Sample records for buses by motive power

  1. Efficiency improvement of transport service by trolley buses based on the levels of their power demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Aulin


    Full Text Available Purpose. Use efficiency improvement of trolley buses in passenger traffic based on power levels of electric energy input and terms adjustment of their maintenance. Methodology. In order to achieve this goal conformance of electric energy input by trolleybus to the transported amount of passengers taking into account characteristics of the route is offered to establish. The major indicators of the trolleybus operation are: speed of a race on lines, number of tractive motor firing, voltage and amperage in the network that were taken with accountants from a dashboard. Research results were tabulated and recorded with DVR. Along with the study of power consumption of electric energy input by a trolleybus passenger count was carried out too. Findings. The directly proportional dependence between the level of energy consumption by a trolleybus and the number of passengers for constant performance route was determined. Originality. As the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the trolleybus operation on the route is proposed to use the ratio between electricity consumption and number of passengers for these characteristics of the route. This is confirmed experimentally. The obtained formulas give the possibility to balance the force work and consequently the volume of energy consumption during the trolleybus movement on the rise and the descent. Practical value. The proposed criterion can be used to adjust the terms of maintenance on the individual program, that means individual maintenance (IM. Type of work performed at the IM should be determined on the basis of diagnostic data of the vehicle (V. The principles of IM were formulated: 1 the primary task is planned and preventative strategy to identify and eliminate troubleshooting and technical actions; 2 operational control of the vehicle (V technical condition on the basis of prediction of its state using the proposed criteria, that takes into account the dependence of power consumption to


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  3. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.


    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  4. Power is the Great Motivator (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; Burnham, David H.


    Empirical research shows good managers are motivated by a need for power, tempered by maturity and self-control. Workshops can help a manager discover whether he has the correct motivation profile and can help him become a better manager. (JG)

  5. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of exhaust particulates from diesel-powered buses. (United States)

    Kováts, Nora; Acs, András; Ferincz, Arpád; Kovács, Anikó; Horváth, Eszter; Kakasi, Balázs; Jancsek-Turóczi, Beatrix; Gelencsér, András


    Diesel exhaust is one of the major sources of fine and ultra-fine particulate matter in urban air. Toxicity of diesel-powered engine emissions has been quite widely assessed; however, much less information is available on their ecotoxicity. In our study, the kinetic version of the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay based on the ISO 21338:2010 standard was used to characterise the ecotoxicity of diesel-powered buses. It is a direct contact test in which solid samples are tested in suspension and test organisms are in direct contact with toxic particles. The age of the selected buses fell into a wide range; the oldest one was produced in 1987. Diesel engines of different emission standards (Euro0-Euro4) were included. Measured EC50 values of Euro0-Euro1 engine emissions fell into the same range, 1.24-0.96 μg ml(-1), respectively. On the contrary, emission of Euro4 vehicle proved to be non-toxic. Genotoxic potential of the samples was also estimated, using the colorimetric SOS-chromotest™. Genotoxicity was detected also for Euro0 and Euro1 buses, showing correlation with the ecotoxic potential. The fact that the particulates from Euro4 vehicles did not show ecotoxic/genotoxic effect implies that replacing old Euro1 and Euro2 buses can be a highly effective solution for reducing environmental hazard of automotive emissions. The whole-aerosol testing method is a cheap alternative that can be used in engine developments and emission control.

  6. Motivating Power System Protection Course Students by Practical and Computer-Based Activities (United States)

    Shahnia, Farhad; Moghbel, Moayed; Yengejeh, Hadi Hosseinian


    This paper presents several methods for motivating students taking a power system protection (PSP) course. The paper reviews the laboratory activities developed for the PSP course at Curtin University, Australia; these methods are applicable and can be used for PSP course instruction at any institution. These activities were developed to improve…

  7. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony


    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Faidatun Naimah


    Full Text Available In the language learning process, motivation, one of psychological factors, has a great role in endorsing students to be a successful learner. Based on the issues, the choice of words that can influence the students to do the best is practically required by the teachers. So that, teacher as a motivator has a power to influence the students to take action for achieving their excellent learning, using what Anthony Robbins suggest on his book; Unlimited Power. The writer formulated the aims of this study as follow; (1 to identify the motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power from the psychological perspective, and (2 to describe how motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power take apart in the pedagogical field. This research used qualitative research to find out the data. The data analysis technique that researcher used is content analysis since they were texts in Unlimited Power. Researcher found three motivational lexicons used by Anthony Robbins in his book Unlimited Power; think, challenge, and remember. Think used as a tool to lead his readers to come to their memory, re-identify some main points, and consider about the certain thing. Challenge used to pump readers’ emotion, gave a test, and invited them to take action. Remember used as a tool to bring back a piece of information he provided before and try to keep it in readers’ mind. Anthony’s motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power also can use in the pedagogical field. Teacher can use them in the teaching-learning process as it determines the effectiveness of rewards for what students do and apparently influential factor for learning process.

  9. Analysis of city buses operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Papírník


    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of city buses operation. This analysis is focused on the energy balance of propulsion system of these buses. The energy balance gives an overview about necessary amount of energy for city buses in pure city operation. The operation of city buses is divided for this analysis into three basic modes: stop state, drive and deceleration. The fleet of the same 19 city buses was chosen for collection of all operation data. These city buses are located in one city. The buses were changing all bus routes and were driven by all bus drivers. These conditions are necessary for elimination of bus route topology and bus driver behaviour. The required operation data were saved into engines and transmissions control units. The saved data were uploaded from control units for data processing. The aim of the analysis is determination of the energy for each drive mode. The energy for individual mode gives an overview about possible energy savings when hybrid drive system is used for these buses. The energy balance is groundwork for correct design of hybrid drive system and for hybrid drive system control.

  10. Achievement Motivation and EEG Spectral Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Vorobyeva


    Full Text Available Achievement motivation is a psychological category which implies a desire to achieve significant (powerful results in certain sphere. According to the results of psychophysiological research people who are motivated for success are very active before they are instructed by the researcher which proves that they aimed at the perception of the referent situation and the intense level of expectations. One of the vital issues today is a problem how genes influence human behaviour. Thus on the basis of contemporary researches we can conclude that such influence is regulated by brain processes.

  11. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.


    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  12. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US); Clark, N.


    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  13. The power motive, n power, and fear of weakness. (United States)

    Nell, V; Strümpfer, D J


    Among 85 male undergraduates, high need for power as measured by the 1968 Winter scoring system is shown to relate to high drinking frequency (p less than .01), high alcohol consumption (p less than .05), and taking the first drink at age 16 or less (p less than .05); to the Disinhibition ("Swinger") factor on Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (p less than .05) to poor academic performance (p less than .05); and to generate a regression equation with the California Psychological Inventory that suggests qualities of personal disorderliness and intellectual aggression. These findings, considered in terms of power motive theory, are seen as replicating earlier evidence that high n Power is maladaptie, voyeuristic and power avoidant.

  14. Employee motivation: a powerful new model. (United States)

    Nohria, Nitin; Groysberg, Boris; Lee, Linda-Eling


    Motivating employees begins with recognizing that to do their best work, people must be in an environment that meets their basic emotional drives to acquire, bond, comprehend, and defend. So say Nohria and Groysberg, of Harvard Business School, and Lee, of the Center for Research on Corporate Performance. Using the results of surveys they conducted with employees at a wide range of Fortune 500 and other companies, they developed a model for how to increase workplace motivation dramatically. The authors identify the organizational levers that companies and frontline managers have at their disposal as they try to meet workers' deep needs. Reward systems that truly value good performance fulfill the drive to acquire. The drive to bond is best met by a culture that promotes collaboration and openness. Jobs that are designed to be meaningful and challenging meet the need to comprehend. Processes for performance management and resource allocation that are fair, trustworthy, and transparent address the drive to defend. Equipped with real-world company examples, the authors articulate how to apply these levers in productive ways. That application should not be selective, they argue, because a holistic approach gets you more than a piecemeal one. By using all four levers simultaneously, and thereby tackling all four drives, organizations can improve motivation levels by leaps and bounds. For example, a company that falls in the 50th percentile on employee motivation improves only to the 56th by boosting performance on one drive, but way up to the 88th percentile by doing better on all four drives. That's a powerful gain in competitive advantage that any business would relish.

  15. Comparison of on-road emissions for hybrid and regular transit buses. (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna L; Wang, Bo; Sperry, Robert


    Hybrid technology offers an attractive option for transit buses, since it has the potential to significantly reduce operating costs for transit agencies. The main impetus behind use of hybrid transit vehicles is fuel savings and reduced emissions. Laboratory tests have indicated that hybrid transit buses can have significantly lower emissions compared with conventional transit buses. However the number of studies is limited and laboratory tests may not represent actual driving conditions, since in-use vehicle operation differs from laboratory test cycles. This paper describes an on-road evaluation of in-use emission differences between hybrid-electric and conventional transit buses for the Ames, Iowa transit authority, CyRide. Emissions were collected on-road using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS) for three hybrid and two control buses. Emissions were collected for at least one operating bus day. Each bus was evaluated over the same route pattern, which utilizes the same driver. The number of passengers embarking or disembarking at each stop was collected by an on-board data collector so that passenger load could be included. Vehicle emissions are correlated to engine load demand, which is a function of factors such as vehicle load, speed, and acceleration. PEMS data are provided second by second and vehicle-specific power (VSP) was calculated for each row of data. Instantaneous data were stratified into the defined VSP bins and then average modal emission rates and standard errors were calculated for each bus for each pollutant. Pollutants were then compared by bus type. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon emissions were higher for the regular buses across most VSP bins than for the hybrid buses. Nitrogen oxide emissions were unexpectedly higher for the hybrid buses than for the control buses.

  16. Volatile properties of particles emitted by compressed natural gas and diesel buses during steady-state and transient driving modes. (United States)

    Jayaratne, E R; Meyer, N K; Ristovski, Z D; Morawska, L


    Volatile properties of particle emissions from four compressed natural gas (CNG) and four diesel buses were investigated under steady-state and transient driving modes on a chassis dynamometer. The exhaust was diluted utilizing a full-flow continuous volume sampling system and passed through a thermodenuder at controlled temperature. Particle number concentration and size distribution were measured with a condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer, respectively. We show that while almost all the particles emitted by the CNG buses were in the nanoparticle size range, at least 85% and 98% were removed at 100 and 250 °C, respectively. Closer analysis of the volatility of particles emitted during transient cycles showed that volatilization began at around 40 °C, with the majority occurring by 80 °C. Particles produced during hard acceleration from rest exhibited lower volatility than those produced during other times of the cycle. On the basis of our results and the observation of ash deposits on the walls of the tailpipes, we suggest that these nonvolatile particles were composed mostly of ash from lubricating oil. Heating the diesel bus emissions to 100 °C removed ultrafine particle numbers by 69-82% when a nucleation mode was present and just 18% when it was not.

  17. The impact of explicit and implicit power motivation on educational choices


    Maliszewski Norbert; Kuźmińska Anna O.; Wieczorkowska-Wierzbińska Grażyna; Werner-Maliszewska Anna


    The aim of three studies was to examine the differences between business majors and non-business majors, in their level of implicit (measured by an Implicit Association Test [IAT], Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwarz, 1998) and explicit power motivation (measured by Power Motivation and Helping Power Motivation scales, Frieze & Boneva, 2001).It was predicted that there are no differences between these two groups in the general (implicit) level of power motivation, but that differences exist in the w...

  18. Buse_Francisella Medium (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains colony forming unit and qPCR data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Morris, B., H. Buse, N. Adcock, and E. Rice. A...



    Cornachione Junior, Edgard Bruno; De Luca, Marcia Martins Mendes; Cunha, Jacqueline Veneroso Alves da; Ott, Ernani


    Among the several theories that discuss human motivation, there is the motivational theory of content developed by McClelland (1961), which identifies three learned needs and acquired through social interaction: success, affiliation and power. Considering the educational environment, especially the motivational needs of undergraduate students, this study aims to find evidence to identify the relationship between the motivational needs of success, affiliation and power and the level of remuner...

  20. Real-world operation conditions and on-road emissions of Beijing diesel buses measured by using portable emission measurement system and electric low-pressure impactor. (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Johnson, Kent C; Shah, Asad Naeem; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao


    On-road measurement is an effective method to investigate real-world emissions generated from vehicles and estimate the difference between engine certification cycles and real-world operating conditions. This study presents the results of on-road measurements collected from urban buses which propelled by diesel engine in Beijing city. Two widely used Euro III emission level buses and two Euro IV emission level buses were chosen to perform on-road emission measurements using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous pollutant and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for particulate matter (PM) number emissions. The results indicate that considerable discrepancies of engine operating conditions between real-world driving cycles and engine certification cycles have been observed. Under real-world operating conditions, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions can easily meet their respective regulations limits, while brake specification nitrogen oxide (bsNO(x)) emissions present a significant deviation from its corresponding limit. Compared with standard limits, the real-world bsNO(x) emission of the two Euro III emission level buses approximately increased by 60% and 120% respectively, and bsNO(x) of two Euro IV buses nearly twice standard limits because Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system not active under low exhaust temperature. Particle mass were estimated via particle size distribution with the assumption that particle density and diameter is liner. The results demonstrate that nanometer size particulate matter make significant contribution to total particle number but play a minor role to total particle mass. It is suggested that specific certified cycle should be developed to regulate bus engines emissions on the test bench or use PEMS to control the bus emissions under real-world operating conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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    Lowell, D.; Parsley, W.; Bush,C; Zupo, D.


    Using previously published data on regulated and unregulated emissions, this paper will compare the environmental performance of current generation transit buses operated on compressed natural gas (CNG) to current generation transit buses operated on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and incorporating diesel particulate filters (DPF). Unregulated emissions evaluated include toxic compounds associated with adverse health effects (carbonyl, PAH, NPAH, benzene) as well as PM particle count and size distribution. For all regulated and unregulated emissions, both technologies are shown to be comparable. DPF equipped diesel buses and CNG buses have virtually identical levels of PM mass emissions and particle number emissions. DPF-equipped diesel buses have lower HC and CO emissions and lower emissions of toxic substances such as benzene, carbonyls and PAHs than CNG buses. CNG buses have lower NOx emissions than DPF-equipped buses, though CNG bus NOx emissions are shown to be much more variable. In addition, this paper will compare the capital and operating costs of CNG and DPF-equipped buses. The cost comparison is primarily based on the experience of MTA New York City Transit in operating CNG buses since 1995 and DPF-equipped buses fueled with ULSD since 2001. Published data on the experience of other large transit agencies in operating CNG buses is used to validate the NYCT experience. The incremental cost (compared to ''baseline'' diesel) of operating a typical 200-bus depot is shown to be six times higher for CNG buses than for ''clean diesel'' buses. The contributors to this increased cost for CNG buses are almost equally split between increased capital costs for purchase of buses and installation of fueling infrastructure, and increased operating costs for purchase of fuel, bus maintenance, and fuel station maintenance.

  2. Power motivation, stress and physical illness. (United States)

    McClelland, D C; Jemmott, J B


    College students reporting a large number of life change events in the past six months also reported significantly more frequent and more severe instances of physical illness and more affective symptoms in the same time period. These relationships, however, were modified in an interesting way by type of life change and by individual differences. Life change events were classified as involving power, affiliative or other stresses. Individuals scoring high in the need for Power (n Power), in inhibition, and in the number of power stresses (HHH subjects), reported more severe physical illness and affective symptoms than all other subjects or, in particular, subjects low in n Power, power stress and inhibition (LLL subjects). Individuals scoring high in Power and high in either inhibition or power stress also reported significantly more severe physical illness than other subjects. Among subjects high in inhibition, affiliative stress in combination with high n Power was associated with more severe physical illness, but, among subjects low in inhibition, affiliative stress in combination with high n Affiliation was associated with more physical illness. Affiliative stress was unrelated to affective symptoms. Other stress was unrelated either alone or in combination with other variable to physical illness or affective symptoms. The findings are interpreted as consistent with the hypothesis that subjects in the HHH category compared with other subjects are characterized by chronically high sympathetic activity which has immunosuppressive effects, making them more illness prone.

  3. Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    and children of different ages. When used for child obesity prevention, motivational interviewing was connected with dilemmas which should not be left to the individual nurse but be handled in practice by the school health service management. It is suggested to distinguish carefully between obesity prevention...... a prevention strategy targeting children with a high risk of obesity with an intervention conducted by school nurses using motivational interviewing.Motivational interviewing is a counselling method to bring about behavioural change (Miller and Rollnick 1995). Effect has been documented for a range of problem...... for what data told about motivational interviewing. Next, specifically according to the keywords of the motivational interviewing spirit and techniques. Key results : The study showed that the motivational interviewing spirit and techniques are integrated, inseparable, and adapted by the school nurses...

  4. [Motivation effect on EEG spectral power and heart rate parameters in students during examination stress]. (United States)

    Dzhebrailova, T D; Korobeĭnikova, I I; Rudneva, L P


    EEG spectral power was calculated in 24 students (18-21 years) with different levels of motivation and anxiety (tested by Spielberger) in two experimental conditions: during the common educational process and the examination stress. Before examination tests, in subjects with high motivation and anxiety level the relative delta activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. In students with medium motivation immediately before an examination the relative beta2-activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. It is suggested that delta oscillati- ons reflect activity of the defensive motivational system, whereas beta2 oscillations may be associated with the achievement motivation.

  5. Successful innovation by motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Koudelková


    Full Text Available Innovation is one of the most important factors for business growth. Human capital plays a significant role in the successful process of innovation. This article deals with employee motivation in the innovation process and the main scientific aim of this study is to present results of research that was undertaken in the Czech Republic at the beginning of 2013. Questionnaires were used for the survey and statistical analyses such as Chi square test or Hierarchical cluster analysis were used for data processing. This study also provides a theoretical and practical overview of business innovation in the Czech Republic.

  6. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud


    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  7. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.


    This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

  8. Effects of low environmental impact buses

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    Alessandrini, A.; Persia, L. [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' (Italy)


    The quality of life in modern cities cannot be improved without a more sustainable mobility system. The introduction of new-conception vehicles, with lower energy consumption, and less noise and noxious emissions, can substantially contribute to mitigating the effects of traffic externalities. The results presented in this paper come from a research project called FLEETS, which was conducted in the city of Terni (Italy). The project, supported by EC DG XVII (Energy), dealt with the introduction of 12-m hybrid buses and the testing of biofuel and self-cleaning electrostatic mufflers. The paper focuses on the technical assessment of the buses' efficiency in terms of consumption and pollutant emission, measured by sensors able to monitor bus performance in real-time, installed on both conventional and new-conception buses. Hybrid bus reliability and impacts on users' attitude and PT (public transport) patronage were also assessed. (author)

  9. The New Energy Buses in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari


    With the advent of “low carbon” economy, new energy vehicles are increasingly favored by the Chinese government and manufacturers. New energy buses have become an important channel for the promotion of new energy utilizations. Based on the summary of policies, this paper conducts a thorough...... research on the technology and promotion achievements on new energy buses. We have found that the promotion achievements have difference with plans and gaps exist in different cities. In the paper we discuss the policy efficiency, the correlation between achievements, policies and the influence from oil...... price. We draw the conclusions that clear direction and detailed plans will enhance the new energy bus promotion and rising oil prices will promote new energy buses as well....

  10. Motivation of medical students: selection by motivation or motivation by selection. (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Kusurkar, Rashmi A


    Medical schools try to implement selection procedures that will allow them to select the most motivated students for their programs. Though there is a general feeling that selection stimulates student motivation, conclusive evidence for this is lacking. The current study aims to use the perspective of Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation as a lens to examine how medical students' motivation differs in relation to different selection procedures. The hypotheses were that 1) selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students, and 2) recently selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students and students who were selected longer ago. First- (Y1) and fourth-year (Y4) medical students in the six-year regular programme and first-year students in the four-year graduate entry programme (GE) completed questionnaires measuring motivation strength and type (autonomous-AM, controlled-CM). Scores were compared between students admitted based on selection, lottery or top pre-university GPA (top GPA) using ANCOVAs. Selected students' answers on open-ended questions were analysed using inductive thematic analysis to identify reasons for changes in motivation. The response rate was 61.4 % (n = 357). Selected students (Y1, Y4 and GE) reported a significantly higher strength of motivation than non-selected students (Y1 and Y4 lottery and top GPA) (p motivation as they felt autonomous, competent and that they belonged to a special group. These reported reasons are in alignment with the basic psychological needs described by Self-Determination Theory as important in enhancing autonomous motivation. A comprehensive selection procedure, compared to less demanding admission procedures, does not seem to yield a student population which stands out in terms of autonomous motivation. The current findings indicate that selection might temporarily enhance students' motivation. The mechanism

  11. [Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Benefits Analysis for Battery Electric Buses Based on Travel Services]. (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-dan; Tian, Liang; Lü, Bin; Yang, Jian-xin


    Battery Electric Bus (BEB) has become one of prior options of urban buses for its "zero emission" during the driving stage. However, the environmental performance of electric buses is affected by multi-factors from the point of whole life cycle. In practice, carrying capacity of BEB and power generation structures can both implement evident effects on the energy consumption and pollutants emission of BEB. Therefore, take the above factors into consideration, in this article, Life Cycle Assessment is employed to evaluate the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of BEB. Results indicate that, travel service is more reasonable as the functional unit, rather than mileage, since the carrying capacity of BEB is 15% lower than the diesel buses. Moreover, compared with diesel buses, the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of battery electric buses are all different due to different regional power structures. Specifically, the energy benefits are 7. 84%, 11. 91%, 26. 90%, 11. 15%, 19. 55% and 20. 31% respectively in Huabei, Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang power structure. From the point of comprehensive emissions reduction benefits, there is no benefit in Huabei power structure, as it depends heavily on coal. But in other areas, the comprehensive emissions reduction benefits of BEB are separately 3. 46%, 26. 81%, 1. 17%, 13. 74% and 17. 48% in Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang. Therefore, it suggests that, enlargement of carrying capacity should be taken as the most prior technology innovation direction for BEB, and the grids power structure should be taken into consideration when the development of BEB is in planning.

  12. Motivation. (United States)

    Chambers, David W


    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  13. [Team motivation and motivational strategies adopted by nurses]. (United States)

    Bezerra, Felipa Daiana; Andrade, Marta Francisca da Conceição; Andrade, Joseilze Santos de; Vieira, Maria Jésia; Pimentel, Deborah


    Qualitative study held in an emergency hospital in Aracaju-SE, which aimed to know the perception of nurses about what is a motivated nursing team, to identify possible motivational policies used by them and if they are consistent with the policies proposed by Frederick Herzberg in his theory. Of the 20 nurses participants, the most understood the motivation as a set of techniques possible to shape the behavior of the individual at work, linking it to extrinsic factors and 60% did not consider his team motivated. The types of motivational policies that usually apply realized that these correspond to intrinsic factors aimed at self recovery and self realization of individuals in the tasks running.

  14. Achievement motivation revisited : New longitudinal data to demonstrate its predictive power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hustinx, P.W.J.; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.; Dijkstra, Pieternel


    During recent decades, the classical one-dimensional concept of achievement motivation has become less popular among motivation researchers. This study aims to revive the concept by demonstrating its predictive power using longitudinal data from two cohort samples, each with 20,000 Dutch secondary

  15. The impact of explicit and implicit power motivation on educational choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliszewski Norbert


    Full Text Available The aim of three studies was to examine the differences between business majors and non-business majors, in their level of implicit (measured by an Implicit Association Test [IAT], Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwarz, 1998 and explicit power motivation (measured by Power Motivation and Helping Power Motivation scales, Frieze & Boneva, 2001.It was predicted that there are no differences between these two groups in the general (implicit level of power motivation, but that differences exist in the way it is explicitly expressed: through desire for leadership and prominence vs. desire for helping. Results of Study 1 indicated that business majors (management, N=79 declared a higher leadership motive and a lower helping motive than non-business majors (history, psychology, linguistics, N=62.Study 2 addressed question whether the above differences in power motivation stem from socialization at the university level or from pre-selection. The relationship between high school students’ (N=134 academic major preferences and their power motivation was tested. It was found that the more they were business-oriented, the higher their scores were on leadership, and lower on helping scales. In Study 3, business majors (economics, N=75 and non-business majors (psychology, N=82 completed the same questionnaire as participants in previous studies, as well as performed the IAT. Non-business majors declared stronger explicit helping motive, while business majors expressed stronger prominence and leadership motives. Furthermore, for non-business majors, IAT results could be predicted by their helping score. Implications and possible limitations of the presented results are discussed.

  16. Effects of affiliation and power motivation arousal on salivary progesterone and testosterone. (United States)

    Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wirth, Michelle M; Stanton, Steven J


    Following up on earlier research suggesting a link between implicit affiliation motivation and progesterone (P) and implicit power motivation and testosterone [T; Schultheiss, O.C., Dargel, A., Rohde, W., 2003. Implicit motives and gonadal steroid hormones: Effects of menstrual cycle phase, oral contraceptive use, and relationship status. Horm. Behav. 43, 293-301.], we tested whether arousal of affiliation motivation increases P levels and whether arousal of power motivation increases T levels. Sixty subjects were randomly assigned to watch 30 min of either Bridges of Madison County (affiliation arousal) or The Godfather II (power arousal), or a documentary about the Amazon (control condition). Levels of P and T were assessed in saliva samples taken before (T1), immediately after (T2), and 45 min after the movie (T3). The efficacy of experimental conditions to differentially arouse motives was verified by assessment of changes in affiliation and power motive imagery expressed in imaginative stories written before and after the movie. After the movie, salivary P levels (T2 and T3) in the affiliation-arousal group were significantly higher than in the control group and marginally higher than in the power-arousal group. Subjects' postmovie T responses (T3) depended on premovie T levels: in men, higher premovie T levels predicted a greater likelihood of postmovie T increases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions, whereas in women, higher premovie T levels tended to be associated with postmovie T decreases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions. These findings suggest that aroused affiliation motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on P, whereas aroused power motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on T in men, but not in women, with high baseline T levels.

  17. On-road measurement of regulated pollutants from diesel and CNG buses with urea selective catalytic reduction systems (United States)

    Guo, Jiadong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Lijun; Tan, Jianwei; Li, Jiaqiang; Feng, Xiangyu


    In this study, emissions from 13 buses operated in Beijing, including two Euro-III diesel buses, four Euro-IV diesel buses, three Euro-V diesel buses and four Euro-V CNG buses, were characterized in real world conditions. All of the buses tested were fitted with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems except for the Euro-III diesel buses. A SEMTECH-DS was used for testing the gaseous pollutants, and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI) was used for measuring of particle numbers and size distributions. A comparison was made based on emission performance of these buses by employing the VSP approach and fuel- based emissions factors. Diesel buses emitted less CO and THC but more NOx and PM pollutants than CNG buses. The NOx reduction efficiencies of the SCR systems for CNG buses were higher because of the high exhaust temperature and high NO2/NOx ratio, whereas the efficiencies for diesel buses were lower. This resulted in extremely low NOx emissions from CNG buses, but the high NO2/NOx ratio needs further study. Failures of urea injection in the SCR systems were detected in this research, which resulted in very high NOx emissions. The CNG buses also emitted smaller numbers of particles and less particle mass with the presence of oxidation catalysts. Diesel buses satisfying the Euro-V standard performed better than Euro-IV and Euro-III diesel buses in terms of emission performance, except for more nuclei mode particles. Most of time, the Euro-IV diesel buses show no advantages in CO and NOx emissions compared with the Euro-III diesel buses.

  18. Basal and dynamic relationships between implicit power motivation and estradiol in women. (United States)

    Stanton, Steven J; Schultheiss, Oliver C


    This study investigated basal and reciprocal relationships between implicit power motivation (n Power), a preference for having impact and dominance over others, and both salivary estradiol and testosterone in women. 49 participants completed the Picture Story Exercise, a measure of n Power. During a laboratory contest, participants competed in pairs on a cognitive task and contest outcome (win vs. loss) was experimentally varied. Estradiol and testosterone levels were determined in saliva samples collected at baseline and several times post-contest, including 1 day post-contest. n Power was positively associated with basal estradiol concentrations. The positive correlation between n Power and basal estradiol was stronger in single women, women not taking oral contraceptives, or in women with low-CV estradiol samples than in the overall sample of women. Women's estradiol responses to a dominance contest were influenced by the interaction of n Power and contest outcome: estradiol increased in power-motivated winners but decreased in power-motivated losers. For power-motivated winners, elevated levels of estradiol were still present the day after the contest. Lastly, n Power and estradiol did not correlate with self-reported dominance and correlated negatively with self-reported aggression. Self-reported dominance and aggression did not predict estradiol changes as a function of contest outcome. Overall, n Power did not predict basal testosterone levels or testosterone changes as a function of dominance contest outcome.



    Tadeusz G³owacki


    Motivation is inseparable from human work. It is also one of the five most important elements of the management process. The ability to determine the level of motivation would therefore be very useful in the work of every manager. This paper is an attempt to quantify motivation and evaluate its size, using the concept of entropy. The main reason to try defining a method of measuring the amount of motivation is to improve the management techniques of companies.

  20. Analysis of children strollers and prams safety in urban buses


    Martínez Sáez, Luis; García Álvarez, Antonio; Espantaleón Ruiz, Manuel; Alcalá Fazio, Enrique; Dols Ruiz, Juan


    The wide incorporation of low floor buses in our cities encourages that child younger than three years, seated on their stroller could use the buses. Currently, the UNECE Regulation No 107 at its revision 5 has included general provisions for the accessibility and basic safety for this type of users. An applied research has been performed to analyze the level of protection offered for the stroller restraint systems included in R107, by performing dynamic tests with instrumented dummies. Mo...

  1. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010 (United States)


    This past year has been one of transition for the introduction of fuel cell transit buses. The existing generation of fuel cell buses from Van Hool and UTC Power has continued to operate in service at three transit agencies. At the same time, a new g...

  2. Voltage stability margins assessment for Muscat power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellithy, K.A.; Gastli, A. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Muscat (Oman); Al-Khusaibi, T. [Ministry of Housing and Electricity and Water, Muscat (Oman); Irving, M. [Brunel Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)


    Voltage instability problems in power systems today are, in many countries, one of the major concerns in power system planning and operation. This paper presents the assessment of voltage stability margins for Muscat power system under normal operating condition and under contingencies. The modal analysis method is applied to identify the weak buses in the system, which could lead to voltage instability. These weak buses are selected as the best locations for applying remedial actions to enhance the stability margins. The results show that the buses at South Batna load area are the weakest buses in the system. The results also show that an increase in load demand on that area without an adequate increase of reactive power could lead to voltage collapse. Shunt VAR compensations (remedial action) are installed at the weakest buses to enhance the system stability margins. The results presented in this paper are obtained using a MATLAB computer program developed by the authors. (Author)

  3. The implicit power motive and sociosexuality in men and women: Pancultural effects of responsibility. (United States)

    Hofer, Jan; Busch, Holger; Bond, Michael Harris; Campos, Domingo; Li, Ming; Law, Ruby


    Research has shown that an individual's implicit power motive relates to 2 types of behavioral clusters: either prosocial, socially appropriate behaviors or profligate, impulsive behaviors. The present study examined the relationship between individuals' implicit power motives and their tendency to engage in sexual activities without strong emotional ties (i.e., sociosexuality). For men, but not for women, this relationship was hypothesized to be moderated by an implicit disposition for responsibility. Whereas most research has been limited to Euro-American contexts, the present study examined the relationship between power motive, disposition for responsibility, and sociosexuality among participants recruited in Cameroon, China, Costa Rica, and Germany. Explicit Big Five measures of personality were controlled for. For women, only a main effect of responsibility on sociosexuality was found across cultural groups; for men, the association between power motivation and sociosexuality was moderated by responsibility, independent of cultural group. Traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were systematically related to lower levels of sociosexuality. Effects for both implicit and explicit measures of personality suggest universality in the processes associated with more enactments of sociosexuality, confirming in part the hypothesized role of responsibility in channeling the realization of the power motive into less impulsive activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Magnified Bacteria Powerful Motivator for Hand Hygiene Compliance. (United States)

    Gregory, Ashley


    Infection prevention specialists at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit have found that showing healthcare workers magnified pictures of bacteria found ontheir hands and in their surrounding units can be a powerful motivator for improved hand hygiene compliance. When tested in four units during a one-month period, the intervention boosted hand hygiene compliance by an average of 24%. Investigators note that to be successful, the intervention must be paired with an effective compliance monitoring program. For the study, investigators visited each unit twice per week, during which they would swab various items as well as employees' hands using and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) meter, a hand-held device that measures living organisms. During each unit visit, infection prevention specialists would show unit personnel pictures from a compilation of 12 magnified images of bacteria that had been lifted from the unit. This was to demonstrate what the bacteria would look like under a microscope. The unsavory pictures produced immediate increases in had hygiene compliance, and prompted healthcare workers to see who could produce the best ATP meter readings on subsequent infection prevention specialist visits.

  5. Sexual overperception: power, mating motives, and biases in social judgment. (United States)

    Kunstman, Jonathan W; Maner, Jon K


    Results from 4 experiments suggest that power motivates heightened perceptions and expectations of sexual interest from subordinates. Having power over a member of the opposite sex activated sexual concepts that persisted across a temporal delay, indicating the activation of a mating goal (Study 1). Having power increased participants' expectations of sexual interest from a subordinate (Study 2) but only when a mating goal was attainable (i.e., when the subordinate was romantically available; Study 3). In a face-to-face interaction between 2 participants, power heightened perceptions of sexual interest and sexualized behavior among participants with chronically active mating goals (i.e., sexually unrestricted individuals; Study 4). Tests of mediation demonstrated that sexual overperception mediated power's effect on sexually tinged behavior. Through its capacity to induce goal pursuit, power can activate mating goals that sexualize interactions between men and women. This research demonstrates one route through which power might lead to sexual harassment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. 49 CFR 1242.60 - Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives... (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-51-67, XX-51-68 and XX-51-69). 1242.60 Section...-Transportation § 1242.60 Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing...

  7. The role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation: The case of the need for power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Schultheiss


    Full Text Available Implicit motives like the need for power (nPower scale affective responses to need-specific rewards or punishments and thereby influence activity in motivational-brain structures. In this paper, we review evidence specifically supporting a role of the striatum in nPower. Individual differences in nPower predict (a enhanced implicit learning accuracy, but not speed, on serial-response tasks that are reinforced by power-related incentives (e.g., winning or losing a contest; dominant or submissive emotional expressions in behavioral studies and (b activation of the anterior caudate in response to dominant emotional expressions in brain imaging research. We interpret these findings on the basis of Hikosaka, Nakamura, Sakai, and Nakahara's (2002; Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12(2, 217-222 model of central mechanisms of motor skill learning. The model assigns a critical role to the dorsoanterior striatum in dopamine-driven learning of spatial stimulus sequences. Based on this model, we suggest that the dorsoanterior striatum is the locus of nPower-dependent reinforcement. However, given the centrality of this structure in a wide range of motivational pursuits, we also propose that activity in the dorsoanterior striatum may not only reflect individual differences in nPower, but also in other implicit motives, like the need for achievement or the need for affiliation, provided that the proper incentives for these motives are present during reinforcement learning. We discuss evidence in support of such a general role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation.

  8. Reflections on the motive power of fire and other papers on the second law of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carnot, Sadi


    Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire,"" along with other papers in this volume, laid the foundation of modern thermodynamics. Highly readable, ""Reflections"" contains no arguments that depend on calculus, consisting mostly of statements couched in exact language. It represents a tribute to Carnot's capacity to generalize, and to see fundamental processes at work in complex mechanisms.""Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire"" examines the relation between heat and the work done by heat in high- and low-pressure steam engines, air-engines, and an internal combustion machine. Carnot establi

  9. Evaluating real-world CO2 and NOX emissions for public transit buses using a remote wireless on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach. (United States)

    Yang, Liuhanzi; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Chen, Qizheng; Niu, Tianlin; Huang, Xu; Zhang, Shida; Zhang, Liangjun; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Jiming


    The challenge to mitigate real-world emissions from vehicles calls for powerful in-use compliance supervision. The remote on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach, with wireless data communications, is one of the promising next-generation monitoring methods. We collected second-by-second profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions, driving conditions and engine performance for three conventional diesel and three hybrid diesel buses participating in a remote OBD pilot program in Nanjing, China. Our results showed that the average CO2 emissions for conventional diesel and hybrid diesel buses were 816 ± 83 g km(-1) and 627 ± 54 g km(-1), respectively, under a typical driving pattern. An operating mode binning analysis indicated that CO2 emissions reduction by series-parallel hybrid technology was largely because of the significant benefits of the technology under the modes of low speed and low power demand. However, significantly higher CO2 emissions were observed for conventional diesel buses during rush hours, higher than 1200 g km(-1). The OBD data suggested no improvement in NOX emission reduction for hybrid buses compared with conventional buses; both were approximately 12 g km(-1) because of poor performance of the selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in the real world. Speed-dependent functions for real-world CO2 and NOX emissions were also constructed. The CO2 emissions of hybrid buses were much less sensitive to the average speed than conventional buses. If the average speed decreased from 20 km h(-1) to 10 km h(-1), the estimated CO2 emission factor for conventional buses would be increased by 34%. Such a change in speed would increase NOX emissions for conventional and hybrid buses by 38% and 56%, respectively. This paper demonstrates the useful features of the remote OBD system and can inform policy makers how to take advantage of these features in monitoring in-use vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Improving temporal cognition by enhancing motivation. (United States)

    Avlar, Billur; Kahn, Julia B; Jensen, Greg; Kandel, Eric R; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D


    Increasing motivation can positively impact cognitive performance. Here we employed a cognitive timing task that allows us to detect changes in cognitive performance that are not influenced by general activity or arousal factors such as the speed or persistence of responding. This approach allowed us to manipulate motivation using three different methods; molecular/genetic, behavioral and pharmacological. Increased striatal D2Rs resulted in deficits in temporal discrimination. Switching off the transgene improved motivation in earlier studies, and here partially rescued the temporal discrimination deficit. To manipulate motivation behaviorally, we altered reward magnitude and found that increasing reward magnitude improved timing in control mice and partially rescued timing in the transgenic mice. Lastly, we manipulated motivation pharmacologically using a functionally selective 5-HT2C receptor ligand, SB242084, which we previously found to increase incentive motivation. SB242084 improved temporal discrimination in both control and transgenic mice. Thus, while there is a general intuitive belief that motivation can affect cognition, we here provide a direct demonstration that enhancing motivation, in a variety of ways, can be an effective strategy for enhancing temporal cognition. Understanding the interaction of motivation and cognition is of clinical significance since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in both domains. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Exploring the motivational brain: effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation in response to facial expressions of emotion. (United States)

    Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wirth, Michelle M; Waugh, Christian E; Stanton, Steven J; Meier, Elizabeth A; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia


    This study tested the hypothesis that implicit power motivation (nPower), in interaction with power incentives, influences activation of brain systems mediating motivation. Twelve individuals low (lowest quartile) and 12 individuals high (highest quartile) in nPower, as assessed per content coding of picture stories, were selected from a larger initial participant pool and participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study during which they viewed high-dominance (angry faces), low-dominance (surprised faces) and control stimuli (neutral faces, gray squares) under oddball-task conditions. Consistent with hypotheses, high-power participants showed stronger activation in response to emotional faces in brain structures involved in emotion and motivation (insula, dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex) than low-power participants.

  12. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar


    A standard way to realize communication in microgrid control is to use an external communication network, such as modems for wireless or power-line communication, whose implementation may be inefficient in terms of deployment cost, complexity, and system stability. In this chapter we present...... a communication solution, denoted as power talk, which is solely based on the use of the existing microgrid power equipment (i.e., power electronics and buses). The pivotal idea is to modulate information in the power-related parameters of the microgrid buses by use of the flexibility of power electronic...... interfaces. The focus of the chapter is on the design of power talk solutions for DC microgrids with droop control. Specifically, the chapter presents the power talk implementation through modification of the droop parameters of the primary control loop, and investigates the design of modulation schemes...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław KRAWIEC


    Full Text Available The programing documents of the European Union determine the direction of transport systems development, including large cities and agglomerations. The context of these actions which aim to transform into ecologically clean and sustainable transport system is a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Assuming that public transport will significantly reduce the use of combustion-powered buses, studies on urban logistic enabling the use of electric buses for public transport are needed. The article presents the variants and scenarios for electric buses implementation in urban public transport, as well as the decision algorithm to support electric bus implementation based on technological, organisational, economic and ecological variables.

  14. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm. (United States)

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina


    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders' targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jie Zhang; Yun Fan; Xu Zhang


    .... Drawing on a relational perspective, we conceptualized a moderated mediation model in which power motivation enhanced individual creativity through improving the quality of leader-member exchange (LMX...

  16. Conceptual design of the TPF-O SC buses (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.


    The Terrestrial Planet Finder - Occulter (TPF-O) mission has two Spacecraft (SC) buses, one for a formation-flying occulter and the other for a space telescope. These buses supply the utilities (support structures, propulsion, attitude control, power, communications, etc) required by the payloads: a deployable shade for the occulter and a telescope with instruments for the space telescope. Significant requirements for the occulter SC bus are to provide the large delta V required for the slewing maneuvers of the occulter and communications for formation flying. The TPF-O telescope SC bus shares some key features of the one for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in that both support space telescopes designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths with comparable primary mirror apertures (2.4 m for HST, 2.4 - 4.0 m for TPF-O). Significant differences from HST are that 1) the TPF-O telescope is expected to have a Wide Field Camera (WFC) that will have a Field of View (FOV) large enough to provide fine guidance, 2) TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth Lagrange 2 (SEL2) point which requires TPF-O (unlike HST) to have a propulsion system, and 3) the velocity required for reaching SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require both TPF-O elements to have compact, low-mass designs. Additionally, it is possible that TPF-O may utilize a modular design derived from that of HST to allow robotic servicing in the SEL2 orbit.

  17. Performance comparison of two fuel cell hybrid buses with different powertrain and energy management strategies (United States)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Languang; Gao, Dawei; Xie, Qicheng

    In order to assess the influences of different powertrain structures and energy management strategies on the performance of hybrid fuel cell buses (FCB), two buses (FCB A and FCB B) were constructed with a "energy hybrid structure" and "power hybrid structure", respectively. Different energy management strategies were investigated based on analysis of the two systems. And the two buses were compared with each other in a bus cycle and constant speed testing. The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) in FCB A showed an advantage in fuel economy for it worked usually in the high efficient range of the PEMFC engine. The hydrogen consumption rate in the cycle testing was 7.9 kg/100 km and 9.8 kg/100 km for FCB A and FCB B, and in the 40 kmph constant speed testing it was 3.3 kg/100 km and 4.0 kg/100 km, respectively. The fuel economy could be improved when the hydrogen and air supply subsystems are optimized and controlled with an advanced algorithm. It could also benefit from a braking energy regeneration system. Compared with FCB A, the PEMFC in FCB B worked under unfavorable operation conditions because its working range was comparatively wide, and the power changing rate was relatively large from a statistical point of view, which resulted in performance recession of the PEMFC in FCB B. After a mileage of 7000 km, the output power of the PEMFC in FCB B was reduced by 10%, compared with 2.4% in FCB A. An advanced energy management strategy is necessary to split the power between the PEMFC and a battery suitable for long durability of a PEMFC.

  18. On the issue of selecting technical and operational parameters for buses in urban passenger routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzinskyi V.V.


    Full Text Available Problems of a public transport bus service in urban areas were analyzed. The aim of the article is to determine actual operational parameters of buses during passenger transportation in Zhytomyr. Ways of determining technical and operational parameters of buses were developed using visual and tabular methods of city buses real-time speed and acceleration performance registration by GPS-monitoring system with the help of a communicational and informational intelligent transport system of the city. Experimental studies of city buses motion parameters were presented. A comprehensive survey of passenger traffic and conditions of public transport functioning in Zhytomyr was carried out. The values of technical and operational parameters of buses on city routes were obtained. Preliminarily conclusions and recommendations considering the criteria for selecting the optimal rolling stock for a bus network of the city were suggested.

  19. Concentrations and risk assessment of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons in buses and bus stations of Hangzhou, China. (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Chen, Shuguang; Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Xiasheng; Yao, Chaoying; Shen, Xueyou


    Air pollution surveys of ten selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHCs) were conducted in buses and bus stations in Hangzhou, China. The mean concentrations of MAHCs in the air of buses and bus stations were 95.9 and 36.5 microg/m(3), respectively, of which toluene was the highest in all the sampling sites. Mean concentrations of all MAHCs in buses were statistically higher than those nearby bus stations (pvehicle conditions (including vehicle type, fuel type, interior decoration, etc.) and traffic conditions (mainly traffic density). Among the investigated buses, microbuses had the highest MAHCs level, while electric buses had the lowest. Buses driven in downtown had the highest MAHCs level, followed by those in suburban areas and tourist areas. The mean concentration ratio of toluene to benzene was 2.1+/-0.9, indicating that vehicle emission was the dominant source of MAHCs. Interior decorations, such as painting and surface coating, could also contribute to the MAHCs in the buses. The mean lifetime carcinogenic risks for passengers and bus drivers were 1.11x10(-5) and 4.00x10(-5), respectively, which were way above the limit set by USEPA. The health risk caused by MAHCs in bus microenvironment should be cautioned.

  20. The new pyramid: laying the groundwork with motivational power. (United States)

    Lombardi, D


    To successfully implement a comprehensive, progressive management system, a manager must incorporate daily administrative or executive principles and duties with an array of motivational tactics. Various motivational strategies have been discussed since the generation of industrial psychological research, which is generally conceded to have had its genesis with Abraham Maslow. Maslow's simple premise regarding man's needs for self-esteem, security and affiliation is at the root of many theories and practicums in vogue today.

  1. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa. (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek


    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.



    Erciyes, Erdem


    This thesis investigates the impact of culture, leadership, and power, on staff motivation in selected international organizations (IOs), and develops a theoretical framework to assist with the practice of workforce motivation. The main research question is: “How can supervisors motivate their staff in the context of IOs?” Utilizing critical theory as a paradigm of inquiry, the study’s philosophical perspective leans heavily on “phenomenology”. Conducting this research led to the realization ...

  3. Unstable Power Threatens the Powerful and Challenges the Powerless: Evidence from Cardiovascular Markers of Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan eScheepers


    Full Text Available Possessing social power has psychological and biological benefits. For example, during task interactions, people high in power are more likely to display a benign cardiovascular response pattern indicative of challenge whereas people low in power are more likely to display a maladaptive cardiovascular pattern indicative of threat (Scheepers, De Wit, Ellemers, & Sassenberg, 2012. Challenge is marked by high cardiac output (CO and low total peripheral resistance, while threat is marked by low CO and high TPR (Blascovich & Mendes, 2010. In the current work we addressed a possible moderator of the power-threat/challenge relationship, namely the stability of power. We examined the influence of the stability of power (roles could or could not change on cardiovascular responses during a dyadic task where one person was the chief designer (high power and one person was the assistant (low power. During the task, different cardiovascular-measures were taken (CO, TPR, Heart Rate [HR], Pre-Ejection Period [PEP]. Whereas participants in the unstable low power condition showed a stronger tendency towards challenge, participants in the unstable high power condition showed a stronger tendency towards threat. Moreover, participants in the stable low power condition showed cardiovascular signs of task disengagement. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of contextual variables in shaping the relationship between power and benign/maladaptive physiological responses.

  4. Stressed power motivation, sympathetic activation, immune function, and illness. (United States)

    McClelland, D C; Floor, E; Davidson, R J; Saron, C


    Previous research has reported that individuals high in the need for Power, high in inhibition, and high in power stress (the HHH group) are more likely than other individuals to report more severe illnesses. The present study investigates the possibility that the mechanism underlying this relationship is greater sympathetic activation in the HHH group which has an immunosuppressive effect. College males with the HHH syndrome reported more frequent and more severe illnesses than other individuals, as in previous studies. More of the HHH than other subjects also showed above average epinephrine excretion rates in urine and below average concentrations of immunoglobulin A in saliva (S-IgA). Furthermore, higher rates of epinephrine excretion were significantly associated with lower S-IgA concentrations, and lower S-IgA concentrations were significantly associated with reports of more frequent illnesses. The findings are interpreted as consistent with the hypothesis that a strong need for Power, if it is inhibited and stressed, leads to chronic sympathetic overactivity which has an immunosuppressive effect making individuals characterized by this syndrome more susceptible to illness.

  5. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione


    Full Text Available In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable.

  6. Nurturing gerontology students' intrinsic motivation to cocreate: The design of a powerful learning environment. (United States)

    Jukema, Jan S; Veerman, Mieke; Van Alphen, Jacqueline; Visser, Geraldine; Smits, Carolien; Kingma, Tineke


    Professionals such as gerontologists play an important role in the design, development and implementation of age-friendly services. and products, by using working methods and principles of co-creation. A Dutch undergraduate applied gerontology programme aims to train students in the why, how and what of co-creation. The degree to which students are intrinsically motivated to develop competencies depends on how their psychological needs are met. These needs are autonomy, an awareness of competence and a sense of relatedness, as described in the self-determination theory. To nurture the intrinsic motivation of the applied gerontology students, a realistic, powerful learning environment called the Living Lab Applied Gerontology was designed and implemented. The aim of this paper is to present the design of this powerful learning environment and to discuss its value for nurturing the students' intrinsic motivation for co-creation. Based on a focus group with eight students, we identify directions for further research and development of living labs.

  7. The effects of competition and implicit power motive on men's testosterone, emotion recognition, and aggression. (United States)

    Vongas, John G; Al Hajj, Raghid


    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. We investigated the effects of competition on men's testosterone levels and assessed whether androgen reactivity was associated with subsequent emotion recognition and reactive and proactive aggression. We also explored whether personalized power (p Power) moderated these relationships. In Study 1, 84 males competed on a number tracing task and interpreted emotions from facial expressions. In Study 2, 72 males competed on the same task and were assessed on proactive and reactive aggression. In both studies, contrary to the biosocial model of status (Mazur, 1985), winners' testosterone levels decreased significantly while losers' levels increased, albeit not significantly. Personalized power moderated the effect of competition outcome on testosterone change in both studies. Using the aggregate sample, we found that the effect of decreased testosterone levels among winners (compared to losers) was significant for individuals low in p Power but not for those with medium or high p Power. Testosterone change was positively related to emotion recognition, but unrelated to either aggression subtype. The testosterone-mediated relationship between winning and losing and emotion recognition was moderated by p Power. In addition, p Power moderated the direct (i.e., non-testosterone mediated) path between competition outcome and emotion recognition and both types of aggression: high p-Power winners were more accurate at deciphering others' emotions than high p-Power losers. Finally, among high p-Power men, winners aggressed more proactively than losers, whereas losers aggressed more reactively than winners. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of implicit power motivation in modulating hormonal, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes arising from human competition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing Students' Motivation by Using Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Aura Stella


    Full Text Available The lack of motivation in the 9th grade students of Tomás Rueda Vargas School was the objective of this project, so we planned a series of workshops in Microsoft Word to apply in the computer lab. We observed that by working in groups of four in the computer lab, the students did the activities with enthusiasm. It could also be noticed that the workshops were effective in reinforcing English learning.

  9. The Motivational Power of Game Communities - Engaged through Game Jamming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Kofoed, Lise B.


    to develop games and to meet new people. We believe that the community building as well as the motivation and engagement due to social aspects and the desire to learn more about game development among participants at such events might have beneficial ripple effects, which are valuable to investigate more...

  10. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming


    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  11. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander


    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  12. Wind power - a power source now enabled by power electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin


    the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging...... renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  13. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.


    This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

  14. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)


    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  15. Motivation Engineering to Employee by Employees Abraham Maslow Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Suyono


    Full Text Available Among many existing motivational theories, perhaps Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theories are widely known. This theory passes a message to us that once a person passes a certain level of need, he is no longer motivated by the level of motivation below. This provides an understanding that a manager or leader or motivator in the organization should know what is needed by subordinates. The need of a daily production worker with staff of managerial staff is different. To provide motivation that can improve performance to both, a motivator must provide different treatment according to their needs.

  16. Motivation, affect, and hemispheric asymmetry: power versus affiliation. (United States)

    Kuhl, Julius; Kazén, Miguel


    In 4 experiments, the authors examined to what extent information related to different social needs (i.e., power vs. affiliation) is associated with hemispheric laterality. Response latencies to a lateralized dot-probe task following lateralized pictures or verbal labels that were associated with positive or negative episodes related to power, affiliation, or achievement revealed clear-cut laterality effects. These effects were a function of need content rather than of valence: Power-related stimuli were associated with right visual field (left hemisphere) superiority, whereas affiliation-related stimuli were associated with left visual field (right hemisphere) superiority. Additional results demonstrated that in contrast to power, affiliation primes were associated with better discrimination between coherent word triads (e.g., goat, pass, and green, all related to mountain) and noncoherent triads, a remote associate task known to activate areas of the right hemisphere. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter in buses on highways in Taiwan (United States)

    Hsu, Der-Jen; Huang, Hsiao-Lin


    Although airborne pollutants in urban buses have been studied in many cities globally, long-distance buses running mainly on highways have not been addressed in this regard. This study investigates the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and particulate matter (PM) in the long-distance buses in Taiwan. Analytical results indicate that pollutants levels in long-distance buses are generally lower than those in urban buses. This finding is attributable to the driving speed and patterns of long-distance buses, as well as the meteorological and geographical features of the highway surroundings. The levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) found in bus cabins exceed the proposed indoor VOC guidelines for aromatic compounds, and are likely attributable to the interior trim in the cabins. The overall average CO level is 2.3 ppm, with higher average level on local streets (2.9 ppm) than on highways (2.2 ppm). The average CO 2 level is 1493 ppm, which is higher than the guideline for non-industrial occupied settings. The average PM level in this study is lower than those in urban buses and IAQ guidelines set by Taiwan EPA. However, the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 is higher than the level set by WHO. Besides the probable causes mentioned above, fewer passenger movements and less particle re-suspension from bus floor might also cause the lower PM levels. Measurements of particle size distribution reveal that more than 75% of particles are in submicron and smaller sizes. These particles may come from the infiltration from the outdoor air. This study concludes that air exchange rates in long-distance buses should be increased in order to reduce CO 2 levels. Future research on long-distance buses should focus on the emission of VOCs from brand new buses, and the sources of submicron particles in bus cabins.

  18. Measuring Medical Students' Motivation to Learning Anatomy by Cadaveric Dissection (United States)

    Abdel Meguid, Eiman M.; Khalil, Mohammed K.


    Motivation and learning are inter-related. It is well known that motivating learners is clearly a complex endeavor, which can be influenced by the educational program and the learning environment. Limited research has been conducted to examine students' motivation as a method to assess the effectiveness of dissection in medical education. This…

  19. The introduction of gas-powered busses in Berne; Die Einfuehrung von Gasbussen bei Bernmobil - Ein Erfahrungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, D.; Kljun, N.; Keller, M.


    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the experience gained from the operation of biogas-powered buses in Berne, Switzerland. The fleet conversion from diesel-engined buses to new vehicles powered by biogas from the city's wastewater treatment plant is discussed. Six operational aspects involved in the use of gas-powered buses in comparison with traditional diesel buses are examined and discussed. These include infrastructure adaptations, fuel and energy consumption, emissions and air-hygiene, operational changes, financial aspects and acceptance of the new vehicles both by operating personnel and the general public. Operational difficulties encountered after fire-damage to the gas filling equipment in the bus depot are noted. Fuel consumption is commented on and measurements made on emissions are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of biogas busses in comparison with diesel busses are discussed.

  20. Activating the working behavior of citizens by motivation potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Nikolayevna Lobanova


    Full Text Available Objective to study the possibility to change the working behavior of employees by actualizing their motivational potential. Methods the methods of survey questionnaires focus groups coaching and interview were used in the study. Results the studies have shown that the employeesrsquo motivational potential is revealed through a complex system of labor motivation taking into account the needs and interests of a particular employee and forming the motivational and stimulating environment. Scientific novelty the research includes the development of methods to analyze the employeesrsquo interests and dominant motives and building of the structural system of employeesrsquo motivation to effective action. Practical value developing a method to increase the employeesrsquo motivation for efficient work in the form of a systematic set of actions. The application of this method allows to increase the efficiency and productivity of workers to gain additional profit which is especially important in the context of the economic crisis and the lack of additional investment. nbsp

  1. The implicit power motive in intergroup dialogues about the history of slavery. (United States)

    Ditlmann, Ruth K; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Dovidio, John F; Naft, Michael J


    This research demonstrates that individual differences in the implicit power motive (i.e., the concern with impact, influence, and control) moderate how African Americans communicate with White Americans in challenging intergroup dialogues. In a study with African American participants we find that the higher their implicit power motive, the more they use an affiliation strategy to communicate with a White American partner in a conversation context that evokes the history of slavery (Study 1). In a study with White American participants we find that, in the same conversation context, they are more engaged (i.e., open, attentive, and motivated) if they receive an affiliation message rather than a no-affiliation message from an African American partner (Study 2). In interracial dyads we find that African American participants' implicit power motives moderate how much they intend to signal warmth to a White American discussion partner, how much they display immediacy behaviors and use affiliation imagery in the discussion, and with what level of engagement White American participants respond (Study 3). High but not low implicit power African Americans thus employ a communication strategy-expressing affiliation and warmth-that can be effective for engaging White Americans with uncomfortable, race-identity-relevant topics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in public transportation vehicles (buses): another piece to the epidemiologic puzzle. (United States)

    Lutz, Jonathan K; van Balen, Joany; Crawford, John Mac; Wilkins, John R; Lee, Jiyoung; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Hoet, Armando E


    Little is known about the occurrence and epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in public transportation in the United States. This research sought to determine the background prevalence and phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of MRSA strains circulating on buses from a large, metropolitan transportation agency. Electrostatic wipes were used to collect 237 surface samples from 40 buses randomly selected from July-October 2010. Six samples were collected from each bus immediately postservice and before any cleaning and disinfection. Positive isolates were analyzed for antibiotic resistance, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; and potential epidemiologic factors were examined. Of the buses, 68% (27/40) were contaminated with S aureus, and 63% (25/40) were contaminated with MRSA. Seats and seat rails were the surfaces most frequently contaminated, followed by the back door and stanchions. Most (62.9%) of the MRSA isolates were classified as community-associated MRSA clones (SCCmec type IV), and 22.9% were health care-associated MRSA clones (SCCmec type II). Of the MRSA strains, 65% (5/20) were multidrug resistant. MRSA was frequently isolated from commonly touched surfaces in buses serving both hospital and community routes. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis demonstrated that buses may be effective mixing vessels for MRSA strains of both community and health care-associated origin. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Feasibility study on the introduction of hybrid buses; Hybrid bus donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this research is to design pilot projects for introducing hybrid buses into the public transportation sector. This research also covers contents regarding hybrid buses with a trolley-collector motor and a diesel engine, to identify technical and economical problems and to analyze cost beneficiation using hybrid buses. The trolley parallel hybrid system has been employed for the feasibility study. This system has abundant operation results in Europe and the USA. Its battery is small or is not necessary, and the maintenance cost is also low. As a result of the feasibility study, reduction effects of CO2 emission were found out. When the CO2 generation at the power plant is not counted, the reduction effect was estimated to be 32% compared with the CO2 emission from diesel buses. When the CO2 generation at the power plant is considered, it was estimated to be 18%. The cost beneficiation was investigated for the cases of the transportations using trolley system surrounding a medium-scale terminal among large-scale housing development, tourist resort, and stations. The annual income is estimated to be larger than the annual payment in each case. It was found that the hybrid bus is economically established. 17 refs., 48 figs., 41 tabs.

  4. Efficiency evaluation of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, Tobias Alexander


    The following report evaluates the efficiency of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector on a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the combination of CHP power plants and electric driven buses reach an overall efficiency of about 51% throughout the production chain (Well-to-Wheel), including heat distribution losses. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency for conventional gas turbines without heat recovery decreases to around 28%. For gas fuelled buses the Well-to-Wheel efficiency is about 30%. The Co2-emissions are evaluated based on the example of a #Left Double Quotation Mark#Volvo B10L CNG#Right Double Quotation Mark# gas bus and the electric driven #Left Double Quotation Mark#Eurabus 600#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The low energy consumption of the electric driven bus results in Co2-emissions of only 181.4 g Co2/km (Grid-to-Wheel). Depending on the utilised power plant technology the overall Co2-emissions (Well-to-Wheel) amount to 307.5 g Co2/km for a CHP power plant and 553.5 g Co2/km for a conventional gas turbine. On the other hand, gas fuelled buses emit about 1.25 kg Co2/km (Tank-to-Wheel), which is eightfold the emissions of an electrical bus. The Well-to-Tank emissions further increase to about 1.32 kg Co2/km. The emission calculation is based on real gas consumption data from a Norwegian public transport utility. The results indicate that the combination of CHP plants and electrical buses provide a much higher efficiency while reducing Co2-emissions. (author)

  5. The Surprisingly Low Motivational Power of Future Rewards: Comparing Conventional Money-Based Measures of Discounting with Motivation-Based Measures (United States)

    Ebert, Jane E. J.


    Temporal discount rates are often poor predictors of behaviors that we expect will be motivated by the future. The current research suggests this may be because conventional discounting measures are poor measures of the motivational value of future rewards. In six studies, I develop motivation-based measures of the present value (PV) of future…

  6. Motivated explanation (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T.; Barbey, Aron K.


    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking,” its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  7. The motivational needs of primary health care nurses to acquire power as leaders in a mine clinic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Jooste


    Full Text Available Motivation is a process that influences and directs behaviour in order to satisfy a need. It links with goal 3 of the sustainable development goals that focus on ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being at all ages. Motivation of nurses is important in the primary health care environment of, for instance, mine settings; since low levels of motivation among Primary Health Care (PHC nurses could have a negative effect on the achievement of high standards in health service delivery. The study was conducted within the theoretical framework of McClelland's Acquired Motivation Theory which consists of three basic needs, – the need for achievement, the need for power, and the need for affiliation. One of the research questions posed was “What are the motivational needs of PHC nurses to acquire power in the workplace at mine clinic settings?” A quantitative, explorative, descriptive design was followed. The accessible population in this study was PHC nurses (N = 30 working at 13 mine clinics, that also served as the total sample. A 7 point Likert scale was used in a self-administered structured questionnaire that was developed from a literature review. Ethical considerations were adhered to and respondents gave written informed consent. Data was analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. TheManne Whitney test compared the mean ranks and a p-value of p < 0.05 was indicative of a significant difference between male and female groups. Validity and reliability principles were applied during the entire research process. The results indicated that PHC nurses needed acknowledgement, organisational responsibility, strategic planning and promotion, as well as support. Significant differences between gender were not found in relation to the need to acquire power.

  8. Unstable power threatens the powerful and challenges the powerless : evidence from cardiovascular markers of motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Daan; Röell, Charlotte; Ellemers, Naomi


    Possessing social power has psychological and biological benefits. For example, during task interactions, people high in power are more likely to display a benign cardiovascular (CV) response pattern indicative of "challenge" whereas people low in power are more likely to display a maladaptive CV

  9. Wind Power - A Power Source Enabled by Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe


    The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up. The deregul......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up....... The deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in bigger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from...... the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...

  10. Environmental, health, and safety issues of fuel cells in transportation. Volume 1: Phosphoric acid fuel-cell buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, S


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Phosphoric Acid Fuel-Cell (PAFC) Bus Program to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cells in heavy-duty transportation systems. As part of this program, PAFC- powered buses are being built to meet transit industry design and performance standards. Test-bed bus-1 (TBB-1) was designed in 1993 and integrated in March 1994. TBB-2 and TBB-3 are under construction and should be integrated in early 1995. In 1987 Phase I of the program began with the development and testing of two conceptual system designs- liquid- and air-cooled systems. The liquid-cooled PAFC system was chosen to continue, through a competitive award, into Phase H, beginning in 1991. Three hybrid buses, which combine fuel-cell and battery technologies, were designed during Phase III. After completing Phase II, DOE plans a comprehensive performance testing program (Phase HI) to verify that the buses meet stringent transit industry requirements. The Phase III study will evaluate the PAFC bus and compare it to a conventional diesel bus. This NREL study assesses the environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues that may affect the commercialization of the PAFC bus. Because safety is a critical factor for consumer acceptance of new transportation-based technologies the study focuses on these issues. The study examines health and safety together because they are integrally related. In addition, this report briefly discusses two environmental issues that are of concern to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first issue involves a surge battery used by the PAFC bus that contains hazardous constituents. The second issue concerns the regulated air emissions produced during operation of the PAFC bus.

  11. Rationalization of motive power use in animal feed industry; Racionalizacao do uso de forca motriz em fabrica de racao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Carlos A.; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio F. de; Martins, Jose H. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mails: carlos, delly, alacerda,


    The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pif Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: to adjust relays and to choose fuses, to schedule operation and to build storage facilities. (author)

  12. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.


    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  13. Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power. (United States)

    Cook, C J; Kilduff, L P; Crewther, B T


    This study investigated salivary testosterone (sal-T) variation across the menstrual cycle in female athletes, at different competitive levels, and its association with motivation and neuromuscular power. Six elite and 16 non-elite female athletes were monitored on days 7 (D7), 14 (D14), and 21 (D21) across 3 menstrual cycles for basal sal-T concentrations and self-appraised motivation to train and compete. Two further measures were taken on D7, D14, and D21 across 2 menstrual cycles: (1) the sal-T response (delta change) to a physical stress test and (2) peak power (PP) response to a 6-second cycle sprint following a post-activation potentiation (PAP) stimulus. Basal sal-T concentrations increased by 17 ± 27% from D7 to D14 before decreasing by -25 ± 43% on D21 (P 102%) who showed larger menstrual changes. Motivation, sal-T reactivity to stress, and the PP responses to a PAP stimulus also varied by testing day (P menstrual cycle changes in sal-T were more obvious in high-performing female athletes with higher sal-T concentrations. This was accompanied by greater training motivation, a more pronounced sal-T response to a physical stressor and greater neuromuscular power in the elite group. These results support observations that female athletes with higher T are more represented at elite levels of performance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi


    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative…

  15. How Busing Burdened Blacks: Critical Race Theory and Busing for Desegregation in Nashville-Davidson County (United States)

    Woodward, Jennifer R.


    This article uses critical race theory, court opinions, newspapers, and interviews to explain how the burden of busing for desegregation was placed upon Blacks in Nashville, Tennessee and why the agenda of the litigants in the Kelley v. Metropolitan Board of Education cases shifted over time. The deliberate pace of the initial desegregation…

  16. Bacterial Quality of Drinking Water in Bushehr Intercity Buses in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Ranjbar Vakilabadi


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Road transportation and specifically bus travel accounts for the bulk of travel. Contaminated drinking water consumption is one of the issues that threaten health, and always there is pollution possibility in drinking water in buses. This study evaluated the microbial quality of consumed drinking water in buses and also compared it with available standards. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. By considering similar studies, 95% confidence interval and based on the samples size formula for tradition of proportion, 80 buses from 122 buses that entered Bushehr Passenger Depot from other cities or exited it were randomly selected. Over a three-month period, samples were taken from drinking water in these buses. Temperature, pH, residual chlorine, total coliform (TC, and fecal coliform (E. coli in each sample were measured in accordance with the standard method. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS Version 16, and the t-test was performed for statistical difference. Results: The results showed that residual chlorine in 97.5% was zero and pH values of the samples were in the range of 6.8-8.7. TC and E. coli numbers in 12.5% and 8.8% of the samples were higher than those of standards, respectively. Conclusion: Use of ice, washing time of the drinking water tank (daily or weekly, and method of usage and storage of drinking water (with 20-liter tanks had significant effects on the bacterial loads of the drinking water in the tanks (p value <0.05. Some factors such as tank material, driver's education and age, type and model of the bus, filling time of the tank (daily or weekly, the method of filling and emptying the tank (complete clearing out of the tank or otherwise, and distance had no significant effect on the quality of the drinking water in the buses.

  17. Modeling of passengers' safety perception for buses on mountainous roads. (United States)

    Khoo, Hooi Ling; Ahmed, Muaid


    This study had developed a passenger safety perception model specifically for buses taking into consideration the various factors, namely driver characteristics, environmental conditions, and bus characteristics using Bayesian Network. The behaviour of bus driver is observed through the bus motion profile, measured in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical accelerations. The road geometry is recorded using GPS and is computed with the aid of the Google map while the perceived bus safety is rated by the passengers in the bus in real time. A total of 13 variables were derived and used in the model development. The developed Bayesian Network model shows that the type of bus and the experience of the driver on the investigated route could have an influence on passenger's perception of their safety on buses. Road geometry is an indirect influencing factor through the driver's behavior. The findings of this model are useful for the authorities to structure an effective strategy to improve the level of perceived bus safety. A high level of bus safety will definitely boost passenger usage confidence which will subsequently increase ridership. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Indoor-outdoor relationships of airborne particles and nitrogen dioxide inside Parisian buses (United States)

    Molle, Romain; Mazoué, Sophie; Géhin, Évelyne; Ionescu, Anda


    This study evaluated passengers' exposure to traffic air pollution inside the articulated buses of the line 91 in Paris during 10 working days in May, 2010. Twenty articulated buses were studied on 32 routes in order to determine the influence of the sampling position on the pollutant concentrations. This parameter is still poorly known for the rigid buses and is even less known for the articulated ones. However this parameter must be studied for articulated buses because the greater length may cause a pollutant concentration gradient in the cabin. Portable devices were used to measure pollutants in the presence of passengers from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m., time periods corresponding to the peak traffic and travellers. PM2.5 mass concentration, particle number concentration between 0.3 and 20 μm and nitrogen dioxide concentration were simultaneously measured on three positions inside the buses (front, middle and rear) in order to study the spatial distribution of these compounds. These measurements inside the buses were compared to the outdoor concentrations at the same moment of the day provided by the Parisian air quality monitoring network; they were also compared to the results of a previous monitoring campaign performed in 2008. The results obtained during the 2010 campaign revealed that in-cabin NO2 mean concentrations were 1.5-3.5 times higher than the outside concentration levels; a maximum concentration of 234 ± 40 μg m-3 was found in the rear position (location of the engine and exhaust gas). Mean in-cabin PM2.5 mass concentrations varied from one week to another one, but they were globally the same at the three positions inside the instrumented buses. In order to determine the impact of outdoor levels, correlations have been calculated between the results measured inside the buses and those measured by the outdoor air monitoring stations. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.29 for NO2 data whereas the highest Pearson

  19. The implicit Power Motive and Adolescents' Salivary Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress and Exercise in School. (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Scheuermann, Katharina S; Machado, Sergio; Budde, Henning


    In the present study we examined the moderating effect of the power motive on salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress and exercise in adolescents. Fifty-seven high school students aged M = 14.8 years participated in the study. The Operant Motive Test was applied to measure the implicit power motive and the Personality Research Form was used to measure the explicit power motive. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after the stress stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. An exercise group ran 15 minutes at a defined heart rate of 65-75% HRmax. A psychosocial stress group worked on a standard intelligence test for the same amount of time under the assumption, that their test scores will be made public in class after the test. The control group participated in a regular class session. The implicit power motive was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels in the psychosocial stress group. The explicit power motive was not associated with cortisol responses. Findings suggest that the implicit power motive moderates the cortisol responses to acute stress in an adolescent age group with higher responses to psychosocial stress in comparison to exercise or control conditions.

  20. A Hierarchical Modeling for Reactive Power Optimization With Joint Transmission and Distribution Networks by Curve Fitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Li, Cheng; Huang, Can


    function of the slave model for the master model, which reflects the impacts of each slave model. Second, the transmission and distribution networks are decoupled at feeder buses, and all the distribution networks are coordinated by the master reactive power optimization model to achieve the global......In order to solve the reactive power optimization with joint transmission and distribution networks, a hierarchical modeling method is proposed in this paper. It allows the reactive power optimization of transmission and distribution networks to be performed separately, leading to a master......–slave structure and improves traditional centralized modeling methods by alleviating the big data problem in a control center. Specifically, the transmission-distribution-network coordination issue of the hierarchical modeling method is investigated. First, a curve-fitting approach is developed to provide a cost...

  1. Whites' Opposition to "Busing": Self-Interest of Symbolic Politics? (United States)

    Sears, David O.; And Others


    Examines whether opposition to busing springs from self-interest (such as having children susceptible to busing) or merely racial attitudes on the part of those not involved. Concludes that self-interest is overestimated as a determinant of public opinion. Available from The American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave., N.W.,…

  2. The motivation behind serial sexual homicide: is it sex, power, and control, or anger? (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Husted, David S; Safarik, Mark E; O'Toole, Mary Ellen


    Controversy exists in the literature and society regarding what motivates serial sexual killers to commit their crimes. Hypotheses range from the seeking of sexual gratification to the achievement of power and control to the expression of anger. The authors provide theoretical, empirical, evolutionary, and physiological support for the argument that serial sexual murderers above all commit their crimes in pursuit of sadistic pleasure. The seeking of power and control over victims is believed to serve the two secondary purposes of heightening sexual arousal and ensuring victim presence for the crime. Anger is not considered a key component of these offenders' motivation due to its inhibitory physiological effect on sexual functioning. On the contrary, criminal investigations into serial sexual killings consistently reveal erotically charged crimes, with sexual motivation expressed either overtly or symbolically. Although anger may be correlated with serial sexual homicide offenders, as it is with criminal offenders in general, it is not causative. The authors further believe serial sexual murderers should be considered sex offenders. A significant proportion of them appear to have paraphilic disorders within the spectrum of sexual sadism. "sexual sadism, homicidal type" is proposed as a diagnostic subtype of sexual sadism applicable to many of these offenders, and a suggested modification of DSM criteria is presented.

  3. Aggression as a Motive for Gossip During Conflict : The Role of Power, Social Value Orientation, and Counterpart's Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, E.; Beersma, B.; ten Velden, F.S.; Dijkstra, M.T.M.

    Not much is known about the motives behind the use of gossip in conflict situations. We report a laboratory experiment that examined the influence of social value orientation, counterpart's behavior, and power on the motive to use gossip for indirect aggression in a conflict situation. Results

  4. Public speaking in front of an unreceptive audience increases implicit power motivation and its endocrine arousal signature. (United States)

    Wiemers, Uta S; Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wolf, Oliver T


    The present study explored the motivational characteristics of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). Seventy-two participants either completed the public-speaking component of the TSST or, as a control condition, the friendly TSST (Wiemers, Schoofs, & Wolf, 2013) and wrote picture stories both before and after treatment. Stories were coded for motivational imagery related to power, achievement, and affiliation as well as for activity inhibition, a marker of functional brain lateralization during stress. The TSST had a specific arousing effect on power motivation, but not on other motivational needs, on activity inhibition, or on story length. TSST-elicited increases in power imagery, but not in achievement or affiliation imagery, were associated with a relatively greater salivary alpha-amylase response and with a relatively lesser salivary cortisol response. These findings suggest that the TSST specifically induces power-related stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A robustness metric for cascading failures by targeted attacks in power networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koc, Y.; Warnier, M.; Kooij, R.E.; Brazier, F.M.T.


    Cascading failures are the main reason blackouts occur in power networks. The economic cost of such failures is in the order of tens of billion dollars annually. In a power network, the cascading failure phenomenon is related to both topological properties (number and types of buses, density of

  6. Motivated Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ePatterson


    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  7. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation. (United States)

    Webber, Kelly H; Gabriele, Jeanne M; Tate, Deborah F; Dignan, Mark B


    Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous motivation improve the likelihood of behavior modification. This study assessed the outcomes of two internet behavioral weight loss interventions and assessed the effect of baseline motivation levels on program success. Eighty females (M (SD) age 48.7 (10.6) years; BMI 32.0 (3.7) kg/m(2); 91% Caucasian) were randomized to one of two groups, a standard group or a motivation-enhanced group. Both received a 16-week internet behavioral weight loss program and attended an initial and a four-week group session. Weight and motivation were measured at baseline, four and 16 weeks. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test for moderation. There was significant weight loss at 16-weeks in both groups (p motivation-enhanced group 3.9 (3.4) kg). Further analysis was conducted to examine predictors of weight loss. Baseline controlled motivation level was negatively correlated with weight loss in the entire sample (r = -0.30; p = 0.01). Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between study group assignment and baseline level of controlled motivation. Weight loss was not predicted by baseline level of controlled motivation in the motivation-enhanced group, but was significantly predicted by controlled motivation in the standard group. Baseline autonomous motivation did not predict weight change in either group. This research found that, in participants with high levels of baseline controlled motivation for weight loss, an intervention designed to enhance motivation for weight loss produced

  8. Motivations of Marathoners by socio demographic and training variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zarauz Sancho


    Full Text Available in the growing population of Spanish and Mexican route runners we analyze their main motivations for running and their main bio-socio-demographic characteristics. It also analyzes the influence on the score of these variables in each of the motivational subscales in both Spanish as in Mexican route runners sample. This gives valuable data describing their motivations and socio-demographic characteristics and training, and concludes that in the Mexican sample route runners were obtained significantly higher scores than in the Spanish in each of the motivations for running analyzed . Moreover, the two motivations accounted for both samples are the most self-determined (meaning of life, self-esteem and health orientation and least valued was the least self-determined (recognition. Also that in bio-socio-demographic characteristics of the Mexican sample, there are many significant differences by gender, while the Spanish sample there are only on primary work activity and BMI. Finally, the influence of biological variables sociodemographic scores on each of the motivational subscales analyzed, there are many significant differences, both by gender and between Spanish and Mexican samples.

  9. Perspectives on Early Power Mobility Training, Motivation, and Social Participation in Young Children with Motor Disabilities. (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Han


    The efficacy of traditional training programs (e.g., neurodevelopmental therapy) in promoting independent mobility and early child development across all three International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health levels lacks rigorous research support. Therefore, early power mobility training needs to be considered as a feasible intervention for very young children who are unlikely to achieve independent mobility. This perspective article has three aims: (1) to provide empirical evidence of differences in early independent mobility, motivation, daily life activities, and social participation between young children with typical development and motor disabilities; (2) to discuss the contemporary concepts of and approaches to early power mobility training for young children with motor disabilities and the current need for changes to such training; and (3) to provide recommendations for early power mobility training in pediatric rehabilitation. Independent mobility is critical for social participation; therefore, power mobility can be accessible and implemented as early as possible, specifically for infants who are at risk for mobility or developmental delay. To maximize the positive effects of independent mobility on children's social participation, early power mobility training must consider their levels of functioning, the amount of exploration and contextual factors, including individual and environmental factors.

  10. Perspectives on Early Power Mobility Training, Motivation, and Social Participation in Young Children with Motor Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Han Huang


    Full Text Available The efficacy of traditional training programs (e.g., neurodevelopmental therapy in promoting independent mobility and early child development across all three International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health levels lacks rigorous research support. Therefore, early power mobility training needs to be considered as a feasible intervention for very young children who are unlikely to achieve independent mobility. This perspective article has three aims: (1 to provide empirical evidence of differences in early independent mobility, motivation, daily life activities, and social participation between young children with typical development and motor disabilities; (2 to discuss the contemporary concepts of and approaches to early power mobility training for young children with motor disabilities and the current need for changes to such training; and (3 to provide recommendations for early power mobility training in pediatric rehabilitation. Independent mobility is critical for social participation; therefore, power mobility can be accessible and implemented as early as possible, specifically for infants who are at risk for mobility or developmental delay. To maximize the positive effects of independent mobility on children’s social participation, early power mobility training must consider their levels of functioning, the amount of exploration and contextual factors, including individual and environmental factors.

  11. Motivations for Botanical Use by Socioeconomically Diverse, Urban Adults: Does Evidence Support Motivation? (United States)

    Duffy, Grace F; Shupe, Emily Stave; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K


    The study objectives were to characterize botanical dietary supplement (BDS) use and to compare the motivations for botanical supplement (BS) use to the efficacy of the botanical in a socioeconomically and racially diverse urban adult population. Subjects were from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study, a 20-year prospective health disparities study with African American and white adults from Baltimore, Maryland. All study participants completed two dietary recalls and a dietary supplement (DS) questionnaire in Wave 3 (n = 2140). Diet quality was evaluated by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 and the Mean Adequacy Ratio for 17 micronutrients. A comparison of reported motivations to efficacy reported in the literature of single BS was conducted. Approximately 50% (1062/2140) of participants took DS. Of these, 8% (n = 178) reported taking either BS or BDS. It was found that BDS users had better diet quality than DS users as well as nonusers of DS. The top three motivations for BDS users were to improve overall health, to maintain health, and to supplement the diet. There is limited evidence for the efficacy of most BS. Review of the efficacy of the 15 BS reported by ≥5% of the study population revealed beneficial health roles for only fiber, gingko biloba extract EGb 761, and hawthorn berry. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report a better quality diet with BDS use for a racially diverse urban population. Yet, improvement in diet is needed because overall quality did not achieve current recommendations. To improve overall health, it may be beneficial for this population to focus on dietary modifications to reduce the risks associated with chronic diseases. In general, the reported motivations for BS use were not supported by clinical evidence.

  12. Practice of Environmentally Significant Behaviours in Rural China: From Being Motivated by Economic Gains to Being Motivated by Environmental Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Chen


    Full Text Available A continuous and increasing crisis that present-day China is facing is environmental degradation. The cultivation of citizens who have environmentally friendly behaviours has been deemed as a fundamental way to solve environmental crises. However, the main focus of environmentalism studies has been urban residents, whereas rare research attention was put on rural Chinese. This paper focuses on environmentally significant behaviours in rural China and aims to clarify the practice of five environmentally significant behaviours and two motivations underlying these behaviours. In total, 508 rural residents in 51 villages of Ningyang county were interviewed. Analytical results derived from survey data showed that environmentally significant behaviours are widely conducted in rural areas. However, these behaviours are mainly motivated by economic gains rather than environmental considerations. In addition, based on the norm-activation theory and considering the influences of demographic factors, the formation of environmentally motivated behaviours were quantitatively analysed. Analytical results indicated that the more people worried about environmental deterioration, the more likely they were to form environmentally motivated behaviours, and people who ascribe the most important environmental responsibility to the government are less likely to form environmentally motivated behaviours. Increasing people’s anxiety towards the environment, decreasing people’s dependency on the government in protecting the environment, and using females, the elderly, and people with low income and education levels as the main targets of environmental education are suggested to promote environmentally motivated behaviours in rural China.

  13. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.


    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  14. Buse_Francisella and free-living amoebae data sets (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Co-infection data in the form of colony forming units and amoeba cell counts. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Buse , H., F. Schaefer, and...

  15. Reactive power cost determination and allocation using generalized tracing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, A.; Bashiri, S. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A generalized tracing method was proposed for the allocation of standard 30 bus power system reactive power costs. Reactive power costs were divided into 2 parts: direct costs and opportunity costs. Generator opportunity costs were calculated using power flow calculations when no voltage limitation was applied to system buses. The cost of transformers with tap changers and the generating cost of reactive power via capacitor banks with switching facilities were considered. The cost of capacitor banks was calculated using the costs of generating reactive power through the capacitor bank, along with installation costs and consumption rates. The transmission line was classified based on the direction of reactive power flow. Generator domain was described as the set of buses which received generating power from the generators. Load domain was described as the set of buses in which power consumed by the load provided a path for power flow. A reactive power tracing algorithm was implemented on a 30 bus power system. The algorithm was able to determine the contribution of generators and loads and the contribution of each load on reactive power losses. Generator contributions were determined for each bus. The cost of reactive power was allocated by determined source and load contributions in each domain. It was concluded that the proposed method can be used to accurately allocate generation and transmission costs. 8 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Funding for this effort is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration. The 2016 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2015 through July 2016. The results for these buses account for more than 550,000 miles traveled and 59,500 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from three demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; and American Fuel Cell Bus Project at the University of California at Irvine.

  17. The dominance behavioral system and manic temperament: motivation for dominance, self-perceptions of power, and socially dominant behaviors. (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S


    The dominance behavioral system has been conceptualized as a biologically based system comprising motivation to achieve social power and self-perceptions of power. Biological, behavioral, and social correlates of dominance motivation and self-perceived power have been related to a range of psychopathological tendencies. Preliminary evidence suggests that mania and risk for mania (manic temperament) relate to the dominance system. Four studies examine whether manic temperament, measured with the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS), is related to elevations in dominance motivation, self-perceptions of power, and engagement in socially dominant behavior across multiple measures. In Study 1, the HPS correlated with measures of dominance motivation and the pursuit of extrinsically-oriented ambitions for fame and wealth among 454 undergraduates. In Study 2, the HPS correlated with perceptions of power and extrinsically-oriented lifetime ambitions among 780 undergraduates. In Study 3, the HPS was related to trait-like tendencies to experience hubristic (dominance-related) pride, as well as dominance motivation and pursuit of extrinsically-oriented ambitions. In Study 4, we developed the Socially Dominant Behavior Scale to capture behaviors reflecting high power. The scale correlated highly with the HPS among 514 undergraduates. The studies rely on self-ratings of manic temperament and dominance constructs, and findings have not yet been generalized to a clinical sample. Taken together, results support the hypothesis that manic temperament is related to a focus on achieving social dominance, ambitions related to achieving social recognition, perceptions of having achieved power, tendencies to experience dominance-related pride, and engagement in social behaviors consistent with this elevated sense of power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tate Deborah F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous motivation improve the likelihood of behavior modification. Methods This study assessed the outcomes of two internet behavioral weight loss interventions and assessed the effect of baseline motivation levels on program success. Eighty females (M (SD age 48.7 (10.6 years; BMI 32.0 (3.7 kg/m2; 91% Caucasian were randomized to one of two groups, a standard group or a motivation-enhanced group. Both received a 16-week internet behavioral weight loss program and attended an initial and a four-week group session. Weight and motivation were measured at baseline, four and 16 weeks. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test for moderation. Results There was significant weight loss at 16-weeks in both groups (p p = 0.57 (standard group 3.4 (3.6 kg; motivation-enhanced group 3.9 (3.4 kg. Further analysis was conducted to examine predictors of weight loss. Baseline controlled motivation level was negatively correlated with weight loss in the entire sample (r = -0.30; p = 0.01. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between study group assignment and baseline level of controlled motivation. Weight loss was not predicted by baseline level of controlled motivation in the motivation-enhanced group, but was significantly predicted by controlled motivation in the standard group. Baseline autonomous motivation did not predict weight change in either group. Conclusions This research found that, in participants with high levels of baseline controlled motivation

  19. Distinct Subtypes of Apathy Revealed by the Apathy Motivation Index. (United States)

    Ang, Yuen-Siang; Lockwood, Patricia; Apps, Matthew A J; Muhammed, Kinan; Husain, Masud


    Apathy is a debilitating but poorly understood disorder characterized by a reduction in motivation. As well as being associated with several brain disorders, apathy is also prevalent in varying degrees in healthy people. Whilst many tools have been developed to assess levels of apathy in clinical disorders, surprisingly there are no measures of apathy suitable for healthy people. Moreover, although apathy is commonly comorbid with symptoms of depression, anhedonia and fatigue, how and why these symptoms are associated is unclear. Here we developed the Apathy-Motivation Index (AMI), a brief self-report index of apathy and motivation. Using exploratory factor analysis (in a sample of 505 people), and then confirmatory analysis (in a different set of 479 individuals), we identified subtypes of apathy in behavioural, social and emotional domains. Latent profile analyses showed four different profiles of apathy that were associated with varying levels of depression, anhedonia and fatigue. The AMI is a novel and reliable measure of individual differences in apathy and might provide a useful means of probing different mechanisms underlying sub-clinical lack of motivation in otherwise healthy individuals. Moreover, associations between apathy and comorbid states may be reflective of problems in different emotional, social and behavioural domains.

  20. Exploring the motivation jungle: predicting performance on a novel task by investigating constructs from different motivation perspectives in tandem. (United States)

    Van Nuland, Hanneke J C; Dusseldorp, Elise; Martens, Rob L; Boekaerts, Monique


    Different theoretical viewpoints on motivation make it hard to decide which model has the best potential to provide valid predictions on classroom performance. This study was designed to explore motivation constructs derived from different motivation perspectives that predict performance on a novel task best. Motivation constructs from self-determination theory, self-regulation theory, and achievement goal theory were investigated in tandem. Performance was measured by systematicity (i.e. how systematically students worked on a problem-solving task) and test score (i.e. score on a multiple-choice test). Hierarchical regression analyses on data from 259 secondary school students showed a quadratic relation between a performance avoidance orientation and both performance outcomes, indicating that extreme high and low performance avoidance resulted in the lowest performance. Furthermore, two three-way interaction effects were found. Intrinsic motivation seemed to play a key role in test score and systematicity performance, provided that effort regulation and metacognitive skills were both high. Results indicate that intrinsic motivation in itself is not enough to attain a good performance. Instead, a moderate score on performance avoidance, together with the ability to remain motivated and effectively regulate and control task behavior, is needed to attain a good performance. High time management skills also contributed to higher test score and systematicity performance and a low performance approach orientation contributed to higher systematicity performance. We concluded that self-regulatory skills should be trained in order to have intrinsically motivated students perform well on novel tasks in the classroom.

  1. Reliability Evaluation Of The City Transport Buses Under Actual Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarz Joanna


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.

  2. Sexual Motivation in the Female and Its Opposition by Stress. (United States)

    Magariños, Ana Maria; Pfaff, Donald


    A well worked-out motivational system in laboratory animals produces estrogen-dependent female sex behavior. Here, we review (a) the logical definition of sexual motivation and (b) the basic neuronal and molecular mechanisms that allow the behavior to occur. Importantly, reproductive mechanisms in the female can be inhibited by stress. This is interesting because, in terms of the specificity of neuroendocrine dynamics in space and time, the two families of phenomena, sex and stress, are the opposite of each other. We cover papers that document stress effects on the underlying processes of reproductive endocrinology in the female. Not all of the mechanisms for such inhibition have been clearly laid out. Finally, as a current topic of investigation, this system offers several avenues for new investigation which we briefly characterize.

  3. Does power mobility training impact a child's mastery motivation and spectrum of EEG activity? An exploratory project. (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Farris, John P; Aldrich, Naomi J; Rhodes, Samhita


    The purposes of this exploratory project were: (1) to evaluate the impact of power mobility training with a child who has multiple, severe impairments and (2) to determine if the child's spectrum of electroencephalography (EEG) activity changed during power mobility training. A single-subject A-B-A-B research design was conducted with a four-week duration for each phase. Two target behaviours were explored: (1) mastery motivation assessed via the dimensions of mastery questionnaire (DMQ) and (2) EEG data collected under various conditions. Power mobility skills were also assessed. The participant was a three-year, two-month-old girl with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, gross motor function classification system level V. Each target behaviour was measured weekly. During intervention phases, power mobility training was provided. Improvements were noted in subscale scores of the DMQ. Short-term and long-term EEG changes were also noted. Improvements were noted in power mobility skills. The participant in this exploratory project demonstrated improvements in power mobility skill and function. EEG data collection procedures and variability in an individual's EEG activity make it difficult to determine if the participant's spectrum of EEG activity actually changed in response to power mobility training. Additional studies are needed to investigate the impact of power mobility training on the spectrum of EEG activity in children who have multiple, severe impairments. Implications for Rehabilitation Power mobility training appeared to be beneficial for a child with multiple, severe impairments though the child may never become an independent, community-based power wheelchair user. Electroencephalography may be a valuable addition to the study of power mobility use in children with multiple, severe impairments. Power mobility training appeared to impact mastery motivation (the internal drive to solve complex problems and master new skills) in a child who has multiple

  4. Ambulant disabled persons using buses: experiments with entrances and seats. (United States)

    Petzäll, J


    This paper describes research work carried out in Sweden to adapt buses to the requirements of ambulant disabled people. It contains an experimental study where subjects tried different entrances and seats. For the experiments a bus was rebuilt and equipped with new entrance and seating arrangements. Three categories of subjects participated: seriously ambulant disabled, representing people having severe ambulatory difficulties in their daily life; less seriously ambulant disabled, representing people that normally travel with the special transportation service; and slightly ambulant disabled, representing ordinary elderly people. The evaluation was based on observations, photographs, interviews and in some cases timing with a stopwatch. The results show that low similar steps and well-designed handrails in the bus entrance made boarding and alighting easier. The seat trials showed the importance of having suitable grab rails to allow people to pull or heave themselves up. Design requirements are presented in the paper. The Swedish Board of Transport have used the results when working out regulations to adapt public transport vehicles for use by disabled people.

  5. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.


    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  6. Luxurious Buses As Means Of Night Journey In Nigeria: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While, past studies on road safety have been restricted to accident, recent events today show that the issue of safety goes beyond accident. This study investigates the level of safety of night journey using luxurious buses in Nigeria and examines how it could be improved. 150 questionnaires which were designed to elicit ...

  7. Crashworthiness of Restraints for Physically Disabled Children in Buses. (United States)

    Seeger, Barry R.; Caudrey, David J.


    Seven design principles identified from research as crashworthy for transporting disabled persons in buses are listed, and survey results of transportation of 161 disabled children in Australia are discussed relative to the design principles. Findings are discussed and recommendations made to correct deviations, such as absence of lapbelts. (MC)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Badulescu


    Full Text Available The present article has the goal to reveal the (eventually differences between entrepreneurial motivations between men and women, in the case of EU and Romania. In the first part, we make a brief research into the literature related to this subject, and in the second part we shall reveal the facts and figures in the EU and Romania.

  9. The Influence of Power and Intimacy Sexual Motives on Sexual Position Preference Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China. (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong


    We examined the sexual motives underlying sexual self-labels among Chinese men who have sex with men. A total of 60 bottoms, 120 versatiles, and 48 tops participated in a Web-based survey. Our results showed that tops were more likely to desire exerting power over their partners during sex, while bottoms were more likely to desire being overpowered by their partners. There were no significant sexual self-label differences in the sexual motives of wanting intimacy and the desire for pleasure. The intimacy and power ratings differed across sexual activities and sex positions. There was a tendency for sexual positions in which the performer was facing the receiver to be rated as more intimate than those in which the performer was facing away from the receiver, and for individuals who preferred to be insertive to feel more powerful in sexual positions in which their partner was kneeling down or standing than those in which their partner was sitting or lying down. Tops were significantly more likely than bottoms to engage in insertive sexual positions, while bottoms were significantly more likely to engage in receptive sexual positions. Both tops and bottoms were more likely to engage in the corresponding insertive/receptive position when the insertive position was rated as more powerful than the receptive position. Our results suggest that the concordance between sexual self-labels and sexual position preferences may rely on the power difference between the insertive and receptive positions in addition to body characteristics.

  10. Victim blame in a hate crime motivated by sexual orientation. (United States)

    Plumm, Karyn M; Terrance, Cheryl A; Henderson, Vanessa R; Ellingson, Heather


    A jury simulation paradigm was employed for two studies exploring levels of victim blame in a case of bias-motivated assault based on sexual orientation. In the first study, participants were grouped according to their score on the Index of Homophobia (IHP) scale as either reporting high or low support for gay and lesbian community members. The label of the crime (i.e., bias-motivated assault versus first-degree assault) as well as the gender of the victim were systematically varied. Results indicated that attributions of blame against the victim varied as a function of participants' attitudes toward minority sexual orientation. As extra-legal factors likely contribute to victim blame in these cases, the second study explored such factors as location and "provocation." Jurors in the second study read a transcript depicting an attack on a gay man by a man in either a local bar (i.e., not a gay bar) or a gay bar. Within location conditions, jurors were presented with either "provocation" by the victim (i.e., asking the perpetrator to dance and putting his arm around him) or alternatively no provocation was presented. Results revealed significant differences of victim blame depending on condition. Participants in both the local bar and provocation present conditions were more likely to blame the victim for the attack than those in the gay bar or provocation-absent conditions. Implications for hate crime law and attribution theory within the courtroom are discussed.

  11. Tertiary control of voltage unbalance compensation for optimal power quality in islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Tang, Fen; Savaghebi, Mehdi


    DG considering the voltage unbalance limits in local buses and DG terminals. This method realizes multi-power-quality-level control in a multi-bus islanded system by optimally utilizing DGs as distributed compensators and saves the investment for additional compensation equipment. Hardware...

  12. Factors which motivate the use of social networks by students. (United States)

    González Sanmamed, Mercedes; Muñoz Carril, Pablo C; Dans Álvarez de Sotomayor, Isabel


    The aim of this research was to identify those factors which motivate the use of social networks by 4th year students in Secondary Education between the ages of 15 and 18. 1,144 students from 29 public and private schools took part. The data were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling technique. Versatility was confirmed to be the variable which most influences the motivation of students in their use of social networks. The positive relationship between versatility in the use of social networks and educational uses was also significant. The characteristics of social networks are analysed according to their versatility and how this aspect makes them attractive to students. The positive effects of social networks are discussed in terms of educational uses and their contribution to school learning. There is also a warning about the risks associated with misuse of social networks, and finally, the characteristics and conditions for the development of good educational practice through social networks are identified.

  13. The effects of fuel characteristics and engine operating conditions on the elemental composition of emissions from heavy duty diesel buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.C.H. Lim; G.A. Ayoko; L. Morawska; Z.D. Ristovski; E.R. Jayaratne [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences


    The effects of fuel characteristics and engine operating conditions on elemental composition of emissions from twelve heavy duty diesel buses have been investigated. Two types of diesel fuels - low sulfur diesel (LSD) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels with 500 ppm and 50 ppm sulfur contents respectively and 3 driving modes corresponding to 25%, 50% and 100% power were used. Elements present in the tailpipe emissions were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and those found in measurable quantities included Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ti, Ni, Pb, Be, P, Se, Ti and Ge. Multivariate analyses using multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) facilitated the extraction of information about the structure of the data. MCDM showed that the emissions of the elements were strongly influenced by the engine driving conditions while the PCA loadings plots showed that the emission factors of the elements were correlated with those of other pollutants such as particle number, total suspended particles, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx. Partial least square analysis revealed that the emission factors of the elements were strongly dependent on the fuel parameters such as the fuel sulfur content, fuel density, distillation point and cetane index. Strong correlations were also observed between these pollutants and the engine power or exhaust temperature. The study provides insights into the possible role of fuel sulfur content in the emission of inorganic elements from heavy duty diesel vehicles. 39 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Mitigation of Power System Oscillation Caused by Wind Power Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe


    Wind power is increasingly integrated in modern power grids, which brings new challenges to the power system operation. Wind power is fluctuating because of the uncertain nature of wind, whereas wind shear and tower shadow effects also cause periodic fluctuations. These may lead to serious forced...... oscillation when the frequencies of the periodic fluctuations are close to the natural oscillation frequencies of the connected power system. By using modal analysis and time-domain simulations, this study studies the forced oscillation caused by the wind shear and tower shadow effects. Three forced...... oscillation mitigation controllers are proposed and compared. A model of direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm connected to the IEEE 10-machine 39-bus system is adopted as the test system. The calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0. Results are presented to show...

  15. Differences in Study Motivation within and between Genders: An Examination by Gender Typicality among Early Adolescents (United States)

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Van Houtte, Mieke


    Despite boys' educational underachievement, gender differences in study motivation have received little research attention. Guided by self-determination theory and the identity-based motivation model, this study investigates differences in study motivation between boys and girls, as well as within each gender. To adequately consider these…

  16. Motivational Distortion on 16 PF Primaries by Male Felons. (United States)

    Wallbrown, Fred H.; And Others


    Investigated motivational distortion using the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) for male (n=331) criminal offenders. Results indicated that ego-strength, free-floating anxiety, ability to bind anxiety, boldness, dominance, emotional sensitivity and suspiciousness contributed most to the motivational distortion scale predictions.…

  17. Predictive power of task orientation, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz-González


    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to test the predictive power of dispositional orientations, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom in physical education classes, with a sample of 459 adolescents between 13 and 18 with a mean age of 15 years (SD = 0.88. The adolescents responded to four Likert scales: Perceptions of Success Questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Sport Motivation Scale and Intrinsic Satisfaction Questionnaire in Sport. The results showed the structural regression model showed that task orientation and general self-efficacy positively predicted self-determined motivation and this in turn positively predicted more fun and less boredom in physical education classes. Consequently, the promotion of an educational task-oriented environment where learners perceive their progress and make them feel more competent, will allow them to overcome the intrinsically motivated tasks, and therefore they will have more fun. Pedagogical implications for less boredom and more fun in physical education classes are discussed.

  18. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Marczyk

    Full Text Available Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  19. The power of competence support: The impact of coaches and athlete leaders on intrinsic motivation and performance. (United States)

    Fransen, K; Boen, F; Vansteenkiste, M; Mertens, N; Vande Broek, G


    Grounded in the Cognitive Evaluation Theory, a mini-theory of Self-Determination Theory, this experimental field study sought to examine the impact of competence support of both coaches and athlete leaders on athletes' competence satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and subjective as well as objective performance. Male basketball players (N = 120) were allocated to groups of 5 players. These groups were then randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 experimental conditions. In these experimental conditions, either the coach, the athlete leader, or both provided motivational feedback to their team. The provision of motivational feedback by either the coach or the athlete leader was sufficient to increase athletes' competence satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and objective performance (i.e., enhanced execution time without a decrease in scoring percentage) relative to the control group. Interestingly, when both the coach and the athlete leader provided competence support, a surplus effect was observed on objective performance compared with when only the coach provided competence support. Furthermore, structural equation modeling revealed that players' competence satisfaction mediated the relationship between the provided competence support and players' intrinsic motivation, while a direct effect was observed on objective performance. In conclusion, the study findings indicate that also athlete leaders can adopt a motivating role, and that by doing so, their impact is as strong as the impact of the coach. Both coaches and athlete leaders can thus boost athletes' objective performance and foster competence satisfaction, with the latter resulting in increased intrinsic motivation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Optimizing the Power of Choice: Supporting Student Autonomy to Foster Motivation and Engagement in Learning (United States)

    Evans, Miriam; Boucher, Alyssa R.


    Choice plays a critical role in promoting students' intrinsic motivation and deep engagement in learning. Across a range of academic outcomes and student populations, positive impacts have been seen when student autonomy is promoted through meaningful and personally relevant choice. This article presents a theoretical perspective on the…

  1. The Power of Social and Motivational Relationships for Test-Anxious Adolescents' Academic Self-Regulation (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances; Schneeweiss, David; Wood, Megan A.


    Based on cognitive evaluation theory (CET) and organismic integration theory (OIT)--both sub-theories of self-determination theory (SDT)--the present study examined whether the academic self-regulation of youth with test anxiety can be strengthened through social and motivational relationships with peers and teachers. This study employed a large…

  2. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  3. Substance use by college students: the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for athletic involvement. (United States)

    Rockafellow, Bradley D; Saules, Karen K


    Certain types of athletic involvement may confer risk for substance use by college students. This study investigated whether motivational factors play a role in the relationship between athletic involvement and substance use. Intercollegiate athletes (n=98) and exercisers (n=120) were surveyed about substance use and motivation for athletic involvement. Athletes and exercisers who were extrinsically motivated had significantly higher rates of alcohol use than their intrinsically motivated counterparts. Results suggest that college students who are extrinsically motivated for involvement in physical activity/athletics--particularly those involved in team sports--may be in need of targeted prevention efforts. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. High prevalence of EMRSA-15 in Portuguese public buses: a worrisome finding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roméo Rocha Simões

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nosocomial prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Portugal remains one of the highest in Europe and is currently around 50%. Transmission of S. aureus, including MRSA, occurs principally by direct human-to-human skin contact. However, S. aureus can survive for long periods on inanimate objects, which may represent an important reservoir for dissemination as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between May 2009 and February 2010, handrails of 85 public urban buses circulating in Oporto, Portugal, were screened for the occurrence of MRSA. Twenty-two (26% buses showed MRSA contamination. The molecular characterization of a total of 55 MRSA, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC mec typing, spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, clustered the isolates into three clonal types. However, the overwhelming majority (n = 50; 91% of the isolates belonged to a single clone (PFGE A, spa types t747, t032, t025 or t020, ST22, SCCmec type IVh that exhibits the characteristics of the pandemic EMRSA-15, currently the major lineage circulating in Portuguese hospitals, namely in the Oporto region. Two additional clones were found but in much lower numbers: (i PFGE B, ST5, spa type t002, SCCmec IVa (n = 3, and (ii PFGE C, spa type t008, ST8, SCCmec IVa (n = 2. None of the 55 isolates was PVL positive. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Public buses in Oporto seem to be an important reservoir of MRSA of nosocomial origin, providing evidence that the major hospital-associated MRSA clone in Portugal is escaping from the primary ecological niche of hospitals to the community environment. Infection control measures are urgently warranted to limit the spread of EMRSA-15 to the general population and future studies are required to assess the eventual increase of MRSA in the Portuguese community, which so far remains low.

  5. Operational integrity using field buses; Integridade operacional utilizando barramentos de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Carlos Henrique [Coester Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)


    The device information is collected using standardized Filed Buses with high data transmission capacity, which allows the analysis of his operational status in real time. The quantity of information generated by the devices for the maintenance area is increasing and this data quantity transferred through the field bus should not interfere in the network performance to the point of degrade his control function. In this way, is presented a technique that can be used in different protocols, which allow sending of maintenance data using a small band of the communication channel. Operational integrity can be achieved using predictive maintenance techniques based on the collected data. (author)

  6. Intestinal parasites in public transport buses from the city of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade SS


    Full Text Available Sabrina S Andrade,1 Layane M Teodoro,1 Daniel JS Viana,1 Egleise M Canuto-Sales,2 Gustavo H Bahia-de-Oliveira,2 Suedali Villas Bôas,3 Ricardo A Barata1 1Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Basic Sciences, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil Background: Intestinal parasites’ eggs, larvae, or cysts can be carried in public transport buses, and contribute to the increased incidence of diseases. This study aimed to detect biological forms of intestinal parasites in samples from public buses in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, in order to know the local situation and propose interventions to improve public health. Materials and methods: In November 2014, six samples were obtained in buses of the two stations by using Graham method, in duplicate, by affixing a 6×5 cm clear tape, six times on each collection site of the bus, in an area of ~30 cm2. Then, each tape was positioned longitudinally on a slide microscope, and the identification of the biological forms of the parasites was performed with the aid of a 40× objective optical microscope. Results: A total of 216 slides were analyzed, of which 86 (39.8% were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. Cysts of Entamoeba coli were the most frequently found in this study (52.1%, followed by Endolimax nana cysts (30.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (6.5%, helminth larvae (4.7%, Giardia lamblia cysts (3.6%, Hymenolepis nana eggs (1.2%, Enterobius vermicularis eggs (0.6%, and Entamoeba histolytica cysts (0.6%. Top right handrails and right stanchions had the highest occurrence of biological forms, with 18.3% and 14.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated the need for better cleaning of the buses and better personal hygiene by users, since pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasites were found, suggesting fecal contamination of these sites, representing a risk to public health. Keywords

  7. Adopting Clean Fuels and Technologies on School Buses. Pollution and Health Impacts in Children. (United States)

    Adar, Sara D; D'Souza, Jennifer; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D; Hallstrand, Teal S; Davey, Mark E; Sullivan, James R; Jahnke, Jordan; Koenig, Jane; Larson, Timothy V; Liu, L J Sally


    More than 25 million American children breathe polluted air on diesel school buses. Emission reduction policies exist, but the health impacts to individual children have not been evaluated. Using a natural experiment, we characterized the exposures and health of 275 school bus riders before, during, and after the adoption of clean technologies and fuels between 2005 and 2009. Air pollution was measured during 597 trips on 188 school buses. Repeated measures of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function (FEV1, FVC), and absenteeism were also collected monthly (1,768 visits). Mixed-effects models longitudinally related the adoption of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), closed crankcase ventilation systems (CCVs), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), or biodiesel with exposures and health. Fine and ultrafine particle concentrations were 10-50% lower on buses using ULSD, DOCs, and/or CCVs. ULSD adoption was also associated with reduced FeNO (-16% [95% confidence interval (CI), -21 to -10%]), greater changes in FVC and FEV1 (0.02 [95% CI, 0.003 to 0.05] and 0.01 [95% CI, -0.006 to 0.03] L/yr, respectively), and lower absenteeism (-8% [95% CI, -16.0 to -0.7%]), with stronger associations among patients with asthma. DOCs, and to a lesser extent CCVs, also were associated with improved FeNO, FVC growth, and absenteeism, but these findings were primarily restricted to patients with persistent asthma and were often sensitive to control for ULSD. No health benefits were noted for biodiesel. Extrapolating to the U.S. population, changed fuel/technologies likely reduced absenteeism by more than 14 million/yr. National and local diesel policies appear to have reduced children's exposures and improved health.

  8. Science motivation by discussion and controversy (SMDC) model (United States)

    Izadi, Dina; Mora Ley, César Eduardo; Ramírez Díaz, Mario Humberto


    Succeeding theories and empirical investigations have often been built over conceptual understanding to develop talent education. Opportunities provided by society are crucial at every point in the talent-development process. Abilities differ and can vary among boys and girls. Although they have some responsibility for their own growth and development, the educational system and psychosocial variables influence on the successful development of high levels of education. This research explores students’ attitudes to science education to establish why many disengage with the subject in class and what can be done to reverse this trend to produce unimaginable scientific and practical benefits to society. The control group is students from several schools with traditional education in Iran and the experimental group is teams who have taken part in several activities such as national and international tournaments (2005-2013). This research has two parts: 1—how innovation in teaching and 2—discussion and controversy in class can improve science education and cause motivation. The average scores are divided into 5 ranges in both experimental and traditional groups. As shown by Spearman’s correlation rank (ρ) the difference between boys’ and girls’ average scores is about (2.71) in the control group but it has decreased to (0.29) in the experimental group. The main point of discussion is on problems in class which advance a set of interrelated scientific arguments for outstanding achievement.

  9. Optimal Power Flow Control by Rotary Power Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAZEMI, A.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new power flow model for rotary power flow controller (RPFC. RPFC injects a series voltage into the transmission line and provides series compensation and phase shifting simultaneously. Therefore, it is able to control the transmission line impedance and the active power flow through it. An RPFC is composed mainly of two rotary phase shifting transformers (RPST and two conventional (series and shunt transformers. Structurally, an RPST consists of two windings (stator and rotor windings. The rotor windings of the two RPSTs are connected in parallel and their stator windings are in series. The injected voltage is proportional to the vector sum of the stator voltages and so its amplitude and angle are affected by the rotor position of the two RPSTs. This paper, describes the steady state operation and single-phase equivalent circuit of the RPFC. Also in this paper, a new power flow model, based on power injection model of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS controllers, suitable for the power flow analysis is introduced. Proposed model is used to solve optimal power flow (OPF problem in IEEE standard test systems incorporating RPFC and the optimal settings and location of the RPFC is determined.

  10. To Evaluate Zero Emission Propulsion and Support Technology for Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Chandler; Leslie Eudy


    This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California, in partnership with the San Mateo County Transit District in San Carlos, California. VTA has been operating three fuel cell transit buses in extra revenue service since February 28, 2005. This report provides descriptions of the equipment used, early experiences, and evaluation results from the operation of the buses and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure from March 2005 through July 2006.

  11. Goal setting and worker motivation


    Goerg, Sebastian J.


    Employers want motivated and productive employees. Are there ways to increase employee motivation without relying solely on monetary incentives, such as pay-for-performance schemes? One tool that has shown promise in recent decades for improving worker performance is setting goals, whether they are assigned by management or self-chosen. Goals are powerful motivators for workers, with the potential for boosting productivity in an organization. However, if not chosen carefully or if used in uns...

  12. Motivating medical students by utilizing dermatology-oriented online quizzes. (United States)

    Kunzler, Elaine; Graham, Jacqueline; Mostow, Eliot


    Online quiz competitions can facilitate extra-classroom interactions between faculty and medical students. Owing to decreased class attendance nationwide, teaching faculty might revamp their approach to medical education by providing online resources and methods for communication. To explore if the use of online quizzes and social media can result in improved interactions between faculty and students. A pilot study conducted from April 7th, 2015 to June 11th, 2015 at Northeast Ohio Medical University (NEOMED) among participants from the second year medical school class. Ten one-question quizzes created using Google Forms were announced over Twitter and email at the rate of one quiz per week. The first correct responder of each quiz chose a five-dollar coffee shop gift card, movie ticket, or a meeting with a NEOMED faculty person as their prize. An average of 23.8% of the second year medical student class at NEOMED participated per quiz. A total of 80 individuals (55.9%) submitted 340 responses during the competition. This is a single-center study with a limited sample size. This study presents a process evaluation for the use of online quiz competitions amongst medical students. Optional online quizzes with small incentives may foster motivational competition among medical students, increase online interactions with faculty, and serve as study material for exams.

  13. Mathematical formalization of theories of motivation proposed by Maslow and Herzberg




    Maslow's theory is by far the most known theory of motivation, and the most common in the business and management practice. Herzberg's theory fits the observations and explains some aspects of human motivation left unexplained by Maslow. However, these theories have never been formalized on a strictly mathematical basis. The present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of sp...

  14. Epigenetic regulation of motivated behaviors by histone deacetylase inhibitors. (United States)

    Elvir, Lindsay; Duclot, Florian; Wang, Zuoxin; Kabbaj, Mohamed


    Growing evidence has begun to elucidate the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in the modulation and maintenance of gene expression and behavior. Histone acetylation is one such epigenetic mechanism, which has been shown to profoundly alter gene expression and behaviors. In this review, we begin with an overview of the major epigenetic mechanisms including histones acetylation. We next focus on recent evidence about the influence of environmental stimuli on various motivated behaviors through histone acetylation and highlight how histone deacetylase inhibitors can correct some of the pathologies linked to motivated behaviors including substance abuse, feeding and social attachments. Particularly, we emphasize that the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on motivated behaviors are time and context-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment. (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison


    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H


    of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  17. Value-Expressive Volunteer Motivation and Volunteering by Older Adults: Relationships With Religiosity and Spirituality. (United States)

    Okun, Morris A; O'Rourke, Holly P; Keller, Brian; Johnson, Kathryn A; Enders, Craig


    This study investigates the interplay among religiosity, spirituality, value-expressive volunteer motivation, and volunteering. We examined religiosity and spirituality as predictors of value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering and whether religiosity moderated the relations between (a) spirituality and value-expressive volunteer motivation and (b) value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering. After applying multiple imputation procedures to data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study among participants 64-67 years old who survived beyond 2004 (N = 8,148), we carried out regression analyses to predict value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering from religiosity and spirituality controlling for demographic variables, physical, emotional, and cognitive health, health risk behaviors, and personality traits. Both religiosity and spirituality were significant (p motivation. Value-expressive volunteer motivation and religiosity were significant (p motivation and volunteering (p motivation (p > .45). Religiosity may provide the way, and value-expressive volunteer motivation the will, to volunteer. The implications of our findings for the forecasted shortage of older volunteers are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  18. Minimizing the IOL power error induced by keratometric power. (United States)

    Camps, Vicente J; Piñero, David P; de Fez, Dolores; Mateo, Verónica


    To evaluate theoretically in normal eyes the influence on IOL power (PIOL) calculation of the use of a keratometric index (nk) and to analyze and validate preliminarily the use of an adjusted keratometric index (nkadj) in the IOL power calculation (PIOLadj). A model of variable keratometric index (nkadj) for corneal power calculation (Pc) was used for IOL power calculation (named PIOLadj). Theoretical differences (ΔPIOL) between the new proposed formula (PIOLadj) and which is obtained through Gaussian optics ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) were determined using Gullstrand and Le Grand eye models. The proposed new formula for IOL power calculation (PIOLadj) was prevalidated clinically in 81 eyes of 81 candidates for corneal refractive surgery and compared with Haigis, HofferQ, Holladay, and SRK/T formulas. A theoretical PIOL underestimation greater than 0.5 diopters was present in most of the cases when nk = 1.3375 was used. If nkadj was used for Pc calculation, a maximal calculated error in ΔPIOL of ±0.5 diopters at corneal vertex in most cases was observed independently from the eye model, r1c, and the desired postoperative refraction. The use of nkadj in IOL power calculation (PIOLadj) could be valid with effective lens position optimization nondependent of the corneal power. The use of a single value of nk for Pc calculation can lead to significant errors in PIOL calculation that may explain some IOL power overestimations with conventional formulas. These inaccuracies can be minimized by using the new PIOLadj based on the algorithm of nkadj.

  19. On Motivation and Motivation


    Mircea UDRESCU


    Economic motivations were a big influence on consumer behavior motivation. In this context, it is considered that the general motives which give motivation to purchase content can be structured into rational and emotional motives, the motives innate and acquired motives, all gaining an individual or group event. The study of consumer behavior, with general motivations, attention increasingly larger granted special incentives, consisting of assertiveness feeling (emerging desire for a product)...

  20. Motivations for Donation Behavior by Boys of Three Different Ages. (United States)

    And Others; Raviv, Amiram


    A total of 111 boys of fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade ages were put into situations in which they had an opportunity to donate money for crippled children. Results support the supposition that the motives for helping behavior develop with age. (RH)

  1. Moral motivation in defending classmates victimized by bullying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kollerová, Lenka; Janošová, Pavlína; Říčan, Pavel


    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2015), s. 297-309 ISSN 1740-5629 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2325 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Adolescence * Defending * Moral motivation * Peer relations * Prosocial behaviour Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2015

  2. Academic stress, power motivation, and decrease in secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A. (United States)

    Jemmott, J B; Borysenko, J Z; Borysenko, M; McClelland, D C; Chapman, R; Meyer, D; Benson, H


    The effect of academic stress on immune function, as measured by the rate of secretion of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), was studied prospectively in 64 first-year dental school students. Perceived stress and s-IgA secretion rate were measured five times--during an initial low-stress period, three high-stress periods coinciding with major examinations, and a final low-stress period. The s-IgA secretion rate was significantly lower in high-stress than low-stress periods for the whole group. In addition, personality characteristics differentiated patterns of s-IgA secretion rates. Students characterised by a great need to establish and maintain warm personal relationships secreted more s-IgA at each point than did all other subjects. The s-IgA secretion rates of those with a high inhibited need for power continued to decline through the final low-stress period rather than recovering as in all other subjects.

  3. Endocrine and aggressive responses to competition are moderated by contest outcome, gender, individual versus team competition, and implicit motives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon K Oxford

    . They also suggest that while aggression is strongly affected by situational factors in the context of a competition, it has no direct association with motivational and hormonal correlates of dominance (nPower, T, E and instead is associated with (mostly low levels of C.

  4. In-Use Fleet Evaluation of Fast-Charge Battery Electric Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Kelly, Kenneth; Eudy; Leslie


    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2015, NREL launched an in-service evaluation of 12 battery electric buses (BEBs) compared to conventional compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of fast-charge BEBs and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation. To date, NREL researchers have analyzed more than 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. Foothill Transit purchased the BEBs with grant funding from the Federal Transit Administration's Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction Program.

  5. Fcoused crawler bused on Bayesian classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIA Haijun


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the network,its information resources are increasingly large and faced a huge amount of information database,search engine plays an important role.Focused crawling technique,as the main core portion of search engine,is used to calculate the relationship between search results and search topics,which is called correlation.Normally,focused crawling method is used only to calculate the correlation between web content and search related topics.In this paper,focused crawling method is used to compute the importance of links through link content and anchor text,then Bayesian classifier is used to classify the links,and finally cosine similarity function is used to calculate the relevance of web pages.If the correlation value is greater than the threshold the page is considered to be associated with the predetermined topics,otherwise not relevant.Experimental results show that a high accuracy can be obtained by using the proposed crawling approach.

  6. Motivational distortion of the 16PF by welfare recipients. (United States)

    Merydith, S P; Humphreys, J K; Ebener, D J


    The effectiveness of the Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF) motivational distortion correction procedures was investigated with a sample of 212 welfare recipients who completed the 16PF while participating in a mandatory welfare-to-work program. A multiple regression analysis showed that the motivational distortion (MD) score was significantly related to most of the preselected Personality factors. The regression analysis also revealed that primary E (Dominance) was associated with MD, although the manual does not require MD adjustments for this factor. Based on comparisons of mean differences at the various MD correction levels, findings indicated general support for the MD correction procedures described in the manual; however, the magnitude of the correction procedures should be used cautiously as this may overcorrect for MD on some of the 16PF primaries. The relevance of the findings also are discussed in terms of evidence for Cattell's (1968, 1973, 1986) trait-view theory as it applies to response distortions.

  7. Motivation of extended behaviors by anterior cingulate cortex. (United States)

    Holroyd, Clay B; Yeung, Nick


    Intense research interest over the past decade has yielded diverse and often discrepant theories about the function of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In particular, a dichotomy has emerged between neuropsychological theories suggesting a primary role for ACC in motivating or 'energizing' behavior, and neuroimaging-inspired theories emphasizing its contribution to cognitive control and reinforcement learning. To reconcile these views, we propose that ACC supports the selection and maintenance of 'options' - extended, context-specific sequences of behavior directed toward particular goals - that are learned through a process of hierarchical reinforcement learning. This theory accounts for ACC activity in relation to learning and control while simultaneously explaining the effects of ACC damage as disrupting the motivational context supporting the production of goal-directed action sequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring the motivation jungle: Predicting performance on a novel task by investigating constructs from different motivation perspectives in tandem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuland, H.J.C. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Martens, R.L.; Boekaerts, M.


    Different theoretical viewpoints on motivation make it hard to decide which model has the best potential to provide valid predictions on classroom performance. This study was designed to explore motivation constructs derived from different motivation perspectives that predict performance on a novel

  9. Differences by Gender in Predictors of Motivation Among Substance Abuse Treatment Participants. (United States)

    Taylor, Liana R; Caudy, Michael; Blasko, Brandy L; Taxman, Faye S


    Substance-involved females tend to have different clinical profiles than men (Adams, Leukefeld, & Peden, 2008 ); yet they do not appear to have worse treatment outcomes (Green, 2006 ; Hser, Huang, Teruya, & Anglin, 2003 ). As motivation for treatment is considered essential in the substance abuse treatment context (Cahill, Adinoff, Hosig, Muller, & Pulliam, 2003 ; Longshore & Teruya, 2006 ), it is possible that higher motivation among females could potentially counteract the negative effect of more risk factors. The purpose of the current study was to examine if females differ from males in their motivation for treatment using the Texas Christian University Motivation Form scales: desire for help, problem recognition, treatment readiness, pressure for treatment, and treatment needs; and whether factors predicting motivation for treatment differed between male and female participants of substance abuse treatment. The sample included 2,989 substance-involved males and 982 substance-involved females who were referred to substance abuse treatment through a case management program. Linear regression models predicting each motivation scale were analyzed, followed by gender-specific models. Overall, the results did not demonstrate a significant gender difference in the motivation scales. However, among male participants, the findings did show that Hispanic significantly predicted desire for help and alcohol as a primary drug of choice predicted treatment readiness. Findings suggest that motivation for treatment may be a gender-neutral construct, and that there is a need to better understand sociodemographic predictors of motivation.

  10. Estimativa dos poluentes emitidos pelos ônibus e microônibus de Campo Grande/MS, empregando como combustível diesel, biodiesel ou gás natural Estimation of the atmospheric pollutants emitted in Campo Grande/MS, by buses and minibuses which employ diesel, biodiesel or natural gas as fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Rodrigo Kozerski


    Full Text Available É apresentada uma estimativa do total de poluentes emitidos mensalmente por ônibus e microônibus em Campo Grande (MS, empregando-se diesel, biodiesel ou gás natural como combustíveis. O método "bottom-up" foi utilizado para os cálculos das emissões gasosas. Os estudos realizados permitem inferir que a substituição do diesel pelo biodiesel resultaria em diminuição das emissões de poluentes, geração de novos postos de empregos a partir de atividades agrícolas e industriais, e a diminuição na importação de petróleo, já que o Brasil importa petróleo, basicamente, para suprir a demanda de diesel.The present work deals with the estimation of the atmospheric pollutants emitted monthly in Campo Grande/MS by buses and minibuses, which employ diesel, biodiesel or natural gas as fuels. For the gaseous emissions calculations was used a "bottom-up" technique. The results obtained show that the substitution of diesel by biodiesel would diminish the emissions of pollutants, create novel job opportunities from agricultural and industrial activities, and reduce the Brazilian petroleum imports, which are basically used for meeting the demands in diesel.

  11. Distributed Estimation via Iterative Projections with Application to Power Network Monitoring (United States)


    to a centralized method, in which a powerful central processor is in charge of processing 2 In most application the error covariance matrix is assumed...between incre- mental and diffusive methods is beyond the purpose of this work, and we refer the interested reader to [15, 16] and the references...example, we assume that each control center mesures the real power injection as well the current magnitude at some of the buses of its area. By doing so

  12. Bay Area Transit Agencies Propel Fuel Cell Buses Toward Commercialization (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This fact sheet describes the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration of the next generation of fuel cells buses. Several transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area are participating in demonstrating the largest single fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States.

  13. Cooperative Control of Active Power Filters in Power Systems without Mutual Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Tlustý


    Full Text Available The procedure for calculating controller parameters of the APFs implemented into a multibus industrial power system for harmonic voltage mitigation is presented. The node-voltage-detection control strategy is applied and the basic controller parameters are found under the condition that the demanded THD factors at the buses where the APFs are placed will be obtained. A cooperative control of several APFs without mutual communication is proposed, simulated, and experimentally verified. By tuning the controller gains without considering the power circuit parameters, all APFs used tend to share harmonic load currents approximately equally regardless of the operation modes of the nonlinear loads in different parts of the power system.

  14. Visual perception affected by motivation and alertness controlled by a noninvasive brain-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A Maksimenko

    Full Text Available The influence of motivation and alertness on brain activity associated with visual perception was studied experimentally using the Necker cube, which ambiguity was controlled by the contrast of its ribs. The wavelet analysis of recorded multichannel electroencephalograms (EEG allowed us to distinguish two different scenarios while the brain processed the ambiguous stimulus. The first scenario is characterized by a particular destruction of alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz with a simultaneous increase in beta-wave activity (20-30 Hz, whereas in the second scenario, the beta rhythm is not well pronounced while the alpha-wave energy remains unchanged. The experiments were carried out with a group of financially motivated subjects and another group of unpaid volunteers. It was found that the first scenario occurred mainly in the motivated group. This can be explained by the increased alertness of the motivated subjects. The prevalence of the first scenario was also observed in a group of subjects to whom images with higher ambiguity were presented. We believe that the revealed scenarios can occur not only during the perception of bistable images, but also in other perceptual tasks requiring decision making. The obtained results may have important applications for monitoring and controlling human alertness in situations which need substantial attention. On the base of the obtained results we built a brain-computer interface to estimate and control the degree of alertness in real time.

  15. Motivational Factors in Career Decisions Made by Chinese Science Museum Educators (United States)

    Ji, Jiao; Anderson, David; Wu, Xinchun


    Conceptualized by the self-determination theory, this interpretive study examined 23 museum educators' perspectives from five Chinese science museums to understand their work motivation in relation to their professional practice of working in museums. Research outcomes showed that, Chinese science museum educators' work motivation followed a…

  16. Motivational power of future time perspective: Meta-analyses in education, work, and health. (United States)

    Andre, Lucija; van Vianen, Annelies E M; Peetsma, Thea T D; Oort, Frans J


    Future time perspective (FTP) may predict individual attitudes and behaviors. However, FTP research includes different FTP conceptualizations and outcomes which hinder generalizing its findings. To solve the inconsistencies in FTP research and generalize the magnitude of FTP as a driver of motivation and behavior, we conducted the first systematical synthesis of FTP relationships in three crucial life domains. Our meta-analyses of FTP studies in education (k = 28), work (k = 17), and health (k = 32) involved N = 31,558 participants, and used a conceptual model for grouping FTP constructs. To address different outcome types, we applied the Theory of Planned Behavior when coding the studies. FTP relationships with outcomes were small-to-medium, were generalizable across domains, and were strongest when the FTP construct included a mixture of cognition, behavioral intention, and affect and, in education, when the FTP measure was domain specific rather than general. There were cross-cultural differences in FTP-outcome relationships. The strength of the FTP-outcome types relationship varied for attitudes, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, and behaviors. The lowest effect sizes were found for FTP predicting actual behaviors in education, work, and health and between FTP and health attitudes. Theoretical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Laboratory-induced learned helplessness attenuates approach motivation as indexed by posterior versus frontal theta activity. (United States)

    Reznik, Samantha J; Nusslock, Robin; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Abramson, Lyn Y; Coan, James A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie


    Research suggests that midline posterior versus frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity (PFTA) may reflect a novel neurophysiological index of approach motivation. Elevated PFTA has been associated with approach-related tendencies both at rest and during laboratory tasks designed to enhance approach motivation. PFTA is sensitive to changes in dopamine signaling within the fronto-striatal neural circuit, which is centrally involved in approach motivation, reward processing, and goal-directed behavior. To date, however, no studies have examined PFTA during a laboratory task designed to reduce approach motivation or goal-directed behavior. Considerable animal and human research supports the hypothesis put forth by the learned helplessness theory that exposure to uncontrollable aversive stimuli decreases approach motivation by inducing a state of perceived uncontrollability. Accordingly, the present study examined the effect of perceived uncontrollability (i.e., learned helplessness) on PFTA. EEG data were collected from 74 participants (mean age = 19.21 years; 40 females) exposed to either Controllable (n = 26) or Uncontrollable (n = 25) aversive noise bursts, or a No-Noise Condition (n = 23). In line with prediction, individuals exposed to uncontrollable aversive noise bursts displayed a significant decrease in PFTA, reflecting reduced approach motivation, relative to both individuals exposed to controllable noise bursts or the No-Noise Condition. There was no relationship between perceived uncontrollability and frontal EEG alpha asymmetry, another commonly used neurophysiological index of approach motivation. Results have implications for understanding the neurophysiology of approach motivation and establishing PFTA as a neurophysiological index of approach-related tendencies.

  18. Preliminary Physics Motivation and Engineering Design Assessment of the National High Power Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Woolley


    In April 2006, Dr. Ray Orbach, Director of the DOE Office of Science, challenged the fusion community to "propose a new facility... which will put the U.S. at the lead in world fusion science." Analysis of the gaps between expected ITER performance and the requirements of a demonstration power plant (Demo) pointed to the critical and urgent need to develop fusion-relvant plasma-material interface (PMI) solutions consistent with sustained high plasma performance. A survey of world fusion program indicated that present and planned experimental devices do not advance the PMI issue beyond ITER, and a major dedicated experimental facility is warranted. Such a facility should provide the flexibility and access needed to solve plasma boundary challenges related to divertor heat flux and particle exhaust while also developing methods to minimize hydrogenic isotope retention and remaining compatible with high plasma performance.

  19. Txatarra: vivienda transitoria con buses de transporte público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Arenas Vargas


    Full Text Available El presente análisis del proyecto Casa Linda parte de una exploración conceptual en torno a un hábitat sostenible, mediante la generación de un tipo de vivienda transitoria que reutiliza buses de transporte público destinados a ser reducidos a chatarra. La necesidad de replantear la labor de configurar espacios con materiales y formas predeterminados llevó a los autores a comprender cómo resultan insuficientes los medios tradicionales de construcción, en los que se acostumbra emplear materias primas en presentaciones estandarizadas y con acabados predefinidos que se adaptan a los requerimientos y necesidades del proyecto. Enfrentar el proyecto a partir del reciclaje de materiales y objetos (chatarra, de diversas dimensiones y en variadas condiciones, generó un proceso cuya característica principal es la imposibilidad de anticipar con exactitud los procesos constructivos y los acabados finales.

  20. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.


    Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact...... and muzzle contact, respectively, to a familiar companion horse. Horses were housed individually next to their companion horse and separations between pens prevented physical contact. During daily test sessions horses were brought to a test area where they could access an arena allowing social contact. Arena...... access during 3 min was given after completion of a predetermined number of responses on a panel. Fixed ratios (FR) of 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 responses per arena access were applied in a random order, one per daily test session, within each test week (Monday to Friday), and the number of rewards per daily...

  1. Mathematical formalization of theories of motivation proposed by Maslow and Herzberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kotliarov


    Full Text Available Maslow's theory is by far the most known theory of motivation, and the most common in the business and management practice. Herzberg's theory fits the observations and explains some aspects of human motivation left unexplained by Maslow. However, these theories have never been formalized on a strictly mathematical basis. The present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of special non-continuous functions. This description may be a good basis for HR software and may be useful for business and management.

  2. Are health workers motivated by income? Job motivation of Cambodian primary health workers implementing performance-based financing. (United States)

    Khim, Keovathanak


    Financial incentives are widely used in performance-based financing (PBF) schemes, but their contribution to health workers' incomes and job motivation is poorly understood. Cambodia undertook health sector reform from the middle of 2009 and PBF was employed as a part of the reform process. This study examines job motivation for primary health workers (PHWs) under PBF reform in Cambodia and assesses the relationship between job motivation and income. A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted on 266 PHWs, from 54 health centers in the 15 districts involved in the reform. The health workers were asked to report all sources of income from public sector jobs and provide answers to 20 items related to job motivation. Factor analysis was conducted to identify the latent variables of job motivation. Factors associated with motivation were identified through multivariable regression. PHWs reported multiple sources of income and an average total income of US$190 per month. Financial incentives under the PBF scheme account for 42% of the average total income. PHWs had an index motivation score of 4.9 (on a scale from one to six), suggesting they had generally high job motivation that was related to a sense of community service, respect, and job benefits. Regression analysis indicated that income and the perception of a fair distribution of incentives were both statistically significant in association with higher job motivation scores. Financial incentives used in the reform formed a significant part of health workers' income and influenced their job motivation. Improving job motivation requires fixing payment mechanisms and increasing the size of incentives. PBF is more likely to succeed when income, training needs, and the desire for a sense of community service are addressed and institutionalized within the health system.

  3. Motivation by positive or negative role models: regulatory focus determines who will best inspire us. (United States)

    Lockwood, Penelope; Jordan, Christian H; Kunda, Ziva


    In 3 studies, the authors demonstrated that individuals are motivated by role models who encourage strategies that fit their regulatory concerns: Promotion-focused individuals, who favor a strategy of pursuing desirable outcomes, are most inspired by positive role models, who highlight strategies for achieving success; prevention-focused individuals, who favor a strategy of avoiding undesirable outcomes, are most motivated by negative role models, who highlight strategies for avoiding failure. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors primed promotion and prevention goals and then examined the impact of role models on motivation. Participants' academic motivation was increased by goal-congruent role models but decreased by goal-incongruent role models. In Study 3, participants were more likely to generate real-life role models that matched their chronic goals.

  4. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport—A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rogge


    Full Text Available The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure planning. The analysis is based on real-world data of the bus network in Muenster, a mid-sized city in Germany. The outcomes underline the necessity to focus on entire vehicle schedules instead on individual trips. The tradeoff between required battery capacity and charging power is explained in detail. Furthermore, the impact on the electricity grid is discussed based on the load profiles of a selected charging station and a combined load profile of the entire network.

  5. Wireless sensors powered by microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Shantaram, Avinash; Beyenal, Haluk; Raajan, Raaja; Veluchamy, Angathevar; Lewandowski, Zbigniew


    Monitoring parameters characterizing water quality, such as temperature, pH, and concentrations of heavy metals in natural waters, is often followed by transmitting the data to remote receivers using telemetry systems. Such systems are commonly powered by batteries, which can be inconvenient at times because batteries have a limited lifetime and must be recharged or replaced periodically to ensure that sufficient energy is available to power the electronics. To avoid these inconveniences, a microbial fuel cell was designed to power electrochemical sensors and small telemetry systems to transmit the data acquired by the sensors to remote receivers. The microbial fuel cell was combined with low-power, high-efficiency electronic circuitry providing a stable power source for wireless data transmission. To generate enough power for the telemetry system, energy produced by the microbial fuel cell was stored in a capacitor and used in short bursts when needed. Since commercial electronic circuits require a minimum 3.3 V input and our cell was able to deliver a maximum of 2.1 V, a DC-DC converter was used to boost the potential. The DC-DC converter powered a transmitter, which gathered the data from the sensor and transmitted it wirelessly to a remote receiver. To demonstrate the utility of the system, temporal variations in temperature were measured, and the data were wirelessly transmitted to a remote receiver.

  6. Mathematical Formalization Of Theories Of Motivation Proposed By Abraham Maslow And Frederick Herzberg


    Ivan Kotliarov


    the present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of special non-continuous functions.

  7. Alternative fuel transit buses: Interim results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Vehicle Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.J.; Chandler, K.


    The transit bus program is designed to provide a comprehensive study of the alternative fuels currently used by the transit bus industry. The study focuses on the reliability, fuel economy, operating costs, and emissions of vehicles running on the various fuels and alternative fuel engines. The alternative fuels being tested are methanol, ethanol, biodiesel and natural gas. The alternative fuel buses in this program use the most common alternative fuel engines from the heavy-duty engine manufacturers. Data are collected in four categories: Bus and route descriptions; Bus operating data; Emissions data; and, Capital costs. The goal is to collect 18 months of data on each test bus. This report summarizes the interim results from the project to date. The report addresses performance and reliability, fuel economy, costs, and emissions of the busses in the program.

  8. The Effects of School Desegregation on Minority Group Student Achievement and Self-Concept: An Evaluation of Court Ordered Busing in Waco, Texas. Final Report. (United States)

    Felice, Lawrence G.

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of busing on the subsequent achievement performance of bused minority students. Differences in achievement gains are hypothesized to be a function of bused student attitudes toward busing and the interracial climate of acceptance in the receiving schools. The design of this study is that of a…

  9. Bidirectional Power Stroke by Ncd Kinesin


    Butterfield, Anthony E.; Stewart, Russell J.; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Skliar, Mikhail


    Optical trapping experiments reveal details of molecular motor dynamics. In noisy data, temporal structure within the power stroke of motors can be analyzed by ensemble averaging, but this obscures infrequent subcategories of events. We have here developed an analysis method that uses Kalman filtering of measurements, model-based estimation of the power strokes produced by the motor head, and automatic event classification to discriminate between different types of motor events. This method w...

  10. Stopping power determinations by the transmission technique (United States)

    Räisänen, J.; Wätjen, U.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Munnik, F.


    Details of the experimental procedures related to the transmission technique are described. Parameters affecting the stopping power measurements by this technique are pointed out and discussed. For example, the importance of an accurate foil areal density determination is emphasized, and methods for the determination are introduced. The accuracy and possible error sources of the stopping power values are reviewed. Advantages as well as limitations of the method are discussed. As an example the stopping powers of 600-3200 keV 4He ions in polyimide (Kapton) have been determined. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of widely used semiempirical models.

  11. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.


    This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

  12. D\\'emocrite et la puissance motrice du feu (Democrite and the motive power of fire)

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaud, Jacques; Philippe, Fabrice


    This paper, whose purpose is mainly historical and pedagogical, suggests that concepts introduced in the ancient Greece by Anaximander (isolated flat earth) and Democritus (corpuscles and empty-space) could have led, from some observations and plausible generalizations, to the maximum efficiency and output work of heat engines obtained in the modern time by Carnot (1824). A prolog presents a simple heat engine. After introducing the concept of thermal equilibrium, a model of thermal engine consisting of corpuscle reservoirs is studied in a classical manner. We establish the ideal gas law from the Daniel Bernoulli corpuscular concept (1738) using the corpuscle \\emph{action} concept. This leads to the energy of a gas at any temperature.

  13. Cool Science: K-12 Climate Change Art Displayed on Buses (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Thompson, S. R.


    Cool science is an art contest where K12 students create placards (7" x 22") to educate the public about climate change. Students are prompted to create their artwork in response to questions such as: What is the evidence for climate change? How does climate change impact your local community? What can you do to reduce the impacts of climate change? In each of three years, 500-600 student entrees have been submitted from more than 12 school districts across Massachusetts. A panel of judges including scientists, artists, rapid transit representatives, and educators chooses elementary, middle, and high school winners. Winners (6), runners-up (6), and honorable mentions (12) and their families and teachers are invited to an annual Cool Science Award Ceremony to be recognized and view winning artwork. All winning artwork is posted on the Cool Science website. The winning artwork (2 per grade band) is converted into placards (11" x 28") and posters (2.5' x 12') that are placed on the inside (placards) and outside (posters) of buses. Posters are displayed for one month. So far, Cool Science was implemented in Lowell, MA where over 5000 public viewers see the posters daily on the sides of Lowell Rapid Transit Authority (LRTA) buses, making approximately 1,000,000 impressions per year. Cool Science acts to increase climate literacy in children as well as the public, and as such promotes intergenerational learning. Using art in conjunction with science learning about climate change appears to be effective at engaging not just traditionally high achieving science students, but also those interested in the creative arts. Hearing winners' stories about how they created their artwork and what this contest meant to them supports the idea that Cool Science attracts a wide diversity of students. Parents discuss climate change with their children. Multiple press releases announcing the winners further promotes the awareness of climate change throughout school districts and their

  14. Determination of the transient parameters of synchronous machines by the finite element method considering the characteristic effect in the shock absorber buses; Determinacao dos parametros transitorios de maquinas sincronas pelo metodo dos elementos finitos considerando o efeito pelicular nas barras amortecedoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeta, Silvio Ikuyo; Cardoso, Jose Roberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Foggia, Albert; Coulomb, Jean Louis; Reyne, Gilbert [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)


    This work presents the determination of the parameters of a hydro generator through the simulation of the frequency response test. The special characteristic of this work is that it takes into consideration shock absorbers buses, which are sites of induced currents when the peculiar effect is present and require that sub-transients parameters are analysed. Simulation results are analysed and compared to the obtained values when the traditional three-phase short circuit test is used 8 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs.

  15. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali


    Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level. PMID:27034927

  16. Effect of Motivation by "Instagram" on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students. (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali


    To investigate the efficacy of using "Instagram application" with a "home-exercise program" as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by "Instagram." Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. "Positive health" was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level.

  17. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einas Al-Eisa


    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3±0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2 was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%. Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level.

  18. The effect of positive affect on conflict resolution: Modulated by approach-motivational intensity. (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Wang, Zhenhong; Quan, Sixiang; Li, Mingjun


    The motivational dimensional model of affect proposes that the influence of positive affect on cognitive processing is modulated by approach-motivational intensity. The present research extended this model by examining the influence of positive affect varying in approach-motivational intensity on conflict resolution-the ability to resolve interference from task-irrelevant distractors in order to focus on the target. The global-local task (Experiment 1) and letter-Flanker task (Experiment 2) were used to measure conflict resolution. Additionally, the 4:2 mapping design that assigns two kinds of task-relevant stimuli to one response key and two more to another response key was used in these two tasks to dissociate stimulus and response conflict. Results showed that positive affect varying in approach motivation had opposite influences on conflict resolution. The opposite influences are primarily reflected in low approach-motivated positive affect impairing, while high approach-motivated positive affect facilitating the resolution of response conflict. Conversely, the stimulus conflict was slightly influenced. These findings highlight the utility of distinguishing stimulus and response conflict in future research.

  19. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning. (United States)

    DiMenichi, Brynne C; Tricomi, Elizabeth


    Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a "competitor." We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times (RTs)-a previous indicator of increased attention-in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition's effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster RTs and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks.

  1. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning (United States)

    DiMenichi, Brynne C.; Tricomi, Elizabeth


    Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a “competitor.” We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times (RTs)—a previous indicator of increased attention—in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition’s effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster RTs and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks. PMID:26388801

  2. Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Considering FACTS Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail MAROUANI


    Full Text Available Because their capability to change the network parameters with a rapid response and enhanced flexibility, flexible AC transmission system (FACTS devices have taken more attention in power systems operations as improvement of voltage profile and minimizing system losses. In this way, this paper presents a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA to solve optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD problem with FACTS devices. This nonlinear multi-objective problem (MOP consists to minimize simultaneously real power loss in transmission lines and voltage deviation at load buses, by tuning parameters and searching the location of FACTS devices. The constraints of this MOP are divided to equality constraints represented by load flow equations and inequality constraints such as, generation reactive power sources and security limits at load buses. Two types of FACTS devices, static synchronous series compensator (SSSC and unified power flow controller (UPFC are considered. A comparative study regarding the effects of an SSSC and an UPFC on voltage deviation and total transmission real losses is carried out. The design problem is tested on a 6-bus system.

  3. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T. [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D. [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)


    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  4. Itinerant vending of medicines inside buses in Nigeria: vending strategies, dominant themes and medicine-related information provided. (United States)

    Yusuff, Kazeem B; Wassi Sanni, Abd'


    To determine vending strategies and marketing themes employed by itinerant bus vendors, and assess the accuracy and completeness of information provided on medicines being sold in an urban setting in Nigeria. Cross-sectional study and content analysis of itinerant vending of medicines inside buses recorded with a mobile telephone on purposively selected routes in a mega city with an estimated 18 million residents in southwestern Nigeria over a 2-month period. Two coders independently assessed 192 vending episodes by 56 vendors for 147 OTC and prescription medicines. Inter-rater reliability (Gwet AC1 =0.924; pmarketers' of medicines inside buses, markets, and motor parks. Of the 14400 consumers encountered inside buses during the study period, between 6.7% and 48.3% purchased the medicines promoted. Prayers against death from road traffic accidents and diseases of physical and / or meta-physical origins were the most frequently used (76•8%) ice-breaking opening statement / strategy to gain consumers' attention. Hematinics, multi-vitamins, simple analgesic, NSAIDs and corticosteroids were the most frequently vended medicines. Consumers' enquiries were related to dosing for children (51.8%), elderly (28.6%), and pregnancy (52.7%); and contra-indications during pregnancy (8.9%). Factual medicines information such as dose, frequency, potential side effects and contra-indications were not provided in majority of vending episodes. Itinerant vending of medicines and the use of misleading and melodramatic themes to secure high consumer patronage appear considerable in Nigeria. Majority of the vendors did not correctly respond to consumers medicine-related enquiries, or provide detailed factual medicines information to guide appropriate use. These misleading promotional activities could potentially encourage inappropriate purchase and probable self-medication by consumers.

  5. Bidirectional power stroke by ncd kinesin. (United States)

    Butterfield, Anthony E; Stewart, Russell J; Schmidt, Christoph F; Skliar, Mikhail


    Optical trapping experiments reveal details of molecular motor dynamics. In noisy data, temporal structure within the power stroke of motors can be analyzed by ensemble averaging, but this obscures infrequent subcategories of events. We have here developed an analysis method that uses Kalman filtering of measurements, model-based estimation of the power strokes produced by the motor head, and automatic event classification to discriminate between different types of motor events. This method was applied to optical trap measurements of power strokes of the Drosophila kinesin-14 ncd in a three-bead geometry. We found the majority of events to be consistent with the previously discovered minus-end directed power stroke of ncd, occurring with ATP binding. Unexpectedly, 30% of apparent power strokes were plus-directed and 6% of binding events did not terminate in a discernible stroke. Ensemble averaging for each event category revealed that plus- and minus-directed strokes have different size and occur at different instants within the ncd-MT attachment sequence. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contamination of public buses with MRSA in Lisbon, Portugal: a possible transmission route of major MRSA clones within the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Conceição

    Full Text Available In a previous study we have shown that public buses in Oporto, the second largest city in Portugal, were highly contaminated with MRSA. Here we describe the results of a similar study performed in another urban area of Portugal-Lisbon, the capital. Between May 2011 and May 2012, hand touched surfaces of 199 public buses in Lisbon were screened for MRSA contamination. Subsequently, the hands of 575 passengers who frequently use these bus lines were also screened. All hand carriers of MRSA were further screened for nasal carriage. The isolates were characterized by PFGE, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC mec typing, spa typing, MLST and were tested for the presence of mecA, Panton-Valentine leukocidin and arginine catabolic mobile element genes. MRSA contamination was shown in 72 buses (36.2%. The majority of the isolates belonged to three major clones: Clone A was identified as EMRSA-15 defined by pattern PFGE A, spa types t2357/t747/t025/t379/t910, ST22, and SCCmec IVh (n = 21; 29%. Clone B was the New York/Japan clone characterized by PFGE B-t002/t10682-ST5-II (n = 15; 21%. Clone C included isolates with characteristics of the international community-acquired USA300 or related clones, PFGE C-t008-ST8-IVa/IVc/IVg/IVnt/VI (n = 19; 26%. The first two clones are currently the two major lineages circulating in Portuguese hospitals. The hands of 15 individuals were contaminated with MRSA belonging to the nosocomial clones A or B. Eleven of these individuals were not nasal carriers of MRSA and all but one had travelled by public transportation, namely by bus, prior to sampling. In conclusion, public buses in two major cities in Portugal are often contaminated with MRSA representing clones dominant in hospitals in the particular geographic area. MRSA contamination of public transport and the transfer of the bacteria to the hands of passengers may represent a route through which hospital-acquired MRSA clones may spread to the community.

  7. Power gain by pre-testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Boon, P.C.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.


    The aim of this paper is to study whether it is possible to gain power by pre-testing, and to give insight in when this occurs, to what extent and at which price. Pre-test procedures consist of a preliminary test which tests a particular property of a given restricted model, followed by a main test

  8. Power gain by pre-testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Boon, P.C.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.


    The aim of this paper is to study whether it is possible to gain power by pre-testing, and to give insight in when this occurs, to what extent, and, at which price. A pre-test procedure consists of a preliminary test which tests a particular property of a given restricted model, followed by a main

  9. Learning Motivation Mediates Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Mathematics Achievement in Early Childhood. (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige


    There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences on early achievement is by facilitating the processes by which children select, evoke, and attend to learning experiences that are consistent with genetically influenced individual differences in their motivation to learn. We examined this hypothesis in a nationally representative sample of approximately 650 pairs of four-year old identical and fraternal twins who were administered a measure of math achievement, and rated by their parents on a broad set of items assessing learning motivation. Results indicated a genetic link between learning motivation and math achievement that varied positively with family socioeconomic status: Genetic differences in learning motivation contributed to math achievement more strongly in more advantaged homes. Once this effect of learning motivation was controlled for, gene-by-socioeconomic status interaction on math achievement was reduced from previously significant levels, to nonsignificant levels.

  10. Behavior: A Measure of Motivation Needs. (United States)

    Chusmir, Leonard H.


    Examines motivational literature to determine and list behavior and personality characteristics connected by research to each of McClelland's three motivational needs--achievement, affiliation, and power. Makes case for reversing the direction of the usual predictive process in order to offer another management tool to estimate a worker's needs…

  11. Motivating pharmacists. (United States)

    Donehew, G R


    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Badulescu


    Full Text Available The present article has the goal to reveal the (eventually differences between entrepreneurial motivations between men and women, in the case of EU and Romania. In the first part, we make a brief research into the literature related to this subject, and in the second part we shall reveal the facts and figures in the EU and Romania.

  13. Electric vehicles powered by space solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nansen, R. [Solar Space Industries, Seattle, WA (United States)


    California recently adopted a zero emissions vehicle legislation, requiring that a certain percentage of each major automaker`s sales in California be zero emissions vehicles. Electric vehicles are the only technological alternative for automakers to meet the zero tailpipe emissions standard. The required percentage is set at two per cent for 1998, rising to 10 per cent by 2003. If the batteries of these vehicles were to be charged by power generated in plants that produce atmospheric emissions, the pollution equation would not change in any significant way. Clearly, a new way of generating electricity must be designed. This paper describes how solar power satellites (SPS) could be used to provide nonpolluting electricity in the future to power zero emissions electric vehicles and to satisfy the growing world demand for energy. The concept of the SPS energy system is to place giant satellites covered with vast arrays of solar cells in geosynchronous orbit, where they would be in sunlight more than 99 per cent of the time. The solar cells would convert sunlight to electricity. The electricity would then be changed to radio-frequency energy by a transmitting antenna on the satellite. This would be beamed to a receiver site on Earth where it would be reconverted to electricity. The power would then be routed into the normal electric distribution networks for use on Earth. 2 figs.

  14. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey


    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  15. Science Motivation by Discussion and Controversy (SMDC) Model (United States)

    Izadi, Dina; Ley, César Eduardo Mora; Díaz, Mario Humberto Ramírez


    Succeeding theories and empirical investigations have often been built over conceptual understanding to develop talent education. Opportunities provided by society are crucial at every point in the talent-development process. Abilities differ and can vary among boys and girls. Although they have some responsibility for their own growth and…

  16. Proton motive force generation by citrolactic fermentation in Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marty-Teysset, Claire; Posthuma, Clara; Lolkema, Juke S.; Schmitt, Philippe; Divies, Charles; Konings, Wil N.

    In Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp, mesenteroides 19D, citrate is transported by a secondary citrate carrier (CitP), Previous studies of the kinetics and mechanism of CitP performed in membrane vesicles of L. mesenteroides showed that CitP catalyzes divalent citrate Hcit(2-)/H+ symport, indicative

  17. Deforestation motivators by small farmers in common and protected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study explores through a multivariate analysis the human ecological variables driving deforestation by small farmers in South-eastern Nigeria. Applying frequency scores and factor analytic techniques to data generated from twelve sampled communities in the rainforest of South-eastern Nigeria, through questionnaire and ...

  18. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis


    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  19. Adolescents' physical activity in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular sport by motivational profiles. (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús


    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in adolescents´ objective physical activity levels and perceived effort in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular organized sport by motivational profiles in physical education. A sample of 102 students 11-16 yr. old completed a self-report questionnaire assessing self-determined motivation toward physical education. Subsequently, students' objective physical activity levels (steps/min., METs, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and perceived effort were evaluated for each situation. Cluster analysis identified a two-cluster structure: "Moderate motivation toward physical education profile" and "High motivation toward physical education profile." Adolescents in the second cluster had higher physical activity and perceived effort values than adolescents in the first cluster, except for METs and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in extra-curricular sport. These results support the importance of physical education teachers who should promote self-determined motivation toward physical education so that students can reach the recommended physical activity levels.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Adachi


    Full Text Available Abstract: This study focuses on Japanese pupils’ motivation with other attitudinal attitudes about learning English. The writer surveyed the 5th and 6th grade pupils’ motivation and its effect factors at an elementary school in Japan at the end of the school year 2007 and 2008. The main focus of this study is to find the relationship between motivation and effect factors using both the 2007 and 2008 data and to examine differences of the pupils’ attitudes between 2007 and 2008. Since the 2008 school year, pupils have received lessons by not only an assistant language teacher (ALT but also their home room teachers (HRTs. The finding showed that the 2008 and 2007 results were similar in most valuables, but the value of “Motivation” increased in 2008 compared to the previous year. Furthermore, “people around the learner” influenced on motivation more positively. Finally, this study presented a model which could be suggested as one of the motivational models of Japanese pupils for English activities. The writer concluded that the involvement of HRTs brought about generally good effects on pupils’ attitudes in this elementary school at this point.

  1. Combustion Chemistry of Biodiesel for the Use in Urban Transport Buses: Experiment and Modeling (United States)

    Omidvarborna, Hamid

    Biofuels, such as biodiesel, offer benefits as a possible alternative to conventional fuels due to their fuel source sustainability and their reduced environmental impact. Before they can be used, it is essential to understand their combustion chemistry and emission characterizations due to a number of issues associated with them (e.g., high emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx), lower heating value than diesel, etc.). During this study, emission characterizations of different biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B50, and B100) were measured on three different feedstocks (soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow oil (TO), and waste cooking oil (WCO)) with various characteristics, while an ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) was used as base fuel at low-temperature combustion (LTC). A laboratory combustion chamber was used to analyze soot formation, NOx emissions, while real engine emissions were measured for further investigation on PM and NOx emissions. For further study, carbon emissions (CO, CO 2, and CH4) were also measured to understand their relations with feedstocks' type. The emissions were correlated with fuel's characteristics, especially unsaturation degree (number of double bonds in methyl esters) and chain length (oxygen-to-carbon ratio). The experimental results obtained from laboratory experiments were confirmed by field experiments (real engines) collected from Toledo area regional transit authority (TARTA) buses. Combustion analysis results showed that the neat biodiesel fuels had longer ignition delays and lower ignition temperatures compared to ULSD at the tested condition. The results showed that biodiesel containing more unsaturated fatty acids emitted higher levels of NOx compared to biodiesel with more saturated fatty acids. A paired t-test on fuels showed that neat biodiesel fuels had significant reduction in the formation of NOx compared with ULSD. In another part of this study, biodiesel fuel with a high degree of unsaturation and high portion of long chains of

  2. Perceptions of the motivational climate created by parents of young Portuguese swimmers. (United States)

    Salselas, V; Márquez, S


    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of parent-initiated motivational climate in young Portuguese swimmers. 244 participants (130 boys, 114 girls; M age = 13 yr., SD = 2), involved in advanced swimming programs (n = 88) or competition (n = 156), responded to the Portuguese version of the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire. Age did not significantly affect the perceptions the young swimmers had of their parents' initiated motivational climate, but a main effect for sex and an interaction of sex and level of practice interaction were found. Boys in advanced swimming programs perceived a stronger Success-without-effort Climate created by both their father and their mother than did girls at the same level of practice. Boys and girls in both categories had higher perceptions of a Learning/Enjoyment Climate.

  3. Music and Combat Motivation (United States)


    1   AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY MUSIC AND COMBAT MOTIVATION by Sally C. Maddocks, Major, USAF Master of...accordance with Air Force Instruction 51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government.  3   Music has the power...are many historical examples from which to draw evidence of the impact of music on fielded forces. One must study not only the historical events, but

  4. Expanding Science Knowledge: Enabled by Nuclear Power (United States)

    Clark, Karla B.


    The availability of Radioisotope Power Sources (RPSs) power opens up new and exciting mission concepts (1) New trajectories available (2) Power for long term science and operations Astonishing science value associated with these previously non-viable missions

  5. Impaired Timing Precision Produced by Striatal D2 Receptor Overexpression is Mediated by Cognitive and Motivational Deficits (United States)

    Ward, Ryan D.; Kellendonk, Christoph; Simpson, Eleanor H.; Lipatova, Olga; Drew, Michael R.; Fairhurst, Stephen; Kandel, Eric R.; Balsam, Peter D


    Increased striatal dopamine D2 receptor activity is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To model this condition in mice, Kellendonk et al. (2006) generated transgenic mice which selectively overexpress the D2 receptor in striatum (D2OE). Drew et al. (2007) reported that D2OE mice display deficits in interval timing and motivation. The present study further explored the impaired timing in D2OE mice. Experiment 1 assessed the role of motivation in producing timing deficits in the peak procedure and found that performance in D2OE mice was improved by increasing motivation. In addition, performance was impaired in control mice when motivation was decreased. In Experiment 2, we found that D2OE mice have no timing impairment when tested using the bisection task, a procedure in which the measure of timing performance is less influenced by motivation to respond. In Experiment 3, we also used the bisection task and found selective impairment in timing of long durations in D2OE mice. These results suggest that striatal D2 overexpression impairs timing by decreasing motivation and through its impact on working memory and/or sustained attention. PMID:19634929

  6. Water Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy (United States)

    Barseghyan, A.


    The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, etc. is a problem of high priority. One of the most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. Advanced water treatment system powered by Solar Energy and based on electrodialysis for water desalination and purification, is suggested. Technological and economic evaluations and the benefits of the suggested system are discussed. The Advanced Water Treatment System proposed clears water not only from different salts, but also from some infections, thus decreasing the count of diseases which are caused by the usage of non-clear water. Using Solar Energy makes the system stand alone which is convenient to use in places where power supply is problem.

  7. Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Soltis, Richard F.


    A unique safety flasher powered by photovoltaic cells and ultracapacitors has been developed. Safety flashers are used wherever there are needs to mark actually or potentially hazardous locations. Examples of such locations include construction sites, highway work sites, and locations of hazardous operations. Heretofore, safety flashers have been powered by batteries, the use of which entails several disadvantages: Batteries must be kept adequately charged, and must not be allowed to become completely discharged. Batteries have rather short cycle lives, and their internal constituents that react chemically to generate electricity deteriorate (and hence power-generating capacities decrease) over time. The performances of batteries are very poor at low temperatures, which often occur in the circumstances in which safety flashers are most needed. The disposal of batteries poses a threat to the environment. The development of the present photovoltaic/ultracapacitor- powered safety flasher, in which the ultracapacitors are used to store energy, overcomes the aforementioned disadvantages of using batteries to store energy. The ultracapacitors in this flasher are electrochemical units that have extremely high volumetric capacitances because they contain large-surface-area electrodes separated by very small gaps. Ultracapacitors have extremely long cycle lives, as compared to batteries; consequently, it will never be necessary to replace the ultracapacitors in the safety flasher. The reliability of the flasher is correspondingly increased, and the life-of-system cost and the adverse environmental effects of the flasher are correspondingly reduced. Moreover, ultracapacitors have excellent low-temperature characteristics, are maintenance-free, and provide consistent performance over time.

  8. Management-by-Results and Performance Measurement in Universities--Implications for Work Motivation (United States)

    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari; Kallio, Tomi J.


    The article focuses on the effects of management-by-results from the perspective of the work motivation of university employees. The study is based on extensive survey data among employees at Finnish universities. According to the results, performance measurement is based on quantitative rather than qualitative measures, and the current…

  9. Measuring Adjunct Instructor Job Satisfaction by Using Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory (United States)

    Dickens, Durrell


    This study was designed to use Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory to investigate the different levels of job satisfaction among adjunct college instructors at eight institutions of higher education located in southeast Texas. Differences in job satisfaction were measured by instructor gender, ethnicity, age, teaching experience, type of course…

  10. A Study on the Prediction of the Teaching Profession Attitudes by Communication Skills and Professional Motivation (United States)

    Çimen, Latife Kabakli


    This study aims to investigate the prediction of the attitudes regarding teaching profession by the communication skills and professional motivation of pedagogical formation students. 261 pre-service teachers receiving pedagogical formation training Istanbul at a private university in the 2014-2015 academic year were included in the research as…

  11. What Kind of Faculty Are Motivated to Perform Research by the Desire for Promotion? (United States)

    Tien, Flora F.


    A policy of adding a new rank to the faculty career ladder was implemented in Taiwan in 1994. It was believed that structural changes of the incentive system would change faculty research behavior. This paper explores the question: Who are motivated to perform research by the desire for promotion? A mail survey investigating Taiwanese faculty…

  12. Feedback Effects on Performance, Motivation and Mood: Are They Moderated by the Learner's Self-Concept? (United States)

    Baadte, Christiane; Schnotz, Wolfgang


    This study tested the assumption that the effectiveness of feedback with regard to performance, motivation, and affect is moderated by the learners' self-concept. A total of 72 sixth-graders completed a web-based interactive learning program. Half of the sample received feedback and the other half received no feedback. Differential feedback…

  13. Power


    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish


    This chapter looks at the concept of power in social work by focusing on what this means as a ‘professional’ and theorizes competing discourses of empowerment in social work and its key concepts, drawing in particular on the explanatory powers of critical theorist Michel Foucault (1991). The chapter problematizes the concept of power by explicitly drawing on both users’ and carers’ accounts from the literature to demonstrate different external and internal influences on the root causes of dis...

  14. A method of reactor power decrease by 2DOF control system during BWR power oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Occurrence of power oscillation events caused by void feedback effects in BWRs operated at low-flow and high-power condition has been reported. After thoroughly examining these events, BWRs have been equipped with the SRI (Selected Rod Insertion) system to avoid the power oscillation by decreasing the power under such reactor condition. This report presents a power control method for decreasing the reactor power stably by a two degree of freedom (2DOF) control. Performing a numerical simulation by utilizing a simple reactor dynamics model, it is found that the control system designed attains a satisfactory control performance of power decrease from a viewpoint of setting time and oscillation. (author)

  15. Noise exposure inside transit buses in Kerman: measurements, drivers and passengers attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi


    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was conducted with the objectives of evaluation of noise exposure in the workplace of bus drivers, and to find attitudes of passengers and drivers. This study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, Noise levels were measured in fifty buses. The evaluation of noise levels in the workplace of bus drivers was performed according to the Iranian legislation`s. Twenty four buses with noise levels above 85 dB (A consider as an "unsafe" workplace. In the second phase, the attitude of 50 male drivers and 500 passengers concerning the annoyance and impact of noise on health were also surveyed. Second phase showed that 70% of drivers and 86.4% of passengers was nervousness from high level noise inside the buses. Eighty four percent drivers and 80% passengers felt noise had affected on their hearing. This study also affirmed that out of every seven drivers, six reported headache.

  16. Medical students' situational motivation to participate in simulation based team training is predicted by attitudes to patient safety. (United States)

    Escher, Cecilia; Creutzfeldt, Johan; Meurling, Lisbet; Hedman, Leif; Kjellin, Ann; Felländer-Tsai, Li


    Patient safety education, as well as the safety climate at clinical rotations, has an impact on students' attitudes. We explored medical students' self-reported motivation to participate in simulation-based teamwork training (SBTT), with the hypothesis that high scores in patient safety attitudes would promote motivation to SBTT and that intrinsic motivation would increase after training. In a prospective cohort study we explored Swedish medical students' attitudes to patient safety, their motivation to participate in SBTT and how motivation was affected by the training. The setting was an integrated SBTT course during the surgical semester that focused on non-technical skills and safe treatment of surgical emergencies. Data was collected using the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS) and the Attitudes to Patient Safety Questionnaire (APSQ). We found a positive correlation between students' individual patient safety attitudes and self-reported motivation (identified regulation) to participate in SBTT. We also found that intrinsic motivation increased after training. Female students in our study scored higher than males regarding some of the APSQ sub-scores and the entire group scored higher or on par with comparable international samples. In order to enable safe practice and professionalism in healthcare, students' engagement in patient safety education is important. Our finding that students' patient safety attitudes show a positive correlation to motivation and that intrinsic motivation increases after training underpins patient safety climate and integrated teaching of patient safety issues at medical schools in order to help students develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes required for safe practice.

  17. Earthquake Triggering by High Power Electric Pulses (United States)

    Novikov, Victor; Konev, Yuri; Zeigarnik, Vladimir


    The study carried out by the Joint Institute for High Temperatures in cooperation with the Institute of Physics of the Earth and the Research Station in Bishkek of Russian Academy of Sciences in 1999-2008 showed a response of weak seismicity at field experiments with electric pulsed power systems, as well as acoustic emission of rock specimens under laboratory conditions on high-power electric current pulses applied to the rocks. It was suggested that the phenomenon discovered may be used in practice for partial release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust for earthquake hazard mitigation. Nevertheless, the mechanism of the influence of man-made electromagnetic field on the regional seismicity is not clear yet. One of possible cause of the phenomenon may be pore fluid pressure increase in the rocks under stressed conditions due to Joule heat generation by electric current injected into the Earth crust. It is known that increase of pore fluid pressure in the fault zone over a critical pressure of about 0.05 MPa is sufficient to trigger an earthquake if the fault is near the critical state due to accumulated tectonic deformations. Detailed 3D-calculaton of electric current density in the Earth crust of the Northern Tien Shan provided by pulsed electric high-power system connected to grounded electric dipole showed that at the depth of earthquake epicenters (over 5 km) the electric current density is lower than 10-7 A/m2 that is not sufficient for increase of pressure in the fluid-saturated porous geological medium due to Joule heat generation, which may provide formation of cracks resulting in the fault propagation and release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust. Nevertheless, under certain conditions, when electric current will be injected into the fault through the casing pipes of two deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault, the current density may be high enough for significant increase of mechanic pressure in the porous two

  18. Multistage Mechanical Transmissions with Automatic Control for Advanced Trucks and Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blokhin Aleksandr


    Full Text Available The study considers the basic trends of development of modern mechanical transmissions of trucks and buses. It provides the developed various series of multispeed transmissions with automatic control and a number of transmissions from 6 to 16 for trucks and buses. The paper shows the basic parameters of the standard series of new transmissions received on the basis of innovative technical solutions. It provides the results of experimental studies of 16-speed transmissions on a special test stand and on the road as part of a truck transmission. Theoretical and experimental data on the gear change time are compared.

  19. Influence of malfunctions of the maintenance activities on the urban buses fuel consumption (United States)

    George, Crişan; Nicolae, Filip


    Optimization of activities with the aim to provide quality service in conditions of high profitability, is one of the main objectives chased by managers in transportation companies. As a consequence, directing the attention towards monitoring of maintenance activities of vehicles fleet, can achieve desired results. Two of the most important issues related to the maintenance activity, is the increase of reliability and reduction of fuel consumption of the vehicles fleet. Aforementioned actions represents a way forward for raising the quality and profitability of services offered. In this paper, the main ways of monitoring the fuel consumption, in order to reduce it and increase the reliability of transportation vehicles fleet, are presented. For the evaluation of the maintenance system and the degree of influence of malfunctions recorded on the fuel consumption, using the Pareto -ABC method, following case study on a fleet of buses for urban public transport has been conducted. Results obtained highlights the deficiencies of the maintenance process carried out and constitutes a solid base for the reorganization of the maintenance activity, involving preventive maintenance activities, in order to contribute decisively to the results targeted by the management of transport companies.

  20. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This annual status report combines results from all FCEB demonstrations, tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. These data and analyses help provide needed information to guide future early-stage research and development. The 2017 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2016 through July 2017. The primary results presented in the report are from five demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; AFCB Project at the University of California at Irvine; AFCB Project at Orange County Transportation Authority; and AFCB Project at Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.

  1. Empathy, Motivation, and P300 BCI performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja C Kleih


    Full Text Available Motivation moderately influences Brain-Computer Interface (BCI performance in healthy subjects when monetary reward is used to manipulate extrinsic motivation. However, the motivation to use a BCI of severely paralyzed patients, who are potentially in need for BCI, could mainly be internal and thus, an intrinsic motivator may be more powerful. Also healthy subjects who participate in BCI studies could be intrinsically motivated as they may wish to contribute to research and thus extrinsic motivation by monetary reward would be less important than the content of the study. In this respect, motivation could be defined as motivation-to-help. The aim of this study was to investigate, whether subjects with high motivation for helping and who are highly empathic would perform better with a BCI controlled by event-related potentials (P300-BCI. We included N=20 healthy young participants naïve to BCI and grouped them according to their motivation for participating in a BCI study in a low and highly motivated group. Motivation was further manipulated with interesting or boring presentations about BCI and the possibility to help patients. Motivation for helping did neither influence BCI performance nor the P300 amplitude. Post-hoc, subjects were re-grouped according to their ability for perspective taking. We found significantly higher P300 amplitudes on parietal electrodes in participants with a low ability for perspective taking and therefore, lower empathy, as compared to participants with higher empathy. The lack of an effect of motivation on BCI performance contradicts previous findings and thus, requires further investigation. We speculate that subjects with higher empathy were less able to focus attention on the BCI task. Good perspective takers with regards to patients in potential need of BCI, may be more emotionally involved and therefore, less able to allocate attention on the BCI task at hand.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Freitas OLIVEIRA


    Full Text Available Some authors have already suggested that different learning tasks influence L2 learners motivation in distinct ways. In this article, we seek (a to understand how English learners motivation varies along two Problem-solving and Sharing Personal Experiences tasks mediated by the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB and (b to analyze what may have caused the variability of these learners motivation. We consider the diachronic, situational and complex dimension of motivation based on the concepts of the Process-oriented model of L2 motivation by Dörnyei and Ottó (1998, the motivational basis of tasks (JULKÜNEN, 2001; DÖRNYEI; TSENG, 2009 and the IWB as a motivating element in L2 classes (BEELAND JR., 2002; MERCER; HENNESSY; WARWICK, 2010. This cross-sectional mixed methods study was carried out in a private language school with 29 English learners. We used observation notes during the learning tasks and Situational Scales as instruments of data collection. Results indicate, for instance, that tasks have different situational motivation patterns in consequence of the choice of the task topic, the teacher support, (insufficient self-regulatory strategies to sustain motivation, among others.

  3. A Model for the Stop Planning and Timetables of Customized Buses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Ma

    Full Text Available Customized buses (CBs are a new mode of public transportation and an important part of diversified public transportation, providing advanced, attractive and user-led service. The operational activity of a CB is planned by aggregating space-time demand and similar passenger travel demands. Based on an analysis of domestic and international research and the current development of CBs in China and considering passenger travel data, this paper studies the problems associated with the operation of CBs, such as stop selection, line planning and timetables, and establishes a model for the stop planning and timetables of CBs. The improved immune genetic algorithm (IIGA is used to solve the model with regard to the following: 1 multiple population design and transport operator design, 2 memory library design, 3 mutation probability design and crossover probability design, and 4 the fitness calculation of the gene segment. Finally, a real-world example in Beijing is calculated, and the model and solution results are verified and analyzed. The results illustrate that the IIGA solves the model and is superior to the basic genetic algorithm in terms of the number of passengers, travel time, average passenger travel time, average passenger arrival time ahead of schedule and total line revenue. This study covers the key issues involving operational systems of CBs, combines theoretical research and empirical analysis, and provides a theoretical foundation for the planning and operation of CBs.

  4. Kandungan Komponen Serat Tepung Rebung Bambu Tabah (Gigantochloa nigrociliata buse-kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylla Hanggaeni Dyah Puspaningrum


    Full Text Available Tabah bamboo shoots (Gigantochloa nigrociliata BUSE-KURZ is one of the varieties local bamboo shoots usually consume and having many the womb nutrients. Research aims to understand fiber components that is added to tabah bamboo shoots flour. Testing the fiber component of bamboo shoots done by processing the tabah bamboo shoots into flour and is expected to be used with easy to apply as a substitute ingredient in other food products. Fiber analysis covering components analysis cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in tabah bamboo shoots in each different parts (apical , middle and basal that has been processed into flour using Chesson method. The design of experiment that is used a single-factor randomized block design (RBD The research results show that component fibers in tabah bamboo shoots flour is highest on the part the basal of the namely 30,99% (bk hemisellulose , 37,55% (bk cellulose and of the womb lignin not markedly dissimilar in the middle of 3,85 % (bk and that part the basal of the 4,05% (bk.

  5. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontela, Pablo [Hybrid Systems Area of R and D Unit, BESEL S.A., Av del mediterraneo 22, Parque Tecnologico de Leganes, Leganes (Spain); Soria, Antonio [Area of Hybrid Systems Area of R and D Unit, BESEL S.A. (Spain); Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, Jose Francisco; de Blas, Juan [R and D Unit, BESEL S.A. (Spain); Gauchia, Lucia [Electric engineering Department, Carlos III University, Universidad Carlos III, Av. Universidad 30, Leganes (Spain); Martinez, Juan M. [Electric engineering Department, Carlos III University (Spain)


    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness,..), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions. (author)

  6. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending (United States)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark


    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  7. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell (United States)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  8. Civil Military Relations in Turkey: Motives Behind the Shift of Power from Military to Civilians After the Interventions (United States)


    REPORT DATE March 2013 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CIVIL MILTARY RELATIONS IN TURKEY: MOTIVES BEHIND...made it different from all kinds of civilian professions. Huntington makes comparisons between an officer and a dentist and he concludes that...officer breaks this responsibility in order to follow his personal ambitions, he breaks also the fabric of society .4 Huntington’s sensible


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu


    Full Text Available The paper explores the motivation of human resources in the companies from counties of Satu Mare and Bihor. Data were collected by applying a questionnaire to 114 companies located in the counties of Satu Mare and Bihor, within the project HURO/0901/264/2.2.2 implemented in partnership by "Vasile Goldis" Western University and University of Debrecen and financed by European Union through ERDF under Hungary-Romania 2007- 2013 Programme. Data were processed and analyzed by using the SPSS soft. We found that employers perceived as most efficient the following motivation instruments: a good communication between employees, basic wage, partial delegation of managerial tasks and optimal working conditions. The efficiency of the motivation instruments in the view of employers differs significantly across activity sectors. Thus, using the ANOVA test, we found that the variation of variables related to basic wage, performance rewarding, bonuses, partial delegation of managerial tasks, work competencies, fear of job loss, need for affiliation to a workgroup, the prestige outside the organisation, working a good reputation organisation, social benefits, home distance can be explained in a proportion ranged from 23,5% to 42,9% by the variation of variable associated to the activity sector.

  10. Gender differences in the motivational processing of babies are determined by their facial attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinah Yamamoto


    Full Text Available This study sought to determine how esthetic appearance of babies may affect their motivational processing by the adults.Healthy men and women were administered two laboratory-based tasks: a key pressing to change the viewing time of normal-looking babies and of those with abnormal facial features (e.g., cleft palate, strabismus, skin disorders, Down's syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome and b attractiveness ratings of these images. Exposure to the babies' images produced two different response patterns: for normal babies, there was a similar effort by the two groups to extend the visual processing with lower attractiveness ratings by men; for abnormal babies, women exerted greater effort to shorten the viewing time despite attractiveness ratings comparable to the men.These results indicate that gender differences in the motivational processing of babies include excessive (relative to the esthetic valuation motivation to extend the viewing time of normal babies by men vs. shortening the exposure to the abnormal babies by women. Such gender-specific incentive sensitization phenomenon may reflect an evolutionary-derived need for diversion of limited resources to the nurturance of healthy offspring.

  11. Zeeman energies by expansion in power series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj, F.Y. (National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut (Lebanon))


    Very accurate energy values of hydrogen in a magnetic field are obtained by a method which is a mixture of two methods, expanding the wavefunction in a power series, which is very accurate near the origin, thus computing the first few points, and secondly, a point method which starts with these few points and shoots outwards. At low magnetic fields, the accuracy is 14 significant figures; if a computer having 32 digits were used, the accuracy would be 26 figures. The best results in literature have 16 accurate figures. At high fields the accuracy decreases rapidly, and the discrepancy with other results increases to 2% for unknown reasons. Errors were very carefully estimated and the results were checked by many aspects. In one dimension, the method is also excellent. (author).

  12. Inter ISO Market Coordination by Calculating Border Locational Marginal Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABIC, A. B.


    Full Text Available In this paper the methodology for solving Locational Marginal Price (LMP differences (inconsistency of LMPs that arise at the boundary buses between separate power markets is proposed. The algorithm developed enables us to obtain consistent LMP values at the boundary buses between interconnected ISOs. A Primal-Dual Interior Point based optimal power flow (OPF is applied, with complete set of power system physical limit constraints, to solve a regional spot market. The OPF is implemented such that producer and consumer behaviors are modeled simultaneously, while the welfare is maximized. In this paper a generalized methodology for multiple ISOs case is proposed and later it is practically applied on two interconnected independent entities. The algorithm for approximation of cost coefficients of generators and dispatchable loads for neighboring ISOs is proposed. The developed algorithm enables participating ISOs to obtain LMPs at the boundary buses with other interconnected ISOs. By controlling interchange of electric power at the scheduled level, regional spot markets are resolved eliminating possible exercise of market power by individual interconnected ISOs. Results of proposed methodology are tested on the IEEE 118-bus power system.

  13. Liquid-fueled SOFC power sources for transportation (United States)

    Myles, K. M.; Doshi, R.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    Traditionally, fuel cells have been developed for space or stationary terrestrial applications. As the first commercial 200-kW systems were being introduced by ONSI and Fuji Electric, the potentially much larger, but also more challenging, application in transportation was beginning to be addressed. As a result, fuel cell-powered buses have been designed and built, and R&D programs for fuel cell-powered passenger cars have been initiated. The engineering challenge of eventually replacing the internal combustion engine in buses, trucks, and passenger cars with fuel cell systems is to achieve much higher power densities and much lower costs than obtainable in systems designed for stationary applications. At present, the leading fuel cell candidate for transportation applications is, without question, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Offering ambient temperature start-up and the potential for a relatively high power density, the polymer technology has attracted the interest of automotive manufacturers worldwide. But the difficulties of fuel handling for the PEFC have led to a growing interest in exploring the prospects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels for transportation applications. Solid oxide fuel cells are much more compatible with liquid fuels (methanol or other hydrocarbons) and are potentially capable of power densities high enough for vehicular use. Two SOFC options for such use are discussed in this report.

  14. On a directed tree problem motivated by a newly introduced graph product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoon H. Boode


    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce and study a directed tree problem motivated by a new graph product that we have recently introduced and analysed in two conference contributions in the context of periodic real-time processes. While the two conference papers were focussing more on the applications, here we mainly deal with the graph theoretical and computational complexity issues. We show that the directed tree problem is NP-complete and present and compare several heuristics for this problem.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord


    Full Text Available The present work provides details of energy accounting of a natural gas powered internal combustion engine and achievable work of a utilized CO2 power cycle. Based on experimental performance analysis of a new designed IKCO (Iran Khodro Company 1.7 litre natural gas powered engine, full energy accounting of the engine were carried out on various engine speeds and loads. Further, various CO2 transcritical power cycle configurations have been appointed to take advantages of exhaust and coolant water heat lost. Based on thermodynamic analysis, the amount of recoverable work obtainable by CO2 transcritical power cycles have been calculated on various engine conditions. The results show that as much as 18 kW power could be generated by the power cycle. This would be considerable amount of power especially if compared with the engine brake power.

  16. Application of an Ir tracer to determine soot exposure to students commuting to school on Baltimore public buses (United States)

    Wu, Charles C.; Suarez, Ana E.; Lin, Zhibo; Kidwell, Christopher B.; Borgoul, Polina V.; Caffrey, Peter F.; Ondov, John M.; Sattler, Barbara

    An important component of urban aerosol, diesel soot is a known respiratory irritant and contains mutagenic and carcinogenic organic compounds. To estimate student exposures to soot emitted from public diesel buses during commutes to city high schools, a portion of the Baltimore municipal fuel supply was tagged with an iridium tracer and exposure was monitored during commutes with personal aerosol monitors as a part of an Environmental Justice Project. A total of 68.2 g of Ir as iridium(III)-2,4-pentanedionate were used to induce a concentration of 48.5 μg Ir ℓ -1 of fuel. Twenty samples were collected over 10 days while four students commuted on regularly scheduled buses and a fifth student commuted by private car. Individual samples integrated from 1 to 4 round trips. Iridium analyses were performed instrumentally after neutron activation with a detection limit (DL) of about 500 fg. For students commuting by bus and following protocols, Ir tracer concentrations ranged from 53±38 to >1980±49 fg m -3. Concentrations up to 3530±220 fg m -3 were observed for student #5, who sampled only when boarding and disembarking. Exposure were greatest for students commuting through the heavily trafficked central business district. Corresponding estimates of exposures to soot emitted from municipal buses ranged from ⩽3 to 82 ng soot m -3 (⩽145 ng m -3 for student #5), i.e. well below the exposure level of 2-10 μg m -3 total C from all sources, including the more than 30,000 diesel trucks which pass through the city's major toll facilities each day. Ir was undetectable in samples collected by the student commuting by car when its windows were closed, but comparable to those of the other students when commutes were made with windows open. The Ir tracer DL corresponds to about 21 ng soot, about half of which is carbon. This is far below the 230 ng reported for analysis by a highly sensitive thermal-optical technique.

  17. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia


    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  18. An Unfulfilled Dream: A Catalogue and Analysis of the Differing Perceptions of Busing 1954-1976. (United States)

    Hennessey, Gary J.

    During the period 1954 to 1976, the public's perception and ultimate reaction to busing went from mild disfavor to vehement rejection. An analysis of the information which seemed to cause this revealed that four factors seemed to be involved: the neighborhood school concept and its validity; the educational benefit to be derived from the program;…

  19. 78 FR 44112 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... (United States)


    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject... control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as condition precedent to the...

  20. 78 FR 719 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... (United States)


    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject... control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as condition precedent to the...

  1. Predicting self-pollution inside school buses using a CFD and multi-zone coupled model (United States)

    Li, Fei; Lee, Eon S.; Liu, Junjie; Zhu, Yifang


    The in-cabin environment of a school bus is important for children's health. The pollutants from a bus's own exhaust contribute to children's overall exposure to air pollutants inside the school bus cabin. In this study, we adapted a coupled model originally developed for indoor environment to determine the relative contribution of the bus own exhaust to the in-cabin pollutant concentrations. The coupled model uses CFD (computational fluent dynamics) model to simulate outside concentration and CONTAM (a multi-zone model) for inside the school bus. The model was validated with experimental data in the literature. Using the validated model, we analyzed the effects of vehicle speed and tailpipe location on self-pollution inside the bus cabin. We confirmed that the pollution released from the tailpipe can penetrate into the bus cabin through gaps in the back emergency door. We found the pollution concentration inside school buses was the highest when buses were driven at a medium speed. In addition, locating the tailpipe on the side, behind the rear axle resulted in less self-pollution since there is less time for the suction effect to take place. The developed theoretical framework can be generalized to study other types of buses. These findings can be used in developing policy recommendations for reducing human exposure to air pollution inside buses.

  2. Low power interconnect design

    CERN Document Server

    Saini, Sandeep


    This book provides practical solutions for delay and power reduction for on-chip interconnects and buses.  It provides an in depth description of the problem of signal delay and extra power consumption, possible solutions for delay and glitch removal, while considering the power reduction of the total system.  Coverage focuses on use of the Schmitt Trigger as an alternative approach to buffer insertion for delay and power reduction in VLSI interconnects. In the last section of the book, various bus coding techniques are discussed to minimize delay and power in address and data buses.   ·         Provides practical solutions for delay and power reduction for on-chip interconnects and buses; ·         Focuses on Deep Sub micron technology devices and interconnects; ·         Offers in depth analysis of delay, including details regarding crosstalk and parasitics;  ·         Describes use of the Schmitt Trigger as a versatile alternative approach to buffer insertion for del...

  3. Romance, risk, and replication: Can consumer choices and risk-taking be primed by mating motives? (United States)

    Shanks, David R; Vadillo, Miguel A; Riedel, Benjamin; Clymo, Ashley; Govind, Sinita; Hickin, Nisha; Tamman, Amanda J F; Puhlmann, Lara M C


    Interventions aimed at influencing spending behavior and risk-taking have considerable practical importance. A number of studies motivated by the costly signaling theory within evolutionary psychology have reported that priming inductions (such as looking at pictures of attractive opposite sex members) designed to trigger mating motives increase males' stated willingness to purchase conspicuous consumption items and to engage in risk-taking behaviors, and reduce loss aversion. However, a meta-analysis of this literature reveals strong evidence of either publication bias or p-hacking (or both). We then report 8 studies with a total sample of over 1,600 participants which sought to reproduce these effects. None of the studies, including one that was fully preregistered, was successful. The results question the claim that romantic primes can influence risk-taking and other potentially harmful behaviors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Affective/motivational factors in the recall of prose passages by alcoholic Korsakoff patients. (United States)

    Davidoff, D A; Butters, N; Gerstman, L J; Zurif, E; Paul, I H; Mattis, S


    The present study assessed the role of motivational/affective factors in the recall of short stories by alcoholic Korsakoff patients. On both immediate and delayed recall, the Korsakoff patients remembered proportionately more of stories with a sexual theme than of passages which were neutral or aggressive in content. In contrast to the Korsakoff patients, the emotional theme of the story had no effect upon the recall performance of alcoholic (non-Korsakoff) and normal control subjects. While the two control groups evidenced no forgetting of textual material between immediate and delayed recall, the alcoholic Korsakoff patients showed a rapid and equivalent rate of forgetting of all three story types. These findings suggest that while motivational/affective factors may influence the alcoholic Korsakoff patients' selective attention and immediate recall, they have little or no influence upon the patients' inability to retain verbal information. The importance of this conclusion for encoding theories of amnesia is discussed.

  5. Multi-Objective Differential Evolution for Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow in Deregulated Power Systems (United States)

    Roselyn, J. Preetha; Devaraj, D.; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar


    Voltage stability is an important issue in the planning and operation of deregulated power systems. The voltage stability problems is a most challenging one for the system operators in deregulated power systems because of the intense use of transmission line capabilities and poor regulation in market environment. This article addresses the congestion management problem avoiding offline transmission capacity limits related to voltage stability by considering Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow (VSCOPF) problem in deregulated environment. This article presents the application of Multi Objective Differential Evolution (MODE) algorithm to solve the VSCOPF problem in new competitive power systems. The maximum of L-index of the load buses is taken as the indicator of voltage stability and is incorporated in the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem. The proposed method in hybrid power market which also gives solutions to voltage stability problems by considering the generation rescheduling cost and load shedding cost which relieves the congestion problem in deregulated environment. The buses for load shedding are selected based on the minimum eigen value of Jacobian with respect to the load shed. In the proposed approach, real power settings of generators in base case and contingency cases, generator bus voltage magnitudes, real and reactive power demands of selected load buses using sensitivity analysis are taken as the control variables and are represented as the combination of floating point numbers and integers. DE/randSF/1/bin strategy scheme of differential evolution with self-tuned parameter which employs binomial crossover and difference vector based mutation is used for the VSCOPF problem. A fuzzy based mechanism is employed to get the best compromise solution from the pareto front to aid the decision maker. The proposed VSCOPF planning model is implemented on IEEE 30-bus system, IEEE 57 bus practical system and IEEE 118 bus system. The pareto optimal

  6. Modulation of working memory function by motivation through loss-aversion. (United States)

    Krawczyk, Daniel C; D'Esposito, Mark


    Cognitive performance is affected by motivation. Few studies, however, have investigated the neural mechanisms of the influence of motivation through potential monetary punishment on working memory. We employed functional MRI during a delayed recognition task that manipulated top-down control demands with added monetary incentives to some trials in the form of potential losses of bonus money. Behavioral performance on the task was influenced by loss-threatening incentives in the form of faster and more accurate performance. As shown previously, we found enhancement of activity for relevant stimuli occurs throughout all task periods (e.g., stimulus encoding, maintenance, and response) in both prefrontal and visual association cortex. Further, these activation patterns were enhanced for trials with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. During the incentive cue, the amygdala and striatum showed significantly greater activation when money was at a possible loss on the trial. We also evaluated patterns of functional connectivity between regions responsive to monetary consequences and prefrontal areas responsive to the task. This analysis revealed greater delay period connectivity between and the left insula and prefrontal cortex with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. Overall, these results reveal that incentive motivation can modulate performance on working memory tasks through top-down signals via amplification of activity within prefrontal and visual association regions selective to processing the perceptual inputs of the stimuli to be remembered. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Thermal Behavior Optimization in Multi-MW Wind Power Converter by Reactive Power Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens


    for the conditions of constant wind speed and during wind gust. It is concluded that the thermal performance will be improved by injecting proper reactive power circulation within the wind turbine system, thereby being able to reduce the thermal cycling and enhance the reliability of the power converter.......The influence of actively controlled reactive power on the thermal behavior of multi-MW wind power converter with a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is investigated. First, the allowable range of internal reactive power circulation is mapped depending on the DC-link voltage as well...... as the induction generator and power device capacity. Then, the effects of reactive power circulation on current characteristic and thermal distribution of the two-level back-to-back power converter are analyzed and compared. Finally, the thermal-oriented reactive power control method is introduced to the system...

  8. Motivation and self-control: implicit motives moderate the exertion of self-control in motive-related tasks. (United States)

    Gröpel, Peter; Kehr, Hugo M


    Using a dual-task paradigm, two experiments tested whether aroused implicit motives would moderate the exertion of self-control in motive-related tasks. In Study 1, 67 participants first watched a power dialogue and were then asked to either enact the dialogue or simply reproduce it by writing it down. In Study 2, 74 participants performed either the frustrating or the simple version of an achievement-related sensorimotor task. Participants who were high (compared to low) on the implicit power motive and had exerted power over another person subsequently showed more success at controlling their emotional responses (Study 1). Participants who were high (compared to low) on the implicit achievement motive and who had mastered a frustrating sensorimotor task scored better on a subsequent Stroop task (Study 2). Participants in the control conditions did not differ in self-control performance regardless of their level of implicit motives. These studies provide evidence that aroused implicit motives regulate how much self-control is exerted when performing motive-related tasks that require self-control. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The CMOS integration of a power inverter (United States)

    Mannarino, Eric Francis

    Due to their falling costs, the use of renewable energy systems is expanding around the world. These systems require the conversion of DC power into grid-synchronous AC power. Currently, the inverters that carry out this task are built using discrete transistors. TowerJazz Semiconductor Corp. has created a commercial CMOS process that allows for blocking voltages of up to 700 V, effectively removing the barrier to integrating power inverters onto a single chip. This thesis explores this process using two topologies. The first is a cell-based switched-capacitor topology first presented by Ke Zou. The second is a novel topology that explores the advantage of using a bused input-output system, as in digital electronics. Simulations run on both topologies confirm the high-efficiency demonstrated in Zou’s process as well as the advantage the bus-based system has in output voltage levels.

  10. Motives to quit smoking and reasons to relapse differ by socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Aadahl, Mette; Toft, Ulla


    To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status.......To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status....

  11. Cascaded spin motive force driven by the dynamics of the skyrmion lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Shimada, Yuhki [Department of Physics, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan)


    We numerically investigate the spin motive force (SMF) driven by the dynamics of a Skyrmion lattice. The rotating mode of the Skyrmion core excited by the AC magnetic field induces the large spin-dependent electric field near the core. Due to the collective dynamics of Skyrmion lattice, the measurable voltage is enhanced by the cascade effect of the SMF. The amplitude of the AC voltage is estimated to 30 μV in a macroscopic sample, where 100 Skyrmions exist between two probes. We also investigate the SMF due to the dynamics of the helical magnetic state, where the enhancement of the SMF does not occur.

  12. Acceptance of gamesmanship and cheating in young competitive athletes in relation to the motivational climate generated by parents and coaches. (United States)

    Palou, Pere; Ponseti, Francisco Javier; Cruz, Jaume; Vidal, Josep; Cantallops, Jaume; Borràs, Pere Antoni; Garcia-Mas, Alejandro


    The goal was to assess the relation between the acceptance of using gamesmanship and cheating in sports and the type of motivational climate created by coaches and parents. The sample consisted of 110 soccer, basketball, and handball players from the Balearic Islands competition (70 boys, 40 girls; M age = 14.7 yr., SD = 2.1, range 10-19). As for the motivational climate generated by coaches, task climate was negatively related to the acceptance of gamesmanship and cheating, but ego climate was related to higher acceptance. Motivational climate generated by parents was not related to acceptance of cheating or gamesmanship.

  13. Robust Clamping Force Control of an Electro-Mechanical Brake System for Application to Commercial City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjune Eum


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sensor-less robust force control method for improving the control performance of an electro-mechanical brake (EMB which is applicable to commercial city buses. The EMB generates the accurate clamping force commanded by a driver through an independent motor control at each wheel instead of using existing mechanical components. In general, an EMB undergoes parameter variation and a backdrivability problem. For this reason, the cascade control strategy (e.g., force-position cascade control structure is proposed and the disturbance observer is employed to enhance control robustness against model variations. Additionally, this paper proposed the clamping force estimation method for a sensor-less control, i.e., the clamping force observer (CFO. Finally, in order to confirm the performance and effectiveness of a proposed robust control method, several experiments are performed and analyzed.

  14. An Exploration of Students' Motivation to Lead: An Analysis by Race, Gender, and Student Leadership Behaviors (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Collier, Daniel; Thompson, Sara E.


    This exploratory study examined the motivation to lead of a random sample of 1,338 undergraduate students to determine the degree to which motivation to lead can predict leadership behaviors. Results suggested that students' internal self-identity as a leader positively predicted behavior, while their "social normative" motivation to…

  15. College Students' Academic Motivation: Differences by Gender, Class, and Source of Payment (United States)

    Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; LeBlanc, Michael; McKnight, Kelly R.; Lei, Ting


    The purpose of this paper is to describe college students' (n = 856) gender, year in school and source of tuition funding in relation to their academic motivation. The design was cross-sectional and used cluster sampling. The Academic Motivation Scale was used to measure students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as well as amotivation. Three…

  16. Optimizing power output by varying repetition tempo. (United States)

    Pryor, Riana R; Sforzo, Gary A; King, Deborah L


    The effects of varying interrepetition rest and eccentric velocity on power output (PO) and the number of repetitions performed during a bench press set were examined in 24 college-aged resistance trained men. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a set of bench press at 80% 1 repetition maximum until volitional fatigue. For each of the 6 repetition tempo trials, the bench press set was paced by metronome to a unique repetition tempo involving a combination of the following: interrepetition rest of 0 or 4 seconds; eccentric velocity of 1 or 4 seconds and bottom rest of 0 or 3 seconds. The velocity of concentric contraction was maximal during all 6 tempo trials. During each trial, video data were captured to determine PO variables and number of successful repetitions completed at each tempo. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed tempos with a fast eccentric phase (1 second), and no bottom rest produced significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) PO and repetitions than tempos involving slower eccentric velocity (4 seconds) or greater bottom rest (4 seconds). This combination of greater repetitions and PO resulted in a greater volume of work. Varying interrepetition rest (1 or 4 seconds) did not significantly affect PO or repetitions. The results of this study support the use of fast eccentric speed and no bottom rest during acute performance testing to maximize PO and number of repetitions during a set of bench press.

  17. Understanding Employee Motivation. (United States)

    Lindner, James R.


    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  18. Design of durability test protocol for vehicular fuel cell systems operated in power-follow mode based on statistical results of on-road data (United States)

    Xu, Liangfei; Reimer, Uwe; Li, Jianqiu; Huang, Haiyan; Hu, Zunyan; Jiang, Hongliang; Janßen, Holger; Ouyang, Minggao; Lehnert, Werner


    City buses using polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered to be the most likely fuel cell vehicles to be commercialized in China. The technical specifications of the fuel cell systems (FCSs) these buses are equipped with will differ based on the powertrain configurations and vehicle control strategies, but can generally be classified into the power-follow and soft-run modes. Each mode imposes different levels of electrochemical stress on the fuel cells. Evaluating the aging behavior of fuel cell stacks under the conditions encountered in fuel cell buses requires new durability test protocols based on statistical results obtained during actual driving tests. In this study, we propose a systematic design method for fuel cell durability test protocols that correspond to the power-follow mode based on three parameters for different fuel cell load ranges. The powertrain configurations and control strategy are described herein, followed by a presentation of the statistical data for the duty cycles of FCSs in one city bus in the demonstration project. Assessment protocols are presented based on the statistical results using mathematical optimization methods, and are compared to existing protocols with respect to common factors, such as time at open circuit voltage and root-mean-square power.

  19. A Virtual Instrument for DC Power Flow Solution Using LabVIEW Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slimane Souag


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method for solving the power flow problem by the method of DC power flow using the graphical programming environment of LabVIEW as a virtual instrument (VI suitable for contingency analysis. The DC power flow greatly simplifies the power flow by making a number of approximations including 1 completely ignoring the reactive power balance equations, 2 assuming all voltage magnitudes are identically one per unit, 3 ignoring line losses and 4 ignoring tap dependence in the transformer reactance. Hence the DC power flow reduces the power flow problem to a set of linear equations. The effectiveness of the method developed is identified through its application to a 6 buses test system. The calculation results show excellent performance of the proposed method, in regard to computation time and quality of results.

  20. The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Rocha


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the electrical architectures adopted in wind turbines and its impact on the harmonic flux at the connected electric network. The integration of wind electric generators with the power grid needs energy processing by power electronics. It shows that different types of wind turbine generator systems use different types of electronic converters. This work provides a discussion on harmonic distortion taking place on the generator side, as well as in the power grid side. Keywords: grid connection, harmonic distortion, power electronics and converters, wind energy conversion systems, wind power, wind technology, wind turbines

  1. Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review. (United States)

    Blondeel, Karel; de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor


    To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities.

  2. Impact of reward and punishment motivation on behavior monitoring as indexed by the error-related negativity. (United States)

    Potts, Geoffrey F


    The error-related negativity (ERN) is thought to index a neural behavior monitoring system with its source in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). While ACC is involved in a wide variety of cognitive and emotional tasks, there is debate as to what aspects of ACC function are indexed by the ERN. In one model the ERN indexes purely cognitive function, responding to mismatch between intended and executed actions. Another model posits that the ERN is more emotionally driven, elicited when an action is inconsistent with motivational goals. If the ERN indexes mismatch between intended and executed actions, then it should be insensitive to motivational valence, e.g. reward or punishment; in contrast if the ERN indexes the evaluation of responses relative to goals, then it might respond differentially under differing motivational valence. This study used a flanker task motivated by potential reward and potential punishment on different trials and also examined the N2 and P3 to the imperative stimulus, the response Pe, and the FRN and P3 to the outcome feedback to assess the impact of motivation valence on other stages of information processing in this choice reaction time task. Participants were slower on punishment motivated trials and both the N2 and ERN were larger on punishment motivated trials, indicating that loss aversion has an impact on multiple stages of information processing including behavior monitoring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Clustering Teachers' Motivations for Teaching (United States)

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter


    The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…

  4. Power


    Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert


    We consider the exercise of power in competitive markets for goods, labour and credit. We offer a definition of power and show that if contracts are incomplete it may be exercised either in Pareto-improving ways or to the disadvantage of those without power. Contrasting conceptions of power including bargaining power, market power, and consumer sovereignty are considered. Because the exercise of power may alter prices and other aspects of exchanges, abstracting from power may miss essential a...

  5. Characterizations of the power distribution by record values

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 2. Characterizations of the power distribution by record values. Min-Young Lee. Research ... Keywords. Characterizations; power distribution; independent and identically distributed; hazard rate; lower record values; theory of functional equations.

  6. Life after Death by "PowerPoint" (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni


    In this article, the author explores how to use "PowerPoint" to support the mathematics itself, not just to "present" but actually to "enhance" learning. For the purposes of this article, she has explored three tools: colour, animation and hyperlinks. (Contains 1 note.)

  7. Characterization and speciation of fine particulate matter inside the public transport buses running on bio-diesel. (United States)


    Air pollution with respect to particulate matter was investigated in Toledo, Ohio, USA, a : city of approximately 300,000, in 2009. Two study buses were selected to reflect typical : exposure conditions of passengers while traveling in the bus. Monit...

  8. Motives to quit smoking and reasons to relapse differ by socioeconomic status. (United States)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Aadahl, Mette; Toft, Ulla; Jørgensen, Torben


    To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status. A population-based study, Inter99, Denmark. Two thousand six hundred twenty-one daily smokers with a previous quit attempt completed questionnaires at baseline. Cross-sectional baseline-data (1999-2001) were analysed in adjusted regression analyses. Consistent findings across the three indicators of socioeconomic status (employment, school education, higher education/vocational training): smokers with low socioeconomic status were significantly more likely than smokers with high socioeconomic status to report that they wanted to quit because smoking was too expensive (OR: 1.85 (1.4-2.4), for school education) or because they had health related problems (OR: 1.75 (1.4-2.2)). When looking at previous quit attempts, smokers with low socioeconomic status were significantly more likely to report that it had been a bad experience (OR: 1.41 (1.1-1.8)) and that they had relapsed because they were more nervous/restless/depressed (OR: 1.43 (1.1-1.8)). This study shows that smokers with low socioeconomic status have other motives to quit and other reasons to relapse than smokers with high socioeconomic status. Future tobacco prevention efforts aimed at smokers with low socioeconomic status should maybe focus on current advantages of quitting smoking, using high cost of smoking and health advantages of quitting as motivating factors and by including components of mental health as relapse prevention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermal behavior optimization in multi-MW wind power converter by reactive power circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens


    In the paper, an actively controlled reactive power influence to the thermal behavior of multi-MW wind power converter with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is investigated. The allowable range of internal reactive power circulation is firstly mapped depending on the DC-link voltage as well ...... in the conditions of constant wind speed and during wind gust. It is concluded that the thermal performance will be improved by injecting proper reactive power circulation in the wind turbine system and thereby be able to reduce the thermal cycling and enhance the reliability.......In the paper, an actively controlled reactive power influence to the thermal behavior of multi-MW wind power converter with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is investigated. The allowable range of internal reactive power circulation is firstly mapped depending on the DC-link voltage as well...... as the induction generator and power device capacity. Then the effects of reactive power circulation towards current characteristic and thermal distribution of the two-level back-to-back power converter is analyzed and compared. Finally the thermal-oriented reactive power is introduced to the system...

  10. Natural gas powered bus; Erdgasbusprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.


    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted.

  11. Barriers to and motivators for healthful eating as perceived by rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents. (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Garita, Carlos; Sánchez, Marta; Muñoz, Leda


    To assess the perceptions of rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents about their diet and the factors they consider significant to healthful eating. Data were collected in focus group discussions. The study sample included 108 male and female adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were recruited among 7th to 11th grade students interested in taking part in the study. Two urban and one rural high school in San José, Costa Rica. Diet perceptions and barriers to and motivators for healthful eating. Data were reviewed for emerging themes, and themes were coded applying content analysis procedures. The conceptual model for understanding adolescent eating behavior, proposed by Story and colleagues, served as the framework for this study. Factors perceived as barriers to adopting healthful eating practices included unavailability of healthful food in the school environment, inadequate food choices within the family diet, and the peer-group notion among males and females that healthful eating by males is effeminate. Factors perceived as motivators included improving the nutritional quality of foods available at school, adoption of healthful eating practices by the entire family, and healthful eating becoming a peer-group social norm. This study suggests that the family, peer group, and school environment are potential targets for nutrition interventions for Costa Rican adolescents, but further studies are needed to confirm this conclusion. Future studies should explore in depth the factors associated with the family's eating pattern and the influence of adolescent socialization patterns (particularly male) in the establishment of a healthful diet.

  12. Impact of Offshore Wind Power Integrated by VSC-HVDC on Power Angle Stability of Power Systems (United States)

    Lu, Haiyang; Tang, Xisheng


    Offshore wind farm connected to grid by VSC-HVDC loses frequency support for power system, so adding frequency control in wind farm and VSC-HVDC system is an effective measure, but it will change wind farm VSC-HVDC’s transient stability on power system. Through theoretical analysis, concluding the relationship between equivalent mechanical power and electromagnetic power of two-machine system with the active power of wind farm VSC-HVDC, then analyzing the impact of wind farm VSC-HVDC with or without frequency control and different frequency control parameters on angle stability of synchronous machine by EEAC. The validity of theoretical analysis has been demonstrated through simulation in PSCAD/EMTDC.

  13. Researching Student Motivation (United States)

    Alkaabi, Sultan Ali R.; Alkaabi, Warda; Vyver, Glen


    Motivation has been studied by different scientists in different fields of knowledge such as biology, psychology, and education for a long period, which has cultivated a wealth of knowledge in these disciplines. The richness in motivation theories poses complexity in motivation research. Due to these complexities, many researchers focus on using a…

  14. Motivating pharmacy employees. (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A


    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  15. Resistive Network Optimal Power Flow: Uniqueness and Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, CW; Cai, DWH; Lou, X


    The optimal power flow (OPF) problem minimizes the power loss in an electrical network by optimizing the voltage and power delivered at the network buses, and is a nonconvex problem that is generally hard to solve. By leveraging a recent development on the zero duality gap of OPF, we propose a second-order cone programming convex relaxation of the resistive network OPF, and study the uniqueness of the optimal solution using differential topology, especially the Poincare-Hopf Index Theorem. We characterize the global uniqueness for different network topologies, e.g., line, radial, and mesh networks. This serves as a starting point to design distributed local algorithms with global behaviors that have low complexity, are computationally fast, and can run under synchronous and asynchronous settings in practical power grids.

  16. BUS AND COACH TRANSPORTATION : Buses can compete with air and rail transportation


    Soloviev, Alexander


    The aim of this thesis was to understand ground transportation industry closely. Developing buses and coach transportation together with tourism industry. Find out the statistical and practical understandings of nowadays safety and organization level. The thesis explores transportation from aspects of human factors as well as technological and modernization regulation during past years. Presented the issues and features of random region transportation security. The importance of professi...

  17. Roles of Perceived Motivational Climates Created by Coach, Peer, and Parent on Dispositional Flow in Young Athletes. (United States)

    Çağlar, Emine; Aşçi, F Hülya; Uygurtaş, Murat


    We investigated the contribution of perceived motivational climates created by coach, peer, and parent on the dispositional flow experience of young athletes. Eighty-six female ( Mage = 14.24, SD = 1.38 years) and 134 male ( Mage = 16.28, SD = 1.17 years) athletes completed questionnaires of perceived motivational climates created by coach, peer, and parent and the Dispositional Flow Scale-2. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived task-involving coach (β = .40, p motivational climates were the only significant predictors of dispositional flow. These findings suggest that task-involving motivational climates should be strengthened to increase experience of flow.

  18. Motivation and motor control: hemispheric specialization for approach motivation reverses with handedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brookshire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to decades of research on affective motivation in the human brain, approach motivational states are supported primarily by the left hemisphere and avoidance states by the right hemisphere. The underlying cause of this specialization, however, has remained unknown. Here we conducted a first test of the Sword and Shield Hypothesis (SSH, according to which the hemispheric laterality of affective motivation depends on the laterality of motor control for the dominant hand (i.e., the "sword hand," used preferentially to perform approach actions and the nondominant hand (i.e., the "shield hand," used preferentially to perform avoidance actions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether the laterality of approach motivation varies with handedness, we measured alpha-band power (an inverse index of neural activity in right- and left-handers during resting-state electroencephalography and analyzed hemispheric alpha-power asymmetries as a function of the participants' trait approach motivational tendencies. Stronger approach motivation was associated with more left-hemisphere activity in right-handers, but with more right-hemisphere activity in left-handers. CONCLUSIONS: The hemispheric correlates of approach motivation reversed between right- and left-handers, consistent with the way they typically use their dominant and nondominant hands to perform approach and avoidance actions. In both right- and left-handers, approach motivation was lateralized to the same hemisphere that controls the dominant hand. This covariation between neural systems for action and emotion provides initial support for the SSH.

  19. Motivation and academic achievement in medical students. (United States)

    Yousefy, Alireza; Ghassemi, Gholamreza; Firouznia, Samaneh


    Despite their ascribed intellectual ability and achieved academic pursuits, medical students' academic achievement is influenced by motivation. This study is an endeavor to examine the role of motivation in the academic achievement of medical students. In this cross-sectional correlational study, out of the total 422 medical students, from 4th to final year during the academic year 2007-2008, at School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 344 participated in completion of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM), comprising 43 items and measuring eight aspects of motivation. The gold standard for academic achievement was their average academic marks at pre-clinical and clinical levels. Data were computer analyzed by running a couple of descriptive and analytical tests including Pearson Correlation and Student's t-student. Higher motivation scores in areas of competition, effort, social concern, and task were accompanied by higher average marks at pre-clinical as well as clinical levels. However, the latter ones showed greater motivation for social power as compared to the former group. Task and competition motivation for boys was higher than for girls. In view of our observations, students' academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation.

  20. Investigation of microbial contamination frequency in drinking water of buses at Sofeh terminal of Isfahan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiomars Sharafi


    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to assess the microbial contamination status of drinking water supply among buses at the main bus terminal in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: About 184 drinking water samples were taken randomly from buses arriving at the Sofeh terminal in Isfahan in 2011. For data analysis of one-sample, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (α = 0.05.and Mann-Whitney U-test with a significant difference (α = 0.05 was used for the effect of setting insulated water tank in cities bus to reduce microbial contamination. Results: Results showed that 15% of all samples were contaminated with total coliforms and 2.5% of samples contaminated with fecal coliforms. The most contaminated samples were related to buses arriving from Shiraz and Booshehr, (fecal MPN~4. About 16.66% of all samples collected from buses without insulated water tanks were contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms. Conclusion: Results indicated that the drinking water available on investigated public transportation was not safe for public health. However, the highest levels of microbial contamination were observed in samples taken from buses without insulated water tanks. In conclusion, a constant and systematic monitoring system is recommended to prevent contamination of drinking water available on buses.

  1. Developing a discrete event simulation model for university student shuttle buses (United States)

    Zulkepli, Jafri; Khalid, Ruzelan; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Hamid, Muhammad Hafizan


    Providing shuttle buses for university students to attend their classes is crucial, especially when their number is large and the distances between their classes and residential halls are far. These factors, in addition to the non-optimal current bus services, typically require the students to wait longer which eventually opens a space for them to complain. To considerably reduce the waiting time, providing the optimal number of buses to transport them from location to location and the effective route schedules to fulfil the students' demand at relevant time ranges are thus important. The optimal bus number and schedules are to be determined and tested using a flexible decision platform. This paper thus models the current services of student shuttle buses in a university using a Discrete Event Simulation approach. The model can flexibly simulate whatever changes configured to the current system and report its effects to the performance measures. How the model was conceptualized and formulated for future system configurations are the main interest of this paper.

  2. The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality


    J. E.; Rocha; W.D.C Sanchez


    This paper discusses the electrical architectures adopted in wind turbines and its impact on the harmonic flux at the connected electric network. The integration of wind electric generators with the power grid needs energy processing by power electronics. It shows that different types of wind turbine generator systems use different types of electronic converters. This work provides a discussion on harmonic distortion taking place on the generator side, as well as in the power grid side. Key...

  3. Power Delivered to Mechanical Systems by Random Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Edwards


    Full Text Available This paper develops deformational response power descriptions of multiple degree-of-freedom systems due to stationary random vibration excitation. Two new concepts are developed. The deformational response power density (DRPD can be computed when a structure's natural frequencies and modal masses are available. The DRPD shows the spectral content of the deformational power delivered to a specific structure by the stationary, random excitation. This function can be found through a weighted windowing of the power spectrum of the input acceleration excitation. Deformational response input power spectra (DRIPS, similar to the input energy spectrum and shock response spectrum, give the power delivered to single-degree-of-freedom systems as a function of natural frequency. It is shown that the DRIPS is simply a smoothed version of the power spectrum of the input acceleration excitation. The DRIPS gives rise to a useful power-based data smoothing operation.

  4. Improvement of self-organization, relations and learning motivation of different age students by integrative teaching methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voita D.


    Full Text Available An integrative teaching methodology was developed by qualified specialists and implemented in 17 Latvian schools during one study year. Students who participated in the learning of integrative teaching methodology were divided into 3 age groups: 3–4; 5–7 and 8–12 grade students. Students and teachers who participated in the teaching of integrative teaching methodology were questionnaire before and after using of this methodology. The questionnaires about self-organization problems, relations between students and behaviour of students were filled by teachers but the questionnaire about the learning motivation of students was filled by students themselves. The results of questionnaire showed that problems of self-organization, motivation, hyperactivity, attention deficiency, social anxiety, communication and depressive symptomatic of students who were taught according to the integrative teaching methodology of general schools have reduced in all age groups but in 5–7 and 8–12 grade groups of student's aggressive behaviour reduced as well. Self-organization and behaviour problems of students from special schools after realizing integrative teaching methodology have less reduced in comparison with students of general education schools. In general education schools as well as in special schools external learning motivation and internal learning motivation of all age students increased but am motivation or lack of motivation to learn decreased.

  5. Experiences in simulating and testing coordinated voltage control provided by multiple wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlaban, T.; Alonso, O.; Ortiz, D. [Acciona Windpower S.A. (Spain); Peiro, J.; Rivas, R. [Red Electrica de Espana SAU (Spain); Quinonez-Varela, G.; Lorenzo, P. [Acciona Energia S.A. (Spain)


    This document presents some field tests performed in a transmission system node in order to check the adequacy of voltage control performance by multiple wind power plants, with an overall capacity of 395 MW. It briefly explains the Spanish TSO motivation towards new voltage control requirements and the necessity of performing such tests in order to set the most convenient voltage control parameters and to verify the stable operation. It presents how different the voltage control capability between modern wind turbines (DFIG) and older ones (SCIG) specifically retrofitted for voltage control is. (orig.)

  6. Formation of motivation to lessons by physical culture and sports in students


    Martyn I.; Gontyurev A.


    Physical culture and sport take the major place in formation of the identity of student’s youth in modern society. An important problem is the formation of students’ motivation for physical education. The article discusses various ways of formation of motivation to sports activities in students for developing a healthy lifestyle.

  7. Predicting College Students' Mathematics Anxiety By Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies (United States)

    Kesici, Sahin; Erdogan, Ahmet


    The purpose of this study is to determine whether motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning strategies are significant predictors of college students' mathematics anxiety. The subscales for the motivation scale are intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy for learning and…

  8. Cognitive-motivational model of obesity. Motivational mechanisms and cognitive biases underlying the processing of food-related images by people with excess body weight. (United States)

    Pawłowska, Monika; Kalka, Dorota


    Obesity is a constantly escalating problem in all age groups. In the face of ubiquitous images of food, colourful advertisements of high-calorie meals and beverages, it is necessary to examine the role of the memory and attention mechanism in the processing of these stimuli. Knowledge regarding this subject will surely significantly contribute to the improvement of prevention and management of obesity programs designed to prevent secondary psychological difficulties, including depression. This paper presents cognitive-motivational model of obesity, according to which the description of mechanisms of eating disorders occurrence should include not only motivational factors but also the cognitive ones. The paper shows theoretical perspectives on the problem of obesity irrespective of its origin, as well as the latest empirical reports in this field. The presented survey demonstrates the lack of explicit research findings related to the processing of high and low-calorie food images by persons with excess weight. It seems that the knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved in the processing of these stimuli and the exploration of this phenomenon will allow to improve programs whose objective is to prevent obesity.

  9. Intensifying the intrinsic motivation by differentiating the teaching strategies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulbure, C.


    Full Text Available Learning motivation represents one of the most importantpredictors of academic achievement in higher education. In this empirical study, we have implemented a formative program to improve the university students’ academic achievement and their intrinsic learning motivation. To fully use their intellectual potential, students were treated according to their learning style, throughout one academic year. When we considered the within subject design, both intrinsic motivation and academic achievement significantly increased at the end of the study. Only intrinsic motivation proved to be significantly higher for the between subject comparison. Because our formative program proved to have a significant impact on students’ learning motivation, we recommend the differentiated teaching strategies to improve the academic achievement in higher education.

  10. Differential Motivations for Pursuing Diagnostic Radiology by Gender: Implications for Residency Recruitment. (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Lowell, Dorothy A; Cater, Sarah W; Yoon, Sora C


    The purpose of this study is to determine how the motivations to pursue a career in radiology differ by gender. In addition, the influence of medical school radiology education will be assessed. Radiology applicants to our institution from the 2015-2016 interview season were offered an online survey in February 2016. Respondents scored the influence of 24 aspects of radiology on their decision to pursue radiology. Comparisons were made between male and female respondents. Respondents were also asked the type of medical school radiology education they received and to score the influence this experience had on their decision to pursue radiology. There were 202 total respondents (202/657) including 47 women and 155 men. Compared to men, the following factors had a more negative impact on women: flexible work hours (P = 0.04), work environment (P = 0.04), lifestyle (P = 0.04), impact on patient care (P = 0.05), high current debt load (P = 0.02), gender distribution of the field (P = 0.04), and use of emerging/advanced technology (P = 0.02). In contrast, women felt more favorably about the opportunities for leadership (P = 0.04) and research (P < 0.01). Dedicated radiology exposure was as follows: 20% (n = 20) none, 48% (n = 96) preclinical exposure, 55% (n = 111) elective rotation, and 18% (n = 37) core rotation. More intensive radiology exposure via a core rotation had a significantly positive impact on the decision to pursue radiology (P < 0.01). Male and female radiology applicants are motivated by different aspects of radiology, which may influence residency recruitment practices. In addition, more intensive radiology exposure has a net positive impact on the decision to pursue radiology. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Motivating students' participation in a computer networks course by means of magic, drama and games. (United States)

    Hilas, Constantinos S; Politis, Anastasios


    The recent economic crisis has forced many universities to cut down expenses by packing students into large lecture groups. The problem with large auditoria is that they discourage dialogue between students and faculty and they burden participation. Adding to this, students in computer science courses usually find the field to be full of theoretical and technical concepts. Lack of understanding leads them to lose interest and / or motivation. Classroom experience shows that the lecturer could employ alternative teaching methods, especially for early-year undergraduate students, in order to grasp their interest and introduce basic concepts. This paper describes some of the approaches that may be used to keep students interested and make them feel comfortable as they comprehend basic concepts in computer networks. The lecturing procedure was enriched with games, magic tricks and dramatic representations. This approach was used experimentally for two semesters and the results were more than encouraging.

  12. Influence of SDBD plasma aerodynamic actuation on flow control by AC power supply and AC-DC power supply (United States)

    Hu, Xu; Gao, Chao; Hao, Jiangnan


    In this paper, the excitation effect of single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator (SDBD) is compared by using AC power supply and AC-DC power supply. AC-DC power supply is based on the AC power supply, just adding DC component. The flow measurement is carried out by PIV technique. Results show that the excitation effect of AC power supply and AC-DC power supply increases by the increase of voltage, the range of speed field excited by AC power is greater than that of AC-DC power supply. For x direction maximum speed, excited by AC power supply is close to AC-DC, and for y direction maximum speed, AC power supply is greater than AC-DC power supply. So the excitation effect of AC power supply is better than that of AC-DC power supply for SDBD.

  13. Tax authorities' interaction with taxpayers: A conception of compliance in social dilemmas by power and trust. (United States)

    Gangl, Katharina; Hofmann, Eva; Kirchler, Erich


    Tax compliance represents a social dilemma in which the short-term self-interest to minimize tax payments is at odds with the collective long-term interest to provide sufficient tax funds for public goods. According to the Slippery Slope Framework, the social dilemma can be solved and tax compliance can be guaranteed by power of tax authorities and trust in tax authorities. The framework, however, remains silent on the dynamics between power and trust. The aim of the present theoretical paper is to conceptualize the dynamics between power and trust by differentiating coercive and legitimate power and reason-based and implicit trust. Insights into this dynamic are derived from an integration of a wide range of literature such as on organizational behavior and social influence. Conclusions on the effect of the dynamics between power and trust on the interaction climate between authorities and individuals and subsequent individual motivation of cooperation in social dilemmas such as tax contributions are drawn. Practically, the assumptions on the dynamics can be utilized by authorities to increase cooperation and to change the interaction climate from an antagonistic climate to a service and confidence climate.

  14. Optimal sharing of quantity risk for a coalition of wind power producers facing nodal prices

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E. Y.


    It is widely accepted that aggregation of geographically diverse wind energy resources offers compelling potential to mitigate wind power variability, as wind speed at different geographic locations tends to decorrelate with increasing spatial separation. In this paper, we explore the extent to which a coalition of wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation to mitigate the risk of quantity shortfall with respect to forward contract offerings for energy. We propose a simple augmentation of the existing two-settlement market system with nodal pricing to permit quantity risk sharing among wind power producers by affording the group a recourse opportunity to utilize improved forecasts of their ensuing wind energy production to collectively modify their forward contracted positions so as to utilize the projected surplus in generation at certain buses to balance the projected shortfall in generation at complementary buses. Working within this framework, we show that the problem of optimally sizing a set of forward contracts for a group of wind power producers reduces to convex programming and derive closed form expressions for the set of optimal recourse policies. We also asses the willingness of individual wind power producers to form a coalition to cooperatively offer contracts for energy. We first show that the expected profit derived from coalitional contract offerings with recourse is greater than that achievable through independent contract offerings. And, using tools from coalitional game theory, we show that the core for our game is non-empty.

  15. Effects of the feeling of invulnerability and the feeling of control on motivation to participate in experience-based analysis, by type of risk. (United States)

    Mbaye, Safiétou; Kouabenan, Dongo Rémi


    Experience-based analysis (EBA) refers to a set of safety-management practices consisting of detecting, analyzing, and correcting the individual, material, and organizational causal factors of accidents in order to prevent their reoccurrence. Unfortunately, these practices do not always garner the adherence of employees. This article presents a study that examines the impact of risk perceptions on agents' motivation to participate in EBA in various production sectors. The study was conducted at two sites, a chemical factory and a nuclear power plant, by means of a questionnaire administered to 302 employees. The results indicated that the feeling of control was not only positively linked to the feeling of invulnerability, but that these two factors were negatively linked to risk perception. In addition, the actors in both production sectors were more motivated to participate in EBA of accidents linked to the core processes of their industry (which were more accurately perceived) than in EBA of ordinary accidents (accidents not specific to chemical or nuclear processes). Moreover, the agents' feeling of invulnerability and feeling of control both reduced EBA motivation for ordinary accidents to a greater extent than for chemical and radiation-related accidents. Recommendations are made in view of encouraging agents to get more involved in EBA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg


    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  17. Power law creep of polycarbonate by Berkovich nanoindentation (United States)

    Gao, Chenghui; Liu, Ming


    Power-law creep of polycarbonate was investigated by Berkovich indentation under three different conditions at room temperature, namely: constant displacement rate condition, constant displacement loading condition, and constant ratio of loading rate over load condition. Only the data during the loading process were analysed, and the experiments under different loading conditions gave consistent results that accorded well with theoretical prediction by dimensional analysis of indentation of power-law creep material. Material constants were characterized by curve fitting of the experimental results with theoretical equations, and the power law exponent for the power-law creep relation was found to be about 0.138 for the notably soft polycarbonate.

  18. Coercive Power Scenarios in the Classes Taught by Student Teachers


    Lojdová Kateřina; Vlčková Kateřina


    Our aim is to describe how coercive power is negotiated, used, and perceived by student teachers and their students in lower secondary classes (ISCED 2A). Power is an ability of a person to influence opinions, values, and behaviour of others (McCroscey, 2006). In our study we use the most influential, traditional typology of power as a relational phenomenon by French and Raven (1959). It distinguishes teacher‘s power in relation to a (by students perceived) principle on which it is based on, ...

  19. AC electrokinetic drug delivery in dentistry using an interdigitated electrode assembly powered by inductive coupling. (United States)

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Wu, Jie Jayne; Mirzajani, Hadi; Cheng, Cheng; Yuan, Quan; Kevorkyan, Stepan; Gaydarova, Radostina; Tomlekova, Desislava


    AC electrokinetics (ACEK) has been shown to deliver certain drugs into human teeth more effectively than diffusion. However, using electrical wires to power intraoral ACEK devices poses risks to patients. The study demonstrates a novel interdigitated electrode arrays (IDE) assembly powered by inductive coupling to induce ACEK effects at appropriate frequencies to motivate drugs wirelessly. A signal generator produces the modulating signal, which multiplies with the carrier signal to produce the amplitude modulated (AM) signal. The AM signal goes through the inductive link to appear on the secondary coil, then rectified and filtered to dispose of its carrier signal, and the positive half of the modulating signal appears on the load. After characterizing the device, the device is validated under light microscopy by motivating carboxylate-modified microspheres, tetracycline, acetaminophen, benzocaine, lidocaine and carbamide peroxide particles with induced ACEK effects. The assembly is finally tested in a common dental bleaching application. After applying 35 % carbamide peroxide to human teeth topically or with the IDE at 1200 Hz, 5 Vpp for 20 min, spectrophotometric analysis showed that compared to diffusion, the IDE enhanced whitening in specular optic and specular optic excluded modes by 215 % and 194 % respectively. Carbamide peroxide absorbance by the ACEK group was two times greater than diffusion as measured by colorimetric oxidation-reduction and UV-Vis spectroscopy at 550 nm. The device motivates drugs of variable molecular weight and structure wirelessly. Wireless transport of drugs to intraoral targets under ACEK effects may potentially improve the efficacy and safety of drug delivery in dentistry.

  20. Decrease in the damage of powerful turbogenerator stator caused by vibration in the end zones (analysis, hypotheses, experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Shumilov


    Full Text Available The analysis of the turbogenerators’ TВВ-1000-2Y3 failure has shown that the most vulnerable link in the stator is such of their elements as tightening prisms, the teeth of the end packet core, lead-out and connecting buses of the stator winding. The basic reason for the destruction of the elements mentioned is metal fatigue caused by excessive vibration under the influence of variable axial forces of electromagnetic origin. Preventing the destruction of the structural elements may be achieved by vibration monitoring and diagnostics.

  1. The Role of Motivation in Language Learning


    Rahman, Anwar


    The mastery of English learning is influenced by some variables, one of them is motivation. Motivation in learning second language is classified as integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Some experts of language teaching also categorized motivation into two types namely intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. This paper discusses about kinds of motivation and how it takes a role in influencing students mastery in learning language. It was literature study that focused to f...

  2. The Effect of Motivational Practices on Volunteer Motivation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assesses whether organizations' motivational practices affect volunteer motivation and levels of performance. This study was guided by the following two research questions: first, what motivation practices exist in Volunteer Involving Organizations and whether such affect volunteers' motivation to volunteer again?

  3. Improvement in the Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries by Means of Powered Wheelchairs Driven by Dual Power Wheels and Mobile Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Pien Yang


    Full Text Available This study unites researchers from the fields of psychology, occupational therapy, and engineering to improve the holistic physical and psychological well-being of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI by using assistive devices (i.e., wheelchairs and mobile technology (i.e., cell phone and network. These technologies are used to bring persons with SCI through the difficult period of rehabilitation and to return them to their daily life in school or the working environment. First, a SpinoAid Application (APP is developed to motivate persons with SCI to participate in the community after their injury. Second, we integrate mobile technology with a mobility assistive device to design a smart wheelchair, which is innovated by transforming the pushrim of a manually driven wheelchair into a rim motor. After the rim motor is combined with a battery, a brake, and a controller to become a power wheel, two power wheels are installed on both sides of the wheelchair to become a powered wheelchair. Third, a SmartChair APP is developed with the main functions of reminding persons with SCI to perform exercises, recording the physical condition and the wheelchair using status, and building up a social network for information sharing to increase their exercise habit, prevent cumulative injuries or discomfort of the upper extremities, and enhance their health and quality of life.

  4. Competitive and cooperative arm rehabilitation games played by a patient and unimpaired person: effects on motivation and exercise intensity. (United States)

    Goršič, Maja; Cikajlo, Imre; Novak, Domen


    People with chronic arm impairment should exercise intensely to regain their abilities, but frequently lack motivation, leading to poor rehabilitation outcome. One promising way to increase motivation is through interpersonal rehabilitation games, which allow patients to compete or cooperate together with other people. However, such games have mainly been evaluated with unimpaired subjects, and little is known about how they affect motivation and exercise intensity in people with chronic arm impairment. We designed four different arm rehabilitation games that are played by a person with arm impairment and their unimpaired friend, relative or occupational therapist. One is a competitive game (both people compete against each other), two are cooperative games (both people work together against the computer) and one is a single-player game (played only by the impaired person against the computer). The games were played by 29 participants with chronic arm impairment, of which 19 were accompanied by their friend or relative and 10 were accompanied by their occupational therapist. Each participant played all four games within a single session. Participants' subjective experience was quantified using the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory questionnaire after each game, as well as a final questionnaire about game preferences. Their exercise intensity was quantified using wearable inertial sensors that measured hand velocity in each game. Of the 29 impaired participants, 12 chose the competitive game as their favorite, 12 chose a cooperative game, and 5 preferred to exercise alone. Participants who chose the competitive game as their favorite showed increased motivation and exercise intensity in that game compared to other games. Participants who chose a cooperative game as their favorite also showed increased motivation in cooperative games, but not increased exercise intensity. Since both motivation and intensity are positively correlated with rehabilitation outcome

  5. The losses at power grid caused by small nonlinear loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Dejan


    Full Text Available The difference between registered active power and spent unregistered power represents the losses at power grid. This paper treats problems related to losses caused by nonlinear loads connected to the power grid. In recent years the load profile of power consumers turned from energy-waster linear to energysaver but non-linear loads. The main cause of the losses appears due to the lack of adequate measurement equipment. Namely, common household power meters register only active energy, while power meters for industrial application register reactive energy as well. This approach does not follow the change of the enduser profile. Tendency of improving energy efficiency brought wide use of switching mode regulators and replace old incandescent light bulb with new energy saving lamps (CFL - compact fluorescent lamp, LED bulb. Therefore, the number of non-linear load drastically increased. Registering only active component of power at consumer’s side does not depict the real profile of the consumption. Therefore, in this paper we analyse and quantify the effects of nonlinear loads at power losses. As a result we suggest an efficient method for measuring the distortion component of power. The method relays on low-cost upgrade of commercial electronic power meters. The presented results of measurements on small non-linear loads confirm the proposed technique. Besides, they prove the importance of measuring all components of apparent power and justified their use in billing policy. The implemented set-up is based on power meter manufactured by EWG of Niš. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32004

  6. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation? (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.


    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  7. Motivation and motoric tests in sports. (United States)

    Karaba-Jakovljević, Dea; Popadić-Gaćesa, Jelena; Grujić, Nikola; Barak, Otto; Drapsin, Miodrag


    Motivation in sport performance has been an interesting topic for many investigators during the past decade. This area can be considered from different viewpoints: motivation for participation in sport activity, achievement motivation, competitiveness etc. Motivation plays an important role in all out tests, as well as in sport activities and at all levels of competition. Motivation climate, or positive social environment may influence and modulate motivation of individuals involved in sports. Experience has shown that conventional encouragement and feedback during the test may affect its outcome. According to Wingate research team recommendations, verbal encouragement, as a motivation factor, was given to all examined subjects during Wingate anaerobic test, which is considered the most reliable test for assessing anaerobic capacity. The investigated group consisted of 30 young men--medical students, who were not actively involved in any programmed sport activity. The investigated group included second-year students of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad chosen by random sampling. The Wingate anaerobic test was performed in all subjects, and changes of parameters when test was performed with verbal encouragement, were recorded The results show statistically significant increase of Wingate test parameters when conducted with verbal encouragement: anaerobic power (622/669 W); relative anaerobic power (7.70/8.27 W/kg); slope of the power (95.5/114 W/s); relative slope of the power (1.18/1.40 W/s/kg); anaerobic capacity (12.7/13.2 kJ) and relative anaerobic capacity (158/164 J/kg).

  8. Carbon Footprint Reduction in Transportation Activity by Emphasizing the Usage of Public Bus Services Among Adolescents (United States)

    Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul; Khairiyah Basri, Nur; Asmah Hassan, Sitti


    Transportation is one of the sectors that contributes to the Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions. In terms of carbon footprint, transportation is among the major contributors of high carbon intensity in the urban area. This study was conducted to reduce the carbon footprint contributed by the transportation sector in Penang Island by emphasizing the use of public buses. Secondary school students were the target group for this study. They were asked to report their daily travel behaviour and fuel consumption in a travel journal. The fuel consumption data from the travel journal were used to calculate each individual’s carbon emission level. After the analyses, the value of carbon emissions was revealed to the students. Next, they were encouraged to use public transport in a motivation session and were asked to record their fuel consumption in the travel journal once again. The results showed that there was a significant difference in fuel consumption before and after the motivation session, as the students preferred to use public buses instead of private vehicles after the motivation session. This indicates that the motivation programme had been successful in creating the awareness towards carbon footprint reduction among the adolescents.

  9. Understanding gendered aspects of migration aspiration and motives of university students by multivariate statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đula Borozan


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression in measuring, explaining and evaluating (i gender differences in expressing migration aspirations, and (ii a gender effect on migration motivation of university students in Croatia. The results supported the thesis that migration is a complex gendering process that assumes subjective assessment of the whole set of interrelated motives. According to logistic regression, gender is a significant predictor of migration aspirations among the selected demographic and socio-economic variables. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that gender and migration aspirations in interaction matter when it comes to migration motives, particularly related to the perceived importance of social networks. Females, and especially those who aspire to migrate, assessed these motives as more important than males.

  10. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a pavement stencil in promoting safe behavior among elementary school children boarding school buses. (United States)

    Burke, G S; Lapidus, G D; Zavoski, R W; Wallace, L; Banco, L I


    The majority of school bus-related fatalities among children attending elementary school in the United States occur as children board or alight from buses. Injuries occur during boarding when children enter the street and are struck by buses or other vehicles. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a stencil in the shape of a school bus applied to the pavement at a bus stop in improving safe behaviors at bus stops. Specifically, we assessed the frequency of children running toward the bus as it approached or entered the street. Elementary school bus stops with similar roadways, traffic profiles, and numbers of children boarding participated in the study. Stops were randomly assigned to an intervention group, in which children were instructed to remain within a safe area during boarding that was demarcated by a pavement stencil, or an education-only group, in which the safe area was demarcated by some existing environmental feature. Both groups received education about safe boarding procedures. Observers rated behavior at each stop daily for 5 consecutive weeks. Data were analyzed as bivariate odds of any unsafe behavior in the education-only group. One hundred forty-five observations from seven bus stops with stencils and 174 daily observations from six education-only stops were completed. Observations of children in the education-only group were twice as likely to show unsafe behavior while waiting (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-3.6) and during boarding (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.9). ORs were significantly higher in the education-only group for boys, girls, and children in grades 4 through 6. When no adult was present, there was a greater likelihood of unsafe behavior among all children in the education-only group while waiting (OR, 16.1; 95% CI, 3.9-72.4) and during boarding (OR, 15.0; 95% CI, 3.2-81.4). The presence of an adult at the stop did not have an independent effect on behavior. Children at education-only stops located on

  11. Is electricity generated by nuclear power cheaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, H.


    The author critically discusses the contents of the book written by Traube and Ullrich. He criticizes mainly the arbitrary use of quotations and the polemic presentation. The four postulates by Traube and Ullrich, stating that by intensified energy conservation we could do without atomic energy are examined for their validity.





    La presente investigación se centra en la formulación de diferentes estrategias de control para un servicio de transporte público. Este servicio opera sobre un corredor unidireccional, compuesto por un conjunto de paradas, semáforos y de buses con características heterogéneas y capacidad limitada de pasajeros. En este sistema, las acciones de control son tomadas al momento de la llegada de un bus a una parada o semáforo, por un controlador central que posee información en tiempo real sobr...

  13. Temperature and Humidity Sensor Powered by an Individual Microbial Fuel Cell in a Power Management System


    Qi Zheng; Lei Xiong; Bing Mo; Weihong Lu; Suki Kim; Zhenyu Wang


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are of increasing interest as bioelectrochemical systems for decomposing organic materials and converting chemical energy into electricity. The main challenge for this technology is that the low power and voltage of the devices restricts the use of MFCs in practical applications. In this paper, a power management system (PMS) is developed to store the energy and export an increased voltage. The designed PMS successfully increases the low voltage generated by an ind...

  14. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul


    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  15. Impulsiveness, locus of control, motivation and problem gambling. (United States)

    Clarke, Dave


    A questionnaire consisting of demographic items, questions about gambling behavior, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), a depression inventory, the Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Levenson's Internality, Powerful Others and Chance Scales of locus of control and the Gambling Motivation Scale, was completed by a non-random sample of 147 New Zealand university students who gambled for money, median age 24 years. Approximately 17 of the sample was classified as problem gamblers, the rest as non-problem gamblers. Multivariate analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences between problem and non-problem gamblers on gambling frequency, number of activities, parents' gambling, depression, impulsiveness and motivation, but not on locus of control. Amotivation (apathy) and motivation towards stimulation correlated with powerful others and chance locus of control, and motivation to impress others with powerful others locus of control. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that: (1) beyond gambling frequency, number of activities and parents' gambling, motivation explained a substantial proportion of variance in SOGS scores, with impulsiveness accounting for a lesser amount, and (2) predictors of problem gambling included impulsiveness, amotivation and the motivations for accomplishment and tension release. It was concluded that gambling motivation is a more useful construct than locus of control in explaining problem gambling. Suggestions were made for future research, and aspects of gambling motivation were discussed in terms of a treatment program with groups of problem gamblers.

  16. Sound power radiated by sources in diffuse fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polack, Jean-Dominique


    Sound power radiated by sources at low frequency notoriously depends on source position. We sampled the sound field of a rectangular room at 18 microphone and 4 source positions. Average power spectra were extrapolated from the reverberant field, taking into account the frequency dependent reverb...... reverberation times. They reveal fluctuations that depend on source position and extend far above Schroeder frequency....

  17. Wind Power Plant Prediction by Using Neural Networks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wan, Y. H.; Muljadi, E.


    This paper introduces a method of short-term wind power prediction for a wind power plant by training neural networks based on historical data of wind speed and wind direction. The model proposed is shown to achieve a high accuracy with respect to the measured data.

  18. Active power filter improvement by new DC link for power quality enhancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza GOLSHANI


    Full Text Available Active Power Filters (APFs are one of the devices which could be applied for improving the Power Quality (PQ indices such as harmonics, unbalances and voltage flicker. The most important topics in designing APFs are their correct control and especially suitable DC capacitor control for aforesaid parameters improvement. So in this paper, a new DC voltage link is developed by combining the fuzzy and PI control approaches into the predictive control structure. The presented DC link consists of a Fuzzy-PI Controller (FPIC. So, these parameters are modified by minimizing the errors between the DC link output and reference voltage. Finally, the output signal is added to two reference current achieved by incorporating the p-q theory. This method can almost improve the all PQ parameters such as harmonic, flicker, unbalances, power factor, etc. To test the APF in the worst conditions, an actual power system with nonlinear loads is considered. The aims of this paper are a new DC link of active power filter, power quality improvement based on fuzzy logic controller.

  19. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten


    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...

  20. Demographic and Motivation Differences Among Online Sex Offenders by Type of Offense: An Exploration of Routine Activities Theories. (United States)

    Navarro, Jordana N; Jasinski, Jana L


    This article presents an analysis of the relationship between online sexual offenders' demographic background and characteristics indicative of motivation and offense type. Specifically, we investigate whether these characteristics can distinguish different online sexual offender groups from one another as well as inform routine activity theorists on what potentially motivates perpetrators. Using multinomial logistic regression, this study found that online sexual offenders' demographic backgrounds and characteristics indicative of motivation do vary by offense types. Two important implications of this study are that the term "online sexual offender" encompasses different types of offenders, including some who do not align with mainstream media's characterization of "predators," and that the potential offender within routine activity theory can be the focus of empirical investigation rather than taken as a given in research.

  1. Are short GRBs powered by magnetars?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Brien, P.T.; Rowlinson, A.


    The standard model for a short duration Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) involves the merger of a neutron star binary system, resulting in a black hole which accretes for a brief period of time. However, some of the short-duration GRBs observed by the Swift satellite show features in their light curves which

  2. Hospital nurses' work motivation. (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja


    The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p extrinsic motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. [Psychological theories of motivation]. (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine


    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  4. Employee motivation


    Kolářová, Jana


    The Bachelor thesis disserts upon employee motivation, namely the intluence upon their working effort with the goal to increase their performance and loyalty, and operates with the fact that people, with their knowledge, abilities, skills and certain brainware, are the key factor for successful performance of each organization if they are optimally motivated. The thesis emphasizes the fact that the employee motivation cannot lie only in stimulation with material instruments because the labour...

  5. Power generator driven by Maxwell's demon


    Chida, Kensaku; Desai, Samarth; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Akira


    Maxwell's demon is an imaginary entity that reduces the entropy of a system and generates free energy in the system. About 150 years after its proposal, theoretical studies explained the physical validity of Maxwell's demon in the context of information thermodynamics, and there have been successful experimental demonstrations of energy generation by the demon. The demon's next task is to convert the generated free energy to work that acts on the surroundings. Here, we demonstrate that Maxwel...

  6. Students' perceptions of rewards for academic performance by parents and teachers: relations with achievement and motivation in college. (United States)

    Davis, Kelly D; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael


    In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N= 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for students' grades were common at all levels of schooling. Reward history related significantly to students' motivational orientation and performance in college, and these relations were generally stronger for boys than for girls. The authors discuss implications of these findings.

  7. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training. (United States)

    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R


    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT.

  8. Neuronal generator patterns at scalp elicited by lateralized aversive pictures reveal consecutive stages of motivated attention. (United States)

    Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E; Abraham, Karen S; Alschuler, Daniel M; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Skipper, Jamie; Warner, Virginia; Bruder, Gerard E; Weissman, Myrna M


    right-lateralized and modulated by hemifield, with larger amplitude and asymmetry for left hemifield (right hemisphere) presentations. For all three factors, more positive amplitudes at parietooccipital sites were associated with increased ratings of negative valence and greater arousal. Distributed inverse solutions of the CSD-PCA-based emotional effects implicated a sequence of maximal activations in right occipitotemporal cortex, bilateral posterior cingulate cortex, and bilateral inferior temporal cortex. These findings are consistent with hierarchical activations of the ventral visual pathway reflecting subsequent processing stages in response to motivationally salient stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch with Flexible AC Transmission System Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdarrazak OUALI


    Full Text Available Because their capability to change the network parameters with a rapid response and enhanced flexibility, flexible AC transmission system (FACTS devices have taken more attention in power systems operations as improvement of voltage profile and minimizing system losses. In this way, this paper presents a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA to solve optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD problem with FACTS devices. This nonlinear multi-objective problem (MOP consists to minimize simultaneously real power loss in transmission lines and voltage deviation at load buses, by tuning parameters and searching the location of FACTS devices. The constraints of this MOP are divided to equality constraints represented by load flow equations and inequality constraints such as, generation reactive power sources and security limits at load buses. Two types of FACTS devices, static synchronous series compensator (SSSC and unified power flow controller (UPFC are considered. A comparative study regarding the effects of an SSSC and an UPFC on voltage deviation and total transmission real losses is carried out. The design problem is tested on a 6-bus system.

  10. Relationships among goal orientations, motivational climate and flow in adolescent athletes: differences by gender. (United States)

    Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; González-Cutre Coll, David


    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships among perceived motivational climate, individuals' goal orientations, and dispositional flow, with attention to possible gender differences. A sample of 413 young athletes, ages 12 to 16 years, completed the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2) and Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), as well as the Dispositional Flow Scale. Task orientation was positively and significantly related to a perceived task-involving motivational climate and to the disposition to experience flow in the sport. Ego orientation was positively and significantly associated with a perceived ego-involving motivational climate and with dispositional flow. The perceptions of task-involving and ego-involving motivational climates were positively and significantly linked to general dispositional flow. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both task and ego goal orientations and perceived task- and ego-oriented climates predicted dispositional flow. Males displayed a stronger ego orientation, and were more likely to report that they participated in an ego-oriented climate, than did females. To the contrary, the females were more likely to perceive a task-oriented climate than did the males. No meaningful differences were found between males and females in general dispositional flow.

  11. Power Management Strategy by Enhancing the Mission Profile Configuration of Solar-Powered Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy Rajendran


    Full Text Available Solar energy offers solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV the possibility of unlimited endurance. Some researchers have developed techniques to achieve perpetual flight by maximizing the power from the sun and by flying in accordance with its azimuth angles. However, flying in a path that follows the sun consumes more energy to sustain level flight. This study optimizes the overall power ratio by adopting the mission profile configuration of optimal solar energy exploitation. Extensive simulation is conducted to optimize and restructure the mission profile phases of UAV and to determine the optimal phase definition of the start, ascent, and descent periods, thereby maximizing the energy from the sun. In addition, a vertical cylindrical flight trajectory instead of maximizing the solar inclination angle has been adopted. This approach improves the net power ratio by 30.84% compared with other techniques. As a result, the battery weight may be massively reduced by 75.23%. In conclusion, the proposed mission profile configuration with the optimal power ratio of the trajectory of the path planning effectively prolongs UAV operation.

  12. Electric toy vehicle powered by a PEMFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneito, Ruben; Vilaplana, Joaquin; Gisbert, Santiago [Technological Institute for Toy (AIJU), 03440 Ibi (Spain)


    The article describes the design and development of an electric toy vehicle powered by a fuel cell stack. The system consisted of a 150 W PEMFC stack powered by hydrogen/air, a tank of metal hydrides of AB (TiFe) alloy type with a capacity of 300 standard litres, for storing hydrogen, and an electronic power device based on electrolytic capacitors, to supply peak power demands during acceleration and start up of the vehicle. The air supply was provided by a fan preceded by a filter, and in a similar manner the stack was cooled by an air ventilation system. An electrovalve was used to supply H{sub 2} in dead-ended mode. All the components were integrated in the vehicle, and the prototype was tested in real working conditions, in a test bench and by children. (author)

  13. Power system reliability enhancement by using PowerformerTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat-Allah Hooshmand


    Full Text Available A high-voltage generator PowerformerTM is a new generation of the AC generators. The most significant advantages of these PowerformerTM are their direct connection to high-voltage grid, higher availability, and more reactive power margin, short term overloading capacity and removing the power transformer from the structure of the power plant. In this paper, the installation effect of these generators on the power system reliability is investigated. The amount of the effects depends on the type and location of the power plant, location of the PowerformerTM, the size of load and network topology. For this purpose, in the 6-bus IEEE RBTS system, the conventional generators are replaced by these new PowerformerTM and then, the reliability indices are evaluated. The simulation results show that the reliability indices such as the expected duration of load curtailment (EDLC and the expected energy not served (EENS are improved. .

  14. The Role of Implicit Motives in Strategic Decision-Making: Computational Models of Motivated Learning and the Evolution of Motivated Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick


    Full Text Available Individual behavioral differences in humans have been linked to measurable differences in their mental activities, including differences in their implicit motives. In humans, individual differences in the strength of motives such as power, achievement and affiliation have been shown to have a significant impact on behavior in social dilemma games and during other kinds of strategic interactions. This paper presents agent-based computational models of power-, achievement- and affiliation-motivated individuals engaged in game-play. The first model captures learning by motivated agents during strategic interactions. The second model captures the evolution of a society of motivated agents. It is demonstrated that misperception, when it is a result of motivation, causes agents with different motives to play a given game differently. When motivated agents who misperceive a game are present in a population, higher explicit payoff can result for the population as a whole. The implications of these results are discussed, both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents with certain salient behavioral characteristics.

  15. Powered by technology or powering technology?---Belief-based decision-making in nuclear power and synthetic fuel (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Jen

    The overarching question in this study is how and why technical-fixes in energy policy failed. In the post-WWII era, civilian nuclear power and synthetic fuel had both been top priorities on the U.S. national policy agenda during certain periods of time. Nuclear power was promoted and pursued persistently with great urgency for over two decades. In contrast, synthetic fuel policy suffered from boom-and-bust cycles. The juxtaposition of policy histories of nuclear power and synthetic fuel highlights many peculiarities in policymaking. The U.S. government forcefully and consistently endorsed the development of civilian nuclear power for two decades. It adopted policies to establish the competitiveness of civilian nuclear power far beyond what would have occurred under free-market conditions. Even though synthetic fuel was characterized by a similar level of economic potential and technical feasibility, the policy approach toward synthetic fuel was almost the opposite of nuclear power. Political support usually stopped when the development of synthetic fuel technology encountered economic difficulties. The contrast between the unfaltering faith in nuclear power and the indeterminate attitude toward synthetic fuel raises many important questions. I argue that these diverging paths of development can be explained by exploring the dominant government ideology of the time or "ideology of the state" as the sociology literature describes it. The price-determining approach was a result of government preoccupied with fighting the Cold War. The U.S. intentionally idealized and deified nuclear power to serve its Cold War psychological strategy. These psychological maneuverings attached important symbolic meaning to nuclear power. The society-wide enthusiasm and resulting bandwagon market are better understood by taking the role of symbolism in the political arena into account. On the other hand, a "welfare state" ideology that stood behind synthetic fuel was confused

  16. Wireless power transfer inspired by the modern trends in electromagnetics (United States)

    Song, Mingzhao; Belov, Pavel; Kapitanova, Polina


    Since the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been looking for an effective way to transfer power without wired connections, but the wireless power transfer technology started to attract extensive interest from the industry side only in 2007 when the first smartphone was released and a consumer electronics revolution was triggered. Currently, the modern technology of wireless power transfer already has a rich research and development history as well as outstanding advances in commercialization. This review is focused on the description of distinctive implementations of this technology inspired by the modern trends in electrodynamics. We compare the performances of the power transfer systems based on three kinds of resonators, i.e., metallic coil resonators, dielectric resonators, and cavity mode resonators. We argue that metamaterials and meta-atoms are powerful tools to improve the functionalities and to obtain novel properties of the systems. We review different approaches to enhance the functionality of the wireless power transfer systems including control of the power transfer path and increase of the operation range and efficiency. Various applications of wireless power transfer are discussed and currently available standards are reviewed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Marczak


    Full Text Available The use of modern vehicles may contribute to limiting the adverse impact of urban transport on the environment. Evaluation of options for choosing new means of transport in terms of economic and ecological benefits allows for the identification of the most advantageous variants. The solution is to consider replacing a bus compliant with a Euro III norm (base variant with a bus compliant with Euro VI (option 1 or with an electric bus (option 2. The evaluation of the solutions was based on the calculated parameters: a monetary value reflecting the energy cost of the analyzed buses and the ecological effect of the reduced emissions from the Euro VI bus and the electric bus compared with the Euro III vehicle. The ecological effect resulting from the use of the electric bus was determined taking into account emissions from fossil fuels (coal, natural gas and biomass. The method of cost analysis was used to evaluate the solution of replacing older buses with new ones (with different types of propulsion. It is based on calculating the unit cost of achieving the ecological effect of the solution.

  18. Ways to improve the environmental conditions of their buses in operation on passenger routes of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychuk S.V.


    Full Text Available The results of studies on operational and environmental parameters buses used on bus routes Zhitomir city. It uses statistical methods for determining the intensity of traffic, passenger traffic and ecology in traffic. To assess the environmental chosen stop with the greatest intensity of traffic, which is the probability of accumulation of pollution transport emissions that exceed permissible limits. Calculation of environmental pollution emission route for vehicles made stops street «Str. Hundreds of Heaven» «CUM», «vul. Hlibna» on the main trunk street Kievska. Results obtained environmental field experiments compared with the data defined calculation methods, based on the proposed use appropriate operational vehicles. The conclusions that indicate the seriousness of the problem and the urgency to address it. The system of environmental safety and road safety in Zhitomir requires significant improvements due to the increased quantities bus vehicles plying city routes. Recommendations to improve the ecological condition of intersections can be developed through the optimization of traffic using buses with environmentally improved operating parameters. Keywords: environmental and operational parameters; ecological safety; environmental assessment; intensity of traffic; passenger traffic; environmental conditions; operation; bus choice; stop.

  19. Enhancing power generation of floating wave power generators by utilization of nonlinear roll-pitch coupling (United States)

    Yerrapragada, Karthik; Ansari, M. H.; Karami, M. Amin


    We propose utilization of the nonlinear coupling between the roll and pitch motions of wave energy harvesting vessels to increase their power generation by orders of magnitude. Unlike linear vessels that exhibit unidirectional motion, our vessel undergoes both pitch and roll motions in response to frontal waves. This significantly magnifies the motion of the vessel and thus improves the power production by several orders of magnitude. The ocean waves result in roll and pitch motions of the vessel, which in turn causes rotation of an onboard pendulum. The pendulum is connected to an electric generator to produce power. The coupled electro-mechanical system is modeled using energy methods. This paper investigates the power generation of the vessel when the ratio between pitch and roll natural frequencies is about 2 to 1. In that case, a nonlinear energy transfer occurs between the roll and pitch motions, causing the vessel to perform coupled pitch and roll motion even though it is only excited in the pitch direction. It is shown that co-existence of pitch and roll motions significantly enhances the pendulum rotation and power generation. A method for tuning the natural frequencies of the vessel is proposed to make the energy generator robust to variations of the frequency of the incident waves. It is shown that the proposed method enhances the power output of the floating wave power generators by multiple orders of magnitude. A small-scale prototype is developed for the proof of concept. The nonlinear energy transfer and the full rotation of the pendulum in the prototype are observed in the experimental tests.

  20. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Millonig


    Full Text Available Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics on mobility decision processes (e.g. mode and route choice. Based on theoretical findings concerning player types and mobility styles we developed a framework for identifying effective game mechanics motivating users to explore mobility alternatives and take more informed and more sustainable mode or route choice decisions. The results will form the basis for implementing game mechanics in mobility information services motivating users to explore unfamiliar but more sustainable mobility options.

  1. "Why we stay": immigrants' motivations for remaining in communities impacted by anti-immigration policy. (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R; Lewis Valentine, Jessa; Padilla, Brian


    Although restrictive immigration policy is intended to reduce incentives for unauthorized immigrants to remain in the United States, many immigrants remain in their U.S. community despite the anti-immigration climate surrounding them. This study explores motivations shaping immigrants' intentions to stay in Arizona after passage of Senate Bill 1070 in 2010, one of the most restrictive immigration policies in recent decades. We conducted three focus groups in a large metropolitan city in Arizona with Mexican immigrant parents (N = 25). Themes emerging from the focus groups described multiple and interlocking personal, family and community, and contemporary sociopolitical motivations to stay in their community, and suggest that some important motivating factors have evolved as a result of immigrants' changing environment. Implications for research and social policy reform are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Students' Perceptions of Rewards for Academic Performance by Parents and Teachers: Relations with Achievement and Motivation in College (United States)

    Davis, Kelly D.; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael


    In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N = 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for…

  3. Motivational Factors and Worldview Dimensions Associated with Perceptions of Global Education Initiatives by U.S. College Professors (United States)

    Jean Francois, Emmanuel


    The purpose of this study was to investigate motivational factors and worldview dimensions associated with perceptions of global education initiatives by college professors in the United States. The concept of "perceptions of global education initiatives" is used in this study to refer to attitudes toward institutional support for global…

  4. Why Start a Higher Degree by Research? An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Motivations to Undertake Doctoral Studies (United States)

    Guerin, Cally; Jayatilaka, Asangi; Ranasinghe, Damith


    Despite the increasing numbers of candidates embarking on higher degrees by research (HDRs, e.g., PhD, professional doctorate, practice-based doctorate), we still have limited knowledge about why they are choosing this path. What are the factors that motivate students to embark on research degrees? Given that many of those who succeed in…

  5. Affordances, Barriers, and Motivations: Engagement in Research Activity by Academics at the Research-Oriented University in Vietnam (United States)

    Nguyen, Quy; Klopper, Christopher; Smith, Calvin


    The importance of academics undertaking research and publishing their research results is emphasised by universities. Engagement in research is recognised as an effective means to increase a university's profile. This study applied a qualitative approach to explore affordances, barriers, and motivations towards the engagement in research…

  6. Water Vapour Propulsion Powered by a High-Power Laser-Diode (United States)

    Minami, Y.; Uchida, S.

    Most of the laser propulsion schemes now being proposed and developed assume neither power supplies nor on-board laser devices and therefore are bound to remote laser stations like a kite via a laser beam “string”. This is a fatal disadvantage for a space vehicle that flies freely though it is often said that no need of installing an energy source is an advantage of a laser propulsion scheme. The possibility of an independent laser propulsion space vehicle that carries a laser source and a power supply on board is discussed. This is mainly due to the latest development of high power laser diode (LD) technology. Both high specific impulse-low thrust mode and high thrust-low specific impulse mode can be selected by controlling the laser output by using vapour or water as a propellant. This mode change can be performed by switching between a high power continuous wave (cw), LD engine for high thrust with a low specific impulse mode and high power LD pumping Q-switched Nd:YAG laser engine for low thrust with the high specific impulse mode. This paper describes an Orbital Transfer Vehicle equipped with the above-mentioned laser engine system and fuel cell that flies to the Moon from a space platform or space hotel in Earth orbit, with cargo shipment from lunar orbit to the surface of the Moon, including the possibility of a sightseeing trip.

  7. Optimal integrated scheduling of distributed energy resources in power systems by virtual power plant. (United States)

    Kasaei, Mohammad Javad; Gandomkar, Majid; Nikoukar, Javad


    Due to many environmental and economic influences, the application of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) such as Photovoltaic (PV), Wind Turbine (WT), Fuel Cell (FC), and Micro Turbine (MT) have quickly been increased. The rapid growth of the RESs has provided both advantages and disadvantages for the power systems. In the side of advantages, lower environmental pollution, less power losses and better power quality and in the side of disadvantages, intermittent nature of RESs and higher uncertainties that cause the variable generation and uncertainty in distribution systems can be mentioned. Under this condition, an idea to solve problems due to the variable outputs of these resources is to aggregate them altogether. A collection of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), energy storage devices and controllable loads which are aggregated and then are managed by an Energy Management System (EMS) and can operate as a single power plant is called Virtual Power Plant (VPP). This paper proposes a meta-heuristic optimization method based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA), to minimize the total operating cost by VPP, considering energy loss cost in a 24h time interval. In order to see the effectiveness and satisfying performance of the proposed algorithm a case study including RESs, storage battery and controllable loads is studied as test system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Motor Drive Technologies for the Power-by-Wire (PBW) Program: Options, Trends and Tradeoffs (United States)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David


    Power-By-Wire (PBW) is a program involving the replacement of hydraulic and pneumatic systems currently used in aircraft with an all-electric secondary power system. One of the largest loads of the all-electric secondary power system will be the motor loads which include pumps, compressors and Electrical Actuators (EA's). Issues of improved reliability, reduced maintenance and efficiency, among other advantages, are the motivation for replacing the existing aircraft actuators with electrical actuators. An EA system contains four major components. These are the motor, the power electronic converters, the actuator and the control system, including the sensors. This paper is a comparative literature review in motor drive technologies, with a focus on the trends and tradeoffs involved in the selection of a particular motor drive technology. The reported research comprises three motor drive technologies. These are the induction motor (IM), the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) and the switched reluctance motor (SRM). Each of the three drives has the potential for application in the PBW program. Many issues remain to be investigated and compared between the three motor drives, using actual mechanical loads expected in the PBW program.

  9. The Perception of Same Gender Coaches by Iranian Skaters and its Influence on Sport Achievement Motivation and Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the relationship between the perception of same gender coaches by male and female Iranian skaters and their sport achievement motivation and commitment. Participants: Fifty two female and forty two male skaters, age range 13 to 18 years, from the province of Isfahan in Iran. Materials: The following 3 questionnaires, tested for reliability and validity for the Iranian population and adapted for Farsi, were used: i Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand and Briere (2001 Interpersonal Behaviour Scale to measure social support of trainers, ii Gill and Deeter (1988 Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ to measure achievement motivation, and iii Scanlan, Simons, Car penter, Schmidt and Keeler (1993 Sport Commitment Model to measure sport commitment. Procedure: The questionnaires were administered to participants in person by the first author after training sessions in sport stadiums. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between perceived coaches' social support and sport achievement motivation and commitment for both male and female participants. However, on all of the above measures females scored significantly more positive ratings than their male c ounterparts. Results of regression analyses conducted separately for males and females showed that relatedness support is the strongest predictor for sport achievement motivation and commitment for males, whereas autonomy support was the strongest predicto r for sport commitment amongst females. Implications: These findings are of particular interest in understanding the impact of perceived coaching support for young male and female athletes, especially if coached exclusively by the same gender.

  10. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel


    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  11. Using a partner's facial emotion to elucidate social dominance motivation induced by an SSRI. (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Chow, H; Wing, Y K; Bond, Alyson J


    Previous studies independently showed that acute treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) enhanced happy face recognition, and dominance behaviors which might reflect enhancement of reward sensitivity. The present study aimed to determine whether such a mechanism would be related to social resource acquisition induced by an SSRI. Forty healthy subjects were recruited for the experiment. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover nested within confederate type (happy, fearful, or sad) trial of a single-dose of 10mg escitalopram versus placebo was conducted with a two-week washout period. In each of the treatment groups, the subjects interacted socially with one of the three types of confederate in a waiting room for 3-minute. Then, they went to an individual laboratory and were led to believe that they played the Mixed-motive game with the confederate. The game measures punitive/cooperative behaviors by how participants allocate higher/lower game scores to the confederate and communicate cooperation/ingratiation/helplessness/sadness/blaming/extrapunitive, messages to the confederate. Significant treatment-by-confederate type interactions were observed through game score distributions and ingratiation messages to the confederate and attentive eye gaze. In the happy confederate condition, escitalopram increased ingratiation messages and lowered points awarded to the confederate. In the fearful confederate condition, escitalopram increased ingratiation messages and reduced time spent looking away from the confederate. No changes in these measures were found in the sad confederate condition. Therefore acute escitalopram treatment enhances reward sensitivity to the facial emotions of social partners which in turn increases social resource acquisition and social dominance towards happy but not fearful social partners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between Learning Strategies and Motivation by Using Structural Equation Modeling Approach (United States)

    Adnan, Mohamad Azrien Mohamed; Nordin, Mohd Sahari; Ibrahim, Mohd Burhan


    This paper aimed at examining the learning strategies constructs and to investigate the relationship between learning strategies and motivation in Arabic courses. The study uses a questionnaire as the information-gathering instrument, and the participants comprised students from two public universities in Peninsular Malaysia who are studying…

  13. Nostalgia motivates pursuit of important goals by increasing meaning in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Wildschut, Tim


    This research focused on existential and motivational implications of the emotion of nostalgia. Nostalgia (relative to control) increased meaning in life, which, in turn, galvanised intentions to pursue one's most important goal (Experiment 1) and to pursue one's most important, but not least...

  14. Motivation for Knowledge Sharing by Expert Participants in Company-Hosted Online User Communities (United States)

    Cheng, Jingli


    Company-hosted online user communities are increasingly popular as firms continue to search for ways to provide their customers with high quality and reliable support in a low cost and scalable way. Yet, empirical understanding of motivations for knowledge sharing in this type of online communities is lacking, especially with regard to an…

  15. Motivated by Meaning: Testing the Effect of Knowledge-Infused Rewards on Preschoolers' Persistence (United States)

    Alvarez, Aubry L.; Booth, Amy E.


    Research and theory suggest that young children are highly attuned to causality. This study explores whether this drive can motivate task engagement. Fifty-six 3- and 4-year-olds completed a motor task as many times as desired, viewing a picture of a novel item upon each completion. Forty-two randomly assigned children then received either: (a)…

  16. Engaging Online Adult Learners in Higher Education: Motivational Factors Impacted by Gender, Age, and Prior Experiences (United States)

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wenhao David


    As the number of online degree programs continues to grow among higher education institutions in the United States, engaging online adult learners to online degree programs is getting more difficult than before. Therefore, this study, situated in a land grant university, investigated the motivational factors that contribute to adult learners'…

  17. Assessing Learner Satisfaction by Simultaneously Measuring Learner Attitude, Motivation, Loyalty and Service Quality in English Academies (United States)

    Huong, Vu Thi; Casadesus, Marti; Marimon, Frederic


    The aims of this study are threefold in their approach to English academy teaching: (i) to assess learner satisfaction, (ii) to assess the impact of satisfaction on loyalty and (iii) to assess the three constructs that we considered to be the antecedents of learner satisfaction: learner motivation, learner attitude and service quality. To collect…

  18. The proton motive force generated in Leuconostoc oenos by L-malate fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salema, Madalena; Lolkema, Juke S.; San Romão, M.V.; Loureiro Dias, Maria C.

    In cells of Leuconostoc oenos, the fermentation of L-malic acid generates both a transmembrane pH gradient, inside alkaline, and an electrical potential gradient, inside negative. In resting cells, the proton motive force ranged from -170 mV to -88 mV between pH 3.1 and 5.6 in the presence of

  19. Motivational interviewing by general practitioners for Type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review. (United States)

    Thepwongsa, Isaraporn; Muthukumar, Radhakrishnan; Kessomboon, Pattapong


    Motivational interviewing (MI) is an effective tool to help clinicians with facilitating behavioural changes in many diseases and conditions. However, different forms of MI are required in different health care settings and for different clinicians. Although general practitioners (GPs) play a major role in Type 2 diabetes management, the effects of MI delivered by GPs intended to change the behaviours of their Type 2 diabetes patients and GP outcomes, defined as GP knowledge, satisfaction and practice behaviours, have not been systematically reviewed. An electronic search was conducted through Cochrane Library, Scopus, ProQuest, Wiley Online Library, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE Complete and Google Scholar from the earliest date of each database to 2017. Reference lists from each article obtained were reviewed. Measured changes in GP satisfaction, knowledge, and practice behaviours, and patient outcomes were recorded. Eight out of 1882 studies met the criteria for inclusion. Six studies examined the effects of MI on Type 2 diabetes patient outcomes, only one of which examined its effects on GP outcomes. Two-thirds of the studies (4/6) found a significant improvement in at least one of the following patient outcomes: total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference and physical activity. The effects of MI on GP outcomes yielded mixed results. Few studies have examined evidence for the effectiveness of MI delivered by GPs to Type 2 diabetes patients. Evidence to support the effectiveness of MI on GP and patient outcomes is weak. Further quality studies are needed to examine the effects of MI on GP and patient outcomes.

  20. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig


    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...... commitment is moderated by the implicit power motivation of the bank manager....

  1. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Kasturi, S. [MOS, Inc., Melville, NY (United States)


    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant`s electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant`s protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well.

  2. Motivating smokers in the hospital pulmonary function laboratory to quit smoking by use of the lung age concept. (United States)

    Kaminsky, David A; Marcy, Theodore; Dorwaldt, Anne; Pinckney, Richard; DeSarno, Michael; Solomon, Laura; Hughes, John R


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of lung age to motivate a quit attempt among smokers presenting to a hospital pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratory. Participants were randomized to receive a lung age-based motivational strategy (intervention group) versus standard care (control group). At 1 month, all participants were interviewed by telephone to determine whether they made a quit attempt. A total of 67 participants were enrolled, and 51 completed the study. Baseline mean data included age = 52 years, 70% women, 40 pack-years of smoking, FEV(1) = 69% predicted, and lung age = 83 years. The quit attempt rates were not different between the intervention and control groups (32% vs. 24%, respectively, p = .59). There was a near significant interaction between lung age and intervention strategy (p = .089), with quit attempt rates among those with normal lung age of 18% in the intervention group versus 33% in the control group and among those with high (worse) lung age of 39% in the intervention group versus 17% in the control group; p = .38. Using lung age to motivate smokers presenting to the PFT laboratory to quit may succeed in patients with high lung age but may undermine motivation in smokers with normal lung age. Further work is needed to refine the approach to smokers with normal lung age.

  3. Research of the Electron Cyclotron Emission with Vortex Property excited by high power high frequency Gyrotron (United States)

    Goto, Yuki; Kubo, Shin; Tsujimura, Tohru; Takubo, Hidenori


    Recently, it has been shown that the radiation from a single electron in cyclotron motion has vortex property. Although the cyclotron emission exists universally in nature, the vortex property has not been featured because this property is normally cancelled out due to the randomness in gyro-phase of electrons and the development of detection of the vortex property has not been well motivated. In this research, we are developing a method to generate the vortex radiation from electrons in cyclotron motion with controlled gyro-phase. Electron that rotates around the uniform static magnetic field is accelerated by right-hand circular polarized (RHCP) radiation resonantly when the cyclotron frequency coincides with the applied RHCP radiation frequency. A large number of electrons can be coherently accelerated in gyro-phase by a RHCP high power radiation so that these electrons can radiate coherent emission with vortex feature. We will show that vortex radiation created by purely rotating electrons for the first time.

  4. Power Transmission by Optical Fibers for Component Inherent Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dumke


    Full Text Available The use of optical fibers for power transmission has been investigated intensely. An optically powered device combined with optical data transfer offers several advantages compared to systems using electrical connections. Optical transmission systems consist of a light source, a transmission medium and a light receiver. The overall system performance depends on the efficiency of opto-electronic converter devices, temperature and illumination dependent losses, attenuation of the transmission medium and coupling between transmitter and fiber. This paper will summarize the state of the art for optically powered systems and will discuss reasons for negative influences on efficiency. Furthermore, an outlook on power transmission by the use of a new technology for creating polymer optical fibers (POF via micro dispensing will be given. This technology is capable to decrease coupling losses by direct contacting of opto-electronic devices.

  5. Self-Monitoring of On-Task Behaviors Using the MotivAider® by a Middle School Student with a Moderate Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Boswell, M. Alison; Knight, Victoria; Spriggs, Amy D.


    This investigation used an ABAB withdrawal design to determine the effect of self-monitoring using the MotivAider® (MotivAider, 2000) on percentage of intervals of on-task behavior by an 11-year old male with a moderate intellectual disability who attended a rural middle school. The MotivAider® is a small device, the size of a pager, which can be…

  6. Study of Environmental Impact by Coal-Fired Power Station (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Koji; Ogaki, Mituharu; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki

    The Tachibana-wan coal-fired power station was constructed on land that was reclaimed using the soil that came from cutting through half of a small island while balancing the amount of soil. The power station has been generating for three years. When the electric utility provider projected the power station, it must have conducted an environmental impact assessment, and studied the environmental preservation measures. Moreover, after the power generation began, an environmental investigation was done as a follow up survey to study the environmental impact by the power station based on its construction and use. To study the environmental impact with smoke, the environmental density of sulfur dioxide around the power station was investigated. It fell below the environmental standards at all the environmental measurement points during this investigation. Moreover, a big difference was not seen before and after the beginning of the power generation and the change in these data was in the normal range. As a result of the environmental impact assessment, the contribution density of the power station was near the quantitative limit and a low value. To study the environmental impact with warm wastewater, the water temperature in the bay was investigated. A big difference was not generally seen before and after the beginning of the power generation though the water temperature slowly rose at the discharge point of the warm wastewater but the change of these data was in the normal range. As for the environmental impact, a clear judgment was difficult only from the environmental investigation. It is necessary to set a new environmental indicator to judge the environmental impact. Moreover, as for a new environmental assessment system, it is necessary to introduce a strategic environmental assessment.

  7. Women, Motivation, and Achievement. (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley; Kling, Kristen C.


    Reviews psychological research on motivation and educational achievement, discussing gender and contributions by feminist researchers. Feminist psychologists note sex bias and methodological flaws in traditional research on achievement motivation, proposing improved models (Eccles' expectancy x value model of achievement behavior). Contrary to…

  8. The Physiology of Motivation. (United States)

    Stellar, Eliot


    A theory of the physiology of motivation is presented. The basic assumption is that the amount of motivated behavior is a direct function of the amount of activity in certain excitatory centers of the hypothalamus. Activities of these centers are determined by factors in four general classes. (SLD)

  9. Pedagogical terms of correction of motive sphere of persons of ripe years with the purchased blindness by facilities of playing activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemkina V.I.


    Full Text Available The problem of correction of motive sphere of adults blind facilities of playing activity is considered. The pedagogical terms of correction of motive sphere of adults with the purchased blindness are considered. In experiment took part blind adults at the age 22-35 years. It is set that correction-developing teaching the motive actions of blind adults must be concertedly with the level of their development and the differentiated individual approach is foreseen. It is recommended to be oriented on the level of general development of these people, exposure of their potential and actual motive possibilities. It is well-proven that systematic application of facilities of motive activity is provided by the valuable mastering of vitally important motions, development of motive capabilities and capacity for an orientation in space.

  10. Parameterizing Plasmaspheric Hiss Wave Power by Plasmapause Location (United States)

    Malaspina, D.; Jaynes, A. N.; Boule, C.; Bortnik, J.; Thaller, S. A.; Ergun, R.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.


    Plasmaspheric hiss is a superposition of electromagnetic whistler-mode waves largely confined within the plasmasphere, the cold plasma torus surrounding Earth. Hiss plays an important role in radiation belt dynamics by pitch angle scattering electrons for a wide range of electron energies (10's of keV to > 1 MeV) which can result in their loss to the atmosphere. This interaction is often included in predictive models of radiation belt dynamics using statistical hiss wave power distributions derived from observations. However, the traditional approach to creating these distributions parameterizes hiss power by L-parameter (e.g. MacIlwain L, dipole L, or L*) and a geomagnetic index (e.g. DST or AE). Such parameterization introduces spatial averaging of dissimilar wave power radial profiles, resulting in heavily smoothed wave power distributions. This work instead parameterizes hiss wave power distributions using plasmapause location and distance from the plasmapause. Using Van Allen Probes data and these new parameterizations, previously unreported and highly repeatable features of the hiss wave power distribution become apparent. These features include: (1) The highest amplitude hiss wave power is concentrated over a narrower range of L than previous studies have indicated, and (2) the location of the peak in hiss wave power is determined by the plasmapause location, occurring at a consistent standoff distance Earthward of the plasmapause. Based on these features, parameterizing hiss using the plasmapause location and distance from the plasmapause may shed new light on hiss generation and propagation physics, as well as serve to improve the parameterization of hiss in predictive models of the radiation belts.

  11. Energy Saving and Efficient Energy Use By Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai; Davari, Pooya


    In the development of the modern society, one of the key factors is to save energy in order to become more independent of other energy resources. Two important approaches can be taken—one is to change behavior and thereby save energy—the second one is to develop new technology which is able to save...... energy in different applications. This chapter will give an overview of challenges and possibilities in terms of energy saving and also energy efficient use. This includes a discussion on high efficiency power electronics devices and the systems they are used for energy loss reduction. The key enabling...... technologies are power electronics, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as well as systems to carry the electrical energy through power transmission, conversion and distribution. A couple of examples will be given to demonstrate the energy saving possibilities by power electronics systems...

  12. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers. (United States)

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu


    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future.

  13. Enhancing work motivation for Japanese female nurses in small to medium-sized private hospitals by analyzing job satisfaction. (United States)

    Kudo, Yasushi; Kido, Shigeri; Shahzad, Machiko Taruzuka; Shida, Kyoko; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu


    Proper work environments are important for nurses to feel motivated. We examined the associations between work motivation and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses to improve their motivation. In Japan, relatively small and medium-sized private hospitals play a central role in the healthcare industry. In the present study, the subjects were nurses working in 23 small and medium-sized private hospitals that had 65 to 326 beds. We analyzed 1,116 registered and licensed practical female nurses (average age, 38.3 years; standard deviation, 11.3 years). Many nurses with their specialized nursing skills dedicate themselves to patient care. However, many of these nurses may not be interested in contributing to their hospitals. Nurses may have different opinions regarding dedication to patient care and contribution to their hospitals. Therefore, concerning work motivation, we produced these two different items, "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals." We also produced our own original new job satisfaction questionnaire. We found 7 facets of job satisfaction: "Work as specialists," "Workplace safety," "Relationships with superiors," "Work-life balance," "Relationships among nurses," "Communications with physicians," and "Salary." Multiple linear regression analyses show that both "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals" were significantly associated with "Work as specialists." Nurses feel their jobs of protecting people's lives and health are valuable. They do not feel motivated only by money. They value the intrinsic nature of their jobs. Creating proper work environments is important for nurses to be able to work as specialists.

  14. Systems and methods for an integrated electrical sub-system powered by wind energy (United States)

    Liu, Yan [Ballston Lake, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY


    Various embodiments relate to systems and methods related to an integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system including a wind power source, an electrically-powered sub-system coupled to and at least partially powered by the wind power source, the electrically-powered sub-system being coupled to the wind power source through power converters, and a supervisory controller coupled to the wind power source and the electrically-powered sub-system to monitor and manage the integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system.

  15. CEO Power and Auditor Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ouyang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the impact of CEO power on auditor choice. We are motivated by the competing financial reporting incentives arising from CEO power. Our empirical finding suggests that powerful CEOs are more likely to hire high-quality auditors as a signal of superior financial reporting quality. We contribute to the literature of auditor switch and extend the research on the links between CEO power and firm behaviors.

  16. Contracting and subcontracting by the French nuclear power industry. (United States)

    Thébaud-Mony, A


    The French nuclear power industry contracts out 80% of the maintenance work in its plants to independent companies. The workers in these companies are seldom protected by unions or by government regulations. The average dose of radiation received by such a worker is four times that received by a permanent employee of the contracting entity. As the contract worker approaches a specified dose limit, he is laid off, with no support other than welfare and no compensation for medical expenses that may arise as a result of the radiation exposure or occupational stress. There is a danger that this pattern of worker exploitation will spread as nuclear power plants proliferate around the world.

  17. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...

  18. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.


    , and quenching one’s thirst. The non-alcoholic products scoring low on functionality are coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Analysis of socio-demographic differences resulted in only a few effects. Men, lower education groups, and lower income groups are more likely to drink alcohol for reasons other......This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional....... This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  19. Motivational Factors Affecting the Integration of a Learning Management System by Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gautreau


    Full Text Available Online courses taught using a learning management system are common in higher education. Teaching online requires a new set of skills, knowledge, and professional growth. Faculty development programs often overlook factors that promote or inhibit the use of technologies among professors. This study identified the motivation factors that faculty consider relevant to their personal decision to adopt a learning management system. A needs assessment evaluation methodology was applied to investigate two research questions. The first question analyzed the demographics of the participants in this study including gender, age, tenure status, department, and years of experience using a technology and using an LMS. The second research question investigated the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that motivate faculty to adopt a learning management system in their instruction. Participants (N = 42 were tenured and tenure track faculty instructing at a four-year public university in California.

  20. Motivating Students to Learn English by Responding to their Interests and Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Aguilar Magda


    Full Text Available I observed that students from Barranquillita public school had a great lack of motivation, low interest in learning English and they did not like to interact in English class. They presumed that they could not learn a second language and it was not useful for them because they only wanted to finish school in order to go to work. In view of this, I considered it necessary to know my students´needs, likes, learning styles, preferences and dislikes better in order to design activities that would motivate their interest to learn English. Taking into account this issue, I decided to give my students the possibility to have contact and experience in the English language in order to increase their communicative competence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naid Kadušić


    Full Text Available Sports psychology, motivation and philosophy are integral part of every team. They make progress in training and contest possible. Psychology helps us to control the mind and body of a player in order to give optimum sporting performance. It is crucial to know how to motivate a player, as well as a team, since a team takes all credits for winning. A special care needs to be taken into account when it comes to preferences, ideas, emotions of players, a team and a coach, of course. There is sports philosphy also, which includes goal setting, behavioural characteristics at the moments of failure, as well as taking into account when, where and at what point to use the philosophy for winning.


    Fragale, Christina L; O'Reilly, Mark F; Aguilar, Jeannie; Pierce, Nigel; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio


    We investigated the influence of motivating operations on the generalization of newly taught mands across settings and communication partners for 3 children with autism. Two conditions were implemented prior to generalization probes. In the first condition, participants were given access to a preferred item until they rejected the item (i.e., abolishing operation). In the second condition, the item was not available to participants prior to generalization probes (i.e., establishing operation). The effects of these conditions on the generalization of newly taught mands were evaluated in a multielement design. Results indicated differentiated responding during generalization probes in which more manding with the target mand was observed following the presession no-access condition than in the presession access condition. These results support the consideration of motivating operations when assessing generalization of target mands to various untrained contexts. PMID:23060669

  3. Peel-and-Stick Sensors Powered by Directed RF Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalau-Keraly, Christopher; Daniel, George; Lee, Joseph; Schwartz, David


    PARC, a Xerox Company, is developing a low-cost system of peel-and-stick wireless sensors that will enable widespread building environment sensor deployment with the potential to deliver up to 30% energy savings. The system is embodied by a set of RF hubs that provide power to automatically located sensor nodes, and relay data wirelessly to the building management system (BMS). The sensor nodes are flexible electronic labels powered by rectified RF energy transmitted by an RF hub and can contain multiple printed and conventional sensors. The system design overcomes limitations in wireless sensors related to power delivery, lifetime, and cost by eliminating batteries and photovoltaic devices. Sensor localization is performed automatically by the inclusion of a programmable multidirectional antenna array in the RF hub. Comparison of signal strengths while the RF beam is swept allows for sensor localization, reducing installation effort and enabling automatic recommissioning of sensors that have been relocated, overcoming a significant challenge in building operations. PARC has already demonstrated wireless power and temperature data transmission up to a distance of 20m with less than one minute between measurements, using power levels well within the FCC regulation limits in the 902-928 MHz ISM band. The sensor’s RF energy harvesting antenna achieves high performance with dimensions below 5cm x 9cm



    Dobrinka M. Damyanova; Vladimir E. Panov; Sirma T. Angelova


    Background: Providing and maintaining proper oral hygiene is related with the control of initiation and progression of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Objective: To accentuate on the application and effectiveness of standardized motivational program for oral hygiene in children with assessment of OHI-S Green-Vermillion. Methods: The study includes 200 children from 3 to 6 years of age. Comparison and evaluation of effectiveness of toothpastes with different fluoride concentrat...



    Shrestha, Kabin


    The aim of this thesis was to study the motivational factors for using wild foods in the restaurants around Vaasa and how the restaurants in Vaasa view forest grown food ingredients. The wild food ingredients mean the foods grown in the forest themselves and they are allowed to use from consumption point of view. The major grown food ingredients are wild berries, wild mushrooms, game animals and fish. This thesis primarily focused on the sustainable food consumption along with the use of fore...

  6. Achieving new levels of recall in consent to research by combining remedial and motivational techniques. (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Clements, Nicolle T


    Research supports the efficacy of both a remedial consent procedure (corrected feedback (CF)) and a motivational consent procedure (incentives) for improving recall of informed consent to research. Although these strategies were statistically superior to standard consent, effects were modest and not clinically significant. This study examines a combined incentivised consent and CF procedure that simplifies the cognitive task and increases motivation to learn consent information. We randomly assigned 104 individuals consenting to an unrelated host study to a consent as usual (CAU) condition (n=52) or an incentivised CF (ICF) condition (n=52). All participants were told they would be quizzed on their consent recall following their baseline assessment and at 4 monthly follow-ups. ICF participants were also informed that they would earn $5 for each correct answer and receive CF as needed. Quiz scores in the two conditions did not differ at the first administration (p=0.39, d=0.2); however, ICF scores were significantly higher at each subsequent administration (second: p=0.003, Cohen's d=0.6; third: p<0.0001, d=1.4; fourth: p<0.0001, d=1.6; fifth: p<0.0001, d=1.8). The ICF procedure increased consent recall from 72% to 83%, compared with the CAU condition in which recall decreased from 69% to 59%. This supports the statistical and clinical utility of a combined remedial and motivational consent procedure for enhancing recall of study information and human research protections.

  7. Temperature and Humidity Sensor Powered by an Individual Microbial Fuel Cell in a Power Management System. (United States)

    Zheng, Qi; Xiong, Lei; Mo, Bing; Lu, Weihong; Kim, Suki; Wang, Zhenyu


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are of increasing interest as bioelectrochemical systems for decomposing organic materials and converting chemical energy into electricity. The main challenge for this technology is that the low power and voltage of the devices restricts the use of MFCs in practical applications. In this paper, a power management system (PMS) is developed to store the energy and export an increased voltage. The designed PMS successfully increases the low voltage generated by an individual MFC to a high potential of 5 V, capable of driving a wireless temperature and humidity sensor based on nRF24L01 data transmission modules. With the PMS, MFCs can intermittently power the sensor for data transmission to a remote receiver. It is concluded that even an individual MFC can supply the energy required to power the sensor and telemetry system with the designed PMS. The presented PMS can be widely used for unmanned environmental monitoring such as wild rivers, lakes, and adjacent water areas, and offers promise for further advances in MFC technology.

  8. Temperature and Humidity Sensor Powered by an Individual Microbial Fuel Cell in a Power Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zheng


    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are of increasing interest as bioelectrochemical systems for decomposing organic materials and converting chemical energy into electricity. The main challenge for this technology is that the low power and voltage of the devices restricts the use of MFCs in practical applications. In this paper, a power management system (PMS is developed to store the energy and export an increased voltage. The designed PMS successfully increases the low voltage generated by an individual MFC to a high potential of 5 V, capable of driving a wireless temperature and humidity sensor based on nRF24L01 data transmission modules. With the PMS, MFCs can intermittently power the sensor for data transmission to a remote receiver. It is concluded that even an individual MFC can supply the energy required to power the sensor and telemetry system with the designed PMS. The presented PMS can be widely used for unmanned environmental monitoring such as wild rivers, lakes, and adjacent water areas, and offers promise for further advances in MFC technology.

  9. Racionalização do uso de força motriz em fábrica de ração Management of motive power use in animal feed industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Teixeira


    granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pi Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%. To achieve this goal it is also necessary: (i to adjust relays and to choose fuses, (ii to schedule operation and (iii to build storage facilities.

  10. Assessing factors causing severe injuries in crashes of high-deck buses in long-distance driving on freeways. (United States)

    Chu, Hsing-Chung


    High-deck buses that have a higher center of gravity traveling at an excessive speed have a higher likelihood of causing serious and fatal accidents when drivers lose control of the vehicle. In addition, drivers who suffer from fatigue in long-distance driving increase the likelihood of serious accident. This paper examines the effects of risk factors contributing to severe crashes associated with high-deck buses used for long-distance driving on freeways. An ordered logit and latent class models are used to examine significant factors on the severity of injuries in crashes related to high-deck buses. Driver fatigue, drivers or passengers not wearing a seat belt, reckless driving, drunk driving, crashes occurred between midnight and dawn, and crashes occurred at interchange ramps were found to significantly affect the severity of injuries in crashes involving high-deck buses. Safety policies to prevent severe injuries in crashes involving high deck buses used for long-distance runs on freeways include: (1) restricting drivers from exceeding the limit of daily driving hours and mandating sufficient rest breaks; (2) installing an automatic sleep-warning device in the vehicle; (3) drivers with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or sleep disorders should be tested and treated before they are allowed to perform long hours of driving tasks; (4) educating the public or even amending the seatbelt legislation to require all passengers to wear a seat belt and thus reduce the chance of ejection from a high-deck bus and prevent serious injuries in a crash while traveling at a higher speed on freeways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Power oscillation damping by a converter-based power generation device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    output power to the power output. The power generation park further comprises a controller being configured for receiving an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in the electricity network, the controller being further configured for providing a damping control signal...... in response to the oscillation indicating signal; the converter device being configured for modulating the electrical output power in response to the damping control signal so as to damp the power oscillation in the electricity network....

  12. Evaluating motivational interviewing to promote breastfeeding by rural Mexican-American mothers: the challenge of attrition. (United States)

    Wilhelm, Susan L; Aguirre, Trina M; Koehler, Ann E; Rodehorst, T Kim


    Although most Hispanic/Latino-American mothers initiate breastfeeding, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding remain low. We explored whether a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention could help rural Mexican-American mothers continue breastfeeding. We used a two-group (MI intervention n = 26, attention control [AC] n = 27) repeated measures experimental design. Assessments and interventions occurred at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postpartum (time points when mothers are particularly vulnerable to discontinuing breastfeeding), with a final phone assessment at 6 months postpartum. We collected demographic data and measured intent to breastfeed for 6 months (intent question), self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form), and collected breastfeeding information (breastfeeding assessment questionnaire). Independent t-tests and Mann Whitney U non-parametric tests were used to evaluate group differences (α = 0.05). High levels of attrition by week 6 impaired our ability to evaluate the potential of our MI intervention. No significant differences were found between groups for any of the outcome variables (intent to breastfeed for 6 months, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and duration of breastfeeding). Though the mothers intended to breastfeed for 6 months and were confident in their ability to do so, most did not breastfeed for 6 months. At 6 months, mothers receiving the MI intervention had breastfed an average of 90 days compared to 82 days for those receiving the AC sessions and 22% of the mothers in each group were still breastfeeding at some level. Because of the impact of attrition during this study, we discuss factors that contributed to attrition and approaches to lessen this problem in future studies. Such efforts may require a greater investment of time and resources and should be budgeted accordingly. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to help rural Mexican-American mothers meet their breastfeeding goals, thus

  13. The Perception of Same Gender Coaches by Iranian Skaters and its Influence on Sport Achievement Motivation and Commitment


    Homayoni Izad, Negar; Badami, Rokhsareh; Baluch, Bahman; Duffy, Linda J.


    Aim: To examine the relationship between the perception of same gender coaches by male and female Iranian skaters and their sport achievement motivation and commitment. Participants: Fifty two female and forty two male skaters, age range 13 to 18 years, from the province of Isfahan in Iran. Materials: The following 3 questionnaires, tested for reliability and validity for the Iranian population and adapted for Farsi, we...

  14. The perception of same gender coaches by Iranian skaters and its influence on sport achievement motivation and commitment


    Homayoni Izad, Negar; Badami, Rokhsareh; Baluch, Bahman; Duffy, Linda Jane


    Aim: To examine the relationship between the perception of same gender coaches by male and female Iranian skaters and their sport achievement motivation and commitment. Participants: Fifty two female and forty two male skaters, age range 13 to 18 years, from the province of Isfahan in Iran. Materials: The following 3 questionnaires, tested for reliability and validity for the Iranian population and adapted for Farsi, were used: i) Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand and Briere (2001) Interpersonal ...

  15. Brownian pump powered by a white-noise flashing ratchet. (United States)

    Gomez-Marin, A; Sancho, J M


    A Brownian pump of particles powered by a stochastic flashing ratchet mechanism is studied. The pumping device is embedded in a finite region and bounded by particle reservoirs. In the steady state, we exactly calculate the spatial density profile, the concentration ratio between both reservoirs and the particle flux. We propose a simulation framework for the consistent evaluation of such observable quantities.

  16. A wireless soil moisture sensor powered by solar energy. (United States)

    Jiang, Mingliang; Lv, Mouchao; Deng, Zhong; Zhai, Guoliang


    In a variety of agricultural activities, such as irrigation scheduling and nutrient management, soil water content is regarded as an essential parameter. Either power supply or long-distance cable is hardly available within field scale. For the necessity of monitoring soil water dynamics at field scale, this study presents a wireless soil moisture sensor based on the impedance transform of the frequency domain. The sensor system is powered by solar energy, and the data can be instantly transmitted by wireless communication. The sensor electrodes are embedded into the bottom of a supporting rod so that the sensor can measure soil water contents at different depths. An optimal design with time executing sequence is considered to reduce the energy consumption. The experimental results showed that the sensor is a promising tool for monitoring moisture in large-scale farmland using solar power and wireless communication.

  17. Electric energy production by particle thermionic-thermoelectric power generators (United States)

    Oettinger, P. E.


    Thermionic-thermoelectric power generators, composed of a thin layer of porous, low work function material separating a heated emitter electrode and a cooler collector electrode, have extremely large Seebeck coefficients of over 2 mV/K and can provide significant output power. Preliminary experiments with 20-micron thick (Ba Sr Ca)O coatings, limited by evaporative loss to temperatures below 1400 K, have yielded short circuit current densities of 500 mA/sq cm and power densities of 60 mW/ sq cm. Substantially more output is expected with cesium-coated refractory oxide particle coatings operating at higher temperatures. Practical generators will have thermal-to-electrical efficiencies of 10 to 20%. Further increases can be gained by cascading these high-temperature devices with lower temperature conventional thermoelectric generators.

  18. Utilizing Response to Intervention (RtI) as a Means of Studying Capacity Building and Motivation of Staff by School Leadership Teams (United States)

    Mahoney, Brian J.


    This research study explored the concept of capacity building and motivation of staff by school leadership teams in the successful development and implementation of educational initiatives, specifically Response to Intervention (RtI). A great deal of scholarship has addressed leadership and its effect on motivation, but few studies have…

  19. Exploring Japanese University EFL Teacher Motivation (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Rie


    Current studies show that it is becoming clear that language teachers give significant importance to learners' motivation level, interest levels, and attitudes toward their learning. Motivated teachers can have a powerful influence on students' career directions, and positively impact learners' motivations and interests. However, not many studies…

  20. Motives for choosing and resigning from nursing by men and the definition of masculinity: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Kluczyńska, Urszula


    The aim of the study is to establish the main motives for choosing nursing by men in Poland and the results for leaving the profession. Nursing is a profession less frequently chosen by men. On average, one person in ten working in nursing is a man, but in Poland this percentage is especially low, amounting to 1·8%. Qualitative research with a grounded theory approach. Individual semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The study included 17 licensed male nurses. Data were collected between January 2014-June 2015. The study revealed the most common motives for choosing nursing as declared by men: vocation, interest in medicine, accident and pragmatic motivation. The men for whom hegemonic masculinity constitutes the point of reference more frequently emphasize their interest in medicine and the pragmatic reasons for choosing nursing; they also more frequently try to gain managerial positions and higher income. The most common reason for men leaving the nursing profession was low income. Despite the common stereotype, men also choose nursing because of vocation and/or their willingness to help others, but they more frequently declare that chance was the direct reason for their choice of nursing, which helps reduce the dissonance associated with choosing a non-traditional male career path. Leaving the profession was associated with beliefs about its feminine dimension, but it seems that in Poland low income is a much more important reason for such a decision. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Range Performance of Bombers Powered by Turbine-Propeller Power Plants (United States)

    Cline, Charles W.


    Calculations have been made to find range? attainable by bombers of gross weights from l40,000 to 300,000 pounds powered by turbine-propeller power plants. Only conventional configurations were considered and emphasis was placed upon using data for structural and aerodynamic characteristics which are typical of modern military airplanes. An effort was made to limit the various parameters invoked in the airplane configuration to practical values. Therefore, extremely high wing loadings, large amounts of sweepback, and very high aspect ratios have not been considered. Power-plant performance was based upon the performance of a typical turbine-propeller engine equipped with propellers designed to maintain high efficiencies at high-subsonic speeds. Results indicated, in general, that the greatest range, for a given gross weight, is obtained by airplanes of high wing loading, unless the higher cruising speeds associated with the high-wing-loading airplanes require-the use of thinner wing sections. Further results showed the effect of cruising at-high speeds, of operation at very high altitudes, and of carrying large bomb loads.

  2. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit motivation and unhealthy eating behavior. (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Oertig, Daniela; Brandstätter, Veronika; Allemand, Mathias


    Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior.

  3. Motives and perceived consequences of nonmedical ADHD medication use by college students: are students treating themselves for attention problems? (United States)

    Rabiner, David L; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Costello, E Jane; Hoyle, Rick H; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Swartzwelder, H Scott


    This study examines why college students without a prescription take ADHD medication, what they perceive the consequences of this to be, and whether attention problems are associated with this behavior. More than 3,400 undergraduates attending one public and one private university in the southeastern United States completed a Web-based survey. Nonmedical ADHD medication use in the prior 6 months was reported by 5.4% of respondents and was positively associated with self-reported attention difficulties. Enhancing the ability to study was the most frequent motive reported; nonacademic motives were less common. Students perceived nonmedical use to be beneficial despite frequent reports of adverse reactions. Students without prescriptions use ADHD medication primarily to enhance academic performance and may do so to ameliorate attention problems that they experience as undermining their academic success. The academic, social, and biomedical consequences of illicit ADHD medication use among college students should be researched further.

  4. Male Nurses in Israel: Barriers, Motivation, and How They Are Perceived by Nursing Students. (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Liat; Livshiz-Riven, Ilana; Romem, Pnina; Grinstein-Cohen, Orli

    The current worldwide nursing shortage remains a challenge for the nursing profession. Encouraging men to become nurses and, thereby, increasing the number of practitioners are crucial factors in facing this challenge. The historiography of nursing presents nursing as "women's work," based on the assumption that it is inherently appropriate for women only. Although men were employed as nurses even before nursing was recognized as a profession, male nurses were always a minority in the field. Over the years, the proportion of male nurses has increased, but they still comprise only 5 to 10% of the nursing workforce in the western world. This study examined men's motives for a career choice of nursing, how male nurses are perceived, and the barriers that they face. The study was conducted among 336 nursing students studying in a co-educational program in various academic tracks at a public, nonsectarian university in the south of Israel. Participants completed the following questionnaires in one study session: sociodemographic questionnaire; Attitudes Towards Men in Nursing Scale; motives for career choice questionnaire; and the questionnaire of the perceptions of the professional status of nursing. Study findings revealed that men tended to choose nursing because of financial constraints significantly more frequently than women (P=.001). Among the participants, there was no significant between-sex difference in the perception nursing as women's work (P=.002) or in perception of male nurses as homosexuals. Results of the study showed that the status of the nursing profession is considered low, and the low status deters men from choosing nursing as a career. The motivation for men's career choice must be understood, and men must be empowered to improve their work conditions and financial remuneration in order to recruit men to the field and to improve the perception of the profession and its public status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Solid oxide fuel cells powered by biomass gasification for high efficiency power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadsbøll, Rasmus Østergaard; Thomsen, Jesper; Bang-Møller, Christian


    Increased use of bioenergy is a very cost-effective and flexible measure to limit changes in the climate and the infrastructure. One of the key technologies toward a higher implementation of biomass is thermal gasification, which enables a wide span of downstream applications. In order to improve...... efficiencies, flexibility and possibly costs of current biomass power generating systems, a power plant concept combining solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gasification is investigated experimentally. The aim of the study is to examine the commercial operation system potential of these two technologies...... part-load operation; and a longer test to investigate stability. The study shows experimentally the potential and feasibility of a SOFC-gasification system with a commercial gasifier and a SOFC stack by measuring the highest reported values of such a system, with biomass-to-electricity efficiencies up...

  6. Spin and electric currents induced by a spin-motive force in two-dimensional Dirac semimetals protected by nonsymmorphic symmetries (United States)

    Habe, Tetsuro


    We theoretically study the spin and charge currents induced by a spin-motive force in a two-dimensional Dirac semimetal protected by nonsymmorphic symmetries. Glide mirror plane symmetry, a nonsymmorphic symmetry, leads to a constraint to the induced current; the spin-motive force acting on out-of-plane spin (in-plane spin) induces the pure spin (charge) current. We calculate the response function to the spin-motive force in linear-response theory and find that the conductivity for the pure spin current remains nonzero even if the Fermi energy is crossing the node of linear dispersion. We also find that the conserved spin current is induced at the charge neutral point.

  7. Impact of Negative Sequence Current Injection by Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus


    of full scale converter type wind turbines may be utilized to alter voltage imbalance at the point of connection and further into the grid, in turn changing the resultant negative sequence current flow in the grid. The effects of such control actions have been analyzed and discussed through theoretical......This paper presents an analysis of the impact from negative sequence current injection by wind power plants in power systems under steady-state and short-term unbalanced conditions, including faults. The separate positive and negative sequence current control capability of the grid-side converters...

  8. Motivational aspects of sport volunteers


    Mičinec, Adam


    Title: The motivational aspects of sport volunteerism. Objectives: The main aim of this bachelor work is to find out motivational aspects of sport volunteers, who have taken part in sport event. Methods: In this thesis was used quality method to get informations - specifically it was a structure interview with associated questions. Results: It was find out that it is appropriate to get those volunteers with inner motivation. These volunteers do not need to be so much motivated by external mot...

  9. High Power Factor Control Regulating Inverter Output Power in IPM Motor Driven by Inverter System without Electrolytic Capacitor (United States)

    Inazuma, Kazuya; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Haga, Hitoshi; Sazawa, Mataki; Kondo, Seiji

    This paper presents a new high power factor control method for a single-to-three-phase power converter without an electrolytic capacitor. The circuit used in the method consists of a single-phase rectifier, a small film capacitor at DC-link, a voltage-source three-phase inverter, and an IPM motor. The inverter regulates both the velocity of the IPM motor and input current waveform. In order to obtain a power factor of unity, we propose a new control method that regulates the inverter output power. The inverter output power controller is placed between the speed controller and the q-axis current controller. The inverter power is regulated by a PI and repetitive controller. When repetitive control is applied to the inverter power controller, the phase delay of the inverter power controller is quite small. The superior performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by experimental results.

  10. Motivating Staff, Parents, and Children. (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia Cavenaugh

    Two motivational theories considered particularly useful in administering early childhood programs are discussed, and guidelines for motivating staff, parents, and children are provided. First, the two-factor theory of motivation within organizations, as outlined by Herzberg (1959), is described. Offered in this section are a list of motivators…

  11. Optimal power flow by particle swarm optimization with an aging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    All rights reserved. Optimal power flow by particle swarm optimization with an aging leader and challengers. Rudra Pratap Singh. 1. *, V. Mukherjee, S.P. Ghoshal. 1*Department of Electrical Engineering, Asansol Engineering College, INDIA. 2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian School of Mines Dhanabd, INDIA.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2012 ... dynamic instability arising in a fiber lasers as a consequence of Brillouin effect. The effect of Brillouin back scattering is theoretically analysed by two-coupled modes laser model. We consider the Fabry-Perot fiber ..... pumped high power fiber lasers. Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials. 2009 ...

  13. Reducing Conductor Usage in Superconducting Machines by Multiple Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech


    This paper presents and applies a method of reducing the needed amount of superconductor in a superconducting machine by supplying the superconductor from multiple power supplies. The method is presented and validated experimentally in a constructed prototype. Thereafter, a superconducting tape i...

  14. Motivations, Risks, Barriers, and Results Associated with the Adoption of Global Sourcing by Brazilian Companies: a Case-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema Pereira Nunes


    Full Text Available This article aims to identi fy the motivations behind g lobal s ourcing (GS adoption , the associated risks and barriers , and the results that companies from emerging countries are achieving . The research explores the distinguishing features of these companies ' experience and examines established theories about GS that are based on companies from developed countries. In the article, a case - based study investigat ed four companies from the electrical and electronics industry in South Brazil. Data w ere collected through in - dep th interviews , documents , and direct observation. According to the research, t he main motivations for adopting GS are faster access to new technologies and establish ing a presence in global markets. It was also found that the opportunity to offer diversified products u sing the distribution channels already developed by companies motivate s GS adoption , a situation that prior literature has not identified . Despite the risks, t he absence of a broad local supply - base prompts companies to adopt GS. Further, the failure to fo rmalize barrier analysis processes creates difficulties f or companies . Th e main results associated with GS relate to innovation and reductions in the time taken to develop product s and reach market s . In this regard, c ompanies face a challenge to develop th e abilities required to compete for the advantages that t he global market can offer.

  15. Motives in American Men and Women across the Adult Life Span. (United States)

    Veroff, Joseph; And Others


    Investigates stability and change in four social motives (achievement, affiliation, fear of weakness, hope of power) over the adult life cycle. Motives were assessed in 1957 and 1976 by coding thematic apperceptive content in stories told about six pictures. Some age differences and cohort stability were evident for both sexes. (Author/CB)

  16. Development of goal-directed action selection guided by intrinsic motivations: an experiment with children. (United States)

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Focaroli, Valentina; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Di Pino, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Keller, Flavio


    Action selection is extremely important, particularly when the accomplishment of competitive tasks may require access to limited motor resources. The spontaneous exploration of the world plays a fundamental role in the development of this capacity, providing subjects with an increasingly diverse set of opportunities to acquire, practice and refine the understanding of action-outcome connection. The computational modeling literature proposed a number of specific mechanisms for autonomous agents to discover and target interesting outcomes: intrinsic motivations hold a central importance among those mechanisms. Unfortunately, the study of the acquisition of action-outcome relation was mostly carried out with experiments involving extrinsic tasks, either based on rewards or on predefined task goals. This work presents a new experimental paradigm to study the effect of intrinsic motivation on action-outcome relation learning and action selection during free exploration of the world. Three- and four-year-old children were observed during the free exploration of a new toy: half of them were allowed to develop the knowledge concerning its functioning; the other half were not allowed to learn anything. The knowledge acquired during the free exploration of the toy was subsequently assessed and compared.

  17. Enhancing power density of biophotovoltaics by decoupling storage and power delivery (United States)

    Saar, Kadi L.; Bombelli, Paolo; Lea-Smith, David J.; Call, Toby; Aro, Eva-Mari; Müller, Thomas; Howe, Christopher J.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.


    Biophotovoltaic devices (BPVs), which use photosynthetic organisms as active materials to harvest light, have a range of attractive features relative to synthetic and non-biological photovoltaics, including their environmentally friendly nature and ability to self-repair. However, efficiencies of BPVs are currently lower than those of synthetic analogues. Here, we demonstrate BPVs delivering anodic power densities of over 0.5 W m-2, a value five times that for previously described BPVs. We achieved this through the use of cyanobacterial mutants with increased electron export characteristics together with a microscale flow-based design that allowed independent optimization of the charging and power delivery processes, as well as membrane-free operation by exploiting laminar flow to separate the catholyte and anolyte streams. These results suggest that miniaturization of active elements and flow control for decoupled operation and independent optimization of the core processes involved in BPV design are effective strategies for enhancing power output and thus the potential of BPVs as viable systems for sustainable energy generation.

  18. Directed Motivational Currents: Using vision to create effective motivational pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Muir


    Full Text Available Vision, that is, the mental representation of the sensory experience of a future goal state (involving imagination and imagery, is currently at the forefront of motivational innovation, and in recent years it has been seen increasingly more often in the motivational tool kit of practicing language teachers. Theories such as Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self system have explored the power that creating effective visions can harness (see, e.g., Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014 and when viewed in conjunction with other current research avenues, such as future time perspective and dynamic systems theory, vision offers exciting potential. A Directed Motivational Current is a new motivational construct that we suggest is capable of integrating many current theoretical strands with vision: It can be described as a motivational drive which energises long-term, sustained behaviour (such as language learning, and through placing vision and goals as critical central components within this construct, it offers real and practical motivational potential. In this conceptual paper, we first discuss current understandings of vision and of Directed Motivational Currents, and then analyse how they may be optimally integrated and employed to create effective motivational pathways in language learning environments.

  19. Design of a Mobile Low-Cost Sensor Network Using Urban Buses for Real-Time Ubiquitous Noise Monitoring. (United States)

    Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Alías, Francesc; Angulo, Ignacio


    One of the main priorities of smart cities is improving the quality of life of their inhabitants. Traffic noise is one of the pollutant sources that causes a negative impact on the quality of life of citizens, which is gaining attention among authorities. The European Commission has promoted the Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END) to inform citizens and to prevent the harmful effects of noise exposure. The measure of acoustic levels using noise maps is a strategic issue in the END action plan. Noise maps are typically calculated by computing the average noise during one year and updated every five years. Hence, the implementation of dynamic noise mapping systems could lead to short-term plan actions, besides helping to better understand the evolution of noise levels along time. Recently, some projects have started the monitoring of noise levels in urban areas by means of acoustic sensor networks settled in strategic locations across the city, while others have taken advantage of collaborative citizen sensing mobile applications. In this paper, we describe the design of an acoustic low-cost sensor network installed on public buses to measure the traffic noise in the city in real time. Moreover, the challenges that a ubiquitous bus acoustic measurement system entails are enumerated and discussed. Specifically, the analysis takes into account the feature extraction of the audio signal, the identification and separation of the road traffic noise from urban traffic noise, the hardware platform to measure and process the acoustic signal, the connectivity between the several nodes of the acoustic sensor network to store the data and, finally, the noise maps' generation process. The implementation and evaluation of the proposal in a real-life scenario is left for future work.

  20. Delegation and Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Angst, Lukas


    In this article we study the determinants of decision rights transfer and its effects on the motivation of an agent. The study is based on a laboratory experiment conducted on 130 subjects playing an innovative principal-agent game. Interestingly, the results show that agents do not favour...... a delegation and a decision is considered rather burdensome. Although the experiment could not give support for the behavioural hypothesis of higher effort provided by participants who receive choice subsequently, the survey illuminates the interaction between delegation motives, effort motivators, goals...

  1. Motivation, cognition and pseudoscience. (United States)

    Lindeman, M


    The article proposes a framework that views pseudoscientific beliefs as a joint function of the basic social motives and the default way of processing everyday information. The interplay between the basic motives and experiential thinking is illustrated with three examples. The first concerns comprehension of self via astrology and graphology, and the second involves the comprehension of unexpected events (one domain of the motive to comprehend the world). The last example describes health control by alternative medicine, as a modern way of controlling future outcomes.

  2. The impact of power produced by the Slovak Power Enterprise on the power plants surroundings and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holan, K.; Hargas, V. (Slovak Power Enterprise, Bratislava (Slovak Republic))


    This paper reviews electricity and heat production and consumption in Slovakia, and gives details of the contribution of the Slovak Power Enterprise (SPE) to total electricity generation. The impact of gas, liquid and solid wastes on the environment is examined in detail. Although generation in Slovakia is 57.9% nuclear and 9.2% hydro, there is still a need for protection of the environment. A number of studies have been made with a view to improving the situation and reaching European Community standards: replacement of ageing units by steam-gas cycles, modernisation of installations, boilers and turbines, transformation of traditional combustion technologies for fluidised bed combustion, desulphurisation and denitrification of existing units, waste processing. 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Station power supply by residual steam of Fugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y.; Kato, H.; Hattori, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    In the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', when the sudden decrease of load more than 40% occurs due to the failure of power system, the turbine regulating valve is rapidly shut, and the reactor is brought to scrum. However, the operation of turbo-generators is continued with the residual steam in the reactor, and the power for inside the station is supplied for 30 sec by the limiting timer, then the power-generating plant is automatically stopped. The reasons why such design was adopted are to reduce manual operation at the time of emergency, to continue water supply for cooling the reactor and to maintain the water level in the steam drum, and to reduce steam release from the safety valve and the turbine bypass valve. The output-load unbalance relay prevents the everspeed of the turbo-generator when load decreased suddenly, but when the failure of power system is such that recovers automatically in course of time, it does not work. The calculation for estimating the dynamic characteristics at the time of the sole operation within the station is carried out by the analysis code FATRAC. The input conditions for the calculation and the results are reported. Also the dynamic characteristics were actually tested to confirm the set value of the limiting timer and the safe working of turbine and generator trips. The estimated and tested results were almost in agreement.

  4. Motives and activities for continuing professional development : An exploration of their relationships by integrating literature and interview data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, I.A.; Poell, R.F.; Berings, M.G.M.C.; Ten Cate, O.


    Background To effectively enhance professional development, it is important to understand the motivational factors behind nurses' engagement in particular types of learning activities. Nurses have various motives for professional development and utilise different learning activities. Not much is

  5. Power System Structural Vulnerability Assessment based on an Improved Maximum Flow Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe


    (PCA) and convex hull. Then the second step is to use an improved maximum flow based complex network approach for topology analysis. Weighted vertices in the network are considered, enabling taking the selected operating conditions into consideration when identifying the vulnerable lines. The proposed......With the increasing complexity of the power grid and the concerns on major blackouts, there is an urgent need for an efficient and effective tool to assess the power system structural vulnerability. To tackle this challenge, this paper proposes a maximum flow based complex network approach...... to identify the critical lines in a system. The proposed method consists of two major steps. First, the power network is modeled as a graph with edges (transmission lines, transformers, etc.) and nodes (buses, substations, etc.). The critical scenarios are identified by using the principal component analysis...

  6. EWOD (electrowetting on dielectric) digital microfluidics powered by finger actuation. (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Zhongning; Kim, Chang-Jin C J; Ju, Y Sungtaek


    We report finger-actuated digital microfluidics (F-DMF) based on the manipulation of discrete droplets via the electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) phenomenon. Instead of requiring an external power supply, our F-DMF uses piezoelectric elements to convert mechanical energy produced by human fingers to electric voltage pulses for droplet actuation. Voltage outputs of over 40 V are provided by single piezoelectric elements, which is necessary for oil-free EWOD devices with thin (typically microfluidic applications.

  7. Context-based science education by newspaper story problems: A study on motivation and learning effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Kuhn


    In a quasi-experimental comparison of 6 physics classes of secondary level 1 (N=122; grade 10, topic: energy learning with newspaper based problems vs. conventional textbook problems (same content, lesson plan and teacher showed considerable positive effects. This holds for general motivation, including several subscales (p<0.01, ω2=0.52 as well as for achievement, including transfer (p<0.01, ω2=0.20. Moreover, these results show robustness towards to various individual and classroom features (e.g. gender, non-verbal intelligence and school type, and at least mid-term temporal stability. Newspaper story problems thus appear as a useful element of context-based science teaching.

  8. Motivated by meaning: testing the effect of knowledge-infused rewards on preschoolers' persistence. (United States)

    Alvarez, Aubry L; Booth, Amy E


    Research and theory suggest that young children are highly attuned to causality. This study explores whether this drive can motivate task engagement. Fifty-six 3- and 4-year-olds completed a motor task as many times as desired, viewing a picture of a novel item upon each completion. Forty-two randomly assigned children then received either: (a) causally rich information regarding the item, (b) causally weak information regarding the item, or (c) a tangible reward. The remaining 14 children participated in a baseline condition featuring no rewards. Preschoolers completed more trials when rewarded with causally rich than causally weak information, or when given no reward. Children also trended toward lengthier persistence in the causally rich than the tangible reward condition. Implications for theory and educational practice are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Divertor power spreading in DEMO reactor by impurity seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagórski, Roman, E-mail:; Gałązka, Krzysztof; Ivanova-Stanik, Irena


    Highlights: • The COREDIV code has been used to simulate DEMO inductive discharges with different impurity seeding (Ne, Ar, Kr) and different sputtering models (with and w/o prompt re-deposition process). • It has been shown that only for Ar and Kr seeding it is possible to achieve H-mode plasma operation with acceptable level of the power to the tungsten target plates. • For neon seeding, such regime of operation seems not to be possible. • Prompt re-deposition model extends the DEMO operation window. - Abstract: Numerical simulation with COREDIV code of DEMO H-mode discharges (tungsten divertor and wall) are performed considering the influence of seeding impurities with different atomic numbers: Ne, Ar and Kr on the DEMO scenarios. The approach is based on integrated numerical modeling using the COREDIV code, which self-consistently solves radial transport equations in the core region and 2D multi-fluid transport in the SOL. In this paper we focus on investigations how the operational domain of DEMO can be influenced by seeding gasses. Simulations with the updated prompt re-deposition model implemented in the code show that only for Ar and Kr, for high enough radial diffusion in the SOL, it is possible to achieve H-mode plasma operation (power to the SOL> L-H transition threshold power) with acceptable level of the power to the target plates. For neon seeding such regime of operation seems not to be possible.

  10. Social preferences shaped by conflicting motives: When enhancing social welfare creates unfavorable comparisons for the self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoham Choshen-Hillel


    Full Text Available The construction of social preferences often requires one to reconcile various social motives, such as concern with unfavorable inequality and maximization of social welfare. We propose a novel theory whereby people's level of agency influences the relative intensities of their social motives, and thus their social preferences. Agency in this context refers to decision makers' active involvement in the processes that produce social outcomes. Nonagentic decision makers are not involved in creating the outcomes. Therefore, the comparison between self and others is highly informative for them and they shun settings in which their outcome appears to be inferior. Conversely, agentic decision makers, who take action to influence social outcomes, care more about others' outcomes and are more inclined to promote social welfare. We report five studies testing the agency hypothesis. Participants were presented with realistic scenarios involving outcomes for themselves and another person. In each scenario, the outcome for oneself was fixed, while the outcome for the other person varied. The participants' task was to indicate their satisfaction with the other person obtaining either the same outcome as their own or a better one. We found that participants who were involved in creating the outcomes (agentic condition were more satisfied with the other getting the better option than were participants who were not involved (nonagentic condition. Even low levels of influence on the outcomes were sufficient for a strong agency effect to occur. We discuss the agency hypothesis in relation to theories of social preference, the effects of voicing and participation in decision processes, and trade-offs in public policy.

  11. Stability Enhancement Based on Virtual Impedance for DC Microgrids with Constant Power Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.


    . It can be seen that by using the proposed stabilizers, the unstable poles induced by the CPLs are forced to move into the stable region. The proposed method is verified by the MATLAB/Simulink model of multi-stage DC microgrids with three distributed power generation units....... the overall stability of the above DC microgrid with constant power loads (CPLs), a comprehensive small-signal model is derived by analyzing the interface converters in each stage. The instability issue induced by the CPLs is revealed by using the criteria of impedance matching. Meanwhile, virtual......In this paper, a converter-based DC microgrid is studied. By considering the impact of each component in DC microgrids on system stability, a multi-stage configuration is employed, which includes the source stage, interface converter stage between buses and common load stage. In order to study...

  12. Wind Velocity Vertical Extrapolation by Extended Power Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekai Şen


    Full Text Available Wind energy gains more attention day by day as one of the clean renewable energy resources. We predicted wind speed vertical extrapolation by using extended power law. In this study, an extended vertical wind velocity extrapolation formulation is derived on the basis of perturbation theory by considering power law and Weibull wind speed probability distribution function. In the proposed methodology not only the mean values of the wind speeds at different elevations but also their standard deviations and the cross-correlation coefficient between different elevations are taken into consideration. The application of the presented methodology is performed for wind speed measurements at Karaburun/Istanbul, Turkey. At this location, hourly wind speed measurements are available for three different heights above the earth surface.

  13. Obtaining evidence by a single well-powered trial or several modestly powered trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hout, J. in't; Ioannidis, J.P.; Borm, G.F.


    There is debate whether clinical trials with suboptimal power are justified and whether results from large studies are more reliable than the (combined) results of smaller trials. We quantified the error rates for evaluations based on single conventionally powered trials (80% or 90% power) versus

  14. Crash problem definition and safety benefits methodology for stability control for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses (United States)


    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive engineering analysis of electronic stability control (ESC) and roll stability control (RSC) systems for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses. This report details the applica...

  15. Sound Power Estimation by Laser Doppler Vibration Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Revel


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose simple and quick methods for the determination of the sound power emitted by a vibrating surface, by using non-contact vibration measurement techniques. In order to calculate the acoustic power by vibration data processing, two different approaches are presented. The first is based on the method proposed in the Standard ISO/TR 7849, while the second is based on the superposition theorem. A laser-Doppler scanning vibrometer has been employed for vibration measurements. Laser techniques open up new possibilities in this field because of their high spatial resolution and their non-intrusivity. The technique has been applied here to estimate the acoustic power emitted by a loudspeaker diaphragm. Results have been compared with those from a commercial Boundary Element Method (BEM software and experimentally validated by acoustic intensity measurements. Predicted and experimental results seem to be in agreement (differences lower than 1 dB thus showing that the proposed techniques can be employed as rapid solutions for many practical and industrial applications. Uncertainty sources are addressed and their effect is discussed.

  16. Are implicit motives revealed in mere words? Testing the marker-word hypothesis with computer-based text analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Schultheiss


    Full Text Available Traditionally, implicit motives (i.e., nonconscious preferences for specific classes of incentives are assessed through semantic coding of imaginative stories. The present research tested the marker-word hypothesis, which states that implicit motives are reflected in word frequencies. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker, Francis, & Booth, 2001, Study 1 identified word categories that converged with a content-coding measure of the implicit motives for power, achievement, and affiliation in picture stories collected in German and US student samples, showed discriminant validity with self-reported motives, and predicted well-validated criteria of implicit motives (gender difference for the affiliation motive; in interaction with personal-goal progress: emotional well-being. Study 2 demonstrated LIWC-based motive scores’ causal validity by documenting their sensitivity to motive arousal.

  17. Are implicit motives revealed in mere words? Testing the marker-word hypothesis with computer-based text analysis. (United States)

    Schultheiss, Oliver C


    Traditionally, implicit motives (i.e., non-conscious preferences for specific classes of incentives) are assessed through semantic coding of imaginative stories. The present research tested the marker-word hypothesis, which states that implicit motives are reflected in the frequencies of specific words. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker et al., 2001), Study 1 identified word categories that converged with a content-coding measure of the implicit motives for power, achievement, and affiliation in picture stories collected in German and US student samples, showed discriminant validity with self-reported motives, and predicted well-validated criteria of implicit motives (gender difference for the affiliation motive; in interaction with personal-goal progress: emotional well-being). Study 2 demonstrated LIWC-based motive scores' causal validity by documenting their sensitivity to motive arousal.

  18. The roots of physics students' motivations: Fear and integrity (United States)

    Van Dusen, Ben

    Too often, physics students are beset by feelings of failure and isolation rather than experiencing the creative joys of discovery that physics has to offer. This dissertation research was founded on the desire of a teacher to make physics class exciting and motivating to his students. This work explores how various aspects of learning environments interact with student motivation. This work uses qualitative and quantitative methods to explore how students are motivated to engage in physics and how they feel about themselves while engaging in physics. The collection of four studies in this dissertation culminates in a sociocultural perspective on motivation and identity. This perspective uses two extremes of how students experience physics as a lens for understanding motivation: fear and self-preservation versus integrity and self-expression. Rather than viewing motivation as a property of the student, or viewing students as inherently interested or disinterested in physics, the theoretical perspective on motivation and identity helps examine features of the learning environments that determine how students' experience themselves through physics class. This perspective highlights the importance of feeling a sense of belonging in the context of physics and the power that teachers have in shaping students' motivation through the construction of their classroom learning environments. Findings demonstrate how different ways that students experience themselves in physics class impact their performance and interest in physics. This dissertation concludes with a set of design principles that can foster integration and integrity among students in physics learning environments.

  19. Robust reactor power control system design by genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sin [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)


    The H{sub {infinity}} robust controller for the reactor power control system is designed by use of the mixed weight sensitivity. The system is configured into the typical two-port model with which the weight functions are augmented. Since the solution depends on the weighting functions and the problem is of nonconvex, the genetic algorithm is used to determine the weighting functions. The cost function applied in the genetic algorithm permits the direct control of the power tracking performances. In addition, the actual operating constraints such as rod velocity and acceleration can be treated as design parameters. Compared with the conventional approach, the controller designed by the genetic algorithm results in the better performances with the realistic constraints. Also, it is found that the genetic algorithm could be used as an effective tool in the robust design. 4 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  20. Group excitation control of generators in state regional electric power plant transformer station automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumin, M.I.; Rosman, L.V.; Tarnavskii, V.M.


    Group excitation control of electric generators according to standard methods is essential for the management of power plant conditions according to voltage and reactive power. A system is described that provides coordinated changes in the automatic excitation controller set point for generators that operate on common buses. The advantages of the excitation control system are discussed.

  1. The Increase of Power Efficiency of Underground Coal Mining by the Forecasting of Electric Power Consumption (United States)

    Efremenko, Vladimir; Belyaevsky, Roman; Skrebneva, Evgeniya


    In article the analysis of electric power consumption and problems of power saving on coal mines are considered. Nowadays the share of conditionally constant costs of electric power for providing safe working conditions underground on coal mines is big. Therefore, the power efficiency of underground coal mining depends on electric power expense of the main technological processes and size of conditionally constant costs. The important direction of increase of power efficiency of coal mining is forecasting of a power consumption and monitoring of electric power expense. One of the main approaches to reducing of electric power costs is increase in accuracy of the enterprise demand in the wholesale electric power market. It is offered to use artificial neural networks to forecasting of day-ahead power consumption with hourly breakdown. At the same time use of neural and indistinct (hybrid) systems on the principles of fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms is more preferable. This model allows to do exact short-term forecasts at a small array of input data. A set of the input parameters characterizing mining-and-geological and technological features of the enterprise is offered.

  2. Motivational interviewing for medication adherence. (United States)

    Salvo, Marissa C; Cannon-Breland, Michelle L


    To familiarize pharmacists with motivational interviewing as a way to engage patients in discussions about medication adherence. Motivational interviewing is a collaborative, patient-centered communications skill set that can increase behavior change by stimulating a patient's own internal motivation for change. Pharmacists using motivational interviewing can explore factors associated with medication nonadherence, assess patient ambivalence and/or resistance, and educate a patient to promote medication-adherent behaviors. Pharmacists can use motivational interviewing to effectively engage patients in a conversation that addresses medication adherence.

  3. Deployment of Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Transit Agencies: Allocation of Hydrogen Demand and Rollout of Preferable Infrastructure Scenarios


    Castillo Munoz, Analy


    Initiatives to improve air quality in urban areas and to mitigate climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have resulted in new mandates and legislation to implement zero emissions vehicles (ZEV). While several studies have focused on fueling infrastructure for light-duty fuel cell electric vehicles, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the nature of hydrogen supply chains for fuel cell electric buses. This thesis presents an analysis of hydrogen infrastructures to g...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMO A.


    Full Text Available The paper isfocusing on dynamic programming use for power system expansion planning (EP – transmission network (TNEP and distribution network (DNEP. The EP problem has been approached from the retrospective and prospective point of view. To achieve this goal, the authors are developing two software-tools in Matlab environment. Two techniques have been tackled: particle swarm optimization (PSO and genetic algorithms (GA. The case study refers to Test 25 buses test power system developed within the Power Systems Department.

  5. Power Quality Improvement by Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on CSC Topology Using Synchronous Reference Frame Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran Dharmalingam


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC based on current source converter (CSC topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.

  6. Transaction of long-term power purchasing contract by independent power providers in wholesale and retail competitive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)


    In general, the restructuring starts with separation and division of power sector from the existing monopolist as the cases of Thailand and Malaysia. When the power provider is separated and divided, it becomes an independent power provider. The existing regional electricity provider carries out the supplying function to end-users buying electricity from several separated and divided providers. Therefore, the existing regional electricity providers give up the power generation business but become a demand monopolist in wholesale market. The competition system capable of applying during the separation period is the Generation Pool. With the Generation Pool, it is able to promote competition of power generation sector effectively and there is no need to have an extra step such as long-term power purchasing contract. In fact, Latin America and Chile have been managed the power market for more than 10 years with the competition system by the Generation Pool. 9 refs.

  7. Management styles and motivation. (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann


    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.



    Ozlem Yagcioglu


    In this article, I would like to summarize the book, entitled ‘Motivating Learning’. The names of the authors of this academic book are Jill Hadfield and Zoltán Dörnyei. Jill Hadfield is an associate professor in the Department of Language Studies at Unitec in New Zealand. Zoltán Dörnyei is a professor of psycholinguistics at the School of English at University of Nottingham. This book was published by the Pearson Education Limited in the United Kingdom. It was first published in 2013. The In...

  9. Alcohol-Related Blackouts, Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences, and Motivations for Drinking Reported by Newly Matriculating Transgender College Students. (United States)

    Tupler, Larry A; Zapp, Daniel; DeJong, William; Ali, Maryam; O'Rourke, Sarah; Looney, John; Swartzwelder, H Scott


    Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). We examined the level of alcohol consumption, the frequency of ARBs and other ARCs, and motivations for drinking reported by the largest sample of transgender college students to date. A Web survey from an alcohol-prevention program, AlcoholEdu for College™, assessed student demographics and drinking-related behaviors, experiences, and motivations of newly matriculating first-year college students. A self-reported drinking calendar was used to examine each of the following measures over the previous 14 days: number of drinking days, total number of drinks, and maximum number of drinks on any single day. A 7-point Likert scale was used to measure ARCs, ARBs, and drinking motivations. Transgender students of both sexes were compared with their cisgender peers. A total of 989 of 422,906 students (0.2%) identified as transgender. Over a 14-day period, transgender compared with cisgender students were more likely to consume alcohol over more days, more total drinks, and a greater number of maximum drinks on a single day. Transgender students (36%) were more likely to report an ARB than cisgender students (25%) as well as more negative academic, confrontation-related, social, and sexual ARCs. Transgender respondents more often cited stress reduction, social anxiety, self-esteem issues, and the inherent properties of alcohol as motivations for drinking. For nearly all measures, higher values were yielded by male-to-female than female-to-male transgender students. Transgender

  10. Flash X-ray sources powered by Blumlein pulse generators (United States)

    Davanloo, F.; Coogan, J. J.; Krause, R. K.; Bhawalkar, J. D.; Collins, C. B.


    Described here is the progress in construction and characterization of pulse-power generators capable of discharging at high repetition rates. These devices consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single thyratron at the other end. In this way relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give the desired discharge voltage without the need for complex Marx bank circuitry. Scaling of these stacked Blumlein generators to obtain open circuit voltages in excess of 0.5 MV is reported. Peak power generated by discharging into an X-ray diode exceeds 10 7 R/s and high repetition rates allow for an average emitted X-ray exposure rate of 25 R/s from a sequence of 40 ns pulses.

  11. Remote Electric Power Transfer Between Spacecrafts by Infrared Beamed Energy (United States)

    Chertok, Boris E.; Evdokimov, Roman A.; Legostaev, Victor P.; Lopota, Vitaliy A.; Sokolov, Boris A.; Tugaenko, Vjacheslav Yu.


    High efficient wireless electric energy transmission (WET) technology between spacecrafts by laser channel is proposed. WET systems could be used for remote power supplying of different consumers in space. First of all, there are autonomous technology modules for microgravity experiments, micro and nano satellites, different equipment for explorations of planetary surfaces, space transport vehicles with electric rocket propulsion systems. The main components of the WET technology consist of radiation sources on the base of semiconductor IR laser diodes; systems for narrow laser beam creation; special photovoltaic receivers for conversion of monochromatic IR radiation with high energy density to electric power. The multistage space experiment for WET technology testing is described. During this experiment energy will be transmitted from International Space Station to another spacecrafts like cargo transport vehicles (Progress or/and ATV) and micro satellites.

  12. Rotatory power of sodium vapour oriented by laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicchi, P. (Siena Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Moi, L.; Zambon, B. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy). Lab. di Fisica Atomica e Moleculare)


    In this paper the rotatory power of sodium vapour is studied when laser light is used as pumping as well as analysis light. The possibility of having an analysis light whose frequency may be varied in a range larger than the interval between the D/sub 1/ and D/sub 2/ atomic lines allows us to get for the first time the complete shape of the rotation curve and to measure a rotation different from zero even for frequencies very far from the resonance ones. The complete orientation in the vapour caused by the laser pumping-light power permits to obtain very high rotation values. In a cell containing Na and 200 Torr of Ne, we measured, at 185/sup 0/C, 10/sup 0//cm of specific rotation. The dependence of the optical activity on the buffer gas pressure and on the frequency of the pumping light is also studied.

  13. Power generation characteristics of tubular type SOFC by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, H.; Nakayama, T. [Kyushu Electric Power Company, Inc., Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroishi, M. [TOTO Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others


    The development of a practical solid oxide fuel cell requires improvement of a cell performance and a cell manufacturing technology suitable for the mass production. In particular tubular type SOFC is thought to be superior in its reliability because its configuration can avoid the high temperature sealing and reduce the thermal stress resulting from the contact between cells. The authors have fabricated a tubular cell with an air electrode support by a wet processing technique, which is suitable for mass production in improving a power density. To enhance the power output of the module, the Integrated Tubular-Type (ITT) cell has been developed. This paper reports the performance of the single cells with various active anode areas and the bundle with series-connected 9-ITT cells with an active anode area of 840 cm{sup 2}.

  14. Green lasers are beyond power limits mandated by safety standards. (United States)

    Lee, M H; Fox, K; Goldwasser, S; Lau, D W M; Aliahmad, B; Sarossy, M


    There has been an increasing number of reports of people losing vision from laser exposure from pocket laser pointers despite the safety limit of 1 milliwatt (1mW) imposed by the Australian government. We hypothesize that this is because commercially available red and green laser pointers are exceeding their labeled power outputs. We tested the power outputs of 4 red and 4 green lasers which were purchased for less than AUD$30 each. The average of 10 measurements was recorded for each laser. We found that 3 out of 4 red lasers conformed to the 1mW safety standard; in contrast, all of the green lasers exceeded this limit, with one of the lasers recording an output of 127.9 mW. This contrast in compliance is explained by the construction of these lasers - green lasers are typically Diode Pumped Solid State (DPSS) lasers that can emit excessive infrared (IR) radiation with poor workmanship or inconsistent adherence to practices of safe design and quality control; red lasers are diode lasers which have limited power outputs due to `Catastrophic Optical Damage' (COD). Relevant professional bodies ought to advocate more strongly for stringent testing, quality control and licensing of DPSS lasers with a view towards government intervention to banning green laser pointer use.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke


    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  16. “Bus Lane Within The Area Of Intersection” Method For Buses Priority On The Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikovych Ihor


    Full Text Available The primary objective of this article is to formalize the “special bus lanes within the area of intersection” method that allows providing buses with space-time priority at signalized intersections (mostly of the isolated type, including those with no more than two traffic lanes in each direction at the approaches to the intersection. The article establishes the limits for efficient application of this method, and describes the results of a simulation experiment conducted in the VISSIM environment to investigate the functioning of the method on an actual intersection. The most critical phase of implementation of this method is to determine the optimum length of the special bus lane at the approach to the intersection. The optimum length of special bus lanes at the approaches to isolated or coordinated intersections is determined based on the maximum length of queued vehicles which is computed using the simulation models developed in the Objective-C language. The article covers the basic characteristics of those models, their structure and building principles, and also provides the model validation results. Simulation models can be used both for determination of the optimum length of special bus lanes at the approaches to signalized intersections and for analysis of intersection performance based on the maximum length of queued vehicles.

  17. Fast voltage stability assessment for large-scale power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Electrical Engineering; Wang, L.; Yu, Z. [Shandong Electric Power Co., Jinan (China). Electric Power Control Center


    A new method of assessing online voltage stability in large-scale power systems was presented. A local voltage stability index was used to determine weak buses in the system. A case study of the Shandong power system in China was used to demonstrate the accuracy and speed of the method for online applications. The local method was based on the fact that the Thevenin equivalent as determined from the load bus and the apparent load impedance were equal at the point of voltage collapse. Participant buses and key power sources of both reactive and active power transmission paths were determined using electrical distance measurements. Participant buses and key power sources of the reactive and active power transmission paths were also determined. The case study demonstrated that the reactive power reserve of key generators has a significant impact on voltage stability. The study also demonstrated that the voltage stability of the weakest power transmission path can decline or shift when some generators reach their limits. It was concluded that combining voltage stability indices and reactive power reserves increases the accuracy of voltage stability assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. Analysis of the possibility to cover energy demand from renewable sources on the motive power of the heat pump in low-energy building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapik Maciej


    Full Text Available The article presents the problem of the demand for electricity for the heat pump and an analysis of the coverage of this demand by renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaic cells, which generate electricity in low energy buildings. Low-energy and passive constructions are a result of introduction of new ideas in building design process. Their main objective is to achieve a significant reduction in demand for renewable primary energy, necessary to cover the needs of these buildings, mostly related to their heating, ventilation and domestic hot water This article presents the results of numerical analysis and calculations performed in MATLAB software, based on typical meteorological years. The results showed that renewable energy sources, can allow to cover a significant demand for electricity, that is required to power the heat pump it is economically justified.

  19. Estimates of power requirements for a Manned Mars Rover powered by a nuclear reactor (United States)

    Morley, Nicholas J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Cataldo, Robert; Bloomfield, Harvey


    This paper assesses the power requirement for a Manned Mars Rover vehicle. Auxiliary power needs are fulfilled using a hybrid solar photovoltaic/regenerative fuel cell system, while the primary power needs are meet using an SP-100 type reactor. The primary electric power needs, which include 30-kW(e) net user power, depend on the reactor thermal power and the efficiency of the power conversion system. Results show that an SP-100 type reactor coupled to a Free Piston Stirling Engine yields the lowest total vehicle mass and lowest specific mass for the power system. The second lowest mass was for a SP-100 reactor coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle using He/Xe as the working fluid. The specific mass of the nuclear reactor power system, including a man-rated radiation shield, ranged from 150-kg/kW(e) to 190-kg/KW(e) and the total mass of the Rover vehicle varied depend upon the cruising speed.

  20. How to help the patient motivate himself? (United States)

    Grimaldi, A


    In order to help a patient with a chronic disease motivate himself, caregivers spontaneously make use of reason with a view to having the patient share the caregivers' point of view, in other words, to some extent, transforming the care recipient into a caregiver. However, it is not unusual for a caregiver suffering from the disease in which he specializes not to treat himself in compliance with the rules he recommends to his patients. Man is a trinity with three instances of the self. In addition to the "rational self" that tends towards the universal, there is also an "animal self" subject to powerful, frequently imperious, primary needs which may be compared to impulsions, compulsions and addictions. Lastly, there is an "identity self", an irreducible singularity, governed by the law of optimizing pleasure or, in any event, avoiding moral distress. The patient has to learn to navigate between objectives oriented by reason, more or less imperious urges and the striving for well-being and avoidance of moral distress. These various instances of the "self" have a distinct relationship with the norm and with time. Psychologists recognize two types of motivation: intrinsic motivation, an activity implemented for itself, and extrinsic motivation, an activity practiced for its secondary beneficial effects. Clearly, caring for oneself derives from an extrinsic motivation. This motivation may be very powerful but is frequently of limited duration. Helping a patient suffering from a chronic disease motivate himself over time thus consists in helping the patient take on board an extrinsic motivation in order for the treatment to become a routine or a source of satisfaction or even pleasure. The physician has to promote the acquisition of self-care skills and a feeling of success in the patient. The physician is also to help the patient negotiate the optimum compromise between his "rational self" and his "identity self" by acting as the advocate of the two parties, while not

  1. The ``Green Lab'': Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs (United States)

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.


    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations compare? Even if the CFLs are more energy efficient, they still add to our pollution problem because of the mercury inside them. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) could be the answer, but they are not available at our local stores. Can LEDs be made to screw right into a standard socket? How expensive are they? What are the power consumptions of so-called "60-W" and "100-W" CFL and LED light bulbs? These are the questions that are answered during this lab activity. Students measure the voltage and current for each of the three types of bulbs, and then calculate the electrical power required by each. An optional experiment is to set the light outputs of each bulb so they are equal in intensity, and then determine the power consumed. While not practical in the home, this experiment gives students an understanding of value for their buck.

  2. Maximizing Output Power of a Solar Panel via Combination of Sun Tracking and Maximum Power Point Tracking by Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Taherbaneh


    Full Text Available In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar panel orientation in horizontal and vertical directions by two DC motors properly designed. A DC-DC converter is employed to track the solar panel maximum power point. In addition, the proposed system has the capability of the extraction of solar panel I-V curves. Experimental results present that the proposed fuzzy techniques result in increasing of power delivery from the solar panel, causing a reduction in size, weight, and cost of solar panels in photovoltaic systems.

  3. Solar power generation by use of Stirling engine and heat loss analysis of its cavity receiver (United States)

    Hussain, Tassawar

    Since concentrated power generation by Stirling engine has the highest efficiency therefore efficient power generation by concentrated systems using a Stirling engine was a primary motive of this research. A 1 kW Stirling engine was used to generate solar power using a Fresnel lens as a concentrator. Before operating On-Sun test, engine's performance test was conducted by combustion test. Propane gas with air was used to provide input heat to the Stirling Engine and 350W power was generated with 14% efficiency of the engine. Two kinds of receivers were used for On-Sun test, first type was the Inconel tubes with trapped helium gas and the second one was the heat pipe. Heat pipe with sodium as a working fluid is considered the best approach to transfer the uniform heat from the receiver to the helium gas in the heater head of the engine. A Number of On-Sun experiments were performed to generate the power. A minimum 1kW input power was required to generate power from the Stirling engine but it was concluded that the available Fresnel lens was not enough to provide sufficient input to the Stirling engine and hence engine was lagged to generate the solar power. Later on, for a high energy input a Beam Down system was also used to concentrate the solar light on the heater head of the Stirling engine. Beam down solar system in Masdar City UAE, constructed in 2009 is a variation of central receiver plant with cassegrainian optics. Around 1.5kW heat input was achieved from the Beam Down System and it was predicted that the engine receiver at beam down has the significant heat losses of about 900W. These high heat losses were the major hurdles to get the operating temperature (973K) of the heat pipes; hence power could not be generated even during the Beam Down test. Experiments were also performed to find the most suitable Cavity Receiver configuration for maximum solar radiation utilizations by engine receiver. Dimensionless parameter aperture ration (AR=d/D) and aperture

  4. Enhanced motivation for food reward induced by stress and attenuation by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor antagonism in rats: implications for overeating and obesity. (United States)

    Liu, Xiu


    Overeating beyond individuals' homeostatic needs critically contributes to obesity. The neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying the motivation to consume excessive foods with high calories are not fully understood. The present study examined whether a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine, enhances the motivation to procure food reward with an emphasis on comparisons between standard lab chow and high-fat foods. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor blockade by a CRF1-selective antagonist NBI on the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward were also assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chow available ad libitum in their home cages were trained to press a lever under a progressive ratio schedule for deliveries of either standard or high-fat food pellets. For testing yohimbine stress effects, rats received an intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine 10 min before start of the test sessions. For testing effects of CRF1 receptor blockade on stress responses, NBI was administered 20 min prior to yohimbine challenge. The rats emitted higher levels of lever responses to procure the high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. Yohimbine challenge facilitated lever responses for the reward in all of the rats, whereas the effect was more robust in the rats on high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. An inhibitory effect of pretreatment with NBI was observed on the enhancing effect of yohimbine challenge but not on the responses under baseline condition without yohimbine administration. Stress challenge significantly enhanced the motivation of satiated rats to procure extra food reward, especially the high-fat food pellets. Activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward. These results may have implications for our better understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms of overeating and obesity.

  5. On-line Dynamic Security Assessment in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel

    angular divergence of a group of generators can cause critical voltage sags at certain buses in the system. In this thesis assessment of such voltage sags using two types of sensitivities, which are derived from the algebraic network equations, is proposed. These sensitivities are derived after an in......-depth study of the mechanism causing the voltage sags. The first sensitivity type is called load voltage i/xii sensitivity and allows identifying which bus voltages are affected by a change in rotor angle of a particular generator. The second proposed type is called generator power sensitivity, which provides...... for early prediction of critical voltage sags is described. The method’s performance is compared to other prediction approaches. The results show that the proposed method succeeds in early, accurately and consistently predicting critically low voltage sags. An efficient on-line DSA not only identifies...

  6. Natural hazards and motivation for mitigation behavior: people cannot predict the affect evoked by a severe flood. (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Gutscher, Heinz


    Past research indicates that personal flood experience is an important factor in motivating mitigation behavior. It is not fully clear, however, why such experience is so important. This study tested the hypothesis that people without flooding experience underestimate the negative affect evoked by such an event. People who were affected by a severe recent flood disaster were compared with people who were not affected, but who also lived in flood-prone areas. Face-to-face interviews with open and closed questions were conducted (n= 201). Results suggest that people without flood experience envisaged the consequences of a flood differently from people who had actually experienced severe losses due to a flood. People who were not affected strongly underestimated the negative affect associated with a flood. Based on the results, it can be concluded that risk communication must not focus solely on technical aspects; in order to trigger motivation for mitigation behavior, successful communication must also help people to envisage the negative emotional consequences of natural disasters.

  7. Hospital nurses working wounded: motivations and obstacles to return to work as experienced by nurses with injuries. (United States)

    Mullen, Kathleen; Gillen, Marion; Kools, Susan; Blanc, Paul


    Despite the high rate of work-related injuries among hospital nurses, there is limited understanding of factors that serve to motivate or hinder nurses return to work following injury. Perspectives of nurses with work related injuries, as they relate to obstacles and motivations to return to work, consequences of injury, and influences of work climate were documented. This was a sub-study of nurses taken from a larger investigation of hospital workers. A purposive sample of 16 nurses was interviewed. Analysis was carried out using grounded theory as the research method. Nurses' responses fell into four concepts: organizational influences, personal conditions, costs and losses, and employee health as influenced by workers' compensation systems. Conceptualization of these concepts resulted in key categories: injury as an expected consequence of hospital work; nursing alone versus nursing together; the impact of injury on professional, family, and social roles; and nurses' understanding of and involvement with the workers' compensation system. The findings provide new perspective into features that support or hinder nurses' with injuries return to work and corroborate existing occupational health research. Consideration of these findings by hospital and employee health managers may help promote more effective return to work programs within the hospital setting.

  8. Thermal Unit Commitment Scheduling Problem in Utility System by Tabu Search Embedded Genetic Algorithm Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Christober Asir Rajan


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal unit commitment in the power system for the next H hours. A 66-bus utility power system in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach; extensive studies have also been performed for different IEEE test systems consist of 24, 57 and 175 buses. Numerical results are shown comparing the cost solutions and computation time obtained by different intelligence and conventional methods.

  9. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety? (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw


    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Motives to choose ‘manager’ profession (the results of the survey in PFUR)


    Zh V Puzanova; I. V. Semenova


    The article analyzes David McClelland’s theory of social needs and the perspectives of its application for identifying students’ motivation for choosing management professions. According to the theory of McClelland, in the motivational structure of personality there is always a dominant motive triggering actions. McClelland considers three basic motives to be such: motive of obtaining power, motive of achieving success and motive of affiliation. These motives reflect inner needs and aspiratio...

  11. Optimal placement of unified power flow controllers to improve dynamic voltage stability using power system variable based voltage stability indices. (United States)

    Albatsh, Fadi M; Ahmad, Shameem; Mekhilef, Saad; Mokhlis, Hazlie; Hassan, M A


    This study examines a new approach to selecting the locations of unified power flow controllers (UPFCs) in power system networks based on a dynamic analysis of voltage stability. Power system voltage stability indices (VSIs) including the line stability index (LQP), the voltage collapse proximity indicator (VCPI), and the line stability index (Lmn) are employed to identify the most suitable locations in the system for UPFCs. In this study, the locations of the UPFCs are identified by dynamically varying the loads across all of the load buses to represent actual power system conditions. Simulations were conducted in a power system computer-aided design (PSCAD) software using the IEEE 14-bus and 39- bus benchmark power system models. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. When the UPFCs are placed in the locations obtained with the new approach, the voltage stability improves. A comparison of the steady-state VSIs resulting from the UPFCs placed in the locations obtained with the new approach and with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE), which are static methods, is presented. In all cases, the UPFC locations given by the proposed approach result in better voltage stability than those obtained with the other approaches.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisca Stefany


    Full Text Available The development of online games is so high that leads many companies to compose games. To increase competitiveness, extra service is needed for the customers. Before giving service, online games provider has to know what factor that motivates player to buy online games and virtual items that are presented in order to increase competitiveness. The research is done by using case of online games perfect world, where the area of respondents is Jakarta and the age ranges between 15 to 24. This research involves survey for 186 respondents in which 30 respondents are for pilot test while 156 are for actual test. The data processing is used SEM which the measurement variables consist of effort expectancy, performance expectancy, perceived value, enjoyment story, enjoyment length, enjoyment graphic, enjoyment control, customization, purchase intention and actual purchase behavior. The result of research shows that motivation factor that has high effect to purchase intention is perceived value, enjoyment story, enjoyment length, enjoyment control and customization. While, purchase intention affects actual purchase behavior significantly

  13. Entropy Generation of Desalination Powered by Variable Temperature Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Warsinger


    Full Text Available Powering desalination by waste heat is often proposed to mitigate energy consumption and environmental impact; however, thorough technology comparisons are lacking in the literature. This work numerically models the efficiency of six representative desalination technologies powered by waste heat at 50, 70, 90, and 120 °C, where applicable. Entropy generation and Second Law efficiency analysis are applied for the systems and their components. The technologies considered are thermal desalination by multistage flash (MSF, multiple effect distillation (MED, multistage vacuum membrane distillation (MSVMD, humidification-dehumidification (HDH, and organic Rankine cycles (ORCs paired with mechanical technologies of reverse osmosis (RO and mechanical vapor compression (MVC. The most efficient technology was RO, followed by MED. Performances among MSF, MSVMD, and MVC were similar but the relative performance varied with waste heat temperature or system size. Entropy generation in thermal technologies increases at lower waste heat temperatures largely in the feed or brine portions of the various heat exchangers used. This occurs largely because lower temperatures reduce recovery, increasing the relative flow rates of feed and brine. However, HDH (without extractions had the reverse trend, only being competitive at lower temperatures. For the mechanical technologies, the energy efficiency only varies with temperature because of the significant losses from the ORC.

  14. Power generation by flagella-propelled Serratia Marcescens (United States)

    Tran, Trung-Hieu; Kim, Min Jun; Byun, Doyoung


    In this study, we present electrical power generation by using swimming Serratia marcescens which is a rod shaped bacterium species and has about 10 um long and about 20 nm thin helical filaments. Flow in micro channel is driven by bacteria attached on the wall, which is around 25 to 50 μm/sec. The driven electrolyte solution flow (buffer solution containing high concentration of S. marcescens) may be considered as movement of conductor. If we place permanent magnets on the top and bottom of the micro channel and electrodes on side walls in the micro channel, electrical current could be generated by the principle of Lorentz force acting on the moving charges. The potential between the two electrodes was measured to be up to 10mV and the electrical current was about 10pA with external load 50 Ohm. Even if the energy generated by bacteria swimming is small, it demonstrated the possible generation of power, which requires in-depth further research.

  15. Thermal emission in fatigue described by power laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallinatti A.E.


    Full Text Available In the present work, a theoretical model proposed by the literature and focused on the relationship between microplasticizations thermal behaviour and fatigue scatter is analysed and applied to fatigue test results of standard and notched steel specimens. The same experimental data are subjected to the TCM (Two Curves Method thermographic elaboration technique, in order to quickly evaluate fatigue limit values. TCM method has been modified, aiming at interpolating thermal data referred to the region of loads upper than fatigue limit with a non linear regression law having the same mathematical structure of the theoretical model equations (power laws.

  16. Optimal power flow by particle swarm optimization with an aging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Corresponding Author:, Tel +91 0326 2235644, Fax.+ 91 0326 2296563. Abstract. Optimal power flow (OPF) is defined as the optimization of operating states of a power system and the corresponding settings.

  17. Power system services provided by inverter connected distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For the last few years there has been a significant increase of DER units in Denmark, of those units more and more are connected to the power system using inverters. These inverter connected units have the potential to support the electrical power system with various power system services. One...

  18. Testing power system controllers by real-time simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venne, Philippe; Guillaud, Xavier; Sirois, Frédéric


    In this paper, we present a number of state-of-the art methods for testing power system controllers based on the use of a real-time power system simulator. After introducing Hypersim, we list and discuss the different means of connection between the controller under tests and the power system...

  19. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den


    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond

  20. Optimal power flow by particle swarm optimization with an aging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) with an aging leader and challengers (ALC-PSO) is applied for the solution of OPF problem of power system. This study is implemented on modified IEEE 30-bus test power system with different objectives that reflect minimization of either fuel cost or active power loss or sum ...