WorldWideScience

Sample records for bus transit operations

  1. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  2. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  3. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions.

  4. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  5. Public transit: Bus, paratransit, and ridesharing. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Contents: part 1--bus operations--service reliability program of the southern california rapid transit district: a test of the short-term impacts on line 26-51; bus route o-d matrix generation: relationship between biproportional and recursive methods; transportation systems management options to improve urban bus route performance using computer simulation; development and application of performance measures for rural public transportation operators; rural public transportation in alaska: present and future options; particulate trap installation in a man articulated transit bus; part 2--paratransit--methodology for conducting a transportation survey of persons with disabilities; marketing rural transit among senior populations; evolution of functional eligibility and certification for paratransit service: the chicago experience; part 3--ridesharing--the state of the commute in southern california; hispanic market research in the southern california market; evaluation of second-year effectiveness of guaranteed ride home service at warner center transportation management organization; effectiveness of a statewide ridesharing promotion: california rideshare week.

  6. Bus operator perceptions of safety risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of TriMet bus operators addressing safety risks in their assigned work. Surveyed risk factors : were organized into five categories: vehicle design and condition; route layout; operating conditions; fatigue...

  7. Optimalisasi Kelembagaan Dan Manajemen Dalam Bus Rapid Transit Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoni, Ahmad; Yuniar, Haptiwi Tri; Riyanto, Bambang; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Bus Rapid Transit Trans Semarang is a means of mass transportation to the transit system that began operating since 2009 as a solution to reduce congestion in the city of Semarang. This research focuses on the optimization and management of institutional BRT Trans Semarang to improve it's performance. The purpose of this study is to optimize the performance of the organization and management of BRT Trans Semarang with variable types of institutional cooperation BRT operations, and leadership...

  8. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  9. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  10. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours among bus operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoto, K H; French, S A

    2012-03-01

    Urban bus operators are an occupational group with high rates of overweight and obesity. Understanding methods bus operators use for weight control may be important; there may be increased risk for these workers to engage in less healthy weight management behaviours due to stressful working conditions. To examine the prevalence of unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours used by bus operators and examine associations between use of unhealthy weight control behaviours and work-related and sociodemographic variables. Bus operators from four different transit garages were invited to complete a self-administered survey; height and weight were measured by research staff. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours, work hours, work schedule and social support were measured with self-report items on the employee survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate associations. Nearly 60% of bus operators endorsed at least one unhealthy method; over 50% reported skipping meals, 30% fasted and 10% reported taking diet pills in the past year. Bus operator gender, race, body mass index status and hours worked per week showed significant associations with using at least one unhealthy weight control behaviour. Worksite interventions should emphasize the benefit of healthy eating and physical activity but should also address the use of less healthy methods for weight control for individuals employed in transportation occupations.

  11. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  12. Optimizing Bus Frequencies under Uncertain Demand: Case Study of the Transit Network in a Developing City

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhengfeng; Ren, Gang; Liu, Haixu

    2013-01-01

    Various factors can make predicting bus passenger demand uncertain. In this study, a bilevel programming model for optimizing bus frequencies based on uncertain bus passenger demand is formulated. There are two terms constituting the upper-level objective. The first is transit network cost, consisting of the passengers’ expected travel time and operating costs, and the second is transit network robustness performance, indicated by the variance in passenger travel time. The second term reflect...

  13. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Fergyanto E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  14. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  15. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  16. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The evaluation period in this report (January 2008 through February 2009) has been chosen to coincide with a UTC Power propulsion system changeout that occurred on January 15, 2008.

  17. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  18. A research framework for studying transit bus driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The increase in transit bus ridership nationally during the past ten years, along with the : proliferation of personal electronic control and communication gadgets is causing more : distractions for the drivers. Earlier research studies have found dr...

  19. Optimizing Bus Frequencies under Uncertain Demand: Case Study of the Transit Network in a Developing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various factors can make predicting bus passenger demand uncertain. In this study, a bilevel programming model for optimizing bus frequencies based on uncertain bus passenger demand is formulated. There are two terms constituting the upper-level objective. The first is transit network cost, consisting of the passengers’ expected travel time and operating costs, and the second is transit network robustness performance, indicated by the variance in passenger travel time. The second term reflects the risk aversion of decision maker, and it can make the most uncertain demand be met by the bus operation with the optimal transit frequency. With transit link’s proportional flow eigenvalues (mean and covariance obtained from the lower-level model, the upper-level objective is formulated by the analytical method. In the lower-level model, the above two eigenvalues are calculated by analyzing the propagation of mean transit trips and their variation in the optimal strategy transit assignment process. The genetic algorithm (GA used to solve the model is tested in an example network. Finally, the model is applied to determining optimal bus frequencies in the city of Liupanshui, China. The total cost of the transit system in Liupanshui can be reduced by about 6% via this method.

  20. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  1. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report #2, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-06-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006, comparing similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. It covers November 2007 through February 2010. Results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and road calls), and a summary of achievements and challenges encountered during the demonstration.

  2. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  3. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  4. A summary of design, policies and operational characteristics for shared bicycle/bus lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains the results of an investigation of the design and operation of shared bicycle/bus lanes in municipalities in the United States and other countries. These lanes are designated for use by public transit buses, bicycles, and usually...

  5. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  6. National Fuel Cell Bus Program : Accelerated Testing Report, AC Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 throu...

  7. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails' operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems.

  8. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  9. Effects of new bus and rail rapid transit systems – an international review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2018-01-01

    this gap in the literature by reviewing and comparing the effects obtained by 86 transit systems around the world, including Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), Light Rail Transit (LRT), metro and heavy rail transit systems. The analysis is twofold by analysing (i) the direct operational effects related to travel...... areas surrounding the transit line with increasing property values. Such effects are traditionally associated with attractive rail-based public transport systems. However, a statistical comparison of 41 systems did not show significant deviations between effects on property values resulting from BRT......Cities worldwide are implementing modern transit systems to improve mobility in the increasingly congested metropolitan areas. Despite much research on the effects of such systems, a comparison of effects across transit modes and countries has not been studied comprehensively. This paper fills...

  10. Successfulness of bus rapid transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as “a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility”. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is p

  11. How to guide - transit operations decision support systems (TODSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Transit Operations Decision Support Systems (TODSS) are decision support systems designed to support dispatchers in real-time bus operations : management in response to incidents, special events, and other changing conditions in order to restore serv...

  12. Evolution of weighted complex bus transit networks with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ailing; Xiong, Jie; Shen, Jinsheng; Guan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Study on the intrinsic properties and evolutional mechanism of urban public transit networks (PTNs) has great significance for transit planning and control, particularly considering passengers’ dynamic behaviors. This paper presents an empirical analysis for exploring the complex properties of Beijing’s weighted bus transit network (BTN) based on passenger flow in L-space, and proposes a bi-level evolution model to simulate the development of transit routes from the view of complex network. The model is an iterative process that is driven by passengers’ travel demands and dual-controlled interest mechanism, which is composed of passengers’ spatio-temporal requirements and cost constraint of transit agencies. Also, the flow’s dynamic behaviors, including the evolutions of travel demand, sectional flow attracted by a new link and flow perturbation triggered in nearby routes, are taken into consideration in the evolutional process. We present the numerical experiment to validate the model, where the main parameters are estimated by using distribution functions that are deduced from real-world data. The results obtained have proven that our model can generate a BTN with complex properties, such as the scale-free behavior or small-world phenomenon, which shows an agreement with our empirical results. Our study’s results can be exploited to optimize the real BTN’s structure and improve the network’s robustness.

  13. Bunching transition in a time-headway model of a bus route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, T

    2001-03-01

    A time-headway model is presented to mimic bus behavior on the bus route. The motion of a bus is described in terms of the time headway between its bus and the bus in front. We study the bunching behavior of buses induced by interacting with other buses and passengers. It is shown that the dynamical phase transitions among the inhomogeneous bunching phase, the homogeneous free phase, the coexisting phase, and the homogeneous congested phase occur with varying the initial time headway. We study the effect of not stopping at bus stops on the time-headway profile. It is found that the bunching transition lines are consistent with the neutral stability curves obtained by the linear stability analysis.

  14. Optimizing Performance of at-grade Intersection with Bus Rapid Transit Corridor and Heterogeneous Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has emerged as a preferred mode of public transport in various countries all over the world for its cost effectiveness in construction as well as in operation and maintenance. The rapid transit feature of BRT is seen as a solution to many traffic problems in these countries. However, in developing countries like India, the right -of-way for most of the roads is restricted and traffic is heterogeneous in nature. Provision of BRT in existing right -of-way reduces the capacity available for other motorized traffic. As the buses travel with a certain frequency on dedicated bus- ways, the dedicated corridor remains unused for most of the period when other traffic on motorized vehicle (MV lanes suffers from congestion. The problem gets severe at intersections. However, if buses are operated in mixed traffic it is no more rapid transit. Hence, a solution is required to address this problem and optimize the performance of traffic as a whole. This paper presents the effect if dedicated bus-ways end at a reasonable distance before the stop line at a busy signalized at-grade intersection, and bus lanes (beyond that are made available to all the motorized vehicular traffic (heterogeneous traffic at intersection. The performance evaluation is done in terms of average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle, vehicle throughput, average speed in network and emission of Carbon monoxide CO, mono-nitrogen oxides NOx and Volatile organic compounds (VOC. It is observed that availability of bus lanes to other motorized traffic for a reasonable distance before intersection considerably reduces the average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle and emission per vehicle, while there is an increase in vehicle throughput and average speed of all the vehicles in the network. Thus it results in reduction of congestion and performance enhancement of at-grade intersections and network. Results of

  15. Enabling Bus Transit Service Quality Co-Monitoring Through Smartphone-Based Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Corinna; Zegras, P. Christopher; Zhao, Fang

    2017-01-01

    ’ word, meaning “agencies using public feedback to supplement official monitoring and regulation.”] bus service quality. The pilot project adapted a smartphone-based travel survey system, Future Mobility Sensing, to collect real-time customer feedback and objective operational measurements on specific......The growing ubiquity of smartphones offers public transit agencies an opportunity to transform ways to measure, monitor, and manage service performance. The potential of a new tool is demonstrated for engaging customers in measuring satisfaction and co-monitoring [Editor’s note: This is the authors...

  16. Bus Operations for Pupil Transportation. "Chrome-Yellow and Red Lights."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannels, Morris W.

    This paper is based on a committee report of the last National School Bus Conference on "Minimum Standards for School Buses." Standards for school bus operations are included for (1) administrators, (2) supervisors, (3) school bus drivers, (4) student passengers, and (5) maintenance and service personnel. The report deals also with procedures for…

  17. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  18. State and Federal project development procedures for bus rapid transit : managing differences and reducing implementation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents an investigation into the transportation project development process in the : context of the implementation of bus rapid transit systems on the State Highway System as well as such : systems being part of the Federal New Starts ...

  19. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  20. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  1. Performance of the Priority Control Strategies for Bus Rapid Transit: Comparative Study from Scenario Microsimulation Using VISSIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit (BRT has a great potential to improve the service level of transit system and has been implemented in many Chinese cities. However, the priority it can provide to buses has not been explored fully. Therefore, this study mainly investigated two advanced control strategies (signal priority using advanced detection and transit speed control. Signal priority using advanced detection is a strategy which detects one cycle ahead of buses’ arrival in order to adapt a more flexible control algorithm to provide signal priority for buses. Another is transit speed control, which provides priority at intersections for buses by controlling the speed of them and predicting their arrival at certain intersection. These two advanced strategies were modeled and evaluated using simulation software VISSIM and presented better performance than other three scenarios (base case, exclusive bus lane, and conventional transit signal priority. Only the eastbound direction would be researched as its traffic flow and bus volume are much larger than those of the other direction. Data used in this model was collected in Yingtan City. It is also shown that both the operation of BRT and the efficiency of private traffic can be much improved by applying the two strategies proposed above.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Bus Operation Control System Based on Cooperative Speed Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Teng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buses often have strong bunching or large interval tendency when traveling further along the route. To restrain this further deterioration of operation service, this paper developed a bus operation control system to dynamically adjust bus speed, bus dwell time, and traffic signal timings along the running path. In addition, a simulation platform was developed to evaluate the proposed control system with the actual data collected from bus route number 210 in Shanghai. The simulation results show that the proposed control system can mitigate the amplification trend of the headway deviation along the route to produce headways within a given tolerance.

  3. Biobjective Optimization and Evaluation for Transit Signal Priority Strategies at Bus Stop-to-Stop Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new optimization framework for the transit signal priority strategies in terms of green extension, red truncation, and phase insertion at the stop-to-stop segment of bus lines. The optimization objective is to minimize both passenger delay and the deviation from bus schedule simultaneously. The objective functions are defined with respect to the segment between bus stops, which can include the adjacent signalized intersections and downstream bus stops. The transit priority signal timing is optimized by using a biobjective optimization framework considering both the total delay at a segment and the delay deviation from the arrival schedules at bus stops. The proposed framework is evaluated using a VISSIM model calibrated with field traffic volume and traffic signal data of Caochangmen Boulevard in Nanjing, China. The optimized TSP-based phasing plans result in the reduced delay and improved reliability, compared with the non-TSP scenario under the different traffic flow conditions in the morning peak hour. The evaluation results indicate the promising performance of the proposed optimization framework in reducing the passenger delay and improving the bus schedule adherence for the urban transit system.

  4. Implementation of Bus Rapid Transit in Copenhagen: A Mesoscopic Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Kornerup Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    upgrades (busways and enhanced stations) ensure a reduction to traveltime whereas no improvements to reliability occur. Upgrades to technology and serviceplanning (pre-paid fare collection, boarding and alighting from all doors, special BRT vehicles, ITS, and active bus control) ensure an increase...... for large scale corridors due to the vast amount of data and resources required.Hence, it is relevant to investigate how to model and evaluate BRT efficiently.In this paper the effects of implementing BRT in Copenhagen is discussed including how to evaluate and model bus operations.For this purpose......-simulation models.The developed model is capable of modelling bus operations in terms of travel time and reliability including important mode-specific issues such as bus bunching.The model is applied to a BRT project proposal with different combinations of BRTelements. The model results show that infrastructure...

  5. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  6. Impacts of bus rapid transit (BRT) on surrounding residential property values : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    As bus rapid transit (BRT) grows in popularity in the United States, a better understanding of the modes impacts on land uses and property values is needed. Economic theory suggests, and literature has shown, that people are willing to pay higher ...

  7. Modeling commuter preferences for the proposed bus rapid transit in Dar-es-Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes individual commuter preferences towards the proposed bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The objective of the survey was to identify how commuters perceive and value the proposed BRT service quality attributes. A stated preference survey of potential users

  8. Operating Time Division for a Bus Route Based on the Recovery of GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time is an important source of data for time of day partition of the bus route. However, in practice, a bus driver may deliberately speed up or slow down on route so as to follow the predetermined timetable. The raw GPS data collected by the GPS device equipped on the bus, as a result, cannot reflect its real operating conditions. To address this concern, this study first develops a method to identify whether there is deliberate speed-up or slow-down movement of a bus. Building upon the relationships between the intersection delay, link travel time, and traffic flow, a recovery method is established for calculating the real bus travel time. Using the dwell time at each stop and the recovered travel time between each of them as the division indexes, a sequential clustering-based time of day partition method is proposed. The effectiveness of the developed method is demonstrated using the data of bus route 63 in Harbin, China. Results show that the partition method can help bus enterprises to design reasonable time of day intervals and significantly improve their level of service.

  9. An influence of road pricing upon the performance of bus transit services in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Olga

    2004-01-01

    Discussions of road pricing have paid relatively small attention to the potential effects on the provision of public transport services in a region as depending upon the level of competition in a public transit sector. The present paper uses a fairly simple transport network equilibrium model of the greater Oslo region of Norway in order to investigate the impacts of road pricing upon the performance of bus transit sector. Empirical analysis is performed for the case of publicly and privately...

  10. Minimizing the health and climate impacts of emissions from heavy-duty public transportation bus fleets through operational optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouge, Brian; Dowlatabadi, Hadi; Ries, Francis J

    2013-04-16

    In contrast to capital control strategies (i.e., investments in new technology), the potential of operational control strategies (e.g., vehicle scheduling optimization) to reduce the health and climate impacts of the emissions from public transportation bus fleets has not been widely considered. This case study demonstrates that heterogeneity in the emission levels of different bus technologies and the exposure potential of bus routes can be exploited though optimization (e.g., how vehicles are assigned to routes) to minimize these impacts as well as operating costs. The magnitude of the benefits of the optimization depend on the specific transit system and region. Health impacts were found to be particularly sensitive to different vehicle assignments and ranged from worst to best case assignment by more than a factor of 2, suggesting there is significant potential to reduce health impacts. Trade-offs between climate, health, and cost objectives were also found. Transit agencies that do not consider these objectives in an integrated framework and, for example, optimize for costs and/or climate impacts alone, risk inadvertently increasing health impacts by as much as 49%. Cost-benefit analysis was used to evaluate trade-offs between objectives, but large uncertainties make identifying an optimal solution challenging.

  11. SURVEY DESIGN TO GRASP AND COMPARE USER'S ATTITUDES ON BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillaiampalam SIVAKUMAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In mitigating urban transportation problems and providing a sustainable transit system, rail-based systems have become popular. While rail-based systems are welcome in many developed countries, it is impractical for cities in developing countries due to the high cost of system building and operation. Thus, a staged or incremental adjustment towards fixed guide way transit implementation of greater interest to many agencies today, and these days it has started developing in terms of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT. As it is very new to developing cities, it is a challenge to get the users to understand the system and to grasp their attitude. Besides, there are many other general issues like literacy, lack of a sample frame etc. Survey design needs to be tuned carefully for these cities to obtain a resonant output. Concerning all these problems, a hypothetical questionnaire survey such as Stated Preference (SP has become popular. This study conducted a survey on BRT implementation with SP as a hypothetical tool at a selected corridor in Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka. The main objectives were to identify questionnaire design(media effects, literacy of users, segmental variation, and the important variable(s. In this survey design, system explanation has been set in two slightly different ways (media: TEXT ∼ IMAGE for comparison and it was found that even a slight difference on design affected the users' response considerably. Income level could not be predicted directly, but car ownership was found to be a good predictor, it was found to be an important variable and it showed a correlation with literacy.

  12. Psychosocial Work Factors, Blood Pressure and Psychological Strain in Male Bus Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENDALES, Boris; USECHE, Sergio; GÓMEZ, Viviola

    2014-01-01

    The research aim was to predict the bus operators’ blood pressure (BP) and psychological strain using a combination of the Job-Demand Control (JDC) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. The study was conducted with a sample of 139 bus operators in the city of Bogotá (Colombia), who answered a questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the ERI Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Four consecutive BP readings taken in the workplace were averaged to calculate an estimation of the bus operators’ BP. By conducting multiple linear regressions it was found that, taken together, JDC and ERI models explain 10% (F(11,139)=2,502; p=0.00) of systolic BP variance, and 34% (F(6,139)=8,638; p=0.00) of psychological strain variance. These results suggest that the JDC and ERI predictors provide complementary information which increases the probability of accurately model the bus operators’ health. PMID:24869893

  13. Learning through policy tourism: circulating bus rapid transit from South America to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Wood

    2014-01-01

    Study tours, a form of ‘policy tourism’ in which local actors travel elsewhere to see best practice and meet with those in the exporting locality who implemented it, have become a basic tenet for policy exchange. In the pursuit of these lessons, hundreds of South African public transport enthusiasts visited South America, particularly Bogota, to learn of its thriving bus rapid transit (BRT) network. This paper evaluates the influence of these exchanges on BRT circulation and adoption—what tak...

  14. Field Evaluation of Red-Coloured Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements for Bus Rapid Transit Lanes in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfan Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coloured pavements have been implemented by metropolitan areas to denote dedicated lanes for bus rapid transit to maintain a high level of safety. Transit benefits of these installations are well documented. However, field performance of various types of coloured pavement has not been investigated systematically, with questions not being answered. In collaboration with the Regional Municipality of York (ON, Canada where red pavement sections have been in operation for years for its bus rapid transit lanes, the Centre for Pavement and Transportation Technology at the University of Waterloo (Waterloo, ON, Canada assessed the performance of various types of red pavements including epoxy paint and red asphalt mixes. It was found that, with significant lower texture depth, epoxy paint surface has disadvantages to red asphalt pavement from a pavement texture and safety perspective. The red asphalt sections in this study were observed as lower yet compatible frictional levels to conventional black pavement. Various types of contamination onto the red pavement were observed during field survey. In addition, the ultraviolet radiation degraded the colour of red asphalt pavement over time and may make it less effective for lane designation. Long-term monitoring is recommended to evaluate the functional and structural performance of red asphalt pavement.

  15. Best practices for using geographic data in transit : a location referencing guidebook : defining geographic locations of bus stops, routes and other map data for ITS, GIS and operational efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    This Guidebook was developed at the request of the transit industry. It provides best practices for both transit managers and technical staff with respect to planning, implementing and using geographic data in transit. The Guidebook discusses issues ...

  16. Operational efficiency of the lighting system of bus salons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brytkovskyi V.M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of safety of people is studied primarily in aspects of natural and man-made disasters, fire, health and safety in the workplace. A problem connected with the way of life of the people, in particular with the use of bus transport remains almost out of sight. In addition to the foregoing, there is another side to the issue: modern development of industry and transport is characterized by large-scale introduction of technical measures aimed at saving energy In the specified aspect theoretical dependences for evaluation of technological economic efficiency of light sources in indoor lighting system buses are grounded. This theoretical dependency will make analytical framework justification applying the respective sources of light, taking into account the hygiene requirements to illumination. The methodology of calculation of economic efficiency of lighting of bus salons is offered. Estimating parameter is justified relative objective function value costs per unit of time or distance. The greatest costs are typical for lamps with incandescent bulbs. The least is common to lamps with fluorescent lamps. Led bulbs have no significant advantage even over incandescent lamps. The reason for this is the relatively high color temperature radiation of LED lamps that requires more light levels and, consequently, the high cost of energy, as well as relatively large initial cost of these lamps.

  17. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Transit Bus Experience Survey: April 2009--April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.; Horne, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    This survey was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect and analyze experiential data and information from a cross-section of U.S. transit agencies with varying degrees of compressed natural gas (CNG) bus and station experience. This information will be used to assist DOE and NREL in determining areas of success and areas where further technical or other assistance might be required, and to assist them in focusing on areas judged by the CNG transit community as priority items.

  18. Modeling transit bus fuel consumption on the basis of cycle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Oscar F; Clark, Nigel N; Thompson, Gregory J

    2011-04-01

    A method exists to predict heavy-duty vehicle fuel economy and emissions over an "unseen" cycle or during unseen on-road activity on the basis of fuel consumption and emissions data from measured chassis dynamometer test cycles and properties (statistical parameters) of those cycles. No regression is required for the method, which relies solely on the linear association of vehicle performance with cycle properties. This method has been advanced and examined using previously published heavy-duty truck data gathered using the West Virginia University heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with the trucks exercised over limited test cycles. In this study, data were available from a Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority emission testing program conducted in 2006. Chassis dynamometer data from two conventional diesel buses, two compressed natural gas buses, and one hybrid diesel bus were evaluated using an expanded driving cycle set of 16 or 17 different driving cycles. Cycle properties and vehicle fuel consumption measurements from three baseline cycles were selected to generate a linear model and then to predict unseen fuel consumption over the remaining 13 or 14 cycles. Average velocity, average positive acceleration, and number of stops per distance were found to be the desired cycle properties for use in the model. The methodology allowed for the prediction of fuel consumption with an average error of 8.5% from vehicles operating on a diverse set of chassis dynamometer cycles on the basis of relatively few experimental measurements. It was found that the data used for prediction should be acquired from a set that must include an idle cycle along with a relatively slow transient cycle and a relatively high speed cycle. The method was also applied to oxides of nitrogen prediction and was found to have less predictive capability than for fuel consumption with an average error of 20.4%.

  19. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  20. GO Bus impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    NJ TRANSIT launched two relatively new enhanced bus services: GO 25 serving the : Springfield Avenue corridor in 2008 and GO 28 serving the Bloomfield Avenue corridor in 2009. : As an enhanced but not full Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) service, GO Bus feat...

  1. Evaluating Operational Effects of Bus Lane with Intermittent Priority under Connected Vehicle Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingxin Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus lane with intermittent priority (BLIP is an innovative method to improve the reliability of bus services while promoting efficient usage of road resources. Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication is an advanced technology that can greatly enhance the vehicle mobility, improve traffic safety, and alleviate traffic jams. To explore the benefits of BLIP operation under a connected environment, this study proposed a three-lane cellular automata (CA model under opening boundary condition. In particular, a mandatory BLIP lane-changing rule is developed to analyze special asymmetric lane-changing behaviors. To improve the simulation accuracy, a smaller cell size is used in the CA model. Through massive numerical simulations, the benefits and influences of BLIP are explored in this paper. They include impacts on neighborhood lanes such as traffic density increasing and average speed decreasing, lane-changing behaviors, lane usage, and the impacts of bus departure interval and clear distance on the road capacity of BLIP. Analysis of traffic flow characteristics of BLIP reveals that there is a strong relationship among bus departure interval, clear distance, and road capacity. Furthermore, setting conditions for deployment of BLIP under the V2V environment such as reasonable departure interval, clear distance, and traffic density are obtained.

  2. Users' demographic profile and quality attributes of bus services: The perspectives of users, operators and local authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nur'Amirah Mhd.; Hamid, Ahmad Hilmy Abd

    2017-10-01

    Bus services that can help meet almost every bus user's needs are the goals of bus operators. Despite such an idealistic view, the operators themselves, users and even the local authorities have been found to hold different views about the quality of service that the bus should deliver. As the users i.e., customers are considered as important stakeholders, understanding their characteristics, profile and pattern is very crucial. To this end, the present study has attempted to gauge the perspectives of all the above-mentioned stakeholders. For the users, a customer satisfaction survey was employed to look into the relative influence of service attributes. In addition, surveys were also administered to bus operators and local authorities to study their perspectives in relation to this matter. 450 randomly selected respondents were surveyed. Identification of the service level was analyzed through the Likert scale whereas the perspectives of the operators and authorities were dealt with through mean value Analysis. Specifically, this study aims to identify the crucial attributes in determining the quality of the bus services. Findings of the study indicated that different attributes were selected by users, operators and authorities, which clearly enlightened the variations of the important attributes in determining the level of bus service quality. In its attempt to compare the service level attributes from three perspectives, this study has helped advance better improvement and strategies for the urban public bus operators and planners, in addition to the authorities in delivering user-friendly bus services by taking into account the local context, user profile and demographic characteristics.

  3. Biomechanical and ergonomic assessment of urban transit operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Wayne J; Everson, Donald; Rae, Michelle; Callaghan, Jack P; Croll, Jim; Kuruganti, Usha

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of neck and low back musculoskeletal injuries in transit operators has been shown to be high; with work absences exceeding double the National average. There is a lack of biomechanical data generated from field researches to inform on musculoskeletal risk associated with transportation and driving occupations. Instead there has been a reliance on simulated driving and questionnaire-based research. This study was designed to examine the musculoskeletal and biomechanical stresses experienced by urban bus drivers. The main objective was to obtain a baseline understanding of sitting posture, muscle activiation and subjective ratings of stress during regular driving tasks. Fifteen urban city bus drivers were recruited for this study. Bus drivers drove the same 65-minute bus route once, at the same time of day, in the same preselected bus. Wireless surface electromyography monitored muscular activity of the drivers' neck, upper trapezius, and erector spinae and video analysis and seat pressure mapping was used to monitor changes in driving posture. A health and lifestyle questionnaire was administered to record specific neck and back pain experienced by drivers as well as to provide lifestyle habits. Drivers were found to exhibit non-neutral postures for less than 30% of the time while conducting routine tasks of turning and stopping for passenger loading and unloading. The neck posture was the greatest concern in terms of non-neutral posture and this was supported by the higher muscle activation to the neck musculature. There was significant posture adjustment made during the one-hour driving period with the adjustments increasing with driving time. Activities associated with bus driving appear to require the use of non-neutral postures an increase in muscle activation. Significant postural adjustments were needed over the one-hour observation period suggesting that the musculoskeletal demands may increase over a regular 12-hour shift.

  4. Stochastic phase transition operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanobe, Takanobu

    2011-07-01

    In this study a Markov operator is introduced that represents the density evolution of an impulse-driven stochastic biological oscillator. The operator's stochastic kernel is constructed using the asymptotic expansion of stochastic processes instead of solving the Fokker-Planck equation. The Markov operator is shown to successfully approximate the density evolution of the biological oscillator considered. The response of the oscillator to both periodic and time-varying impulses can be analyzed using the operator's transient and stationary properties. Furthermore, an unreported stochastic dynamic bifurcation for the biological oscillator is obtained by using the eigenvalues of the product of the Markov operators.

  5. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US); Clark, N.

    2000-11-07

    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  6. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM IN ASIAN DEVELOPING CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned SATIENNAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has increasingly become an attractive urban transit alternative in many Asian developing cities due to its cost-effective and flexible implementation. However, it still seems to be difficult to introduce BRT to these cities because almost all of their city structures have been developed under solely a road transport development city plan and weakness of land use control gives rise to many problems, such as urban sprawl, traffic congestion, and air pollution. The purpose of this study was to introduce several strategies to support BRT implementation in Asian developing cities, such as a strategy to appropriately integrate the paratransit system into BRT system as being a feeder along a BRT corridor to supply demand. These proposed strategies were evaluated by applying demand forecasting and emission models to the BRT project plan of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in Thailand. It was demonstrated that the proposed strategies could effectively improve the BRT ridership, traffic conditions, and air pollution emission of the entire system in Bangkok. This study could be further extended to include strategy recommendation if a BRT system were to be introduced to other Asian developing cities.

  7. Electric bus systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Pure electric buses (EBs) offer an alternative fuel for the nations transit bus systems. To : evaluate EBs in a transit setting, this project investigated the five electric bus fleet of the : StarMetro transit system of the city of Tallahassee, FL...

  8. Variable speed induction motor operation from a 20-kHz power bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    Induction motors are recognized for their simple rugged construction to date, however, their application to variable speed or servo drives has been hampered by limitations on their control. Induction motor drives tend to be complex and to display troublesome low speed characteristics due in part to nonsinusoidal driving voltages. A technique was developed which involves direct synthesis of sinusoidal driving voltages from a high frequency power bus and independent control of frequency and voltages. Separation offrequency and voltage allows independent control of rotor and stator flux, full four-quadrant operation, and instantaneous torque control. Recent test results, current status of the technology, and proposed aerospace applications will be discussed.

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF BUS OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS WHILE USING INTEGRATED CONTROL OF SUSPENSION AND TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mikhailau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-natural tests for active pneumatic suspension of a 18-tonne tourist bus with the system of automatic body stabilization of the mobile machine and feed-back coupling according to kinematics parameter. The test have been executed in the cases when the bus is stocked with an automatic hydro-mechanical transmission in the process of speed picking up, gear-changing or road braking which is assigned by accidental road humps. A computer simulation of dynamic structures in combination with virtual devices and real objects (HIL – Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation has been carried in the paper. Personal computers, software, programmed logic controller, frequency generator, solenoid-operated valve have been used for the investigation process. The paper proposes an unconventional method for improvement operational characteristics which is based on integrated control of a suspension and automatic hydro-mechanical transmission. A mathematical model includes systems of automatic transmission, suspension and module for generation of accidental road humps. The model has been considered as a basis for semi-natural laboratory bench with industrially-manufactured controller, other components of automatic systems and standard control organs. The most efficient method for body stabilization is control of the suspension according to the parameter of angular rate during vertical turn of an automobile’s center line with a turning point in the center of mass. The developed algorithm and stabilization system according to angular rate of body’s center line turning have made it possible to improve dynamics of the bus while making gear-changing and to reduce fuel consumption during starting-up and speed picking-up processes. During the braking process such system simultaneously decreases oscillation amplitude of some parameters more than two-fold.

  10. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  11. KAJIAN AWAL SIMULASI KOMPUTER MODEL KEBIJAKAN PENENTUAN JUMLAH OPTIMAL ARMADA BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Budiawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keberadaan Bus Rapid Transit (BRT di Kota Semarang diharapkan dapat menjadi salah satu solusi akan permasalahan kemacetan, adanya BRT ini terutama pada trayek perjalanan koridor II, ternyata mendapatkan tanggapan positif dari masyarakat pengguna, terbukti dari meningkatnya permintaan yang terjadi dari tahun 2012 hingga 2013 yakni hampir menyentuh angka 90% dari tahun sebelumnya. Dari hasil pengamatan pada trayek perjalanan Koridor II yang telah dilakukan, ternyata diketahui bahwa pada beberapa shelter (halte terjadi permintaan yang cukup tinggi, dan akhirnya pada saat peak hour armada BRT tidak mampu menampung seluruh permintaan yang terjadi, sehingga mengakibatkan penumpang harus menunggu lebih lama untuk dilayani oleh armada tersebut. Hal tersebut memicu permasalahan baru yakni kurang optimalnya jumlah armada yang beroperasi dan juga jadwal antar keberangkatan armada yang kurang menyesuaikan kondisi ketika tingginya permintaan pada setiap halte. Adapun metode yang digunakan adalah dengan melakukan pendekatan sistem, yang selanjutnya melakukan pemodelan sistem transportasi dan simulasi computer yang terjadi pada rute perjalanan tersebut. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah rancangan model simulasi dalam bentuk model matematis dan simulasi komputer. Variabel pengendali pada model matematis dan simulasi komputer adalah frekuensi waktu antar kedatangan armada BRT, sehingga diharapkan mengurangi panjang antrian penumpang. Kata kunci: sistem transportasi, pemodelan sistem, simulasi komputer.

  12. Effects of transit bus interior configuration on performance of wheeled mobility users during simulated boarding and disembarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James A; Steinfeld, Edward

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of low-floor bus designs and related regulatory standards in the U.S. have resulted in substantial improvements in public transit accessibility. However, passengers using wheeled mobility devices still experience safety concerns and inefficiencies in boarding, disembarking, and interior circulation on low-floor buses. This study investigates effects of low-floor bus interior configuration and passenger crowding on boarding and disembarking efficiency and safety. Users of manual wheelchairs (n = 18), powered wheelchairs (n = 21) and electric scooters (n = 9) simulated boarding and disembarking in three interior layout configurations at low and high passenger crowding conditions on a full-scale laboratory mock-up of a low-floor bus. Dependent measures comprised task times and critical incidents during access ramp use, fare payment, and movement to and from the doorway and wheeled mobility securement area. Individual times for unassisted boarding ranged from 15.2 to 245.3 s and for disembarking ranged from 9.1 to 164.6 s across layout and passenger crowding conditions. Nonparametric analysis of variance showed significant differences and interactions across vehicle design conditions, passenger load and mobility device type on user performance. The configuration having electronic on-board fare payment, rear-bus entrance doorways and adjacent device securement areas demonstrated greatest efficiency and safety. High passenger load adversely impacted efficiency and frequency of critical incidents during on-board circulation across all three layouts. Findings have broader implications for improving transit system efficiency and quality of service across the spectrum of transit users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase transitions in operational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Kartik; Kühn, Reimer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we explore the functional correlation approach to operational risk. We consider networks with heterogeneous a priori conditional and unconditional failure probability. In the limit of sparse connectivity, self-consistent expressions for the dynamical evolution of order parameters are obtained. Under equilibrium conditions, expressions for the stationary states are also obtained. Consequences of the analytical theory developed are analyzed using phase diagrams. We find coexistence of operational and nonoperational phases, much as in liquid-gas systems. Such systems are susceptible to discontinuous phase transitions from the operational to nonoperational phase via catastrophic breakdown. We find this feature to be robust against variation of the microscopic modeling assumptions.

  14. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  15. Shaping travels and land use with bus rapid transit: a developed city’s visualisation with smartcard and census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit and land-use integration is regarded as one of the most important means of avoiding or reducing car dependence and urban sprawl, which are thought as major culprits of unsustainability. In developing countries, rail rapid transit could be too expensive to become the predominant component of their respective systems. However, bus rapid transit (BRT as one of the cheapest forms of mass transit is a better alternative for those countries. In developing countries, BRT has transformed numerous cities such as Curitiba, Brazil; Bogota, Columbia; and Guangzhou, China. Can BRT have the same transformative impacts for cities in developed countries as well? Can the impacts of BRT be visualized using the transit population? Given that few cities in developed countries have BRT and ridership data of BRT are not always available, the above questions have not been well addressed before. To answer these two questions, we analysed smartcard swipes over a five-day weekday period (11–15 March 2013 for Brisbane in Queensland, Australia, and reconstructed trip trajectories of those 255,887 transit riders. We found that BRT serves a significant percentage and number of travellers, thus shaping travel behaviour and ultimately land use – when transit ridership and rate of transit usage are used as indicators. This is a significant achievement in Australia, a country known for its car dependence and urban sprawl.

  16. SAE for the prediction of road traffic status from taxicab operating data and bus smart card data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengfeng, Huang; Pengjun, Zheng; Wenjun, Xu; Gang, Ren

    Road traffic status is significant for trip decision and traffic management, and thus should be predicted accurately. A contribution is that we consider multi-modal data for traffic status prediction than only using single source data. With the substantial data from Ningbo Passenger Transport Management Sector (NPTMS), we wished to determine whether it was possible to develop Stacked Autoencoders (SAEs) for accurately predicting road traffic status from taxicab operating data and bus smart card data. We show that SAE performed better than linear regression model and Back Propagation (BP) neural network for determining the relationship between road traffic status and those factors. In a 26-month data experiment using SAE, we show that it is possible to develop highly accurate predictions (91% test accuracy) of road traffic status from daily taxicab operating data and bus smart card data.

  17. Rolling horizon predictions of bus trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshyani, M.F.; Cats, O.

    2014-01-01

    Bus travel times are subject to inherent and recurrent uncertainties. A real-time prediction scheme regarding how the transit system evolves will potentially facilitate more adaptive operations as well as more adaptive passengers’ decisions. This scheme should be tractable, sufficiently fast and

  18. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  19. The bus rapid transit system: A service quality dimension of commuter uptake in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince D. Ugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated commuter uptake of the bus rapid transit (BRT system in Cape Town,South Africa. As a stated preference survey was not carried out prior to the launch of the new BRT system in the City of Cape Town, it became difficult to assess commuters’ preferences,which would have provided City policymakers and planners with an understanding of customer satisfaction of the proposed bus service. The commuting trend of the BRT system in the City indicates that tickets sales and utilisation by commuters is gradually picking up, but one would have expected high commuter engagement in terms of the modernity profile of the BRT system. This study investigated commuters’ (n = 260 satisfaction levels with 30 service quality variables on a self-rated questionnaire, using quantitative research methodology.The study result showed that passengers were not satisfied with the transport fare and the availability or accessibility of ticket sales outlets. In the context of this study, this result implies that the ‘responsiveness and affordability’ variable of the service quality dimensions should be an area of interest and review to City of Cape Town policymakers and planners. Service quality trends in public transport were also highlighted.

  20. Orientation Assistance for Visually Impaired Passengers within a Bus Rapid Transit System (Transmilenio, using Satellite Geolocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Camargo

    2017-05-01

    Results: 100% of the users were able to reach their destination successfully in the pilot test. In regards to the usability perception, users highlighted features such as sound indications for setting the device and orientation guidance throughout the journey. On the other hand, one of the main difficulties found was to correctly identify the bus approaching the stop and similarly locating the corresponding boarding door, as multiple bus routes may alight in the same door. Conclusions: The device was built incorporating low-cost technologies intended to make it affordable in an eventual mass—scale production. Likewise, a discreet design was chosen so as to lessen the risk of robbery, which unfortunately is a frequent issue in the Transmilenio system due to overcrowding of buses and stations. Additionally, we remark that the prototype can be made smaller by using special—purpose circuit boards. Policy-makers may take into account these considerations for an eventual wide implementation as part of governments’ plans for mobility inclusion in mass-transport systems for disabled people, in comparison with other alternatives such as smart cell phones Language: Spanish.

  1. 76 FR 78732 - FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Administration's priority of supporting America's veterans and military families, as well as the objectives of... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Veterans Transportation and Community Living Initiative AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...

  2. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  3. Does Operation Scheduling Make a Difference: Tapping the Potential of Optimized Design for Skipping-Stop Strategy in Reducing Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of corporate social responsibility has promoted bus operation agencies to rethink how to provide not only efficient but also environmentally friendly services for residents. A study on the potential of using an optimized design of skip-stop services, one of the essential operational strategies in practice, to reduce emissions is conducted in this paper. The underlying scheduling problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem with the primary objective of optimizing the total costs for both passengers and operating agencies, as well as with the secondary objective of minimizing bus emissions. A solution method is developed to solve the problem. A real-world case of Route 16 in Beijing is studied, in which the optimal scheduling strategy that maximizes the cost savings and environmental benefits is determined. The costs and emissions of the proposed scheduling strategy are compared with the optimal scheduling with skip-stop services without considering bus emissions. The results show that the proposed scheduling strategy outperforms the other operating strategy with respect to operational costs and bus emissions. A sensitivity study is then conducted to investigate the impact of the fleet size in operations and passenger demand on the effectiveness of the proposed stop-skipping strategy considering bus emissions.

  4. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in consultation with concerned department/agencies. Field surveys were also conducted to get input from passengers and local people. Initial investigation informed that out of four operational bus routes, only two routes are profitable. The overall bus operation is running in loss (only 0.3% net profit. It has barely any profit for the bus operator against its investment thereby making the urban bus operation financially non-viable. The whole revenue flow is dependent on passenger ticketing revenue only. Around 35% of the buses are in poor condition with major issues of quality of tyres, no speedometer, worse condition of seats, floor and ceiling, and display of route. Illegal operation of Qingqis/Rickshaws (as para-transit mode along the bus routes is also decreasing the revenue by capturing the passenger volume. According to passenger opinion analysis, around 55% of the passenger are not satisfied with the service quality and prefer other modes of transport. Their major concerns are absence of facilities for disables and bus stops, bus seating and standing capacity, poor bus condition and pick pocketing. Collectively, these factors are contributing

  5. Clean Air Program : Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alcohol Fuel (Methanol and Ethanol) as an Alternative Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Although there are over one thousand transit buses in revenue service in the U.S. that are powered by alternative fuels, there are no comprehensive guidelines for the safe design and operation of alternative fuel facilities and vehicles for transit s...

  6. Comparison of the combustion engine operating parameters and the ecological indicators of an urban bus in dynamic type approval tests and in actual operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymaniak Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the considerations regarding a city bus combustion engine performanceparameters in dynamic type approval tests and in real operating conditions when servicing an urban bus line. A comparison of the designated engine operating time shares with respect to load and crankshaft rotational speed was made. The analysis included the ETC and WHTC tests, which showed significant discrepancies in the work areas of internal combustion engines in these test when compared to actual driving conditions. The details of the type approval tests used and the method of their denormalization for the drive unit were presented. The vehicle used for this research was an eighteen meter city bus equipped with a CI engine with a displacement of 9.2 dm3. The latest PEMS mobile equipment technology was used to conduct the road measurements. This allowed the emission indicators for CO, HC, NOx and PM to be determined, including specific emissions. The obtained values were then compared with the Euro V limits.The analysis of the test results was supplemented with the calculation of fuel consumption using the carbonbalance method.

  7. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  8. Modeling the Equilibrium Bus Line Choice Behavior and Transit System Design with Oblivious Users

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Chuan-Lin; Huang, Hai-Jun

    2014-01-01

    ... a more realistic public transit system when considering the boundedly rational users. In the literature, user equilibrium models play an important role in the traffic assignment problems. By assuming that all road users behave in a completely rational way and seeking to minimize their own disutility, Wardrop [1] defined a state of route choice, the so-call...

  9. Potential for modal shift by passenger car and motorcycle users towards Bus Rapid Transit (BRT in an Asian developing city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned Satiennam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many developing Asian cities consider a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system in their public transport planning because of its advantages, offering lower investment cost and flexible implementation over rail systems. The objective of this research is to assess the potential of BRT for attracting travelers from passenger cars and motorcycles. Three different BRT systems were designed for the main corridor passing through Khon Kaen City in Thailand. The study developed modal split models for predicting the choices of passenger car users and motorcycle users. The models were developed based on a Stated Preference (SP survey. It was found that BRT could attract significantly private vehicle users to change mode choice. The proportion of motorcycle users shifting is higher than passenger car users. However, the majority of private vehicle users still prefer their own private vehicles. Both travel time and travel cost affects the mode choice, in which travel time has a highly significant effect on passenger car users' choice of BRT, but travel cost has a highly significant effect on motorcyclists' choice. Some socio-economic factors, including gender, age, driving license holding and residence location also influence the choice of BRT.

  10. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  11. On operators of transition in Krein spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigation of operators of transition and the corresponding decompositions of Krein spaces. The obtained results are applied to the study of relationship between solutions of operator Riccati equations and properties of the associated operator matrix \\(L\\. In this way, we complete the known result (see Theorem 5.2 in the paper of S. Albeverio, A. Motovilov, A. Skhalikov, Integral Equ. Oper. Theory 64 (2004, 455-486 and show the equivalence between the existence of a strong solution \\(K\\ (\\(\\|K\\|\\lt 1\\ of the Riccati equation and similarity of the \\(J\\-self-adjoint operator \\(L\\ to a self-adjoint one.

  12. Automated transit planning, operation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Rongfang

    2016-01-01

    This book analyzes the successful implementations of automated transit in various international locations, such as Paris, Toronto, London, and Kuala Lumpur, and investigates the apparent lack of automated transit applications in the urban environment in the United States. The book begins with a brief definition of automated transit and its historical development. After a thorough description of the technical specifications, the author highlights a few applications from each sub-group of the automated transit spectrum. International case studies display various technologies and their applications, and identify vital factors that affect each system and performance evaluations of existing applications. The book then discusses the planning and operation of automated transit applications at both macro and micro levels. Finally, the book covers a number of less successful concepts, as well as the lessons learned, allow ng readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of the topic.

  13. 77 FR 43646 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities and Section 5312...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Administration's priority of supporting America's veterans and military families, as well as the objectives of... Federal Transit Administration FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus... AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA Veterans Transportation and Community...

  14. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  15. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  16. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  17. Elimination of bus voltage impact on temperature sensitive electrical parameter during turn-on transition for junction temperature estimation of high-power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Junction temperature is of great importance to safe operating area of IGBT modules. Various information of the IGBT operating state is reflected on electrical characteristics during turn-on transient. A unified extraction method for internal junction temperature via dynamic thermo-sensitive elect......Junction temperature is of great importance to safe operating area of IGBT modules. Various information of the IGBT operating state is reflected on electrical characteristics during turn-on transient. A unified extraction method for internal junction temperature via dynamic thermo......-sensitive electrical parameters (DTSEP) during turn-on transient is proposed. Two DTSEP, turn-on delay time (tdon) and the maximum increasing rate of collector current dic/dt(max), are combined to eliminate the bus voltage impact. Using the inherent emitter-auxiliary inductor LeE in high-power modules, the temperature...

  18. Managing transition to a hybrid operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Teresa G

    2011-01-01

    Managers of interventional radiology departments and medical imaging personnel who work in surgical suites deal with regular technical innovations in their work, but large-scale innovations seldom come along that transform markets and require massive architectural, training, and technological changes. The hybrid interventional/operating suite is one such massive change. This article presents an overview of the transition to hybrid procedures and designs, the benefits and challenges of the new delivery method, and change management issues for managers of cardiovascular and vascular interventional departments. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  19. Implementation of CIM-based enterprise architecture and integration bus for centralized transmission operations data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutcher, C.; Lenius, J.; Rheault, M. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Duc, D.T.; Andre, B. [INTERPRO Consultants Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The transmission systems operation division within Manitoba Hydro is facing increasing demands and challenges in the frequency and complexity of regulatory reporting. In addition, data quality and system integration challenges burden transmission staff across multiple business units. In order to solve these problems, Manitoba Hydro wants to provide an infrastructure for external users outside of the control center that allows them to access energy management systems (EMS)/supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data in an intuitive and exhaustive manner without specific knowledge of EMS systems. This paper presented an overview of the situation and main challenges as well as the requirements for the proposed infrastructure. The paper also presented an overview of the architecture and main components of the proposed system. The actual high-level interactions and data flows between business and the information technology (IT) infrastructure supporting these data exchanges were illustrated. The system scope, size and performance were described. The paper concluded with a discussion of the benefits of the solution and its underlying shift in the IT approach, such as improved quality of data for benchmarking and performance measurement activities as well as improved ability to manage planned outages and track forced outages. 2 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  20. High-Current Bus Splice Resistances and Implications for the Operating Energy of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koratzinos, M; Charifoulline, Z; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Denz, R; Flora, R H; Pfeffer, H; Scheuerlein, C; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Strait, J; Verweij, A

    2010-01-01

    At each interconnection between LHC main magnets a low-resistance solder joint must be made between superconducting cables in order to provide a continuous current path through the superconductor and also to the surrounding copper stabilizer in case the cable quenches [1]. About 10,000 such joints exist in the LHC. An extensive campaign has been undertaken to characterize and map the resistances of these joints. All of the superconducting cable splices were measured at 1.9 K and no splices were found with a resistance larger than 3 nW. Non-invasive measurements of the stabilizer joints were made at 300 K in 5 of the 8 sectors, and at 80 K in 3 sectors. More precise local measurements were made on suspect interconnects that were opened up, and poor joints were repaired. However, it is likely that additional imperfect stabilizer joints still exist in the LHC. A statistical analysis is used to place bounds on the remaining worst-case resistances. This sets limits on the maximum operating energy of the LHC, prior...

  1. Planning ahead for livable communities along the Powell–Division Bus Rapid Transit : neighborhood conditions and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    New transit investments can be a double-edged sword for disadvantaged communities (e.g., those included in environmental justice and Title VI protected classes). Transit investments improve communities mobility and access, and may improve health w...

  2. Sound transit climate risk reduction project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Climate Risk Reduction Project assessed how climate change may affect Sound Transit commuter rail, light rail, and express bus : services. The project identified potential climate change impacts on agency operations, assets, and long-term plannin...

  3. 75 FR 52054 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... 8, 2009. The Livability Bus program makes funds available to public transit providers to finance... 2-New York, Administrator, Region 7-Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust... Metropolitan Office, Region 2-New York, One Bowling Green, Room 428, New York, NY 10004-1415, Tel. 212-668-2202...

  4. Long term application of bus monitoring system to short and medium span bridges and damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Lúcio, Válter J. G.; Emoto, Hisao; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2015-07-01

    In this study, as one solution to the problem for condition assessment of existing short and medium span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges, a new monitoring method using a public bus as part of a public transit system (bus monitoring system) is proposed, along with safety indices, namely, characteristic deflection, which is relatively free from the influence of dynamic disturbances due to such factors as the roughness of the road surface, and a structural anomaly parameter. A basic study was conducted by using the results of technical verification experiments and numerical analysis simulation. This paper describes the details of not only how to assess the bridge condition by public bus vibration measured in operating on Ube City bus network as a specific example for verify the system but also what kind of consideration we need to apply the system to existing bridges in overseas country.

  5. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Government regulators and transportation operators of public bus systems are concerned about terrorist attacks. Bus attacks in Israel between late September 2000 and the end of 2006, a period known as the Second Intifada, are particularly well known....

  6. 77 FR 25529 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Fiscal Year 2012 Funds: Solicitation... availability of funds in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 for the Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility (OTRB) Program... OTRB program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses to finance the...

  7. Operational Characteristics of Para-transit Modes in Akure, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also discovered that operators of para-transit modes in the study area are mainly semi literate, some of them had been either an apprentice in one skill or the other like bricklaying, welding and auto mechanics. Also, only few operators of para-transit modes would like to transfer the business to their children, thus ...

  8. Consolidating Change: Transitional Security and Operational Art

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boy, Donald S

    2006-01-01

    ... intervention repeated in later crises. Greater focus on certain core concepts such as security in a transitional environment would help to ensure both civilian and military leaders and planners share assumptions, definitions and desired end-states...

  9. A High-Speed Target-Free Vision-Based Sensor for Bus Rapid Transit Viaduct Vibration Measurements Using CMT and ORB Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has become an increasing source of concern for public transportation of modern cities. Traditional contact sensing techniques during the process of health monitoring of BRT viaducts cannot overcome the deficiency that the normal free-flow of traffic would be blocked. Advances in computer vision technology provide a new line of thought for solving this problem. In this study, a high-speed target-free vision-based sensor is proposed to measure the vibration of structures without interrupting traffic. An improved keypoints matching algorithm based on consensus-based matching and tracking (CMT object tracking algorithm is adopted and further developed together with oriented brief (ORB keypoints detection algorithm for practicable and effective tracking of objects. Moreover, by synthesizing the existing scaling factor calculation methods, more rational approaches to reducing errors are implemented. The performance of the vision-based sensor is evaluated through a series of laboratory tests. Experimental tests with different target types, frequencies, amplitudes and motion patterns are conducted. The performance of the method is satisfactory, which indicates that the vision sensor can extract accurate structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial or natural targets. Field tests further demonstrate that the vision sensor is both practicable and reliable.

  10. Timetable optimization for single bus line based on hybrid vehicle size model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel(Jian Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a flexible timetable optimization method based on hybrid vehicle size model to tackle the bus demand fluctuations in transit operation. Three different models for hybrid vehicle, large vehicle and small vehicle are built in this study, respectively. With the operation data of Shanghai Transit Route 55 at peak and off-peak hours, a heuristic algorithm was proposed to solve the problem. The results indicate that the hybrid vehicle size model excels the other two modes both in the total time and total cost. The study verifies the rationality of the strategy of hybrid vehicle size model and highlights the importance of the adaptive vehicle size in dealing with the bus demand fluctuation. The main innovation of the study is that unlike traditional timetables, the arrangement of the scheduling interval and the corresponding bus type or size are both involved in the timetable of hybrid vehicle size bus mode, which will be more effective to solve the problem of passenger demand fluctuation. Findings from this research would provide a new perspective to improve the level of regular bus service.

  11. Prototype development and demonstration for integrated dynamic transit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as the Final Report specific to the Integrated Dynamic Transit Operations (IDTO) Prototype Development and Deployment Project, hereafter referred to as IDTO Prototype Deployment or IDTO PD project. This project was performed unde...

  12. Optimal Design of the Feeder-Bus Network Based on the Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the classic feeder-bus network design problem (FBNDP, which can be described as follows: for the passenger travel demand between rail stations and bus stops on a given urban transit network, it designs the optimal feeder bus routes and frequencies so as to minimize the passengers’ travel expense and the operator’s cost. We extended the demand pattern of M-to-1 in most existing researches to M-to-M. We comprehensively considered the passenger travel cost, which includes the waiting and riding cost on the bus, riding cost on rail, and transfer cost between these two transportation modes, and presented a new genetic algorithm that determines the optimal feeder-bus operating frequencies under strict constraint conditions. The numerical examples under different demand patterns have been experienced and analysed, which showed the robustness and efficiency of the presented algorithm. We also found that the distribution pattern of the travel demand has a significant influence on the feeder-bus network construction.

  13. Research development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, S.; Wimmer, R.

    1993-02-01

    During 1992, the design of the three test bed buses evolved. Georgetown participated in all the working meetings and the preliminary design review of the Test Bed Bus (TBB). Throughout the Year, Georgetown provided input on system design and integration issues, transit industry requirements, and bus performance. GU also attended technical seminars, presenting papers at two. The computer simulation 'HYBRID', developed by Georgetown, was used to assess performance of different bus designs and system control algorithms. GU also modified the simulation to be more flexible and allow easier evaluation of designs. Georgetown had Exhibitgroup design and construct, to our specifications, a fuel cell bus display with a 1/10 scale model of the TBB for use at trade shows and exhibits. Energy Partners of West Palm Beach, Florida completed their subcontract for the engineering design study of a hydrogen fueled, fuel-cell-powered multi-passenger vehicle. Georgetown performed a study to determine the size of the US bus fleet and expected new bus deliveries over the next 10 years. Trojan Battery Company of Santa Fe Springs, California conducted a study to determine the specific design characteristics required of a lead acid battery to meet the special requirements posed by hybrid vehicle operation. Finally, GU assisted the prime contractor with the design of the system controller and its control algorithms.

  14. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part R. ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #95--Bus Driver; #98--General Loader; #99--Forklift Operator; #100--Material Handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This fifteenth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Competency Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Bus Driver, General Loader, Forklift Operator, and Material Handler. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, ACE number, career ladder, D.O.T.…

  15. FTA fuel cell bus program : research accomplishments through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Prepared by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Office of Research, Demonstration, and Innovation (TRI), this report summarizes the accomplishments of fuel-cell-transit-bus-related research and demonstrations projects supported by FTA through 20...

  16. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB, which was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) National Fuel Cell Bus Program, was delivered to SunLine in November 2011 and was put in revenue service in mid-December 2011. Two new AFCBs with an upgraded design were delivered in June/July of 2014 and a third new AFCB was delivered in February 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report covers the performance of the AFCBs from July 2015 through December 2016.

  17. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  18. 76 FR 77302 - Federal Transit Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Sustainability Funding Opportunity; Transit... Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA...'s (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the selection of Fiscal Year (FY) 2011...

  19. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  20. The Next Generation Transit Survey Becomes Operational at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. G.; Pollacco, D.; Wheatley, P.; Goad, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Watson, C.; Udry, S.; Bannister, N.; Bayliss, D.; Bouchy, F.; Burleigh, M.; Cabrera, J.; Chaushev, A.; Chazelas, B.; Crausaz, M.; Csizmadia, S.; Eigmüller, P.; Erikson, A.; Genolet, L.; Gillen, E.; Grange, A.; Günther, M.; Hodgkin, S.; Kirk, J.; Lambert, G.; Louden, T.; McCormac, J.; Metrailler, L.; Neveu, M.; Smith, A.; Thompson, A.; Raddi, R.; Walker, S. R.; Jenkins, J.; Jordán, A.

    2016-09-01

    A new facility dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets has commenced science operations at Paranal. The Next-Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) will deliver photometry at a precision unprecedented for a ground-based wide-field survey, enabling the discovery of dozens of transiting exoplanets of the size of Neptune or smaller around bright stars. NGTS is briefly described and the survey prospects are outlined.

  1. Shuttle bus services quality assessment Tangerang Selatan toward smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassa, Ferdinand; Sitorus, Fredy Jhon Philip; Adikesuma, Tri Nugraha

    2017-11-01

    Around the world, shuttle bus operation played the significant role to accommodate transportation for commuting bus passengers. Shuttle Bus services in cities are provided by various bus agencies with kinds of own specific purposes. For instance, at Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia, it was said that shuttle bus In Trans Bintaro is run and operated by private bus companies hire by Bintaro developer. The aim of this research is to identify factors of satisfaction of shuttle bus service in Kota Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia. Several factors are used to analyze sums of 20 parameters performance indicators of Shuttle Bus. A face to face interview using a questionnaire (N=200) was used to collect data on October and March 2017. Likert and diagram Cartesian were used to model the all the parameters. This research succeeded in finding some categories of Shuttle bus service attributes such as accessibility, comfort, and safety. Users agreed that eight indicators in shuttle bus have the excellent achievement, while three indicators on performance remain low and should receive more attention especially punctuality of the bus.

  2. Early warning of atmospheric regime transitions using transfer operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantet, Alexis; Dijkstra, Henk

    2015-04-01

    The existence of persistent midlatitude atmospheric regimes, such as blocking events, with time scales larger than 5-10 days and indications of preferred transition paths between them motivates the development of early-warning indicators of regime transitions. Here, we use a barotropic model of the northern midlatitudes winter flow to study such meta-stable regimes. We look at estimates of transfer operators acting on densities evolving on a reduced phase space spanned by the first Empirical Orthogonal Functions of the streamfunction and develop an early-warning indicator of zonal to blocked flow transition. The study of the spectra of transfer operators estimated for different lags reveals a multi-level structure in the flow as well as the effect of memory on the reduced dynamics due to past interactions between the resolved and unresolved variables. The slowest motions in the reduced phase space are thereby found to have time scales larger than 8 days and to behave as Markovian for larger lags. These motions are associated with meta-stable regimes and their transitions and can be detected as almost-invariant sets of the transfer operator. The early-warning indicator is based on the action on an initial density of products of the transfer operators estimated for sufficiently long lags, making use of the semi-group property of these operators and shows relatively good Peirce skill score. From the energy budget of the model, we are able to explain the meta-stability of the regimes and the existence of preferred transition paths as the manifestation of barotropic instability. Finally, even though the model is highly simplified, the skill of the early warning indicator is promising, suggesting that the transfer operator approach can be used in parallel to an operational deterministic model for stochastic prediction or to assess forecast uncertainty.

  3. Dimension 7 operators in the b{yields}s transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalons, G. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Domingo, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    We extend the low-energy effective field theory relevant for b{yields}s transitions up to operators of mass-dimension 7 and compute the associated anomalous-dimension matrix. We then compare our findings to the known results for dimension 6 operators and derive a solution for the renormalization group equations involving operators of dimension 7. We finally apply our analysis to a particularly simple case where the Standard Model is extended by an electroweak-magnetic operator and consider limits on this scenario from the decays B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and B{yields}K{nu} anti {nu}.

  4. ISET ORS Bus Standards and Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhoo, Gurpartap; Johnson, Mark; Raynor, William; Hurley, Michael; Stadter, Patrick; Marley, Michael; Apland, Clint; Lee, Robert; Bruzzi, Jonathan; Williams, Bruce; SCHAEFER, EDWARD, JAY; Vernon, Steven; Schwartz, Paul; Moretti, George; Doyne, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Advancing sound and accepted spacecraft bus standards is the objective of the Office of the Secretary of Defense’s (OSD) Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Bus Standards Initiative. This effort involves multiple government, industry, and academia participants assembled into an Integrated System Engineering Team (ISET). The core ISET industry team members include AeroAstro, Boeing, Design Net Engineering, General Dynamics Spectrum Astro, Loral, Microcosm, MicroSat, Orbital, Raytheon, and Swa...

  5. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  6. The Impact of Transitive Inference Operations on Mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the extent to which operations of transitive inference tasks have affected the mathematics problem solving abilities of pre-primary school children. Four research hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using 400 nursery school children whose ages ranged between 4.5 and 5.5 years ...

  7. Mathematical modeling for optimizing skip-stop rail transit operation strategy using genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    "With skip-stop rail transit operation, transit agencies can reduce their operating costs and fleet size, : and passengers can experience reduced in-transit travel times without extra track and technological : improvement. However, since skip-stop op...

  8. Connecticut nutmeg fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administra-tion (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP). A team led by the Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium a...

  9. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  10. GRADUAL TRANSITION DETECTION FOR VIDEO PARTITIONING USING MORPHOLOGICAL OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Naranjo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Temporal segmentation of video data for partitioning the sequence into shots is a prerequisite in many applications: automatic video indexing and editing, old flm restoration, perceptual coding, etc. The detection of abrupt transitions or cuts has been thoroughly studied in previous works. In this paper we present a scheme to identify the most common gradual transitions, i.e., dissolves and wipes, which relies on mathematical morphology operators. The approach is restricted to fast techniques which require low computation (without motion estimation and adapted to compressed sequences and are able to cope with random brightness variations (often occurring in old flms. The present study illustrates how the morphological operators can be used to analyze temporal series for detecting particular events, either working directly on the 1D signal or building an intermediate 2D image from the 1D signals to take advantage of the spatial operators.

  11. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  12. Bus Lifecycle Cost Model for Federal Land Management Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The Bus Lifecycle Cost Model is a spreadsheet-based planning tool that estimates capital, operating, and maintenance costs for various bus types over the full lifecycle of the vehicle. The model is based on a number of operating characteristics, incl...

  13. Alternative fuel transit buses: Interim results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Vehicle Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.J.; Chandler, K.

    1995-05-01

    The transit bus program is designed to provide a comprehensive study of the alternative fuels currently used by the transit bus industry. The study focuses on the reliability, fuel economy, operating costs, and emissions of vehicles running on the various fuels and alternative fuel engines. The alternative fuels being tested are methanol, ethanol, biodiesel and natural gas. The alternative fuel buses in this program use the most common alternative fuel engines from the heavy-duty engine manufacturers. Data are collected in four categories: Bus and route descriptions; Bus operating data; Emissions data; and, Capital costs. The goal is to collect 18 months of data on each test bus. This report summarizes the interim results from the project to date. The report addresses performance and reliability, fuel economy, costs, and emissions of the busses in the program.

  14. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  15. Design of Mine Locomotive System Based on CAN Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuanhong; Zhang Quanzhu; Zhang Wenshan

    2017-01-01

    Based on CAN bus, this paper studies the system control and management system of locomotive in mine, analyzes the working principle of locomotive system, gives the CAN bus scheme, hardware circuit design and CAN communication protocol, and implements long-distance, high-reliability communication function and remote monitoring function. Experiments show that the auxiliary system based on CAN bus control easier, operation more secure, as well as improving the control performance and service lif...

  16. Design of Mine Locomotive System Based on CAN Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on CAN bus, this paper studies the system control and management system of locomotive in mine, analyzes the working principle of locomotive system, gives the CAN bus scheme, hardware circuit design and CAN communication protocol, and implements long-distance, high-reliability communication function and remote monitoring function. Experiments show that the auxiliary system based on CAN bus control easier, operation more secure, as well as improving the control performance and service life of the electric locomotive.

  17. The transition from preoperative to operational thinking of children

    OpenAIRE

    Klašnja, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical part of this diploma thesis focuses on Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The thesis discusses the characteristics of Piaget's theory, the employed research method and the developmental factors affecting the cognitive development of children. The largest part of this section focuses on the characteristics of the individual stages of cognitive development. Since the thesis examines the transition from the preoperational to the operational stage of intellectual devel...

  18. Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory - General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    A formal theory is developed for the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from impenetrable immobile obstacles with given linear, homogeneous, and generally nonlocal boundary conditions of Leontovich (impedance) type for the wave of the obstacle's surface. The theory is modeled on the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator in time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. An expression for the differential scattering cross section for plane electromagnetic waves is derived in terms of certain matrix elements of the T operator for the obstacle.

  19. Fixed Route Accessible Bus Service in Connecticut : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    U.S. Department of Transportation regulations implementing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, require transit agencies to provide wheelchair accessibility on fixed-route bus service. The study is part of the series which included studies ...

  20. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  1. Development of bus-stop time models in dense urban areas : a case study in Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Bus transit reliability depends on several factors including the route of travel, traffic conditions, time of day, and conditions at : the bus stops along the route. The number of passengers alighting or boarding, fare payment method, dwell time (DT)...

  2. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model untuk Optimalisasi Jumlah Bus Transjakarta Koridor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road user causing traffic jam finds out a way, busway. However, in its implementation, the number of fleet available does not enough to take the passengers. It results in the an amassed of passengers at several bus stops. This leads to passenger dissatisfaction satisfaction which eventually causes Transjakarta users to reuse private cars. Definitely this situation may builds up traffic jams. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model is used to simulate public transportation that operates regularly. 

  3. A hierarchical process for optimizing bus stop distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit stop spacing is an important indicator in deploying public transit services. This paper presents a hierarchical process for optimizing distribution of bus stops in the context of multi-modal transit development in large cities. Firstly, connection stops are generated manually to connect with other transit facilities. Secondly, key stops are identified based on a coverage model that minimizing total distance, using node centrality value as weight. Thirdly, ordinary bus stops are optimized with coverage model that maximizing potential transit demand. The analytical process is based on a combination of raster and vector data models in Geographical information system, which allows for flexible computing and effective evaluation.

  4. Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: Transitioning Satellite Data to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center located at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting testbed activities aimed at transitioning satellite products to National Weather Service operational end users for the last 10 years. SPoRT is a NASA/NOAA funded project that has set the bar for transition of products to operational end users through a paradigm of understanding forecast challenges and forecaster needs, displaying products in end users decision support systems, actively assessing the operational impact of these products, and improving products based on forecaster feedback. Aiming for quality partnerships rather than a large quantity of data users, SPoRT has become a community leader in training operational forecasters on the use of up-and-coming satellite data through the use of legacy instruments and proxy data. Traditionally, SPoRT has supplied satellite imagery and products from NASA instruments such as the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). However, recently, SPoRT has been funded by the GOES-R and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Grounds to accelerate the transition of selected imagery and products to help improve forecaster awareness of upcoming operational data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). This presentation provides background on the SPoRT Center, the SPoRT paradigm, and some example products that SPoRT is excited to work with forecasters to evaluate.

  5. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.

  6. Managing Student Behavior on the School Bus: A Key to Bus Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    School buses are the safest form of mass transit in America. Every day, school buses travel through congested city traffic and on isolated country roads in all types of weather, safely transporting millions of children to and from school and school-related activities. Federal and state standards for school bus construction and maintenance and…

  7. Estimating Bus Loads and OD Flows Using Location-Stamped Farebox and Wi-Fi Signal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiong Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic fareboxes integrated with Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL systems can provide location-stamped records to infer passenger boarding at individual stops. However, bus loads and Origin-Destination (OD flows, which are useful for route planning, design, and real-time controls, cannot be derived directly from farebox data. Recently, Wi-Fi sensors have been used to collect passenger OD flow information. But the data are insufficient to capture the variation of passenger demand across bus trips. In this study, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate trip-level OD flow matrices and a period-level OD flow matrix using sampled OD flow data collected by Wi-Fi sensors and boarding data provided by fareboxes. Bus loads on each bus trip are derived directly from the estimated trip-level OD flow matrices. The proposed method is evaluated empirically on an operational bus route and the results demonstrate that it provides good and detailed transit route-level passenger demand information by combining farebox and Wi-Fi signal data.

  8. Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The eGov-Bus project provides citizens and businesses with improved access to virtual public services, which are based on existing national eGovernment Web services and which support cross-border life events. Requirements and specific rules of these life events are considered, and personalization of user preferences is supported. eGov-Bus is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national eGovernment services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The eGov-Bus process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as eGovernment Web services. Further, eGov-Bus relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. The eGov-Bus architecture is business oriented, it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services and providing a Service Bus.

  9. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  10. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: construction, operation, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adler, Clemens; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Antonczyk, Dariusz; Arend, Andreas; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartos, D; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Antonio; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Bratrud, Lars; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Bucher, Damian; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Caragheorgheopol, G; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, V; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chandra, Sinjini; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chernenko, S; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Chowdhury, Tasnuva; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Ciobanu, M; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Concas, Matteo; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Costanza, Susanna; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; Daues, Heinz; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Franz Degenhardt, Hermann; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Deplano, Caterina; Devismes, A; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Van Doremalen, Lennart Vincent; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Duggal, Ashpreet Kaur; Dupieux, Pascal; Duta, V; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Esumi, Shinichi; Eulisse, Giulio; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabbietti, Laura; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fateev, O; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fleck, M; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Freuen, S; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gatz, Henriette; Gauger, Erin Frances; De Leone Gay, Maria Beatriz; Germain, Marie; Ghosh, Jhuma; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giolu, G; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-dziadus, Ewa; Glasow, Richard; Glassel, Peter; Gremmler, Svenja; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Gottschalk, Dirk; Gottschlag, Holger; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grajcarek, Robert; Greiner, Leo Clifford; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grimm, Helge; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosa, Fabrizio; Grosse-oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Gruber, Lukas; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutfleisch, M; Bautista Guzman, Irais; Haake, Rudiger; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Haque, Md Rihan; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hassan, Hadi; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hehner, Joerg; Heide, Markus; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hills, Christopher; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hohlweger, Bernhard; Horak, David; Hornung, Sebastian; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huber, Sebastian; Hughes, Charles; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Iga Buitron, Sergio Arturo; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Islam, Md Samsul; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jaelani, Syaefudin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jercic, Marko; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karczmarczyk, Przemyslaw; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khabanova, Zhanna; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Khuntia, Arvind; Kielbowicz, Miroslaw Marek; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Byungchul; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kislov, E; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-boesing, Christian; "Klein-Boesing", Melanie; Kliemant, Michael; Klingenmeyer, Hannah; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohn, Martin; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Konno, Masahiro; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krawutschke, Tobias; Kreis, Lukas; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krumbhorn, Dirk; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kundu, Sourav; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lai, Yue Shi; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lavicka, Roman; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehmann, T; Lehner, Jorg; Lehner, Sebastian; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Lesser, F; Levai, Peter; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lim, Bong-hwi; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lindsay, Scott William; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Litichevskyi, Vladyslav; Llope, William; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lohner, Daniel; Lonne, Per-ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Loncar, Petra; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Lu, XianGuo; Ludolphs, W; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Luhder, Jens Robert; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Magureanu, C; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmoud, T; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Lucio Martinez, Jose Antonio; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Masson, Erwann; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Mathis, Andreas Michael; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzilli, Marianna; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mihaylov, Dimitar Lubomirov; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morino, Yuhei; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Myers, Corey James; Myrcha, Julian Wojciech; Mycke, Jan Felix; Nag, Dipanjan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Narayan, Amrendra; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Neher, Michael; Nellen, Lukas; Nesbo, Simon Voigt; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pacik, Vojtech; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Panebratsev, Yu; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Panebianco, Stefano; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Jonghan; Park, WooJin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Pathak, Surya Prakash; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petris, M; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Peretti Pezzi, Rafael; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pliquett, Fabian; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pozdniakov, Valeriy; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Radomski, Sylwester; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Rana, Dhan Bahadur; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Ratza, Viktor; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Reischl, A; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Rokita, Przemyslaw Stefan; Ronchetti, Federico; Dominguez Rosas, Edgar; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Rotondi, Alberto; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Vazquez Rueda, Omar; Rui, Rinaldo; Rumyantsev, Boris; Rusanov, Ivan; Rustamov, Anar; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Saha, Sumit Kumar; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dousatsu; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandoval, Andres; Sann, H; Sano, Masato; Santo, Rainer; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Sas, Mike Henry Petrus; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schaefer, Brennan; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Scheid, Horst Sebastian; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Marten Ole; Schmidt, Martin; Schmidt, Nicolas Vincent; Schmiederer, Stefan; Schneider, R; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulze, R; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sedykh, S; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sett, Priyanka; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shaikh, Wadut; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Anjali; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimansky, S; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Shukla, P; Sibiryak, Yury; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silaeva, Svetlana; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simon, Reinhard S; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Smykov, L; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Solveit, Hans Kristian; Sommer, Wolfgang; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stelzer, Herbert; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Stiller, Johannes; Stocco, Diego; Stockmeyer, MR; Storetvedt, Maksim Melnik; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Suzuki, Ken; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thakur, Sanchari; Thomas, Deepa; Thoresen, Freja; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Tilsner, Heinz; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Rojas Torres, Solangel; Tripathy, Sushanta; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Tropp, Lukas; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Trzeciak, Barbara Antonina; Tsiledakis, Georgios; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Umaka, Ejiro Naomi; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vargas, H; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Vertesi, Robert; Vickovic, Linda; Vigolo, Sonia; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Voscek, Dominik; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, Boris; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kengo; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wegerle, Dominik; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wenzel, Sandro Christian; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael; Witt, William Edward; Xu, C; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yurevich, Vladimir; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zanevski, Yuri; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmer, Stefan; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) was designed and built to enhance the capabilities of the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While aimed at providing electron identification and triggering, the TRD also contributes significantly to the track reconstruction and calibration in the central barrel of ALICE. In this paper the design, construction, operation, and performance of this detector are discussed. A pion rejection factor of up to 410 is achieved at a momentum of 1 GeV/c in p-Pb collisions and the resolution at high transverse momentum improves by about 40% when including the TRD information in track reconstruction. The triggering capability is demonstrated both for jet and for electron selection.

  11. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  12. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation for the Bus-Corridor Problem in a Many-to-One Mass Transit System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Qinmu; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Ning; Gao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    .... By using multiagent modeling and the Bush-Mosteller reinforcement learning model, we simulated the day-to-day evolution of commuters' departure time choice on a many-to-one mass transit system...

  13. The Line Operations Safety Audit Program: Transitioning From Flight Operations to Maintenance and Ramp Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    deck. The hazards that threaten the safety of flight deck operations are not unique to that environment . Similar problems are present during... Qantas Airways...Ground Support Equipment IATA -------------- The International Air Transport Association ICAO ------------ International Civil Aviation

  14. An Experimental Platform for Autonomous Bus Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Montes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with highly developed instrumentation, sensing and actuation technologies, it is possible to foresee an important advance in the field of autonomous and/or semi-autonomous transportation systems. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS have been subjected to very active research for many years, and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT is one area of major interest. Among the most promising transport infrastructures, the articulated bus is an interesting, low cost, high occupancy capacity and friendly option. In this paper, an experimental platform for research on the automatic control of an articulated bus is presented. The aim of the platform is to allow full experimentation in real conditions for testing technological developments and control algorithms. The experimental platform consists of a mobile component (a commercial articulated bus fully instrumented and a ground test area composed of asphalt roads inside the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC premises. This paper focuses also on the development of a human machine interface to ease progress in control system evaluation. Some experimental results are presented in order to show the potential of the proposed platform.

  15. Transit Operations Decision Support System (TODSS) core requirements evaluation and update recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Transit Operations Decision Support Systems (TODSS) are systems designed to support dispatchers and others in real-time operations : management in response to incidents, special events, and other changing conditions in order to improve operating spee...

  16. Bus-based best-practice and urban transport emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Marcus Paul

    In Britain over recent years, transport has risen to the very top of the political agenda, partly because it is the fastest growing source of urban emissions. One politically attractive solution to this rapidly worsening problem, is 'improving public transport'. This thesis examines how the bus-the most widespread form of public transport-could be improved, and at how much these improvements would contribute to solving the emissions problem. The project was studied in two inter-related parts. The first part aimed to determine the factors necessary in forming the 'best possible' bus-based transport system by identifying and analysing a number of 'best-practice' bus systems in Europe and North America, using a case study approach. The second part then sought to quantify the effect on travel patterns and emissions that implementing this best possible bus-based transport system would have. This was done by modelling a series of possible scenarios with the START strategic transport model, and a modified version of the JET emissions inventory model. The City of Leicester was used as a modelling base. The study found that bus systems contributed most to reducing urban emissions where the needs of the bus passenger were made paramount, and where bus operators worked together with local government, local businesses etc. Even where these factors existed however, the effect of bus-based transport policies on levels of pollutants was found to be significant only when applied together with strong car restraint measures.

  17. Full Spectrum Operations - The Continuation of Major Combat Operations by Other Means: Making the Transition to Stability and Reconstruction Operations at the Division Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilmes, Andrew C

    2007-01-01

    .... Army division to successfully transition from MCO to SRO. The thesis investigates the experiences of three higher echelon headquarters, operating at the tactical level of war, required to make the transition...

  18. Life with quintuplets: transitioning GeMS into regular operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrel, Vincent; Van Dam, Marcos A.; Neichel, Benoît; Vidal, Fabrice; Sivo, Gaetano; Marin, Eduardo; Montes, Vanessa; Serio, Andrew; Arriagada, Gustavo; Trujillo, Chadwick; Rambold, William N.; Gigoux, Pedro; Galvez, Ramon; Moreno, Cristian; Araujo Hauck, Constanza; Vucina Parga, Tomislav; Donahue, Jeff; Marchant, Claudio; Gausachs, Gaston; Collao, Fabian; Carrasco Damele, Eleazar R.; Pessev, Peter; Lopez, Ariel

    2014-08-01

    The Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) at the Gemini South telescope in Cerro Pachon is the first sodium Laser Guide Star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) system with multiple guide stars. It uses five LGSs and two deformable mirrors (DMs) to measure and compensate for distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence. After its 2012 commissioning phase, it is now transitioning into regular operations. Although GeMS has unique scientific capabilities, it remains a challenging instrument to maintain, operate and upgrade. In this paper, we summarize the latest news and results. First, we describe the engineering work done this past year, mostly during our last instrument shutdown in 2013 austral winter, covering many subsystems: an erroneous reconjugation of the Laser guide star wavefront sensor, the correction of focus field distortion for the natural guide star wavefront sensor and engineering changes dealing with our laser and its beam transfer optics. We also describe our revamped software, developed to integrate the instrument into the Gemini operational model, and the new optimization procedures aiming to reduce GeMS time overheads. Significant software improvements were achieved on the acquisition of natural guide stars by our natural guide star wavefront sensor, on the automation of tip-tilt and higher-order loop optimization, and on the tomographic non-common path aberration compensation. We then go through the current operational scheme and present the plan for the next years. We offered 38 nights in our last semester. We review the current system efficiency in term of raw performance, completed programs and time overheads. We also present our current efforts to merge GeMS into the Gemini base facility project, where night operations are all reliably driven from our La Serena headquarter, without the need for any spotter. Finally we present the plan for the future upgrades, mostly dedicated toward improving the performance and reliability of the

  19. Guidebook : managing operating costs for rural and small urban public transit systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This guidebook is a resource for rural and small urban transit agency managers to use in better understanding, predicting, and managing operational costs. Doing so can improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of public transit in the...

  20. Bus industry market study. Report -- Task 3.2: Fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1992-06-02

    In support of the commercialization of fuel cells for transportation, Georgetown University, as a part of the DOE/DOT Fuel Cell Transit Bus Program, conducted a market study to determine the inventory of passenger buses in service as of December, 1991, the number of buses delivered in 1991 and an estimate of the number of buses to be delivered in 1992. Short term and long term market projections of deliveries were also made. Data was collected according to type of bus and the field was divided into the following categories which are defined in the report: transit buses, school buses, commercial non-transit buses, and intercity buses. The findings of this study presented with various tables of data collected from identified sources as well as narrative analysis based upon interviews conducted during the survey.

  1. Reducing Transition Latency and Transition-Related Problem Behavior in Children by Altering the Motivating Operations for Task Disengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William E.; Martens, Brian K.; Morley, Allison J.; Long, Stephanie J.

    2017-01-01

    Activity schedules, guided compliance, and differential reinforcement are often used to reduce transition-related problem behavior in children with autism. One potential way to increase the effectiveness of these procedures when transitioning children from preferred to nonpreferred activities is to alter the motivating operations for…

  2. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  3. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  4. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  5. Real-Time Hybrid In-Station Bus Dispatching Strategy Based on Mixed Integer Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The actual bus headway often deviates from the planned departure frequency because of external factors, such as traffic conditions and public transport demand, leading to transit resource waste and reducing the quality of service. In view of the existing shortcomings of the current dispatching strategy, a mixed integer programming model, integrating a bus-holding and stop-skipping strategy, is constructed to improve transit service with a minimum cost. The real-time optimal holding and stop-skipping strategies can be obtained by solving the proposed model using the Lagrangian relaxation algorithm. A numerical example is conducted using real transit GPS (Global Position System and IC (Intelligent Card data in Harbin. The results show that compared to a single control strategy, the proposed hybrid model is a better trade-off between the quality of the transit service and the operation cost. Notably, such a strategy would produce a minimal passengers’ average travel time coefficient. It is a great help for promoting the transit service level and increasing competitiveness.

  6. Analysis of feeder bus network design and scheduling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Koting, Suhana; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews.

  7. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Choong-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, uninterruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS is discussed and elaborated.

  8. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  9. Transit Operations Decision Support System (TODSS) core requirements prototype development case study and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Transit Operations Decision Support Systems (TODSS) are systems designed to support dispatchers and others in real-time operations : management in response to incidents, special events, and other changing conditions. As part of a joint Federal Transi...

  10. Bus lane efficiency analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tovornik, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The upper Celovška road has been dealing with traffic jams for quite some time now. Traffic jams are concentrated in time of morning (in direction towards towns center) and afternoon (in direction towards Gorenjska) peak hour , whereas jams in between times are not excluded. There are many solutions to solve the problem and are variable. In this assigment I am focusing on one of potencial solutions, with special bus lanes. It is a measure that can be, if used in right way, very effective and ...

  11. A Hierarchical Approach to Optimizing Bus Stop Distribution in Large and Fast Developing Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Public transit plays a key role in shaping the transportation structure of large and fast growing cities. To cope with high population and employment density, such cities usually resort to multi-modal transit services, such as rail, BRT and bus. These modes are strategically connected to form an effective transit network. Among the transit modes, bus stops need to be properly deployed to maintain an acceptable walking accessibility. This paper presents a hierarchical process for optimizing bus stop locations in the context of fast growing multi-modal transit services. Three types of bus stops are identified hierarchically, which includes connection stops, key stops and ordinary stops. Connection stops are generated manually to connect with other transit facilities. Key stops and ordinary stops are optimized with coverage models that are respectively weighted by network centrality measure and potential demand. A case study in a Chinese city suggests the hierarchical approach may generate more effective stop distribution.

  12. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 77 - DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration B Appendix B to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration ER10AU94.042 ER10AU94.043 ...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense Outplacement and Referral System...

  14. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  15. Terminals for Suburb Bus Transport in Bratislava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Tibor; Schlosser, Peter; Cápayová, Silvia; Hodáková, Dominika

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe the strategy for development of the public transport terminals in the city of Bratislava, Capital of Slovak Republic. The reason goes from the private operator Slovak Lines, who operates the suburb bus transport in the agglomeration of the city. For this operator was created a transport model, while placing emphasis on optimizing the compliance of suburban public transport with urban public transport in the city of Bratislava and evaluating the significance of the new Bus Station to be constructed at Mlynské Nivy – in a new down town centre of the city. The main issue is to ensure the best available offer of public transport (PT) to passengers in the Bratislava agglomeration. The subject of the study was oriented to specify and propose changes in the transport infrastructure and integrated public transport organisation on the area of the city in terms of the significant position of the new Mlynské Nivy Bus Station (MN BS), which is under preparation with realization in the year 2017.

  16. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation for the Bus-Corridor Problem in a Many-to-One Mass Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinmu Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing problem of urban traffic congestion, departure time choice is becoming a more important factor to commuters. By using multiagent modeling and the Bush-Mosteller reinforcement learning model, we simulated the day-to-day evolution of commuters’ departure time choice on a many-to-one mass transit system during the morning peak period. To start with, we verified the model by comparison with traditional analytical methods. Then the formation process of departure time equilibrium is investigated additionally. Seeing the validity of the model, some initial assumptions were relaxed and two groups of experiments were carried out considering commuters’ heterogeneity and memory limitations. The results showed that heterogeneous commuters’ departure time distribution is broader and has a lower peak at equilibrium and different people behave in different pattern. When each commuter has a limited memory, some fluctuations exist in the evolutionary dynamics of the system, and hence an ideal equilibrium can hardly be reached. This research is helpful in acquiring a better understanding of commuter’s departure time choice and commuting equilibrium of the peak period; the approach also provides an effective way to explore the formation and evolution of complicated traffic phenomena.

  17. Cellular Automata Based Modeling for Evaluating Different Bus Stop Designs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate mixed traffic flow composed of motor vehicles and bicycles near bus stops. Three typical types of bus stops which are common in China are considered in the model, including two types of curbside bus stops and one type of bus bay stops. Passenger transport capacity of three types of bus stops, which is applied to evaluate the bus stop design, is calculated based on the corresponding traffic flow rate. According to the simulation results, the flow rates of both motor vehicles and bicycles exhibit phase transition from free flow to the saturation one at the critical point. The results also show that the larger the interaction between motor vehicle and bicycle flow is near curbside bus stops, the more the value of saturated flows drops. Curbside bus stops are more suitable when the conflicts between two flows are small and the inflow rate of motor vehicles is low. On the contrary, bus bay stops should be applied due to their ability to reduce traffic conflicts. Findings of this study can provide useful suggestions on bus stop selection considering different inflow rate of motor vehicles and bicycles simultaneously.

  18. An Improved Model for Headway-Based Bus Service Unreliability Prevention with Vehicle Load Capacity Constraint at Bus Stops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved model for improving headway-based bus route service reliability at bus stops using real-time preventive operation control, taking into account dynamic interaction among random passenger demand, stochastic driving conditions of route segments, and vehicle load capacity constraint. In this model, the real-time information of passenger demand and vehicle operation is involved to predict the imminent unacceptable headway deviation, in the case of which some in-time preventive control strategies are deployed according to the given control rules. As a case study, a single fixed bus route with high-frequency services was simulated and different scenarios of real-time preventive operation control were performed. Headway adherence and average passenger wait time were used to measure bus service reliability. The results show that the improved model is closer to the real bus route service, and using real-time information to predict potential service unreliability and trigger in-time preventive control can reduce bus bunching and avoid big gap.

  19. Small City Transit : Amherst, Massachusetts : Free-Fare, Student Operated Transit in a University Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    Amherst, Massachusetts, is an illustration of a free-fare transit service serving a university campus. This case study is one of thirteen examples of a transit service in a small community. The background of the community is discussed along with a de...

  20. 14 CFR 121.2 - Compliance schedule for operators that transition to part 121; certain new entrant operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance schedule for operators that transition to part 121; certain new entrant operators. 121.2 Section 121.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...), Third attitude indicator. (B) Section 121.311(f), Safety belts and shoulder harnesses. (ii) Manufactured...

  1. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  2. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: Construction, operation, and performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acharya, S.; Adamová, Dagmar; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Brož, M.; Contreras, J. G.; Ferencei, Jozef; Hladký, Jan; Horák, D.; Křížek, Filip; Kučera, Vít; Kushpil, Svetlana; Lavička, R.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Petráček, V.; Šumbera, Michal; Vaňát, Tomáš; Závada, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 881, č. 2 (2018), s. 88-127 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : fibre/foam sendwich radiator * transition radiation detector * multi-wire proportional drift chamber * Xenon-based gas micture * tracking * lonisation energy loss Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  3. Graz, city bus fleet running on 100% biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablasser, G. [City of Graz (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    Graz collects used cooking oil on a large scale. This used cooking oil is converted into biodiesel and along with biodiesel produced from rape seed provides the whole bus fleet (135 buses) with fuel. The bus fleet also got an optimized high quality interior design (information screens, air conditioning, a better acoustic and visual information and ramps for mobility-impaired persons). Attractiveness of the city will increase due to lower pollution levels by the biodiesel driven buses. Public transport became more user-friendly, especially for the disabled and other specific groups. The local public transport company, GBV, carries out a series of technical, ecological and economic trials of 100% biodiesel operation in the meantime also during wintertime. Within the framework of CIVITAS trendsetter, the whole bus fleet was either converted to biodiesel operation or new buses were bought already equipped for biodiesel operations. The 100% switch to alternative fuel for the entire bus fleet of the City of Graz is new; Graz is the only city in the world operating the whole bus fleet on 100% biodiesel.

  4. Optimizing a desirable fare structure for a bus-subway corridor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bing-Zheng Liu; Ying-En Ge; Kai Cao; Xi Jiang; Lingyun Meng; Ding Liu; Yunfeng Gao

    This paper aims to optimize a desirable fare structure for the public transit service along a bus-subway corridor with the consideration of those factors related to equity in trip, including travel...

  5. Optimizing Frequency of Bus Services in Mixed-Traffic Urban Streets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KOV, Monyrath; FUKUDA, Daisuke; YAI, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new analytical model is proposed to determine optimal frequency for urban bus transit under variable demand by explicitly considering the interaction between different vehicles in urban mixed traffic...

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODE-CHOICE SIMULATOR WITH THE LOG DATA ACCUMULATED IN ON-DEMAND BUS SERVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Kota; Yamato, Hiroyuki; Hiekata, Kazuo

    The new simulator which can estimate the mode-choi ce in the area was developed and evaluated in the field test. The characteristic of the developed simulato r is to be able to estimate the number of demand and demand pattern in high-accuracy with the real operation log data of the On-demand Bus. The simulator is devided into micro-simulator whose passenger agents choose their transpor t mode by the sacrifice model. The developed simulator is evaluated in the real fi eld test in Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture. The new transportation like LRT (Light Rail Transit) and On-demand Bus is eval uated by the simulator and the result of simulation is confirmed to be reliable by the local government officers.

  7. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  8. A Prediction System Using a P2P Overlay Network for a Bus Arrival System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Hsuan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of times and the surge of metropolitan populations, government agencies often promote the construction of public transport. Unlike rail transportation or rapid transit systems, it is often difficult to estimate the vehicle arrival times at each station in a bus transportation system due to metropolitan transportation congestion. Traffic status is often monitored using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, WSNs are always separated from one another spatially. Recent studies have considered the connection of multiple sensor networks. This study considers a combination view of peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks and WSN architecture to predict bus arrival times. Each bus station, which is also a P2P overlay peer, is connected in a P2P overlay network. A sensor installed in each bus can receive data via peers to obtain the moving speed of a bus. Then, each peer can exchange its data to predict bus arrival times at bus stations. This method can considerably increase the accuracy with which bus arrival times can be predicted and can provide traffic status with high precision. Furthermore, these data can also be used to plan new bus routes according to the information gathered.

  9. Driver rostering for bus transit companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nurmi, K.; Kyngäs, J.; Post, Gerhard F.

    2011-01-01

    Staff scheduling has become increasingly important for both the public sector and private companies. Good rosters have many benefits for an organization, such as lower costs, more effective utilization of resources and fairer workloads and distribution of shifts. The process of constructing

  10. Determination of the Optimum Heat Transfer Coefficient and Temperature Rise Analysis for a Lithium-Ion Battery under the Conditions of Harbin City Bus Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the heat problems that occur during the operation of power batteries, especially thermal runaway, which usually take place in high temperature environments. The study was conducted on a ternary polymer lithium-ion battery. In addition, a lumped parameter thermal model was established to analyze the thermal behavior of the electric bus battery system under the operation conditions of the driving cycles of the Harbin city electric buses. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between the optimum heat transfer coefficient of the battery and the ambient temperature was investigated. The relationship between the temperature rise (Tr, the number of cycles (c, and the heat transfer coefficient (h under three Harbin bus cycles have been investigated at 30 °C, because it can provide a basis for the design of the battery thermal management system. The results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient that meets the requirements of the battery thermal management system is the cubic power function of the ambient temperature. Therefore, if the ambient temperature is 30 °C, the heat transfer coefficient should be at least 12 W/m2K in the regular bus lines, 22 W/m2K in the bus rapid transit lines, and 32 W/m2K in the suburban lines.

  11. Review on Malaysian Rail Transit Operation and Management System: Issues and Solution in Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masirin, Mohd Idrus Mohd; Salin, Aminah Mohd; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Martin, David; Samsuddin, Norshakina

    2017-08-01

    In any context, operation and management of transportation systems are key issues which may affect both life quality and economic development. In large urban agglomerations, an efficient public transportation system may help abate the negative externalities of private car use such as congestion, air and noise pollution, accident and fuel consumption, without excessively penalizing user travel times or zone accessibility. Thus, this study is conducted to appraise the Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system, which are considered important as there are many issues and solution in integration of the services that need to be tackled more conscientiously. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the most important issues on integration of services and rail transit system in Malaysian and how to solve or reduce these problems and conflicts. In this paper, it consists of the historical development of rail transit construction in Malaysia. This paper also attempts to identify the important issues related to rail transit services and integration in Malaysian rural rail operation and management system. Comparison is also conducted with other countries such as UK, France, and Japan. Finally, a critical analysis is presented in this paper by looking at the possible application for future Malaysian rail transit operation system and management, especially focusing on enhancing the quality of Malaysian rural rail transit. In conclusion, this paper is expected to successfully review and appraise the existing Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system pertaining to issues & solution in integration. It is also hoped that reformation or transformation of present service delivery quality of the rail transit operation and management will enable Malaysia to succeed in transforming Malaysian transportation system to greater heights.

  12. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

  13. ANALISIS SARANA ANGKUTAN UMUM BUS DAMRI DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhan Rizal Amin

    2015-12-01

    trayek angkutan umum penumpang membutuhkan penambahan armada atau pengurangan armada, sedangkan faktor-faktor yang digunakan sebagai variabel bebas dalam menganalisis penggunaan angkutan umum bus Damri adalah keselamatan, efektivitas, efisiensi, pelayanan dan kehandalan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pihak operator dalam hal ini Perum Damri tidak perlu melakukan penambahan maupun pengurangan jumlah armada bus Damri untuk jalur B.04 karena menurut perhitungan didapatkan hasil sebesar 0,6. Untuk faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh signifikan terhadap penggunaan bus Damri jalur B.04 adalah variabel keselamatan, efektivitas dan efisiensi, sedangkan variabel pelayanan dan kehandalan tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap penggunaan bus Damri jalur B.04.

  14. Computation on Bus Delay at Stops in Beijing through Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delays at bus stops have seriously affected the efficiency of bus operation and the improvement of level of services of public transportation and greatly influenced the preferences of passengers to choose bus services. In this paper, the analysis on arriving, dwell and leaving process of buses and the method to calculate bus delays at stops are proposed according to survey data from three bus routes in Beijing. Statistical analysis is then adopted respectively to evaluate average times that buses are docking at curbside and bay-style stops. Moreover, it is noted that different load factors of passengers in buses have significantly influenced the average boarding and alighting time per person. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed methods is illustrated through case studies. This study is crucial and helpful for the planners and operators to evaluate the efficiency and level of service of urban public transportation.

  15. 75 FR 23843 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public transportation, or... bus-related projects for assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies... projects for assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public...

  16. Individual and Synergetic Effects of Transit Service Improvement Strategies : Simulation and Validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, J; Cats, O.

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of transit service improvements such as bus lanes, allowing boarding through all doors, and headway-based holding control requires detailed simulation capabilities. However, because the usage of models advanced enough to simultaneously analyze physical and operational measures has been

  17. Bus network redesign for inner southeast suburbs of Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandangwati, S. T.; Milyanab, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Public transport is the most effective mode of transport in the era of climate change and oil depletion. It can address climate change issues by reducing urban greenhouse gas emission and oil consumption while at the same time improving mobility. However, many public transport networks are not effective and instead create high operating costs with low frequencies and occupancy. Melbourne is one example of a metropolitan area that faces this problem. Even though the city has well-integrated train and tram networks, Melbourne’s bus network still needs to be improved. This study used network planning approach to redesign the bus network in the City of Glen Eira, a Local Government Area (LGA) in the southeastern part of Metropolitan Melbourne. The study area is the area between Gardenvale North and Oakleigh Station, as well as between Caulfield and Patterson Stations. This area needs network improvement mainly because of the meandering bus routes that run within it. This study aims to provide recommendations for improving the performance of bus services by reducing meandering routes, improving transfer point design and implementing coordinated timetables. The recommendations were formulated based on a ‘ready-made’ concept to increase bus occupancy. This approach can be implemented in other cities with similar problems and characteristics including those in Indonesia.

  18. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  19. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  20. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  1. Follow and Assume: The Operational Reserve in Security, Stability, Reconstruction, and Transition Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    legislature”30 and had, upon their independence in 1946, a public school system , freedom of press, an independent judiciary, democratic government, and the...operations included Winter Freeze in 2004 and Operation Jump Start at the South West Border that began in 2006. Additionally, Operational Reserve forces are...College, 1998. 79 Taber, Robert. The War of the Flea : A Study of Guerrilla Warfare Theory and Practice. New York: L. Stuart, 1965. Whitlock, Joseph E

  2. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  3. Equivalence Ratio-EGR Control of HCCI Engine Operation and the Potential for Transition to Spark-Ignited Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Frias, J; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Smith, J R; Dibble, R

    2001-07-31

    This research investigates a control system for HCCI engines, where equivalence ratio, fraction of EGR and intake pressure are adjusted as needed to obtain satisfactory combustion. HCCI engine operation is analyzed with a detailed chemical kinetics code, HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport), that has been extensively modified for application to engines. HCT is linked to an optimizer that determines the operating conditions that result in maximum brake thermal efficiency, while meeting the peak cylinder pressure restriction. The results show the values of the operating conditions that yield optimum efficiency as a function of torque and rpm. The engine has high NO{sub x} emissions for high power operation, so the possibility of switching to stoichiometric operation for high torque conditions is considered. Stoichiometric operation would allow the use of a three-way catalyst to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to acceptable levels. Finally, the paper discusses the possibility of transitioning from HCCI operation to SI operation to achieve high power output.

  4. Stochastic Bus Traffic Modelling and Validation Using Smart Card Fare Collection Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanchev, Jordan;Aydt, Heiko;Knoll, Alois

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines some of the most important contributions regarding bus transit control and optimisation from a modelling perspective. It provides guidelines for designing simulations of this type and points to the need of a qualitatively and quantitatively correct model that is validated and can serve as a benchmark testing platform for the numerous optimisation strategies that researchers present. It examines a case study about a bus line in Singapore and uses smart card data to extract ...

  5. From Research to Operations: Transitioning Noaa's Lake Erie Harmful Algal Bloom Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, K. E.; Stumpf, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    A key priority of NOAA's Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System (HAB-OFS) is to leverage the Ecological Forecasting Roadmap to systematically transition to operations scientifically mature HAB forecasts in regions of the country where there is a strong user need identified and an operational framework can be supported. While in the demonstration phase, the Lake Erie HAB forecast has proven its utility. Over the next two years, NOAA will be transitioning the Lake Erie HAB forecast to operations with an initial operating capability established in the HAB OFS' operational infrastructure by the 2016 bloom season. Blooms of cyanobacteria are a recurring problem in Lake Erie, and the dominant bloom forming species, Microcystis aeruginosa, produces a toxin called microcystin that is poisonous to humans, livestock and pets. Once the toxins have contaminated the source water used for drinking water, it is costly for public water suppliers to remove them. As part of the Lake Erie HAB forecast demonstration, NOAA has provided information regarding the cyanobacterial blooms in a biweekly Experimental HAB Bulletin, which includes information about the current and forecasted distribution, toxicity, potential for vertical mixing or scum formation, mixing of the water column, and predictions of bloom decline. Coastal resource managers, public water suppliers and public health officials use the Experimental HAB Bulletins to respond to and mitigate the impacts of cyanobacterial blooms. The transition to operations will benefit stakeholders through ensuring that future Lake Erie HAB forecast products are sustained, systematic, reliable, and robust. Once operational, the forecasts will continue to be assessed and improvements will be made based on the results of emerging scientific research. In addition, the lessons learned from the Lake Erie transition will be used to streamline the process for future HAB forecasts presently in development.

  6. Correlation between defect transition levels and thermoelectric operational temperature of doped CrSi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Pandey, Tribhuwan

    2014-03-01

    The performance of a thermoelectric material is quantified by figure of merit ZT. The challenge in achieving high ZT value requires simultaneously high thermopower, high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity at optimal carrier concentration. So far doping is the most versatile approach used for modifying thermoelectric properties. Previous studies have shown that doping can significantly improve the thermoelectric performance, however the tuning the operating temperature of a thermoelectric device is a main issue. Using first principles density functional theory, we report for CrSi2, a linear relationship between thermodynamic charge state transition levels of defects and temperature at which thermopower peaks. We show for doped CrSi2 that the peak of thermopower occurs at the temperature Tm, which corresponds to the position of defect transition level. Therefore, by modifying the defect transition level, a thermoelectric material with a given operational temperature can be designed. The authors thankfully acknowledge support from ADA under NpMASS.

  7. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  8. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  9. Droop-Controlled Inverters with Seamless Transition between Islanding and Grid-Connected Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Shang-Hung; Kuo, Chun-Yi; Lee, Tzung-Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a seamless transition method for droop-controlled inverters to operate in both islanding and grid-connected modes. A local PLL and a virtual inductance are designed to ride through transient when the inverter switches between two modes with no synchronization. The proposed...

  10. Fairness in optimizing bus-crew scheduling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jihui; Song, Cuiying; Ceder, Avishai Avi; Liu, Tao; Guan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a model considering fairness in the problem of crew scheduling for bus drivers (CSP-BD) using a hybrid ant-colony optimization (HACO) algorithm to solve it. The main contributions of this work are the following: (a) a valid approach for cases with a special cost structure and constraints considering the fairness of working time and idle time; (b) an improved algorithm incorporating Gamma heuristic function and selecting rules. The relationships of each cost are examined with ten bus lines collected from the Beijing Public Transport Holdings (Group) Co., Ltd., one of the largest bus transit companies in the world. It shows that unfair cost is indirectly related to common cost, fixed cost and extra cost and also the unfair cost approaches to common and fixed cost when its coefficient is twice of common cost coefficient. Furthermore, the longest time for the tested bus line with 1108 pieces, 74 blocks is less than 30 minutes. The results indicate that the HACO-based algorithm can be a feasible and efficient optimization technique for CSP-BD, especially with large scale problems.

  11. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2010-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards

  12. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  13. Glacier Going to the Sun Road Rehabilitation Mitigation Shuttle Bus Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-31

    As a mitigation measure during reconstruction of the Going to the Sun Road, Glacier National Park operated a shuttle bus system along three routes during the 2007 season. This report presents a multi-dimensional evaluation of the transportation servi...

  14. Reduction of Sleep Deprivation and Fatigue in Mass Transit Rail Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Ajeenah L

    2017-08-01

    Sleep and work schedules differ considerably between rail workers and the broader U.S. workforce. Due to extended work hours and night shift schedules, train and engine service workers who operate passenger trains or move freight are most vulnerable to fatigue. This article addresses the need for comprehensive fatigue risk management systems (FRMS) for rail operators. Using a transactional ergonomic perspective, FRMS are discussed with a focus on fatigue education and administrative controls to reduce feelings of tiredness, low motivation, poor concentration, and low physical activity among mass transit rail operators. Recommendations for intervention implementation and evaluation are provided.

  15. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  16. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  17. Bavarian liquid hydrogen bus demonstration project - safety, licensing and acceptability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R.; Knorr, H.; Pruemm, W.

    1999-07-01

    A regular 12 m city bus of the MAN SL 202 type with an internal combustion engine adapted to hydrogen operation and auxiliary gasoline operation was demonstrated in the Bavarian cities of Erlangen and Munich between April 1996 and August 1998. Three bus operators, Erlanger Stadtwerke, Stadtwerke Muenchen and Autobus Oberbayern were testing the bus in three different operating schemes. In order to be able to perform this worldwide first public demonstration of a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) city bus in regular service, several requirements with respect to safety, licensing, training and acceptability had to be fulfilled. These activities were focusing mainly on the hydrogen specific issues such as (a) integration of onboard LH{sub 2} storage vessels, piping and instrumentation, (b) implementation of storage and refueling infrastructure in the operators' yards, (c) adaptation of the maintenance garages, (d) training of operating and maintenance personnel. During phase II of the demonstration activity a poll was performed on passengers traveling onboard the hydrogen-powered city bus in order to determined the level of acceptance among the users of the bus. The bus was designed and manufactured by MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktiengesellschaft. The cryogenic fuel storage and the refueling equipment were designed and manufactured by Linde AG. The realization of the hardware was financially supported by the European Commission (EC) within the Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project. The demonstration phase was financially supported by EC and the Bavarian State Government. Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik performed project monitoring for both funding organizations. The presentation will summarize the most important results of this demonstration phase and will address the measures undertaken in order to get the bus, the refueling infrastructure and the maintenance and operating procedures approved by the relevant authorities.

  18. Bus stops and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, D Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D; Johnston, Brian D; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J Jaime; Ebel, Beth E

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. This was a matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossings in Lima, Peru. We performed a random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February 2011 to September 2011. A total of 97 intersection cases representing 1134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October 2010 and January 2011, and their matched controls, were included. The main exposures assessed were presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. The main outcome measure was occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision. Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53 to 7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Formal and informal bus stops were associated with higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76 to 22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37 to 6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high-income countries. In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a threefold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices, such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Excited meson radiative transitions from lattice QCD using variationally optimized operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, Christian J. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Dudek, Jozef J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Edwards, Robert G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-06-02

    We explore the use of 'optimized' operators, designed to interpolate only a single meson eigenstate, in three-point correlation functions with a vector-current insertion. These operators are constructed as linear combinations in a large basis of meson interpolating fields using a variational analysis of matrices of two-point correlation functions. After performing such a determination at both zero and non-zero momentum, we compute three-point functions and are able to study radiative transition matrix elements featuring excited state mesons. The required two- and three-point correlation functions are efficiently computed using the distillation framework in which there is a factorization between quark propagation and operator construction, allowing for a large number of meson operators of definite momentum to be considered. We illustrate the method with a calculation using anisotopic lattices having three flavors of dynamical quark all tuned to the physical strange quark mass, considering form-factors and transitions of pseudoscalar and vector meson excitations. In conclusion, the dependence on photon virtuality for a number of form-factors and transitions is extracted and some discussion of excited-state phenomenology is presented.

  20. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Funding for this effort is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration. The 2016 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2015 through July 2016. The results for these buses account for more than 550,000 miles traveled and 59,500 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from three demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; and American Fuel Cell Bus Project at the University of California at Irvine.

  1. Mobilitätserfahrungen und Grenz-Infrastruktur - Bus-Stop Nickelsdorf 2015, eine Bestandsaufnahme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hieslmayer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A video animation serves to characterise the mobilities and processes around the arrival of refugees at a border checkpoint. The municipality of Nickelsdorf (province of „Burgenland“ and the refugee arrivals in fall 2015 serve as field. The authors consider borders neither as simple thresholds nor as ramparts, but as socio-political places that de-mobilize or accelerate transit and sustained movement. The refugees’/migrants’ routes in the Balkans coincide with the biographical mobilities of the bus drivers who transport the arriving people, traffickers are in connivance with customs officers, and infrastructures in proximity of borders boost or collapse in accordance with the changing border regimes. Transnational networks continue to operate in spite of routes and borders that are politically declared as being “closed”.

  2. Iterated Local Search Algorithm with Strategic Oscillation for School Bus Routing Problem with Bus Stop Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saied Fallah Niasar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available he school bus routing problem (SBRP represents a variant of the well-known vehicle routing problem. The main goal of this study is to pick up students allocated to some bus stops and generate routes, including the selected stops, in order to carry students to school. In this paper, we have proposed a simple but effective metaheuristic approach that employs two features: first, it utilizes large neighborhood structures for a deeper exploration of the search space; second, the proposed heuristic executes an efficient transition between the feasible and infeasible portions of the search space. Exploration of the infeasible area is controlled by a dynamic penalty function to convert the unfeasible solution into a feasible one. Two metaheuristics, called N-ILS (a variant of the Nearest Neighbourhood with Iterated Local Search algorithm and I-ILS (a variant of Insertion with Iterated Local Search algorithm are proposed to solve SBRP. Our experimental procedure is based on the two data sets. The results show that N-ILS is able to obtain better solutions in shorter computing times. Additionally, N-ILS appears to be very competitive in comparison with the best existing metaheuristics suggested for SBRP

  3. Single-Phase Microgrid with Seamless Transition Capabilities between Modes of Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Alexander; Apap, Maurice; Spiteri-Staines, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Microgrids are an effective way to increase the penetration of DG into the grid. They are capable of operating either in grid-connected or in islanded mode thereby increasing the supply reliability for the end user. This paper focuses on achieving seamless transitions from islanded to grid......-connected and vice versa for a single phase microgrid made up from voltage controlled voltage source inverters (VC-VSIs) and current controlled voltage source inverters (CC-VSIs) working together in both modes of operation. The primary control structures for the VC-VSIs and CC-VSIs is considered together...... with the secondary control loops that are used to synchronize the microgrid as a single unit to the grid. Simulation results are given that show the seamless transitions between the two modes without any disconnection times for the CC-VSIs and VC-VSIs connected to the microgrid....

  4. EHL Transition Temperature Measurements on a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Filter Wheel Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mark J.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Shogrin, Bradley A.

    2001-01-01

    The elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) transition temperature was measured for a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder filter wheel bearing in a vacuum tribometer. Conditions included both an 89 N (20 lb.) hard and soft load, 600 rpm, temperatures between 23 C (73 F) and 85 C (185 F), and a vacuum of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp -5) Pa. Elastohydrodynamic to mixed lubrication started to occur at approximately 70 C (158 F).

  5. Experiential thinking as transition between pre-operational and operational thinking in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Svetina

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abilities of conservation (of number, length, volume, etc. tend to appear between 6 and 10 years of age. According to the Piaget's theory, the conservation abilities on different domains are supposed to appear at about the same age because their development is related to the concrete operational thinking. Most of the empirical evidence, however, did not support this assumption, suggesting that conservation on specific domains (e. g. number tends to appear earlier in regard to other domains (e. g. liquid, volume. In addition, children often showed understanding of conservation when presented with every-day problems, but failed to explain the same problem on its logical level. The problem of the present research was twofold: to determine the developmental priority of either domain of conservation, and to better comprehend the relation between logical, experiential, and perceptual understanding of conservation in children. In the study, 153 children, aged 6 to 8 years, were presented with two Piagetian problems of conservation: number and liquid tasks. The results suggested that understanding of the first task (conservation of number seems to be necessary for understanding of the other task (conservation of liquid. In addition, experiential thinking seems to play an important role in the development of conservation. The findings can be partly explained in terms of the Vigotsky's zone of proximal development, yet they rise hypotheses that still call for further empirical justification.

  6. Bus crash severity in the United-States: The role of driver behavior, service type, road factors and environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011.The...

  7. Occupational correlates of smoking among urban transit operators: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Aniruddha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workers in blue-collar and service occupations smoke at higher rates than workers in white-collar and professional occupations. Occupational stress may explain some of the occupational class differences in smoking and quitting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over a ten year period among a multiethnic cohort of urban transit operators, while accounting for demographic factors and alcohol. Methods The sample consists of 654 San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI transit operators who participated in two occupational health studies and biennial medical examinations during 1983–85 and 1993–95. Workers who had initiated, increased, or maintained their smoking over the ten year period were compared to workers who remained non-smokers. Occupational factors included self-rated frequency of job problems (e.g., difficulties with equipment, passengers, traffic, job burnout (i.e., the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, time needed to unwind after work, and years employed as a transit operator. A series of logistic regression models were developed to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over time. Results Approximately 35% of the workers increased, initiated, or maintained their smoking over the ten-year period. Frequency of job problems was significantly associated with likelihood of smoking increase, initiation, or maintenance (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09, 1.55. Black operators were significantly more likely to have smoked over the ten-year period compared to operators in other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion Understanding the role of work-related stress vis-à-vis smoking behavior is of critical importance for crafting workplace smoking prevention and cessation interventions that are applicable to blue-collar work settings, and for developing policies that mitigate occupational stress.

  8. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    is that ‘organisation matters’ and that the reforms may have changed significantly the institutional conditions for the implementation of sustainable transport policies and easures. We have focused the research on public transport in larger cities and how their organisation has changed due to the reforms. At the NECTAR......, and will be elaborated by the time of the NECTAR workshop in May: • Deregulation and privatisation have not changed negative trends in modal split in Greater Manchester, but likely made it worse at least compared to London. • Deregulation and privatisation have worsened conditions for a greening of the bus fleets...

  9. Maintenance and operations contractor plan for transition to the project Hanford management contract (PHMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, J.L.

    1996-04-12

    This plan has been developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), and its subcontractors ICF Kaiser Hanford (ICF KH) and BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR), at the direction of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL). WHC and its subcontractors are hereafter referred to as the Maintenance and Operations (M and O) Contractor. The plan identifies actions involving the M and O Contractor that are critical to (1) prepare for a smooth transition to the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC), and (2) support and assist the PHMC and RL in achieving transition as planned, with no or minimal impact to ongoing baseline activities. The plan is structured around two primary phases. The first is the pre-award phase, which started in mid-February 1996 and is currently scheduled to be completed on June 1, 1996, at which time the contract is currently planned to be awarded. The second is the follow-on four-month post-award phase from June 1, 1996, until October 1, 1996. Considering the magnitude and complexity of the scope of work being transitioned, completion in four months will require significant effort by all parties. To better ensure success, the M and O Contractor has developed a pre-award phase that is intended to maximize readiness for transition. Priority is given to preparation for facility assessments and processing of personnel, as these areas are determined to be on the critical path for transition. In addition, the M and O Contractor will put emphasis during the pre-award phase to close out open items prior to contract award, to include grievances, employee concerns, audit findings, compliance issues, etc.

  10. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  11. PIV study of the wake of a model wind turbine transitioning between operating set points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Dan; Cowen, Edwin (Todd)

    2016-11-01

    Wind turbines are ideally operated at their most efficient tip speed ratio for a given wind speed. There is increasing interest, however, in operating turbines at other set points to increase the overall power production of a wind farm. Specifically, Goit and Meyers (2015) used LES to examine a wind farm optimized by unsteady operation of its turbines. In this study, the wake of a model wind turbine is measured in a water channel using PIV. We measure the wake response to a change in operational set point of the model turbine, e.g., from low to high tip speed ratio or vice versa, to examine how it might influence a downwind turbine. A modified torque transducer after Kang et al. (2010) is used to calibrate in situ voltage measurements of the model turbine's generator operating across a resistance to the torque on the generator. Changes in operational set point are made by changing the resistance or the flow speed, which change the rotation rate measured by an encoder. Single camera PIV on vertical planes reveals statistics of the wake at various distances downstream as the turbine transitions from one set point to another. From these measurements, we infer how the unsteady operation of a turbine may affect the performance of a downwind turbine as its incoming flow. National Science Foundation and the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future.

  12. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity...

  13. Expert system development methodology and the transition from prototyping to operations: FIESTA, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Carlisle, Candace

    1989-01-01

    A major barrier in taking expert systems from prototype to operational status involves instilling end user confidence in the operational system. The software of different life cycle models is examined and the advantages and disadvantages of each when applied to expert system development are explored. The Fault Isolation Expert System for Tracking and data relay satellite system Applications (FIESTA) is presented as a case study of development of an expert system. The end user confidence necessary for operational use of this system is accentuated by the fact that it will handle real-time data in a secure environment, allowing little tolerance for errors. How FIESTA is dealing with transition problems as it moves from an off-line standalone prototype to an on-line real-time system is discussed.

  14. Expert system development methodology and the transition from prototyping to operations - Fiesta, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Carlisle, Candace

    1989-01-01

    A major barrier in taking expert systems from prototype to operational status involves instilling end user confidence in the operational system. The software of different life cycle models is examined and the advantages and disadvantages of each when applied to expert system development are explored. The Fault Isolation Expert System for Tracking and data relay satellite system Applications (FIESTA) is presented as a case study of development of an expert system. The end user confidence necessary for operational use of this system is accentuated by the fact that it will handle real-time data in a secure environment, allowing little tolerance for errors. How FIESTA is dealing with transition problems as it moves from an off-line standalone prototype to an on-line real-time system is discussed.

  15. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  16. Modeling Passenger-Flow in Real-Time Bus Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaik, Bashir; Jacob, Ricky; Winstanley, Adam C.

    2012-01-01

    Transit networks in the real world are similar to data transfer across a computer network. In this paper, we present the similarity and differences between computer networks and transit networks. We have developed a passenger-flow simulation model and we tested the effects of transit services provided on passengers in term of delay and passenger quality of service. We present the passenger’s behavior at bus stops, factors that affect passenger’s interactions with buses...

  17. Replacement model of city bus: A dynamic programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Dadang; Yusuf, Edhi

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims to develop a replacement model of city bus vehicles operated in Bandung City. This study is driven from real cases encountered by the Damri Company in the efforts to improve services to the public. The replacement model propounds two policy alternatives: First, to maintain or keep the vehicles, and second is to replace them with new ones taking into account operating costs, revenue, salvage value, and acquisition cost of a new vehicle. A deterministic dynamic programming approach is used to solve the model. The optimization process was heuristically executed using empirical data of Perum Damri. The output of the model is to determine the replacement schedule and the best policy if the vehicle has passed the economic life. Based on the results, the technical life of the bus is approximately 20 years old, while the economic life is an average of 9 (nine) years. It means that after the bus is operated for 9 (nine) years, managers should consider the policy of rejuvenation.

  18. Comparison of on-road emissions for hybrid and regular transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna L; Wang, Bo; Sperry, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid technology offers an attractive option for transit buses, since it has the potential to significantly reduce operating costs for transit agencies. The main impetus behind use of hybrid transit vehicles is fuel savings and reduced emissions. Laboratory tests have indicated that hybrid transit buses can have significantly lower emissions compared with conventional transit buses. However the number of studies is limited and laboratory tests may not represent actual driving conditions, since in-use vehicle operation differs from laboratory test cycles. This paper describes an on-road evaluation of in-use emission differences between hybrid-electric and conventional transit buses for the Ames, Iowa transit authority, CyRide. Emissions were collected on-road using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS) for three hybrid and two control buses. Emissions were collected for at least one operating bus day. Each bus was evaluated over the same route pattern, which utilizes the same driver. The number of passengers embarking or disembarking at each stop was collected by an on-board data collector so that passenger load could be included. Vehicle emissions are correlated to engine load demand, which is a function of factors such as vehicle load, speed, and acceleration. PEMS data are provided second by second and vehicle-specific power (VSP) was calculated for each row of data. Instantaneous data were stratified into the defined VSP bins and then average modal emission rates and standard errors were calculated for each bus for each pollutant. Pollutants were then compared by bus type. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon emissions were higher for the regular buses across most VSP bins than for the hybrid buses. Nitrogen oxide emissions were unexpectedly higher for the hybrid buses than for the control buses.

  19. The sleep inertia phenomenon during the sleep-wake transition: theoretical and operational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, M; De Gennaro, L

    2000-08-01

    Sleep inertia (SI) defines a period of transitory hypovigilance, confusion, disorientation of behavior and impaired cognitive and sensory-motor performance that immediately follows awakening. SI, the cognitive and behavioral correlate of the transition from sleep to wakefulness, has been incorporated in several models of sleep and vigilance regulation. Monitoring of several physiological parameters during the awakening period clearly indicate that this transition process is very slow. On the cognitive and behavioral side, SI has relevant operational implications. SI is one of the most serious contraindications to the use of napping during quasi-continuous operations if the individual may be required to perform complex tasks immediately after sudden awakening at unpredictable times. The studies on SI modulating factors showed that SI is strongly affected by slow wave sleep amount and sleep depth, while the outcomes concerning the modulation of SI by circadian factors are not consistent. Cognitive tasks involving high attentional load seem to be much more affected by SI than simple motor ones, performance accuracy being more impaired than speed. Finally, some possible countermeasures against the detrimental effects of SI to be applied in operational settings have been provided.

  20. The employment and income benefits of airport operation on the country in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Huderek-Glapska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The air transport market in Poland is undergoing significant changes, which take place both on the demand and supply side. Polish airports have experienced the unprecedented growth of air traffic. However, the increase in the number of airline connections - which benefits airports, passengers, aircraft industry and, indirectly, the whole society - at the same time results in the growth of social costs reflected by the intensification of noise and environmental pollution. The benefits of airport operation are reflected in the generation of employment and income. Existing literature reveals a gap in the knowledge in respect of impact of aviation in countries in transition. Material and methods: This paper investigates the applicability of socio-economic impact of air transport model to country in transition. In particular, it presents the employment and income benefits of airport operation. The input-output model is employed to measure the economic benefits of airport operation. The largest airport in Poland, Warsaw Chopin Airport is used as a case study. Results: The estimation results for the income and employment effects are found to be significant.  The operations of Warsaw Chopin Airport contributed to the generation of 527.8m EUR in current prices in 2011. Altogether, 19,349 jobs have been generated as the result of the direct, indirect and induced impact of Warsaw Chopin Airport.  Conclusion:  The size of production in the airport expressed in the number of aircraft operations and the number of passengers and goods serviced is positively correlated with the level of economic impact. The restriction on the development of the airport reflected by the inability to meet transport needs expressed by the society may generate opportunity costs.  

  1. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: a generalized ordered logit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005-2009. Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because of inattentive and risky driving. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act...... of 2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005–2009. Results: Results show...... that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because...

  3. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  4. Natural gas powered bus; Erdgasbusprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted.

  5. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  6. Transition to chaos of coupled oscillators: An operator fidelity susceptibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, N. Tobias; Giorda, Paolo; Zanardi, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    The operator fidelity is a measure of the information-theoretic distinguishability between perturbed and unperturbed evolutions. The response of this measure to the perturbation may be formulated in terms of the operator fidelity susceptibility (OFS), a quantity which has been used to investigate the parameter spaces of quantum systems in order to discriminate their regular and chaotic regimes. In this work we numerically study the OFS for a pair of nonlinearly coupled two-dimensional harmonic oscillators, a model which is equivalent to that of a hydrogen atom in a uniform external magnetic field. We show how the two terms of the OFS, being linked to the main properties that differentiate regular from chaotic behavior, allow for the detection of this model’s transition between the two regimes. In addition, we find that the parameter interval where perturbation theory applies is delimited from above by a local minimum of one of the analyzed terms.

  7. A preliminary survey analysis of school shuttle bus system towards smart mobility solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wong Seng; Hoy, Cheong Wan; Chye, Koh Keng

    2017-10-01

    Mobility and accessibility are crucial indicators of urban development. Public transport in the urban areas came into existence to fulfil transportation needs as well as mobility and accessibility demands. Ridership can be affected by the quality and quantity of transit service. However, technical improvements are needed for such as real-time bus information, controlling run time and headway delay. Thus, this paper is aimed to carry out a preliminary survey to determine the problems of school shuttle bus that faced by the students in a selected educational institution, their perceptions of using shuttle bus tracking and information mobile application and impacts of real-time information of public transits on bus ridership and towards smart mobility solutions. Efficient public transportation system needs further investigation about the role of mobile application for the bus tracking system in supporting smart mobility actions and real-time information. The proposed application also provides a smart solution for the management of public infrastructures and urban facilities in Malaysia in future. Eventually, this study opens an opportunity to improve Malaysian quality of life on the public value that created for the city as a whole.

  8. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... should be reported in the reliability test. 6. Fuel Economy The fuel economy test should be conducted using duty cycles that simulate transit service. This test should measure the fuel economy of the bus in miles per gallon or other energy-equivalent units. The fuel economy test should be designed only to...

  9. The ability of conservation and seriation in the transition from the pre-operational stage to the stage of concrete logical operations

    OpenAIRE

    Zadnikar Rupnik, Daša

    2016-01-01

    In the theoretical part of the thesis I closely addressed the Piaget's theory from the field of children's thinking. I described four stages of cognitive development as defined by Piaget. I focused on cognitive operations which are characteristic of the transition from the pre-operational stage to the stage of concrete logical operations, namely conservation and seriation. I summarized certain reviews of the Piaget's theory and described the use of the Piaget's theory in education. A part of ...

  10. Bus and Tag Terminators for IBM system/360

    CERN Multimedia

    Control units were connected to the channels with "Bus and Tag" cable pairs. The bus cables carried the address and data information and the tag cables identified what data was on the bus. There were three general types of bus-and-tag cables produced by IBM.

  11. Space Environments and Effects Concept: Transitioning Research to Operations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Spann, James; Burns, Howard D.; Schumacher, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. NASA has established numerous offices specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline offices, a concept focusing on the development of space environment and effects application is presented. This includes space climate, space weather, and natural and induced space environments. This space environment and effects application is composed of 4 topic areas; characterization and modeling, engineering effects, prediction and operation, and mitigation and avoidance. These topic areas are briefly described below. Characterization and modeling of space environments will primarily focus on utilization during Program mission concept, planning, and design phases. Engineering effects includes materials testing and flight experiments producing data to be used in mission planning and design phases. Prediction and operation pulls data from existing sources into decision-making tools and empirical data sets to be used during the operational phase of a mission. Mitigation and avoidance will develop techniques and strategies used in the design and operations phases of the mission. The goal of this space environment and effects application is to develop decision-making tools and engineering products to support the mission phases of mission concept through operations by focusing on transitioning research to operations. Products generated by this space environments and effects application are suitable for use in anomaly investigations. This paper will outline the four topic areas, describe the need, and discuss an organizational structure for this space environments and effects

  12. 78 FR 37877 - Request for Transit Rail Advisory Committee for Safety (TRACS) Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... regulations for enhancing safety across all modes of public transportation as FTA implements new statutory... transit and bus transit safety. Along with their experience in the bus transit or rail transit industry, nominees will also be evaluated on factors including leadership and organizational skills, region of...

  13. Implementation of PMSM speed control software based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenlun; Chen, Bei; He, Yuyao

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the driver's hardware structure based on TMS320F28335 is introduced, the control software flow of host computer based on CAN bus is designed, the rule of CAN communication protocol is fulfilled and accordingly the hybrid programming is realized in the background of low speed and large sinusoid operation. This system can realize the CAN communication setting, download the PID parameters to DSP, operate at constant rotate speed and at given large sinusoid rotate speed. Meanwhile the dynamical monitoring and alarm are implemented. Finally the real-time display and storage of measured current, voltage and rotate speed are completed well.

  14. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  15. Design and Control of a Buck–Boost Charger-Discharger for DC-Bus Regulation in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Ramos-Paja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In DC and hybrid microgrids (MG, the DC-bus regulation using Energy Storage Devices (ESD is important for the stable operation of both the generators and loads. There are multiple commercial voltage levels for both ESD and DC-bus; therefore, the ESD voltage may be higher, equal or lower than the DC-bus voltage depending on the application. Moreover, most of the ESD converter controllers are linear-based, hence they ensure stability in a limited operation range. This paper proposes a system to regulate the DC-bus voltage of an MG accounting for any voltage relation between the ESD and the DC-bus voltage. The proposed system is formed by an ESD connected to a DC-bus through a bidirectional Buck–Boost converter, which is regulated by a Sliding-Mode Controller (SMC to ensure the system stability in the entire operation range. The SMC drives the Buck–Boost charger–discharger to regulate the DC-bus voltage, at the desired reference value, by charging or discharging the ESD. This paper also provides detailed procedures to design the parameters of both the SMC and the charger–dischager. Finally, simulation and experimental results validate the proposed solution and illustrate its performance.

  16. MPBUS: Modular Power bus for Space Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ricardo; Remírez Eduardo; Alonso Javier; Priel Eran; Carapelle Alain; Actis Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cost reduction in the access to space is leading the space race in the launchers market. Launcher’s companies are looking for a more efficient and economical way to place satellites in orbit. MPBUS project proposes a decentralized power bus distribution with jettisonable smart batteries combined with the use of PLC technology, data over DC, achieving overall weight reduction and harness simplification, both goals in line with Next Generation Launchers (NGL) targets. Two different bus in...

  17. Development, Application, and Transition of Aerosol and Trace Gas Products Derived from Next-Generation Satellite Observations to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Naeger, Aaron; Zavodsky, Bradley; McGrath, Kevin; LaFontaine, Frank

    2016-01-01

    NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has a history of successfully transitioning unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community to improve short-term forecasts. SPoRTstrives to bridge the gap between research and operations by maintaining interactive partnerships with end users to develop products that match specific forecast challenges, provide training, and assess the products in the operational environment. This presentation focuses on recent product development, application, and transition of aerosol and trace gas products to operations for specific forecasting applications. Recent activities relating to the SPoRT ozone products, aerosol optical depth composite product, sulfur dioxide, and aerosol index products are discussed.

  18. Stress-related psychosocial factors at work, fatigue, and risky driving behavior in bus rapid transport (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Sergio A; Ortiz, Viviola Gómez; Cendales, Boris E

    2017-07-01

    There is consistent scientific evidence that professional drivers constitute an occupational group that is highly exposed to work related stressors. Furthermore, several recent studies associate work stress and fatigue with unsafe and counterproductive work behaviors. This study examines the association between stress-related work conditions of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) drivers and risky driving behaviors; and examines whether fatigue is a mechanism that mediates the association between the two. A sample of 524 male Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) operators were drawn from four transport companies in Bogotá, Colombia. The participants answered a survey which included an adapted version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) for BRT operators, as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance and Job Content Questionnaires, the Subjective Fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) and the Need for Recovery after Work Scale (NFR). Utilizing Structural Equation Models (SEM) it was found that risky driving behaviors in BRT operators could be predicted through job strain, effort-reward imbalance and social support at work. It was also found that fatigue and need for recovery fully mediate the associations between job strain and risky driving, and between social support and risky driving, but not the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) and risky driving. The results of this study suggest that a) stress related working conditions (Job Strain, Social Support and ERI) are relevant predictors of risky driving in BRT operators, and b) that fatigue is the mechanism which links another kind of stress related to working conditions (job strain and low social support) with risky driving. The mechanism by which ERI increases risky driving in BRT operators remains unexplained. This research suggests that in addition to the individual centered stress-reduction occupational programs, fatigue management interventions aimed to changing some working conditions may reduce

  19. Model of Bus and Urban Rail Transfer Behavior Based on General Cost Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To design an efficient feeder bus route network and develop a better integrated intermodal system, it is necessary to study travelers' mode choice behavior. This paper focuses on the transfer behavior model between bus transit and urban rail. Based on the theory of Binary logit (BL model, a new generalized travel cost model (GTC which considers the influencing factors including travel distance, travel cost, and transfer time is established, and the choice model of bus and urban rail with the influence of transfer behavior is built. Then, a deeper analyzing process is conducted to get the significance of the model. In addition, the accuracy and feasibility of the model are verified through using the real survey data. Finally, according to the model results, some countermeasures consisting of improving the transfer condition and optimizing price charging pattern are given to promote a better public transportation system.

  20. Converter Power Density Increase using Low Inductive Integrated DC-link Capacitor/Bus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Franke, Toke; Rannested, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The power losses in switching devices have a direct effect on the maximum converter power. For a voltage source converter, the DC-link bus has a major influence on the power loss and safe operating area of the power devices. The Power Ring Film CapacitorTM integrated with an optimized bus structu...... has a measured inductance of around 5 nH. That allows the converter to switch with low turn-off losses, and allows the safe operation at higher dc-link voltages. This paper investigates the power transfer limits of a ShowerPower® cooled power stack....

  1. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents 16 case studies of attacks planned or carried out against Israeli bus targets, along with statistical data on the number, frequency, and lethality of attacks against bus targets that have taken place in Israel since 1970 and duri...

  2. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  3. Increasing throughput of multiplexed electrical bus in pipe-lined architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameh; Brezzo, Bernard V; Kapur, Mohit

    2014-05-27

    Techniques are disclosed for increasing the throughput of a multiplexed electrical bus by exploiting available pipeline stages of a computer or other system. For example, a method for increasing a throughput of an electrical bus that connects at least two devices in a system comprises introducing at least one signal hold stage in a signal-receiving one of the two devices, such that a maximum frequency at which the two devices are operated is not limited by a number of cycles of an operating frequency of the electrical bus needed for a signal to propagate from a signal-transmitting one of the two devices to the signal-receiving one of the two devices. Preferably, the signal hold stage introduced in the signal-receiving one of the two devices is a pipeline stage re-allocated from the signal-transmitting one of the two devices.

  4. Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Concept: Transitioning Research to Operations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. L.; Burns, H. D.; Clinton, R. G.; Schumacher, D.; Spann, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    support function also includes working in coordination with the program in anomaly resolution and generation of lesson learned documentation. The goal of this space environment and spacecraft effects organization is to develop decision-making tools and engineering products to support the mission phases of mission concept through operations by focusing on transitioning research to application. Products generated by this space environments and spacecraft effects organization are suitable for use in anomaly investigations. This paper will describe the organizational structure for this space environments and spacecraft effects organization, and outline the scope of conceptual TWG's and their relationship to the functional areas.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Manohar, Manju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future.

  6. System Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Discrete Event Simulation Model Programmer's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    In order to examine specific automated guideway transit (AGT) developments and concepts, UMTA undertook a program of studies and technology investigations called Automated Guideway Transit Technology (AGTT) Program. The objectives of one segment of t...

  7. The school bus routing and scheduling problem with transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögl, Michael; Doerner, Karl F; Parragh, Sophie N

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we study the school bus routing and scheduling problem with transfers arising in the field of nonperiodic public transportation systems. It deals with the transportation of pupils from home to their school in the morning taking the possibility that pupils may change buses into account. Allowing transfers has several consequences. On the one hand, it allows more flexibility in the bus network structure and can, therefore, help to reduce operating costs. On the other hand, transfers have an impact on the service level: the perceived service quality is lower due to the existence of transfers; however, at the same time, user ride times may be reduced and, thus, transfers may also have a positive impact on service quality. The main objective is the minimization of the total operating costs. We develop a heuristic solution framework to solve this problem and compare it with two solution concepts that do not consider transfers. The impact of transfers on the service level in terms of time loss (or user ride time) and the number of transfers is analyzed. Our results show that allowing transfers reduces total operating costs significantly while average and maximum user ride times are comparable to solutions without transfers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. NETWORKS, Vol. 65(2), 180-203 2015.

  8. SPoRT: Transitioning NASA and NOAA Experimental Data to the Operational Weather Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. With the ever-broadening application of real-time high resolution satellite data from current EOS, Suomi NPP, and planned JPSS and GOES-R sensors to weather forecast problems, significant challenges arise in the acquisition, delivery, and integration of the new capabilities into the decision making process of the operational weather community. For polar orbiting sensors such as MODIS, AIRS, VIIRS, and CRiS, the use of direct broadcast ground stations is key to the real-time delivery of the data and derived products in a timely fashion. With the ABI on the geostationary GOES-R satellite, the data volumes will likely increase by a factor of 5-10 from current data streams. However, the high data volume and limited bandwidth of end user facilities presents a formidable obstacle to timely access to the data. This challenge can be addressed through the use of subsetting techniques, innovative web services, and the judicious selection of data formats. Many of these approaches have been implemented by SPoRT for the delivery of real-time products to NWS forecast offices and other weather entities. Once available in decision support systems like AWIPS II, these new data and products must be integrated into existing and new displays that allow for the integration of the data with existing operational products in these systems. SPoRT is leading the way in demonstrating this enhanced capability. This paper will highlight the ways SPoRT is overcoming many of the challenges presented by the enormous data

  9. Challenges in Transitioning Research Data to Operations: The SPoRT Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedloved, Gary J.; Smith, Matt; McGrath, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. With the ever-broadening application of real-time high resolution satellite data from current EOS and planned NPP, JPSS, and GOES-R sensors to weather forecast problems, significant challenges arise in the acquisition, delivery, and integration of the new capabilities into the decision making process of the operational weather community. For polar orbiting sensors such as MODIS, AIRS, VIIRS, and CRiS, the use of direct broadcast ground stations is key to the real-time delivery of the data and derived products in a timely fashion. With the ABI on the geostationary GOES-R satellite, the data volume will likely increase by a factor of 5- 10 from current data streams. However, the high data volume and limited bandwidth of end user facilities presents a formidable obstacle to timely access to the data. This challenge can be addressed through the use of subsetting techniques, innovative web services, and the judicious selection of data formats. Many of these approaches have been implemented by SPoRT for the delivery of real-time products to NWS forecast offices and other weather entities. Once available in decision support systems like AWIPS II, these new data and products must be integrated into existing and new displays that allow for the integration of the data with existing operational products in these systems. SPoRT is leading the way in demonstrating this enhanced capability. This paper will highlight the ways SPoRT is overcoming many of the challenges presented by the enormous data volumes of

  10. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chung-Won; Lee, Ho-Seong; Won, Jong-Phil; Lee, Moo-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volum...

  11. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  12. Transition of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Data Products for Operational Weather Forecasting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    SPoRT is a team of NASA/NOAA scientists focused on demonstrating the utility of NASA and future NOAA data and derived products on improving short-term weather forecasts. Work collaboratively with a suite of unique products and selected WFOs in an end-to-end transition activity. Stable funding from NASA and NOAA. Recognized by the science community as the "go to" place for transitioning experimental and research data to the operational weather community. Endorsed by NWS ESSD/SSD chiefs. Proven paradigm for transitioning satellite observations and modeling capabilities to operations (R2O). SPoRT s transition of NASA satellite instruments provides unique or higher resolution data products to complement the baseline suite of geostationary data available to forecasters. SPoRT s partnership with NWS WFOs provides them with unique imagery to support disaster response and local forecast challenges. SPoRT has years of proven experience in developing and transitioning research products to the operational weather community. SPoRT has begun work with CONUS and OCONUS WFOs to determine the best products for maximum benefit to forecasters. VIIRS has already proven to be another extremely powerful tool, enhancing forecasters ability to handle difficult forecasting situations.

  13. NASA Enterprise Architecture and Its Use in Transition of Research Results to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, T. E.; Hall, C. M.

    2006-12-01

    Enterprise architecture describes the design of the components of an enterprise, their relationships and how they support the objectives of that enterprise. NASA Stennis Space Center leads several projects involving enterprise architecture tools used to gather information on research assets within NASA's Earth Science Division. In the near future, enterprise architecture tools will link and display the relevant requirements, parameters, observatories, models, decision systems, and benefit/impact information relationships and map to the Federal Enterprise Architecture Reference Models. Components configured within the enterprise architecture serving the NASA Applied Sciences Program include the Earth Science Components Knowledge Base, the Systems Components database, and the Earth Science Architecture Tool. The Earth Science Components Knowledge Base systematically catalogues NASA missions, sensors, models, data products, model products, and network partners appropriate for consideration in NASA Earth Science applications projects. The Systems Components database is a centralized information warehouse of NASA's Earth Science research assets and a critical first link in the implementation of enterprise architecture. The Earth Science Architecture Tool is used to analyze potential NASA candidate systems that may be beneficial to decision-making capabilities of other Federal agencies. Use of the current configuration of NASA enterprise architecture (the Earth Science Components Knowledge Base, the Systems Components database, and the Earth Science Architecture Tool) has far exceeded its original intent and has tremendous potential for the transition of research results to operational entities.

  14. Stress prevention in bus drivers: Evaluation of 13 natural experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Aust, B.; Berg, A.M. van den; Siegrist, J.

    2000-01-01

    The research aim was to select, compare, and analyze interventions and preventive actions from international bus companies to decrease bus drivers' occupational stress and sickness absenteeism. Through networking, international surveys, and literature study, 13 "natural experiments" were identified

  15. Request-Centric Wireless Bus Information Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This invention relates to a wireless bus information management system, which includes bus stop and vehicle management subsystems. The management signals are transmittable between bus stops and the vehicle. Based on vehicle management signals, the bus stop management subsystem can obtain information about the bus route identification, the number of unoccupied seats, the intention to stop or not, etc. Similarly, with the bus stop management signals, the vehicle management subsystem can make the decision of stopping. Accordingly, when a passenger wants to get off the vehicle or there are unoccupied seats, the vehicle management subsystem will inform the bus stop management subsystem such that the passengers waiting at the bus stop may flexibly schedule their travel plan. The proposed distributed wireless system is detailed by a prototype implementation and a simulation analysis, which is shown to be feasible and scalable.

  16. Does the Future Engineer Force Transition Engineer Units between Offensive and Stability Operations in Ways That Achieve Responsiveness, Versatility, Agility, Effectiveness, and Efficiency?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    London, David T

    2005-01-01

    .... The main question is as follows: Does the FEF transition engineer units between offensive and stability operations in ways that achieve responsiveness, versatility, agility, effectiveness, and efficiency...

  17. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  18. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  19. 75 FR 2583 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Fiscal Year 2009 Funds: Solicitation of Grant...) announces the availability of funds in Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 for the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility... OTRB Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses to finance...

  20. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.17 Driver and bus monitor... performance; and (2) before bus monitors assigned to vehicles used to provide such services begin their duties...

  1. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  2. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  3. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2011-11-01

    This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

  4. Navigating the "Research-to-Operations" Bridge of Death: Collaborative Transition of Remotely-Sensed Snow Data from Research into Operational Water Resources Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. P.; Bender, S.; Painter, T. H.; Bernard, B.

    2016-12-01

    Water and resource management agencies can benefit from hydrologic forecasts during both flood and drought conditions. Improved predictions of seasonal snowmelt-driven runoff volume and timing can assist operational water managers with decision support and efficient resource management within the spring runoff season. Using operational models and forecasting systems, NOAA's Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) produces hydrologic forecasts for stakeholders and water management groups in the western United States. Collaborative incorporation of research-oriented remote sensing data into CBRFC operational models and systems is one route by which CBRFC forecasts can be improved, ultimately for the benefit of water managers. Successful navigation of research-oriented remote sensing products across the "research-to-operations"/R2O gap (also known as the "valley of death") to operational destinations requires dedicated personnel on both the research and operations sides, working in a highly collaborative environment. Since 2012, the operational CBRFC has collaborated with the research-oriented Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under funding from NASA to transition remotely-sensed snow data into CBRFC's operational models and forecasting systems. Two specific datasets from JPL, the MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) and the MODIS Snow Covered-Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) products, are used in CBRFC operations as of 2016. Over the past several years, JPL and CBRFC have worked together to analyze patterns in JPL's remote sensing snow datasets from the operational perspective of the CBRFC and to develop techniques to bridge the R2O gap. Retrospective and real-time analyses have yielded valuable insight into the remotely-sensed snow datasets themselves, CBRFC's operational systems, and the collaborative R2O process. Examples of research-oriented JPL snow data, as used in CBRFC operations, are described. A timeline of the collaboration, challenges

  5. Worksite environment physical activity and healthy food choices: measurement of the worksite food and physical activity environment at four metropolitan bus garages

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach Anne F; French Simone A; Shimotsu Scott T; Hannan Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The present research describes a measure of the worksite environment for food, physical activity and weight management. The worksite environment measure (WEM instrument) was developed for the Route H Study, a worksite environmental intervention for weight gain prevention in four metro transit bus garages in Minneapolis-St. Paul. Methods Two trained raters visited each of the four bus garages and independently completed the WEM. Food, physical activity and weight management...

  6. Natural Gas in Transit Fleets: A Review of the Transit Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.

    2002-02-01

    Use of natural gas in transit bus fleets has grown over the last decade. Often motivated by air quality concerns, the use of natural gas also contributes to national and local energy security. Approximately 9% of the U.S. transit fleet in 2001 was composed of buses operating on some form of natural gas and even more were on order. While some agencies have achieved success with their natural gas programs, others report difficulties and some have suspended their natural gas use altogether. What makes an agency successful in implementing natural gas into their operations? This paper reviews the experience of agencies with natural gas to determine the answer and to provide guidance on how fleets can effectively duplicate the successes and address or avoid the challenges.

  7. An Analysis of Public Transit Connectivity Index in Tehran. The Case Study: Tehran Multi-Modal Transit Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Mamdoohi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Public transit is a major priority in modern management of large cities and metropolitan areas in particular. Public transit systems in such cities consist of a large number of nodes and lines which are represented by a complex network. A station for public transit is a bridge between the people and public transit network, based on which, the concept of input and output power for each station can be defined. The objective of this study is the application of the transit connectivity indices to the multimodal transit network in the city of Tehran. The public transit network data employed in this study is taken from Tehran Traffic Control Company, and Tehran Urban and Suburban Railway Operation Company. The methodology for measuring transit connectivity consists of three measures: Node connectivity, Line connectivity and Regional connectivity, where activity density is applied to these measures. The results of node connectivity analysis shows that most of the node connectivity in concentrated in the city center with many nodes in the center along routes going north and south. The line connectivity analysis shows that there is a concentration of highly connected lines that are near Tehran municipality region 12 and 16. Finally, we find that areas with more metro and bus facilities with respect to the other areas, have a better regional connectivity. One of these areas includes Sadeghiyeh Metro Station which is the junction of Tehran Metro Line 2 and Tehran Metro Line 5 which have a high connectivity power. Results of this study can be used to suggest some ideas on how future investments in rail and bus should be prioritized. Particularly in Transit Oriented Development (TOD and sustainble development projects, urban planners can design transit stations with high performance to access the crucial services in poor areas.

  8. Laser operation by dissociation of metal complexes. II - New transitions in Cd, Fe, Ni, Se, Sn, Te, V, and Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, M. S.; Cool, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation is a continuation of a study conducted by Chou and Cool (1976). The experimental results discussed are partly related to laser transitions in Cd(I), Cd(II), and Zn(II). Laser transitions in Fe(I), Ni(I), Sn(I), Te(I), and V(I) are also considered along with the observation of a laser pulse with two peaks in connection with the study of laser transitions in Se(I). Experiments related to prospective visible laser operation in thallium at 6550 and 6714 are also discussed, giving attention to spontaneous emission measurements at 6550 and 5350 A, the effects of additive molecules, and laser cavity experiments at 6550 and 6714 A.

  9. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  10. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...... light. Occurrence of injury to bus passengers is positively related to (i) the involvement of heavy vehicles, (ii) crossing intersections in yellow or red light, (iii) open areas, (iv) high speed limits, and (v) slippery road surface. Conclusions The findings of the current study provide a comprehensive......Purpose Bus safety is a concern not only in developing countries, but also in the U.S. and Europe. In Denmark, disentangling risk factors that are positively or negatively related to bus accident severity and injury occurrence to bus passengers can contribute to promote safety as an essential...

  11. Study on the calculation models of bus delay at bays using queueing theory and Markov chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-Wei; Wang, Dian-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  12. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  13. Exact transition operators for Markov and lattice Schrödinger processes constrained by a boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellin, Joel

    1996-02-01

    A closed form is given for a three-parameter family of transition matrices describing continuous-time nonsymmetric random walks on a d=1 semi-infinite lattice. The boundary conditions are general, allowing for an arbitrary mixture of reflection, trapping, and sojourn. Special cases give the quantum propagator for the half-lattice, and transition matrices for the random walk on the Bethe lattice and the single-server queue M/M/1/∞.

  14. Diode laser operating on an atomic transition limited by an isotope ⁸⁷Rb Faraday filter at 780 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhiming; Hong, Yelong; Luo, Bin; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate an extended cavity Faraday laser system using an antireflection-coated laser diode as the gain medium and the isotope (87)Rb Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) as the frequency selective device. Using this method, the laser wavelength works stably at the highest transmission peak of the isotope (87)Rb FADOF over the laser diode current from 55 to 140 mA and the temperature from 15°C to 35°C. Neither the current nor the temperature of the laser diode has significant influence on the output frequency. Compared with previous extended cavity laser systems operating at frequencies irrelevant to spectacular atomic transition lines, the laser system realized here provides a stable laser source with the frequency operating on atomic transitions for many practical applications.

  15. Characteristic of Modal Choice Preference between Bus and Train from Medan to Kuala Namu Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbakti, M.; Bombongan, C.

    2017-03-01

    Kuala Namu International Airport started operating on July 25, 2013 to replace Polonia International Airport followed by the operation of airport train and bus as a public transport service mode. The purpose of the study was to define the characteristic of airport train and bus users how they choose both of the transportation modes and to test the sensitivity, if one of the transportation attribute are changes. The data obtained through stated preference method was modelled by using binary logit and probit models. From these two models, the probability of using airport train and bus transportation can be known. The result of analysis showed the equations of the function of utility difference of airport train and bus: UKAB-BB = 2,606 - 0,028X1 - 0,007X2 - 0,014X3 - 0,016X4 + 0,044X5, where X1, (cost attribute), X2 (time attribute), X3 (headway attribute), X4 (access attribute) and X5 (service attribute)..

  16. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  17. Deadhead Trip Minimization in City Bus Transportation: A Real Life Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efendi Nasibov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of public transportation services is one of the most important performance indicators of modern urban policies for both planning and implementation aspects. Therefore, along with the size of the city, the significance of appropriate cost evaluation and optimization of all related transportation activities increases as well. One of the most important cost factors for the public transport agencies is naturally the fuel consumption of the vehicles. In this study, the attention is focused on the metropolitan bus transport service. The specific aim is to minimize a significant portion of total fuel utilization that occurs due to the so called deadhead trip or dead mileage, which is defined as the idle distance covered by the vehicle between the garage and the route terminal stops without carrying any passengers. In this study, the results of four mathematical models for minimizing the total deadhead trip distance covered in city bus services of Izmir are presented. The models vary due to the inclusion of garage capacity restrictions or operator distinction for supporting both operational and strategical decisions. All models are applied to the recent bus schedule data, which consist of 293 routes, 1,424 buses and 10 garages, for obtaining the optimal route bus-garage allocations and garage capacities. The results of the Decentralized-Capacitated model, which is appropriate for quick implementation, promise a 7.8% reduction in total dead mileage. While on the other hand, if all garage capacities can be expanded and the bus service is maintained only by one operator as modelled in the Centralized-Uncapacitated case, even a 31.4% improvement is possible in the long term. The environmental gains as well as the financial benefits to be achieved when the solutions are actually implemented, justify the practical contribution of the study.

  18. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  19. Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

  20. Art of the Transition: How Operational Art Enables Diplomatic Relations in Post-Conflict Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    of uncertainty, confusion, error, and wild and fierce fanaticism . -John C. Calhoun, “A Disquisition on Government,” 1851 The United States has...overlooked elements. Much of the intellectual discussion focuses on actions that occur either before or after a transition. Military discussions

  1. Development of an ultra-safe, ultra-low-emissions natural gas-fueled school bus: Phase 2, prototype hardware development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubesh, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes work done on Phase 2, ``Prototype Hardware Development`` of Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Project No. 03-6871, ``Development of an Ultra-Safe, Ultra-Low-Emissions Alternative-Fueled School Bus``. A prototype school bus was designed and constructed. This bus incorporated many new technologies to increase the safety of the bus passengers as well as pedestrians boarding and leaving the bus. These technologies emphasized increased visibility between the bus driver and pedestrians or vehicles, and included the use of high intensity discharge lighting, pedestrian and vehicle detection systems, and remote-mounted cameras. Passenger safety was also stressed, with the application of seat belts and improved emergency exits and lighting. A natural gas-fueled engine was developed for powering the bus. The development process focused primarily on improvements to the lean operation of the engine and control system advancements. The control system development included investigations into alternative control algorithms for steady-state and transient operation, various fuel metering devices, as well as new methods for wastegate control, knock and misfire detection, and catalyst monitoring. Both the vehicle and engine systems represent state-of-the-art technologies. Integration of the vehicle and engine is planned for the next phase of the project, followed by a demonstration test of the overall vehicle system.

  2. A Closed-Loop Model of Operator Visual Attention, Situation Awareness, and Performance Across Automation Mode Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Duda, Kevin R; Sheridan, Thomas B; Oman, Charles M

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a closed-loop, integrated human-vehicle model designed to help understand the underlying cognitive processes that influenced changes in subject visual attention, mental workload, and situation awareness across control mode transitions in a simulated human-in-the-loop lunar landing experiment. Control mode transitions from autopilot to manual flight may cause total attentional demands to exceed operator capacity. Attentional resources must be reallocated and reprioritized, which can increase the average uncertainty in the operator's estimates of low-priority system states. We define this increase in uncertainty as a reduction in situation awareness. We present a model built upon the optimal control model for state estimation, the crossover model for manual control, and the SEEV (salience, effort, expectancy, value) model for visual attention. We modify the SEEV attention executive to direct visual attention based, in part, on the uncertainty in the operator's estimates of system states. The model was validated using the simulated lunar landing experimental data, demonstrating an average difference in the percentage of attention ≤3.6% for all simulator instruments. The model's predictions of mental workload and situation awareness, measured by task performance and system state uncertainty, also mimicked the experimental data. Our model supports the hypothesis that visual attention is influenced by the uncertainty in system state estimates. Conceptualizing situation awareness around the metric of system state uncertainty is a valuable way for system designers to understand and predict how reallocations in the operator's visual attention during control mode transitions can produce reallocations in situation awareness of certain states.

  3. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the ATR Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwtiz

    2011-05-01

    Near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project, subject of this determination, will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3) and associated switchgear. More specifically, INL proposes transitioning ATR to 100% commercial power with appropriate emergency backup to include: • Provide commercial power as the normal source of power to the ATR loads currently supplied by diesel-electric power. • Provide backup power to the critical ATR loads in the event of a loss of commercial power. • Replace obsolescent critical ATR power distribution equipment, e.g., switchgear, transformers, motor control centers, distribution panels. Completion of this and two other age-related projects (primary coolant pump and motor replacement and emergency firewater injection system replacement) will resolve major age related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues make the project a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #2 (Footprint change). The addition of a new PC-4 structure to the ATR Facility to house safety-related SSCs requires careful attention to maintaining adherence to applicable engineering and nuclear safety design criteria (e.g., structural qualification, fire suppression) to ensure no adverse impacts to the safety-related functions of the housed equipment. 2. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The change to the strategy for providing continuous reliable power to the safety-related emergency coolant pumps requires careful attention and analysis to ensure it meets a project primary object

  4. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a follow......-up study was also conducted. All hospital discharges with a peptic ulcer diagnosis among the bus drivers were registered from the Danish National Patient Register. All Danish men were used as reference group. On the basis of the 1978-questionnaire association between occupational and psychosocial factors...... and subsequent hospital discharge with a peptic ulcer diagnosis was studied. The prevalence of abdominal pain alleviated by food intake was 12% among bus drivers and 6% in the reference group. The incidence of hospital discharge with duodenal ulcer among younger bus drivers was twice the incidence among Danish...

  5. Design and Manufacture of the Superconducting Bus-bars for the LHC Main Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Belova, L M; Perinet-Marquet, J L; Ivanov, P; Urpin, C

    2002-01-01

    The main magnets of the LHC are series-connected electrically in different powering circuits by means of superconducting bus-bars, carrying a maximum current of 13 kA. These superconducting bus-bars consist of a superconducting cable thermally and electrically coupled to a copper profile all along the length. The function of the copper profile is essentially to provide an alternative path for the current in case the superconducting cable loses its superconducting state and returns to normal state because of a transient disturbance or of a normal zone propagation coming from the neighbouring magnets. When a superconducting bus-bar quenches to normal state its temperature must always stay below a safe values of about 100°C while the copper is conducting. When a resistive transition is detected, the protection systems triggers the ramping down of the current from 13000 A to 0. The ramp rate must not exceed a maximum value to avoid the transition of magnets series-connected in the circuit. This paper concerns th...

  6. Designing Universitas Indonesia Molina EV Bus Dashboard Using ECQFD and TRIZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq Pradhila, Muhammad; Suzianti, Amalia; Putri Adinda, Prilly

    2018-01-01

    Universitas Indonesia is involved in the national electric car development program. One of the focus by the research team is to develop the Molina EV Bus which is planned to replace the current operational bus at UI so that it can be more environmental friendly. With UI developing facilities for the disabled, the Molina research team planned to make a new prototype of the Molina EV Bus to contribute to the facilities developed for the disabled. The new prototype is expected to increase the quality of the previous features of the EV Bus, including the dashboard that had been ignored. To support the development of the new prototype, this research was conducted to design a suitable dashboard for the new prototype. Design of the prototype are made using Autodesk Inventor. This research used the integration of ECQFD (Environmentally Conscious Quality Function Deployment) and TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) method. ECQFD was used to translate user needs into quality characteristics based on environmental aspects. TRIZ was used to translate the quality characteristics into technical specifications. This research has generated 3 sustainable, innovative, and user-preferred dashboard design recommendation for the new prototype.

  7. Transitions Towards Operational Space-Based Ocean Observations: From Single Research Missions into Series and Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    globalisation has definitely advantages in terms of meeting temporal and spatial requirements provided that timely open access to data is guaranteed and... impacts of human activities. Ocean Salinity is a new community in satellite oceanography and therefore trailing with respect to transitioning into...Robinson, I., Casey, K., Vazquez, J., Armstrong, E.. Arino, O .. Gentcmann, C, May, D., Le Borgne, P., Piolle. J.-F.. Barton, I., Beggs. H , Poulter, D

  8. MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF THE BUS PRIORITY IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Hidayati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bus is expected to play an important role in providing a reliable travel in congested conditions. Therefore, it has been widely studied to minimize the travel time and the delay of the bus by proposing bus priority scheme to increase the attractiveness of public transport against private vehicles. Signal timing optimization combined with the bus priority scheme are discussed in this research as the alternatives to improve the intersection performances. Further, identifying the effects of these alternatives towards the general vehicles and public transport system performances were the aims of this research as well. As the result of this research, bus advance area with pre-signal method is able to reduce the travel time and delay of the bus for routes 2A and 3A by 11%, 23% and 14% , 0% respectively and able to reduce travel time, delay, and queue of vehicles by 25%, 26%, 7% consecutively. Thus bus advance area with pre-signal method is proposed as the best alternative due to its impact to reduce the bus travel times and delay without degrading the other vehicles performance. Keywords: bus priority, optimizing signal timing, Aimsun simulation, travel time-delay-queue.

  9. Model Passengers’ Travel Time for Conventional Bus Stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited number of berths can result in a subsequent bus stopping at the upstream of a bus stop when all berths are occupied. When this traffic phenomenon occurs, passengers waiting on the platform usually prefer walking to the stopped bus, which leads to additional walking time before boarding the bus. Therefore, passengers’ travel time consumed at a bus stop is divided into waiting time, additional walking time, and boarding time. This paper proposed a mathematical model for analyzing passengers’ travel time at conventional bus stop based on theory of stochastic service system. Field-measured and simulated data were designated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. By analyzing the results, conclusion was conducted that short headway can reduce passengers’ waiting time at bus stop. Meanwhile, the theoretical analysis explained the inefficiency of bus stops with more than three berths from the perspective of passengers’ additional walking time. Additional walking time will increase in a large scale when the number of berths at a bus stop exceedsthe threshold of three.

  10. Voltage- and current-activated metal–insulator transition in VO2-based electrical switches: a lifetime operation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Crunteanu, Julien Givernaud, Jonathan Leroy, David Mardivirin, Corinne Champeaux, Jean-Christophe Orlianges, Alain Catherinot and Pierre Blondy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide is an intensively studied material that undergoes a temperature-induced metal–insulator phase transition accompanied by a large change in electrical resistivity. Electrical switches based on this material show promising properties in terms of speed and broadband operation. The exploration of the failure behavior and reliability of such devices is very important in view of their integration in practical electronic circuits. We performed systematic lifetime investigations of two-terminal switches based on the electrical activation of the metal–insulator transition in VO2 thin films. The devices were integrated in coplanar microwave waveguides (CPWs in series configuration. We detected the evolution of a 10 GHz microwave signal transmitted through the CPW, modulated by the activation of the VO2 switches in both voltage- and current-controlled modes. We demonstrated enhanced lifetime operation of current-controlled VO2-based switching (more than 260 million cycles without failure compared with the voltage-activated mode (breakdown at around 16 million activation cycles. The evolution of the electrical self-oscillations of a VO2-based switch induced in the current-operated mode is a subtle indicator of the material properties modification and can be used to monitor its behavior under various external stresses in sensor applications.

  11. A Distributed Control Strategy Based on DC Bus Signaling for Modular Photovoltaic Generation Systems With Battery Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan

    2011-01-01

    , grid-connected inversion, and islanding with constant voltage (CV) generation.The power balance of the system under extreme conditions such as the islanding operation with a full-charged battery is taken into account in this control strategy. The dc bus voltage level is employed as an information...... and maximum power point tracking operation, which enables the dc bus voltage regulation capability ofmodular dc/dc converters. Seamless switching of a battery converter between charging and discharging and that of a grid-connected converter between rectification and inversion are ensured by the proposed...... on improved dc bus signaling is proposed for a modular photovoltaic (PV) generation system with battery energy storage elements. In this paper, the modular PV generation system is composed of three modular dc/dc converters for PV arrays, two grid-connected dc/ac converters, and one dc/dc converter for battery...

  12. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2009-10-01

    This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

  13. Differences between ITIL® v2 and ITIL® v3 with respect to service transition and service operation

    OpenAIRE

    Jašek, Roman; Králík, Lukáš; Žák, Roman; Kolčavová, Alena

    2015-01-01

    This paper follows the article: Differences Between ITIL (R) V2 and ITIL (R) V3 with Respect to Service Strategy and Service Design. The main aim is to summarize the changes that relate to key publications, Service Transition and Service Operation. In conclusion, areevaluated the objectives of the current version of ITIL (R) v3 and the unofficial benefits. The purpose of these papers is to provide the necessary overview of the current situation in the field of IT management to facilitate and ...

  14. Exploration of Force Transition in Stability Operations Using Multi-Agent Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughan, Jr, David P

    2006-01-01

    .... The Pythagoras Multi-Agent Simulation and Data Farming techniques are used to investigate force-level comparisons in a theoretical threat continuum based on a peacekeeping scenario similar to the Bosnian operation...

  15. Extended System Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Plan for Task 5--DPM Failure Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of Task 5 in the Extended System Operations Studies Project, DPM Failure Management, is to enhance the capabilities of the Downtown People Mover Simulation (DPMS) and the Discrete Event Simulation Model (DESM) by increasing the failure mo...

  16. The Belgian End of Mission Transition Period: Lessons Learned from Third Location Decompression after Operational Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    massage session and everyone is checked for by an osteopath . Six months in combat dress, carrying the military kit and gear, is potentially harmful...has been developed by several NATO countries and can be viewed as an important preventive tool for post operational stress management and adjustment...Spring 2010. It is commonly known that post operational stress management is an important element in psychosocial support for soldiers and their most

  17. CMS Pixel Detector: Operational Experience and Run1 to Run2 transition

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070830

    2015-01-01

    The CMS Pixel detector is at the centre of the CMS experiment and is made of three barrel layers and four endcap disks. It is essential for the reconstruction of track seeds and secondary vertices. Some aspects of the CMS Pixel detector operations during the first LHC run are presented. The work carried out during the first long shutdown of LHC (LS1) to prepare the detector for Run 2 and the plan for 2015 operations are also described.

  18. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... transportation, environmental protection, and housing investments. Bus Livability will invest in projects that... characteristics of all communities by investing in healthy, safe and walkable neighborhoods--rural, urban or... guidelines. The project improves energy efficiency or reduces energy consumption/green house gas emissions...

  19. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...--New York, Administrator, Region 7--Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust Street... transportation bus fleet, infrastructure, and equipment in a state of good repair. Project Implementation..., Region 6--Ft. Kendall Square, 55 Broadway, Suite Worth, 819 Taylor Street, Room 920, Cambridge, MA 02142...

  20. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  1. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  2. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  3. Modeling and Solving the Three Seaside Operational Problems Using an Object-Oriented and Timed Predicate/Transition Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Pin Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Container terminals (CTs play an essential role in the global transportation system. To deal with growing container shipments, a CT needs to better solve the three essential seaside operational problems; berth allocation problem (BAP, quay crane assignment problem (QCAP, and quay crane scheduling problem (QCSP, which affect the performance of a CT considerably. In past studies, the three seaside operational problems have often been solved individually or partially, which is likely to result in poor overall system performance. However, solving the three seaside operational problems simultaneously is in fact a very complicated task. In this research, we dealt with the three seaside operational problems at the same time by using a novel high-level Petri net, termed an Object-Oriented and Timed Predicate/Transition Net (OOTPr/Tr net. After defining the three seaside operational problems formally, we integrated them as a three-level framework that was further transformed into an OOTPr/Tr net model. Then, using the Prolog programming language, we implemented this model as a simulation tool to find the best solution based on the various combinations of heuristic rules used.

  4. Designing Hub-and-Spoke School Bus Transportation Network: A Case Study of Wonkwang University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyuk Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of hub-and-spoke school bus transportation network design. The case study here utilizes a mathematical model that is the P-median optimization model to determine optimal hub locations. The P-median problem is a combinatorial optimization problem that includes many binary variables and constraints. The selected objective of the model is to minimize the total travel time satisfying other operational constraints. To elevate usability of decision making in the future, we implement the simulation model through the template model in spreadsheet platform. The developed model is used as a future reference to find operational directions of school bus managing policy and also tested on the case of Wonkwang University.

  5. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  6. Regulators of alternative polyadenylation operate at the transition from mitosis to meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lingjuan; Wu, Chan; Chen, Di; Hou, Lei; Li, Xin; Wang, Lixia; Chu, Xiao; Hou, Yifeng; Wang, Zhaohui

    2017-02-20

    In the sexually reproductive organisms, gametes are produced by meiosis following a limited mitotic amplification. However, the intrinsic program switching cells from mitotic to meiotic cycle is unclear. Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a highly conserved means of gene regulation and is achieved by the RNA 3'-processing machinery to generate diverse 3'UTR profiles. In Drosophila spermatogenesis, we observed distinct profiles of transcriptome-wide 3'UTR between mitotic and meiotic cells. In mutant germ cells stuck in mitosis, 3'UTRs of hundreds of genes were consistently shifted. Remarkably, altering the levels of multiple 3'-processing factors disrupted germline's progression to meiosis, indicative of APA's active role in this transition. An RNA-binding protein (RBP) Tut could directly bind 3'UTRs of 3'-processing factors whose expressions were repressed in the presence of Tut-containing complex. Further, we demonstrated that this RBP complex could execute the repression post-transcriptionally by recruiting CCR4/Twin of deadenylation complex. Thus, we propose that an RBP complex regulates the dynamic APA profile to promote the mitosis-to-meiosis transition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.

  8. The Transition from Spacecraft Development Ot Flight Operation: Human Factor Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilio, Ralph R.

    2000-01-01

    In the field of aeronautics and astronautics, a paradigm shift has been witnessed by those in academia, research and development, and private industry. Long development life cycles and the budgets to support such programs and projects has given way to aggressive task schedules and leaner resources to draw from all the while challenging assigned individuals to create and produce improved products of processes. however, this "faster, better, cheaper" concept cannot merely be applied to the design, development, and test of complex systems such as earth-orbiting of interplanetary robotic spacecraft. Full advantage is not possible without due consideration and application to mission operations planning and flight operations, Equally as important as the flight system, the mission operations system consisting of qualified personnel, ground hardware and software tools, and verified and validated operational processes, should also be regarded as a complex system requiring personnel to draw upon formal education, training, related experiences, and heuristic reasoning in engineering an effective and efficient system. Unquestionably, qualified personnel are the most important elements of a mission operations system. This paper examines the experiences of the Deep Space I Project, the first in a series of new technology in-flight validation missions sponsored by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), specifically, in developing a subsystems analysis and technology validation team comprised of former spacecraft development personnel. Human factor considerations are investigated from initial concept/vision formulation; through operational process development; personnel test and training; to initial uplink product development and test support. Emphasis has been placed on challenges and applied or recommended solutions, so as to provide opportunities for future programs and projects to address and disposition potential issues and concerns as early

  9. Inductive Power Transfer Systems for Bus-Stop-Powered Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chuan Hou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an inductive power transfer (IPT system for electric vehicles (EVs based on EE-shaped ferrite cores. The issues of the IPT system such as efficiency, air gap, displacement, dislocation, and motion are discussed. Furthermore, finite element analysis software is utilized to simulate the IPT system operated under large air gap conditions. Simulation and measurement results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed scheme and meet the requirements for bus-stop-powered EVs.

  10. Community-Wide Validation of Geospace Model Local K-Index Predictions to Support Model Transition to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Singer, H. J.; Balch, C.; Weimer, D.; Welling, D.; Wiltberger, M.; Raeder, J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present the latest result of a community-wide space weather model validation effort coordinated among the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), model developers, and the broader science community. Validation of geospace models is a critical activity for both building confidence in the science results produced by the models and in assessing the suitability of the models for transition to operations. Indeed, a primary motivation of this work is supporting NOAA/SWPCs effort to select a model or models to be transitioned into operations. Our validation efforts focus on the ability of the models to reproduce a regional index of geomagnetic disturbance, the local K-index. Our analysis includes six events representing a range of geomagnetic activity conditions and six geomagnetic observatories representing midlatitude and high-latitude locations. Contingency tables, skill scores, and distribution metrics are used for the quantitative analysis of model performance. We consider model performance on an event-by-event basis, aggregated over events, at specific station locations, and separated into high-latitude and midlatitude domains. A summary of results is presented in this report, and an online tool for detailed analysis is available at the CCMC.

  11. Tendencies in the development of operational quality of ballasted and ballastless track superstructure and transition areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ižvolt, Libor; Šestáková, Janka; Šmalo, Michal

    2017-09-01

    Department of Railway Engineering and Track Management is cooperating with Slovak Railways (Železnice Slovenskej republiky - ŽSR) on assessment of quality of railway tracks, structures of railway tracks and parts of these structures. One of diagnostics methods is monitoring of track geometry focused on durability of ballastless track quality and its transition area to ballasted track. The diagnostics is carried out by continuous method and results are used for prediction of future degradation of construction. The first part of the paper deals with a brief recapitulation of information about the experimental sections and the methods of diagnostics of track geometry. The second part of the paper is carrying out the analysis and prognosis of development of the quality of construction of the experimental sections, which is a tool for the track superstructure maintenance planning.

  12. Towards formal verification of ToolBus scripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkink, W.; Klint, P.; Lisser, B.; Usenko, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    ToolBus allows one to connect tools via a software bus. Programming is done using the scripting language Tscript, which is based on the process algebra ACP. Tscript was originally designed to enable formal verification, but this option has so far not been explored in any detail. We present a method

  13. Solar Telescope Control with the CAN-Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettauer, T. V.

    The real time behavior, error handling and its simplicity makes CAN a preferable bus protocol to interconnect the various modules of a tower telescope. A schematic description of the control bus for the Kanzelhöhe Vakuum Telescope is given.

  14. Application of CAN-bus Network in Intelligent parking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianjun, WU; Juan, Hu

    Convenient life makes intelligent parking every- where. This paper describes how to connect the various separate modern terminal of intelligent parking with CAN-bus network, and the competitive advantage of the system by using the CAN-bus network. From a technical point of view, this paper describes the development trend of intelligent parking in next few years.

  15. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  16. Experimental Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System for Collaborative R&D and Research-to-Operations Transition in NWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, D.; Liu, Y.; Herr, H.

    2008-12-01

    Providing uncertainty information is one of the most pressing needs of operational hydrologic forecasting in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) today. To address this need, the NWS Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD) is developing the EXperimental Ensemble Forecast System (XEFS), an integrated short- to long-range hydrologic ensemble prediction system to be implemented at the NWS River Forecast Centers for experimental operation within the next two years. The baseline system includes the Ensemble Pre-Processor (EPP3), Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP2) subsystem, Hydrologic Model Output Statistics (HMOS) streamflow ensemble processor, Ensemble Post-Processor (EnsPost) and the Ensemble Product Generator (EPG), and will use the service-oriented architecture of the Early Flood Warning System (FEWS) of Deltares. To support in-house and collaborative research and development of hydrologic ensemble prediction and data assimilation capabilities, NWS/OHD is developing a research and development version of XEFS, or R&D XEFS, of which the above baseline system is a subset. In this presentation, we describe the overall framework and major components of the R&D XEFS, progress to date, plans, challenges and opportunities for collaborative R&D and research-to-operations transition of the research outcome into NWS hydrologic operations and services.

  17. A series of small scientific satellite with flexible standard bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hirobumi; Sawai, Syujiro; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Fukuda, Seisuke; Kitade, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has a plan to develop the small satellite standard bus for various scientific missions and disaster monitoring missions. The satellite bus is a class of 250-400 kg mass with three-axis control capability of 0.02∘ accuracy. The science missions include X-ray astronomy missions, planetary telescope missions, and magnetosphere atmosphere missions. In order to adapt the wide range of mission requirements, the satellite bus has to be provided with flexibility. The concepts of modularization, reusability, and product line are applied to the standard bus system. This paper describes the characteristics of the small satellite standard bus which will be firstly launched in 2011.

  18. Genetic Algorithm for Multiple Bus Line Coordination on Urban Arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority.

  19. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.

    2010-11-01

    This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

  20. Comparison of whole-body vibration exposures in buses: effects and interactions of bus and seat design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Per M G; Rynell, Patrik W; Hagberg, Mats; Johnson, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Bus and seat design may be important for the drivers' whole-body vibration (WBV). WBV exposures in buses during actual operation were assessed. WBV attenuation performance between an air-suspension seat and a static pedestal seat in low-floor buses was compared; there were no differences in WBV attenuation between the seats. Air-suspension seat performance in a high-floor and low-floor bus was compared. Relative to the pedestal seat with its relatively static, limited travel seat suspension, the air-suspension seat with its dynamic, longer travel suspension provided little additional benefit. Relative to the measurement collected at the bus floor, the air-suspension seat amplified the WBV exposures in the high-floor bus. All WBV exposures were below European Union (EU) daily exposure action values. The EU Vibration Directive only allows the predominant axis of vibration exposure to be evaluated but a tri-axial vector sum exposure may be more representative of the actual health risks. Low back pain is common in bus drivers and studies have shown a relationship with whole body vibration. Relative to a pedestal seat with its limited travel seat suspension, the air-suspension seat with its longer travel suspension provided little additional benefit. Exposures were below European Union daily exposure action values.

  1. Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory. II - Applications to optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    The theory developed by Hahne (1992) for the diffraction of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from fixed obstacles is briefly summarized and extended. Applications of the theory are considered which comprise, first, a spherical harmonic expansion of the so-called radiation impedance operator in the theory, for a spherical surface, and second, a reconsideration of familiar short-wavelength approximation from the new standpoint, including a derivation of the so-called physical optics method on the basis of quasi-planar approximation to the radiation impedance operator, augmented by the method of stationary phase. The latter includes a rederivation of the geometrical optics approximation for the complete Green's function for the electromagnetic field in the presence of a smooth- and a convex-surfaced perfectly electrically conductive obstacle.

  2. Operational Performance of the LHC Proton Beams with the SPS Low Transition Energy Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Papaphilippou, Y; Argyropoulos, T; Bartmann, W; Bartosik, H; Bohl, T; Bracco, C; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Drosdal, L; Esteban Muller, J; Goddard, B; Guerrero, A; H¨ofle, W; Kain, V; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Shaposhnikova, E; Timko, H; Valuch, D; Vanbavinckhove, G; Wenninger, J; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2013-01-01

    An optics in the SPS with lower integer tunes (20 versus 26) was proposed and introduced in machine studies since 2010, as a measure for increasing transverse and longitudinal instability thresholds, especially at low energy, for the LHC proton beams. After two years of machine studies and careful optimisation, the new Q20 optics became operational in September 2012 and steadily delivered beam to the LHC until the end of the run. This paper reviews the operational performance of the Q20 optics with respect to transverse and longitudinal beam characteristics in the SPS, enabling high brightness beams injected into the LHC. Aspects of longitudinal beam stability, transmission, high-energy orbit control and beam transfer are discussed.

  3. Perancangan Tata Kelola Layanan Teknologi Informasi Menggunakan ITIL versi 3 Domain Service Transition Dan Service Operation Di Pemerintah Kota Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luki Aisha Kusuma Wardani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Information Technology plays an important role in an organization, and not only as a support equipment. Bandung City Government, as a government agency, make IT into one of the visions that need to be achieved. To achieve good governance based on Minister Regulation Number 41 in 2007, IT Governance is needed to ensure that the investment of IT can add value and align with institution’s objective. Bandung City Government currently doesn’t have policies and procedure that regulate about IT Service Management. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim to create a guidance for Office of Communications and Information Technology of Bandung (Diskominfo to optimize the service provided. This study also aims to make Service Management governance so that the management of IT service have certain quality and meet the needs of business customers, and improve the quality as the agreement with the customers. This study was conducted using ITIL v3 with Service Operation and Service Transition domain. ITIL is IT Service Management best practice to improve the efficiency of IT operational. ISO 15504 was conducted to asses Capability Level of ITIL Process. Capability Level of Service Transition is 24.5% and Capability Level of Service Operation is 23%. Because of the inadequacy of the primary data, the assessment was also carried out by mapping the objective of institution with the risks related to the lack of ITIL processes. The results of the design are the governance policies and procedures related to the ITIL processes needed by the institution.

  4. Recommendations for yield-to-bus traffic control devices and bus pullout bays design characteristics : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Bus pullout bays are being installed increasingly : on Floridas roads as a safety factor and so that : stopped buses do not impede traffic. In Florida, : state law requires car drivers to yield to buses : when a bus needs to reenter the roadway af...

  5. The Effects of Bus Ridership on Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Her

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by rapid urbanization and the increased use of private vehicles seriously affects citizens’ health. In order to alleviate air pollution, many cities have replaced diesel buses with compressed natural gas (CNG buses that emit less exhaust gas. Urban planning strategies such as transit-oriented development (TOD posit that reducing private vehicle use and increasing public transportation use would reduce air pollution levels. The present study examined the effects of bus ridership on airborne particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in the capital region of Korea. We interpolated the levels of PM10 from 128 air pollution monitoring stations, utilizing the Kriging method. Spatial regression models were used to estimate the impact of bus ridership on PM10 levels, controlling for physical environment attributes and socio-economic factors. The analysis identified that PM10 concentration levels tend to be lower in areas with greater bus ridership. This result implies that urban and transportation policies designed to promote public transportation may be effective strategies for reducing air pollution.

  6. Engineering Diffusivity and Operating Voltage in Lithium Iron Phosphate through Transition-Metal Doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Ajit; Nanda, B. R. K.

    2017-03-01

    Density-functional calculations are carried out to understand and tailor the electrochemical profile—diffusivity, band gap, and open-circuit voltage—of transition-metal-doped olivine phosphate: LiFe1 -xMxPO4 (M =V , Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni). Diffusion and, hence, the ionic conductivity is studied by calculating the activation barrier Vact experienced by the diffusing Li+ ion. We show that the effect of dopants on diffusion is both site dependent and short ranged, and thereby it paves ways for microscopic control of ionic conductivity via selective dopants in olivine phosphates. Dopants with lower-valence electrons (LVEs) compared to Fe repel the Li+ ion to facilitate its outward diffusion, whereas higher-valence-electron (HVE) dopants attract the Li+ ion to facilitate the inward diffusion. From the electronic structure calculation, we establish that irrespective of the dopant M , except Mn, the band gap is reduced since the M d states always lie within the pure band gap. Atomically localized d states of HVE dopants lie above the Fermi energy and that of LVE lie below it. Half-filled Mn d states undergo a large spin-exchange split to bury the dopant states in the valence and conduction bands of the pristine system, and, in turn, the band gap remains unchanged in LiFe1 -xMnxPO4 . Baring Mn, the open-circuit voltage increases with HVE dopants and decreases with LVE dopants.

  7. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  8. Ro-vibronic transition intensities for triatomic molecules from the exact kinetic energy operator; electronic spectrum for the C̃ 1B2 ← X̃ 1A1transition in SO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Emil J; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-09-07

    A procedure for calculating ro-vibronic transition intensities for triatomic molecules within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is reported. Ro-vibrational energy levels and wavefunctions are obtained with the DVR3D suite, which solves the nuclear motion problem with an exact kinetic energy operator. Absolute transition intensities are calculated both with the Franck-Condon approximation and with a full transition dipole moment surface. The theoretical scheme is tested on C̃  1 B 2  ← X̃  1 A 1 ro-vibronic transitions of SO 2 . Ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces are generated for this purpose. The calculated ro-vibronic transition intensities and cross sections are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data.

  9. How to Find a Comfortable Bus Route - Towards Personalized Information Recommendation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danhuai Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the generation of massive data from bus IC cards, how to effectively and efficiently recommend comfortable bus routes to bus passengers is a challenging and complex task. In this paper, waiting time, crowded time, and driving time between different bus stations on different bus routes at different times of the day are calculated from bus IC cards data history. Then, a multi-objective program with various constraints is suggested to recommend comfortable bus routes for bus passengers, and a genetic algorithm is developed to search for expected solutions. The proposed method is implemented using bus IC cards data from Chongqing, China and will be a promising tool for bus passengers when choosing comfortable bus routes.

  10. A Self-Adjusting Method to Resist Bus Bunching Based on Boarding Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus bunching is one of the most serious problems of urban bus systems. Bus bunching increases waiting and travel time of passengers. Many bus systems use schedules to reach equal headways. Compared to the idea of schedules and the target headway introduced later, we propose a new method to improve the efficiency of a bus system and avoid bus bunching by boarding limits. Our solution can be effectively implemented when buses cannot travel as planned because of bad road conditions and dynamic demands at bus stops. Besides, using our method, bus headways reach the state with equal headways dynamically and spontaneously without drivers’ explicit intervention. Moreover, the method can improve the level of the bus service and reduce total travel time of passengers. We verify our method using an ideal bus route and a real bus route, both showing the success of the proposed method.

  11. Integration of a platform based in field bus (profibus), for the development of process control systems; Integracion de una plataforma basada en bus de campo PROFIBUS, para el desarrollo de sistemas de control de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas Perez, Eduardo; Arroyo Figueroa, Gustavo; Villavicencio Ramirez, Alejandro [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-03-01

    The integration of a computer platform for the process sequential control system development and validation of some processes of thermoelectric generation, which are constituted by operations of the logic-sequential type. The platform is composed of a process simulator, a sequence tester, a logic programmable controller, and an operational computer. All these elements are interconnected through a field bus type PROFIBUS (Process Field Bus) (Standard DIN 19245). This platform has been used for the elaboration and evaluation of the operational sequence and control of demineralization, reverse osmosis, and condensate polishing water treatment plants, which are simulated in a personal computer. [Espanol] Se presenta la integracion de una plataforma de computo para el desarrollo y validacion de sistemas de control secuencial de algunos procesos de generacion termoelectrica, los cuales estan constituidos por operaciones de tipo logico-secuencial. La plataforma esta compuesta por un simulador del proceso, un probador de secuencias, un controlador logico programable y una computadora de operacion. Todos estos elementos estan interconectados a traves de un bus de campo tipo PROFIBUS (Process Field Bus), (Estandar DIN 19245). Esta plataforma se ha utilizado para elaborar y validar la programacion de las secuencias de operacion y control de plantas de tratamiento de agua por desmineralizacion, osmosis inversa y pulidores de condensados, las cuales se tienen simuladas en una computadora personal

  12. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  13. Infrared Communications for Small Spacecraft: From a Wireless Bus to Cluster Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Suzanne C.; Schneider, Wolfger; Darrin, M. Ann G.; Boone, Bradley G.; Luers, Philip J.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nanosatellites operating singly or in clusters are anticipated for future space science missions. To implement this new communications paradigm, we are approaching cluster communications by first developing an infrared (IR) intra-craft wireless bus capability, following initially the MIL-STD-1553B protocol. Benefits of an IR wireless bus are low mass, size, power, and cost, simplicity of implementation, ease of use, minimum EMI, and efficient and reliable data transfer. Our goals are to maximize the reliable link margin in order to afford greater flexibility in receiver placement, which will ease technology insertion. We have developed a concept demonstration using a high-speed visible-band silicon PIN photodiode and a high-efficiency visible LED operating at a data rate up to 4 Mb/sec. In designing an internal IR wireless bus, we have characterized various candidate materials, emitters, and geometries, assuming a single reflection. Thus, we have measured the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for five different materials characteristic of typical spacecraft structures, which range from nearly Lambertian to highly specular. We have fit our data to empirical BRDF functions and modeled the detected irradiance anywhere in the plane of incidence for a divergent (LED) emitter. We have also determined the angular limits on the link geometry to remain within the required bit error rate by determining the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for minimum values of irradiance received at the detector.

  14. Infrared communications for small spacecraft: from a wireless bus to cluster concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walts, Suzanne C.; Schneider, Wolfger; Darrin, Margaret A. G.; Boone, Bradley G.; Luers, Philip J.

    2001-08-01

    Nanosatellites operating singly or in clusters are anticipated for future space science missions. To implement this new communications paradigm, we are approaching cluster communications by first developing an infrared (IR) intra- craft wireless bus capability, following initially the MIL- STD-1553B protocol. Benefits of an IR wireless bus are low mass, size, power, and cost, simplicity of implementation, ease of use, minimum EMI, and efficient and reliable data transfer. Our goals are to maximize the reliable link margin in order to afford greater flexibility in receiver placement, which will ease technology insertion. We have developed a concept demonstration using a high-speed visible-band silicon PIN photodiode and a high-efficiency visible LED operating at a data rate up to 4 Mb/sec. In designing an internal IR wireless bus, we have characterized various candidate materials, emitters, and geometries, assuming a single reflection. Thus, we have measured the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for five different materials characteristic of typical spacecraft structures, which range from nearly Lambertian to highly specular. We have fit our data to empirical BRDF functions and modeled the detected irradiance anywhere in the plane of incidence for a divergent emitter. We have also determined the angular limits on the link geometry to remain within the required bit error rate by determining the received signal-to-noise ratio for minimum values of irradiance received at the detector.

  15. Organizing a bus depot – selected aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy PAWLICKI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban transportation problems are particularly noticeable within cities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. In these cities buses are a primary means of transport, but lack of low-floor and poor interior design does not encourage passengers to use them. However, the qualities that give the most negative feedback on the public transpiration are the technical condition of buses, excessive noise and exhaust emission. Technical backsides of the bus depots that constantly maintain the technical readiness of the required number of vehicles play an important role to ensure high quality standards. New European Union legislation is very helpful in such. New laws and regulations deal with the safety issues and environmental protection matters, to which the urban transportation depots must be strictly adjusted. This article refers to these documents and presents depot technical stations, which equipment needs to be upgraded in the first place.

  16. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  17. Safety in the operating theatre--a transition to systems-based care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Thomas G; Porter, Michael P; Maier, Ronald V

    2013-03-01

    All surgeons want the best, safest care for their patients, but providing this requires the complex coordination of multiple disciplines to ensure that all elements of care are timely, appropriate, and well organized. Quality-improvement initiatives are beginning to lead to improvements in the quality of care and coordination amongst teams in the operating room. As the population ages and patients present with more complex disease pathology, the demands for efficient systematization will increase. Although evidence suggests that postoperative mortality rates are declining, there is substantial room for improvement. Multiple quality metrics are used as surrogates for safe care, but surgical teams--including surgeons, anaesthetists, and nurses--must think beyond these simple interventions if they are to effectively communicate and coordinate in the face of increasing demands.

  18. The CRESST-III iStick veto. Stable operation of multiple transition edge sensors in one readout circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut f. Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: CRESST-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    To enable complete rejection of holder-related events in the upcoming CRESST-III dark matter search experiment, the scintillating target crystals are held by calcium tungstate sticks (iSticks) instrumented with tungsten transition edge sensors (TESs). Since the iStick signals are used exclusively for vetoing, it is sufficient to register if an event happened in any stick, without knowing which one. This allows the operation of all iSticks in a single readout circuit, requiring just one SQUID magnetometer. The talk describes the effect of bias current heating and corresponding hysteresis phenomena known in single-TES circuits, and the resulting conditions for stability in multiple-TES circuits. The fundamentally different behaviour of parallel and series circuits and resulting design choices are explored.

  19. Research of WLAN CAN Bus Data Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weibin; Zhu, Yuqing; Hong, Tiansheng; Ye, Cheng; Ye, Zhijie; He, Guangbin; Li, Haobiao

    Both controller area network (CAN) and wireless local area network (WLAN) bus technologies are developing rapidly nowadays. But the study on WLAN technology with CAN bus data is relative to be less researched. So a WLAN CAN bus data test system was present in this paper. The system hardware consists of two control modules, each of which consistently allows link test to the CAN bus network. Each hardware of the module is composed by a microcontroller STC12C5410AD, a CAN bus control unit MCP2515, a CAN bus transceiver MCP2551 and a RF wireless module RF903. During the test process, the CAN bus analyzer, Kvaser USBCAN II, receives and dispatches the CAN messages. Test results showed that the system's error score was approximately zero when messages are transmitted and the system can message transmission from one side of CAN panel point to the other side. The communication of the system is suitable for the CAN treaty standard and it can allow wireless message transmission to other suitable networks meeting the CAN treaty standard as well. Finally the system has been applied to the project for hill citrus leaf area index (LAI) acquisition.

  20. Power-balancing instantaneous optimization energy management for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongye; Lin, Xinyou; Qin, Datong; Deng, Tao

    2012-11-01

    Energy management(EM) is a core technique of hybrid electric bus(HEB) in order to advance fuel economy performance optimization and is unique for the corresponding configuration. There are existing algorithms of control strategy seldom take battery power management into account with international combustion engine power management. In this paper, a type of power-balancing instantaneous optimization(PBIO) energy management control strategy is proposed for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus. According to the characteristic of the novel series-parallel architecture, the switching boundary condition between series and parallel mode as well as the control rules of the power-balancing strategy are developed. The equivalent fuel model of battery is implemented and combined with the fuel of engine to constitute the objective function which is to minimize the fuel consumption at each sampled time and to coordinate the power distribution in real-time between the engine and battery. To validate the proposed strategy effective and reasonable, a forward model is built based on Matlab/Simulink for the simulation and the dSPACE autobox is applied to act as a controller for hardware in-the-loop integrated with bench test. Both the results of simulation and hardware-in-the-loop demonstrate that the proposed strategy not only enable to sustain the battery SOC within its operational range and keep the engine operation point locating the peak efficiency region, but also the fuel economy of series-parallel hybrid electric bus(SPHEB) dramatically advanced up to 30.73% via comparing with the prototype bus and a similar improvement for PBIO strategy relative to rule-based strategy, the reduction of fuel consumption is up to 12.38%. The proposed research ensures the algorithm of PBIO is real-time applicability, improves the efficiency of SPHEB system, as well as suite to complicated configuration perfectly.

  1. Using microcomputers for lighting appliance control using a DALI bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article concerns the DALI bus theoretical and practical aspects. The DALI bus is a modern technology developed especially for illumination systems control. Authors are outlining communication basic principles related to the physical layer and going up to more complex data transactions among particular devices. The article main topic is aimed at two device models development based on microcontroller and exploiting that technology. The first of those two devices is a DALI slave unit enabling the light source or multi switch with light indication components control via DALI bus. The second device measures the ambient illumination intensity and it also detects errors in the load.

  2. Design and Research on Automotive Controller Area Network Bus Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei CUI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection method of automotive controller area network bus is researched in this paper. Failure identifying of CAN bus under different working conditions has been realized. In order to realizing intelligent failure diagnosis, data fusion means has been put forward in this paper. The composition of analysis and detection system is introduced. By analyzing and processing the data of CAN bus and sensors, work condition of automotive is achieved. Multi-pattern data fusion model and algorithm for failure diagnosis are researched. The analyzer and detection system designed in this paper can be applied to automotive fault analysis, troubleshooting and maintenance.

  3. Solving of school bus routing problem by ant colony optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Rojas, Juan S.; Jiménez-Gordillo, J. F. (José Fernando); Montoya-Torres, J. R. (Jairo Rafael)

    2011-01-01

    The school bus routing problem (SBRP) seeks to plan an efficient schedule of a fleet of school buses that must pick up students from various bus stops and deliver them by satisfying various constraints: maximum capacity of the bus, maximum riding time of students, time window to arrive to school. In this paper, we consider a case study of SBRP for a school in Bogotá, Colombia. The problem is solved using ant colony optimization (ACO). Computational experiments are performed using real data. R...

  4. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  5. Research on Optimization for Motion Control Bus Based on Ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field bus system has been successfully introduced into industrial automation. Nowadays, most of the motion control bus is based on the Ethernet physical layer, and all of the new standards are based on the Ethernet physical layer. This paper introduces a new optimized technology based on motion control bus of the Ethernet physical layer, which includes the prediction mechanism in the arrival of the frames, the retransmission mechanism in advance, and a new mechanism of independent verification of data segment. Tests show that using the mechanisms in this paper can enhance efficiency and reliability in communication process.

  6. Common Airborne Instrumentation System: CAIS Bus Interface Standard, A00.00-C001. Revision A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sidney

    1997-01-01

    .... This interface control document (ICD) was written to provide a single document that designers of CAIS bus controllers and data acquisition units could reference to ensure interoperability on the CAIS bus. This ICD establishes the requirements for digital command/response, time division multiplexing techniques for a single CAIS bus. It encompasses the physical, electrical, and protocol aspects of the CAIS bus.

  7. Investigation of thermally induced stresses in a transition-piece in relation to an aero-derivative gas turbine engine operation

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Alaaeldin H.

    2007-01-01

    The transition-piece of an aero-derivative gas turbine engine transfers high temperature combusted gases from the gas generator to a power turbine, and it is manufactured from Iron-Base Superalloy A286 in this investigation. Due to the thermal stress levels developed in the casing of the transition-piece after long operating hours, the life expectancy of the transition-piece becomes shorter. The present study aims to investigate the thermal stress field development in the casing of the aero-d...

  8. Analysis of movable bus stop boarding and alighting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using movable and reusable boarding and alighting (B&A) pads at bus stops. : Potential design alternatives in terms of materials and structural support for these pads were evaluated. The review : focused on the ...

  9. Multi-Gigabit Rate Radiation Hard Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High speed robust very low power radiation hardened bus interconnects are required to accelerate on-board computations, further improve reconfigurability and upgrade...

  10. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  11. Minimization of Construction Costs for an All Battery-Swapping Electric-Bus Transportation System: Comparison with an All Plug-In System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Chyuan Fang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gases and air pollution generated by extensive energy use have exacerbated climate change. Electric-bus (e-bus transportation systems help reduce pollution and carbon emissions. This study analyzed the minimization of construction costs for an all battery-swapping public e-bus transportation system. A simulation was conducted according to existing timetables and routes. Daytime charging was incorporated during the hours of operation; the two parameters of the daytime charging scheme were the residual battery capacity and battery-charging energy during various intervals of daytime peak electricity hours. The parameters were optimized using three algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO, a genetic algorithm (GA, and a PSO–GA. This study observed the effects of optimization on cost changes (e.g., number of e-buses, on-board battery capacity, number of extra batteries, charging facilities, and energy consumption and compared the plug-in and battery-swapping e-bus systems. The results revealed that daytime charging can reduce the construction costs of both systems. In contrast to the other two algorithms, the PSO–GA yielded the most favorable optimization results for the charging scheme. Finally, according to the cases investigated and the parameters of this study, the construction cost of the plug-in e-bus system was shown to be lower than that of the battery-swapping e-bus system.

  12. Resistance of LHC main bus bar splices at room temperature and at 77.4 K

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, S; Scheuerlein, Chr; CERN. Geneva. TE Department

    2009-01-01

    As part of the quality control the resistance of newly produced LHC main bus bar splices is now routinely measured at room temperature (RT) in order to conclude on the electrical continuity of the bus bar stabiliser across the splice under operating conditions. In this note we present splice resistance measurements that have been performed at RT and in liquid nitrogen (LN) in the CERN Cryolab with “ideal” splices (represented by continuous dipole and quadrupole bus bars), and with dipole and quadrupole splices with different defects, which cause an additional RT splice resistance of up to 60 µΩ. The RT resistance (RRT) results obtained with the Cryolab set-up are compared to the calculated resistance values and with the so-called R-8 and R-16 resistance results, as they are measured in the LHC tunnel with a Digital Low Resistance Ohmmeter with a voltage tap distance of 8 cm or 16 cm. The RT to LN resistance ratio has been determined for all splices in order to study the influence of the resistance of th...

  13. Application Layer Definition and Analyses of Controller Area Network Bus for Wire Harness Assembly Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hui; Jiang, Ying

    2006-01-01

    With the feature of multi-master bus access, nondestructive contention-based arbitration and flexible configuration, Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is applied into the control system of Wire Harness Assembly Machine (WHAM). To accomplish desired goal, the specific features of the CAN bus is analyzed by compared with other field buses and the functional performances in the CAN bus system of WHAM is discussed. Then the application layer planning of CAN bus for dynamic priority is presented. ...

  14. Accessibility analysis to public services by bus transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Košir, Uroš

    2009-01-01

    Graduation thesis focuses on ESRI GIS tools, Model Builder and Network analyst. It is shown how automated process with geoprocesing models simplify procedures, with prepared data, for further analyses. Data, established with analyses, were used for accessability analysis to public services by bus transportation. Analyses were made for territory of Slovenia and their statistical regions. For better understanding of choice between a car and a bus accessibility to public services, thesis was sup...

  15. VHDL resolved function based inner communication bus for FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses a method of building an internal, universal and parametric bus. The solution was designed for a variety of FPGA families and popular VHDL compilers. The algorithm of automatic configuration of address space and methods of receiving and sending addressed data are discussed. The basic solution realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form and chosen examples of practical use of the internal bus are presented in detail.

  16. Particles exposure while sitting at bus stops of hot and humid Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Erik; Tan, Sok Huang

    2016-10-01

    Transport microenvironments represent hotspots of personal exposure to airborne toxics, particularly of ultrafine particles. Thus, a large exposure may be experienced during daily commuting trips. Amongst these microenvironments, bus stops are critical because of the commuters' close proximity to fresh fumes rich in particles emitted by passing, idling and accelerating buses and motor vehicles, in general. Standing at a bus stop may represent a period of disproportionately high exposure and it is, therefore, essential to know the number, chemical composition and physical characteristics of such particles for a proper public health assessment and design of mobility strategies. On this account, a set of portable and battery operated sensors were used to evaluate a number of properties of the traffic particles to which thousands of citizens are daily exposed at bus stops of Singapore. In terms of fine particles, the exposure concentration was on average 1.5-3 times higher than the mean concentration at ambient level reported by the local authorities. On average 60% of those particles corresponded to black carbon. An important presence of particle-bound polycyclic aromatics was observed. The particle number concentration and active surface area were effective metrics to quantify ultrafine particles, as expected both showed strong correlations. The number of particles at bus stops was on average 3.5 times higher than at ambient level. The most alarming issue was probably the size of the particles. Assuming spherical particles, a median of 27 nm was estimated based on the active surface area and particle number data. Particles of this size form the nucleation mode, which is related to harmful health effects.

  17. Research on a Novel Hydraulic/Electric Synergy Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegang Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing concerns regarding environmental pollution and requirements for lower fossil fuel consumption have increased interest in alternative hybrid powertrains. As a result, this paper presents a novel hydraulic/electric synergy powertrain with multiple working modes. The three energy sources (i.e., engine, battery, and hydraulic accumulator in this configuration are regulated by a dual planetary gear set to achieve optimal performances. This paper selects the component sizes of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV, a hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV, and a hydraulic/electric synergy vehicle (HESV, based on the dynamic performance of a target vehicle (TV. In addition, this paper develops the forward simulation models of the four aforementioned vehicles in the MATLAB/Simulink/Driveline platform, in which the fuel economy simulations are carried out in relation to the Chinese urban bus cycle. The simulation results show that the fuel consumption of the three hybrid vehicles is similar, but much better than, that of the TV. Finally, based on the operating cost calculations over a five-year working period, the lowest cost ranges of the three hybrid vehicles are determined, which provides a method for choosing the optimal hybrid scheme.

  18. School bus crash rates on routine and nonroutine routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Marizen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy; Stahlhut, Mary; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-09-01

    Although prior research has established that school buses are a safe form of transportation, crashes can produce catastrophic consequences. School buses have 2 types of routes: predictable, routine routes that take children to and from school and less predictable, nonroutine routes for school events. No studies have examined school bus crash incidence and characteristics by these route types. School bus crashes were identified from the Iowa Department of Transportation Crash Database from mid-2005 through mid-2010. Crash reports did not identify whether the bus was on a routine or nonroutine route, so a protocol to assign these based on day and time was developed. Bus mileage was provided by the Iowa Department of Education. The school bus crash rate was 2.1 times higher on nonroutine routes than on routine routes (95% CI = 1.8-2.3). Most crashes involved an improper action by the driver of another vehicle. In crashes attributed to improper actions of school buses, failure to yield the right-of-way and disregarding traffic signs were more common on routine routes, while losing control, speeding, reckless, or aggressive driving were more common on nonroutine routes. School bus crashes are more likely to occur on nonroutine routes. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  19. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  20. Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Walkowicz, K.

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating across the country. Employing a combination of Isaac Instruments GPS/CAN data loggers in conjunction with existing onboard telemetric systems resulted in the capture of operating information for more than 200 individual vehicles in three geographically unique domestic locations. In total, over 1,500 individual operational route shifts from Washington, New York, and Colorado were collected. Upon completing the collection of in-use field data using either NREL-installed data acquisition devices or existing onboard telemetry systems, large-scale duty-cycle statistical analyses were performed to examine underlying vehicle dynamics trends within the data and to explore vehicle operation variations between fleet locations. Based on the results of these analyses, high, low, and average vehicle dynamics requirements were determined, resulting in the selection of representative standard chassis dynamometer test cycles for each condition. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the large-scale duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented, including graphical and tabular representations of a number of relationships between key duty-cycle metrics observed within the larger data set. In addition to presenting the results of this analysis, conclusions are drawn and presented regarding potential applications of advanced vehicle technology as it relates specifically to school buses.

  1. Transition of the GOES Evapotranspiration and Drought Product System (GET-D) into Operations at NOAA/NESDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Fang, L.; Zhan, X.; Otkin, J.

    2016-12-01

    North America at a spatial resolution of 8 km. This talk will focus on the evaluation of the operational data products, lessons learned from the transition into operations and the planned global expansion of the GET-D system at NOAA.

  2. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Jiankun; Fan, Hao; He, Hongwen; Pan, Deng

    2015-01-01

    .... To evaluate the controller area network (CAN) bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built...

  3. Community-wide Validation of Geospace Model Ground Magnetic Field Perturbation Predictions to Support Model Transition to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Singer, H.; Balch, C.; Weimer, D.; Toth, G.; Ridley, A.; Gombosi, T.; Wiltberger, M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we continue the community-wide rigorous modern space weather model validation efforts carried out within GEM, CEDAR and SHINE programs. In this particular effort, in coordination among the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), modelers, and science community, we focus on studying the models' capability to reproduce observed ground magnetic field fluctuations, which are closely related to geomagnetically induced current phenomenon. One of the primary motivations of the work is to support NOAA SWPC in their selection of the next numerical model that will be transitioned into operations. Six geomagnetic events and 12 geomagnetic observatories were selected for validation.While modeled and observed magnetic field time series are available for all 12 stations, the primary metrics analysis is based on six stations that were selected to represent the high-latitude and mid-latitude locations. Events-based analysis and the corresponding contingency tables were built for each event and each station. The elements in the contingency table were then used to calculate Probability of Detection (POD), Probability of False Detection (POFD) and Heidke Skill Score (HSS) for rigorous quantification of the models' performance. In this paper the summary results of the metrics analyses are reported in terms of POD, POFD and HSS. More detailed analyses can be carried out using the event by event contingency tables provided as an online appendix. An online interface built at CCMC and described in the supporting information is also available for more detailed time series analyses.

  4. Miniature JPL Universal Instrument Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work will transition commercial advanced- yet mature- packaging approaches, such as surface mount and system-in-package, into mainstream use at JPL. Starting...

  5. The Major Roles Of Long Distance Bus Transport In Developing Countries With Emphasis On Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassa Fekadu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the major roles of long distance bus transport that radiates from Addis Ababa to the hinterland. The purpose is to assess and identify the major roles of Long Distance Bus Transport in Addis Ababa. The methodology is focused on both primary and secondary sources. The primary informants, who were principally distinguished from the passengers, operators, and key government officials from the transport office, include the head of bus terminal and Association, and selected experts. In terms of analysis, the qualitative approach was used by applying a thick description of the issue. The findings revealed that the availability of towns comes mainly because of the routes which give access and distribution of road passenger transport. The LDB (Long Distance Bus along the line has played a great role in the making of metropolitan linkage. The presence of these routes contributes more to the rise of urbanization and it has also played a role in the creation of towns and rural areas found around certain radius at the two sides of highways. Thus, it has a high probability for the expansion of urban sprawl and formation of conurbation in the future. The prescription for this study is to work with stakeholders to reduce the congestion of passengers in the terminals and the association also should serve the society 24/7 or 18/7.

  6. Decision Recommendation Board (DRB) report. Transition of shale JP-4 to the operational validation phase. Final report August 1983-May 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botteri, B.P.; Churchill, A.V.; Bleidorn, C.G.

    1984-05-15

    HQ USAF Program Management Directive (18 Sep 1980,) for PE71112F established an Air Force commitment to begin the operational validation of JP-4 fuel made from shale oil in 1984. The Air Force Systems Command was designated as participating command and given specific responsibilities for providing product quality, performance, system safety and environmental and health assurances prior to the start of any operational validation testing. The Shale JP-4 Decision Recommendation Board (DRB) was established in August 1983 to provide an independent assessment of the acceptability of transitioning shale JP-4 fuel to the operational validation phase. This report addresses the acceptability of transitioning shale JP-4 to Mountain Home AFB, Idaho, and Hill AFB, Utah, the two bases selected by the Air Staff for the Validation Program. Extensive shale JP-4 fuel properties characterization and aircraft system testing have been conducted by AFSC primarily under the Aero Propulsion Lab's PE63215F.

  7. Three-Phase Fault Currents Evaluation for Nigerian 28-Bus 330kv Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, Gafari A.; Tijani, Muhammed A.; Sanusi, Mufutau A.; Olatunji, Dauda O.

    2012-03-01

    Fault studies are important power system analysis for stable and economical operations of power systems. Faults are categorised as symmetrical and unsymmetrical. In this paper, three-phase symmetrical fault is simulated using the Nigerian 28-Bus, 330kV Transmission Grid. Two different MatLab based programmes were developed; one program was for Load Flow Studies which determines prefault conditions for the power system based on Newton-Raphson method. The other program determines fault current magnitudes for threephase short-circuit on the power system. The information gained from the fault studies can be used for proper relay selections, settings, performances and coordination.

  8. Shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Shiu, Li-Jie; Li, Yu-Ling; Tung, Kuan-Yeng; Chan, Kwan-Yu; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Chen, Shiuan-Chih; Wong, Ruey-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Professional bus drivers are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the underlying causes are unclear. Professional bus drivers often follow shift schedules. Especially, an association between shift work and early manifestations of cardiovascular disease has not been elucidated. Thus we investigated the links between shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers. Questionnaires were administered to 184 bus drivers on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and occupational history from 5 transportation companies in Taiwan. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured using a volume-plethysmographic apparatus. Body mass index, waist circumference, biochemical variables, and blood pressure were also measured. Arteriosclerotic risk factors (age, weekly driving hours, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin level) differed in part among different groups of drivers. Long-term shift drivers had higher baPWV compared to regular drivers and short-term shift drivers (1594 cm/s vs. 1497 and 1432, pshift driving. Long-term shift work could increase the risk of arteriosclerosis in professional bus drivers. Larger studies would be necessary to provide further evidence regarding this finding.

  9. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  10. Miami urban partnership agreement (UPA) Pines Boulevard transit signal priority evaluation .report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The Miami Urban Partnership Agreement included the conversion of high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on I-95 to high occupancy toll : (HOT) lanes and additional express bus service. It also included funding for the installation of transit signal prior...

  11. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of ...

  12. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets : Current Status 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including d...

  13. Optical Pipelined Multi-bus Interconnection Network Intrinsic Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Joseph d'Auriol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital all-optical parallel computing is an important research direction and spans conventional devices and convergent nano-optics deployments. Optical bus-based interconnects provide interesting aspects such as relative information communication speed-up or slow-down between optical signals. This aspect is harnessed in the newly proposed All-Optical Linear Array with a Reconfigurable Pipelined Bus System (OLARPBS model. However, the physical realization of such communication interconnects needs to be considered. This paper considers spatial layouts of processing elements along with the optical bus light paths that are necessary to realize the corresponding interconnection requirements. A metric in terms of the degree of required physical constraint is developed to characterize the variety of possible solutions. Simple algorithms that determine spatial layouts are given. It is shown that certain communication interconnection structures have associated intrinsic topologies.

  14. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The presence of numerous local spatial constraints makes the process and extent of epidemic spreading extremely difficult to predict. Also, majority of the studies have focused on the contagion processes on scale-free network topologies whereas, spatially-constrained real-world networks such as, bus networks exhibit a wide-spectrum of network topology. Therefore, we aim in this study to understand this complex dynamical process of epidemic outbreak and information diffusion on the bus networks for six different Indian cities usin...

  15. Network operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Long-term and short-term objectives for the development of a network operating system for the Space Station are stated. The short-term objective is to develop a prototype network operating system for a 100 megabit/second fiber optic data bus. The long-term objective is to establish guidelines for writing a detailed specification for a Space Station network operating system. Major milestones are noted. Information is given in outline form.

  16. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...... could provide a continuative power supply to the loads. An overview of Multi-DC-Bus solutions is presented in this paper. The performances are compared on the basis of possible DC microgrid configurations, redundancy, different DC voltage levels....

  17. Design of temperature monitoring system based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2017-10-01

    The remote temperature monitoring system based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is designed to collect the multi-node remote temperature. By using the STM32F103 as main controller and multiple DS18B20s as temperature sensors, the system achieves a master-slave node data acquisition and transmission based on the CAN bus protocol. And making use of the serial port communication technology to communicate with the host computer, the system achieves the function of remote temperature storage, historical data show and the temperature waveform display.

  18. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  19. High Performance ZVT with Bus Clamping Modulation Technique for Single Phase Full Bridge Inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yinglai; Ayyanar, Raja

    2016-03-20

    This paper proposes a topology based on bus clamping modulation and zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) technique to realize zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) for all the main switches of the full bridge inverters, and inherent ZVS and/or ZCS for the auxiliary switches. The advantages of the strategy include significant reduction in the turn-on loss of the ZVT auxiliary switches which typically account for a major part of the total loss in other ZVT circuits, and reduction in the voltage ratings of auxiliary switches. The modulation scheme and the commutation stages are analyzed in detail. Finally, a 1kW, 500 kHz switching frequency inverter of the proposed topology using SiC MOSFETs has been built to validate the theoretical analysis. The ZVT with bus clamping modulation technique of fixed timing and adaptive timing schemes are implemented in DSP TMS320F28335 resulting in full ZVS for the main switches in the full bridge inverter. The proposed scheme can save up to 33 % of the switching loss compared with no ZVT case.

  20. Development of a PEM Fuel Cell City Bus with a Hierarchical Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliang Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell system is considered to be an ideal alternative for the internal combustion engine, especially when used on a city bus. Hybrid buses with fuel cell systems and energy storage systems are now undergoing transit service demonstrations worldwide. A hybrid PEM fuel cell city bus with a hierarchical control system is studied in this paper. Firstly, the powertrain and hierarchical control structure is introduced. Secondly, the vehicle control strategy including start-stop strategy, energy management strategy, and fuel cell control strategy, including the hydrogen system and air system control strategies, are described in detail. Finally, the performance of the fuel cell was analyzed based on road test data. Results showed that the different subsystems were well-coordinated. Each component functioned in concert in order to ensure that both safety and speed requirements were satisfied. The output current of the fuel cell system changed slowly and the output voltage was limited to a certain range, thereby enhancing durability of the fuel cell. Furthermore, the economic performance was optimized by avoiding low load conditions.

  1. The Development and Verification of a Novel ECMS of Hybrid Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the system modeling, control strategy design, and hardware-in-the-loop test for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus. First, the powertrain mathematical models and the system architecture were proposed. Then an adaptive ECMS is developed for the real-time control of a hybrid electric bus, which is investigated and verified in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. The ECMS through driving cycle recognition results in updating the equivalent charge and discharge coefficients and extracting optimized rules for real-time control. This method not only solves the problems of mode transition frequently and improves the fuel economy, but also simplifies the complexity of control strategy design and provides new design ideas for the energy management strategy and gear-shifting rules designed. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed real-time A-ECMS can coordinate the overall hybrid electric powertrain to optimize fuel economy and sustain the battery SOC level.

  2. Kajian Keamanan Pengoperasian Public Transport Tinjauan Terhadap Kekuatan Rangka Body Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiro, B. M

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the safety and security of the public transportation, design specification of construction body bus or bus frame structures should have an appropriate structural strength and comply with standard design including the safety factor and selection of material besides static and dynamic testing of the part of body bus. It is also realized that a bus carrying passengers have to give secure to the passengers also driver.The fact that a technology concerning with metal works indus...

  3. Dynamic Voltage Stability Studies using a Modified IEEE 30-Bus System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Emmanuel Oni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power System stability is an essential study in the planning and operation of an efficient, economic, reliable and secure electric power system because it encompasses all the facet of power systems operations, from planning, to conceptual design stages of the project as well as during the systems operating life span. This paper presents different scenario of power system stability studies on a modified IEEE 30-bus system which is subjected to different faults conditions. A scenario whereby the longest high voltage alternating current (HVAC line is replaced with a high voltage direct current (HVDC line was implemented. The results obtained show that the HVDC line enhances system stability more compared to the contemporary HVAC line. Dynamic analysis using RMS simulation tool was used on DigSILENT PowerFactory.

  4. Efficacy of bus service reorganization utilizing a hub-and-spoke topology and DRT to meet community needs: A case study of Tokigawa town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yajima

    2013-07-01

    Also, by implementing a system to alternatively operate regular route buses and DRT with a fixed schedule and area for routes in the mountain area, bus availability for residents living in low traffic areas was successfully increased due to increased efficiencies.

  5. Distributed CAN-bus Based Beam Diagnostic System for Pulse Race-Track Microtron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurnov, Alexander

    Very compact 70 MeV pulse race-track microtron is under construction now. To acquire outputs of beam-current transformers on every orbit and pulses of high voltage and RF field a distributed multi-channel beam diagnostic system was developed. Each acquisition controller consists of four fast differential amplifiers and one DSP-based micro-controller with on-chip ADC and CAN-bus controller. Each amplifier is coupled with beam-current transformer and has bandwidth of up to 150MHz and gain of up to 10. One of four channels is acquired during a measurement cycle. Another channel could be selected between two following pulses. All the controllers are connected via optically coupled CAN-bus with a host diskless PC running under Linux with the RTLinux extension. Dedicated software of the system consists of low level acquisition software for DSP, network software for controllers and host PC, application software for PC to present date for operator and control system. Standard CAN application layers were considered but refused because of the closed character of the whole system and centralised synchronisation of the whole system. Dedicated software of the system consists from low level acquisition software for DSP, network software for controllers and host PC, application software for PC to present date for operator and control system. Standard CAN application layers were considered but refused because of closed character of the whole system and centralised synchronisation of the whole system.

  6. 49 CFR 571.220 - Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... result from failure of the school bus body structure to withstand forces encountered in rollover crashes... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.220 Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection...

  7. DETERMINATION OF THE DELAY DEPARTURE TIME OF THE BUS FROM STOPPING POINT INTO THE CAR FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for estimation of the bus departure delax from the bus stopping point after passenger loading is presented. The model allows to take into account the traffic density on a particular road section of the transport network, as well as the bus parameters.

  8. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smoke and tuft visualizations were also performed on an urban bus at 40 km/h. Numerical simulations were performed at the actual Reynolds number. Even though there were Reynolds number differences, the broad features were similar. Air enters the bus from the rear windows, moves to the front (relative to the bus) and ...

  9. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, J.; Langer, M; Gill, E.K.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a

  10. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  11. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  12. Economics of transitioning from a cow-calf-yearling operation to a stocker operation as a potential strategy to address brucellosis risk in northwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative enterprise for cattle ranchers that produce cows and calves is the production of stocker cattle. While stocker only operations have generally found to be less profitable than cow-calf or cow-calf-yearling operations, potential reasons for switching to stockers from having cows could i...

  13. Development and Commissioning Results of the Hybrid Sensor Bus Engineering Qualification Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Andreas; Putzer, Phillipp; Roner, Markus; Gurster, Markus; Hulsemeyer, Christian; Lemke, Norbert M. K.

    2016-08-01

    In order to reduce mass, AIT effort and overall costs of classical point-to-point wired temperature sensor harness on-board spacecraft OHB System AGhas introduced the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system which interrogates sensors connected in a bus architecture. To use the advantages of electrical as wellas of fiber-optical sensing technologies, HSB is designed as a modular measurement system interrogating digital sensors connected on electricalsensor buses based on I2C and fiber-optical sensor buses based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors inscribed in optical fibers. Fiber-optical sensor bus networks on-board satellites are well suited for temperature measurement due to low mass, electro-magnetic insensitivity and the capability to embed them inside structure parts. The lightweight FBG sensors inscribed in radiation tolerant fibers can reach every part of the satellite. HSB has been developed in the frame of the ESA ARTES program with European and German co- funding and will be verified as flight demonstrator on- board the German Heinrich Hertz satellite (H2Sat).In this paper the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) development of HSB and first commissioning results are presented. For the HSB development requirements applicable for telecommunication satellite platforms have been considered. This includes an operation of at least 15 years in a geostationary orbit.In Q3/2016 the qualification test campaign is planned to be carried out. The HSB EQM undergoes a full qualification according to ECSS. The paper concludes with an outlook regarding this HSB flight demonstrator development and its in-orbit verification (IOV) on board H2Sat.

  14. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking among Commercial Bus Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking among Commercial Bus Drivers and University Students in Nigeria. ... Thus, this article gathered comprehensive primary qualitative, quantitative and secondary data on smoking behaviors of two distinct groups in Nigeria for reliable comprehension of smoking trajectories in Nigeria with ...

  15. A Quantitative Economics Of Seasonality In Bus Patronage In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study thus set out to empirically investigate the myth or reality of the thesis that trip generation and trip attraction can be significantly season- determined. Collecting time series data over a ... Apposite recommendations were then made, sequel to highlighting of policy implications of findings. Key words: seasonality, bus ...

  16. Eliminating the empty bus syndrome by understanding dynamic travel behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This chapter interrogates some empirical data to examine some of the contributory causes of EBS in South Africa, and uses the City of Johannesburg as a case study. The daily travel patterns of car users are analysed within the context of how bus...

  17. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  18. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    4.1.4 Kenworth Truck Company (PACCAR Inc.) ................................................................... 72 4.1.5 Mack Trucks Inc. ( Volvo ...76 4.1.7 Nova Bus ( Volvo Group...74 4.1.5 Mack Trucks Inc. ( Volvo Group) Mack Trucks does not yet have any diesel-electric hybrid truck models in series production, although its

  19. Cascaded Amplifying Quantum Optical Taps: A Robust Noiseless Optical Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencheikh, K.; Simonneau, C.; Levenson, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Two identical amplifying quantum optical taps, based on noiseless optical parametric amplification and twin beam quantum correlation, have been implemented in a series configuration and experimentally investigated. The result is an optical bus which we have shown to be robust with respect to downstream losses.

  20. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  1. Distributed cooperative synchronization strategy for multi-bus microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Zhong, Chaolu; Hou, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    synchronization methods based on centralized communication are very costly and not suitable for multi-bus microgrids that have a large number of distributed generators (DGs). To address this concern, this study presents an active synchronization control strategy based on distributed cooperation technology...

  2. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  3. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  4. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  5. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    herniation was 137 compared to all Danish men. These differences were statistically significant. Of psychosocial factors only "the feeling of being mentally unbalanced" was found to be statistically significantly related to subsequent hospital discharge with a LBT-diagnosis. Long seniority as bus driver...

  6. Aerodynamic study of state transport bus using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Siddhesh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop the aerodynamic study of a Maharashtra state road transport bus. The rising fuel price and strict government regulations makes the road transport uneconomical now days. With the objective of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing the emission of harmful exhaust gases. It has been proven experimentally that vehicle consumes almost 40% of the available useful engine power to overcome the drag resistance. This provides us a huge scope to study the influence of aerodynamic drag. The initial of the project was to identify the drag coefficient of the existing ordinary type model called “Parivartan” from ANSYS fluent. After preliminary analysis of the existing model corresponding changes are made in such a way that their implementation should be possible at workshop level. The simulation of the air flow over the bus was performed in two steps: design on SolidWorks CAD and ANSYS (FLUENT) is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus. We have used the turbulence models k-ε Realizable having a better approximation of the actual result. Around 28% improvement in the drag coefficient is achieved by CFD driven changes in the bus design. Coefficient of drag is improved by 28% and fuel efficiency increased by 20% by CFD driven changes.

  7. Scheduling with Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Doboli, Alex; Pop, Paul

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we concentrate on aspects related to the synthesis of distributed embedded systems consisting of programmable processors and application-specific hardware components. The approach is based on an abstract graph representation that captures, at process level, both dataflow and the flow......, generates an efficient bus access scheme as well as the schedule tables for activation of processes and communications....

  8. The Taking Ways of an Old School Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joan Thompson; Watkins, J. Foster

    1969-01-01

    The conversion of an "old school bus" in the late 1960s into a mobile library is discussed. The conversion was an element of educational service developed cooperatively between a regional educational laboratory and a rural school system. The project endeavored to improve the early experiences of future students, many of whom would have…

  9. ADlll:S ABABA BUS TERMINAL DESIGN COMPETITION.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Association of Engineers and Architects. Today at the opening of the First National. Conference of the ... of the Architectural Competition for the New Bus. Terminal of Addis Ababa. Unfortunately, due to another ... A competition enables the client, the future owner of the project, to choose from various solutions.

  10. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  11. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  12. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  13. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  14. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  15. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Special Operations/Low Intensity Conflict (SO/LIC) Symposium and Exhibition, "National Security Strategy in Transition" The Critical Role of Special Operations Forces (SOF) in Preparing Now for an Uncertain Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-19

    integration - EHSIIEADI relacemnent - EGI integration - Bus control of ARC-2 10, - ARC-220 integration ARC-201, ARC-164, - SkyFire installation PLS, ELT - ASE...biological weapons. tainly did their homework and they nating them from the air-weather and But in 1979, U.S. intelligence officials worked on a lot

  16. Bus Stops Location and Bus Route Planning Using Mean Shift Clustering and Ant Colony in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supangat, Kenny; Eko Soelistio, Yustinus

    2017-03-01

    Traffic Jam has been a daily problem for people in Jakarta which is one of the busiest city in Indonesia up until now. Even though the official government has tried to reduce the impact of traffic issues by developing a new public transportation which takes up a lot of resources and time, it failed to diminish the problem. The actual concern to this problem actually lies in how people move between places in Jakarta where they always using their own vehicle like cars, and motorcycles that fill most of the street in Jakarta. Among much other public transportations that roams the street of Jakarta, Buses is believed to be an efficient transportation that can move many people at once. However, the location of the bus stop is now have moved to the middle of the main road, and its too far for the nearby residence to access to it. This paper proposes an optimal location of optimal bus stops in West Jakarta that is experimentally proven to have a maximal distance of 350 m. The optimal location is estimated by means of mean shift clustering method while the optimal routes are calculated using Ant Colony algorithm. The bus stops locations rate of error is 0.07% with overall route area of 32 km. Based on our experiments, we believe our proposed bus stop plan can be an interesting alternative to reduce traffic congestion in West Jakarta.

  17. An Approach to Life Skills Group Work with Youth in Transition to Independent Living: Theoretical, Practice, and Operational Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Terrence T.; Williams, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    Group work is fundamental to working with youth learning about independent living and in making the tough and challenging transition to independence. The authors, seasoned and experienced group workers and researchers with youth leaving the child welfare system, will present a conceptual framework and set of practices for helping youth gain those…

  18. Motor Control of Two Flywheels Enabling Combined Attitude Control and Bus Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discussed the flywheel technology development work that is ongoing at NASA GRC with a particular emphasis on the flywheel system control. The "field orientation" motor/generator control algorithm was discussed and explained. The position-sensorless angle and speed estimation algorithm was presented. The motor current response to a step change in command at low (10 kRPM) and high (60 kRPM) was discussed. The flywheel DC bus regulation control was explained and experimental results presented. Finally, the combined attitude control and energy storage algorithm that controls two flywheels simultaneously was presented. Experimental results were shown that verified the operational capability of the algorithm. shows high speed flywheel energy storage (60,000 RPM) and the successful implementation of an algorithm to simultaneously control both energy storage and a single axis of attitude with two flywheels. Overall, the presentation demonstrated that GRC has an operational facility that

  19. Knowledge base and sensor bus messaging service architecture for critical tsunami warning and decision-support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeur, Z. A.; Wächter, J.; Middleton, S. E.; Zlatev, Z.; Häner, R.; Hammitzsch, M.; Loewe, P.

    2012-04-01

    The intelligent management of large volumes of environmental monitoring data for early tsunami warning requires the deployment of robust and scalable service oriented infrastructure that is supported by an agile knowledge-base for critical decision-support In the TRIDEC project (TRIDEC 2010-2013), a sensor observation service bus of the TRIDEC system is being developed for the advancement of complex tsunami event processing and management. Further, a dedicated TRIDEC system knowledge-base is being implemented to enable on-demand access to semantically rich OGC SWE compliant hydrodynamic observations and operationally oriented meta-information to multiple subscribers. TRIDEC decision support requires a scalable and agile real-time processing architecture which enables fast response to evolving subscribers requirements as the tsunami crisis develops. This is also achieved with the support of intelligent processing services which specialise in multi-level fusion methods with relevance feedback and deep learning. The TRIDEC knowledge base development work coupled with that of the generic sensor bus platform shall be presented to demonstrate advanced decision-support with situation awareness in context of tsunami early warning and crisis management.

  20. Harness Reduction Efforts, Transducer Bus and TM/TC Architecture Optimization Activites at ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furano, G.

    2009-05-01

    It is now widely recognised that, the absolute performance of avionic systems is dependent on an ability to transmit yet more data and in a more efficient way between systems. New applications need ‘state-of-the-art' performance, not only for what concerns raw throughput levels, but mainly for easiness of integration, management and flexibility of operations. The ever increasing requirement to have network enabled capabilities put emphasis on compatibility too. To tackle the problem, ESA is trying to foster the adoption of all-digital networks with different capabilities targeted to command and control (like MIL-STD-1553 and CAN), high speed data transfer (Spacewire and its extensions), and, to replace the many point to point analog transducers, on board transducer networks. The concept of sensor network is a good candidate to transform discrete interfaces into bus ones, providing that a proof of concept and an in depth analysis of the consequences at system level due to the introduction of such technology in a spacecraft is done. Key words: Transducer and Sensor Bus, Digital Busses, Satellite Systems, TM/TC Architecture

  1. Changes in Service and Associated Ridership Impacts near a New Light Rail Transit Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwoo Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Angeles (LA, for many years a city with limited rail transit, is substantially expanding its public transit system. This paradigm change in transportation policy and investment creates new requirements for monitoring. One area needing evaluation is whether new, high quality transit options, such as light rail, near existing transit services increase sustainable transportation mode shares and reduce car travel. Few studies have explored light rail’s role as a catalyst to increase overall transit use and achieve sustainability goals within an auto-oriented city like LA. Metro’s data show that trips taken on its bus and rail system dropped overall by 10.5% between 2009 and 2016, but its rail ridership grew 21% during the same period due to the debut of the Gold Line and Expo Line extensions. We analyze changes to bus service and associated ridership impacts that resulted from the opening of these two LRT lines in LA. The immediate effect of the city’s bus service changes along the Gold Line light rail extension appear to be associated with a net “bus plus rail” ridership decline in that corridor. In contrast, the Expo Line corridor experienced an initial increase in ridership during the two years immediately after its opening, possibly because the bus service was not reduced by the same magnitude as along the Gold Line extension. Our findings indicate that changes in bus service made to coincide with the introduction of new light rail transit (LRT can negatively affect the overall transit ridership in the corridor. Planners and policy makers should closely monitor changes in bus service and ridership associated with new rail transit to ensure investments results in an overall net increase in more sustainable travel.

  2. Health effect of a bus ride in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, T.

    1983-07-01

    Health effects on subjects during a bus drive on an urban road were investigated in a real situation. Leukocyte count, adrenalin level in blood and urine, noradrenalin and dopamine in urine, diastolic blood pressure, and index of vascular resistance increased significantly on the drive day compared with the control day. A bus drive on an urban road induced enhanced sympathetic-adreno-medullary activity in real life as a result of the comprehensive effect of various factors. The concentrations of air pollutants were excessively high on the road, and correlated with traffic volume. It was concluded that the interactions between psychogenic, physical nonspecific and physical specific effects should be taken into consideration when evaluating human health effects of air pollution in the urban environment.

  3. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  4. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    “Sustainable transport” has become a headline for transport planning and policy making around the world. While there are many different definitions of what Sustainable Transport means, it commonly includes efforts to improve the environmental performance of transport systems, and to promote...... depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes......: Public bus transport in England, exemplified by Greater Manchester. England represents a situation where - compared to continental Europe including Denmark - the NPM reforms have been particularly radical. In no other European country the market forces has achieved a role as dominant as in England...

  5. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    1.2 Master Control Node The master control node was implemented with a USB to universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) bridge chip produced...indicate fragment manipulation via calls to public methods. The black arrows in the main activity indicate the fragments requesting action from the...Unplug the universal serial bus (USB) cable from the tablet. 2. Go to Android back stack via button on bottom right and swipe off STSLEDCntrl. 3

  6. Evaluasi Tingkat Kelelahan Pada Pengemudi Bus Di Kota Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Febrianti, Asterina; Yassierli, Yassierli; Mahachandra, Manik

    2016-01-01

    Kota Bandung saat ini mengalami pertumbuhan penduduk mencapai 3% setiap tahunnya, sehingga kebutuhan akan transportasi umum sangat tinggi serta tingkat kemacetan yang timbul semakin tinggi pula. Kemacetan yang panjang berdampak pada penurunan kewaspadaan dan timbulnya risiko kecelakaan karena waktu berkendara yang relatif lebih beragam. Menyadari akan risiko kecelakaan yang diakibatkan oleh kelelahan maka diperlukan pengukuran kelelahan pada pengemudi bus di kota Bandung yang belum pernah dik...

  7. Bi-Directional Multi-Station Command/Information Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    signals are presented. The model of the signal flow requirements is presented both schematically and in tabular form From this model, a possible...is presented both in schematic and tabular forms. Finally, a conceptual data bus configura- tion meeting the signal flow requirements has been...A Converter LRI Central Air Dato Computer ’LLI Demultiplexer D/A Converter 0>AI OfA2 Type R Modem Type T Modem A/D Cowerfcr

  8. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Kegl, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions,...

  9. Should bus commuting be subsidized for providing quality transport ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: geetamt@gmail.com. Abstract. Urban transport has ... (ii) Should bus prices be subsidized in order to provide a quality public transport system? (iii) How large is the modal shift in favour ..... been derived through a speed-flow relationship function, with a car free flow speed of 45 km/h, peak traffic speed of 24 km/h and ...

  10. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Wang

    Full Text Available To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China.We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicted bus driver violations.The incidence of illegal stopping at bus stations was 20.2%. Illegal stopping was less frequent on weekends, sunny days, and at stations with cameras, with adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs of 0.81, 0.65 and 0.89, respectively. The incidence of violating traffic light signals was 2.2%, and was lower on cloudy than sunny days (adjusted IRR: 0.60. The incidence of distracted driving was 3.3%. The incidence of distracted driving was less common on cloudy days, rainy or snowy days, and foggy/windy/dusty days compared to sunny days, with adjusted IRRs of 0.54, 0.55 and 0.07, respectively.Traffic violations are common in bus drivers in urban China and they are associated with the date, weather, and presence of traffic cameras at bus station. Further studies are recommended to understand the behavioral mechanisms that may explain bus driver violations and to develop feasible prevention measures.

  11. Evaluation of fatal school bus related crashes and near-term crash mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Donoughe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available School bus crashes are rare in comparison to other crash types, but considering all crashes that occur in and around school buses, they begin to become a noticeable problem and one that tends to attract national attention. As defined by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS, a school bus related crash is a crash that either involves a school bus or a crash where the presence of a school bus is considered as a major contributing factor. Ten years of data indicate that the number of fatal school bus related crashes has remained nearly stagnant despite an increase in the number vehicle safety systems available on the market. The findings also highlight the importance of protecting the non-bus occupants since they are the most likely to incur a serious or fatal injury in the event of a crash. As the most vulnerable user group, pedestrians (typically school-aged children are especially at risk when crossing the road while boarding or exiting a school bus. Until new technologies for reducing school bus related crashes are designed and implemented, school transportation safety can be improved by increasing awareness of school bus stop laws and by implementing existing transportation safety initiatives at school bus stop locations.

  12. HEV Test Bench Based on CAN Bus Sensor Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng ZHAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HEV test bench based on Controller Area Network bus was studied and developed. Control system of HEV power test bench used the CAN bus technology. The application of CAN bus technology on control system development has opened up a new research direction for domestic automobile experimental platform. The HEV power control system development work was completed, including power master controller, electric throttle controller, driving simulation platform, CAN2.0 B communication protocol procedures for formulation, CAN communication monitoring system, the simulation model based on MATLAB code automatic generation technology research, etc. Maximum absorption power of the test bench is 90 kW, the test bench top speed is 6000 r/min, the CAN communication data baud rate is 10~500 k, the conventional electric measurement parameter part precision satisfies the requirement of development of HEV. On the HEV test bench the result of regenerative braking experiment shows that the result got by the test bench was closer to the results got by outdoor road test. And the fuel consumption experiment test results show that the HEV fuel consumption and the charge-discharge character are in linear relationship. The establishment of the test platform for the evaluation of the development of hybrid electric vehicle and power provides physical simulation and test platform.

  13. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  14. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  15. A Dimensional Bus model for integrating clinical and research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ted D; Hum, Richard C; Murphy, James R

    2011-12-01

    Many clinical research data integration platforms rely on the Entity-Attribute-Value model because of its flexibility, even though it presents problems in query formulation and execution time. The authors sought more balance in these traits. Borrowing concepts from Entity-Attribute-Value and from enterprise data warehousing, the authors designed an alternative called the Dimensional Bus model and used it to integrate electronic medical record, sponsored study, and biorepository data. Each type of observational collection has its own table, and the structure of these tables varies to suit the source data. The observational tables are linked to the Bus, which holds provenance information and links to various classificatory dimensions that amplify the meaning of the data or facilitate its query and exposure management. The authors implemented a Bus-based clinical research data repository with a query system that flexibly manages data access and confidentiality, facilitates catalog search, and readily formulates and compiles complex queries. The design provides a workable way to manage and query mixed schemas in a data warehouse.

  16. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  17. Analysis of city buses operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Papírník

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of city buses operation. This analysis is focused on the energy balance of propulsion system of these buses. The energy balance gives an overview about necessary amount of energy for city buses in pure city operation. The operation of city buses is divided for this analysis into three basic modes: stop state, drive and deceleration. The fleet of the same 19 city buses was chosen for collection of all operation data. These city buses are located in one city. The buses were changing all bus routes and were driven by all bus drivers. These conditions are necessary for elimination of bus route topology and bus driver behaviour. The required operation data were saved into engines and transmissions control units. The saved data were uploaded from control units for data processing. The aim of the analysis is determination of the energy for each drive mode. The energy for individual mode gives an overview about possible energy savings when hybrid drive system is used for these buses. The energy balance is groundwork for correct design of hybrid drive system and for hybrid drive system control.

  18. A train for the bus(bars)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    On 8 April, the first SMACC (Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation) teams began work in the LHC tunnel. They are responsible for opening the interconnects between the magnets, laying the groundwork for the series of operations that will be performed by the team riding the ‘consolidation train’.   A technician installs the machine tool that allows them to prepare the surface of the section of the bar where the shunt will be fixed. The LHC’s 1,670 dipoles and quadrupoles are powered by power converters and connected by copper 'busbars’. The superconducting cables run through these bars, carrying a current of up to 11,850 amps. Six superconducting cables meet at each interconnect, where they are held together by a soldered (see box) electrical connection sandwiched between two pieces of copper, forming the splice between the busbars of the neighbouring magnets. The integrity of the electrical circuit is depen...

  19. Development, Testing, and Validation of a Model-Based Tool to Predict Operator Responses in Unexpected Workload Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Angelia; Wickens, Christopher; Sargent, Robert

    2015-01-01

    One human factors challenge is predicting operator performance in novel situations. Approaches such as drawing on relevant previous experience, and developing computational models to predict operator performance in complex situations, offer potential methods to address this challenge. A few concerns with modeling operator performance are that models need to realistic, and they need to be tested empirically and validated. In addition, many existing human performance modeling tools are complex and require that an analyst gain significant experience to be able to develop models for meaningful data collection. This paper describes an effort to address these challenges by developing an easy to use model-based tool, using models that were developed from a review of existing human performance literature and targeted experimental studies, and performing an empirical validation of key model predictions.

  20. 76 FR 68813 - FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... public transit providers to finance capital projects to replace, rehabilitate, and purchase buses and... Ahmad, Regional Administrator, Region 2-New York, Administrator, Region 7-Kansas One Bowling Green, Room..., and Nebraska. New York Metropolitan Office, Region 2-New York, One Bowling Green, Room 428, New York...

  1. 14 CFR 135.2 - Compliance schedule for operators that transition to part 121 of this chapter; certain new...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance schedule for operators that... Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND... shoulder harnesses. (ii) Manufactured on or after December 20, 1997: Section 121.317(a), Fasten seat belt...

  2. Making the ecosystem approach operational-Can regime shifts in ecological- and governance systems facilitate the transition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österblom, H.; Gårdmark, A.; Bergström, L.

    2010-01-01

    Effectively reducing cumulative impacts on marine ecosystems requires co-evolution between science, policy and practice. Here, long-term social–ecological changes in the Baltic Sea are described, illustrating how the process of making the ecosystem approach operational in a large marine ecosystem...

  3. Thermal Performance of the LHC External Auxiliary Bus-Bar Tube Mathematical Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalczyk, P; Sacré, P; Skoczen, Blazej

    1998-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) externally routed auxiliary bus-bar tube (EAB) will house the electrical feeders of the LHC short straight section (SSS) correcting magnets. The superconducting wires w ill be contained in a stainless steel tube and immersed in a quasi-static helium bath. The EAB thermal performance during the cooling of the magnets down to the operating temperature of 1.9 K is studi ed. A 3-d finite element thermal model of the EAB during a cooling process from 293 K to 4.5 K is described. The semi-analytical model of the EAB cool-down from 4.5 K to 1.9 K is also presented.

  4. Parameters Design for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus Using Regenerative Brake Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A design methodology which uses the regenerative brake model is introduced to determine the major system parameters of a parallel electric hybrid bus drive train. Hybrid system parameters mainly include the power rating of internal combustion engine (ICE, gear ratios of transmission, power rating, and maximal torque of motor, power, and capacity of battery. The regenerative model is built in the vehicle model to estimate the regenerative energy in the real road conditions. The design target is to ensure that the vehicle meets the specified vehicle performance, such as speed and acceleration, and at the same time, operates the ICE within an expected speed range. Several pairs of parameters are selected from the result analysis, and the fuel saving result in the road test shows that a 25% reduction is achieved in fuel consumption.

  5. Identification of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durlav Hazarika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several online methods were proposed for investigating the voltage stability condition of an interconnected power system using the measurements of voltage and current phasors at a bus. For this purpose, phasor measurement units (PMUs are used. A PMU is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electrical network, using a common time source (reference bus for synchronisation. This study proposes a method for online monitoring of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables namely – (i real power, (ii reactive power and (iii bus voltage magnitude at a bus. The measurements of real power, reactive power and bus voltage magnitude could be extracted/captured from a smart energy meter. The financial involvement for implementation of the proposed method would significantly lower compared with the PMU-based method.

  6. The effect of an active steering system on city bus drivers muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Christer; Gink Lövgren, Maria; Nilsson, Mats; Willstrand, Tania; Anund, Anna

    2018-02-26

    City bus drivers spend hours driving under time pressure, in congested traffic and in a monotonous sitting position. This leads to unhealthy working conditions, especially in terms of physical and psychological stress. The aim of this study is to investigate if an active steering system can alleviate the musculoskeletal stress involved in manoeuvring a bus. Twenty bus drivers drove a city bus equipped with the Volvo dynamic steering (VDS) support system in real traffic. Steering effort was evaluated with fyography and with a questionnaire. Compared to baseline, VDS significantly reduced the required muscle activity by on average 15 - 25 % while turning, and with up to 68 % in the part of the manoeuvre requiring maximum effort. The bus drivers believed that VDS will help reduce neck and shoulder problems, and they expressed a desire to have VDS installed in their own bus.

  7. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS, which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus, coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introducing novel functions: asynchronous meter trigger, adaptive slot scheduling, and bitmap-wise retransmission request. Through experiments, we demonstrate that BWM-Bus guarantees higher data success ratio with lower data aggregation time, as well as longer lifetime than WM-Bus standard.

  8. Electrical Design and Evaluation of Asynchronous Serial Bus Communication Network of 48 Sensor Platform LSIs with Single-Ended I/O for Integrated MEMS-LSI Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhong Shao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For installing many sensors in a limited space with a limited computing resource, the digitization of the sensor output at the site of sensation has advantages such as a small amount of wiring, low signal interference and high scalability. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS Large-Scale Integration (LSI (referred to as “sensor platform LSI” for bus-networked Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS-LSI integrated sensors. In this LSI, collision avoidance, adaptation and event-driven functions are simply implemented to relieve data collision and congestion in asynchronous serial bus communication. In this study, we developed a network system with 48 sensor platform LSIs based on Printed Circuit Board (PCB in a backbone bus topology with the bus length being 2.4 m. We evaluated the serial communication performance when 48 LSIs operated simultaneously with the adaptation function. The number of data packets received from each LSI was almost identical, and the average sampling frequency of 384 capacitance channels (eight for each LSI was 73.66 Hz.

  9. Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage in a Large Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    The power requirements for inner city transit buses are characterized by power peaks about an order of magnitude larger than the average power usage of the vehicle. For these vehicles, hybrid power trains can offer significantly improved fuel economy and exhaust emissions. A critical design challenge, however, has been developing the energy storage and power management system to respond to these rapid power variations. Most hybrid vehicles today use chemical energy storage batteries to supplement the power from the fuel burning generator unit. Chemical storage batteries however, present several difficulties in power management and control. These difficulties include (1) inadequate life, (2) limited current delivery as well as absorption during regenerative braking, (3) inaccurate measurement of state of charge, and (4) stored energy safety issues. Recent advances in ultra-capacitor technology create an opportunity to address these concerns. The NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with industry and academia, has developed an advanced hybrid electric transit bus using ultra-capacitors as the primary energy storage system. At over 15,000-kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using this advanced energy storage technology. Results of analyses show that the vehicle will match the performance of an equivalent conventionally powered vehicle over typical inner city drive cycles. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and analysis of power flow and vehicle performance.

  10. An Interactive Wireless Communication System for Visually Impaired People Using City Bus Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  11. An interactive wireless communication system for visually impaired people using city bus transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-04-25

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  12. Handoffs and transitions in critical care (HATRICC): protocol for a mixed methods study of operating room to intensive care unit handoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Fall, Meghan B; Beidas, Rinad S; Pascual, Jose L; Collard, Meredith L; Peifer, Hannah G; Chavez, Tyler J; Barry, Mark E; Gutsche, Jacob T; Halpern, Scott D; Fleisher, Lee A; Barg, Frances K

    2014-11-19

    Operating room to intensive care unit handoffs are high-risk events for critically ill patients. Studies in selected patient populations show that standardizing operating room to intensive care unit handoffs improves information exchange and decreases errors. To adapt these findings to mixed surgical populations, we propose to study the implementation of a standardized operating room to intensive care unit handoff process in two intensive care units currently without an existing standard process. The Handoffs and Transitions in Critical Care (HATRICC) study is a hybrid effectiveness- implementation trial of operating room to intensive care unit handoffs. We will use mixed methods to conduct a needs assessment of the current handoff process, adapt published handoff processes, and implement a new standardized handoff process in two academic intensive care units. Needs assessment: We will use non-participant observation to observe the current handoff process. Focus groups, interviews, and surveys of clinicians will elicit participants' impressions about the current process. Adaptation and implementation: We will adapt published standardized handoff processes using the needs assessment findings. We will use small group simulation to test the new process' feasibility. After simulation, we will incorporate the new handoff process into the clinical work of all providers in the study units. Using the same methods employed in the needs assessment phase, we will evaluate use of the new handoff process. The primary effectiveness outcome is the number of information omissions per handoff episode as compared to the pre-intervention period. Additional intervention outcomes include patient intensive care unit length of stay and intensive care unit mortality. The primary implementation outcome is acceptability of the new process. Additional implementation outcomes include feasibility, fidelity and sustainability. The HATRICC study will examine the effectiveness and implementation

  13. Physics Bus: An Innovative Model for Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire

    The Physics Bus is about doing science for fun. It is an innovative model for science outreach whose mission is to awaken joy and excitement in physics for all ages and walks of life - especially those underserved by science enrichment. It is a mobile exhibition of upcycled appliances-reimagined by kids-that showcase captivating physics phenomena. Inside our spaceship-themed school bus, visitors will find: a microwave ionized-gas disco-party, fog rings that shoot from a wheelbarrow tire, a tv whose electron beam is controlled by a toy keyboard, and over 20 other themed exhibits. The Physics Bus serves a wide range of public in diverse locations from local neighborhoods, urban parks and rural schools, to cross-country destinations. Its approachable, friendly and relaxed environment allows for self-paced and self-directed interactions, providing a positive and engaging experience with science. We believe that this environment enriches lives and inspires people. In this presentation we will talk about the nuts and bolts that make this model work, how the project got started, and the resources that keep it going. We will talk about the advantages of being a grassroots and community-based organization, and how programs like this can best interface with universities. We will explain the benefits of focusing on direct interactions and why our model avoids ``teaching'' physics content with words. Situating our approach within a body of research on the value of informal science we will discuss our success in capturing and engaging our audience. By the end of this presentation we hope to broaden your perception of what makes a successful outreach program and encourage you to value and support alternative outreach models such as this one. In Collaboration with: Eva Luna, Cornell University; Erik Herman, Cornell University; Christopher Bell, Ithaca City School District.

  14. Spacelab data processing facility (SLDPF) Quality Assurance (QA)/Data Accounting (DA) expert systems: Transition from prototypes to operational systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Lisa

    1988-01-01

    The SLDPF is responsible for the capture, quality monitoring processing, accounting, and shipment of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads (ASP) telemetry data to various user facilities. Expert systems will aid in the performance of the quality assurance and data accounting functions of the two SLDPF functional elements: the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). Prototypes were developed for each as independent efforts. The SIPS Knowledge System Prototype (KSP) used the commercial shell OPS5+ on an IBM PC/AT; the SOPS Expert System Prototype used the expert system shell CLIPS implemented on a Macintosh personal computer. Both prototypes emulate the duties of the respective QA/DA analysts based upon analyst input and predetermined mission criteria parameters, and recommended instructions and decisions governing the reprocessing, release, or holding for further analysis of data. These prototypes demonstrated feasibility and high potential for operational systems. Increase in productivity, decrease of tedium, consistency, concise historial records, and a training tool for new analyses were the principal advantages. An operational configuration, taking advantage of the SLDPF network capabilities, is under development with the expert systems being installed on SUN workstations. This new configuration in conjunction with the potential of the expert systems will enhance the efficiency, in both time and quality, of the SLDPF's release of Spacelab/AST data products.

  15. Applications for improved inventory management for public transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This report documents and presents the results of a Testing and Demonstration (T&D) Project on applications for improved inventory management for public transit systems. This project is a follow-up to an earlier study on inventory management for bus ...

  16. Measurement of the Residual Resistivity Ratio of the Bus Bars Copper Stabilizer of the 13 kA Circuits of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonio, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Schmidt, R; Verweij, A; Siemko, A; Claudet, S; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H

    2012-01-01

    After the incident of September 2008, the operational beam energy of the LHC has been set to 3.5 TeV, since not all joints of the superconducting (SC) bus bars between magnets have the required quality for 7 TeV operation. This decision is based on simulations to determine the safe current in the main dipole and quadrupole circuits, reproducing the thermal behaviour of a quenched superconducting joint by taking into account all relevant factors that affect a possible thermal runaway. One important parameter is the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the copper stabilizer of the bus bar connecting the superconducting magnets. A dedicated campaign to measure the RRR for the main 13 kA circuits of the LHC in all sectors was performed during the Christmas stop in December 2010 and January 2011. The measurement method as well as the data analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  17. Optimal Charging Schedule Planning and Economic Analysis for Electric Bus Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Ceng Leou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The battery capacity of electric buses (EB used for public transportation is greater than that of electric cars, and the charging power is also several times greater than that used in electric cars; this can result in high energy consumption and negatively impact power distribution networks. This paper proposes a framework to determine the optimal contracted power capacity and charging schedule of an EB charging station in such a way that energy costs can be reduced. A mathematical model of controlled charging, which includes the capacity and energy charges of the station, was developed to minimize costs. The constraints of the model include the charging characteristics of an EB and the operational guidelines of the bus company. A practical EB charging station was used to verify the proposed model. The financial viability of this EB charging station is also studied in this paper. The economic analysis model for this charging station considers investment and operational costs, and the operational revenue. Sensitivity analyses with respect to some key parameters are also performed in this paper. Based on actual operational routes and EB charging schemes, test results indicate that the EB charging station investment is feasible, and the planning model proposed can be used to determine optimal station power capacity and minimize energy costs.

  18. Ideology in Reporting the ‘Operation Cast Lead’, a Transitivity Analysis of the Arab News and New York Times Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Bello

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to use Transitivity and Critical Linguistics to demonstrate that news is (or can be socially constructed and that reality in the press is more about opinions and propositions than facts. The language that is used to represent people and events is chosen from options and choices within the linguistic system that may not be value-free or coincidental. These choices can seek to represent the world in a particular ideologically-enforced manner. The analysis done in this paper using transitivity framework indicates how grammatical resources like agency deletion, negative/positive representation of actors, foregrounding/backgrounding, nominalization and so on are used by both the New York Times and Arab News to foster ideological interests and to underscore their favored worldviews. In the Operation Cast Lead war between Israel and Hamas, the Arab News reports are shown to be very critical of Israel while defending Hamas. The New York Times, on the other hand, is shown as mitigating Israeli assaults and indicting Hamas mostly for the overall negative consequences of the war.

  19. Pilot Study of Person Robot Interaction in a Public Transit Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Bak, Thomas; Maler, Ouri

    2009-01-01

    mobile agents into public urban transit area. To investigate the hypothesis, an experiment was carried out at a bus terminal serving both a transit space and a shopping mall, where an autonomous robot were to detect and follow random people. The people that were followed were asked to fill our...

  20. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is the seventh in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results from August 2012 through July 2013 for five FCEB demonstrations at four transit agencies.

  1. Impact of Efficient Driving in Professional Bus Fleets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Garcia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines of the vehicles in the transport sector are responsible for most of the CO2 emissions into the environment. An alternative to reduce fuel consumption is to promote efficient driving techniques. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of efficient driving on fuel consumption in professional fleets. Data captured from the engine control unit (ECU of the vehicles are complemented with external information from weather stations and context data from the transport companies. The paper proposes linear and quadratic models in order to quantify the impact of all the terms influencing energy consumption. The analysis was made from the traces captured from a passenger transport company in Spain with more than 50 bus routes. 20 vehicles of five different models were monitored and 58 drivers participated in the study. The results indicate that efficient driving has significant influence on fuel consumption, which confirms efficient driving as a valid and economical option for reducing consumption and therefore emissions of harmful particles into the atmosphere. According to the proposed model, in average external conditions, a driver that increases efficiency from 25% to 75% can reach savings in fuel consumption of up to 16 L/100 km in the analysed bus fleet, which is a significant improvement considering the long distances covered by professionals of the transport sector.

  2. CERPEN FARUK “BUS KOTA” DALAM SEMIOTIK ROLAND BARTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Widyatwati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature called beautiful if it contains the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful for the readers. Short story “Bus Kota” (City Bus containing the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful to the reader. The mandate will be revealed by Roland Barthes' semiotic theory in the book S/Z. Literature has its own allure and text have accrued but not due to independence because of the difference in quality. Texts merge into a unity, or restore any text not as an individual but as a form of plurality. Literature as part of a social system is an expression of the author's sense of the outpouring of public life. Literary works can express themselves in the author's view the social and cultural changes in society because of the development of information technology and rapid. Technological developments and socio-cultural information can change in society so as to affect the psychology of the people. Society must have a thickness of faith not only for themselves, but to be able to maintain equanimity in the life of a pluralistic society

  3. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  4. Studying customer loyalty at Daewoo express bus service, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables. However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.

  5. Efficiency and robustness of different bus network designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, John Zhen Fu; Bin Othman, Nasri; Ng, Keng Meng; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    We compare the efficiencies and robustness of four transport networks that can be possibly formed as a result of deliberate city planning. The networks are constructed based on their spatial resemblance to the cities of Manhattan (lattice), Sudan (random), Beijing (single-blob) and Greater Cairo (dual-blob). For a given type, a genetic algorithm is employed to obtain an optimized set of the bus routes. We then simulate how commuter travels using Yen's algorithms for k shortest paths on an adjacency matrix. The cost of traveling such as walking between stations is captured by varying the weighted sums of matrices. We also consider the number of transfers a posteriori by looking at the computed shortest paths. With consideration to distances via radius of gyration, redundancies of travel and number of bus transfers, our simulations indicate that random and dual-blob are more efficient than single-blob and lattice networks. Moreover, dual-blob type is least robust when node removals are targeted but is most resilient when node failures are random. The work hopes to guide and provide technical perspectives on how geospatial distribution of a city limits the optimality of transport designs.

  6. MANAJEMEN RISIKO DAN KINERJA LABA : STUDI KASUS PADA BANK UMUM SYARIAH (BUS)

    OpenAIRE

    -, RAHMAT NURUL PRIMA. N

    2016-01-01

    2016 Manajemen Risiko dan Kinerja Laba : Studi Kasus Pada Bank Umum Syariah (BUS) Rahmat Nurul Prima Muhammad Sobarsyah Nur Alamsyah Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh implementasi manajemen risiko terhadap kinerja laba pada bank umum syariah (BUS) yang diproksikan dengan ROE. Spektrum implementasi manajemen risiko yang dijadikan objek penelitian adalah risiko kredit yang diproksikan dengan NPF, risiko likuiditas yang diproksikan dengan F...

  7. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  8. Split, Send, Reassemble: A Formal Specification of a CAN Bus Protocol Stack

    OpenAIRE

    van Glabbeek, Rob; Höfner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We present a formal model for a fragmentation and a reassembly protocol running on top of the standardised CAN bus, which is widely used in automotive and aerospace applications. Although the CAN bus comes with an in-built mechanism for prioritisation, we argue that this is not sufficient and provide another protocol to overcome this shortcoming.

  9. Desain Dan Implementasi Sistem Komunikasi Prosesor Parallel Pada Aplikasi Robotik Berbasis Bus Serial I2C

    OpenAIRE

    Mubarak, Tito; Sumaryo, Sony; Abdurohman, Maman

    2008-01-01

    Dewasa ini desain sistem embedded tidak cukup lagi hanya dengan menerapkan satu buahmicroprocessor atau microcontroller saja. Karena sistem yang dikontrol mempunyai peralatan dan tugas yangsemakin banyak. Sehingga perlu menerapkan desentralisasi dan paralelisme pada sistem berbasismicroprocessor.Pada Penelitian ini, dirancang suatu sistem komunikasi antar microcontroller sebagai implementasi darimicroprocessor. Yaitu berupa suatu sistem bus yang berbasis pada I2C serial bus yang dikeluarkan o...

  10. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Jasper; Langer, Martin; Gill, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a questionnaire representing 60 launched CubeSats and 44 to be launched CubeSats. It is found that the bus interfaces are not the main driver for mission failures. However, it is concluded that the Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) data bus, as implemented in a great majority of the CubeSats, caused some catastrophic satellite failures and a vast amount of bus lockups. The power distribution may lead to catastrophic failures if the power lines are not protected against overcurrent. A connector and wiring standard widely implemented in CubeSats is based on the PC/104 standard. Most participants find the 104 pin connector of this standard too large. For a future CubeSat bus interface standard, it is recommended to implement a reliable data bus, a power distribution with overcurrent protection and a wiring harness with smaller connectors compared with PC/104.

  11. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 8. Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    generated for the resulting formatted word or an additional bit appended to the bus/group identification label as described in Paragraph 8.2.3. 8.2.3...shall be identical to that described in Paragraph 8.2. (5) The frame length shall be fixed and shall be the same for each track used for a given bus

  12. 75 FR 71792 - National Express Corporation-Control Exemption-Vogel Bus Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... passenger carrier (MC-274520). NEC indirectly owns and controls one interstate motor passenger carrier... Surface Transportation Board National Express Corporation--Control Exemption--Vogel Bus Company, Inc... approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 14303(a)(5) and 49 CFR 1182 to acquire control of Vogel Bus Company, Inc...

  13. Origins of evolutionary transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    An 'evolutionary transition in individuality' or 'major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can happen, especially how they can get started.

  14. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An `evolutionary transition in individuality' or `major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can ...

  15. An Integrated, Evidence-Based Approach to Transitioning to Operations: Specifications for Future Replacement Lights on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveton, Lauren; Brainard, George; Whitmire, Alexandra; Kubey, Alan; Maida, Jim; Bowen, Charles; Johnston, Smith

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) as its primary light source. These GLAs are composed of fluorescent lighting and are integrated into the electrical system on Station. Seventy seven of these units are distributed throughout the vehicle, and many of the lights, having reached their lifespan, are no longer functional; while backup panels are available on orbit, it is anticipated that the supplies of fluorescents on the station will be exhausted by 2015. The ISS vehicle office is therefore preparing to replace all of the GLAs, with Solid State Light Assemblies (SSLAs) composed of white Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). In the Spring of 2010, an announcement for the replacement lights was released. The announcement specified that proposed lighting systems should use LED technology, given certain power draw restrictions and no changes to how the lights are currently controlled (a central on/off switch per node, and a dial to turn on/off and increase brightness on each lighting unit). The replacement lights are to follow current specifications for brightness levels (lux) and color temperature (degrees Kelvin, or K). Reportedly, the lighting on orbit is dim and suboptimal. The average brightness of the lights (given all lights within a node are operational) is 291 lux; by comparison, recommended office lighting ranges from 200 to 500 lux, and daylight ranges on a typical overcast day, consists of 10,000 to 25,000 lux. Representatives from NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) and Human Factors and Habitability identified that maintaining current brightness levels limits visual acuity, work space, and the use of light as a countermeasure for improving circadian entrainment, hastening phase shifting, evoking acute alertness and enhancing performance. Revised lighting specifications are therefore needed to optimize the replacement lights for the ISS.

  16. 77 FR 6172 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program and National Research Program Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... this notice. This commitment should be indicated by inclusion of preliminary proposed performance... plan and identify funds from other FTA grant programs, such as Sections 5310 (Elderly/Disabled), 5316... how veterans, especially disabled veterans, will be engaged in the development and operation of the...

  17. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  18. Bus driving assistance system for town area by using ATmega328P microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Fauzi; Soon, Tan Jiah; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-09-01

    Recently, several bus accidents happened because of bus driver's behavior. In fact, there is no dedicated tool for assisting them to drive safely. This project gives solutions to this by assisting the driver, according to the speed and acceleration of the bus. These data are collected by using a motion processing unit (MPU-6050) and a global positioning system (GPS) and then indicate the driving mode status on the LEDs. All data and status are recorded in a secure digital (SD) card for the authority or the bus company to analyze the driving behavior of a bus driver. This system has been successfully developed and tested in two different areas which includes the UTHM main campus and the road from Parit Raja to Batu Pahat.

  19. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  20. Very-low-frequency and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields associated with electric shuttle bus wireless charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Kavet, Robert; Bailey, J R; Halliwell, John

    2014-01-01

    Tests conducted to date at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) indicate that wireless charging of the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority's (CARTA) downtown shuttle bus, currently operating with off-board battery charging technology, offers significant improvements in performance and cost. The system operates at a frequency of 20 kHz and a peak power of 60 kW. Because the system's wireless charging is expected to occur during a nominal 3-min charging period with passengers on-board, the magnetic and electric fields associated with charging were characterised at UTC's Advanced Vehicle Test Facility and compared with established human exposure limits. The two most prominent exposure limits are those published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Both organisations include limits for groups who are trained (workers in specific industries) to be aware of electromagnetic environments and their potential hazards, as well as a lower set of limits for the general public, who are assumed to lack such awareness. None of the magnetic or electric fields measured either within or outside the bus during charging exceeded either the ICNIRP or the IEEE exposure limits for the general public.