good management with SPSS" varies between 43% and 88% (pooled estimate 58%, but among these students only 30% report a good / very good understanding of the lessons' context and only 15% a good / very good learning effect. Among students with "problems in SPSS management" these fractions both turned out 13%. Among the students with "good management with SPSS", however, 70% considered the understanding during the lecture series as good / very good, 73% reported a good / very good learning effect for the lectures; among the other students both fractions were 13%. These subgrupus only differed significantly for the questionnaire dimension "content motivation" (Likelihood Ratio p<0.001 after correction for teacher effects. Neither the lessons' structure (p=0.362, their relation to the introductory lecture series (p=0.165 nor the teachers

  18. Local Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    CERN Document Server

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the re...

  19. Motivating Factors in Guidance Publications by Ibovespa Companies and Their Conformity to CODIM’s Guideline Statement 04/2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Macedo Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for resources in the national capital market grows, there is a stronger necessity by companies to release result prospects in order to keep or attract new investors. The guidance, a publication of future results, appears in this scenario as a response to this trend. In this perspective, the research investigates probable motivating factors in the publication of guidance by Ibovespa companies, while assessing their response to CODIM’s 04/2008 statement. The investigation comprehended factors related to institutional environments (listing segment at BM&FBovespa and listing of actions in foreign stock exchanges and three groups of interest (suppliers, employees and investors. Qualitative in nature, this exploratory research has used the technique of content analysis. After analyzing the reference forms from 62 companies, it was possible to verify the disclosure of guidances, in 2010, of 26 of them, or 41.9% of the Ibovespa index. The results indicate that the factors analyzed were considered motivational in the evidencing of future result perspectives and the guidance publications, as recommended by the Institutional Theory and the Theory of Stakeholders. These results suggest that the surveyed companies provide information on future estimates to maintain or ensure its legitimacy in the market and towards its stakeholders. However, the content analysis showed that the guidance published by the companies do not meet in a satisfactory way the Statement 04/2008.

  20. Is Love Right? Prefrontal Resting Brain Asymmetry is Related to the Affiliation Motive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eQuirin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on relationships between affective-motivational traits and hemispheric asymmetries in resting frontal alpha band power as measured by electroencephalography (EEG has focused on individual differences in motivational direction (approach vs. withdrawal or behavioral activation. The present study investigated resting frontal alpha asymmetries in 72 participants as a function of individual differences in the implicit affiliation motive as measured with the operant motive test (OMT and explored the brain source thereof. As predicted, relative right frontal activity as indexed by increased alpha band suppression was related to the implicit affiliation motive. No relationships were found for explicit personality measures. Intracranial current density distributions of alpha based on Variable Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (VARETA source estimations suggests that the source of cortical alpha distribution is located within the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC. The present results are discussed with respect to differential roles of the two hemispheres in social motivation.

  1. Bridging The Gap Powered By Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    before by having their brain learn to use a prosthesis in much the same way it learned to use a natural limb. This work, coupled with DARPA’s work in...This would allow a plane to dynamically vary its flight envelope while flying, much like a bird , so a single air vehicle could perform multiple

  2. Limitations to photosynthesis by proton motive force-induced photosystem II photodamage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Geoffry A; Kanazawa, Atsuko; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Kohzuma, Kaori; Froehlich, John E; Rutherford, A William; Satoh-Cruz, Mio; Minhas, Deepika; Tietz, Stefanie; Dhingra, Amit; Kramer, David M

    2016-01-01

    The thylakoid proton motive force (pmf) generated during photosynthesis is the essential driving force for ATP production; it is also a central regulator of light capture and electron transfer. We investigated the effects of elevated pmf on photosynthesis in a library of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered rates of thylakoid lumen proton efflux, leading to a range of steady-state pmf extents. We observed the expected pmf-dependent alterations in photosynthetic regulation, but also strong effects on the rate of photosystem II (PSII) photodamage. Detailed analyses indicate this effect is related to an elevated electric field (Δψ) component of the pmf, rather than lumen acidification, which in vivo increased PSII charge recombination rates, producing singlet oxygen and subsequent photodamage. The effects are seen even in wild type plants, especially under fluctuating illumination, suggesting that Δψ-induced photodamage represents a previously unrecognized limiting factor for plant productivity under dynamic environmental conditions seen in the field. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16921.001 PMID:27697149

  3. Hydrogen propulsion systems for transit buses - results of operation in passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipp, E.; Gruber, C. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Advance Development (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Hydrogen is a source of energy which can in the long term play a major role in the energy and transport industries. It can be generated without using fossil products and against the background of ever shorter oil reserves it reduces the supply risks for transport and industry. Further advantages of hydrogen as a fuel for motor vehicles are its potential for reduction of greenhouse gases and pollutants from traffic. The hydrogen project at Munich airport aims to demonstrate the technical feasibility of autonomous hydrogen generation combined with operation of vehicles. MAN is participating in this project with two low-floor articulated buses with hydrogen engines. A further vehicles from Neoplan has also been fitted with MAN H{sub 2} driveline technology. The vehicles will be used for carrying passengers on the airport apron from early 1999 to the end of 2000 and are expected to supply important information on the use of hydrogen in day-to-day transport. (orig.)

  4. Power Management Strategy by Enhancing the Mission Profile Configuration of Solar-Powered Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy Rajendran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy offers solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV the possibility of unlimited endurance. Some researchers have developed techniques to achieve perpetual flight by maximizing the power from the sun and by flying in accordance with its azimuth angles. However, flying in a path that follows the sun consumes more energy to sustain level flight. This study optimizes the overall power ratio by adopting the mission profile configuration of optimal solar energy exploitation. Extensive simulation is conducted to optimize and restructure the mission profile phases of UAV and to determine the optimal phase definition of the start, ascent, and descent periods, thereby maximizing the energy from the sun. In addition, a vertical cylindrical flight trajectory instead of maximizing the solar inclination angle has been adopted. This approach improves the net power ratio by 30.84% compared with other techniques. As a result, the battery weight may be massively reduced by 75.23%. In conclusion, the proposed mission profile configuration with the optimal power ratio of the trajectory of the path planning effectively prolongs UAV operation.

  5. Powered by technology or powering technology?---Belief-based decision-making in nuclear power and synthetic fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Jen

    The overarching question in this study is how and why technical-fixes in energy policy failed. In the post-WWII era, civilian nuclear power and synthetic fuel had both been top priorities on the U.S. national policy agenda during certain periods of time. Nuclear power was promoted and pursued persistently with great urgency for over two decades. In contrast, synthetic fuel policy suffered from boom-and-bust cycles. The juxtaposition of policy histories of nuclear power and synthetic fuel highlights many peculiarities in policymaking. The U.S. government forcefully and consistently endorsed the development of civilian nuclear power for two decades. It adopted policies to establish the competitiveness of civilian nuclear power far beyond what would have occurred under free-market conditions. Even though synthetic fuel was characterized by a similar level of economic potential and technical feasibility, the policy approach toward synthetic fuel was almost the opposite of nuclear power. Political support usually stopped when the development of synthetic fuel technology encountered economic difficulties. The contrast between the unfaltering faith in nuclear power and the indeterminate attitude toward synthetic fuel raises many important questions. I argue that these diverging paths of development can be explained by exploring the dominant government ideology of the time or "ideology of the state" as the sociology literature describes it. The price-determining approach was a result of government preoccupied with fighting the Cold War. The U.S. intentionally idealized and deified nuclear power to serve its Cold War psychological strategy. These psychological maneuverings attached important symbolic meaning to nuclear power. The society-wide enthusiasm and resulting bandwagon market are better understood by taking the role of symbolism in the political arena into account. On the other hand, a "welfare state" ideology that stood behind synthetic fuel was confused

  6. Power system reliability enhancement by using PowerformerTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat-Allah Hooshmand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-voltage generator PowerformerTM is a new generation of the AC generators. The most significant advantages of these PowerformerTM are their direct connection to high-voltage grid, higher availability, and more reactive power margin, short term overloading capacity and removing the power transformer from the structure of the power plant. In this paper, the installation effect of these generators on the power system reliability is investigated. The amount of the effects depends on the type and location of the power plant, location of the PowerformerTM, the size of load and network topology. For this purpose, in the 6-bus IEEE RBTS system, the conventional generators are replaced by these new PowerformerTM and then, the reliability indices are evaluated. The simulation results show that the reliability indices such as the expected duration of load curtailment (EDLC and the expected energy not served (EENS are improved. .

  7. Influence of load by high power on the optical coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Lukas; Poboril, Radek; Vanderka, Ales; Hajek, Lukas; Nedoma, Jan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, aging of the optical components is a very current topic. Therefore, some investigations are focused on this area, so that the aging of the optical components is accelerated by thermal, high power and gamma load. This paper deals by findings of the influence of the load by laser with high optical power on the transmission parameters of the optical coupler. The investigated coupler has one input and eight outputs (1x8). Load by laser with high optical power is realized using a fiber laser with a cascade configuration EDFA amplifiers. The output power of the amplifier is approximately 250 mW. Duration of the load is moving from 104 hours to 139 hours. After each load, input power and output powers of all branches are measured. Following parameters of the optical coupler are calculated using formulas: the insertion losses of the individual branches, split ratio, total losses, homogeneity of the losses and cross-talk between different branches. All measurements are performed at wavelengths 1310 nm and 1550 nm. Individual optical powers are measured 20 times, due to the exclusion of statistical error of the measurement. After measuring, the coupler is connected to the amplifier for next cycle of the load. The paper contains an evaluation of the results of the coupler before and after four cycles of the burden.

  8. Environmental Participation and Environmental Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno; María A. García Valiñas; Macintyre, Alison

    2009-01-01

    We explore whether environmental motivation affects environmental behavior by focusing on volunteering. The paper first introduces a theoretical model of volunteering in environmental organizations. In a next step, it tests the hypothesis working with a large micro data set covering 32 countries from both Western and Eastern Europe using several different proxies to measure environmental motivation. Our results indicate that environmental motivation has a strong impact on individuals? volunta...

  9. Interval timing, dopamine, and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Balcı, Fuat

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine clock hypothesis suggests that the dopamine level determines the speed of the hypothetical internal clock. However, dopaminergic function has also been implicated for motivation and thus the effect of dopaminergic manipulations on timing behavior might also be independently mediated by altered motivational state. Studies that investigated the effect of motivational manipulations on peak responding are reviewed in this paper. The majority of these studies show that a higher reward...

  10. MOTIVATION IN ADAPTED SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Torralba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the motivation for practice of sport of people with disabilities that form part to a federated sport.The sample was composed of 134 athletes of both genders and different disabilities.The “Participation Motivation Inventory Questionnaire” by Gill, Gross and Huddleston was used. The instrument was adapted to Paralympic sport and describes the main reasons that encourage the sports activity practice. The results haven´t found significant difference between men´s and women´s or between blind - visually impaired physical and motor disabilities. About the motivation of the practice of sport, worth highlighting the importance given to factors of fitness and health, like sport practice, improve the level, to compete, feel good and have fun, well above being popular, influenced by coaches or satisfy to parents.

  11. Automated Motivic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    of the successive notes and intervals, various sets of musical parameters may be invoked. In this chapter, a method is presented that allows for these heterogeneous patterns to be discovered. Motivic repetition with local ornamentation is detected by reconstructing, on top of “surface-level” monodic voices, longer...... for lossless compression. The structural complexity resulting from successive repetitions of patterns can be controlled through a simple modelling of cycles. Generally, motivic patterns cannot always be defined solely as sequences of descriptions in a fixed set of dimensions: throughout the descriptions......-term relations between non-adjacent notes related to deeper structures, and by tracking motives on the resulting syntagmatic network. These principles are integrated into a computational framework, the MiningSuite, developed in Matlab....

  12. VOLTAGE STABILITY IMPROVEMENT IN POWER SYSTEM BY USING STATCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.ANBARASAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Voltage stability problems usually occur in heavily loaded systems. Nowadays the power demand increases enormously, hence in a large interconnected power system network subject to stress conditions. This situation can be handled by increasing the generation or reducing the transmission losses. When the load increases suddenly, voltage magnitude also varies beyond the permissible voltage stability limit. But the voltage magnitude must be maintained within the limit for proper operation of the system. Hence, voltage stability must be improved by providing suitable reactive power compensation. The proposed work was analyzed using IEEE 14 bus test system. The STATCOM improves the voltage stability margin of the system.

  13. Gov't to Spur Consumption by Increasing Purchasing Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua

    2005-01-01

      The Chinese central government aims to spur domestic consump tion by increasing consumer purchasing power in the coming years in a bid to continue maintaining a steady development of the nation's economy.……

  14. Gov't to Spur Consumption by Increasing Purchasing Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Chinese central government aims to spur domestic consump tion by increasing consumer purchasing power in the coming years in a bid to continue maintaining a steady development of the nation's economy.

  15. DC-DC power converter research for Orbiter/Station power exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, M.

    1993-01-01

    This project was to produce innovative DC-DC power converter concepts which are appropriate for the power exchange between the Orbiter and the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The new converters must interface three regulated power buses on SSF, which are at different voltages, with three fuel cell power buses on the Orbiter which can be at different voltages and should be tracked independently. Power exchange is to be bi-directional between the SSF and the Orbiter. The new converters must satisfy the above operational requirements with better weight, volume, efficiency, and reliability than is available from the present conventional technology. Two families of zero current DC-DC converters were developed and successfully adapted to this application. Most of the converters developed are new and are presented.

  16. Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Adam M

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have obtained conflicting results about the role of prosocial motivation in persistence, performance, and productivity. To resolve this discrepancy, I draw on self-determination theory, proposing that prosocial motivation is most likely to predict these outcomes when it is accompanied by intrinsic motivation. Two field studies support the hypothesis that intrinsic motivation moderates the association between prosocial motivation and persistence, performance, and productivity. In Study 1, intrinsic motivation strengthened the relationship between prosocial motivation and the overtime hour persistence of 58 firefighters. In Study 2, intrinsic motivation strengthened the relationship between prosocial motivation and the performance and productivity of 140 fundraising callers. Callers who reported high levels of both prosocial and intrinsic motivations raised more money 1 month later, and this moderated association was mediated by a larger number of calls made. I discuss implications for theory and research on work motivation.

  17. THE EFFECT OF MOTIVATION ON PURCHASING INTENTION OF ONLINE GAMES AND VIRTUAL ITEMS PROVIDED BY ONLINE GAME PROVIDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisca Stefany

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of online games is so high that leads many companies to compose games. To increase competitiveness, extra service is needed for the customers. Before giving service, online games provider has to know what factor that motivates player to buy online games and virtual items that are presented in order to increase competitiveness. The research is done by using case of online games perfect world, where the area of respondents is Jakarta and the age ranges between 15 to 24. This research involves survey for 186 respondents in which 30 respondents are for pilot test while 156 are for actual test. The data processing is used SEM which the measurement variables consist of effort expectancy, performance expectancy, perceived value, enjoyment story, enjoyment length, enjoyment graphic, enjoyment control, customization, purchase intention and actual purchase behavior. The result of research shows that motivation factor that has high effect to purchase intention is perceived value, enjoyment story, enjoyment length, enjoyment control and customization. While, purchase intention affects actual purchase behavior significantly

  18. A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Kathryn E; Shafi, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players' optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots.

  19. A Game Theoretic Framework for Incentive-Based Models of Intrinsic Motivation in Artificial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Elizabeth Merrick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players’ optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots.

  20. Modeling of Electric Power Consumption by Industrial Enterprises with Ambiguous Interrelation between Power Consumption and Report Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Moroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives description of a method for modeling electric power consumption by industrial enterprises with a complicated technological process that differs in accounting parameters of power consumption distribution laws and volume of output. The proposed method permits reliably to evaluate specific technological consumption of electric power and a direct component of electric power consumption.

  1. Enhancement of Distributed Generation by Using Custom Power Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kishor V. Bhadane; M. S. Ballal; R. M. Moharil

    2015-01-01

    Abstract-Wind energy (WE) has become immensely popular for distributed generation (DG). This case presents the monitoring, modeling, control, and analysis of the two-level three-phase WE based DG system where the electric grid interfacing custom power device (CPD) is controlled to perform the smart exchanging of electric power as per the Indian grid code. WE is connected to DC link of CPD for the grid integration purpose. The CPD based distributed static compensator, i.e. the distributed static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM), is utilized for injecting the wind power to the point of common coupling (PCC) and also acts against the reactive power demand. The novel indirect current control scheme of DSTATCOM regulates the power import and export between the WE and the electric grid system. It also acts as a compensator and performs both the key features simultaneously. Hence, the penetration of additional generated WE power to the grid is increased by 20% to 25%. The burden of reactive power compensation from grid is reduced by DSTATCOM. The modeling and simulation are done in MATLAB. The results are validated and verified.

  2. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    CERN Document Server

    Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design de...

  3. Combined heat and power economic dispatch by harmony search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasebi, A.; Bathaee, S.M.T. [Power System Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, 322-Mirdamad Avenue West, 19697 Tehran (Iran); Fesanghary, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424-Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-12-15

    The optimal utilization of multiple combined heat and power (CHP) systems is a complicated problem that needs powerful methods to solve. This paper presents a harmony search (HS) algorithm to solve the combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem. The HS algorithm is a recently developed meta-heuristic algorithm, and has been very successful in a wide variety of optimization problems. The method is illustrated using a test case taken from the literature as well as a new one proposed by authors. Numerical results reveal that the proposed algorithm can find better solutions when compared to conventional methods and is an efficient search algorithm for CHPED problem. (author)

  4. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. The Influence of Job Motivation versus Downsizing on Individual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalajas, David S.; Bommer, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Engineers (n=146) who survived downsizing participated in a study of intrinsic motivation and effects of past downsizing and threat of future downsizing. Job motivation was a more powerful influence on job behavior than fear of downsizing. (SK)

  6. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  7. RESOLVEMENT OF POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS BY UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER (UPQC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Rohini. R. Dabhade*, Prof. C. Veeresh

    2016-01-01

    In this project presents a Design of a Unified Power Quality conditioner (UPQC) connected to three phase four wire system (3P4W). The neutral of series transformer used in the fourth wire for the 3P4W system. The neutral current that may flow toward transformer neutral point is compensated by using a four-leg voltage source inverter topology for shunt part. The series transformer neutral will be at virtual zero potential during all operating conditions. In this simulation we observe the power...

  8. Augmentation of Real & Reactive Power in Grid by Unified Power Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Rajasekar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Power Flow Control in transmission line with respect to voltage condition (L-G, L-L-G, L-L over come by using unified power flow controller. The existing system employs UPFC with transformer less connection with both series and shunt converter. This converter have been cascaded with multilevel inverters which is more complicated to enhance the performance of UPFC.A proposed system consist of three terminal transformer for shunt converter and six terminal transformer for series converter. Shunt converter & series converter is coupled with common DC capacitor. DC link capacitor voltage is maintained using PID controller and synchronous reference frame theory (SRF is used to generate reference voltage & current signal. Simulation studies are carried out for (L-G, L-L-G, L-L real & reactive power compensation results will be shown in this paper.

  9. Are Radio AGN Powered by Accretion or Black Hole Spin?

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, B R; Nulsen, P E J

    2010-01-01

    We compare accretion and black hole spin as potential energy sources for outbursts from AGN in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). We find that the distribution of AGN power estimated from X-ray cavities is consistent with a broad range of both spin parameter and accretion rate. Sufficient quantities of molecular gas are available in most BCGs to power their AGN by accretion alone. However, we find no correlation between AGN power and molecular gas mass. For a given AGN power, the BCG's gas mass and accretion efficiency vary by more than two orders of magnitude. Most of the molecular gas in BCGs is apparently consumed by star formation or is driven out of the nucleus by the AGN before it reaches the nuclear black hole. Bondi accretion from hot atmospheres is generally unable to fuel powerful AGN, unless their black holes are more massive than their bulge luminosities imply. We identify several powerful AGN that reside in relatively gas-poor galaxies, indicating an unusually efficient mode of accretion, or that...

  10. From appetitive to aversive: motivational interviewing reverses the modulation of the startle reflex by tobacco cues in smokers not ready to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantiva, Carlos; Guerra, Pedro; Vila, Jaime

    2015-03-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a treatment method that has proven effective for increasing motivation to change and decreasing the consumption of different drugs. However, the results of studies examining the impact of MI on tobacco consumption are contradictory. Moreover, evidence of the effectiveness of MI for modifying well-validated psychophysiological indices of motivational change is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to use the startle probe paradigm and self-report measures of motivational change to assess the effectiveness of MI, compared to Prescriptive Advice (PA) and no treatment, in a sample of 53 smokers (28 male) who were not ready to quit smoking. After the intervention, the MI group reported increased motivation to change compared to both the PA and control groups. MI participants also had a potentiated startle reflex in response to tobacco-related pictures compared to the other two groups. These findings provide evidence that MI reverses the underlying motivational system activated by tobacco related cues.

  11. Sequential feasible optimal power flow in power systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN ZhenXiang; JIANG QuanYuan; CAO YiJia

    2009-01-01

    A sequential feasible optimal power flow (OPF) method is developed for large-scale power systems. One of the outstanding features of this method is that it can maintain feasibility for both equality and inequality constraints during iterations. In sequential feasible OPF, every iteration consists of two stages: Objective improving stage and feasibility enforcing stage. Analytical basis for each stage is provided. Numerical studies on various power systems up to 2383 buses indicate that the proposed feasible approach is promising. Compared with the conventional OPF algorithms, such as interior point method, the proposed sequential feasible OPF approach can be terminated at any iteration and yield a feasible operating point simultaneously.

  12. Design of a Mobile Low-Cost Sensor Network Using Urban Buses for Real-Time Ubiquitous Noise Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Alías, Francesc; Angulo, Ignacio

    2016-12-29

    One of the main priorities of smart cities is improving the quality of life of their inhabitants. Traffic noise is one of the pollutant sources that causes a negative impact on the quality of life of citizens, which is gaining attention among authorities. The European Commission has promoted the Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END) to inform citizens and to prevent the harmful effects of noise exposure. The measure of acoustic levels using noise maps is a strategic issue in the END action plan. Noise maps are typically calculated by computing the average noise during one year and updated every five years. Hence, the implementation of dynamic noise mapping systems could lead to short-term plan actions, besides helping to better understand the evolution of noise levels along time. Recently, some projects have started the monitoring of noise levels in urban areas by means of acoustic sensor networks settled in strategic locations across the city, while others have taken advantage of collaborative citizen sensing mobile applications. In this paper, we describe the design of an acoustic low-cost sensor network installed on public buses to measure the traffic noise in the city in real time. Moreover, the challenges that a ubiquitous bus acoustic measurement system entails are enumerated and discussed. Specifically, the analysis takes into account the feature extraction of the audio signal, the identification and separation of the road traffic noise from urban traffic noise, the hardware platform to measure and process the acoustic signal, the connectivity between the several nodes of the acoustic sensor network to store the data and, finally, the noise maps' generation process. The implementation and evaluation of the proposal in a real-life scenario is left for future work.

  13. EDUCATIONALS INTERACTIVE TASKS, MOTIVATION AND LEARNING STRATEGIES, IN PRIMARY EDUCATION, FROM A CURRICULUM MODULATED BY NEW TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Expósito López

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The educational interventions are developing in new field, as the digital or virtual contexts, where there is an increasing complexity for managing information by students. In this case it is as important, from a functional view, the learning of conceptual contents as the aptitude to develop procedures. The teaching of learning strategies, is a response for subjects training in the use of the tools that allow a fluently development to them in very typical situations in these new educational areas, of learning changeable and diverse. The studies that, from diverse perspectives and affecting on several dimensions, denote the benefits of the employment of the TIC's in the educational area are numerous. This work describes the learning strategies that uses a group of student of Primary Education, when they work about educational interactive tasks modulated by the use of the TIC's, also denote the positive influence of this typology of tasks on the motivation of students.

  14. Systems and methods for an integrated electrical sub-system powered by wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Garces, Luis Jose

    2008-06-24

    Various embodiments relate to systems and methods related to an integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system including a wind power source, an electrically-powered sub-system coupled to and at least partially powered by the wind power source, the electrically-powered sub-system being coupled to the wind power source through power converters, and a supervisory controller coupled to the wind power source and the electrically-powered sub-system to monitor and manage the integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system.

  15. Tsinghua-1 Micro-Satellite Power System Architecture and Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Tsinghua-1 Micro-satellite, the first satellite made by Tsinghua University, was launched in 2000. The power system of the Tsinghua-1 Micro-satellite is one of the most important subsystems. It provides all the power for the satellite platform and the payloads. The power system design includes the regulation,protection and distribution of a 4 × 35 W solar array and 7 Ah NiCd batteries. This subsystem essentially offerstwo buses: an unregulated 14 V bus and a regulated 5 V bus. All distributed power lines to the users areprotected by current tripping switches. In addition, some essential loads, such as the tele-command system,are supplied through fuses. The Tsinghua-1 Micro-satellite power system provides an efficient, flexible,reliable, and cost-effective solution for small satellites in low earth orbit. A better maximum power pointtracking method has been used to increase reliability margins and to increase the efficiency of the powersystem. The power system reliability was evaluated using several different tests, such as the power boardtest, the assembly integrate test (AIT), the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test and the thermal vacuumtest (TVT).``

  16. Individualistic and social motives for justice judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem

    2013-09-01

    Justice judgments are subjective by nature, and are influenced substantially by motivational processes. In the present contribution, two motives underlying justice judgments are examined: individualistic motives to evaluate solutions to social problems that benefit the self in material or immaterial ways as fair versus social motives to conceptualize justice in terms of the well-being of others, such as a desire for equality, adherence to in-group norms, and a concern for the collective interest. A review of relevant research reveals evidence for both motivations when people make evaluations of justice. Moreover, which motive is most dominant in the justice judgment process depends on perceptual salience: whereas individualistic motives are activated when a perceiver's own needs and goals are perceptually salient, social motives are activated when others' needs and goals are perceptually salient. It is concluded that both individualistic and social motives contribute in predictable ways to justice judgments.

  17. Analysis of the Motivational Orientation of and Learning Strategies Used by Students in a Written Business Communication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quible, Zane

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine how students in a written business communication course differ from one another in terms of their motivational orientation and in the learning strategies they use. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was administered to 44 students in two sections of a written business communication…

  18. Assessment of Teacher Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Feyyat

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the achievement of educational goals by determining teachers' levels of motivation. With this aim in mind, the opinions of 386 teachers employed in primary schools in Tokat province were sought. According to the findings of the study, the teachers stated that their needs were not fulfilled according to…

  19. Gamification and Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick; Doyle, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The literature suggests that gamified learning interventions may increase student engagement and enhance learning. We empirically investigate this by exploring the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on the participation and performance of over 100 undergraduate students in an online gamified learning intervention. The paper makes a…

  20. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future.

  1. Complex Dynamics Caused by Torus Bifurcation in Power Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiaodan; JIA Hongjie; DONG Cun

    2006-01-01

    Torus bifurcation is a relatively complicated bifurcation caused by a pair of complex conjuployed to reveal the relationship between torus bifurcation and some complex dynamics.Based on theoretical analysis and simulation studies, it is found that torus bifurcation is a typical route to chaos in power system.Some complex dynamics usually occur after a torus bifurcation, such as self-organization, deep bifurcations, exquisite structure, coexistence of chaos and divergence.It is also found that chaos has close relationship with various instability scenarios of power systems.Studies of this paper are helpful to understand the mechanism of torus bifurcation in power system and relationship of chaos and power system instabilities.

  2. The Motivation for Hedging Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Leuthold, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    This article develops an alternative view on the motivation to hedge. A conceptual model shows how hedging facilitates contract relationships between firms and can solve conflicts between firms. In this model, the contract preferences, level of power, and conflicts in contractual relationships of fi

  3. Praise, Motivation and the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who spends time with children knows that praise works. It is a powerful motivator--praising children for good behaviour or good work builds self- esteem and self-confidence. Children love to collect stickers, certificates and rewards--so what better way is there to shape behaviour, encourage good work habits and produce confident learners?…

  4. Contracting and subcontracting by the French nuclear power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébaud-Mony, A

    1999-01-01

    The French nuclear power industry contracts out 80% of the maintenance work in its plants to independent companies. The workers in these companies are seldom protected by unions or by government regulations. The average dose of radiation received by such a worker is four times that received by a permanent employee of the contracting entity. As the contract worker approaches a specified dose limit, he is laid off, with no support other than welfare and no compensation for medical expenses that may arise as a result of the radiation exposure or occupational stress. There is a danger that this pattern of worker exploitation will spread as nuclear power plants proliferate around the world.

  5. Home education: The social motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W. BECK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from a Norwegian survey show correlation between a student’s socially related problems at school and the parent’s social motivation for home education. I argue that more time spent at school by a student could result in more socially related problems at school, which can explain an increase in social motivation for home education.

  6. Home education: The social motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Christian W. Beck

    2010-01-01

    Data from a Norwegian survey show correlation between a student’s socially related problems at school and the parent’s social motivation for home education. I argue that more time spent at school by a student could result in more socially related problems at school, which can explain an increase in social motivation for home education.

  7. Task-based and questionnaire measures of inhibitory control are differentially affected by acute food restriction and by motivationally salient food stimuli in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savani Bartholdy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger and the ability to control one’s own behavior (inhibitory control. Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a need state (hunger together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight and blood glucose obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards, and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may

  8. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  9. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  10. Temperature and Humidity Sensor Powered by an Individual Microbial Fuel Cell in a Power Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are of increasing interest as bioelectrochemical systems for decomposing organic materials and converting chemical energy into electricity. The main challenge for this technology is that the low power and voltage of the devices restricts the use of MFCs in practical applications. In this paper, a power management system (PMS is developed to store the energy and export an increased voltage. The designed PMS successfully increases the low voltage generated by an individual MFC to a high potential of 5 V, capable of driving a wireless temperature and humidity sensor based on nRF24L01 data transmission modules. With the PMS, MFCs can intermittently power the sensor for data transmission to a remote receiver. It is concluded that even an individual MFC can supply the energy required to power the sensor and telemetry system with the designed PMS. The presented PMS can be widely used for unmanned environmental monitoring such as wild rivers, lakes, and adjacent water areas, and offers promise for further advances in MFC technology.

  11. Power enhancement of piezoelectric transformers by adding heat transfer equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Hao; Liu, Yuan-Ping; Vasic, Dejan; Wu, Wen-Jong; Costa, François; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2012-10-01

    It is known that piezoelectric transformers have several inherent advantages compared with conventional electromagnetic transformers. However, the maximum power capacity of piezoelectric transformers is not as large as electromagnetic transformers in practice, especially in the case of high output current. The theoretical power density of piezoelectric transformers calculated by stress boundary can reach 330 W/cm(3), but no piezoelectric transformer has ever reached such a high power density in practice. The power density of piezoelectric transformers is limited to 33 W/cm(3) in practical applications. The underlying reason is that the maximum passing current of the piezoelectric material (mechanical current) is limited by the temperature rise caused by heat generation. To increase this current and the power capacity, we proposed to add a thermal pad to the piezoelectric transformer to dissipate heat. The experimental results showed that the proposed techniques can increase by 3 times the output current of the piezoelectric transformer. A theoretical-phenomenological model which explains the relationship between vibration velocity and generated heat is also established to verify the experimental results.

  12. Urban transportation system optimum: The effect of accounting for the interaction of buses and cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Angelo Guevara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se usa un método iterativo para calcular tarifas Pigouvianascuando las vías son compartidas por autos y buses. Se comparan escenarios en los cuales: 1 la tarifa es calculada considerando sólo la externalidad sobre otros vehículos; 2 la tarifa considera además la externalidad sobre los pasajeros de los vehículos; 3 no se aplican tarifas; y 4 no se aplican tarifas, pero algunas pistas son reservadas para el uso exclusivo de buses. El método es aplicado primero a un modelo idealizado que considera homogenidad de la demanda y cierto grado de heterogenidad en la oferta. Luego el método es aplicado en un experimento con datos reales basado en un modelo simultáneo de cuatro etapas calibrado para la ciudad de Santiago, Chile. Todos los experimentos muestran que cuando se considera la externalidad sobre los pasajeros de los vehículos, las tarifas Pigouvianas crecen sustancialmente en las vías de uso mixto, lo cual se traduce en un menor flujo de automóviles en dichas vías. Por otro lado, las simulaciones con el modelo idealizado muestran que el efecto de la reservación de pistas depende fuertemente del diseño considerado. Respecto de la tarificación Pigouviana, el experimento con datos reales muestra, sorprendentemente, que dicha política resultaría ser inferior a un escenario en el cual no se aplican tarifas. Este resultado podría atribuirse a: 1 que el modelo con datos reales representa una situación de equilibrio general y en cambio las tarifas Pigouvianas se calculan usando un enfoque de equilibrio parcial; 2 limitaciones de modelación en el experimento con datos reales; o 3 una manifestación del contraejemplo de Coase para los impuestos Pigouvianos. El artículo termina discutiendo el impacto de estos resultados en el análisis de políticas de transporte urbano.

  13. Power oscillation damping by a converter-based power generation device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a power generation park comprising a power output for providing electrical output power to an electricity network . A power generation device comprises a converter device configured for receiving input power from a power generator and providing, in response hereto, the electrical...... output power to the power output. The power generation park further comprises a controller being configured for receiving an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in the electricity network, the controller being further configured for providing a damping control signal...... in response to the oscillation indicating signal; the converter device being configured for modulating the electrical output power in response to the damping control signal so as to damp the power oscillation in the electricity network....

  14. The associations among the dopamine D2 receptor Taq1, emotional intelligence, creative potential measured by divergent thinking, and motivational state and these associations' sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Tomita, Hiroaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Ono, Chiaki; Yu, Zhiqian; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Previous neuroscientific studies have shown that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in creative potential measured by divergent thinking (CPMDT), emotional control, and motivational state. However, although associations between two of these four components have been previously established (e.g., the association between CPMDT and emotional control, the association between CPMDT and motivational state, etc.), the interactions between these four remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to reveal these interactions using path analyses. The Taq1A polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene was used for this purpose. For measuring emotional intelligence (EI), we used the Japanese version of the Emotional Intelligence Scale. CPMDT was measured using the S-A creativity test. Motivational state was measured using the Vigor subscale of the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood Scale (POMS). Data from 766 healthy, right-handed individuals (426 men and 340 women; 20.7 ± 1.9 years of age) were used in this study. There were significant and robust positive relationships among measures of CPMDT, EI, and motivational state across sex. In addition, the polymorphism of the DRD2 gene was significantly associated with EI, specifically in females. Path analysis in females indicates that the model in which (a) the DRD2 polymorphism primarily facilitates EI, (b) EI in turn facilitates CPMDT and leads to a better motivational state, and (c) a better motivational state also directly facilitates CPMDT explains the data in the most accurate manner. This study suggested a comprehensive picture of the cascade of the associations among dopamine, EI, motivational state, and CPMDT at least in females.

  15. A High Power Density Power System Electronics for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pellerano, A.; Stone, R.; Travis, J.; Kercheval, B.; Alkire, G.; Ter-Minassian, V.

    2009-01-01

    A high power density, modular and state-of-the-art Power System Electronics (PSE) has been developed for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. This paper addresses the hardware architecture and performance, the power handling capabilities, and the fabrication technology. The PSE was developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and is the central location for power handling and distribution of the LRO spacecraft. The PSE packaging design manages and distributes 2200W of solar array input power in a volume less than a cubic foot. The PSE architecture incorporates reliable standard internal and external communication buses, solid state circuit breakers and LiIon battery charge management. Although a single string design, the PSE achieves high reliability by elegantly implementing functional redundancy and internal fault detection and correction. The PSE has been environmentally tested and delivered to the LRO spacecraft for the flight Integration and Test. This modular design is scheduled to flight in early 2009 on board the LRO and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) spacecrafts and is the baseline architecture for future NASA missions such as Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS).

  16. Perceived control by "powerful others" in paranormal healers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snel, F W; van der Sijde, P C

    1997-10-01

    49 paranormal healers working by laying-on of hands (direct healing) and healing at a distance were compared with 56 nurses and a control group of 73 randomly selected persons on their locus of control and especially on the subscale Powerful Others of Levenson. The paranormal healers scored external in locus of control, and their scores differed significantly from those of the other two groups tested on the Powerful Others subscale. This finding may be associated with the dependent position of paranormal healers since their profession is tolerated by medical doctors and the law.

  17. The preventative power of "pink": Delineating the effects of social identification and protection motivation theory in breast cancer-related advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Michael B; Dillard, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    An online experiment was conducted to assess the extent gender-salient breast cancer awareness advertisements had on influencing risk perception, encouraging preventative behaviors, and gathering health information. Social identification theory and protection motivation theory postulate gender-salient pink-branded advertisements trigger defense mechanisms, countering desired outcomes. This study concludes gender-salient ads focusing on women, and displaying the Susan G. Komen logo caused aversive behaviors, whereas gender-neutral ads, showing medical providers and logos such as American Medical Association, improve health-related reporting. Results also highlight a disconnect between women who socially identify as breast cancer survivors/supporters, and those with no prior experience with breast cancer.

  18. A Rotating Speed Controller Design Method for Power Levelling by Means of Inertia Energy in Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Power fluctuation caused by wind speed variations may be harmful for the stability of the power system as well as the reliability of the wind power converter, since it may induce thermal excursions in the solder joints of the power modules. Using the wind turbine rotor inertia energy for power...... leveling has been studied before, but no quantified analysis or generic design method have been found. In this paper, the transfer functions from the wind speed to electrical power, electromagnetic torque, and rotating speed are built based on which the rotating speed controller is designed...

  19. Supernovae powered by magnetars that transform into black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, Takashi J; Blinnikov, Sergei I

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars) can release their enormous rotational energy via magnetic spin-down, providing a power source for bright transients such as superluminous supernovae. On the other hand, particularly massive (so-called supramassive) neutron stars require a minimum rotation rate to support their mass against gravitational collapse, below which the neutron star collapses to a black hole. We model the light curves of supernovae powered by magnetars which transform into black holes. Although the peak luminosities can reach high values in the range of superluminous supernovae, their post maximum light curves can decline very rapidly because of the sudden loss of the central energy input. Early black hole transformation also enhances the shock breakout signal from the magnetar-driven bubble relative to the main supernova peak. Our synthetic light curves of supernovae powered by magnetars transforming to black holes are consistent with those of some rapidly evolving brig...

  20. Electric energy production by particle thermionic-thermoelectric power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettinger, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Thermionic-thermoelectric power generators, composed of a thin layer of porous, low work function material separating a heated emitter electrode and a cooler collector electrode, have extremely large Seebeck coefficients of over 2 mV/K and can provide significant output power. Preliminary experiments with 20-micron thick (Ba Sr Ca)O coatings, limited by evaporative loss to temperatures below 1400 K, have yielded short circuit current densities of 500 mA/sq cm and power densities of 60 mW/ sq cm. Substantially more output is expected with cesium-coated refractory oxide particle coatings operating at higher temperatures. Practical generators will have thermal-to-electrical efficiencies of 10 to 20%. Further increases can be gained by cascading these high-temperature devices with lower temperature conventional thermoelectric generators.

  1. Enlightenment From Motivation In Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2015-01-01

    This paper selects one of classifications of motivation in foreign language learning,that is,instrumental and integrative motivation.By analyzing such a distinction,it hopes to direct foreign language teaching in China.

  2. Sustaining motivation for continuous improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2007-01-01

    activities is an important issue for managers. The paper begins with a short description of CI, with an emphasis on barriers to successful implementation cited in the literature. Thereafter, a number of widely-acknowledged-albeit perhaps somewhat dated-theories of motivation are explored in relation...... to the elements of CI in practice. Based on their own experiences with CI implementation in numerous action-research based studies, the authors propose a scenario for motivating CI participation through emphasis on factors common to the presented motivational theories. The paper ends with insights into future...... for managers to motivate participation in CI. Further the paper contributes to development of CI theory by suggesting how elements of motivation theory may address the most common types of barriers to successful CI....

  3. Perceiving and Wanting to Be Valued by Others: Implications for Cognition, Motivation, and Behavior in Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Spongberg, Kerry

    2015-08-01

    Two studies examined implications of two individual differences--perception of being valued by others and desire to be valued by others--for romantic relationships. Study 1 included 171 participants involved in romantic relationships (59 males, 112 females) and examined attributions and behavioral intentions in hypothetical scenarios. Study 2 involved 160 heterosexual couples who completed daily reports and/or an observed conflict discussion. Perception of being valued by others and desire to be valued by others independently predicted more pro-relationship responses and reduced relationship-destructive responses, including more care, commitment, and regard for partners; more responsive and ingratiating behavior; less negative behavior; and more positive perceptions and behavioral intentions. Perceived and desired interpersonal value were related to attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and trait self-esteem. However, perceived and desired interpersonal value were superior predictors of relationship outcomes, even in replications of foundational attachment studies. Individual differences in believing that one is valued by others and wanting to be valued by others independently predict relationship maintenance, and these dimensions may be at the core of many effects of attachment dimensions and self-esteem. These individual differences appear to be important aspects of personality that guide cognition, motivation, and behavior in interpersonal relationships.

  4. Students’ Motivation toward English Language Learning at Undergraduate Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this descriptive research is to explore the fact that why students are less motivated towards English language learning at undergraduate level. It also throws light upon the very facts of motivation with regard to the factors like student-teacher relationship, class room environment, self esteem or self respect, and willingness to communicate. Motivation plays a major part in learning a second language. It creates very powerful communicative factors by planting in them the seeds of self confidence. It is the responsibility of a teacher to create a comfortable environment in the class. The teacher should make the environment student-centered because if a student feels valued in the class, he or she would be more interested in learning a second language. The population of this research consisted of 199 students at undergraduate level from University of Sargodha (UOS Women Campus Faisalabad, Pakistan. For this purpose the researchers formed a questionnaire on the four point Likert’s scale on the different levels of motivation and gave the students maximum time to solve the questionnaire. The results and findings of the research show that motivation has a great role in learning with regard to the above mentioned factors. Keywords: Motivation, ELT, ESL, Pakistan, learner, undergraduate

  5. Impact of Negative Sequence Current Injection by Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact from negative sequence current injection by wind power plants in power systems under steady-state and short-term unbalanced conditions, including faults. The separate positive and negative sequence current control capability of the grid-side converters...... of full scale converter type wind turbines may be utilized to alter voltage imbalance at the point of connection and further into the grid, in turn changing the resultant negative sequence current flow in the grid. The effects of such control actions have been analyzed and discussed through theoretical...

  6. Simulation of IGFC power generation system by Aspen Plus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Sayem, Abu Sadahat

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for electricity generation. Sulfur free syngas from the gas cleaning unit serves as a fuel for SOFC in IGFC (Integrated gasification Fuel cell) power plant. It converts the chemical energy of the fuel gas directly to electric energy...... efficiency and power with respect to a variety of SOFC inputs. HRSG which is located after the SOFC is also included in current simulation study with various operating parameters. This paper also describes for the IGFC Power Plants, the optimization of the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG...... and therefore, very high efficiencies can be achieved. The outputs from SOFC can be utilized by HRSG which drives steam turbine for electricity production. The SOFC stack model developed using the process flow sheet simulator Aspen Plus which is of equilibrium type. The results indicate there must be tread off...

  7. Maximizing Output Power of a Solar Panel via Combination of Sun Tracking and Maximum Power Point Tracking by Fuzzy Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Taherbaneh; A. H. Rezaie; H. Ghafoorifard; Rahimi, K; M. B. Menhaj

    2010-01-01

    In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar...

  8. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia.

  9. EMPLOYEES MOTIVATION THEORIES DEVELOPED AT AN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Manolescu Aurel; Marinas Cristian; Puia Ramona Stefania; Lefter Viorel

    2009-01-01

    International specialized literature speaks about motivational strategies, about methods of increasing the employees\\\\\\' satisfaction at work and of obtaining the best results by increasing work motivation. But what does motivation really represent? Whic

  10. Choir of believers? Longitudinal evidence on public service motivation and survey participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; De Lorent Gad, Mette; Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    The most widely used method to study individuals’ public service motivation is surveys. The validity and inferential power of such studies may, however, be harmed by survey participation bias, if highly public service motivated individuals are overrepresented among respondents. This paper examines...... the methodological critique of survey participation bias raised against the public service motivation literature and examines whether public service motivation increases the propensity to respond to surveys. By tracking more than 3,000 public service providers’ participation in a three-wave panel survey, our...... analysis shows that public service motivation does have a positive effect on survey participation. This suggests that future studies should pay attention to the characteristics of respondents/non-respondents and consider weighting the sample....

  11. Stability Enhancement of Power System by Controlling Hvdc Power Flow through the Same Ac Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Upendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Long extra high voltage (EHV ac lines cannot be loaded to their thermal limits in order to keep sufficient margin against transient instability. With the scheme proposed in this paper, it is possible to load these lines very close to their thermal limits. The conductors are allowed to carry usual ac along with dc superimposed on it. The added dc power flow does not cause any transient instability. This paper presents the feasibility of converting a double circuit ac line into composite ac–dc power transmission line to get the advantages of parallel ac–dc transmission to improve stability and damping out oscillations. Simulation and experimental studies are carried out for the coordinated control as well as independent control of ac and dc power transmissions. No alterations of conductors, insulator strings, and towers of the original line are needed. Substantial gain in the loadability of the line is obtained. Master current controller senses ac current and regulates the dc current orders for converters online such that conductor current never exceeds its thermal limit. The present paper is implemented by using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  12. 论贯彻群众路线的动力--以马克思需要理论为视角∗%On the Motive Power for the Implementation of Mass Line---Based on the Viewpoint of Marx Demand Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振宏

    2014-01-01

    The motive power of the Party’ s mass line must be deeply studied and carried out in order to make the mass line im⁃plemented in all activities of state affairs management and policy⁃making and to realize long⁃term mechanism for the mass line, therefore, the intrinsic power is needed to carry out the mass line. This paper systematically analyzes the motive factors and resist⁃ant factors to carry out the mass line from the viewpoint of Marx Demand Theory and systematically proposes the suggestions for how to activate the motive power to implement the mass line such as satisfying the demand system to seek the maximum common divisor to carry out the mass line and to enhance the intrinsic power, and reform and innovation to decrease the impediment for implementing the mass line by eliminating path dependence as well as forming the cooperative force to carry out the mass line by strengthening education and guidance and by agglomerating extensive consensus.%要把群众路线贯彻到治国理政的全部活动之中,实现贯彻群众路线的长效机制,就必须深入研究贯彻党的群众路线的动力。需要的是贯彻群众路线的内在动力,本文从马克思需要理论视角,系统分析贯彻党的群众路线的动力因素和阻力因素,并对如何激活贯彻群众路线的动力系统提出对策建议:一是满足需要体系,寻求贯彻群众路线的最大公约数,增强内驱动力;二是改革创新,破除路径依赖,减少贯彻群众路线的阻力;三是强化教育引导,凝聚广泛共识,形成贯彻群众路线的合力。

  13. Learning Motivation Mediates Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Mathematics Achievement in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences…

  14. Recovering by Means of Meditation: The Role of Recovery Experiences and Intrinsic Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.L.M. van; Baas, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of meditation as a tool to recover from stress has already been widely established. However, less is known about the potential psychological mediating and moderating mechanisms affecting its effectiveness. The present study aimed to advance insight in this respect by examining the

  15. Recovering by means of mediation: the role of recovery experiences and intrinsic motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooff, M.L.M.; Baas, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of meditation as a tool to recover from stress has already been widely established. However, less is known about the potential psychological mediating and moderating mechanisms affecting its effectiveness. The present study aimed to advance insight in this respect by examining the

  16. Evaluation of Coordinate Compensator Structure Based on Power Injection Model for Loading Margin Enhancement in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sedaghati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the structure of Hybrid Power Flow Controller (HPFC is proposed in order to improve static voltage stability characteristics. HPFC forms a hybrid controller using IPFC series converters as a hybrid with existing parallel and passive compensator (SVC in power system. Utilization of hybrid structures makes it possible to use converters for improving performance of both old and existing compensators in power networks. In this study, the power injection model (PIM is used to model the hybrid power flow controller in Newton load flow. The aforementioned model is simulated in MATLAB software. The P-V curves of PQ buses of a typical system are evaluated by a continuous power flow (CPF method to analyses the effect of this controller on static voltage stability characteristics. Meanwhile, SVC as existing devices in the system and UPFC and IPFC as state-of-the-art compensator devices are compared with the proposed hybrid structure. The amount of active and reactive power loss and improvement of loading limit of the system are used as main parameters in our comparison.

  17. Thermal Unit Commitment Scheduling Problem in Utility System by Tabu Search Embedded Genetic Algorithm Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Christober Asir Rajan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal unit commitment in the power system for the next H hours. A 66-bus utility power system in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach; extensive studies have also been performed for different IEEE test systems consist of 24, 57 and 175 buses. Numerical results are shown comparing the cost solutions and computation time obtained by different intelligence and conventional methods.

  18. Interactions of motivation and reinforcement during the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by a monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskii, V V

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the performance of an instrumental task by Macaca rhesus monkeys was investigated in an automated experiment. Three monkeys were trained to complete a movement with a lever in response to a light stimulus. It was demonstrated that the performance of the instrumental reflex by the monkeys is comprised of the alternation of blocks of more or less continuous realizations and pauses between them. The relationship of the intensity of the work of the monkeys to the time from the beginning of the experiment was studied, and a comparison was made of the magnitude of the intensity for the three monkeys. The average intensity of the work of the monkeys within the blocks of continuous realizations is a constant and individual value. The influence of the degree of deprivation and of the delivery of out-of-turn reinforcement on the work of the monkeys was also investigated.

  19. 拖拉机动力输出轴扭矩CAT系统设计与应用%Design and application of the torque's CAT system of the tractor motive power output shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江全; 江英兰; 胡斌; 罗昕

    2001-01-01

    A set of computer-aided test system for measuring the output torque of the tractor motive power output shaft is designed. The hardware's component ,the principle of operation ,the application and the matched data processing software of the torque sensor calibration system and the torque field measuring system are also introduced.%为了测量拖拉机动力输出轴的输出扭矩,设计了一套计算机辅助测试系统。本文介绍了扭矩传感器的标定系统以及扭矩田间测量系统的硬件组成、工作原理、应用及与其配套的数据处理软件。

  20. USING SOCIAL MEDIA BY MICRO ENTERPRISES – CASE STUDY FOR UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATION, PRACTICE AND EXPECTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELINDA MAJLÁTH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether microenterprises can use facilities given by the internet successfully in their marketing communication or not. Tinta Publisher has been chosen as a case study, a Hungarian microenterprise specializing in publishing books on linguistics and dictionaries. The publishing company uses Facebook, Twitter and Youtube for popularizing their publications. The paper summarizes the expectations, techniques, experiences and disadvantages of using social media.

  1. Supersymmetric model for dark matter and baryogenesis motivated by the recent CDMS result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dutta, Bhaskar; Mohapatra, Rabindra N; Sinha, Kuver

    2013-08-02

    We discuss a supersymmetric model for cogenesis of dark and baryonic matter where the dark matter (DM) has mass in the 8-10 GeV range as indicated by several direct detection searches, including most recently the CDMS experiment with the desired cross section. The DM candidate is a real scalar field. Two key distinguishing features of the model are the following: (i) in contrast with the conventional weakly interacting massive particle dark matter scenarios where thermal freeze-out is responsible for the observed relic density, our model uses nonthermal production of dark matter after reheating of the Universe caused by moduli decay at temperatures below the QCD phase transition, a feature which alleviates the relic overabundance problem caused by small annihilation cross section of light DM particles and (ii) baryogenesis occurs also at similar low temperatures from the decay of TeV scale mediator particles arising from moduli decay. A possible test of this model is the existence of colored particles with TeV masses accessible at the LHC.

  2. LiquidPower-1. Development and proof-of-concept of core methanol reformer for stationary and motive fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling stations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogsgaard, J.; Mortensen, Henrik [H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark); Skipper, T. [Dantherm Power A/S, Hobro (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    LiquidPower-1 has developed laboratory test systems for methanol reforming and tested reformers from four different suppliers. This has contributed to determining the state-of-the-art level for methanol reforming and enabled an update of the LiquidPower R and D Roadmap onwards a commercialisation of the technology. The project has achieved the following results: 1) A detailed technical specification of methanol reformers for the fuel cell back-up power and hydrogen refueling station markets has been conducted; 2) Laboratory test systems for methanol reformers has been developed and established at Dantherm Power and H2 Logic; 3) Initial test of reformers from four suppliers has been conducted - with two suppliers being selected for continued tests; 4) Extensive laboratory tests conducted of reformers from two suppliers, with the aim to determine state-of-the-art for price, efficiency, capacity and lifetime. Several errors and break-downs were experienced during the test period, which revealed a need for further R and D to improve lifetime and stability; 5) The LiquidPower F and U Roadmap has been updated. Reformer TCO targets (Total Cost of Operation) for each of the markets have been calculated including updated targets for efficiency and cost. These targets also serve as the main ones to be pursued as part of the continued R and D roadmap execution. Compared to the previous edition of the Roadmap, the project has confirmed the viability of methanol reforming, but also revealed that stability and lifetime needs to be addressed and solved before commencing commercialization of the technology. If the Roadmap is successful a commercialization can commence beyond 2015. (Author)

  3. Application of active power sensitivity to frequency and voltage variations on load shedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgis, Adly A. [Clemson University, 303 Riggs Hall, Clemson, SC 29634-0915 (United States); Mathure, Shruti [ITC Holdings, MI (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The occurrence of a large disturbance in a power system can lead to a decline in the system frequency and bus voltages due to a real and reactive power deficiency or due to the formation of islands with generation-load imbalance. Load shedding is an emergency control action that can prevent a blackout in the power system by relieving the overload in some parts of the system. This paper shows that rate of change of frequency can be utilized to determine the magnitude of generation-load imbalance, while the rate of change of voltage with respect to active power can be utilized to identify the sensitive bus for load shedding. The frequency, voltages and their rate of change can be obtained by means of measurements in real-time from various devices such as digital recorders or phasor measurement units or these parameters can be estimated from the voltage data by other means such as an optimal estimation method like Kalman filtering. The rate of change of system frequency, along with the equivalent system inertia may be used to estimate the magnitude of the disturbance prior to each load shedding step. The buses with a higher rate of change of voltage may be identified as the critical ones for load shedding and load can be first shed at these buses, depending on the change in the power flow at each bus. This application is tested on the IEEE 30 bus system and the preliminary results demonstrate that it is feasible to be used in load shedding to restore system voltage and frequency. (author)

  4. Motivating students through positive learning experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Coto Chotto, Mayela; Jantzen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Based on the assumption that wellbeing, positive emotions and engagement influence motivation for learning, the aim of this paper is to provide insight into students’ emotional responses to and engagement in different learning designs. By comparing students’ reports on the experiential qualities...... of three different learning designs, their respective influence on students’ motivation for learning is discussed with the purpose of exploring the relationship between positive emotions, engagement and intrinsic motivation for learning. Our study thus aims at evaluating the motivational elements...

  5. A multicontinuum progressive damage model for composite materials motivated by the kinetic theory of fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Shane Christian

    2002-01-01

    A conventional composite material for structural applications is composed of stiff reinforcing fibers embedded in a relatively soft polymer matrix, e.g. glass fibers in an epoxy matrix. Although composites have numerous advantages over traditional materials, the presence of two vastly different constituent materials has confounded analysts trying to predict failure. The inability to accurately predict the inelastic response of polymer based composites along with their ultimate failure is a significant barrier to their introduction to new applications. Polymer based composite materials also tend to exhibit rate and time dependent failure characteristics. Lack of knowledge about the rate dependent response and progressive failure of composite structures has led to the current practice of designing these structures with static properties. However, high strain rate mechanical properties can vary greatly from the static properties. The objective of this research is to develop a finite element based failure analysis tool for composite materials that incorporates strain rate hardening effects in the material failure model. The analysis method, referred to as multicontinuum theory (MCT) retains the identity of individual constituents by treating them as separate but linked continua. Retaining the constituent identities allows one to extract continuum phase averaged stress/strain fields for the constituents in a routine structural analysis. Time dependent failure is incorporated in MCT by introducing a continuum damage model into MCT. In addition to modeling time and rate dependent failure, the damage model is capable of capturing the nonlinear stress-strain response observed in composite materials.

  6. Dielectronic Recombination Of Iron M-shell Ions Motivated By Absorption Features In AGN Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukic, Dragan; Schnell, M.; Savin, D. W.; Brandau, C.; Schmidt, E. W.; Yu, D.; Bernhardt, D.; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Lestinsky, M.; Orlov, D.; Sprenger, F.; Grieser, M.; Repnow, R.; Hoffmann, J.; Wolf, A.

    2006-09-01

    XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) show spectra rich with X-ray absorption features. These observations have detected a broad unresolved transition array (UTA) between 15-17 Å. This is attributed to inner-shell photoexcitation of M-shell iron ions. Modeling these UTA features is currently limited by uncertainties in the low-temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) data for M-shell iron. In order to resolve this issue, and to provide reliable iron M-shell DR data for plasma modeling, we are carrying out a series of laboratory measurements using the heavy-ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) at the Max-Plank-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. We use the DR data obtained at TSR, to calculate rate coefficients for plasma modeling. We are also providing our data to atomic theorist to benchmark their DR calculations. Here we report our recent experimental results for DR for several iron M-shell ions and plans for future work. This work has been supported in part by NASA, the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, and the German Research Council

  7. Thermal Behavior Optimization in Multi-MW Wind Power Converter by Reactive Power Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens;

    2014-01-01

    The influence of actively controlled reactive power on the thermal behavior of multi-MW wind power converter with a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is investigated. First, the allowable range of internal reactive power circulation is mapped depending on the DC-link voltage as well as the in......The influence of actively controlled reactive power on the thermal behavior of multi-MW wind power converter with a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is investigated. First, the allowable range of internal reactive power circulation is mapped depending on the DC-link voltage as well...

  8. HyLIFT-0. 'Development and benchmarking of a 1st gen. HT-PEM/Li-lon hybrid motive power system for forklifts'. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Karsten (H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark)); Elkjaer Toennesen, A. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Torrendrup, C. (Lithium Balance A/S, Ishoej (Denmark)); Sangers, A. (Grundfos DK A/S, Bjerringbro (Denmark)); Junge, S. (Atlet Danmark A/S, Engesvang (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    In the HyLIFT-0 project a HT-PEM/Li-Ion hybrid system for a forklift was developed and built. The system has been benchmark'et and tested both at H2 Logic, in a test bench at the Teknologisk Institut and by an end user, Grene A/S, who already has a hydrogen hybrid vehicle in service with LT-PEM system. The HT-PEM/Li-Ion system is based on a 1 kW SerEnergy fuel cell, with a 2.5 kWh Li-Ion battery pack and the newly developed BMS. Both Fuel cell systems were measured in the test bench at Teknologisk Institut. The conclusions are not fully accurate because there are many factors influencing such as the HT-PEM system not being fully optimized. The benchmark at Grene, showed that the heat up time is critical for the vehicle, but once it is in operation, there are no difference to the LT-PEM system, either in experienced performance or in user experience. The purpose of HyLIFT-0 project is met since the measurements and the benchmark has revealed the technology's advantages and disadvantages. Above all the conclusion is that HT-PEM/Li-Ion hybrid fuel cell system at the present stage of development is not a disruptive technology compared to known LT-PEM systems. There are numerous advantages of the system, but there are also some disadvantages, doing that, overall, it is not a usable technology in forklifts - it is especially the long start-up time of up to 45 minutes that is unacceptable for the fork lifter user; the user wants to have immediate maximum output and the battery cannot handle this during the time it lasts until the HT-PEM fuel cell is warm and producing power. The HT-PEM/Li-Ion system is relatively simple to build and it saves a number of components compared to the LT-PEM system, but the economic advantage of this is counterbalanced by the fuel cell being rather expensive and furthermore it has a relatively low efficiency. This will probably change over time when the technology completed development and volume increase. (LN)

  9. Station power supply by residual steam of Fugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y.; Kato, H.; Hattori, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    In the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', when the sudden decrease of load more than 40% occurs due to the failure of power system, the turbine regulating valve is rapidly shut, and the reactor is brought to scrum. However, the operation of turbo-generators is continued with the residual steam in the reactor, and the power for inside the station is supplied for 30 sec by the limiting timer, then the power-generating plant is automatically stopped. The reasons why such design was adopted are to reduce manual operation at the time of emergency, to continue water supply for cooling the reactor and to maintain the water level in the steam drum, and to reduce steam release from the safety valve and the turbine bypass valve. The output-load unbalance relay prevents the everspeed of the turbo-generator when load decreased suddenly, but when the failure of power system is such that recovers automatically in course of time, it does not work. The calculation for estimating the dynamic characteristics at the time of the sole operation within the station is carried out by the analysis code FATRAC. The input conditions for the calculation and the results are reported. Also the dynamic characteristics were actually tested to confirm the set value of the limiting timer and the safe working of turbine and generator trips. The estimated and tested results were almost in agreement.

  10. KICS: A Model of Motivational Leadership in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This pure research gave birth to a Model of Motivational Leadership – KICS: which embraces knowledge, intelligence, collaboration and synergy. It is a synergistic  proposition based on the theory of emotional intelligence as the index of competencies needed for effective leadership. It opened with a general discussion on traditional models of leadership, then the roles of knowledge, intelligence, collaboration and synergy as they relate to motivational leadership. Issues of emotional intelligence clusters and synthesis of the model’s elements were discussed, emphasizing how KICS-based motivational leadership skills can be developed and sustained. Motivational leadership entails exciting people’s imaginations and inspiring them to move in a desired direction. It takes more than simple power to motivate and lead in organizations. Realizing that unity and cohesiveness are built from personal bonds, the best leaders ensure to deepen their rapport with employees and colleagues which enhances organizational performance. This pure research argues that the synergy of related emotional intelligence competencies can lead to motivational leadership behaviour. Knowledge is critical to leadership because there are different types of leadership and different situations require different kinds of knowledge, and the person possessing the knowledge demanded by a certain situation in most cases, tends to become the best leader. A knowledgeable person is one who is trained to consider his actions to undertake them deliberately, in a disciplined manner. Added to this ability is the intelligence to endure in a chosen course in the face of distraction, confusion and difficulty, all combined in producing a motivational leader. Knowledge tends to be procedural in nature and to operate outside of focal awareness. It also reflects the structure of the situation more closely than it does in the structure of formal disciplinary knowledge. The survey research design

  11. ANALYSIS OF A COMPRESSIBLE GAS-LIQUID MODEL MOTIVATED BY OIL WELL CONTROL OPERATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steinar Evje; K.H. Karlsen

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in a viscous two-phase gas-liquid mixture model relevant for modeling of well control operations within the petroleum industry. We focus on a simplified mixture model and provide an existence result within an appropriate class of weak solutions. We demonstrate that upper and lower limits can be obtained for the gas and liquid masses which ensure that transition to single-phase regions do not occur. This is used together with appropriate a prior estimates to obtain convergence to a weak solution for a sequence of approximate solutions corresponding to mollified initial data. Moreover, by imposing an additional regularity condition on the initial masses, a uniqueness result is obtained. The framework herein seems useful for further investigations of more realistic versions of the gas-liquid model that take into account different flow regimes.

  12. Motivation--Hygiene Theory Adapted for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmreck, Thomas C.

    1977-01-01

    As educators, are we stifling learning by using non-motivating, dissatisfying factors and concepts to try to motivate our students? According to the work of Dr. Frederick Herzberg, many teachers may be doing the wrong thing for the right reason. Considers what motivates students to enjoy their educational surroundings and to learn. (Author/RK)

  13. Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Mak

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)

  14. Personality Traits and Motives for Volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Juzbasic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of predicting volunteer motives based on five-factor model of personality in a sample of 159 volunteers from Zagreb, Osijek and Split. Data was collected using IPIP-300 personality questionnaire and Volunteer Functions Inventory. Results indicate that Croatian volunteers are agreeable, conscientious, altruistic, dutiful, and moral persons with artistic interests. Their most salient motives for volunteering are understanding and values. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that the five-factor model personality traits independently predict 17% of protective motive variance, 12% of values motive, 18% of career motive, 10% of understanding motive, and 12% of enhancement motive. Social motive was not explained by personality traits.

  15. Soldier motivation – different or similar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    , by means of public service motivation, a concept developed within the public administration literature, we compare soldier and civilian motivation. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of whether and how Danish combat soldiers differs from other Danes in regard to public service motivation? Using...... surveys with similar questions, we find that soldiers are more normatively motivated to contribute to society than other citizens (higher commitment to the public interest), while their affectively based motivation is lower (lower compassion). This points towards a potential problem in regard......Recent research in military sociology has shown that in addition to their strong peer motivation modern soldiers are oriented toward contributing to society. It has not, however, been tested how soldier motivation differs from the motivation of other citizens in this respect. In this paper...

  16. Suggestions of keeping L2 motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌

    2014-01-01

    How will we keep the motivation during the second language as long as we can, which confuses us, though what the L2 motivation is and how it is developed have been discussed by the psychologists, educators, etc. The aim of this passage is to clarify the basic content of motivation, including the definition, classification, importance, etc. how the current situation is in se-nior high students’English learning motivation, what should be done to keep such motivation. In the following part, it will be read that the introduction, the chapter stating the content and classification of (L 2) motivation, the chapter analyzing the necessity and state of L2 motivation at senor high, the chapter offering approach to keep that motivation, and the conclusion. All of them use the comparison, explanation and cites.

  17. Factors that motivate Turkish EFL teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkaya, Odiléa Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ motivation has been an extensive topic of discussion among researchers for over two decades. What has been missing in the discussion, though, is the perspective of those who teach English as a Foreign Language (EFL, especially those who work in Turkey. Therefore, the purpose of this case study was to investigate factors that motivated Turkish EFL teachers working at a Preparatory English Program of a university in Turkey and ways to enhance their motivation. Eight teachers took part in the study. To collect data, unstructured interviews were used. Then, codes were written and themes on teachers’ motivation and demotivation, and ways to motivate teachers emerged. The results can be understood by looking at expectancy theory, more specifically on the focus of the theory: intrinsic (personal and extrinsic (environmental motives. The analysis of what the teachers believed to be their source of motivation and demotivation helped the researcher to propose ways to enhance their motivation.

  18. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-09-01

    The authors review research on children's reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children's reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children's reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students' reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension. There is a strong need for researchers to build on this work and develop and study in different age groups of children effective classroom-based reading motivation instructional programs for a variety of narrative and informational materials.

  19. The Sahel Region of West Africa: Examples of Climate Analyses Motivated By Drought Management Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, O.; Ward, M. N.; Siebert, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Sahel is one of the most drought-prone regions in the world. This paper focuses on climate sources of drought, and some new analyses mostly driven by users needing climate information to help in drought management strategies. The Sahel region of West Africa is a transition zone between equatorial climate and vegetation to the south, and desert to the north. The climatology of the region is dominated by dry conditions for most of the year, with a single peak in rainfall during boreal summer. The seasonal rainfall total contains both interannual variability and substantial decadal to multidecadal variability (MDV). This brings climate analysis and drought management challenges across this range of timescales. The decline in rainfall from the wet decades of the 1950s and 60s to the dry decades of the 1970s and 80s has been well documented. In recent years, a moderate recovery has emerged, with seasonal totals in the period 1994-2010 significantly higher than the average rainfall 1970-1993. These MDV rainfall fluctuations have expression in large-scale sea-surface temperature fluctuations in all ocean basins, placing the changes in drought frequency within broader ocean-atmosphere climate fluctuation. We have evaluated the changing character of low seasonal rainfall total event frequencies in the Sahel region 1950-2010, highlighting the role of changes in the mean, variance and distribution shape of seasonal rainfall totals as the climate has shifted through the three observed phases. We also consider the extent to which updating climate normals in real-time can damp the bias in expected event frequency, an important issue for the feasibility of index insurance as a drought management tool in the presence of a changing climate. On the interannual timescale, a key factor long discussed for agriculture is the character of rainfall onset. An extended dry spell often occurs early in the rainy season before the crop is fully established, and this often leads to crop

  20. A proof of the Geroch-Horowitz-Penrose formulation of the strong cosmic censor conjecture motivated by computability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Etesi, Gabor

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a proof of a mathematical version of the strong cosmic censor conjecture attributed to Geroch-Horowitz and Penrose but formulated explicitly by Wald. The proof is based on the existence of future-inextendible causal curves in causal pasts of events on the future Cauchy horizon in a non-globally hyperbolic space-time.By examining explicit non-globally hyperbolic space-times we find that in case of several physically relevant solutions these future-inextendible curves have in fact infinite length. This way we recognize a close relationship between asymptotically flat or anti-de Sitter, physically relevant extendible space-times and the so-called Malament-Hogarth space-times which play a central role in recent investigations in the theory of "gravitational computers". This motivates us to exhibit a more sharp, more geometric formulation of the strong cosmic censor conjecture, namely "all physically relevant, asymptotically flat or anti-de Sitter but non-globally hyperbolic space-times ar...

  1. Hyperenergetic manned aerospacecraft propelled by intense pulsed microwave power beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this research was to exploit wireless power transmission (microwave/millimeter)--to lower manned space transportation costs by two or three orders of magnitude. Concepts have been developed for lightweight, mass-producible, beam-propelled aerospacecraft called Lightcraft. The vehicles are designed for a 'mass-poor, energy-rich' (i.e. hyper-energentic flight infrastructure which utilizes remote microwave power stations to build an energy-beam highway to space. Although growth in laser power levels has lagged behind expectations, microwave and millimeter-wave source technology now exists for rapid scaling to the megawatt and gigawatt time-average power levels. The design exercise focused on the engine, structure, and receptive optics requirements for a 15 meter diameter, 5 person Earth- to-moon aerospacecraft. Key elements in the airbreathing accelerator propulsion system are: a) a 'flight-weight' 35GHz rectenna electric powerplant, b) microwave-induced 'Air Spike' and perimeter air-plasma generators, and c) MagnetoHydroDynamic-Fanjet engine with its superconducting magnets and external electrodes.

  2. Sustainably powering wearable electronics solely by biomechanical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Li, Shengming; Yi, Fang; Zi, Yunlong; Lin, Jun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Youlong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-09-01

    Harvesting biomechanical energy is an important route for providing electricity to sustainably drive wearable electronics, which currently still use batteries and therefore need to be charged or replaced/disposed frequently. Here we report an approach that can continuously power wearable electronics only by human motion, realized through a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with optimized materials and structural design. Fabricated by elastomeric materials and a helix inner electrode sticking on a tube with the dielectric layer and outer electrode, the TENG has desirable features including flexibility, stretchability, isotropy, weavability, water-resistance and a high surface charge density of 250 μC m-2. With only the energy extracted from walking or jogging by the TENG that is built in outsoles, wearable electronics such as an electronic watch and fitness tracker can be immediately and continuously powered.

  3. Sustainably powering wearable electronics solely by biomechanical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Li, Shengming; Yi, Fang; Zi, Yunlong; Lin, Jun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Youlong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-09-28

    Harvesting biomechanical energy is an important route for providing electricity to sustainably drive wearable electronics, which currently still use batteries and therefore need to be charged or replaced/disposed frequently. Here we report an approach that can continuously power wearable electronics only by human motion, realized through a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with optimized materials and structural design. Fabricated by elastomeric materials and a helix inner electrode sticking on a tube with the dielectric layer and outer electrode, the TENG has desirable features including flexibility, stretchability, isotropy, weavability, water-resistance and a high surface charge density of 250 μC m(-2). With only the energy extracted from walking or jogging by the TENG that is built in outsoles, wearable electronics such as an electronic watch and fitness tracker can be immediately and continuously powered.

  4. Sustainably powering wearable electronics solely by biomechanical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Li, Shengming; Yi, Fang; Zi, Yunlong; Lin, Jun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Youlong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    Harvesting biomechanical energy is an important route for providing electricity to sustainably drive wearable electronics, which currently still use batteries and therefore need to be charged or replaced/disposed frequently. Here we report an approach that can continuously power wearable electronics only by human motion, realized through a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with optimized materials and structural design. Fabricated by elastomeric materials and a helix inner electrode sticking on a tube with the dielectric layer and outer electrode, the TENG has desirable features including flexibility, stretchability, isotropy, weavability, water-resistance and a high surface charge density of 250 μC m−2. With only the energy extracted from walking or jogging by the TENG that is built in outsoles, wearable electronics such as an electronic watch and fitness tracker can be immediately and continuously powered. PMID:27677971

  5. Motivational Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  6. Sound Power Estimation by Laser Doppler Vibration Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Revel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose simple and quick methods for the determination of the sound power emitted by a vibrating surface, by using non-contact vibration measurement techniques. In order to calculate the acoustic power by vibration data processing, two different approaches are presented. The first is based on the method proposed in the Standard ISO/TR 7849, while the second is based on the superposition theorem. A laser-Doppler scanning vibrometer has been employed for vibration measurements. Laser techniques open up new possibilities in this field because of their high spatial resolution and their non-intrusivity. The technique has been applied here to estimate the acoustic power emitted by a loudspeaker diaphragm. Results have been compared with those from a commercial Boundary Element Method (BEM software and experimentally validated by acoustic intensity measurements. Predicted and experimental results seem to be in agreement (differences lower than 1 dB thus showing that the proposed techniques can be employed as rapid solutions for many practical and industrial applications. Uncertainty sources are addressed and their effect is discussed.

  7. Motivations for Individualization of Punishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Naderi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, Motivated by Individualization -defense to penalties, seeks to answers to this question whether principle Individualization penalty, can be recognized as a legal principle? Individualization penalty means: Differentiate between the delinquents and determine the penalty imposed or alternately follows the character of the offender and the punishment that is imposed on him. In this research Western of Jurists the views (of Individualization motivations to penalties have been investigated. Now, to the motivations study of the Individualization we explain penalties.

  8. Motivation of Markedness in Antonyms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹琪雯

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly explores the motivation of markedness is explored in three different types of antonyms:graduable antonyms, complementary antonyms and converse antonyms. It holds that markedness is mainly caused by cognitive factors, culture factors and politeness principle.

  9. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward's effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  10. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eRussell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  11. A Study on Students’ Motivation of Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云艳

    2008-01-01

    Richard E. Mayer (2003, P459) stated: There are"three kinds of possible answers to questions about what motivates students to work hard: 1. motivation is based on interest; 2. motivation is based on self-efficacy; 3. motivation is based on attribution". We decided to do the survey around these aspects. If we are aware of their motivations, we may find out more effective ways to teach by priming students’ motivation to learn.

  12. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  13. Observational Signatures of Galactic Winds Powered by Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Nims, Jesse; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre

    2014-01-01

    We predict the observational signatures of galaxy scale outflows powered by active galactic nuclei (AGN). Most of the emission is produced by the forward shock driven into the ambient interstellar medium (ISM) rather than by the reverse shock. AGN powered galactic winds with energetics suggested by phenomenological feedback arguments should produce spatially extended 1-10 keV X-ray emission of 10^(41-44) erg/s, significantly in excess of the spatially extended X-ray emission associated with normal star forming galaxies. The presence of such emission is a direct test of whether AGN outflows significantly interact with the ISM of their host galaxy. We further show that even radio quiet quasars should have a radio luminosity comparable to or in excess of the far infrared-radio correlation of normal star forming galaxies. This radio emission directly constrains the total kinetic energy flux in AGN-powered galactic winds. Radio emission from AGN wind shocks can also explain the recently highlighted correlations be...

  14. Robust reactor power control system design by genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sin [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The H{sub {infinity}} robust controller for the reactor power control system is designed by use of the mixed weight sensitivity. The system is configured into the typical two-port model with which the weight functions are augmented. Since the solution depends on the weighting functions and the problem is of nonconvex, the genetic algorithm is used to determine the weighting functions. The cost function applied in the genetic algorithm permits the direct control of the power tracking performances. In addition, the actual operating constraints such as rod velocity and acceleration can be treated as design parameters. Compared with the conventional approach, the controller designed by the genetic algorithm results in the better performances with the realistic constraints. Also, it is found that the genetic algorithm could be used as an effective tool in the robust design. 4 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  15. Ways of explaining sexual harassment: motivating, enabling and legitimizing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to contribute to a comprehensive explanation of sexual harassment by the investigation of three social-psychological processes, which seem to crucially contribute to the etiology of sexual harassment: motivation to sexually harass (e.g., power or sexuality), enabling processes (e.g., through diverse situational cues), and legitimization of sexually harassing behavior (e.g., by applying myths about sexual harassment). By consolidating these three processes into one multi...

  16. Power quality improvement by unified power quality conditioner based on CSC topology using synchronous reference frame theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmalingam, Rajasekaran; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar; Senthilnathan, Karthikrajan; Mayilvaganan, Arun Bhaskar; Chinnamuthu, Subramani

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) based on current source converter (CSC) topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.

  17. Power Quality Improvement by Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on CSC Topology Using Synchronous Reference Frame Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran Dharmalingam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC based on current source converter (CSC topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.

  18. Photoswitching of helical twisting power by chiral photochromic diarylethene dopants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tadatsugu; Irie, Masahiro

    2002-12-01

    Two kinds of chiral diarylethene derivatives were synthesized and used as dopants for photoresponsive liquid crystals. Both derivatives underwent thermally irreversible and fatigue resistant photochromic reactions and exhibited reversible circular diochroism (CD) spectral changes. Large photostimulated pitch chances of chiral nematic K-15 liquid crystals were observed by the addition of the derivatives as dopants. The relation between the optical rotation and the twisting power force was discussed.

  19. Wind Power: An Emerging Energy Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    One may ask the question, What is energy? Typically the first answers that come to mind are oil, coal, and natural gas or nuclear energy. Most human activities require some form of energy consumption. This may be the energy produced by the food that one eats or the gasoline that is used in cars, trucks, buses, and other vehicles. One cannot ignore…

  20. Assessment of information impacts in power system security against malicious attacks in a general framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bompard, E. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: ettore.bompard@polito.it; Napoli, R.; Xue, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    In the analysis of power systems security, recently a new concern related to possible malicious attacks caught much attention. Coordination among different transmission system operators (TSO) in an interconnected power system to counteract such attacks has become an important problem. This paper presents a general framework for describing the physical, cyber and decision-making aspects of the problem and their interrelations; within this framework, an analytic tool for the assessment of information impacts in handling on-line security after a malicious attack is proposed and discussed. The model is based on the socially rational multi-agent systems and the equilibrium of a fictitious play is considered to analyze the impacts of various levels of information available to the interconnected system operators on the outcomes of the decision-making process under attack. A 34-buses test system, with 3 systems interconnected by tie-lines, is presented to illustrate the model and compare the impacts of different information scenarios.