WorldWideScience

Sample records for bus stop shelters

  1. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

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    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  2. Model Passengers’ Travel Time for Conventional Bus Stop

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    Guangzhao Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited number of berths can result in a subsequent bus stopping at the upstream of a bus stop when all berths are occupied. When this traffic phenomenon occurs, passengers waiting on the platform usually prefer walking to the stopped bus, which leads to additional walking time before boarding the bus. Therefore, passengers’ travel time consumed at a bus stop is divided into waiting time, additional walking time, and boarding time. This paper proposed a mathematical model for analyzing passengers’ travel time at conventional bus stop based on theory of stochastic service system. Field-measured and simulated data were designated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. By analyzing the results, conclusion was conducted that short headway can reduce passengers’ waiting time at bus stop. Meanwhile, the theoretical analysis explained the inefficiency of bus stops with more than three berths from the perspective of passengers’ additional walking time. Additional walking time will increase in a large scale when the number of berths at a bus stop exceedsthe threshold of three.

  3. A hierarchical process for optimizing bus stop distribution

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    Zhengdong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit stop spacing is an important indicator in deploying public transit services. This paper presents a hierarchical process for optimizing distribution of bus stops in the context of multi-modal transit development in large cities. Firstly, connection stops are generated manually to connect with other transit facilities. Secondly, key stops are identified based on a coverage model that minimizing total distance, using node centrality value as weight. Thirdly, ordinary bus stops are optimized with coverage model that maximizing potential transit demand. The analytical process is based on a combination of raster and vector data models in Geographical information system, which allows for flexible computing and effective evaluation.

  4. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  5. Analysis of movable bus stop boarding and alighting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using movable and reusable boarding and alighting (B&A) pads at bus stops. : Potential design alternatives in terms of materials and structural support for these pads were evaluated. The review : focused on the ...

  6. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

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    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  7. Magnitude and correlates of bird collisions at glass bus shelters in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christine M; Riding, Corey S; Loss, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife residing in urban landscapes face many human-related threats to their survival. For birds, collision with glass on manmade structures has been identified as a major hazard, causing hundreds of millions of avian fatalities in North America every year. Although research has investigated factors associated with bird-glass collision mortality at buildings, no prior studies have focused on bird fatalities at glass-walled bus shelters. Our objectives in this study were to describe the magnitude of bird-bus shelter collisions in the city of Stillwater, Oklahoma and assess potential predictors of collision risk, including characteristics of shelters (glass area) and surrounding land cover (e.g., vegetative features). We surveyed for bird carcasses and indirect collision evidence at 18 bus shelters over a five-month period. Linear regression and model selection results revealed that the amount of glass on shelters and the area of lawn within 50 m of shelters were both positively related to fatal bird collisions; glass area was also positively associated with observations of collision evidence on glass surfaces. After accounting for scavenger removal of carcasses, we estimate that a minimum of 34 birds are killed each year between May and September by collision with the 36 bus shelters in the city of Stillwater. While our study provides an initial look at bird fatalities at bus shelters, additional research is needed to generate a large-scale estimate of collision mortality and to assess species composition of fatalities at a national scale. Designing new bus shelters to include less glass and retrofitting existing shelters to increase visibility of glass to birds will likely reduce fatal bird collisions at bus shelters and thus reduce the cumulative magnitude of anthropogenic impacts to birds in cities.

  8. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

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    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  9. Biobjective Optimization and Evaluation for Transit Signal Priority Strategies at Bus Stop-to-Stop Segment

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    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new optimization framework for the transit signal priority strategies in terms of green extension, red truncation, and phase insertion at the stop-to-stop segment of bus lines. The optimization objective is to minimize both passenger delay and the deviation from bus schedule simultaneously. The objective functions are defined with respect to the segment between bus stops, which can include the adjacent signalized intersections and downstream bus stops. The transit priority signal timing is optimized by using a biobjective optimization framework considering both the total delay at a segment and the delay deviation from the arrival schedules at bus stops. The proposed framework is evaluated using a VISSIM model calibrated with field traffic volume and traffic signal data of Caochangmen Boulevard in Nanjing, China. The optimized TSP-based phasing plans result in the reduced delay and improved reliability, compared with the non-TSP scenario under the different traffic flow conditions in the morning peak hour. The evaluation results indicate the promising performance of the proposed optimization framework in reducing the passenger delay and improving the bus schedule adherence for the urban transit system.

  10. Cellular Automata Based Modeling for Evaluating Different Bus Stop Designs in China

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    Haoyang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate mixed traffic flow composed of motor vehicles and bicycles near bus stops. Three typical types of bus stops which are common in China are considered in the model, including two types of curbside bus stops and one type of bus bay stops. Passenger transport capacity of three types of bus stops, which is applied to evaluate the bus stop design, is calculated based on the corresponding traffic flow rate. According to the simulation results, the flow rates of both motor vehicles and bicycles exhibit phase transition from free flow to the saturation one at the critical point. The results also show that the larger the interaction between motor vehicle and bicycle flow is near curbside bus stops, the more the value of saturated flows drops. Curbside bus stops are more suitable when the conflicts between two flows are small and the inflow rate of motor vehicles is low. On the contrary, bus bay stops should be applied due to their ability to reduce traffic conflicts. Findings of this study can provide useful suggestions on bus stop selection considering different inflow rate of motor vehicles and bicycles simultaneously.

  11. A Hierarchical Approach to Optimizing Bus Stop Distribution in Large and Fast Developing Cities

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    Zhengdong Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Public transit plays a key role in shaping the transportation structure of large and fast growing cities. To cope with high population and employment density, such cities usually resort to multi-modal transit services, such as rail, BRT and bus. These modes are strategically connected to form an effective transit network. Among the transit modes, bus stops need to be properly deployed to maintain an acceptable walking accessibility. This paper presents a hierarchical process for optimizing bus stop locations in the context of fast growing multi-modal transit services. Three types of bus stops are identified hierarchically, which includes connection stops, key stops and ordinary stops. Connection stops are generated manually to connect with other transit facilities. Key stops and ordinary stops are optimized with coverage models that are respectively weighted by network centrality measure and potential demand. A case study in a Chinese city suggests the hierarchical approach may generate more effective stop distribution.

  12. DETERMINATION OF THE DELAY DEPARTURE TIME OF THE BUS FROM STOPPING POINT INTO THE CAR FLOW

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    P. Gorbachov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for estimation of the bus departure delax from the bus stopping point after passenger loading is presented. The model allows to take into account the traffic density on a particular road section of the transport network, as well as the bus parameters.

  13. Iterated Local Search Algorithm with Strategic Oscillation for School Bus Routing Problem with Bus Stop Selection

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    Mohammad Saied Fallah Niasar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available he school bus routing problem (SBRP represents a variant of the well-known vehicle routing problem. The main goal of this study is to pick up students allocated to some bus stops and generate routes, including the selected stops, in order to carry students to school. In this paper, we have proposed a simple but effective metaheuristic approach that employs two features: first, it utilizes large neighborhood structures for a deeper exploration of the search space; second, the proposed heuristic executes an efficient transition between the feasible and infeasible portions of the search space. Exploration of the infeasible area is controlled by a dynamic penalty function to convert the unfeasible solution into a feasible one. Two metaheuristics, called N-ILS (a variant of the Nearest Neighbourhood with Iterated Local Search algorithm and I-ILS (a variant of Insertion with Iterated Local Search algorithm are proposed to solve SBRP. Our experimental procedure is based on the two data sets. The results show that N-ILS is able to obtain better solutions in shorter computing times. Additionally, N-ILS appears to be very competitive in comparison with the best existing metaheuristics suggested for SBRP

  14. Computation on Bus Delay at Stops in Beijing through Statistical Analysis

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    Shaokuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delays at bus stops have seriously affected the efficiency of bus operation and the improvement of level of services of public transportation and greatly influenced the preferences of passengers to choose bus services. In this paper, the analysis on arriving, dwell and leaving process of buses and the method to calculate bus delays at stops are proposed according to survey data from three bus routes in Beijing. Statistical analysis is then adopted respectively to evaluate average times that buses are docking at curbside and bay-style stops. Moreover, it is noted that different load factors of passengers in buses have significantly influenced the average boarding and alighting time per person. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed methods is illustrated through case studies. This study is crucial and helpful for the planners and operators to evaluate the efficiency and level of service of urban public transportation.

  15. Bus Stops Location and Bus Route Planning Using Mean Shift Clustering and Ant Colony in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supangat, Kenny; Eko Soelistio, Yustinus

    2017-03-01

    Traffic Jam has been a daily problem for people in Jakarta which is one of the busiest city in Indonesia up until now. Even though the official government has tried to reduce the impact of traffic issues by developing a new public transportation which takes up a lot of resources and time, it failed to diminish the problem. The actual concern to this problem actually lies in how people move between places in Jakarta where they always using their own vehicle like cars, and motorcycles that fill most of the street in Jakarta. Among much other public transportations that roams the street of Jakarta, Buses is believed to be an efficient transportation that can move many people at once. However, the location of the bus stop is now have moved to the middle of the main road, and its too far for the nearby residence to access to it. This paper proposes an optimal location of optimal bus stops in West Jakarta that is experimentally proven to have a maximal distance of 350 m. The optimal location is estimated by means of mean shift clustering method while the optimal routes are calculated using Ant Colony algorithm. The bus stops locations rate of error is 0.07% with overall route area of 32 km. Based on our experiments, we believe our proposed bus stop plan can be an interesting alternative to reduce traffic congestion in West Jakarta.

  16. Evaluation of Effective Factors on Travel Time in Optimization of Bus Stops Placement Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargegol, Iraj; Ghorbanzadeh, Mahyar; Ghasedi, Meisam; Rastbod, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    In congested cities, locating and proper designing of bus stops according to the unequal distribution of passengers is crucial issue economically and functionally, since this subject plays an important role in the use of bus system by passengers. Location of bus stops is a complicated subject; by reducing distances between stops, walking time decreases, but the total travel time may increase. In this paper, a specified corridor in the city of Rasht in north of Iran is studied. Firstly, a new formula is presented to calculate the travel time, by which the number of stops and consequently, the travel time can be optimized. An intended corridor with specified number of stops and distances between them is addressed, the related formulas to travel time are created, and its travel time is calculated. Then the corridor is modelled using a meta-heuristic method in order that the placement and the optimal distances of bus stops for that are determined. It was found that alighting and boarding time along with bus capacity are the most effective factors affecting travel time. Consequently, it is better to have more concentration on indicated factors for improving the efficiency of bus system.

  17. An Improved Model for Headway-Based Bus Service Unreliability Prevention with Vehicle Load Capacity Constraint at Bus Stops

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    Weiya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved model for improving headway-based bus route service reliability at bus stops using real-time preventive operation control, taking into account dynamic interaction among random passenger demand, stochastic driving conditions of route segments, and vehicle load capacity constraint. In this model, the real-time information of passenger demand and vehicle operation is involved to predict the imminent unacceptable headway deviation, in the case of which some in-time preventive control strategies are deployed according to the given control rules. As a case study, a single fixed bus route with high-frequency services was simulated and different scenarios of real-time preventive operation control were performed. Headway adherence and average passenger wait time were used to measure bus service reliability. The results show that the improved model is closer to the real bus route service, and using real-time information to predict potential service unreliability and trigger in-time preventive control can reduce bus bunching and avoid big gap.

  18. Development of bus-stop time models in dense urban areas : a case study in Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Bus transit reliability depends on several factors including the route of travel, traffic conditions, time of day, and conditions at : the bus stops along the route. The number of passengers alighting or boarding, fare payment method, dwell time (DT)...

  19. Bus stops and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, D Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D; Johnston, Brian D; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J Jaime; Ebel, Beth E

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. This was a matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossings in Lima, Peru. We performed a random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February 2011 to September 2011. A total of 97 intersection cases representing 1134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October 2010 and January 2011, and their matched controls, were included. The main exposures assessed were presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. The main outcome measure was occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision. Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53 to 7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Formal and informal bus stops were associated with higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76 to 22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37 to 6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high-income countries. In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a threefold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices, such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Particles exposure while sitting at bus stops of hot and humid Singapore

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    Velasco, Erik; Tan, Sok Huang

    2016-10-01

    Transport microenvironments represent hotspots of personal exposure to airborne toxics, particularly of ultrafine particles. Thus, a large exposure may be experienced during daily commuting trips. Amongst these microenvironments, bus stops are critical because of the commuters' close proximity to fresh fumes rich in particles emitted by passing, idling and accelerating buses and motor vehicles, in general. Standing at a bus stop may represent a period of disproportionately high exposure and it is, therefore, essential to know the number, chemical composition and physical characteristics of such particles for a proper public health assessment and design of mobility strategies. On this account, a set of portable and battery operated sensors were used to evaluate a number of properties of the traffic particles to which thousands of citizens are daily exposed at bus stops of Singapore. In terms of fine particles, the exposure concentration was on average 1.5-3 times higher than the mean concentration at ambient level reported by the local authorities. On average 60% of those particles corresponded to black carbon. An important presence of particle-bound polycyclic aromatics was observed. The particle number concentration and active surface area were effective metrics to quantify ultrafine particles, as expected both showed strong correlations. The number of particles at bus stops was on average 3.5 times higher than at ambient level. The most alarming issue was probably the size of the particles. Assuming spherical particles, a median of 27 nm was estimated based on the active surface area and particle number data. Particles of this size form the nucleation mode, which is related to harmful health effects.

  1. Inductive Power Transfer Systems for Bus-Stop-Powered Electric Vehicles

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    Chung-Chuan Hou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an inductive power transfer (IPT system for electric vehicles (EVs based on EE-shaped ferrite cores. The issues of the IPT system such as efficiency, air gap, displacement, dislocation, and motion are discussed. Furthermore, finite element analysis software is utilized to simulate the IPT system operated under large air gap conditions. Simulation and measurement results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed scheme and meet the requirements for bus-stop-powered EVs.

  2. Bus-stop Based Real Time Passenger Information System – Case Study Maribor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čelan, Marko; Klemenčič, Mitja; Mrgole, Anamarija L.; Lep, Marjan

    2017-10-01

    Real time passenger information system is one of the key element of promoting public transport. For the successful implementation of real time passenger information systems, various components should be considered, such as: passenger needs and requirements, stakeholder involvement, technological solution for tracking, data transfer, etc. This article carrying out designing and evaluation of real time passenger information (RTPI) in the city of Maribor. The design phase included development of methodology for selection of appropriate macro and micro location of the real-time panel, development of a real-time passenger algorithm, definition of a technical specification, financial issues and time frame. The evaluation shows that different people have different requirements; therefore, the system should be adaptable to be used by various types of people, according to the age, the purpose of journey, experience of using public transport, etc. The average difference between perceived waiting time for a bus is 35% higher than the actual waiting time and grow with the headway increase. Experiences from Maribor have shown that the reliability of real time passenger system (from technical point of view) must be close to 100%, otherwise the system may have negative impact on passengers and may discourage the use of public transport. Among considered events of arrivals during the test period, 92% of all prediction were accurate. The cost benefit analysis has focused only on potential benefits from reduced perceived users waiting time and foreseen costs of real time information system in Maribor for 10 years’ period. Analysis shows that the optimal number for implementing real time passenger information system at the bus stops in Maribor is set on 83 bus stops (approx. 20 %) with the highest number of passenger. If we consider all entries at the chosen bus stops, the total perceived waiting time on yearly level could be decreased by about 60,000 hours.

  3. Research on Bus Stop Design in Modern Cities Based on Concept of Harmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.

    The urbanization process and expansion have brought about the traffic growth and promoted the continuous development of urban traffic, making traffic become the principal component of urban function as the key factor maintaining the urban vitality. The traffic harmony acts as the effective approach to solve all the problems. The development of harmonious public transport, endeavor to construct the harmonious bus stations in urban areas are the inevitable paths to relieve the difficulties of urban traffic.

  4. Does Operation Scheduling Make a Difference: Tapping the Potential of Optimized Design for Skipping-Stop Strategy in Reducing Bus Emissions

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    Xumei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of corporate social responsibility has promoted bus operation agencies to rethink how to provide not only efficient but also environmentally friendly services for residents. A study on the potential of using an optimized design of skip-stop services, one of the essential operational strategies in practice, to reduce emissions is conducted in this paper. The underlying scheduling problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem with the primary objective of optimizing the total costs for both passengers and operating agencies, as well as with the secondary objective of minimizing bus emissions. A solution method is developed to solve the problem. A real-world case of Route 16 in Beijing is studied, in which the optimal scheduling strategy that maximizes the cost savings and environmental benefits is determined. The costs and emissions of the proposed scheduling strategy are compared with the optimal scheduling with skip-stop services without considering bus emissions. The results show that the proposed scheduling strategy outperforms the other operating strategy with respect to operational costs and bus emissions. A sensitivity study is then conducted to investigate the impact of the fleet size in operations and passenger demand on the effectiveness of the proposed stop-skipping strategy considering bus emissions.

  5. Mobilitätserfahrungen und Grenz-Infrastruktur - Bus-Stop Nickelsdorf 2015, eine Bestandsaufnahme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hieslmayer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A video animation serves to characterise the mobilities and processes around the arrival of refugees at a border checkpoint. The municipality of Nickelsdorf (province of „Burgenland“ and the refugee arrivals in fall 2015 serve as field. The authors consider borders neither as simple thresholds nor as ramparts, but as socio-political places that de-mobilize or accelerate transit and sustained movement. The refugees’/migrants’ routes in the Balkans coincide with the biographical mobilities of the bus drivers who transport the arriving people, traffickers are in connivance with customs officers, and infrastructures in proximity of borders boost or collapse in accordance with the changing border regimes. Transnational networks continue to operate in spite of routes and borders that are politically declared as being “closed”.

  6. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  7. Request-Centric Wireless Bus Information Management System

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    Ying-Chih Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This invention relates to a wireless bus information management system, which includes bus stop and vehicle management subsystems. The management signals are transmittable between bus stops and the vehicle. Based on vehicle management signals, the bus stop management subsystem can obtain information about the bus route identification, the number of unoccupied seats, the intention to stop or not, etc. Similarly, with the bus stop management signals, the vehicle management subsystem can make the decision of stopping. Accordingly, when a passenger wants to get off the vehicle or there are unoccupied seats, the vehicle management subsystem will inform the bus stop management subsystem such that the passengers waiting at the bus stop may flexibly schedule their travel plan. The proposed distributed wireless system is detailed by a prototype implementation and a simulation analysis, which is shown to be feasible and scalable.

  8. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  9. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  10. Permitted Shelters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Inventory of all permitted shelters in the City of Pittsburgh. Includes facility name, shelter name, location, and number of grills and tables.

  11. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  12. Emergency Shelters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The report gives all the research, teaching, seminars carried in the duration of the shelter cluster. It concludes with proposing relevant research agendas in the field of emergency architecture......The report gives all the research, teaching, seminars carried in the duration of the shelter cluster. It concludes with proposing relevant research agendas in the field of emergency architecture...

  13. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  14. Impedance of bus bars: influence of the design characteristics and results of measurements; Impedancia de barramentos blindados: influencia das caracteristicas construtivas e resultados praticos de medicoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomeisel, Eduardo [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Orlando, FL (United States); D' Avila, Ricardo Santos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LAC/IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Altas Correntes

    2008-12-15

    This article focuses on bus bars, used in industrial and building installations, and is based on bus bars for the following application: power distribution, sheltered environments, low voltage (<1000 V) phase 60Hz.

  15. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  16. A Self-Adjusting Method to Resist Bus Bunching Based on Boarding Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus bunching is one of the most serious problems of urban bus systems. Bus bunching increases waiting and travel time of passengers. Many bus systems use schedules to reach equal headways. Compared to the idea of schedules and the target headway introduced later, we propose a new method to improve the efficiency of a bus system and avoid bus bunching by boarding limits. Our solution can be effectively implemented when buses cannot travel as planned because of bad road conditions and dynamic demands at bus stops. Besides, using our method, bus headways reach the state with equal headways dynamically and spontaneously without drivers’ explicit intervention. Moreover, the method can improve the level of the bus service and reduce total travel time of passengers. We verify our method using an ideal bus route and a real bus route, both showing the success of the proposed method.

  17. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  18. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  19. Recommendations for yield-to-bus traffic control devices and bus pullout bays design characteristics : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Bus pullout bays are being installed increasingly : on Floridas roads as a safety factor and so that : stopped buses do not impede traffic. In Florida, : state law requires car drivers to yield to buses : when a bus needs to reenter the roadway af...

  20. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model untuk Optimalisasi Jumlah Bus Transjakarta Koridor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road user causing traffic jam finds out a way, busway. However, in its implementation, the number of fleet available does not enough to take the passengers. It results in the an amassed of passengers at several bus stops. This leads to passenger dissatisfaction satisfaction which eventually causes Transjakarta users to reuse private cars. Definitely this situation may builds up traffic jams. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model is used to simulate public transportation that operates regularly. 

  1. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  2. Evacuation Shelters - MDC_HurricaneShelter

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label feature class of Miami-Dade County Hurricane Evacuation Shelters (HEC) including Special Need Evacuation Centers (SNEC) and Medical Management Facilities...

  3. Protective Vertical Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-29

    strengths of 27.6 MPa and 41.1 MPa, respectively. The mix proportions are reported in Table 1. Type II high - early portland cement was used in the...of a shelter transition section, thickness-to-radius ratio (t/r) of the shelter tube section, and concrete strength ) on shelter response. In addition...kilograms Water , in kilograms 189 155 Pozzoligh, in milliliters 1183 1124 Entrained air, as a percentage 3 3 Slump, in millimeters 127 127 Water / cement

  4. GO Bus impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    NJ TRANSIT launched two relatively new enhanced bus services: GO 25 serving the : Springfield Avenue corridor in 2008 and GO 28 serving the Bloomfield Avenue corridor in 2009. : As an enhanced but not full Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) service, GO Bus feat...

  5. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  6. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Wang

    Full Text Available To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China.We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicted bus driver violations.The incidence of illegal stopping at bus stations was 20.2%. Illegal stopping was less frequent on weekends, sunny days, and at stations with cameras, with adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs of 0.81, 0.65 and 0.89, respectively. The incidence of violating traffic light signals was 2.2%, and was lower on cloudy than sunny days (adjusted IRR: 0.60. The incidence of distracted driving was 3.3%. The incidence of distracted driving was less common on cloudy days, rainy or snowy days, and foggy/windy/dusty days compared to sunny days, with adjusted IRRs of 0.54, 0.55 and 0.07, respectively.Traffic violations are common in bus drivers in urban China and they are associated with the date, weather, and presence of traffic cameras at bus station. Further studies are recommended to understand the behavioral mechanisms that may explain bus driver violations and to develop feasible prevention measures.

  7. Solving of school bus routing problem by ant colony optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Rojas, Juan S.; Jiménez-Gordillo, J. F. (José Fernando); Montoya-Torres, J. R. (Jairo Rafael)

    2011-01-01

    The school bus routing problem (SBRP) seeks to plan an efficient schedule of a fleet of school buses that must pick up students from various bus stops and deliver them by satisfying various constraints: maximum capacity of the bus, maximum riding time of students, time window to arrive to school. In this paper, we consider a case study of SBRP for a school in Bogotá, Colombia. The problem is solved using ant colony optimization (ACO). Computational experiments are performed using real data. R...

  8. Electric bus systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Pure electric buses (EBs) offer an alternative fuel for the nations transit bus systems. To : evaluate EBs in a transit setting, this project investigated the five electric bus fleet of the : StarMetro transit system of the city of Tallahassee, FL...

  9. R.I.P. Computer Animal Shelter

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Due to a brutal and unjustified attack on our facilities in front of the CERN Computer Centre, we had to close the CERN Animal Shelter on 5/1/2012 after only 9 months of operation (the shelter was inaugurated on 1/4/2011). With deep sadness we look back to the old days when everything was fine. R.I.P.   The Computer Mice shelter after the attack. More photographs available here.  All surviving mice have been returned to their owners, who have also been advised to "Stop --- Think --- Click" in order to securely browse the Internet and securely read e-mails. Users who have followed this recommendation in the past were less likely to have their computer infected or their computing account compromised. However, still too many users click on malicious web-links and put their computer and account at risk. Thank you all for your support during the last 9 months. The Computer Animal Shelter    

  10. Bunching transition in a time-headway model of a bus route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, T

    2001-03-01

    A time-headway model is presented to mimic bus behavior on the bus route. The motion of a bus is described in terms of the time headway between its bus and the bus in front. We study the bunching behavior of buses induced by interacting with other buses and passengers. It is shown that the dynamical phase transitions among the inhomogeneous bunching phase, the homogeneous free phase, the coexisting phase, and the homogeneous congested phase occur with varying the initial time headway. We study the effect of not stopping at bus stops on the time-headway profile. It is found that the bunching transition lines are consistent with the neutral stability curves obtained by the linear stability analysis.

  11. Emergency Shelter Grantee (ESG) Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Emergency Shelter Grants (ESG) program is designed to identify sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons, as well as those at risk of homelessness, and provide...

  12. Stopping Gluinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvanitaki, A.; Dimopoulos, S.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Pierce, A.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rajendran, S.; Wacker, J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-06-29

    Long lived gluinos are the trademark of split susy. They form R-hadrons that, when charged, efficiently lose energy in matter via ionization. Independent of R-spectroscopy and initial hadronization, a fraction of R-hadrons become charged while traversing a detector. This results in a large number of stopped gluinos at present and future detectors. For a 300 GeV gluino, 10{sup 6} will stop each year in LHC detectors, while several hundred stop in detectors during Run II at the Tevatron. The subsequent decays of stopped gluinos produce distinctive depositions of energy in calorimeters with no activity in either the tracker or the muon chamber.

  13. Evaluation of fatal school bus related crashes and near-term crash mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Donoughe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available School bus crashes are rare in comparison to other crash types, but considering all crashes that occur in and around school buses, they begin to become a noticeable problem and one that tends to attract national attention. As defined by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS, a school bus related crash is a crash that either involves a school bus or a crash where the presence of a school bus is considered as a major contributing factor. Ten years of data indicate that the number of fatal school bus related crashes has remained nearly stagnant despite an increase in the number vehicle safety systems available on the market. The findings also highlight the importance of protecting the non-bus occupants since they are the most likely to incur a serious or fatal injury in the event of a crash. As the most vulnerable user group, pedestrians (typically school-aged children are especially at risk when crossing the road while boarding or exiting a school bus. Until new technologies for reducing school bus related crashes are designed and implemented, school transportation safety can be improved by increasing awareness of school bus stop laws and by implementing existing transportation safety initiatives at school bus stop locations.

  14. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  15. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  16. AIRCRAFT SHELTER-DICE THROW Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    SHELTER-OICE THROW Test Site Layout for 9 AFWL Test Structures 4 AIRCRAFT SHELTER-DICE THROW ANFO Charge Configuration 10 5 Upgraded Aircraft Shelter...approximately 150 meters (500 ft). This shelter is the same as Shelter "$", but with a heavy overlay of concrete. As with Shelter "B", end walls were

  17. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  18. Shelterization: how the homeless adapt to shelter living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, J; Eagle, P F

    1990-05-01

    Emergency shelters have become the backbone of the service delivery system to the homeless. Particularly in large shelters, crime is a pervasive aspect of life. But despite the dangers of shelter living, many residents do not flee; instead they develop coping strategies that provide them with a feeling of mastery unparalleled on the outside. This adaptation process, which the authors call "shelterization," is characterized by a decrease in interpersonal responsiveness, a neglect of personal hygiene, increasing passivity, and increasing dependency on others. The authors suggest that the shelterization process may be ameliorated by helping homeless persons establish positive social networks and affiliations with social service and mental health providers. They believe onsite psychosocial rehabilitation programs can foster such affiliation by offering a therapeutic alternative to the shelter subculture.

  19. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  20. Pyloric leiomyoma: behavioural aspects in a shelter dog

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Benedetti; Mirko Barabucci; Alessandra Pigliapoco; Simona Cannas; Clara Palestrini

    2015-01-01

    The present report describes a case of pyloric wall leiomyoma in a shelter dog with a history of vomiting, pica, licking and chewing the walls of the kennel. The clinical, radiological, ultrasound, hematological and blood chemistry examinations showed no abnormalities. A compulsive oral disorder was diagnosed and treatment with behaviour therapy instigated. The compulsive oral behaviours stopped following behaviour therapy, however, the vomiting persisted, suggesting the need to proceed with ...

  1. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  2. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  3. How to prepare for bus-stop presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minglan

    2015-01-01

    Poster designed for 2014 DOHaD ANZ conference early career researcher session by Minglan Li. Avaliable on official facebook page of DOHaD ANZ: https://www.facebook.com/pages/DOHaD-Society-of-ANZ/550495295025355

  4. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Mohan-Gibbons

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs, even though more dogs were adopted because fewer were identified with food guarding behavior. Additionally, the number of injuries to staff, volunteers, and adopters was low (104 incidents from a total of 14,180 dogs and did not change when the food guarding assessment was omitted. These results support a recommendation that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment.

  5. Bus lane efficiency analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tovornik, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The upper Celovška road has been dealing with traffic jams for quite some time now. Traffic jams are concentrated in time of morning (in direction towards towns center) and afternoon (in direction towards Gorenjska) peak hour , whereas jams in between times are not excluded. There are many solutions to solve the problem and are variable. In this assigment I am focusing on one of potencial solutions, with special bus lanes. It is a measure that can be, if used in right way, very effective and ...

  6. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in consultation with concerned department/agencies. Field surveys were also conducted to get input from passengers and local people. Initial investigation informed that out of four operational bus routes, only two routes are profitable. The overall bus operation is running in loss (only 0.3% net profit. It has barely any profit for the bus operator against its investment thereby making the urban bus operation financially non-viable. The whole revenue flow is dependent on passenger ticketing revenue only. Around 35% of the buses are in poor condition with major issues of quality of tyres, no speedometer, worse condition of seats, floor and ceiling, and display of route. Illegal operation of Qingqis/Rickshaws (as para-transit mode along the bus routes is also decreasing the revenue by capturing the passenger volume. According to passenger opinion analysis, around 55% of the passenger are not satisfied with the service quality and prefer other modes of transport. Their major concerns are absence of facilities for disables and bus stops, bus seating and standing capacity, poor bus condition and pick pocketing. Collectively, these factors are contributing

  7. Humanitarian Assistance Shelter System (HASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    information into protection of refugees, emergency management, and operations (e.g., food and nutrition , water, sanitation, supplies and transport, etc...protection from vector-borne disease by preventing carrying vectors from entering shelter (e.g., snakes , scorpions, rats, mosquitoes). 3.8 Human...provide occupants protection from vector-borne disease by preventing carrying vectors from entering shelter (e.g snakes , scorpions, rats, mosquitoes) in

  8. Selective Stopping? Maybe not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2013-01-01

    Selective stopping paradigms address selectivity in controlled behavior, as subjects stop certain responses or responses to certain stimuli. The literature has discussed two strategies for selective stopping. First, selective stopping may prolong the stop process by adding a discrimination stage (Independent Discriminate then Stop). Second, selective stopping may involve stopping non-selectively and then restarting the response if the signal is an ignore signal (Stop then Discriminate). We discovered a variant of the first strategy that occurred often in our experiments and previously published experiments: the requirement to discriminate stop and ignore signals may interact with the go process, invalidating the independent race model (Dependent Discriminate then Stop). Our experiments focused on stimulus selective stopping, in which subjects stop to one signal and ignore another. When stop and ignore signals were equally likely, some subjects used the Stop then Discriminate strategy and others used the Dependent Discriminate then Stop strategy. When stop signals were more frequent than ignore signals, most subjects used the Stop then Discriminate strategy; when ignore signals were more frequent than stop signals, most subjects used the Dependent Discriminate then Stop strategy. The commonly accepted Independent Discriminate then Stop strategy was seldom implemented. Selective stopping was either not selective (Stop then Discriminate), or interacted with going (Dependent Discriminate then Stop). Implications for the cognitive science, lifespan development, clinical science, and neuroscience of selective stopping are discussed. PMID:23477668

  9. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  10. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  11. Operating Time Division for a Bus Route Based on the Recovery of GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time is an important source of data for time of day partition of the bus route. However, in practice, a bus driver may deliberately speed up or slow down on route so as to follow the predetermined timetable. The raw GPS data collected by the GPS device equipped on the bus, as a result, cannot reflect its real operating conditions. To address this concern, this study first develops a method to identify whether there is deliberate speed-up or slow-down movement of a bus. Building upon the relationships between the intersection delay, link travel time, and traffic flow, a recovery method is established for calculating the real bus travel time. Using the dwell time at each stop and the recovered travel time between each of them as the division indexes, a sequential clustering-based time of day partition method is proposed. The effectiveness of the developed method is demonstrated using the data of bus route 63 in Harbin, China. Results show that the partition method can help bus enterprises to design reasonable time of day intervals and significantly improve their level of service.

  12. SHELTER MEDICINE: A NEW ESPECIALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. S. Moretto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shelter Medicine is a new branch in Veterinary Medicine which aims to improve the health and welfare of animals that do not have a home and live at risk. The specialty was created in the United States of America (USA with this denomination, and intended the population control of dogs and cats through sterilization, reintegration and socialization of abandoned animals, handling feral cats and control of common diseases in shelters. In this sense, Shelter Medicine proposes a solution to the rampant increase in the non domiciled animals population and, hence, the spread of zoonotic diseases. In addition, to improve the quality of life of those animals, by reducing the euthanasia procedures, damage to property and assault cases

  13. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  14. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  15. 76 FR 37184 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... bicycles to public transportation facilities, to provide shelters and parking facilities for bicycles in or around public transportation facilities, or to install equipment for transporting bicycles on public... complete, including initial design of facilities projects. c. TIP/STIP can be amended (evidenced by MPO...

  16. 75 FR 52054 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... 8, 2009. The Livability Bus program makes funds available to public transit providers to finance... 2-New York, Administrator, Region 7-Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust... Metropolitan Office, Region 2-New York, One Bowling Green, Room 428, New York, NY 10004-1415, Tel. 212-668-2202...

  17. 75 FR 23843 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public transportation, or... bus-related projects for assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies... projects for assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public...

  18. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  19. Closing the stop gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czakon, Michal [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchnphysik und Kosmologie; Mitov, Alexander [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.; Papucci, Michele [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ruderman, Joshua T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; New York Univ., NY (United States). Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.

    2014-07-15

    Light stops are a hallmark of the most natural realizations of weak-scale supersymmetry. While stops have been extensively searched for, there remain open gaps around and below the top mass, due to similarities of stop and top signals with current statistics. We propose a new fast-track avenue to improve light stop searches for R-parity conserving supersymmetry, by comparing top cross section measurements to the theoretical prediction. Stop masses below ∝180 GeV can now be ruled out for a light neutralino. The possibility of a stop signal contaminating the top mass measurement is also briefly addressed.

  20. GDSS Penentuan Lokasi Shelter Baru Transjogja Menggunakan Metode Brown-Gibson dan Borda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti Susilo

    2013-07-01

    Abstract The purpose of establishment of the Transjogja bus fleet is to solve the problems of congestion, pollution and adequate public transport. To provide the best service, one thing is to place the shelter afforded in the right position. Department of Communication, cooperate with other agencies in the collection of executive aspirations, for the determination of the location of the new shelter. The combinations of  Brown-Gibson and Borda methods, possible used for site selection as a group. This method is used to select an alternative location based on the size of a particular preference (preference measurement taking into account the objective factors and subjective factors. Objective factor in the form of cost effectiveness is the total amount of expenses incurred for an alternative location. Subjective weighting factor of the decision makers of the criteria required in determining the location of the new shelter. These criteria include land, position, and access to space, competition, transportation and security. In the assessment of subjective factors is using the AHP model. The result of this study is to GDSS using the Brown-Gibson method and Borda shown to accommodate the preferences of many decision makers. With the output of the value location preference and rankings, it facilitated DM to determine new location. Location that has the highest ranking is more potent as a location for a new shelter. Keywords— Location, Brown-Gibson, Borda

  1. An Evaluation of Respondent Conditioning Procedures to Decrease Barking in an Animal Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Wade Payne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A common problem behavior in animal shelters is excessive noise from barking, which can regularly exceed 100dBs. Noise levels in animal shelters are correlated with increased stress in dogs, which may lead to increased problem behavior and a decrease in adoption. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the use of respondent conditioning procedures to reduce barking noise level in an animal shelter by pairing a door chime with edible items. Following a baseline and neutral stimulus phase, the door chime was paired with edible items over a period of three weeks. Following this pairing phase, the pairing was stopped to determine if the door chime would act as a conditioned stimulus and reduce barking. These procedures were replicated following an additional baseline phase. Overall, the procedure was effective in reducing the noise level of the kennel area as compared to baseline levels. Implications and future research areas are discussed

  2. Optimal Design of the Feeder-Bus Network Based on the Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the classic feeder-bus network design problem (FBNDP, which can be described as follows: for the passenger travel demand between rail stations and bus stops on a given urban transit network, it designs the optimal feeder bus routes and frequencies so as to minimize the passengers’ travel expense and the operator’s cost. We extended the demand pattern of M-to-1 in most existing researches to M-to-M. We comprehensively considered the passenger travel cost, which includes the waiting and riding cost on the bus, riding cost on rail, and transfer cost between these two transportation modes, and presented a new genetic algorithm that determines the optimal feeder-bus operating frequencies under strict constraint conditions. The numerical examples under different demand patterns have been experienced and analysed, which showed the robustness and efficiency of the presented algorithm. We also found that the distribution pattern of the travel demand has a significant influence on the feeder-bus network construction.

  3. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  4. Dialysis: Deciding to Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Dialysis: Deciding to Stop Print Email There may come ... ones and treatment team. Can I really stop dialysis treatment if I want to? Yes, dialysis patients ...

  5. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  6. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  7. Shelter provision and state sovereignty in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boyle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Government provision of shelter for Calais’ migrant population over the last twenty years has prioritised the assertion of state authority over the alleviation of human suffering. Policies in 2015-16, which involved the destruction of informal shelter and the provision of basic alternative accommodation, continued this trend.

  8. 78 FR 21256 - Shelter for the Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 226 RIN 0790-AI88 Shelter for the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Under... Defense Shelter for the Homeless Program. This direct final rule makes nonsubstantive changes to the... the Homeless Program. DoD expects no opposition to the changes and no significant adverse comments...

  9. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  10. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  11. 76 FR 78732 - FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Administration's priority of supporting America's veterans and military families, as well as the objectives of... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Veterans Transportation and Community Living Initiative AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...

  12. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  13. Pyloric leiomyoma: behavioural aspects in a shelter dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Benedetti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a case of pyloric wall leiomyoma in a shelter dog with a history of vomiting, pica, licking and chewing the walls of the kennel. The clinical, radiological, ultrasound, hematological and blood chemistry examinations showed no abnormalities. A compulsive oral disorder was diagnosed and treatment with behaviour therapy instigated. The compulsive oral behaviours stopped following behaviour therapy, however, the vomiting persisted, suggesting the need to proceed with further diagnostic exams. The ultrasound examination, repeated after 6 months, had revealed the presence of a hypoechoic mass (3.52 cm in the pyloric-antrum obstructing the gastric outfl ow. Following gastric dilatation the mass was surgically excised. Histological examination revealed a pyloric leiomyoma. In clinical practice this case highlights the importance of gastrointestinal diseases in the development of behaviour changes related to pica.

  14. Modeling Passenger-Flow in Real-Time Bus Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaik, Bashir; Jacob, Ricky; Winstanley, Adam C.

    2012-01-01

    Transit networks in the real world are similar to data transfer across a computer network. In this paper, we present the similarity and differences between computer networks and transit networks. We have developed a passenger-flow simulation model and we tested the effects of transit services provided on passengers in term of delay and passenger quality of service. We present the passenger’s behavior at bus stops, factors that affect passenger’s interactions with buses...

  15. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    is that ‘organisation matters’ and that the reforms may have changed significantly the institutional conditions for the implementation of sustainable transport policies and easures. We have focused the research on public transport in larger cities and how their organisation has changed due to the reforms. At the NECTAR......, and will be elaborated by the time of the NECTAR workshop in May: • Deregulation and privatisation have not changed negative trends in modal split in Greater Manchester, but likely made it worse at least compared to London. • Deregulation and privatisation have worsened conditions for a greening of the bus fleets...

  16. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  17. How to Cope with Sheltering in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your employer and your children’s school administrators or daycare providers what their plan is for a shelter ... samhsa. gov/ locator/ home SAMHSA Disaster Technical Assistance Center Toll-Free: 1-800-308-3515 Email: DTAC@ ...

  18. Food and Shelter Standards in Humanitarian Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothiawala, Sohil

    2015-10-01

    The number of disasters, both natural as well as man-made, has been increasing in frequency in the recent years. This leads to short as well as long-term effects on food security and shelter, requiring humanitarian assistance. This article aims to identify the principles and standards that are applicable to food and shelter related aid that needs to be provided by the co-operation of the local government as well as the relevant supporting organizations. Also, food and shelter security during a disaster response is achieved through better preparedness. The level of preparedness must include risk assessment, contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, emergency services and stand-by arrangements, communications, information management and coordination arrangements between various agencies involved. Discussing these issues would contribute to a better understanding of the implications of the right to adequate food and shelter, which in complex humanitarian emergencies, is one of the key necessities of the affected population.

  19. Net-Zero Energy Technical Shelter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    Technical shelters are the basic structures for storing electronic and technical equipment, and commonly used for telecommunication base station, windmill, gas station, etc. Due to their high internal heat load density and special operation schedule, they consume more energy than normal residential...... or commercial buildings. On the other hand, it is a big challenge to power the technical shelter in remote area where the grids are either not available or the expansion of grid is expensive. In order to minimize the energy consumption and obtain a reliable and cost-efficient power solution for technical...... shelter, this study will apply the net-zero energy concept into the technical shelter design. The energy conservation can be achieved by proper design of building envelop and optimization of the cooling strategies. Both experiments and numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the indoor...

  20. Repurposing shelter for displaced people in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Dean

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Buildings in Ukraine are being repurposed to provide shelter for those fleeing conflict in the country but, as the war continues, the need for more permanent solutions must be acknowledged.

  1. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  2. Luminescent beam stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Diane; Morton, Simon A.

    2017-10-25

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to beam stops. In one aspect, a device comprises a luminescent material, a beam stop plate, and an optical fiber. The luminescent material is a parallelepiped having a first side and a second side that are squares and having a third side that is a rectangle or a square. The first side and the second side are perpendicular to the third side. The beam stop plate is attached to the first side of the luminescent material. The optical fiber has a first end and a second end, with the first end of the optical fiber attached to the third side of the luminescent material.

  3. Natural gas powered bus; Erdgasbusprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted.

  4. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, D. B., E-mail: rmt.bowo@gmail.com; Haryanto, I., E-mail: ismoyo2001@yahoo.de; Laksono, N. P., E-mail: priyolaksono89@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  5. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  6. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  7. Sneaky light stop

    CERN Document Server

    Eifert, Till

    2015-01-01

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the Standard Model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this `stealth stop' scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  8. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Goh

    Full Text Available Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  9. Bus and Tag Terminators for IBM system/360

    CERN Multimedia

    Control units were connected to the channels with "Bus and Tag" cable pairs. The bus cables carried the address and data information and the tag cables identified what data was on the bus. There were three general types of bus-and-tag cables produced by IBM.

  10. Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

  11. Bus operator perceptions of safety risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of TriMet bus operators addressing safety risks in their assigned work. Surveyed risk factors : were organized into five categories: vehicle design and condition; route layout; operating conditions; fatigue...

  12. Light stop decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeber, Ramona [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Muehlleitner, Margarete; Wlotzka, Alexander [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Wolfgang-Gaede Str. 1, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Popenda, Eva [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5323 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    We investigate scenarios in the MSSM with a stop being the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle and a neutralino as lightest supersymmetric particle, where the difference between the stop mass and the neutralino mass is less than the top quark mass. Depending on this mass difference the stop can undergo either a three-body decay into a neutralino, a W boson and a bottom quark, or a four-body decay into a neutralino, a bottom quark and two light fermions, or the stop can decay via flavor-changing neutral currents into an up/charm quark and a neutralino. We improve the calculations of the branching ratios (BRs) of these decay modes by including next-to-leading order corrections for the flavor changing decays and by taking into account the mass of the bottom quark and the tau lepton in the four-body decay. Moreover, flavor effects are incorporated in both the three- and the four-body decay and threshold effects at the W boson threshold are correctly taken into account. We find that the BRs can deviate significantly from one, leading to weaker stop exclusion limits.

  13. Screening for tuberculosis among homeless shelter staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzi, Simona; Tomao, Paola; Martini, Agnese; Capanna, Silvia; Rubino, Luca; D'Amico, Wanda; Tomei, Fabio; Visca, Paolo; Vonesch, Nicoletta

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among homeless shelter staff was assessed using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the Quantiferon TB-Gold in tube interferon-γ release assay (QFT-TB). Investigation of 51 participants for whom both QFT-TB and TST results were available showed 47.1% and 43.1% positivity, respectively, with excellent (92%) concordance between the 2 tests. The high risk for acquiring occupational TB necessitates the development of TB surveillance protocols for homeless shelter staff in Italy. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MPBUS: Modular Power bus for Space Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ricardo; Remírez Eduardo; Alonso Javier; Priel Eran; Carapelle Alain; Actis Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cost reduction in the access to space is leading the space race in the launchers market. Launcher’s companies are looking for a more efficient and economical way to place satellites in orbit. MPBUS project proposes a decentralized power bus distribution with jettisonable smart batteries combined with the use of PLC technology, data over DC, achieving overall weight reduction and harness simplification, both goals in line with Next Generation Launchers (NGL) targets. Two different bus in...

  15. ISET ORS Bus Standards and Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhoo, Gurpartap; Johnson, Mark; Raynor, William; Hurley, Michael; Stadter, Patrick; Marley, Michael; Apland, Clint; Lee, Robert; Bruzzi, Jonathan; Williams, Bruce; SCHAEFER, EDWARD, JAY; Vernon, Steven; Schwartz, Paul; Moretti, George; Doyne, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Advancing sound and accepted spacecraft bus standards is the objective of the Office of the Secretary of Defense’s (OSD) Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Bus Standards Initiative. This effort involves multiple government, industry, and academia participants assembled into an Integrated System Engineering Team (ISET). The core ISET industry team members include AeroAstro, Boeing, Design Net Engineering, General Dynamics Spectrum Astro, Loral, Microcosm, MicroSat, Orbital, Raytheon, and Swa...

  16. Sneaky light stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Eifert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  17. Epidemiological investigation of euthanasia in an Ontario animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozes, Rachael; Pearl, David L; Niel, Lee; Weese, J Scott

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate factors associated with euthanasia in an animal shelter in Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Methods Shelter data from 3737 cats admitted to the shelter between January and December 2011 were evaluated. Results Overall, 1989/3737 (53%) of admitted cats were euthanized. Male cats had greater odds of being euthanized than females (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-2.05; P 5 days in the shelter were more likely to be euthanized than those that spent 20 days in the shelter were less likely to be euthanized than those that spent 50% of the cats admitted to the shelter in 2011 euthanized, it is important to understand the contributing risk factors that predispose shelter cats to euthanasia and what changes can be made to the shelter system and in owner education to lower the incidence of euthanasia.

  18. A decision support tool to locate shelters in emergency logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a systematic methodology to locate shelters considering both : transportation and social factors in the aftermath of disasters. When anticipated demands for hurricane evacuation : shelter spaces exceed exi...

  19. Shelters and Their Use by Fishes on Fringing Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Alexandre; Turgeon, Katrine; Roche, Dominique G.; Binning, Sandra A.; Kramer, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Coral reef fish density and species richness are often higher at sites with more structural complexity. This association may be due to greater availability of shelters, but surprisingly little is known about the size and density of shelters and their use by coral reef fishes. We quantified shelter availability and use by fishes for the first time on a Caribbean coral reef by counting all holes and overhangs with a minimum entrance diameter ≥3 cm in 30 quadrats (25 m2) on two fringing reefs in Barbados. Shelter size was highly variable, ranging from 42 cm3 to over 4,000,000 cm3, with many more small than large shelters. On average, there were 3.8 shelters m−2, with a median volume of 1,200 cm3 and a total volume of 52,000 cm3m−2. The number of fish per occupied shelter ranged from 1 to 35 individual fishes belonging to 66 species, with a median of 1. The proportion of shelters occupied and the number of occupants increased strongly with shelter size. Shelter density and total volume increased with substrate complexity, and this relationship varied among reef zones. The density of shelter-using fish was much more strongly predicted by shelter density and median size than by substrate complexity and increased linearly with shelter density, indicating that shelter availability is a limiting resource for some coral reef fishes. The results demonstrate the importance of large shelters for fish density and support the hypothesis that structural complexity is associated with fish abundance, at least in part, due to its association with shelter availability. This information can help identify critical habitat for coral reef fishes, predict the effects of reductions in structural complexity of natural reefs and improve the design of artificial reefs. PMID:22745664

  20. Shelters and their use by fishes on fringing coral reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ménard

    Full Text Available Coral reef fish density and species richness are often higher at sites with more structural complexity. This association may be due to greater availability of shelters, but surprisingly little is known about the size and density of shelters and their use by coral reef fishes. We quantified shelter availability and use by fishes for the first time on a Caribbean coral reef by counting all holes and overhangs with a minimum entrance diameter ≥3 cm in 30 quadrats (25 m(2 on two fringing reefs in Barbados. Shelter size was highly variable, ranging from 42 cm(3 to over 4,000,000 cm(3, with many more small than large shelters. On average, there were 3.8 shelters m(-2, with a median volume of 1,200 cm(3 and a total volume of 52,000 cm(3 m(-2. The number of fish per occupied shelter ranged from 1 to 35 individual fishes belonging to 66 species, with a median of 1. The proportion of shelters occupied and the number of occupants increased strongly with shelter size. Shelter density and total volume increased with substrate complexity, and this relationship varied among reef zones. The density of shelter-using fish was much more strongly predicted by shelter density and median size than by substrate complexity and increased linearly with shelter density, indicating that shelter availability is a limiting resource for some coral reef fishes. The results demonstrate the importance of large shelters for fish density and support the hypothesis that structural complexity is associated with fish abundance, at least in part, due to its association with shelter availability. This information can help identify critical habitat for coral reef fishes, predict the effects of reductions in structural complexity of natural reefs and improve the design of artificial reefs.

  1. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A private family home approved by the tribe; or (3) A shelter care facility operated by a licensed child...

  2. Deep Space Storm Shelter Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Kathryn; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Cerro, Jeffrey; Simon, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Missions outside of Earth's magnetic field are impeded by the presence of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. To overcome this issue, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Radiation Works Storm Shelter (RadWorks) has been studying different radiation protective habitats to shield against the onset of solar particle event radiation. These habitats have the capability of protecting occupants by utilizing available materials such as food, water, brine, human waste, trash, and non-consumables to build short-term shelters. Protection comes from building a barrier with the materials that dampens the impact of the radiation on astronauts. The goal of this study is to develop a discrete event simulation, modeling a solar particle event and the building of a protective shelter. The main hallway location within a larger habitat similar to the International Space Station (ISS) is analyzed. The outputs from this model are: 1) the total area covered on the shelter by the different materials, 2) the amount of radiation the crew members receive, and 3) the amount of time for setting up the habitat during specific points in a mission given an event occurs.

  3. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  4. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents 16 case studies of attacks planned or carried out against Israeli bus targets, along with statistical data on the number, frequency, and lethality of attacks against bus targets that have taken place in Israel since 1970 and duri...

  5. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  6. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  7. Stopping the unstoppable

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    How do you stop two very high energy proton beams circulating in opposite directions around a 27-kilometre ring? The answer is the beam dumps. Two tunnels, pointing in opposite directions, are being constructed at point 6 of the LHC. These will allow the beams to be directed into two large beam dumps housed at the ends of the tunnels.

  8. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try to do this when your baby is sitting at the table in a high chair. Generally, the last bottle to stop should be the nighttime bottle. That ...

  9. Tsunami shelter in Padang city: Location suitability and management issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Eva; Permata, Robby; Yonne, Hilma; Carlo, Nasfryzal

    2017-11-01

    The building of Temporary Evacuation Sites (TES/shelter) is an effort to minimize the vulnerability of the population who live in coastal city areas with high risk of tsunami. Padang city in Indonesia, one of the cities with high risk of tsunami, has built shelter in North Ulak Karang Village, North Padang Sub-district. The problems are the location of shelter does not meet the standard of population number, how to manage the shelter in normal condition (without disaster), and who will be responsible for the management of the shelter. The aim of the study is to learn the suitability of shelter location and the management of the shelter in normal condition as well as the expectation of the people who live near the shelter location. This research uses evaluative-descriptive method with the collection of secondary and primary data through structured interviews with 200 respondents in the area of shelter building. The result shows that the furthest location of the shelter is located at RW 03 with a distance of 1.3 kms which takes 12.15-24.30 minutes. It shows that the shelter location in Padang meets the requirement of FEMA P646. At normal condition, shelter can be used for sport and educational activities, as a center for socialisation and simulation of disaster and other activities. The management of the shelter is done together by government and stakeholders. The proposed management is by forming a team (organization) which involves Disaster Alert groups (KSB) and by making the Standard Operational Procedures (SOP) for their implementation. People expect that the number of shelter is added and the building of the shelter is based on the suitability of location, number of population and availability of land.

  10. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Manohar, Manju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future.

  11. How Effective Homelessness Prevention Impacts the Length of Shelter Spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sarena; Messeri, Peter; O'Flaherty, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    Homelessness prevention programs intervene with households apparently in imminent danger of becoming homeless, and try to keep them housed. If they are at least partially successful, how do they change the average shelter spell of households actually becoming homeless? We use data from 2003 to 2008 for Homebase, a New York City homelessness prevention program that studies have found to be effective in reducing shelter entries. Homebase made no difference in average shelter spells at the community level. This result, like many results about shelter spell length, is not easy to reconcile with the idea that shelter spell length is a reflection of the seriousness of underlying problems.

  12. Animating with Stop Motion Pro

    CERN Document Server

    Sawicki, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Animating with Stop Motion Pro is comprehensive, hands-on guide to achieving professional results with Stop Motion Pro 7.0 software. Gone are the days of stop motion guesswork and waiting to see the finalized result of your meticulous, labor intensive animations. With the push of a mouse button and the Stop Motion Pro software, animators have ten times the capability of simple camera stop motion capture. Re-visualize stop motion character movements, graph these movements and composite characters into a flawless animations with the techniques and step by step tutorials featured in Animating wit

  13. Estimating Bus Loads and OD Flows Using Location-Stamped Farebox and Wi-Fi Signal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiong Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic fareboxes integrated with Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL systems can provide location-stamped records to infer passenger boarding at individual stops. However, bus loads and Origin-Destination (OD flows, which are useful for route planning, design, and real-time controls, cannot be derived directly from farebox data. Recently, Wi-Fi sensors have been used to collect passenger OD flow information. But the data are insufficient to capture the variation of passenger demand across bus trips. In this study, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate trip-level OD flow matrices and a period-level OD flow matrix using sampled OD flow data collected by Wi-Fi sensors and boarding data provided by fareboxes. Bus loads on each bus trip are derived directly from the estimated trip-level OD flow matrices. The proposed method is evaluated empirically on an operational bus route and the results demonstrate that it provides good and detailed transit route-level passenger demand information by combining farebox and Wi-Fi signal data.

  14. Deadhead Trip Minimization in City Bus Transportation: A Real Life Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efendi Nasibov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of public transportation services is one of the most important performance indicators of modern urban policies for both planning and implementation aspects. Therefore, along with the size of the city, the significance of appropriate cost evaluation and optimization of all related transportation activities increases as well. One of the most important cost factors for the public transport agencies is naturally the fuel consumption of the vehicles. In this study, the attention is focused on the metropolitan bus transport service. The specific aim is to minimize a significant portion of total fuel utilization that occurs due to the so called deadhead trip or dead mileage, which is defined as the idle distance covered by the vehicle between the garage and the route terminal stops without carrying any passengers. In this study, the results of four mathematical models for minimizing the total deadhead trip distance covered in city bus services of Izmir are presented. The models vary due to the inclusion of garage capacity restrictions or operator distinction for supporting both operational and strategical decisions. All models are applied to the recent bus schedule data, which consist of 293 routes, 1,424 buses and 10 garages, for obtaining the optimal route bus-garage allocations and garage capacities. The results of the Decentralized-Capacitated model, which is appropriate for quick implementation, promise a 7.8% reduction in total dead mileage. While on the other hand, if all garage capacities can be expanded and the bus service is maintained only by one operator as modelled in the Centralized-Uncapacitated case, even a 31.4% improvement is possible in the long term. The environmental gains as well as the financial benefits to be achieved when the solutions are actually implemented, justify the practical contribution of the study.

  15. Assessment of Clicker Training for Shelter Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Living conditions in animal shelters can be stressful for cats. Clicker training might be able to alleviate this stress, by giving cats an opportunity to learn new behaviors and interact with humans. In this study, we assessed the initial ability of 100 shelter cats to perform four cued behaviors: touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five. Each cat completed 15, five-min training sessions over a two-week span. At the end of the program, we assessed the cats’ ability to perform the same behaviors. On average, the cats performed better on all four behaviors after clicker training, suggesting that the cats could learn to perform specific behaviors on cue. Individual cats with a higher level of interest in food showed greater gains in learning for two of the behaviors (high-five and touching a target). Cats with a bolder temperament at post-assessment demonstrated greater gains in learning than those classified as shy. We suggest that clicker training can be used to enhance cats’ well-being while they are housed in shelters, and that the learned behaviors might make them more desirable to adopters. Abstract Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the

  16. Real-time bus location monitoring using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Y. M.; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of objects, such as a vehicles, mobile devices, and buildings that have electronic components, software, and network connectivity that enable them to collect data, run commands, and be controlled through the Internet. Controlling physical items from the Internet will increase efficiency and save time. The growing number of devices used by people increases the practicality of having IoT devices on the market. The IoT is also an opportunity to develop products that can save money and time and increase work efficiency. Initially, they need more efficiency for real-time bus location systems, especially in university campuses. This system can easily find the accurate locations of and distances between each bus stop and the estimated time to reach a new location. This system has been separated into two parts, which are the hardware and the software. The hardware parts are the Arduino Uno and the Global Positioning System (GPS), while Google Earth and GpsGate are the software parts. The GPS continuously takes input data from the satellite and stores the latitude and longitude values in the Arduino Uno. If we want to track the vehicle, we need to send the longitude and latitude as a message to the Google Earth software to convert these into maps for navigation. Once the Arduino Uno is activated, it takes the last received latitude and longitude positions' values from GpsGate and sends a message to Google Earth. Once the message has been sent to Google Earth, the current location will be shown, and navigation will be activated automatically. Then it will be broadcast using ManyCam, Google+ Hangouts, and YouTube, as well as Facebook, and appear to users. The additional features use Google Forms for determining problems faced by students, who can also take immediate action against the responsible department. Then after several successful simulations, the results will be shown in real time on a map.

  17. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  18. Sheltering risks: Implementation of harm reduction in homeless shelters during an overdose emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bruce; Barber, Katrina; Pauly, Bernadette Bernie

    2017-12-28

    The current opioid overdose crisis in North America is heightening awareness of the need for and the challenges of implementing harm reduction, notably within complex and diverse settings such as homeless shelters. In this paper, we explore the implementation of harm reduction in homeless shelters during an emerging overdose emergency. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand micro-environment level factors within emergency shelters responding to homelessness and substance use, and the macro-level influences that produce and sustain structural vulnerabilities. We conducted eight focus groups with a total of 49 participants during an emerging overdose emergency. These included shelter residents (n = 23), shelter staff (n = 13), and harm reduction workers (n = 13). The findings illustrate the challenges of implementing an overdose response when substance use is prohibited onsite, without an expectation of abstinence, and where harm reduction services are limited to the distribution of supplies. In this context, harm reduction is partially implemented and incomplete. Shelters can be a site of risks and trauma for residents and staff due to experiencing, witnessing, and responding to overdoses. The current overdose crisis heightens the challenges of implementing harm reduction, particularly within complex and diverse settings such as homeless shelters. When harm reduction is limited to the distribution of supplies such as clean equipment and naloxone, important principles of engagement and the development of trust necessary to the provision of services are overlooked with negative implications for service users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. What stops a saccade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optican, Lance M; Pretegiani, Elena

    2017-04-19

    Rapid movements to a target are ballistic; they usually do not last long enough for visual feedback about errors to influence them. Yet, the brain is not simply precomputing movement trajectory. Classical models of movement control involve a feedback loop that subtracts 'where we are now' from 'where we want to be'. That difference is an internal motor error. The feedback loop reduces this error until it reaches zero, stopping the movement. However, neurophysiological studies have shown that movements controlled by the cerebrum (e.g. arm and head movements) and those controlled by the brain stem (e.g. tongue and eye movements) are also controlled, in parallel, by the cerebellum. Thus, there may not be a single error control loop. We propose an alternative to feedback error control, wherein the cerebellum uses adaptive, velocity feedback, integral control to stop the movement on target.This article is part of the themed issue 'Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness'. © 2017 The US government.

  20. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... you can increase acceptance by helping to stop bullying of children with TS. Bullying doesn’t just ...

  1. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Can I Stop Cutting? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Stop Cutting? ... in a soft, cozy blanket Substitutes for the Cutting Sensation You'll notice that all the tips ...

  2. Stress prevention in bus drivers: Evaluation of 13 natural experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Aust, B.; Berg, A.M. van den; Siegrist, J.

    2000-01-01

    The research aim was to select, compare, and analyze interventions and preventive actions from international bus companies to decrease bus drivers' occupational stress and sickness absenteeism. Through networking, international surveys, and literature study, 13 "natural experiments" were identified

  3. Evaluation of Shelter Ventilation by Model Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    ventilation is created by mechanical devices such as pedal venti- lators and Kearny pumps. If natural ventilation in a shelter. can be predicted with...past have centered around the design, performance analysis and deployment of mechanical ventilating units (Ref. 11-14). Other studies include one on...calculated as the sum of the air volume flow rates through all the windward openings. The variation of model ventilation througnput versus wind speed

  4. Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

    2012-01-01

    An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

  5. Enhancing a public health nursing shelter program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnich, Margo; Shirley, Nancy

    2017-11-01

    The Shelter Nurse Program offers important nursing care and resources that help meet the health needs of the homeless population and improve the health of homeless individuals and families. However, formalized program goals and objectives, along with an evaluation plan that demonstrates population outcomes, had never been developed even as the program has evolved over time. Thus, the agency sought our assistance as public health nursing consultants to enhance the overall program to improve the health of the homeless population. To accomplish this, we worked with the agency and the shelter nurses throughout each step of the process to assess the needs of the program, develop appropriate goals and objectives, and develop an effective outcome evaluation plan for the existing Shelter Nurse Program. Lessons learned included the value and applicability of the selected program development model, the importance of agency ownership and active participation by front-line workers, and the value of educating the workers and introducing resources throughout the process. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  7. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.17 Driver and bus monitor... performance; and (2) before bus monitors assigned to vehicles used to provide such services begin their duties...

  8. 77 FR 43646 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities and Section 5312...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Administration's priority of supporting America's veterans and military families, as well as the objectives of... Federal Transit Administration FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus... AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA Veterans Transportation and Community...

  9. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Government regulators and transportation operators of public bus systems are concerned about terrorist attacks. Bus attacks in Israel between late September 2000 and the end of 2006, a period known as the Second Intifada, are particularly well known....

  10. Ready to stop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molitoris, Joseph; Dribe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    of the decline's causes by examining the development of socioeconomic differences in fertility using historical micro-data, but these have largely only considered rural areas where fertility was generally slower to decline. This article contributes to the literature by utilizing individual-level data from...... the Roteman Database for Stockholm, Sweden between 1878 and 1926 to examine the association of socioeconomic status and fertility and the adoption of stopping behaviour during the city's transition. Using piecewise constant hazard models and logistic regression, we find that a clear class pattern arises...

  11. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  12. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  13. An Experimental Platform for Autonomous Bus Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Montes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with highly developed instrumentation, sensing and actuation technologies, it is possible to foresee an important advance in the field of autonomous and/or semi-autonomous transportation systems. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS have been subjected to very active research for many years, and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT is one area of major interest. Among the most promising transport infrastructures, the articulated bus is an interesting, low cost, high occupancy capacity and friendly option. In this paper, an experimental platform for research on the automatic control of an articulated bus is presented. The aim of the platform is to allow full experimentation in real conditions for testing technological developments and control algorithms. The experimental platform consists of a mobile component (a commercial articulated bus fully instrumented and a ground test area composed of asphalt roads inside the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC premises. This paper focuses also on the development of a human machine interface to ease progress in control system evaluation. Some experimental results are presented in order to show the potential of the proposed platform.

  14. Rolling horizon predictions of bus trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshyani, M.F.; Cats, O.

    2014-01-01

    Bus travel times are subject to inherent and recurrent uncertainties. A real-time prediction scheme regarding how the transit system evolves will potentially facilitate more adaptive operations as well as more adaptive passengers’ decisions. This scheme should be tractable, sufficiently fast and

  15. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  16. Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The eGov-Bus project provides citizens and businesses with improved access to virtual public services, which are based on existing national eGovernment Web services and which support cross-border life events. Requirements and specific rules of these life events are considered, and personalization of user preferences is supported. eGov-Bus is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national eGovernment services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The eGov-Bus process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as eGovernment Web services. Further, eGov-Bus relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. The eGov-Bus architecture is business oriented, it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services and providing a Service Bus.

  17. GMSB with Light Stops

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Antonio; Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) is an elegant mechanism to transmit supersymmetry breaking from the hidden to the MSSM observable sector, which solves the supersymmetric flavor problem. However the smallness of the generated stop mixing requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass. Two possible ways out are: i) To extend GMSB by direct superpotential messenger-MSSM Yukawa couplings to generate sizeable mixing, thus reintroducing the flavor problem; ii) To extend the MSSM Higgs sector with singlets and/or triplets providing extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Singlets will not get any soft mass from GMSB and triplets will contribute to the $\\rho$ parameter which could be an issue. In this paper we explore the second way by introducing extra supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges $Y=(0,\\pm 1)$, with a tree-level custodial $SU(2)_L\\otimes SU(2)_R$ global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the $\\rho$ parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of ...

  18. Book Review: Stop, Write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

  19. Towards smart mobility in urban spaces: Bus tracking and information application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wong Seng; Chye, Koh Keng; Hoy, Cheong Wan

    2017-10-01

    Smart city can be defined as an urban space with complete and advanced infrastructure, intelligent networks and platforms, with millions of sensors among which people themselves and their mobile devices. Urban mobility is one of the global smart city project which offers traffic management in real-time, management of passenger transport means, tracking applications and logistics, car sharing services, car park management and more smart mobility services. Due to the frustrated waiting time for the arrival of buses and the difficulty of accessing shuttle bus-related information in a one-stop centre, bus tracking and information application (BTA) is one the proposed solutions to solve the traffic problems in urban spaces. This paper is aimed to design and develop a bus tracking and information application in a selected city in Selangor state, Malaysia. Next, this application also provides an alternative to design public transport tracking and information application for the urban places in Malaysia. Furthermore, the application also provides a smart solution for the management of public infrastructures and urban facilities in Malaysia in future.

  20. Sheltering patterns and utilization following the 2007 southern California wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thomas D; Jenkins, J Lee; Sauer, Lauren M; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Calvello, Emilie; Hsu, Edbert

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 southern California wildfires resulted in over 500,000 residents being displaced. A team from Johns Hopkins University and the American Red Cross surveyed 163 families at shelters and local assistance centers during the disaster. The responses were used to evaluate the needs and movement patterns of a displaced population. The data were also used to determine the risk factors associated with needing sheltering. There is a lower than expected reliance on public shelters, and displaced persons move frequently.

  1. The Scattering of Thermal Radiation into Open Underground Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-10-30

    of the shelter and (2) direct measurements were made on an actual shelter to ensure the validity of the laboratory results. A Photronic cell and a...of the radiant energy incident upon a surface located within a shelter re- quires a knowledge of (1) the total radiant energy and its polar ...point. 4.2 PHOTOELECTRIC PHOTOMETER The primary receiving element was a Weston Photronic barrier-layer photocell, model 856 RR. This unit has a design

  2. Study of Fallout Shelter Ventilation Kit Placement Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    shelter spaces display a great deal of Regional variation , caused mostly by differences in zonal ventilation requirements. These large Regional...Ma -M FEMA Work Unit 12170 Contmct No. DCPA01-76-C-0318 L EF 0 FINAL REPORT RTI/1703/00-OSF STUDY OF FALLOUT SHELTER VENTILATION KIT PLACEMENT 0...Fallout Shelter Ventilation Kit Placement Design by S. •. York, III and J. A. Armstrong for Vt FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENfT AGENCY Washington, D.C. 2041

  3. Shuttle bus services quality assessment Tangerang Selatan toward smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassa, Ferdinand; Sitorus, Fredy Jhon Philip; Adikesuma, Tri Nugraha

    2017-11-01

    Around the world, shuttle bus operation played the significant role to accommodate transportation for commuting bus passengers. Shuttle Bus services in cities are provided by various bus agencies with kinds of own specific purposes. For instance, at Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia, it was said that shuttle bus In Trans Bintaro is run and operated by private bus companies hire by Bintaro developer. The aim of this research is to identify factors of satisfaction of shuttle bus service in Kota Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia. Several factors are used to analyze sums of 20 parameters performance indicators of Shuttle Bus. A face to face interview using a questionnaire (N=200) was used to collect data on October and March 2017. Likert and diagram Cartesian were used to model the all the parameters. This research succeeded in finding some categories of Shuttle bus service attributes such as accessibility, comfort, and safety. Users agreed that eight indicators in shuttle bus have the excellent achievement, while three indicators on performance remain low and should receive more attention especially punctuality of the bus.

  4. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...... light. Occurrence of injury to bus passengers is positively related to (i) the involvement of heavy vehicles, (ii) crossing intersections in yellow or red light, (iii) open areas, (iv) high speed limits, and (v) slippery road surface. Conclusions The findings of the current study provide a comprehensive......Purpose Bus safety is a concern not only in developing countries, but also in the U.S. and Europe. In Denmark, disentangling risk factors that are positively or negatively related to bus accident severity and injury occurrence to bus passengers can contribute to promote safety as an essential...

  5. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  6. Environmental sampling for Salmonella spp. in Colorado animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steneroden, K K; Hill, A E; Salman, M D

    2011-09-01

    Salmonella enterica is an important zoonotic agent and nosocomial infections and epidemics have occurred in animal facilities. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in the environment in animal shelters. From 12 to 25 samples were taken from each shelter to represent environmental contamination. Samples were collected from surfaces in areas used by animals and in public access areas including animal receiving rooms, kennels, paediatric wards, treatment, visitation rooms, isolation, euthanasia, outdoor runs and play areas, reception rooms, animal transport vehicles, offices, break rooms and restrooms. Samples were tested for Salmonella and compared within shelters to identify high- and low-risk areas; and between shelters to identify differences in environmental contamination by geographical location, infection control policies, and shelter size characteristics. Twenty-eight per cent of sampled Colorado shelters had environmental Salmonella contamination. Two regions in the eastern 1/3 of the state had prevalences of 30% and 100%. Within-shelter sample prevalence ranged from 0 to 100%. Results of this study indicate that animal shelters can be frequently contaminated with Salmonella spp., a variety of Salmonella species may be present, contamination can be widespread within a facility and recovered isolates may harbour antibiotic resistance The findings from this study may influence and help focus educational policy on issues of infection control and zoonotic disease awareness in animal shelters. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234

  8. Plasma cortisol levels of dogs at a county animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M B; Davis, H N; Williams, M T; Mellott, C; Douglas, C W

    1997-09-01

    Plasmacortisol levels were examined to assess the stress of dogs in a county animal shelter. Groups of dogs confined in the shelter for their 1st, 2nd, or 3rd day had higher cortisol levels than did a group maintained in the shelter for more than 9 days. Dogs in the shelter for an intermediate period (Day 4-9) had intermediate levels of cortisol. The cortisol concentrations of dogs during their first day in the shelter were greater than either those of the same dogs on Day 4/5 in the shelter or those of a group of pet dogs sampled in their own homes. There was no overall effect of 20 min of social interaction with a human (e.g., petting) on the plasma cortisol levels of dogs in the shelter on Day 1-3. However, the gender of the petter did affect cortisol levels. Those dogs interacting with a female had lower cortisol concentrations at the end of the session than did dogs interacting with a male. The results suggest that confinement in a public animal shelter produces a prolonged activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Further, it appears that some subtle aspect of interaction with a human may be capable of moderating this response. Possible implications for the welfare of confined dogs, and for the development of behavior problems in dogs obtained from shelters, are discussed.

  9. Real-Time Hybrid In-Station Bus Dispatching Strategy Based on Mixed Integer Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The actual bus headway often deviates from the planned departure frequency because of external factors, such as traffic conditions and public transport demand, leading to transit resource waste and reducing the quality of service. In view of the existing shortcomings of the current dispatching strategy, a mixed integer programming model, integrating a bus-holding and stop-skipping strategy, is constructed to improve transit service with a minimum cost. The real-time optimal holding and stop-skipping strategies can be obtained by solving the proposed model using the Lagrangian relaxation algorithm. A numerical example is conducted using real transit GPS (Global Position System and IC (Intelligent Card data in Harbin. The results show that compared to a single control strategy, the proposed hybrid model is a better trade-off between the quality of the transit service and the operation cost. Notably, such a strategy would produce a minimal passengers’ average travel time coefficient. It is a great help for promoting the transit service level and increasing competitiveness.

  10. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  11. Terminals for Suburb Bus Transport in Bratislava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Tibor; Schlosser, Peter; Cápayová, Silvia; Hodáková, Dominika

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe the strategy for development of the public transport terminals in the city of Bratislava, Capital of Slovak Republic. The reason goes from the private operator Slovak Lines, who operates the suburb bus transport in the agglomeration of the city. For this operator was created a transport model, while placing emphasis on optimizing the compliance of suburban public transport with urban public transport in the city of Bratislava and evaluating the significance of the new Bus Station to be constructed at Mlynské Nivy – in a new down town centre of the city. The main issue is to ensure the best available offer of public transport (PT) to passengers in the Bratislava agglomeration. The subject of the study was oriented to specify and propose changes in the transport infrastructure and integrated public transport organisation on the area of the city in terms of the significant position of the new Mlynské Nivy Bus Station (MN BS), which is under preparation with realization in the year 2017.

  12. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  13. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  14. Will a hiding box provide stress reduction for shelter cats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, Claudia|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/235196053; Godijn, L.M.; van der Leij, Ruth|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412860430

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis sylvestris catus) can experience serious stress in shelters. Stressful experiences can have a major impact on the cats’ welfare and may cause higher incidences of infectious diseases in the shelters due to raised cortisol levels causing immuno deficiency.Though several studies

  15. Defining Flexible Standards for Post-Disaster Emergency Sheltering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafahomi, M.; Egyedi, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Post-disaster emergency-sheltering requires that various relief agencies and other actors with different backgrounds cooperate in a tremendously short amount of time and under very different circumstances. Lives depend on the quality of aid and, specifically, on the quality of sheltering. Standards

  16. The fence experiment - a first evaluation of shelter models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bechmann, Andreas; Conti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We present a preliminary evaluation of shelter models of different degrees of complexity using full-scale lidar measurements of the shelter on a vertical plane behind and orthogonal to a fence. Model results accounting for the distribution of the relative wind direction within the observed...

  17. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  18. UDI STOP Femminicidio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Crivelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available L'UDI, Unione Donne in Italia, ha collaborato con l'Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi a un numero monografico della rivista scientifica M@gm@ dal titolo "Violenza maschile e femminicidio". Il numero monografico vuole mettere a disposizione le analisi, l’esperienza e la storia nostra e delle nostre interlocutrici, come contributo al nostro comune lavoro di sensibilizzazione, contrasto alla violenza maschile sulle donne – femminicidio. “UDI STOP femminicidio” è da anni la nostra campagna contro la violenza di genere, la collaborazione con l’Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi è parte integrante di questo sforzo. Il primo e dichiarato dei nostri progetti politici è il contrasto alla cultura e al potere ideologico che consente il femminicidio, la subordinazione culturale e sociale, la percezione della donna come oggetto di dominio, la riduzione in schiavitù di tante donne, comprese molte donne prostitute... Sappiamo di non voler tradire una “responsabilità di genere” che deve necessariamente concretizzarsi in tanti “gesti responsabili”, nella lunga pazienza quotidiana che consente la sedimentazione di un cambiamento radicale nelle coscienze. Vogliamo continuare ad essere l’associazione che coniuga insieme la soggettività personale e l'assunzione diretta di responsabilità, della progettualità a lungo termine che non trova “contraddittorio” misurarsi con la solidarietà concreta e quotidiana con le altre donne, nel tentativo di far nascere le nuove maniere di pensare.

  19. Characteristics and Outcomes of Dogs Admitted into Queensland RSPCA Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jacquie; Morton, John; Paterson, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary An up-to-date and comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and outcomes of dogs entering shelters is required for implementing targeted strategies to reduce euthanasia of healthy and treatable dogs in Australia. Currently, there are few up-to-date Australian data published on dogs entering shelters, and their outcomes. Of dogs entering the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Queensland shelters in 2014, the majority (58%) were strays and 26% were puppies. Only 18% of dogs >6 months were desexed. Most dogs were reclaimed (32%) or adopted (43%). Strategies targeted to locations and breeds overrepresented by admissions are required to reduce shelter admissions, particularly of strays and unwanted litters. Abstract Over 200,000 stray and surrendered dogs are admitted to shelters and municipal facilities in Australia each year, and approximately 20% are euthanized. Contemporary, comprehensive data on the characteristics and outcomes of dogs entering shelters are required to reduce shelter admissions and euthanasia. However, there are currently limited up-to-date data published on dog admission into shelters. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted to describe the characteristics and outcomes of the dog population entering Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Queensland (RSPCA-QLD) shelters in 2014 (n = 11,967). The majority of dog admissions were strays from the public (24%) or from municipal councils (34%). Just over a quarter of admissions were puppies, 18% of adults (>6 months) were desexed, and the majority of admissions were crossbred dogs (92%). The majority of owner surrenders (86%) were due to human-related reasons. Most dogs were reclaimed (32%) or adopted (43%) and aggression was the most common reason for euthanasia of adult dogs (45%). Low-cost or free desexing and identification programs targeted to areas and breeds contributing to high intake, and increased support services for owners at

  20. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a follow......-up study was also conducted. All hospital discharges with a peptic ulcer diagnosis among the bus drivers were registered from the Danish National Patient Register. All Danish men were used as reference group. On the basis of the 1978-questionnaire association between occupational and psychosocial factors...... and subsequent hospital discharge with a peptic ulcer diagnosis was studied. The prevalence of abdominal pain alleviated by food intake was 12% among bus drivers and 6% in the reference group. The incidence of hospital discharge with duodenal ulcer among younger bus drivers was twice the incidence among Danish...

  1. Design of Mine Locomotive System Based on CAN Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuanhong; Zhang Quanzhu; Zhang Wenshan

    2017-01-01

    Based on CAN bus, this paper studies the system control and management system of locomotive in mine, analyzes the working principle of locomotive system, gives the CAN bus scheme, hardware circuit design and CAN communication protocol, and implements long-distance, high-reliability communication function and remote monitoring function. Experiments show that the auxiliary system based on CAN bus control easier, operation more secure, as well as improving the control performance and service lif...

  2. Design of Mine Locomotive System Based on CAN Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on CAN bus, this paper studies the system control and management system of locomotive in mine, analyzes the working principle of locomotive system, gives the CAN bus scheme, hardware circuit design and CAN communication protocol, and implements long-distance, high-reliability communication function and remote monitoring function. Experiments show that the auxiliary system based on CAN bus control easier, operation more secure, as well as improving the control performance and service life of the electric locomotive.

  3. Violence against Women and Women Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Rahsan Erim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women is a violation of basic human rights and freedoms and at the same time, it is an important public health problem. Recently, "World Health Organization", especially many organizations against women domestic violence emphasized that it is the most common form of violence. Despite being one of the first points of contact after violence, unfortunately it is conspicuous that there are very few publications about violence and women shelters in the psychiatric field. For this reason, in this review we did not limit our evaluation just with psychiatry but also explored large scale studies in in psychology and sociology field. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 536-549

  4. MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF THE BUS PRIORITY IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Hidayati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bus is expected to play an important role in providing a reliable travel in congested conditions. Therefore, it has been widely studied to minimize the travel time and the delay of the bus by proposing bus priority scheme to increase the attractiveness of public transport against private vehicles. Signal timing optimization combined with the bus priority scheme are discussed in this research as the alternatives to improve the intersection performances. Further, identifying the effects of these alternatives towards the general vehicles and public transport system performances were the aims of this research as well. As the result of this research, bus advance area with pre-signal method is able to reduce the travel time and delay of the bus for routes 2A and 3A by 11%, 23% and 14% , 0% respectively and able to reduce travel time, delay, and queue of vehicles by 25%, 26%, 7% consecutively. Thus bus advance area with pre-signal method is proposed as the best alternative due to its impact to reduce the bus travel times and delay without degrading the other vehicles performance. Keywords: bus priority, optimizing signal timing, Aimsun simulation, travel time-delay-queue.

  5. LHC Availability 2017: Technical Stop 1 to Technical Stop 2

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; Walsh, David John; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Technical Stop 1 (TS1) to Technical Stop 2 (TS2) in 2017. This period was dedicated to proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  6. Acoustics of fish shelters: frequency response and gain properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Marco

    2012-11-01

    Many teleosts emit sounds from cavities beneath stones and other types of submerged objects, yet the acoustical properties of fish shelters are virtually unexplored. This study examines the gain properties of shelters commonly used by Mediterranean gobies as hiding places and/or nest sites in the field (flat stones, shells belonging to five bivalve species), or within aquarium tanks (tunnel-shaped plastic covers, concrete blocks, concrete cylinder pipe, halves of terracotta flower pots). All shelters were acoustically stimulated using a small underwater buzzer, placed inside or around the shelter to mimic a fish calling from the nest site, and different types of driving stimuli (white noise, pure tones, and artificial pulse trains). Results showed the presence of significant amplitude gain (3-18 dB) at frequencies in the range 100-150 Hz in all types of natural shelters but one (Mytilus), terracotta flower pots, and concrete blocks. Gain was higher for stones and artificial shelters than for shells. Gain peak amplitude increased with the weight of stones and shells. Conclusions were verified by performing analogous acoustical tests on flat stones in the stream. Results draw attention to the use of suitable shelters for proper recording of sounds produced by fishes kept within laboratory aquaria.

  7. Ungendering and Regendering Shelters for Survivors of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Hacker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on intensive fieldwork in the two Israeli shelters designated for victims of human trafficking and slavery. The shelters, one for women and one for men, are a refuge for survivors of sex trafficking; labor migrants subjected to severe exploitation by their employers; and asylum seekers who arrived in Israel after experiencing severe physical and emotional abuse at the hands of kidnappers and smugglers en route to Israel. The study included interviews with policy makers and professionals, and with women and men who resided at the shelters, as well as an analysis of the relevant legislation and official reports. The article explores the problematic gendered differentiations between the two shelters. Most significantly, while support for residents of the shelter for women is anchored by emotional and psychological rehabilitation, residents of the shelter for men do not receive any therapeutic support. At the same time, while staff in the shelter for men put significant effort into the reintegration of the men into the labor force, the women’s employment prospects receive less attention. Based on these and other findings, the article cautions against gender-biased rehabilitation services for victims of human trafficking and slavery, and calls for a gender-sensitive rehabilitation theory and practice.

  8. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... transportation, environmental protection, and housing investments. Bus Livability will invest in projects that... characteristics of all communities by investing in healthy, safe and walkable neighborhoods--rural, urban or... guidelines. The project improves energy efficiency or reduces energy consumption/green house gas emissions...

  9. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...--New York, Administrator, Region 7--Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust Street... transportation bus fleet, infrastructure, and equipment in a state of good repair. Project Implementation..., Region 6--Ft. Kendall Square, 55 Broadway, Suite Worth, 819 Taylor Street, Room 920, Cambridge, MA 02142...

  10. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  11. Managing Student Behavior on the School Bus: A Key to Bus Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    School buses are the safest form of mass transit in America. Every day, school buses travel through congested city traffic and on isolated country roads in all types of weather, safely transporting millions of children to and from school and school-related activities. Federal and state standards for school bus construction and maintenance and…

  12. The Development of a Thermally Enhanced Emergency Fire Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fody, Joshua M.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Bruce III, Walter E.; Wells, John M.; Wusk, Mary E.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Since its founding in 1905, the U.S. Forest Service has been responsible for maintaining public lands. The Forest Service and other public lands agencies respond to an average of 73,000 wildfires per year, and responding firefighters are required to carry a number of safety gear items, including the M2002 emergency fire shelter. The emergency fire shelter is intended to serve as a last resort means of protection in case a firefighter's escape route has been compromised in the face of an approaching flame front. No fire shelter deployment tragedy has been more costly than the 2013 Yarnell Hill fire in Arizona, where 19 members of the Granite Mountain Hotshots perished. After the tragedy at Yarnell Hill, the Forest Service decided to expedite the next redesign cycle of the fire shelter in order to improve its ability to withstand direct contact with flames. Engineers at NASA Langley Research Center have spent the better part of a decade developing flexible thermal materials for use in inflatable aerodynamic decelerators and have demonstrated their performance in the IRVE-2 and IRVE-3 flight programs (Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment). NASA engineers recognized an opportunity to leverage their experience and knowledge with flexible thermal protection systems to potentially improve the fire shelter's resistance to direct flame contact, and have been working directly with the U.S. Forest Service to achieve this goal. They launched the CHIEFS project (Convective Heating Improvement for Emergency Fire Shelters) in 2014. Over the past three years, CHIEFS has screened over 270 unique material layups, and tested over 30 unique full scale shelter concepts in an effort to achieve a game changing improvement to the thermal protection of the fire shelter, while maintaining minimal mass and volume. This paper will discuss CHIEFS' 1st and 2nd generation fire shelter development efforts and test results.

  13. Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, P A; Murphy, B G

    2014-03-01

    The beneficial role that animal shelters play is unquestionable. An estimated 3 to 4 million animals are cared for or placed in homes each year, and most shelters promote public health and support responsible pet ownership. It is, nonetheless, inevitable that shelters are prime examples of anthropogenic biological instability: even well-run shelters often house transient, displaced, and mixed populations of animals. Many of these animals have received minimal to no prior health care, and some have a history of scavenging or predation to survive. Overcrowding and poor shelter conditions further magnify these inherent risks to create individual, intraspecies, and interspecies stress and provide an environment conducive to exposure to numerous potentially collaborative pathogens. All of these factors can contribute to the evolution and emergence of new pathogens or to alterations in virulence of endemic pathogens. While it is not possible to effectively anticipate the timing or the pathogen type in emergence events, their sites of origin are less enigmatic, and pathologists and diagnosticians who work with sheltered animal populations have recognized several such events in the past decade. This article first considers the contribution of the shelter environment to canine and feline disease. This is followed by summaries of recent research on the pathogenesis of common shelter pathogens, as well as research that has led to the discovery of novel or emerging diseases and the methods that are used for their diagnosis and discovery. For the infectious agents that commonly affect sheltered dogs and cats, including canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, Streptococcus spp, parvoviruses, feline herpesvirus, feline caliciviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis virus, we present familiar as well as newly recognized lesions associated with infection. Preliminary studies on recently discovered viruses like canine circovirus, canine bocavirus, and feline norovirus

  14. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Fergyanto E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  15. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  16. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  17. Optimizing Performance of at-grade Intersection with Bus Rapid Transit Corridor and Heterogeneous Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has emerged as a preferred mode of public transport in various countries all over the world for its cost effectiveness in construction as well as in operation and maintenance. The rapid transit feature of BRT is seen as a solution to many traffic problems in these countries. However, in developing countries like India, the right -of-way for most of the roads is restricted and traffic is heterogeneous in nature. Provision of BRT in existing right -of-way reduces the capacity available for other motorized traffic. As the buses travel with a certain frequency on dedicated bus- ways, the dedicated corridor remains unused for most of the period when other traffic on motorized vehicle (MV lanes suffers from congestion. The problem gets severe at intersections. However, if buses are operated in mixed traffic it is no more rapid transit. Hence, a solution is required to address this problem and optimize the performance of traffic as a whole. This paper presents the effect if dedicated bus-ways end at a reasonable distance before the stop line at a busy signalized at-grade intersection, and bus lanes (beyond that are made available to all the motorized vehicular traffic (heterogeneous traffic at intersection. The performance evaluation is done in terms of average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle, vehicle throughput, average speed in network and emission of Carbon monoxide CO, mono-nitrogen oxides NOx and Volatile organic compounds (VOC. It is observed that availability of bus lanes to other motorized traffic for a reasonable distance before intersection considerably reduces the average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle and emission per vehicle, while there is an increase in vehicle throughput and average speed of all the vehicles in the network. Thus it results in reduction of congestion and performance enhancement of at-grade intersections and network. Results of

  18. A whistle-stop tour of statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everitt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    "Preface according to my Penguin English dictionary, whistle-stop, used before a noun means 'consisting of brief stops in several places' and this whistle-stop tour of statistics does just that, with...

  19. Dutch listeners' perception of Korean stop triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates Dutch listeners' perception of Korean stop triplets. Whereas Dutch distinguishes prevoiced and voiceless unaspirated stops, Korean distinguishes fortis, lenis, and aspirated stops. Here, perception of fortis, lenis, and aspirated bilabial (/pp/-/p/-/ph/), alveolar

  20. Interoperability: Stop Blaming the Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Interoperability: Stop Blaming the Radio Ronald P. Timmons INTRODUCTION One of the most pressing first responder issues emerging in the post-9...00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Interoperability: Stop Blaming the Radio 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...recording of a reporter describing the crash of the Hindenburg (“oh, the humanity!”) can attest, stress causes the human voice to take on a very

  1. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  2. Nuclear stopping power of antiprotons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Kai; Sundholm, Dage; Pyykkö, Pekka; Zambrano, Daniel Martinez; Djurabekova, Flyura

    2017-10-01

    The slowing down of energetic ions in materials is determined by the nuclear and electronic stopping powers. Both of these have been studied extensively for ordinary-matter ions. For antiprotons, however, there are numerous studies of the electronic stopping power, but none of the nuclear stopping power. Here, we use quantum-chemical methods to calculate interparticle potentials between antiprotons and different atoms, and derive from these the nuclear stopping power of antiprotons in solids. The results show that the antiproton nuclear stopping powers are much stronger than those of protons, and can also be stronger than the electronic stopping power at the lowest energies. The interparticle potentials are also implemented in a molecular dynamics ion range calculation code, which allows us to simulate antiproton transmission through degrader foil materials. Foil transmission simulations carried out at experimentally relevant conditions show that the choice of antiproton-atom interaction model has a large effect on the predicted yield of antiprotons slowed down to low (a few keV) energies.

  3. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  4. Towards formal verification of ToolBus scripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkink, W.; Klint, P.; Lisser, B.; Usenko, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    ToolBus allows one to connect tools via a software bus. Programming is done using the scripting language Tscript, which is based on the process algebra ACP. Tscript was originally designed to enable formal verification, but this option has so far not been explored in any detail. We present a method

  5. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  6. Solar Telescope Control with the CAN-Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettauer, T. V.

    The real time behavior, error handling and its simplicity makes CAN a preferable bus protocol to interconnect the various modules of a tower telescope. A schematic description of the control bus for the Kanzelhöhe Vakuum Telescope is given.

  7. Application of CAN-bus Network in Intelligent parking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianjun, WU; Juan, Hu

    Convenient life makes intelligent parking every- where. This paper describes how to connect the various separate modern terminal of intelligent parking with CAN-bus network, and the competitive advantage of the system by using the CAN-bus network. From a technical point of view, this paper describes the development trend of intelligent parking in next few years.

  8. Connecticut nutmeg fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administra-tion (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP). A team led by the Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium a...

  9. Bus-based best-practice and urban transport emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Marcus Paul

    In Britain over recent years, transport has risen to the very top of the political agenda, partly because it is the fastest growing source of urban emissions. One politically attractive solution to this rapidly worsening problem, is 'improving public transport'. This thesis examines how the bus-the most widespread form of public transport-could be improved, and at how much these improvements would contribute to solving the emissions problem. The project was studied in two inter-related parts. The first part aimed to determine the factors necessary in forming the 'best possible' bus-based transport system by identifying and analysing a number of 'best-practice' bus systems in Europe and North America, using a case study approach. The second part then sought to quantify the effect on travel patterns and emissions that implementing this best possible bus-based transport system would have. This was done by modelling a series of possible scenarios with the START strategic transport model, and a modified version of the JET emissions inventory model. The City of Leicester was used as a modelling base. The study found that bus systems contributed most to reducing urban emissions where the needs of the bus passenger were made paramount, and where bus operators worked together with local government, local businesses etc. Even where these factors existed however, the effect of bus-based transport policies on levels of pollutants was found to be significant only when applied together with strong car restraint measures.

  10. Bus Lifecycle Cost Model for Federal Land Management Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The Bus Lifecycle Cost Model is a spreadsheet-based planning tool that estimates capital, operating, and maintenance costs for various bus types over the full lifecycle of the vehicle. The model is based on a number of operating characteristics, incl...

  11. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  12. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  13. Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    ... being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door...

  14. Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    .... Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door...

  15. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-04-24

    The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association's Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education.

  16. Proposed shelter plantings : Spring, 1938 : Sand Lake Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This planting program is recommended for shelter strips, permanent snow protection, and clump plantings during 1938 to supplement existing groves and the planting...

  17. A series of small scientific satellite with flexible standard bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hirobumi; Sawai, Syujiro; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Fukuda, Seisuke; Kitade, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has a plan to develop the small satellite standard bus for various scientific missions and disaster monitoring missions. The satellite bus is a class of 250-400 kg mass with three-axis control capability of 0.02∘ accuracy. The science missions include X-ray astronomy missions, planetary telescope missions, and magnetosphere atmosphere missions. In order to adapt the wide range of mission requirements, the satellite bus has to be provided with flexibility. The concepts of modularization, reusability, and product line are applied to the standard bus system. This paper describes the characteristics of the small satellite standard bus which will be firstly launched in 2011.

  18. Genetic Algorithm for Multiple Bus Line Coordination on Urban Arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority.

  19. Sheltered Employment Centers: Characteristics and users' perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Urríes, F B Jordán; Verdugo, M A

    2011-01-01

    To know the situation of Sheltered Employment Centers (CEE) in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. A quantitative approach was developed by using a questionnaire which was sent to all the CEE. With this questionnaire we got information about the performance level of CEE. A qualitative approach was developed too by using an interview applied to a representative sample of users. With the interview we got information about users' perception and satisfaction. 73 centers from 175 (41.71%) participated in the quantitative approach. For the qualitative approach, 60 workers were selected from 1,899 (3.16%) in a randomized and stratified sample by age and gender. Users of CEE have most of them physical (38.41%) or intellectual (26.88%) disabilities, between 25 and 44 years old (65.44%) with permanent and full-time contract (64.17%). Satisfaction is very high (93.33%), mainly with the task (41.76%) and their coworkers (30.00%), and emphasizing that money is the least attractive feature (35.59%). CEE need to give careful thought to some of the key aspects of their makeup and practices. We would point out the need to make clear use of the personal and social adaptation services, act as routes for the transition to normalized employment.

  20. Modelling personality, plasticity and predictability in shelter dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Goold, Conor; Newberry, Ruth C.

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural assessments of shelter dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) typically comprise standardized test batteries conducted at one time point, but test batteries have shown inconsistent predictive validity. Longitudinal behavioural assessments offer an alternative. We modelled longitudinal observational data on shelter dog behaviour using the framework of behavioural reaction norms, partitioning variance into personality (i.e. inter-individual differences in behaviour), plasticity (i.e. inter-i...

  1. Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

  2. Effectiveness of urban shelter-in-place—II: Residential districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for indefinite sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.

  3. Characteristics and Outcomes of Dogs Admitted into Queensland RSPCA Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemy, Megan; Rand, Jacquie; Morton, John; Paterson, Mandy

    2017-09-01

    Over 200,000 stray and surrendered dogs are admitted to shelters and municipal facilities in Australia each year, and approximately 20% are euthanized. Contemporary, comprehensive data on the characteristics and outcomes of dogs entering shelters are required to reduce shelter admissions and euthanasia. However, there are currently limited up-to-date data published on dog admission into shelters. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted to describe the characteristics and outcomes of the dog population entering Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Queensland (RSPCA-QLD) shelters in 2014 (n = 11,967). The majority of dog admissions were strays from the public (24%) or from municipal councils (34%). Just over a quarter of admissions were puppies, 18% of adults (>6 months) were desexed, and the majority of admissions were crossbred dogs (92%). The majority of owner surrenders (86%) were due to human-related reasons. Most dogs were reclaimed (32%) or adopted (43%) and aggression was the most common reason for euthanasia of adult dogs (45%). Low-cost or free desexing and identification programs targeted to areas and breeds contributing to high intake, and increased support services for owners at risk of surrendering their dog, should be trialed to determine their cost effectiveness in reducing shelter admissions and euthanasia.

  4. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Mohan-Gibbons; Emily D. Dolan; Pamela Reid; Margaret R. Slater; Hugh Mulligan; Emily Weiss

    2018-01-01

    Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-m...

  5. 24-h sheltering behaviour of individually kept horses during Swedish summer weather

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Elke; Hopkins, Richard; von Brömssen, Claudia; Dahlborn, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Provision of shelter for horses kept on summer pasture is rarely considered in welfare guidelines, perhaps because the benefits of shelter in warm conditions are poorly documented scientifically. For cattle, shade is a valued resource during summer and can mitigate the adverse effects of warm weather on well-being and performance. We found in a previous study that horses utilized shelters frequently in summer. A shelter with a roof and closed on three sides (shelter A) was preferr...

  6. How to Find a Comfortable Bus Route - Towards Personalized Information Recommendation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danhuai Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the generation of massive data from bus IC cards, how to effectively and efficiently recommend comfortable bus routes to bus passengers is a challenging and complex task. In this paper, waiting time, crowded time, and driving time between different bus stations on different bus routes at different times of the day are calculated from bus IC cards data history. Then, a multi-objective program with various constraints is suggested to recommend comfortable bus routes for bus passengers, and a genetic algorithm is developed to search for expected solutions. The proposed method is implemented using bus IC cards data from Chongqing, China and will be a promising tool for bus passengers when choosing comfortable bus routes.

  7. Development of a PEM Fuel Cell City Bus with a Hierarchical Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliang Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell system is considered to be an ideal alternative for the internal combustion engine, especially when used on a city bus. Hybrid buses with fuel cell systems and energy storage systems are now undergoing transit service demonstrations worldwide. A hybrid PEM fuel cell city bus with a hierarchical control system is studied in this paper. Firstly, the powertrain and hierarchical control structure is introduced. Secondly, the vehicle control strategy including start-stop strategy, energy management strategy, and fuel cell control strategy, including the hydrogen system and air system control strategies, are described in detail. Finally, the performance of the fuel cell was analyzed based on road test data. Results showed that the different subsystems were well-coordinated. Each component functioned in concert in order to ensure that both safety and speed requirements were satisfied. The output current of the fuel cell system changed slowly and the output voltage was limited to a certain range, thereby enhancing durability of the fuel cell. Furthermore, the economic performance was optimized by avoiding low load conditions.

  8. Orientation Assistance for Visually Impaired Passengers within a Bus Rapid Transit System (Transmilenio, using Satellite Geolocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Camargo

    2017-05-01

    Results: 100% of the users were able to reach their destination successfully in the pilot test. In regards to the usability perception, users highlighted features such as sound indications for setting the device and orientation guidance throughout the journey. On the other hand, one of the main difficulties found was to correctly identify the bus approaching the stop and similarly locating the corresponding boarding door, as multiple bus routes may alight in the same door. Conclusions: The device was built incorporating low-cost technologies intended to make it affordable in an eventual mass—scale production. Likewise, a discreet design was chosen so as to lessen the risk of robbery, which unfortunately is a frequent issue in the Transmilenio system due to overcrowding of buses and stations. Additionally, we remark that the prototype can be made smaller by using special—purpose circuit boards. Policy-makers may take into account these considerations for an eventual wide implementation as part of governments’ plans for mobility inclusion in mass-transport systems for disabled people, in comparison with other alternatives such as smart cell phones Language: Spanish.

  9. Bus industry market study. Report -- Task 3.2: Fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1992-06-02

    In support of the commercialization of fuel cells for transportation, Georgetown University, as a part of the DOE/DOT Fuel Cell Transit Bus Program, conducted a market study to determine the inventory of passenger buses in service as of December, 1991, the number of buses delivered in 1991 and an estimate of the number of buses to be delivered in 1992. Short term and long term market projections of deliveries were also made. Data was collected according to type of bus and the field was divided into the following categories which are defined in the report: transit buses, school buses, commercial non-transit buses, and intercity buses. The findings of this study presented with various tables of data collected from identified sources as well as narrative analysis based upon interviews conducted during the survey.

  10. Organizing a bus depot – selected aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy PAWLICKI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban transportation problems are particularly noticeable within cities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. In these cities buses are a primary means of transport, but lack of low-floor and poor interior design does not encourage passengers to use them. However, the qualities that give the most negative feedback on the public transpiration are the technical condition of buses, excessive noise and exhaust emission. Technical backsides of the bus depots that constantly maintain the technical readiness of the required number of vehicles play an important role to ensure high quality standards. New European Union legislation is very helpful in such. New laws and regulations deal with the safety issues and environmental protection matters, to which the urban transportation depots must be strictly adjusted. This article refers to these documents and presents depot technical stations, which equipment needs to be upgraded in the first place.

  11. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  12. Research of WLAN CAN Bus Data Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weibin; Zhu, Yuqing; Hong, Tiansheng; Ye, Cheng; Ye, Zhijie; He, Guangbin; Li, Haobiao

    Both controller area network (CAN) and wireless local area network (WLAN) bus technologies are developing rapidly nowadays. But the study on WLAN technology with CAN bus data is relative to be less researched. So a WLAN CAN bus data test system was present in this paper. The system hardware consists of two control modules, each of which consistently allows link test to the CAN bus network. Each hardware of the module is composed by a microcontroller STC12C5410AD, a CAN bus control unit MCP2515, a CAN bus transceiver MCP2551 and a RF wireless module RF903. During the test process, the CAN bus analyzer, Kvaser USBCAN II, receives and dispatches the CAN messages. Test results showed that the system's error score was approximately zero when messages are transmitted and the system can message transmission from one side of CAN panel point to the other side. The communication of the system is suitable for the CAN treaty standard and it can allow wireless message transmission to other suitable networks meeting the CAN treaty standard as well. Finally the system has been applied to the project for hill citrus leaf area index (LAI) acquisition.

  13. Stopped nucleons in configuration space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialas, Andrzej [Jagellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland); Bzdak, Adam [AGH - Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    In this note, using the colour string model, we study the configuration space distribution of stopped nucleons in heavy-ion collisions. We find that the stopped nucleons from the target and the projectile end up separated from each other by the distance increasing with the collision energy. In consequence, for the center of mass energies larger than 6 or 10 GeV (depending on the details of the model) it appears that the system created is not in thermal and chemical equilibrium, and the net baryon density reached is likely not much higher than that already present in the colliding nuclei.

  14. Using microcomputers for lighting appliance control using a DALI bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article concerns the DALI bus theoretical and practical aspects. The DALI bus is a modern technology developed especially for illumination systems control. Authors are outlining communication basic principles related to the physical layer and going up to more complex data transactions among particular devices. The article main topic is aimed at two device models development based on microcontroller and exploiting that technology. The first of those two devices is a DALI slave unit enabling the light source or multi switch with light indication components control via DALI bus. The second device measures the ambient illumination intensity and it also detects errors in the load.

  15. Design and Research on Automotive Controller Area Network Bus Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei CUI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection method of automotive controller area network bus is researched in this paper. Failure identifying of CAN bus under different working conditions has been realized. In order to realizing intelligent failure diagnosis, data fusion means has been put forward in this paper. The composition of analysis and detection system is introduced. By analyzing and processing the data of CAN bus and sensors, work condition of automotive is achieved. Multi-pattern data fusion model and algorithm for failure diagnosis are researched. The analyzer and detection system designed in this paper can be applied to automotive fault analysis, troubleshooting and maintenance.

  16. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Choong-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, uninterruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS is discussed and elaborated.

  17. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  18. Research on Optimization for Motion Control Bus Based on Ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field bus system has been successfully introduced into industrial automation. Nowadays, most of the motion control bus is based on the Ethernet physical layer, and all of the new standards are based on the Ethernet physical layer. This paper introduces a new optimized technology based on motion control bus of the Ethernet physical layer, which includes the prediction mechanism in the arrival of the frames, the retransmission mechanism in advance, and a new mechanism of independent verification of data segment. Tests show that using the mechanisms in this paper can enhance efficiency and reliability in communication process.

  19. KAJIAN AWAL SIMULASI KOMPUTER MODEL KEBIJAKAN PENENTUAN JUMLAH OPTIMAL ARMADA BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Budiawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keberadaan Bus Rapid Transit (BRT di Kota Semarang diharapkan dapat menjadi salah satu solusi akan permasalahan kemacetan, adanya BRT ini terutama pada trayek perjalanan koridor II, ternyata mendapatkan tanggapan positif dari masyarakat pengguna, terbukti dari meningkatnya permintaan yang terjadi dari tahun 2012 hingga 2013 yakni hampir menyentuh angka 90% dari tahun sebelumnya. Dari hasil pengamatan pada trayek perjalanan Koridor II yang telah dilakukan, ternyata diketahui bahwa pada beberapa shelter (halte terjadi permintaan yang cukup tinggi, dan akhirnya pada saat peak hour armada BRT tidak mampu menampung seluruh permintaan yang terjadi, sehingga mengakibatkan penumpang harus menunggu lebih lama untuk dilayani oleh armada tersebut. Hal tersebut memicu permasalahan baru yakni kurang optimalnya jumlah armada yang beroperasi dan juga jadwal antar keberangkatan armada yang kurang menyesuaikan kondisi ketika tingginya permintaan pada setiap halte. Adapun metode yang digunakan adalah dengan melakukan pendekatan sistem, yang selanjutnya melakukan pemodelan sistem transportasi dan simulasi computer yang terjadi pada rute perjalanan tersebut. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah rancangan model simulasi dalam bentuk model matematis dan simulasi komputer. Variabel pengendali pada model matematis dan simulasi komputer adalah frekuensi waktu antar kedatangan armada BRT, sehingga diharapkan mengurangi panjang antrian penumpang. Kata kunci: sistem transportasi, pemodelan sistem, simulasi komputer.

  20. Common Airborne Instrumentation System: CAIS Bus Interface Standard, A00.00-C001. Revision A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sidney

    1997-01-01

    .... This interface control document (ICD) was written to provide a single document that designers of CAIS bus controllers and data acquisition units could reference to ensure interoperability on the CAIS bus. This ICD establishes the requirements for digital command/response, time division multiplexing techniques for a single CAIS bus. It encompasses the physical, electrical, and protocol aspects of the CAIS bus.

  1. Stopping Power for Degenerate Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    This is a first attempt at calculating the BPS stopping power with electron degeneracy corrections. Section I establishes some notation and basic facts. Section II outlines the basics of the calculation, and in Section III contains some brief notes on how to proceed with the details of the calculation. The remaining work for the calculation starts with Section III.

  2. Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Tunstall, Lewis C.

    2016-01-01

    Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops ${\\tilde t}_1$, making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are ${\\tilde t_1}\\to t \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, ${\\tilde t_1}\\to W b \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ and ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$. We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ in a model-independent fashion, revealing the existence of large regions in parameter space which are excluded for any ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ branching ratio. This effect is then illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the LHC bounds from ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ searches are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing leads only to a modest increase in the allowed regions of parameter...

  3. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In [1] we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reprametrizations of the unit interval. I am grateful to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out to me...

  4. Stop researching transformational leadership! Now!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Intro__ Researchers all over the world, stop with your research on transformational leadership! Now! This could be the provocative conclusion after reading the recent article of Profs. Daan van Knippenberg and Sim Sitkin in The Academy of Management Annals (2013). These

  5. Evaluatie campagne 'Stop beginnende nierziekte'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.M.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Verheij, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Ruim een miljoen De Nierstichting begon in september 2006 de campagne ‘Stop beginnende nierziekte’. Met als doel mensen met een beginnende nierziekte op te sporen, waardoor de ziekte eerder kan worden behandeld. Via televisie en kranten werden Nederlanders van 18 jaar en ouder opgeroepen de gratis

  6. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  7. When should we stop screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, J S; Black, W C

    2000-01-01

    Although the age at which screening should be started is the subject of considerable debate, the question of when to stop has received little attention. Days of life lost by stopping screening at various ages. For each of three types of cancer (breast, cervical, and colon), we used life tables to calculate life expectancy at various ages for stopping screening and for continuing screening until death. The days of life lost by stopping screening is the difference in life expectancy between the two life tables for a specified age. All-cause and cancer-specific mortality were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Survey (SEER). ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT BENEFIT: On the basis of randomized trial data, we used a 30% reduction in cancer-specific mortality for breast and colon cancer screening. Because there are no comparable data for cervical cancer, we assumed a 30% reduction in the mortality rate for the "best-guess" analysis and a 70% reduction in the mortality rate for the "best-case" analysis. We assumed that these benefits persisted for the elderly. ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT HARM: We assumed that there was no harm with screening. Given a starting age of 50 years, screening throughout life has a maximum potential life expectancy benefit of 43 days for breast cancer and 28 days for colon cancer. The average 75-year-old who stops either mammography or fecal occult blood testing would give up a maximum of 9 days. By stopping at age 80, she would give up a maximum of 5 days. Given a starting age of 20, Pap smear screening has a maximum potential benefit of 47 days in the best-case analysis and 7 days in the best-guess analysis. The average 75-year-old who forgoes Pap smear screening would give up a maximum of 3 days (best case) or 0.5 days (best guess). By stopping at age 80, she would give up a maximum of 1.5 days and 0.2 days, respectively. Even assuming that the mortality reduction with screening persists in the elderly

  8. Modelling personality, plasticity and predictability in shelter dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural assessments of shelter dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) typically comprise standardized test batteries conducted at one time point, but test batteries have shown inconsistent predictive validity. Longitudinal behavioural assessments offer an alternative. We modelled longitudinal observational data on shelter dog behaviour using the framework of behavioural reaction norms, partitioning variance into personality (i.e. inter-individual differences in behaviour), plasticity (i.e. inter-individual differences in average behaviour) and predictability (i.e. individual differences in residual intra-individual variation). We analysed data on interactions of 3263 dogs (n = 19 281) with unfamiliar people during their first month after arrival at the shelter. Accounting for personality, plasticity (linear and quadratic trends) and predictability improved the predictive accuracy of the analyses compared to models quantifying personality and/or plasticity only. While dogs were, on average, highly sociable with unfamiliar people and sociability increased over days since arrival, group averages were unrepresentative of all dogs and predictions made at the individual level entailed considerable uncertainty. Effects of demographic variables (e.g. age) on personality, plasticity and predictability were observed. Behavioural repeatability was higher one week after arrival compared to arrival day. Our results highlight the value of longitudinal assessments on shelter dogs and identify measures that could improve the predictive validity of behavioural assessments in shelters. PMID:28989764

  9. Modelling personality, plasticity and predictability in shelter dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Conor; Newberry, Ruth C

    2017-09-01

    Behavioural assessments of shelter dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) typically comprise standardized test batteries conducted at one time point, but test batteries have shown inconsistent predictive validity. Longitudinal behavioural assessments offer an alternative. We modelled longitudinal observational data on shelter dog behaviour using the framework of behavioural reaction norms, partitioning variance into personality (i.e. inter-individual differences in behaviour), plasticity (i.e. inter-individual differences in average behaviour) and predictability (i.e. individual differences in residual intra-individual variation). We analysed data on interactions of 3263 dogs (n = 19 281) with unfamiliar people during their first month after arrival at the shelter. Accounting for personality, plasticity (linear and quadratic trends) and predictability improved the predictive accuracy of the analyses compared to models quantifying personality and/or plasticity only. While dogs were, on average, highly sociable with unfamiliar people and sociability increased over days since arrival, group averages were unrepresentative of all dogs and predictions made at the individual level entailed considerable uncertainty. Effects of demographic variables (e.g. age) on personality, plasticity and predictability were observed. Behavioural repeatability was higher one week after arrival compared to arrival day. Our results highlight the value of longitudinal assessments on shelter dogs and identify measures that could improve the predictive validity of behavioural assessments in shelters.

  10. Speed limiter integrated fatigue analyzer (SLIFA) for speed and fatigue control on diesel engine truck and bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Haris; Pranoto, Hadi; Leman, A. M.; Sebayang, Darwin; Baba, I.

    2017-09-01

    Every second, the number of road traffic deaths is increased globally with millions more sustaining severe injuries and living with long-term adverse health consequences. Jakarta alone in year 2015 had recorded 556 people died due to road accidents, approximately reached 6.231 road accident cases. The identified major contributory factors of such unfortunate events are both driver fatigue and over speeding habit especially related to the driving of truck and bus. This paper presents the idea on how to control the electronic system from input fuel system of injection pump and the combustion chamber engine will control the valve solenoid in injection pump which can lock and fuel will stop for moment, and speed limit can be success, by using sensor heart rate we can input reduce speed limit when fatigue detection driver. Integration process this tool can be relevant when Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) trial in the diesel engine for truck and bus, the result of this research Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) able to control speed of diesel engine for truck and bus almost 30km/h, 60km/h, and until 70 km/h. The installation of the sensor heart rate as the input speed limit SLIFA would work when the driver is detected to be in the fatigue condition. We make Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) for control and monitoring system for diesel engine in truck and bus. Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) system can save the historical of the speed record, fatigue, rpm, and body temperature of the driver.

  11. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  12. Fixed Route Accessible Bus Service in Connecticut : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    U.S. Department of Transportation regulations implementing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, require transit agencies to provide wheelchair accessibility on fixed-route bus service. The study is part of the series which included studies ...

  13. A research framework for studying transit bus driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The increase in transit bus ridership nationally during the past ten years, along with the : proliferation of personal electronic control and communication gadgets is causing more : distractions for the drivers. Earlier research studies have found dr...

  14. Multi-Gigabit Rate Radiation Hard Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High speed robust very low power radiation hardened bus interconnects are required to accelerate on-board computations, further improve reconfigurability and upgrade...

  15. FTA fuel cell bus program : research accomplishments through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Prepared by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Office of Research, Demonstration, and Innovation (TRI), this report summarizes the accomplishments of fuel-cell-transit-bus-related research and demonstrations projects supported by FTA through 20...

  16. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  17. Analysis of feeder bus network design and scheduling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Koting, Suhana; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews.

  18. Public transit: Bus, paratransit, and ridesharing. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Contents: part 1--bus operations--service reliability program of the southern california rapid transit district: a test of the short-term impacts on line 26-51; bus route o-d matrix generation: relationship between biproportional and recursive methods; transportation systems management options to improve urban bus route performance using computer simulation; development and application of performance measures for rural public transportation operators; rural public transportation in alaska: present and future options; particulate trap installation in a man articulated transit bus; part 2--paratransit--methodology for conducting a transportation survey of persons with disabilities; marketing rural transit among senior populations; evolution of functional eligibility and certification for paratransit service: the chicago experience; part 3--ridesharing--the state of the commute in southern california; hispanic market research in the southern california market; evaluation of second-year effectiveness of guaranteed ride home service at warner center transportation management organization; effectiveness of a statewide ridesharing promotion: california rideshare week.

  19. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  20. Application Layer Definition and Analyses of Controller Area Network Bus for Wire Harness Assembly Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hui; Jiang, Ying

    2006-01-01

    With the feature of multi-master bus access, nondestructive contention-based arbitration and flexible configuration, Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is applied into the control system of Wire Harness Assembly Machine (WHAM). To accomplish desired goal, the specific features of the CAN bus is analyzed by compared with other field buses and the functional performances in the CAN bus system of WHAM is discussed. Then the application layer planning of CAN bus for dynamic priority is presented. ...

  1. Accessibility analysis to public services by bus transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Košir, Uroš

    2009-01-01

    Graduation thesis focuses on ESRI GIS tools, Model Builder and Network analyst. It is shown how automated process with geoprocesing models simplify procedures, with prepared data, for further analyses. Data, established with analyses, were used for accessability analysis to public services by bus transportation. Analyses were made for territory of Slovenia and their statistical regions. For better understanding of choice between a car and a bus accessibility to public services, thesis was sup...

  2. VHDL resolved function based inner communication bus for FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses a method of building an internal, universal and parametric bus. The solution was designed for a variety of FPGA families and popular VHDL compilers. The algorithm of automatic configuration of address space and methods of receiving and sending addressed data are discussed. The basic solution realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form and chosen examples of practical use of the internal bus are presented in detail.

  3. The meaning of family routines in a homeless shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Krohn, Winifred

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory investigation sought to understand what meaning parents, living in a homeless shelter, attribute to family routines and the nature of those routines. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 parents living in a homeless shelter. Thematic analysis was employed to develop descriptive codes and themes from transcribed data and field notes. Parents described family routines focused on three features: promoting intimacy, maintaining or developing a legacy, and connections with the community. These routines seemed to preserve family integrity while homeless and to provide hope for the family to continue into the future. Homeless parents, in this investigation, seemed to expend a substantial amount of energy to create or maintain family routines while living in a homeless shelter. Findings suggest that occupational therapy services may help support homeless parents as they exercise their role as the organizer of family routines.

  4. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmund, P., E-mail: sigmund@sdu.dk [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Schinner, A. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul’s data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  5. School bus crash rates on routine and nonroutine routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Marizen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy; Stahlhut, Mary; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-09-01

    Although prior research has established that school buses are a safe form of transportation, crashes can produce catastrophic consequences. School buses have 2 types of routes: predictable, routine routes that take children to and from school and less predictable, nonroutine routes for school events. No studies have examined school bus crash incidence and characteristics by these route types. School bus crashes were identified from the Iowa Department of Transportation Crash Database from mid-2005 through mid-2010. Crash reports did not identify whether the bus was on a routine or nonroutine route, so a protocol to assign these based on day and time was developed. Bus mileage was provided by the Iowa Department of Education. The school bus crash rate was 2.1 times higher on nonroutine routes than on routine routes (95% CI = 1.8-2.3). Most crashes involved an improper action by the driver of another vehicle. In crashes attributed to improper actions of school buses, failure to yield the right-of-way and disregarding traffic signs were more common on routine routes, while losing control, speeding, reckless, or aggressive driving were more common on nonroutine routes. School bus crashes are more likely to occur on nonroutine routes. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  6. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours among bus operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoto, K H; French, S A

    2012-03-01

    Urban bus operators are an occupational group with high rates of overweight and obesity. Understanding methods bus operators use for weight control may be important; there may be increased risk for these workers to engage in less healthy weight management behaviours due to stressful working conditions. To examine the prevalence of unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours used by bus operators and examine associations between use of unhealthy weight control behaviours and work-related and sociodemographic variables. Bus operators from four different transit garages were invited to complete a self-administered survey; height and weight were measured by research staff. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours, work hours, work schedule and social support were measured with self-report items on the employee survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate associations. Nearly 60% of bus operators endorsed at least one unhealthy method; over 50% reported skipping meals, 30% fasted and 10% reported taking diet pills in the past year. Bus operator gender, race, body mass index status and hours worked per week showed significant associations with using at least one unhealthy weight control behaviour. Worksite interventions should emphasize the benefit of healthy eating and physical activity but should also address the use of less healthy methods for weight control for individuals employed in transportation occupations.

  7. Characterization of animals with microchips entering animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Linda K; Ingwersen, Walter; Gray, Janet L; Wintz, David J

    2009-07-15

    To characterize animals with microchips entering animal shelters and the process used to find owners. Cross-sectional study. 7,704 microchipped animals entering 53 animal shelters between August 2007 and March 2008. Data for animals with microchips were recorded by participating animal shelters and reported monthly. Of 7,704 animals, strays accounted for slightly more than half (4,083 [53.0%]), with the remainder classified as owner-relinquished animals (3,225 [41.9%]) and other (396 [5.1%]). Of 3,425 stray animals for which animal shelters reported that the owner was found, a higher percentage of dog owners (2,191/2,956 [74.1%]) than cat owners (298/469 [63.5%]) was found. For 876 animals for which the owners could not be found, the main reasons were incorrect or disconnected telephone number (310 [35.4%]), owner did not return telephone calls or respond to a letter (213 [24.3%]), and animal was registered to another group (151 [17.2%]). Of 1,943 animals for which animal shelters contacted a microchip registry, 1,129 (58.1%) were registered in the database. Purebred neutered dogs whose owner information was in the shelter database registry or microchip registry had a higher likelihood that the owners would be found. The high rate for return of microchipped dogs and cats to their owners supported microchipping as a valuable permanent pet identification modality; however, issues related to registration undermined its overall potential. Bundling of microchip implantation and registration, point-of-implantation data registration, use of annual compliance and update reminders, and providing access to all registries are potential solutions.

  8. Smoking policy change at a homeless shelter: attitudes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2015-01-01

    Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43 years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12 months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8 parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental Winter Coccidiosis in Sheltered and Unsheltered Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niilo, L.

    1970-01-01

    Hereford calves, seven months old, were inoculated orally with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria bovis and E. zurnii and housed in a heated building together with uninoculated animals. Duplicate groups of similarly treated animals were left unsheltered in cold winter weather. Clinical coccidiosis developed in most of the inoculated calves, sheltered and unsheltered. There was no marked difference in the severity of the infections. The sheltered uninoculated contact animals remained clinically unaffected, but mild coccidiosis developed in the unsheltered controls. The results suggest that cold may increase the host's susceptibility to clinical coccidiosis, but may not increase the severity of the signs once the clinical infection is established. PMID:4245999

  10. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  11. Light Stops at Exceptional Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzak, Tamar; Mailybaev, Alexei A.; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2018-01-01

    Almost twenty years ago, light was slowed down to less than 10-7 of its vacuum speed in a cloud of ultracold atoms of sodium. Upon a sudden turn-off of the coupling laser, a slow light pulse can be imprinted on cold atoms such that it can be read out and converted into a photon again. In this process, the light is stopped by absorbing it and storing its shape within the atomic ensemble. Alternatively, the light can be stopped at the band edge in photonic-crystal waveguides, where the group speed vanishes. Here, we extend the phenomenon of stopped light to the new field of parity-time (P T ) symmetric systems. We show that zero group speed in P T symmetric optical waveguides can be achieved if the system is prepared at an exceptional point, where two optical modes coalesce. This effect can be tuned for optical pulses in a wide range of frequencies and bandwidths, as we demonstrate in a system of coupled waveguides with gain and loss.

  12. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Jiankun; Fan, Hao; He, Hongwen; Pan, Deng

    2015-01-01

    .... To evaluate the controller area network (CAN) bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built...

  13. ANALISIS SARANA ANGKUTAN UMUM BUS DAMRI DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhan Rizal Amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the availability and use of public transportation by taking a case study of the Damri bus which has Ngaliyan-Pucanggading route. The availability of public transport is not comparable to the demand for public transportation services so that the problems of transportation emerge. Additionally, the use of public transport becomes an important factor to develop the transportation. The study is conducted by surveying the Damri passengers of B.04 lane and logistic regression is used for the analysis. The method of determining the needs of transportation is issued by Departemen Perhubungan. It is used to calculate and determine whether the public transportation should be added or reduced. Then, the factors used as the independent variables in the analysis are the Damri’s safety, effectiveness, efficiency, service and reliability. The results show that Perum Damri does not need to add more Damri bus for B.04 because the results’ calculation is 0.6. and the factors that significantly influence the use Damri bus is the variable of safety, effectiveness and efficiency. However, the variables of service and reliability do not significantly influence the use of B.04 Damri bus.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ketersediaan dan penggunaan angkutan sarana angkutan umum penumpang dengan mengambil studi kasus pada bus Damri jalur dengan trayek Ngaliyan-Pucanggading. Ketersediaan sarana angkutan umum yang tersedia tidak sebanding dengan besarnya permintaan akan jasa angkutan umum oleh masyarakat umum sehingga muncul permasalahan transportasi. Di samping itu, penggunaan angkutan umum yang beroperasi menjadi faktor penting dalam upaya pengembangan sarana transportasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode survey terhadap para penumpang bus Damri jalur B.04 dan dianalisis dengan Regresi Logistik. Metode penentuan kebutuhan armada dikeluarkan oleh Departemen Perhubungan yang digunakan untuk menghitung apakah suatu

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in ... to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your nails, dermatologists recommend the following tips: ...

  15. 24-h sheltering behaviour of individually kept horses during Swedish summer weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Elke; Hopkins, Richard J; von Brömssen, Claudia; Dahlborn, Kristina

    2015-08-20

    Provision of shelter for horses kept on summer pasture is rarely considered in welfare guidelines, perhaps because the benefits of shelter in warm conditions are poorly documented scientifically. For cattle, shade is a valued resource during summer and can mitigate the adverse effects of warm weather on well-being and performance. We found in a previous study that horses utilized shelters frequently in summer. A shelter with a roof and closed on three sides (shelter A) was preferred and can reduce insect pressure whereas a shelter with roof and open on three sides was not utilized. However, shelter A restricts the all-round view of a horse, which may be important for horses as flight animals. Therefore, we studied whether a shelter with roof, where only the upper half of the rear wall was closed (shelter B), would be utilized while maintaining insect protection properties and satisfying the horses' sense for security. A third shelter was offered with walls but no roof (shelter C) to evaluate whether the roof itself is an important feature from the horse's perspective. Eight Warmblood horses were tested each for 2 days, kept individually for 24 h in two paddocks with access to shelters A and B, or shelters A and C, respectively. Shelter use was recorded continuously during the night (1800-2400 h, 0200-0600 h) and the following day (0900-1600 h), and insect defensive behaviour (e.g., tail swish) in instantaneous scan samples at 5-min intervals during daytime. Seven horses used both shelters A and B, but when given the choice between shelters A and C, shelter C was scarcely visited. There was no difference in duration of shelter use between night (105.8 ± 53.6 min) and day (100.8 ± 53.8, P = 0.829). Daytime shelter use had a significant effect on insect defensive behaviours (P = 0.027). The probability of performing these behaviours was lowest when horses used shelter A compared to being outside (P = 0.038). Horses only utilized shelters with a roof

  16. Shekgalagari stops and theories of phonological representation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to present some aspects of stop consonants, e.g. voice onset time (VOT) and F0 perturbation, and also to present phonological theories of stop representation in order to examine matters of Shekgalagari stop production and phonological representation. Of the phonological representation theories ...

  17. Stopping of Ships Equipped with Azipods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nowicki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of different possibilities of stopping a large ship equipped with azipods. The model tests were carried out to compare the effectiveness of stopping the ship using the different methods. The ship model used in stopping tests reproduces a large LNG carrier of capacity ~150 000 m3

  18. Measurement of the Residual Resistivity Ratio of the Bus Bars Copper Stabilizer of the 13 kA Circuits of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonio, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Schmidt, R; Verweij, A; Siemko, A; Claudet, S; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H

    2012-01-01

    After the incident of September 2008, the operational beam energy of the LHC has been set to 3.5 TeV, since not all joints of the superconducting (SC) bus bars between magnets have the required quality for 7 TeV operation. This decision is based on simulations to determine the safe current in the main dipole and quadrupole circuits, reproducing the thermal behaviour of a quenched superconducting joint by taking into account all relevant factors that affect a possible thermal runaway. One important parameter is the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the copper stabilizer of the bus bar connecting the superconducting magnets. A dedicated campaign to measure the RRR for the main 13 kA circuits of the LHC in all sectors was performed during the Christmas stop in December 2010 and January 2011. The measurement method as well as the data analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  19. Shining Stars: Public Library Service to Children in Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Pam

    1992-01-01

    The Orange County Public Library (CA) sponsors programing at the Orangewood Children's Home, a shelter for abused and neglected children. Programs include giving each child a book to keep and a library card, story times, and special programing. The library system now operates a branch at the home, and the librarian's position is being continued.…

  20. Sheltered housing compared to independent housing in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, P.M.A.; Hamers, J.P.H.; Groot, W.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: With elderly people desiring to live independently as long as possible, traditional homes for the elderly are increasingly being transformed into sheltered accommodations. In order to assess the importance of housing for frail elderly people, elderly people at risk for

  1. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... necessary to comply with securities laws and such disclosure is not otherwise limited. (ii) Mergers and acquisitions. In the case of a proposed taxable or tax-free acquisition of historic assets of a corporation... any other person who participates in the organization, management or sale of a tax shelter (as those...

  2. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Body condition score (BCS and metabolic status of shelter dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrighetto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A group of 147 shelter dogs were weighted and assigned a body condition score (BCS using a 9 point scale system, in order to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in the kennel. More than 60% of the animals showed a BCS³6 (overweight and obese and this condition was mainly attributed to an excess of carbohydrates and fat in the diet. In 67/147 dogs, a blood sample was drawn and the effects of BCS, age and time spent in the shelter were evaluated on biochemical parameters. Obese dogs showed significantly higher levels of triglycerides (P<0.01, while increasing BCS determined only an increasing non significant trend on cholesterol values. Age influenced creatinine (P<0.05 and the oldest dogs scoring BCS³6 registered significant higher NEFA (P<0.05 and CK (P=0.01 levels. Time spent in the shelter did not affect any parameter. The dogs’ metabolic condition reflects the need of taking more care of the quality of feed administered in the shelters to avoid the negative health effects caused by chronic obesity.

  4. Outcomes of living in a self managed shelter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, Max

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and methodology In self-managed residential homeless care, consumers, and their peers, are in charge. Former consumers (N=24) of a self-managed homeless shelter were interviewed with qualitative structured topic-lists on the benefits they experienced. Former consumers of the program

  5. Shelter dogs as sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi transmission across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Trevor D; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Snowden, Karen F; Hamer, Sarah A

    2014-08-01

    Chagas disease, an infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly diagnosed among humans in the southern United States. We assessed exposure of shelter dogs in Texas to T. cruzi; seroprevalence across diverse ecoregions was 8.8%. Canine serosurveillance is a useful tool for public health risk assessment.

  6. Infections with endoparasites in dogs in Dutch animal shelters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobel, le W.E.; Robben, S.R.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Faecal samples from 224 dogs from 23 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined for endoparasites. In total 20.5% of the faecal sample were positive for helminth and/or protozoa infections. Eggs of Toxocara canis were found in 8.5% of the faecal samples. Other endoparasites found were

  7. From psychiatric ward to the streets and shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forchuk, C; Russell, G; Kingston-Macclure, S; Turner, K; Dill, S

    2006-06-01

    The issue of discharge from hospital ward to the streets is seldom explored in the literature, but all too commonly experienced by individuals experiencing psychiatric disorders. The Community University Research Alliance on Housing and Mental Health sought to determine how frequently people were discharged from psychiatric wards to shelters or the street in London, Ontario, Canada. A number of data sources were accessed to determine instances of discharges to shelters or the street. Data were analysed to determine the number of moves occurring between hospital and shelter or no fixed address. All datasets revealed the problem of discharge to shelters or the street occurred regularly. All data sources used have the difficulty of likely underestimating the extent of the problem. This type of discharge occurred at least 194 times in 2002 in London, Ontario, Canada. Policies that contribute to this problem include income-support policies, the reduction in psychiatric hospital beds and the lack of community supports. Without recognition, this problem is at risk of remaining invisible with no further improvements to the situation.

  8. SHELTER COMPETITION BETWEEN TWO INVASIVE CRAYFISH SPECIES: A LABORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALONSO F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alien crayfishes represent a common threat to aquatic ecosystems. Their spread in Europe is leading to more frequent contacts between different invasive species populations. Shelter can be an important factor in the resulting interactions. A laboratory experiment was designed to analyse the competition for shelter in similarly sized males of two species that show an invasive behaviour in Spain, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii. We carried out 24 heterospecific, six-hour trials, with 30 min behavioural observations per hour. Most often, red swamp crayfish were both the first (70.8% and the long-term winner (62.5%. Usually, the long-term winner was the first winner. Whenever shelter was occupied, a passive behaviour by unsheltered individuals was more frequent in signal crayfish than in red swamp crayfish. When both were unsheltered, signal crayfish displayed more often a passive behaviour. Although the observed behaviour might be explained as the result of dominance by the red swamp crayfish over the signal crayfish, shelter availability and class, as well as different growth patterns and population size structures, could change the intensity and the outcome of the encounters in the wild, where signal crayfish usually reach larger sizes than red swamp crayfish.

  9. National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

  10. Candidate New Rotavirus Species in Sheltered Dogs, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L.; Fehér, Enikő; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito

    2015-01-01

    We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A–H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I. PMID:25811414

  11. Effect of shelter porosity on downwind flow characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Š.; Kellnerová, R.; Jurčáková, K.; Jaňour, Z.; Chaloupecká, H.; Jakubcová, M.

    2016-03-01

    Previous wind-tunnel studies were focused mainly on lonely standing windbreaks or wind fences with respect to their wind velocity reduction efficiency and effective shelter distance. In presented wind-tunnel study, we investigated the effects of a three different fence porosities (0.5, 0.25 and 0) embodied in a shelter-like building for coal convey by means of two-component Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). The turbulent flow characteristics behind the fences were compared with those performed without the fence. For characterization of the fence effectiveness we used following quantities: wind-speed and turbulence kinetic energy reduction, and time fractions of the turbulent coherent structures associated with the sediment transport (sweeps and outward interactions). Results from mentioned quantities revealed that for the case of embodied fence the shelter construction has significant impact on the flow characteristics behind. The fence of the 0.5 porosity has been indicated as the most shelter effective considering the studied quantities.

  12. Modeling Evacuate versus Shelter-in-Place Decisions in Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. Drews

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Improving community resiliency to wildfire is a challenging problem in the face of ongoing development in fire-prone regions. Evacuation and shelter-in-place are the primary options for reducing wildfire casualties, but it can be difficult to determine which option offers the most protection in urgent scenarios. Although guidelines and policies have been proposed to inform this decision, a formal approach to evaluating protective options would help advance protective-action theory. We present an optimization model based on the premise that protecting a community can be viewed as assigning threatened households to one of three actions: evacuation, shelter-in-refuge, or shelter-in-home. While evacuation generally offers the highest level of life protection, it can place residents at greater risk when little time is available. This leads to complex trade-offs involving expected fire intensity, available time, and the quality and accessibility of in-place shelter. An application of the model is presented to illustrate a range of issues that can arise across scenarios.

  13. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices. (b) Ventilation. The... with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices. (c) Lighting. The sheltered part of... under it and having contact with the nonhuman primates. It must be of sufficient distance from the...

  14. THE UTILISATION OF THE RIGHT OF CHILDREN TO SHELTER TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2004-03-04

    Mar 4, 2004 ... THE UTILISATION OF THE RIGHT OF CHILDREN TO SHELTER TO. ALLEVIATE POVERTY IN SOUTH AFRICA1. I Mc Murray2 and L Jansen van Rensburg3. North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus). 1. Introduction. In 2002, it was estimated that 11 million children (between the ages of 0-18) are ...

  15. A Nationwide Evaluation of Services Provided to Domestic Violence Survivors at Shelters in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftić, Lisa R; Deljkić, Irma; Fansher, Ashley K

    2016-04-27

    The shelter movement in Bosnia-Herzegovina was born out of a tradition of assisting survivors of gender-based violence in the early 1990s during the Bosnian conflict. To date, nine shelters are in existence providing emergency shelter and services to survivors. Little is known about these shelters, or the clients these shelters serve. The purpose of this study is to examine what services are provided to domestic violence survivors by shelters in Bosnia-Herzegovina and who these survivors are. A total of 43 service providers from all existing shelters within the country were surveyed about shelter characteristics, client demographics, and services provided. Findings revealed that the typical Bosnian shelter had been in operation for 11 years and had assisted 64 survivors in the previous year; the majority of whom were married females with minor children who had sought shelter services before. Core services were provided by the majority of shelters, including crisis services, legal and medical advocacy, counseling, and community education. While services were provided to a diverse group of survivors (e.g., children, elderly women, victims of human trafficking), shelters were less likely to be available for male and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender survivors. Implications from these findings, as well as limitations and suggestions for further research, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. For Youth, by Youth: A Third Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    This past winter, the third student-run homeless shelter in the United States came into being. Two recent Harvard graduates, Sam Greenberg and Sarah Rosenkrantz, who had volunteered at the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter as college students, saw a need within the Boston and Cambridge communities for a homeless shelter serving young adults. Drawing…

  17. A pollinators' eye view of a shelter mimicry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Dorchin, Achik; Dafni, Amots; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Watts, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims ‘Human-red’ flowers are traditionally considered to be rather unpopular with bees, yet some allogamous species in the section Oncocyclus (genus Iris, Iridaceae) have evolved specialized interactions with their pollinators, a narrow taxonomic range of male solitary bees. The dark-red, tubular flowers of these irises are nectarless but provide protective shelters (i.e. a non-nutritive form of reward) primarily to male solitary bees (Apidae, Eucerini) that pollinate the flowers while looking for a shelter. An earlier study on orchids suggested that species pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of different n-alkenes (unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons). Whether or not this also applies to the Oncocyclus irises and whether pollinators are attracted by specific colours or scents of these flowers is unknown. Methods Using Iris atropurpurea, recording of pollinator preferences for shelters with different spatial parameters was combined with analyses of floral colours (by spectrophotometry) and scents (by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) to test the hypotheses that (a) pollinators significantly prefer floral tunnels facing the rising sun (floral heat-reward hypothesis), and that (b) flowers pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons (n-alkenes) in their floral scent (preadaptation to sexual-deception hypothesis). Key Results Male bees do not significantly prefer shelters facing the rising sun or with the presence of high absolute/relative amounts and numbers of n-alkenes in the floral scent. Conclusions The results suggest that the flowers of I. atropurpurea probably evolved by pollinator-mediated selection acting primarily on floral colours to mimic large achromatic (‘bee-black’) protective shelters used preferentially by male solitary bees, and that pollinator visits are

  18. Prevention of infectious diseases in cat shelters: ABCD guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, Karin; Egberink, Herman; Addie, Diane; Frymus, Tadeusz; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Truyen, Uwe; Hartmann, Katrin; Lutz, Hans; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Radford, Alan D; Lloret, Albert; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hosie, Margaret J; Marsilio, Fulvio; Thiry, Etienne; Belák, Sándor; Horzinek, Marian C

    2013-07-01

    Recommendations are given in relation to infectious diseases in rescue shelters. The ABCD recognises that there is a wide variation in the design and management of shelters, and that these largely reflect local pressures. These guidelines are written with this diverse audience in mind; they point to the ideal, and also provide for some level of compromise where this ideal cannot immediately be attained. In addition consideration should be given to general requirements in order to optimise overall health and wellbeing of cats within the shelter. HOUSING: Compartmentalisation of the shelter into at least three individual sections (quarantine area for incoming cats, isolation facilities for sick or potentially infectious cats, and accommodation for clinically healthy, retrovirus-negative cats) can facilitate containment of a disease outbreak, should it occur. STANDARD OF CARE: Incoming cats should receive a full health check by a veterinary surgeon, should be dewormed and tested for retrovirus infections (feline leukaemia virus [FeLV] and/or feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV]) in regions with high prevalence and in shelters that allow contact between cats. Cats which are not rehomed should receive a regular veterinary check-up at intervals recommended by their veterinarian. Each cat should be vaccinated as soon as possible against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpesvirus (FHV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV) infections. HYGIENE: Adequate hygiene conditions should ensure that contact between shedders of infectious agents and susceptible animals is reduced as efficiently as possible by movement control, hygiene procedures of care workers, barrier nursing, cleaning and disinfection. STRESS REDUCTION: Stress reduction is important for overall health and for minimising the risk of recrudescence and exacerbation of infectious diseases. In general, a special effort should be made to rehome cats as soon as possible.

  19. Stopping Rules for Turbo Decoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matache, A.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.

    2000-04-01

    Decoders for turbo codes are iterative in nature, i.e., they have to perform a certain number of iterations before reaching a satisfactory degree of confidence regarding a frame to be decoded. Until now standard turbo decoders have used a fixed number of iterations. In this article, we propose some simple "stopping rules" that can be used to reduce the average number of iterations. This technique offers a trade-off between speed and performance and can provide a significant increase in the average decoding speed while not sacrificing decoder performance. We tested several types of stopping rules for turbo decoders. One type is based on comparing decoded bits (hard bit decisions) with previous decoded bits; a second type is based on comparing reliabilities (soft bit decisions) with a threshold; and a third type uses a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code applied to hard decoded bits. We simulated turbo decoder performance using these rules (including several variations of t he first two types) and further required that the decoder cease after 20 iterations if the stopping rule is not yet satisfied. Specifically, we analyzed the decoder-error rates and the average number of iterations for each rule. We found that the average number of iterations was roughly between 4 and 7 for a bit signal-to-noise ratio, E_b/N_0, near the "waterfall" threshold, as compared with the 10 fixed iterations used by the current turbo decoder. In addition, the resulting error rates were noticeably lower than those for 10 fixed iterations, and in fact were very nearly equal to the error rates achieved by a decoder using 20 fixed iterations.

  20. Graz, city bus fleet running on 100% biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablasser, G. [City of Graz (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    Graz collects used cooking oil on a large scale. This used cooking oil is converted into biodiesel and along with biodiesel produced from rape seed provides the whole bus fleet (135 buses) with fuel. The bus fleet also got an optimized high quality interior design (information screens, air conditioning, a better acoustic and visual information and ramps for mobility-impaired persons). Attractiveness of the city will increase due to lower pollution levels by the biodiesel driven buses. Public transport became more user-friendly, especially for the disabled and other specific groups. The local public transport company, GBV, carries out a series of technical, ecological and economic trials of 100% biodiesel operation in the meantime also during wintertime. Within the framework of CIVITAS trendsetter, the whole bus fleet was either converted to biodiesel operation or new buses were bought already equipped for biodiesel operations. The 100% switch to alternative fuel for the entire bus fleet of the City of Graz is new; Graz is the only city in the world operating the whole bus fleet on 100% biodiesel.

  1. Shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Shiu, Li-Jie; Li, Yu-Ling; Tung, Kuan-Yeng; Chan, Kwan-Yu; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Chen, Shiuan-Chih; Wong, Ruey-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Professional bus drivers are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the underlying causes are unclear. Professional bus drivers often follow shift schedules. Especially, an association between shift work and early manifestations of cardiovascular disease has not been elucidated. Thus we investigated the links between shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers. Questionnaires were administered to 184 bus drivers on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and occupational history from 5 transportation companies in Taiwan. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured using a volume-plethysmographic apparatus. Body mass index, waist circumference, biochemical variables, and blood pressure were also measured. Arteriosclerotic risk factors (age, weekly driving hours, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin level) differed in part among different groups of drivers. Long-term shift drivers had higher baPWV compared to regular drivers and short-term shift drivers (1594 cm/s vs. 1497 and 1432, pshift driving. Long-term shift work could increase the risk of arteriosclerosis in professional bus drivers. Larger studies would be necessary to provide further evidence regarding this finding.

  2. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  3. Bus network redesign for inner southeast suburbs of Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandangwati, S. T.; Milyanab, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Public transport is the most effective mode of transport in the era of climate change and oil depletion. It can address climate change issues by reducing urban greenhouse gas emission and oil consumption while at the same time improving mobility. However, many public transport networks are not effective and instead create high operating costs with low frequencies and occupancy. Melbourne is one example of a metropolitan area that faces this problem. Even though the city has well-integrated train and tram networks, Melbourne’s bus network still needs to be improved. This study used network planning approach to redesign the bus network in the City of Glen Eira, a Local Government Area (LGA) in the southeastern part of Metropolitan Melbourne. The study area is the area between Gardenvale North and Oakleigh Station, as well as between Caulfield and Patterson Stations. This area needs network improvement mainly because of the meandering bus routes that run within it. This study aims to provide recommendations for improving the performance of bus services by reducing meandering routes, improving transfer point design and implementing coordinated timetables. The recommendations were formulated based on a ‘ready-made’ concept to increase bus occupancy. This approach can be implemented in other cities with similar problems and characteristics including those in Indonesia.

  4. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  5. Living With and Within the Rules of Domestic Violence Shelters: A Qualitative Exploration of Residents' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Catherine; Goodman, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    As emergency domestic violence (DV) shelters have proliferated, there has been an increase in rules that shelter residents must follow. This qualitative descriptive study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors' experiences living with DV shelter rules. Five thematic clusters emerged from interviews with 11 survivors: (1) shelter environment/staff approach, (2) making sense of the rules, (3) staff enforcement of the rules, (4) short-term impact of the rules, and (5) coping. Results suggest that residents benefit from more flexible boundaries between staff and residents, less restrictive rules, and collaborative, transparent rule enforcement. Recommendations are made for shelter practice and future research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Optical Pipelined Multi-bus Interconnection Network Intrinsic Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Joseph d'Auriol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital all-optical parallel computing is an important research direction and spans conventional devices and convergent nano-optics deployments. Optical bus-based interconnects provide interesting aspects such as relative information communication speed-up or slow-down between optical signals. This aspect is harnessed in the newly proposed All-Optical Linear Array with a Reconfigurable Pipelined Bus System (OLARPBS model. However, the physical realization of such communication interconnects needs to be considered. This paper considers spatial layouts of processing elements along with the optical bus light paths that are necessary to realize the corresponding interconnection requirements. A metric in terms of the degree of required physical constraint is developed to characterize the variety of possible solutions. Simple algorithms that determine spatial layouts are given. It is shown that certain communication interconnection structures have associated intrinsic topologies.

  7. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  8. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The presence of numerous local spatial constraints makes the process and extent of epidemic spreading extremely difficult to predict. Also, majority of the studies have focused on the contagion processes on scale-free network topologies whereas, spatially-constrained real-world networks such as, bus networks exhibit a wide-spectrum of network topology. Therefore, we aim in this study to understand this complex dynamical process of epidemic outbreak and information diffusion on the bus networks for six different Indian cities usin...

  9. Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    Following several years of work, the construction of the Jardin Alpin – CERN tramline is almost complete, and the first tram is due to arrive at CERN on 30 April. Celebrations to mark the occasion will be held in Meyrin-Village and at CERN.   First tests of the overhead lines, signals, and tracks on the stretch between Jardin-Alpin and CERN on 7 April 2011. From 30 April onwards you will be able to travel from Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes using the No. 18 tram. This is great news, especially when you think that, only four years ago, no part of the stretch between Cornavin and CERN was served by a tramline. At present, if you want to travel between CERN and the city centre by public transport, you have to take the No. 14 or the No. 16 tram and the No. 56 bus, changing at Meyrin-Gravière, where you sometimes have quite a long wait. On 30 April all this will be a thing of the past! The construction work for the Geneva-CERN tramline began in January 20...

  10. Training veterinary students in shelter medicine: a service-learning community-classroom technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Brenda J; Gruen, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. A range of sheltering systems now exists, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community-classroom approach introduces students to a diverse array of sheltering systems while providing practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of 2-week elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and delivered primary-care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, animal enrichment, and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience.

  11. Effect of feeding frequency and various shelter of blue swimming crab larvae, Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vutthichai Oniam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to improve blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, rearing techniques by investigating (1 the applied frequency of feeding and (2 the effect of shelter on crab larvae survival. The results showed that the feeding frequency at 2 times (0900 hrs and 1500 hrs, 4 times (0700 hrs, 1300 hrs, 1900 hrs and 2300 hrs and 6 times (0700 hrs, 1100 hrs, 1500 hrs, 1900 hrs, 2300 hrs and 0300 hrs per day did not affect the survival rate of crab larvae from the zoea I (Z1 to first crab (C1 stages. The survival rate of crab larvae from the megalopa (M to C1 stages with shelter was higher than without shelter, and the type of shelter affected the survival rate of the crab larvae. The survival rate of the C1 stage with artificial seaweed made of plastic shield membrane (36.61±3.64% and artificial seaweed made of polyvinyl rope (35.79±6.04% as shelters were not significantly different and higher than for artificial plastic grass as shelter (22.18±4.00%. In addition, the survival rates of the C1 stage with vertical shelter, horizontal shelter and a combination of vertical and horizontal shelter on the bottom of the tank were not significantly different. This study recommends that crab larvae rearing with shelters is important for increasing the survival rate and that the type of shelter affected the survival rate of crab larvae.

  12. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M.; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M.; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing parasites within shelters. Almost all shelters employed nematocides (98% to 99%), but cestocides and ectoparasiticides were used less frequently. Shelters identified cost as an important consideration in choosing to perform fecal diagnostic testing and administer anthelmintics, and this motivated many shelters to selectively perform testing (66%) or never to test (32%), and to use drugs extralabel (80%). PMID:26345387

  13. Improving stopping construction to minimize leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Roy H; Mazzella, Andrew L; Martikainen, Anu L

    2012-07-01

    The proper sealing of stoppings is an important step in reducing leakage from the intake to the return airways. Leakage and the subsequent loss of ventilation resulting from improperly sealed stoppings can lead to unhealthy and unsafe working conditions. The research presented in this paper investigates the total leakage of a stopping, including air leakage through the stopping, at the stopping perimeter, and through the coalbed. The study also examines sealing considerations for stoppings that are constructed under roof control screen, the effects that wooden wedges had on inhibiting efficient application of polyurethane foam sealant, and airflow leakage through the surrounding coal. The work involved building a stopping in a dead end room of the NIOSH Safety Research Coal Mine and then pressurising the room using compressed air. Stopping leakage was evaluated by measuring air pressure loss in the enclosed room due to the air leakage. Part of the research utilises a diluted soap solution that was applied to the stopping and the surrounding coal to detect air leakage signified by bubble formations. The results show that stopping leakage can be minimised with proper sealing.

  14. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...... could provide a continuative power supply to the loads. An overview of Multi-DC-Bus solutions is presented in this paper. The performances are compared on the basis of possible DC microgrid configurations, redundancy, different DC voltage levels....

  15. Design of temperature monitoring system based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2017-10-01

    The remote temperature monitoring system based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is designed to collect the multi-node remote temperature. By using the STM32F103 as main controller and multiple DS18B20s as temperature sensors, the system achieves a master-slave node data acquisition and transmission based on the CAN bus protocol. And making use of the serial port communication technology to communicate with the host computer, the system achieves the function of remote temperature storage, historical data show and the temperature waveform display.

  16. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  17. The STOP the Bleeding Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossaint, Rolf; Bouillon, Bertil; Cerny, Vladimir; Coats, Timothy J; Duranteau, Jacques; Fernández-Mondéjar, Enrique; Filipescu, Daniela; Hunt, Beverley J; Komadina, Radko; Maegele, Marc; Nardi, Giuseppe; Neugebauer, Edmund; Ozier, Yves; Riddez, Louis; Schultz, Arthur; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Spahn, Donat R

    2013-04-26

    According to the World Health Organization, traumatic injuries worldwide are responsible for over 5 million deaths annually. Post-traumatic bleeding caused by traumatic injury-associated coagulopathy is the leading cause of potentially preventable death among trauma patients. Despite these facts, awareness of this problem is insufficient and treatment options are often unclear. The STOP the Bleeding Campaign therefore aims to increase awareness of the phenomenon of post-traumatic coagulopathy and its appropriate management by publishing European guidelines for the management of the bleeding trauma patient, by promoting and monitoring the implementation of these guidelines and by preparing promotional and educational material, organising activities and developing health quality management tools. The campaign aims to reduce the number of patients who die within 24 hours after arrival in the hospital due to exsanguination by a minimum of 20% within the next 5 years.

  18. The STOP the Bleeding Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, traumatic injuries worldwide are responsible for over 5 million deaths annually. Post-traumatic bleeding caused by traumatic injury-associated coagulopathy is the leading cause of potentially preventable death among trauma patients. Despite these facts, awareness of this problem is insufficient and treatment options are often unclear. The STOP the Bleeding Campaign therefore aims to increase awareness of the phenomenon of post-traumatic coagulopathy and its appropriate management by publishing European guidelines for the management of the bleeding trauma patient, by promoting and monitoring the implementation of these guidelines and by preparing promotional and educational material, organising activities and developing health quality management tools. The campaign aims to reduce the number of patients who die within 24 hours after arrival in the hospital due to exsanguination by a minimum of 20% within the next 5 years. PMID:23635083

  19. Kajian Keamanan Pengoperasian Public Transport Tinjauan Terhadap Kekuatan Rangka Body Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiro, B. M

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the safety and security of the public transportation, design specification of construction body bus or bus frame structures should have an appropriate structural strength and comply with standard design including the safety factor and selection of material besides static and dynamic testing of the part of body bus. It is also realized that a bus carrying passengers have to give secure to the passengers also driver.The fact that a technology concerning with metal works indus...

  20. Counselling and Psychological Services for Clients at the Shelter Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Fonferová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The paper is dealing with a psychological approach to the work with families and their children at a shelter home. It describes the circumstances and conditions for the work in the specific socio-therapeutic environment of the Horni Pocernice Shelter Home. The main research question - 'What are the options of psychological intervention and psychotherapeutic work with clients in the scope of services offered by the shelter home in Horni Pocernice'- works with the hypopaper that psychology and psychotherapy have their place within and next to social services. For clients who use services of this shelter home is this work essential and contributes to better understanding of their life situation and their social relations. Effectivity of psychological work in the environment of a shelter home is in a great deal connected to its acceptance, inner belief and understanding of its real possibilities by every single social worker. Lack of understanding, distorted expectations both on the side of social workers and psychologists complicate or even prevent psychotherapeutic work with clients for whom the requirements and demands of social workers are determining during their stay. Methods: This paper is based on the design of ethnographic field research. Empirical design of this research is defined by the premises of the shelter home and the time period from 2007 to 2012. Therapeutic possibilities of clients are examined from the position of psychologist and psychotherapist of this centre who offers his/her services once a week for about 5 to 7 hours. The research sample was being created during the collection of data in the examined period and its analysis when it was early established with respect to the research question that all available cases typical for full collection will be included (there were 646 clients in the examined period. Results: The answer to the main research question concerns two variables which are related to each other. The

  1. Survey of euthanasia practices in animal shelters in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Niamh; Mounchili, Aboubakar; McConkey, Sandra; Cockram, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires on methods of euthanasia used in Canadian animal shelters were sent to 196 Canadian animal shelters yielding 67 responses. Sodium pentobarbital injection was the only method of euthanasia used by 61% of establishments that euthanized dogs and 53% of the establishments that euthanized cats. Many of these establishments used pre-medication. Sodium pentobarbital was mostly administered intravenously but some establishments also used intracardiac and intraperitoneal routes, and some only used intracardiac administration for cats. T-61 injection was the only method of euthanasia used by 23% of the establishments that euthanized dogs and 35% of the establishments that euthanized cats. All of these establishments used pre-medication, but the percentages of establishments that only used the intravenous route for administration of T-61 in dogs and cats were 45% and 7%, respectively. Further studies on the use of T-61, and the training and provision of counselling services for staff are recommended.

  2. Survey of euthanasia practices in animal shelters in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Niamh; Mounchili, Aboubakar; McConkey, Sandra; Cockram, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires on methods of euthanasia used in Canadian animal shelters were sent to 196 Canadian animal shelters yielding 67 responses. Sodium pentobarbital injection was the only method of euthanasia used by 61% of establishments that euthanized dogs and 53% of the establishments that euthanized cats. Many of these establishments used pre-medication. Sodium pentobarbital was mostly administered intravenously but some establishments also used intracardiac and intraperitoneal routes, and some only used intracardiac administration for cats. T-61 injection was the only method of euthanasia used by 23% of the establishments that euthanized dogs and 35% of the establishments that euthanized cats. All of these establishments used pre-medication, but the percentages of establishments that only used the intravenous route for administration of T-61 in dogs and cats were 45% and 7%, respectively. Further studies on the use of T-61, and the training and provision of counselling services for staff are recommended. PMID:21461208

  3. Design professional units on maternity home of teens sheltered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Garcia Penna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory descriptive study describes the view of government shelters’ professionals regarding pregnancy in institutionalized adolescents and discusses the acting of such professionals to support the construction of a healthy motherhood in this population group. In an investigation performed between December 2009 and January 2010, contents of the reports of six professionals that took care of them in the circles of Community Therapy sheltered adolescents were analyzed. According to the view of such professionals, motherhood in institutionalized adolescents is something precocious and harmful, resultant of the immaturity of those young mothers, and because of that, their schooling process has to be interrupted. The actions of these professionals alternates between social reintegration and care with the motherhood of the adolescents. The dialogical action, the "problematization" concerning motherhood, as well as reproductive, sexual health and family planning are strategies proposed to reach health promotion among sheltered adolescents.

  4. Thermal environment and sleep in winter shelter-analogue settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yosuke; Maeda, Kazuki; Nabeshima, Yuki; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings in winter to determine the sleep and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. Twelve young healthy students took part in the sleep study of two nights for seven hours from 0 AM to 7 AM in a gymnasium. One night the subject used a pair of futons and on the other the subject used emergency supplies consisting of four blankets and a set of portable partitions. Air temperature, humidity were measured around the sleeping subjects through the night. Sleep parameters, skin temperature, microclimate temperature, rectal temperature, and heart rate of the subjects were continuously measured and recorded during the sleeping period. The subjects completed questionnaires relating to thermal comfort and subjective sleep before and after sleep. The sleep efficiency indices were lower when the subjects slept using the blankets. As the microclimate temperature between the human body and blanket was lower, mean skin temperature was significantly lower in the case of blankets.

  5. Design of a Corrosion Detection System for a Shelter Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    for the S-280 shelter, generation of a Pareto front for actuator and sensor placement designs; and the results of using an optimized design for...the modal domain as inversely proportional to the Mass matrix. The objective function builds the state space matrices (A, B, C, and D) using the...space model (one set for each input axis). Finally, the objective functions are calculated as the negative minimum singular value of the Hankle

  6. Evaluation of Shelter Ventilation by Model Tests. Option 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    HUMUERS, 7449 N. Natchez Ave. FEMPL Work Unit 12.171 Niles, Illinois 60648 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS IL REPORT DATE Federal Emergency...lights could be controlled through a voltage regulator. These lights 2-1 GARD ELEVATION VIEW Earth Berm Wndow 3’ x 3’ Winindow Interior of Shelter 32...Nationale 1 36 Rue J. B. Esch Luxembourg (Grand-Duche) Ministero dell Interno 1 Director General Protectione Civile Rome, Italy Civile Emergency Planning

  7. Cooling a telecommunication shelter using mini-eolic technology

    OpenAIRE

    García Cipolletti, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Refrigeration nowadays is needed in many applications throughout different sectors. Especially in electronic components where material temperature raises considerably and cooling is necessary in order to maintain the optimal working conditions for its correct function. Telecommunication shelters are no exception, and high temperatures are reached in their components. Therefore, there is an important develop to be done in this sector in order to reduce costs of energy for this process. In this...

  8. 49 CFR 571.220 - Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... result from failure of the school bus body structure to withstand forces encountered in rollover crashes... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.220 Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection...

  9. Bus Operations for Pupil Transportation. "Chrome-Yellow and Red Lights."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannels, Morris W.

    This paper is based on a committee report of the last National School Bus Conference on "Minimum Standards for School Buses." Standards for school bus operations are included for (1) administrators, (2) supervisors, (3) school bus drivers, (4) student passengers, and (5) maintenance and service personnel. The report deals also with procedures for…

  10. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smoke and tuft visualizations were also performed on an urban bus at 40 km/h. Numerical simulations were performed at the actual Reynolds number. Even though there were Reynolds number differences, the broad features were similar. Air enters the bus from the rear windows, moves to the front (relative to the bus) and ...

  11. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, J.; Langer, M; Gill, E.K.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a

  12. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  13. Light stop squarks and b-tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Petersson, Christoffer; Torre, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    A significant part of the parameter space for light stop squarks still remains unconstrained by collider searches. For both R-Parity Conserving (RPC) and R-Parity Violating (RPV) scenarios there are regions in which the stop mass is around or below the top quark mass that are particularly challenging experimentally. Here we review the status of light stop searches, both in RPC and RPV scenarios. We also propose strategies, generally based on exploiting b-tagging, to cover the unconstrained regions.

  14. U.S. Military Stop Loss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    deployment cycle. While Stop Movement originally applied to all assigned personnel in a deploying unit, exceptions have emerged over the past several...dates that are sooner than what was originally planned, the more soldiers who will be affected by Stop Loss. The relationship between the number of...00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. Military Stop Loss Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  15. Impact of Impulse Stops on Pedestrian Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    We numerically study the impact of impulse stops on pedestrian flow for a straight corridor with multiple attractions. The impulse stop is simulated by the switching behavior model, a function of the social influence strength and the number of attendees near the attraction. When the pedestrian influx is low, one can observe a stable flow where attendees make a complete stop at an attraction and then leave the attraction after a certain amount of time. When the pedestrian influx is high, an un...

  16. Sleep shelters verbal memory from different kinds of interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Bhavin R; Varghese, Reni; Truong, Thuy

    2012-07-01

    Studies have shown that sleep shelters old verbal memories from associative interference arising from new, more recently acquired memories. Our objective is to extend the forms of interference for which sleep provides a sheltering benefit to non-associative and prospective interference, and to examine experimental conditions and memory strengths for which sleep before or after learning particularly affects verbal memory consolidation. Acquiring paired word associates, retention across intervening sleep and wake, training on new, interfering word associates, and test recall of both sets. University laboratory. Healthy volunteers. N/A. Comparing recall before and after intervening periods of sleep versus wake, we found that: (i) Sleep preferentially shields weakly encoded verbal memories from retroactive interference. (ii) Sleep immediately following learning helps shelter memory from associative and non-associative forms of retroactive interference. (iii) Sleep protects new verbal memories from prospective interference. (iv) Word associations acquired for the first time in the evening after a day spent in the wake state are encoded more strongly than word associations acquired in the morning following a night of sleep. The findings extend the known sleep protection from interference to non-associative as well as prospective interference, and limit the protection to weakly encoded word associations. Combined, our results suggest that sleep immediately after verbal learning isolates newly formed memory traces and renders them inaccessible, except by specific contextual cues. Memory isolation in sleep is a passive mechanism that can reasonably account for several experimental findings.

  17. Use of accelerometers to measure stress levels in shelter dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah; Dowling-Guyer, Seana; Patronek, Gary J; Marder, Amy R; Segurson D'Arpino, Sheila; McCobb, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Stress can compromise welfare in any confined group of nonhuman animals, including those in shelters. However, an objective and practical method for assessing the stress levels of individual dogs housed in a shelter does not exist. Such a method would be useful for monitoring animal welfare and would allow shelters to measure the effectiveness of specific interventions for stress reduction. In this pilot study, activity levels were studied in 13 dogs using accelerometers attached to their collars. Behavioral stress scores as well as urinary and salivary cortisol levels were measured to determine if the dogs' activity levels while confined in the kennel correlated with behavioral and physiological indicators of stress in this population. The results indicated that the accelerometer could be a useful tool to study stress-related activity levels in dogs. Specific findings included a correlation between the salivary cortisol and maximum activity level (r = .62, p = .025) and a correlation between the urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratio and average activity level (r = .61, p = .028) among the study dogs. Further research is needed to better understand the complex relationship between stress and activity level among dogs in a kennel environment.

  18. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2007-12-28

    In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

  19. Effectiveness of sheltering in buildings and vehicles for plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.J.

    1990-07-30

    The purpose of this paper is to collect and present current knowledge relevant to the protection offered by sheltering against exposure to plutonium particles released to the atmosphere during accidents. For those many contaminants for which effects are linear with the airborne concentration, it is convenient to define a Dose Reduction Factor (DRF). In the past, the DRF has been defined as the ratio of the radiological dose that may be incurred within the shelter to that in the outdoors. As such, it includes the dose through shine from plumes aloft and from material deposited on the surface. For this paper, which is concerned only with the inhalation pathway, the DRF is the ratio of the time-integrated concentration inside the shelter to that outdoors. It is important to note that the range over which effects are linear with concentration may be limited for many contaminants. Examples are when concentrations produce effects that are irreversible, or when concentrations are below effects threshold levels. 71 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Between the streets and the shelter: everyday reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa de Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The street situation population has been shown as a growing urban phenomenon, becoming an object of interest to public managers and academics. This paper presents the results of a research aimed at understanding the context of street situation residents, under current provisory institutional shelter care, analyzing why the streets have become the home for some people; how the process of development and adaptation of daily activities in this new reality occurred; when and why they decided to leave the streets and how this process of production of a new daily life occurred since the institutional care; and how they organize and plan their departure from the host service. To this end, open interviews and production of narratives of life stories were conducted with seven residents of an institutional shelter care, along with participant observation for one year in the same service, where staff, residents and institutional dynamics were systematically observed. The results show that the users of this service have gone through different paths in life, with a trace in common: the growing weakening of bonds and purchasing power. The service seems to contribute to the movement of departure from the streets and provides immediate host, welcoming and functional autonomy. However, the departure movement from the shelter - that would provide other autonomies, development of social supports and integrated assistance - appears in the life stories as a difficult process with little institutional support. This work highlights the need to build debates and proposals on the homelessness process.

  1. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking among Commercial Bus Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking among Commercial Bus Drivers and University Students in Nigeria. ... Thus, this article gathered comprehensive primary qualitative, quantitative and secondary data on smoking behaviors of two distinct groups in Nigeria for reliable comprehension of smoking trajectories in Nigeria with ...

  2. A Quantitative Economics Of Seasonality In Bus Patronage In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study thus set out to empirically investigate the myth or reality of the thesis that trip generation and trip attraction can be significantly season- determined. Collecting time series data over a ... Apposite recommendations were then made, sequel to highlighting of policy implications of findings. Key words: seasonality, bus ...

  3. Eliminating the empty bus syndrome by understanding dynamic travel behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This chapter interrogates some empirical data to examine some of the contributory causes of EBS in South Africa, and uses the City of Johannesburg as a case study. The daily travel patterns of car users are analysed within the context of how bus...

  4. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  5. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    4.1.4 Kenworth Truck Company (PACCAR Inc.) ................................................................... 72 4.1.5 Mack Trucks Inc. ( Volvo ...76 4.1.7 Nova Bus ( Volvo Group...74 4.1.5 Mack Trucks Inc. ( Volvo Group) Mack Trucks does not yet have any diesel-electric hybrid truck models in series production, although its

  6. Cascaded Amplifying Quantum Optical Taps: A Robust Noiseless Optical Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencheikh, K.; Simonneau, C.; Levenson, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Two identical amplifying quantum optical taps, based on noiseless optical parametric amplification and twin beam quantum correlation, have been implemented in a series configuration and experimentally investigated. The result is an optical bus which we have shown to be robust with respect to downstream losses.

  7. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  8. Distributed cooperative synchronization strategy for multi-bus microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Zhong, Chaolu; Hou, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    synchronization methods based on centralized communication are very costly and not suitable for multi-bus microgrids that have a large number of distributed generators (DGs). To address this concern, this study presents an active synchronization control strategy based on distributed cooperation technology...

  9. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  10. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  11. Fairness in optimizing bus-crew scheduling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jihui; Song, Cuiying; Ceder, Avishai Avi; Liu, Tao; Guan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a model considering fairness in the problem of crew scheduling for bus drivers (CSP-BD) using a hybrid ant-colony optimization (HACO) algorithm to solve it. The main contributions of this work are the following: (a) a valid approach for cases with a special cost structure and constraints considering the fairness of working time and idle time; (b) an improved algorithm incorporating Gamma heuristic function and selecting rules. The relationships of each cost are examined with ten bus lines collected from the Beijing Public Transport Holdings (Group) Co., Ltd., one of the largest bus transit companies in the world. It shows that unfair cost is indirectly related to common cost, fixed cost and extra cost and also the unfair cost approaches to common and fixed cost when its coefficient is twice of common cost coefficient. Furthermore, the longest time for the tested bus line with 1108 pieces, 74 blocks is less than 30 minutes. The results indicate that the HACO-based algorithm can be a feasible and efficient optimization technique for CSP-BD, especially with large scale problems.

  12. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  13. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    herniation was 137 compared to all Danish men. These differences were statistically significant. Of psychosocial factors only "the feeling of being mentally unbalanced" was found to be statistically significantly related to subsequent hospital discharge with a LBT-diagnosis. Long seniority as bus driver...

  14. Aerodynamic study of state transport bus using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Siddhesh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop the aerodynamic study of a Maharashtra state road transport bus. The rising fuel price and strict government regulations makes the road transport uneconomical now days. With the objective of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing the emission of harmful exhaust gases. It has been proven experimentally that vehicle consumes almost 40% of the available useful engine power to overcome the drag resistance. This provides us a huge scope to study the influence of aerodynamic drag. The initial of the project was to identify the drag coefficient of the existing ordinary type model called “Parivartan” from ANSYS fluent. After preliminary analysis of the existing model corresponding changes are made in such a way that their implementation should be possible at workshop level. The simulation of the air flow over the bus was performed in two steps: design on SolidWorks CAD and ANSYS (FLUENT) is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus. We have used the turbulence models k-ε Realizable having a better approximation of the actual result. Around 28% improvement in the drag coefficient is achieved by CFD driven changes in the bus design. Coefficient of drag is improved by 28% and fuel efficiency increased by 20% by CFD driven changes.

  15. Scheduling with Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Doboli, Alex; Pop, Paul

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we concentrate on aspects related to the synthesis of distributed embedded systems consisting of programmable processors and application-specific hardware components. The approach is based on an abstract graph representation that captures, at process level, both dataflow and the flow......, generates an efficient bus access scheme as well as the schedule tables for activation of processes and communications....

  16. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  17. The Taking Ways of an Old School Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joan Thompson; Watkins, J. Foster

    1969-01-01

    The conversion of an "old school bus" in the late 1960s into a mobile library is discussed. The conversion was an element of educational service developed cooperatively between a regional educational laboratory and a rural school system. The project endeavored to improve the early experiences of future students, many of whom would have…

  18. ADlll:S ABABA BUS TERMINAL DESIGN COMPETITION.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Association of Engineers and Architects. Today at the opening of the First National. Conference of the ... of the Architectural Competition for the New Bus. Terminal of Addis Ababa. Unfortunately, due to another ... A competition enables the client, the future owner of the project, to choose from various solutions.

  19. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  20. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  1. Planning Emergency Shelters for Urban Disaster Resilience: An Integrated Location-Allocation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laijun Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, extreme natural hazards threaten cities more than ever due to contemporary society’s high vulnerability in cities. Hence, local governments need to implement risk mitigation and disaster operation management to enhance disaster resilience in cities. Transforming existing open spaces within cities into emergency shelters is an effective method of providing essential life support and an agent of recovery in the wake of disasters. Emergency shelters planning must identify suitable locations for shelters and reasonably allocate evacuees to those shelters. In this paper, we first consider both the buildings’ post-disaster condition and the human choice factor that affect evacuees’ decision, and propose a forecasting method to estimate the time-varying shelter demand. Then we formulate an integrated location-allocation model that is used sequentially: an emergency shelter location model to satisfy the time-varying shelter demand in a given urban area with a goal of minimizing the total setup cost of locating the shelters and an allocation model that allocates the evacuees to shelters with a goal of minimizing their total evacuation distance. We also develop an efficient algorithm to solve the model. Finally, we propose an emergency shelters planning based on a case study of Shanghai, China.

  2. Shelter use by large reef fishes: long-term occupancy and the impacts of disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Joanna A.; Goatley, Christopher H. R.; Brandl, Simon J.; Tebbett, Sterling B.; Bellwood, David R.

    2017-12-01

    Large fishes often shelter beneath structures on coral reefs. While avoidance of UV radiation has been proposed as the main driver of this behaviour, sheltering behaviour has only been studied during the day and over short timeframes. Here we applied passive acoustic telemetry techniques to continuously monitor shelter usage patterns by large reef fishes over a period of 7 months. For three sweetlip species (Haemulidae), one snapper species (Lutjanidae) and one surgeonfish species (Acanthuridae), diurnal shelter use was remarkably consistent, with occupation of shelters throughout the day, and under all weather conditions, suggesting that factors other than UV avoidance may be important in driving shelter use. Large-scale observations revealed that all fish species appeared to undertake long-distance migrations (>1 km) away from their shelter sites each night. With the exception of the surgeonfish Acanthurus dussumieri, all fishes returned to the same areas to shelter for the entire study period. Individuals of A. dussumieri, however, failed to return on the night of a severe tropical cyclone. They never reappeared at the shelter sites. The disappearance of this species suggests that A. dussumieri probably forage at night in a different location to the carnivorous haemulids and lutjanids. Overall, this study highlights the long-term importance of shelter structures for fishes that may range over large areas of coral reefs.

  3. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  4. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  5. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops,...

  6. Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase)   The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.

  7. The Potential Stopping Power of Student Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Bruce E.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that capturing photographs that have "stopping power" should not be an impossible task, but a reality for student photographers. Lists 19 recent publications and web sites on photography and photojournalism. Discusses ways for scholastic photographers to take pictures with stopping power. (RS)

  8. 49 CFR 38.37 - Stop request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stop request. 38.37 Section 38.37 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers may...

  9. Sensitivity analysis to aid shelter management decisions: how does altering expenditure affect operational viability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, Nicole Olynk; Lord, Emily; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Streamlining purchasing in nonhuman animal shelters can provide multiple financial benefits. Streamlining shelter inputs and thus reducing shelter costs can include trading paid labor and management for fewer, more involved volunteers or purchasing large quantities of medical supplies from fewer vendors to take advantage of bulk-purchasing discounts. Beyond direct savings, time and energy spent on purchasing and inventory control can be reduced through careful management. Although cost-cutting measures may seem attractive, shelter managers are cautioned to consider the potential unintended consequences of short-term cost reduction measures that could limit revenues or increase costs in the future. This analysis illustrates an example of the impact of cost reductions in specific expense categories and the impact on shelter net revenue, as well as the share of expenses across categories. An in-depth discussion of labor and purchasing cost-reducing strategies in the real world of animal shelter management is provided.

  10. A Decision support system for shelter site selection with GIS intergration : case for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kılcı, Fırat

    2012-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Industrial Engineeringand the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, a methodology for locating shelter sites after a disaster is developed. Currently, in Turkey, Turkish Red Crescent is responsible for selecting the location of shelter areas. First, they identify the candidate shelter site locations. Then, they rank tho...

  11. Characteristics of sheltered care facility operators in California in 1973 and 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, SP; Hazan, AR; Kotler, PL

    1990-01-01

    During the past 20 years, sheltered care homes have become the primary supervised community residence for mentally ill patients outside of licensed hospitals. To determine factors associated with sheltered care operators' remaining in business, follow-up interviews were conducted in 1985 with operators of 151 sheltered care facilities in California whose operators had been surveyed in 1973. Fifty-five of the original operators continued to operate the facility at 12-year follow-up, and 96 wer...

  12. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Menchetti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this ‘no-kill policy’ has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001. The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  13. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to ot...

  14. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-08-14

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  15. Nemesis revisited: tuberculosis infection in a New York City men's shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, E A; Lebowitz, S M; Moore, R E; Hoven, C W; Bennett, B A; Chen, A

    1993-01-01

    In November 1990, a screening was conducted to determine the point prevalence of tuberculosis infection in a volunteer sample of homeless men (n = 161) living in a congregate shelter in New York City. Of those for whom we have results (n = 134), 79% were positive for tuberculosis. The mean length of shelter stay from date of shelter entry was 31.8 months and was significantly associated with the tuberculosis infection rate. The findings suggest that crowded living conditions and the presence of a stable resident pool in crowded congregate shelters may be associated with transmission of tuberculosis infection. Images p1744-a PMID:8259807

  16. Effects of environmental enrichment on the behavior of shelter dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Meghan E; Kirby-Madden, Taylor M; Lord, Linda K

    2014-03-15

    To determine the effect of food-toy enrichment combined with cage-behavior training on desirable behaviors in shelter dogs and adoption rates. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 107 dogs. Dogs placed up for adoption in a municipal shelter were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 48) or control group (59). Experimental group subjects were exposed to an environmental enrichment and training protocol consisting of twice-daily cage-behavior training and daily provision of a food-filled toy. Cage-behavior training included operant conditioning via positive reinforcement of desirable behaviors, including approaching the front of the cage, sitting or lying, and remaining quiet when approached. Behavioral observations were performed by a blinded observer in a scan-sampling technique on day 0 (first day on adoption floor) and again on day 3 for experimental (n = 26) and control (32) dogs. Body posture, location in cage, and other behavioral parameters were recorded. Adoption information and behavioral observation data were compared between groups. Compared with the control group, the experimental group had a significantly greater percentage of dogs with an increase in desirable behaviors of sitting or lying down (17/26 [65%] vs 7/32 [22%]) and being quiet (9/26 [35%] vs 4/32 [13%]) and a significantly greater percentage of dogs with a decrease in the undesirable behavior of jumping (15/26 [57%] vs 3/32 [9%]). Location in cage, fearfulness, and eye contact were not significantly different between groups. Survival analysis revealed no significant difference in adoption rates between groups. Results suggested that enrichment programs improve desirable behaviors and decrease undesirable behavior in shelter dogs, which may enhance welfare.

  17. National call for organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment, and recommendations are provided based on these findings. Results reveal the commonalities among a diverse group of agencies, suggesting the viability of transformation of our current systems with the support and leadership of state and federal agencies and programs.

  18. Behavior Problems of Psychic Nature in Shelter - Reared Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmed Yuksel Halil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the etiology, the species and the prevalence of pathoethological processes of psychic nature in sheltered dogs. The analysis was performed on the mandatory necessity of establishing the type of the dog’s temperament, in relation to the owners’ proper approach towards the specific animal, as well as its successful primary and secondary socialisation. A neurotic dog may exhibit chronic anxiety, fear, hyperactivity, obsessive behavior, and inappropriate responses to stimuli. Truly psychotic dogs, however, are deranged. Their behavior is acute and unpredictable.

  19. Health effect of a bus ride in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, T.

    1983-07-01

    Health effects on subjects during a bus drive on an urban road were investigated in a real situation. Leukocyte count, adrenalin level in blood and urine, noradrenalin and dopamine in urine, diastolic blood pressure, and index of vascular resistance increased significantly on the drive day compared with the control day. A bus drive on an urban road induced enhanced sympathetic-adreno-medullary activity in real life as a result of the comprehensive effect of various factors. The concentrations of air pollutants were excessively high on the road, and correlated with traffic volume. It was concluded that the interactions between psychogenic, physical nonspecific and physical specific effects should be taken into consideration when evaluating human health effects of air pollution in the urban environment.

  20. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB, which was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) National Fuel Cell Bus Program, was delivered to SunLine in November 2011 and was put in revenue service in mid-December 2011. Two new AFCBs with an upgraded design were delivered in June/July of 2014 and a third new AFCB was delivered in February 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report covers the performance of the AFCBs from July 2015 through December 2016.

  1. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  2. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  3. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    “Sustainable transport” has become a headline for transport planning and policy making around the world. While there are many different definitions of what Sustainable Transport means, it commonly includes efforts to improve the environmental performance of transport systems, and to promote...... depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes......: Public bus transport in England, exemplified by Greater Manchester. England represents a situation where - compared to continental Europe including Denmark - the NPM reforms have been particularly radical. In no other European country the market forces has achieved a role as dominant as in England...

  4. Stopping power determinations by the transmission technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, J.; Wätjen, U.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Munnik, F.

    1996-09-01

    Details of the experimental procedures related to the transmission technique are described. Parameters affecting the stopping power measurements by this technique are pointed out and discussed. For example, the importance of an accurate foil areal density determination is emphasized, and methods for the determination are introduced. The accuracy and possible error sources of the stopping power values are reviewed. Advantages as well as limitations of the method are discussed. As an example the stopping powers of 600-3200 keV 4He ions in polyimide (Kapton) have been determined. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of widely used semiempirical models.

  5. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    1.2 Master Control Node The master control node was implemented with a USB to universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) bridge chip produced...indicate fragment manipulation via calls to public methods. The black arrows in the main activity indicate the fragments requesting action from the...Unplug the universal serial bus (USB) cable from the tablet. 2. Go to Android back stack via button on bottom right and swipe off STSLEDCntrl. 3

  6. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  7. Evaluasi Tingkat Kelelahan Pada Pengemudi Bus Di Kota Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Febrianti, Asterina; Yassierli, Yassierli; Mahachandra, Manik

    2016-01-01

    Kota Bandung saat ini mengalami pertumbuhan penduduk mencapai 3% setiap tahunnya, sehingga kebutuhan akan transportasi umum sangat tinggi serta tingkat kemacetan yang timbul semakin tinggi pula. Kemacetan yang panjang berdampak pada penurunan kewaspadaan dan timbulnya risiko kecelakaan karena waktu berkendara yang relatif lebih beragam. Menyadari akan risiko kecelakaan yang diakibatkan oleh kelelahan maka diperlukan pengukuran kelelahan pada pengemudi bus di kota Bandung yang belum pernah dik...

  8. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  9. Bi-Directional Multi-Station Command/Information Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    signals are presented. The model of the signal flow requirements is presented both schematically and in tabular form From this model, a possible...is presented both in schematic and tabular forms. Finally, a conceptual data bus configura- tion meeting the signal flow requirements has been...A Converter LRI Central Air Dato Computer ’LLI Demultiplexer D/A Converter 0>AI OfA2 Type R Modem Type T Modem A/D Cowerfcr

  10. Optimalisasi Kelembagaan Dan Manajemen Dalam Bus Rapid Transit Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoni, Ahmad; Yuniar, Haptiwi Tri; Riyanto, Bambang; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Bus Rapid Transit Trans Semarang is a means of mass transportation to the transit system that began operating since 2009 as a solution to reduce congestion in the city of Semarang. This research focuses on the optimization and management of institutional BRT Trans Semarang to improve it's performance. The purpose of this study is to optimize the performance of the organization and management of BRT Trans Semarang with variable types of institutional cooperation BRT operations, and leadership...

  11. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity...

  12. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Kegl, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions,...

  13. Should bus commuting be subsidized for providing quality transport ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: geetamt@gmail.com. Abstract. Urban transport has ... (ii) Should bus prices be subsidized in order to provide a quality public transport system? (iii) How large is the modal shift in favour ..... been derived through a speed-flow relationship function, with a car free flow speed of 45 km/h, peak traffic speed of 24 km/h and ...

  14. HEV Test Bench Based on CAN Bus Sensor Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng ZHAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HEV test bench based on Controller Area Network bus was studied and developed. Control system of HEV power test bench used the CAN bus technology. The application of CAN bus technology on control system development has opened up a new research direction for domestic automobile experimental platform. The HEV power control system development work was completed, including power master controller, electric throttle controller, driving simulation platform, CAN2.0 B communication protocol procedures for formulation, CAN communication monitoring system, the simulation model based on MATLAB code automatic generation technology research, etc. Maximum absorption power of the test bench is 90 kW, the test bench top speed is 6000 r/min, the CAN communication data baud rate is 10~500 k, the conventional electric measurement parameter part precision satisfies the requirement of development of HEV. On the HEV test bench the result of regenerative braking experiment shows that the result got by the test bench was closer to the results got by outdoor road test. And the fuel consumption experiment test results show that the HEV fuel consumption and the charge-discharge character are in linear relationship. The establishment of the test platform for the evaluation of the development of hybrid electric vehicle and power provides physical simulation and test platform.

  15. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  16. Replacement model of city bus: A dynamic programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Dadang; Yusuf, Edhi

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims to develop a replacement model of city bus vehicles operated in Bandung City. This study is driven from real cases encountered by the Damri Company in the efforts to improve services to the public. The replacement model propounds two policy alternatives: First, to maintain or keep the vehicles, and second is to replace them with new ones taking into account operating costs, revenue, salvage value, and acquisition cost of a new vehicle. A deterministic dynamic programming approach is used to solve the model. The optimization process was heuristically executed using empirical data of Perum Damri. The output of the model is to determine the replacement schedule and the best policy if the vehicle has passed the economic life. Based on the results, the technical life of the bus is approximately 20 years old, while the economic life is an average of 9 (nine) years. It means that after the bus is operated for 9 (nine) years, managers should consider the policy of rejuvenation.

  17. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  18. A Dimensional Bus model for integrating clinical and research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ted D; Hum, Richard C; Murphy, James R

    2011-12-01

    Many clinical research data integration platforms rely on the Entity-Attribute-Value model because of its flexibility, even though it presents problems in query formulation and execution time. The authors sought more balance in these traits. Borrowing concepts from Entity-Attribute-Value and from enterprise data warehousing, the authors designed an alternative called the Dimensional Bus model and used it to integrate electronic medical record, sponsored study, and biorepository data. Each type of observational collection has its own table, and the structure of these tables varies to suit the source data. The observational tables are linked to the Bus, which holds provenance information and links to various classificatory dimensions that amplify the meaning of the data or facilitate its query and exposure management. The authors implemented a Bus-based clinical research data repository with a query system that flexibly manages data access and confidentiality, facilitates catalog search, and readily formulates and compiles complex queries. The design provides a workable way to manage and query mixed schemas in a data warehouse.

  19. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  20. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  1. Epidemiology and ecology of H3N8 canine influenza viruses in US shelter dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, H L; Bennett, S; Huyvaert, K P; Spindel, M E; Landolt, G A

    2014-01-01

    H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) infection might contribute to increased duration of shelter stay for dogs. Greater understanding of factors contributing to CIV within shelters could help veterinarians identify control measures for CIV. To assess community to shelter dog CIV transmission, estimate true prevalence of CIV, and determine risk factors associated with CIV in humane shelters. 5,160 dogs upon intake or discharge from 6 US humane shelters, December 2009 through January 2012. A cross-sectional study was performed with prospective convenience sampling of 40 dogs from each shelter monthly. Nasal swabs and serum samples were collected. Hemagglutination inhibition and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays were performed for each nasal and serum sample. True prevalence was estimated by stochastic latent class analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with CIV shedding and seropositivity. Nasal swabs were positive from 4.4% of New York (NY), 4.7% of Colorado (CO), 3.2% of South Carolina, 1.2% of Florida, and 0% of California and Texas shelter dogs sampled. Seropositivity was the highest in the CO shelter dogs at 10%, and NY at 8.5%. Other shelters had 0% seropositivity. Information-theoretic analyses suggested that CIV shedding was associated with region, month, and year (model weight = 0.95) and comingling/cohousing (model weight = 0.92). Community dogs are a likely source of CIV introduction into humane shelters and once CIV has become established, dog-to-dog transmission maintains the virus within a shelter. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. The evaluation of sheltered workshops by employed personnel with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna M. Czerwiak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Disability is a complex concept with different dimensions associated with functional limitations of an individual and/or environment. From one point of view, scientific and technological progress increases the chances of being active in professional life, yet it requires high professional qualifications. Aim of the research : The aim of the study was to investigate the employment character in those workshops. The theme of the research was the assumption that the process of rehabilitation of disabled persons is achieved in a complex social system. Material and methods: A diagnostic survey with the use of a customised questionnaire was carried out in November/December 2013 among 108 persons with disabilities employed in sheltered workshops in the Świętokrzyskie Province. Results : The most common causes of disability among the respondents were the locomotor system, neurological, respiratory, and circulatory diseases. The obstacles in establishing interpersonal contacts would include the fear of negative feedback in their close environment, the lack of knowledge in society about disability, architectural barriers, and appearance. The disabled expected both economic and informative support. Conclusions : The activity of persons with disabilities depends on employment opportunities in the labour market, but also on the candidate’s education, age, and their degree of disability. The sheltered workshops reinforce the sense of economic security and social ties, whereas employment itself brings a particularly appreciated value for this population.

  3. An Ecocritical Reading of Paul Bowles's The Sheltering Sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sheikhzadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes are not simply something objective and unchallenged out there but the work of the mind made by the strata of memory. This paper attempts to show that an ecocritical reading of Paul Bowles’s The Sheltering Sky (1949 helps one in better understanding of this novel of post-colonial alienation and existential despair. Bowles is an American writer and a composer who is undoubtedly the most arresting example of cross-cultural influence concerning a Western author and the Middle East and North Africa.  His fiction mostly focuses on American expatriates travelling in exotic locations. The Sheltering Sky is an encounter with the Sahara, not only the physical one but the desert of moral nihilism into which one may wander blindly. The boundless desert acts here as a metaphor and the journey symbolizes one’s own journey into the depth of his/her soul. The desert also projects an apocalyptic vision in the struggle between the West and the East and the Sahara becomes in fact a Conradian Heart of Darkness, an Eliotian Waste Land, and a Sartrean No Exit. In the novel the actual environment becomes in some ways pale and covert under the psyche of the writer. Consequently we come to know that Bowles's own knowledge and awareness of the same environments left traces in his work. Accordingly we may wrap up that the environment bears a direct impact on our understanding of it.

  4. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over-the-counter, this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get ... to break the habit. Try to stop biting one set of nails, such as your thumb nails, ...

  5. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Week Meetings and events 2018 Annual Meeting Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile ... your fingers and from your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your ...

  6. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically ... to bite your nails, you can figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan ...

  7. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  8. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically begins ... Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: Dermatologists in the US and Canada Dermatologists outside ...

  9. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spending money to keep your nails looking attractive may make you less likely to bite them. Alternatively, ... Just knowing when you’re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop ...

  10. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learning Center MOC Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested order of modules Video ... you stop biting your nails, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Keep your nails trimmed short: Having less ...

  11. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Stops

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — All transit stops within the Port Authority of Allegheny County's service area for the November 20, 2016 - March (TBD) 2017 schedule period.

  12. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically begins ... Chronic nail biting can also leave you vulnerable to infection as you pass harmful bacteria and viruses ...

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Online Learning Center MOC Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested order of modules ... figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’ ...

  14. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Karen L; Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable...

  15. The triumf stopped π- μ channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qazzaz, N. M. M.; Beer, G. A.; Mason, G. R.; Olin, A.; Pearce, R. M.; Bryman, D. A.; MacDonald, J. A.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Reeve, P. A.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Suzuki, T.

    1980-08-01

    The TRIUMF stopped π- μ channel (M9) is described and the measured optical parameters are compared with design values. Measured beam characteristics of pions and muons for several different momenta are reported for protons incident on Be and Cu production targets. A beam of cloud muons at the channel momentum, from π decays near the production target, has been obtained having a high stopping density and small spot size.

  16. The utilisation of the right of children to shelter to alleviate poverty in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, many of these people were left homeless or without the necessary adequate shelter. Children who were born into these circumstances were denied basic resources such as proper shelter, food, water and health care services. These unfortunate circumstances existed at the adoption of South Africa 's democratic ...

  17. Interpersonal Relationships and Subjective Well-being among Older Adults in Sheltered Housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbers, Daniel J.; Meijering, Louise

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine how experiences with interpersonal relationships contribute to older adults’ well-being in the residential context of sheltered housing. We draw on data collected from sixteen in-depth interviews with older adults living in sheltered housing in a small town in

  18. Questions and Answers Regarding Actions to Take When Ending Shelter-in-Place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumpert, B.

    2003-12-30

    Shelter-in-place has found increasing acceptance as an effective protective action option for communities participating in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. Studies have confirmed that it can provide optimum protection under certain accident conditions. However, emergency managers and planners, as well as the public, continue to be troubled by the need to end sheltering when the plume has passed in order to avoid sustained exposure to the small amount of agent that has penetrated the shelter. One of the concerns posed by this necessity is uncertainty regarding what hazards will then be faced in the environment outside the shelter and what actions can be taken to avoid those hazards. This report attempts to address those uncertainties. It recognizes that there is an extremely low probability that the environment outside the shelter will be contaminated with chemical agent residue. However, as people comply with an official recommendation to leave their shelters, they probably can't be certain that the environment is free from contamination. Therefore, this report identifies and explains specific and simple actions they can take to avoid the possibility of exposure to chemical agent hazards outside their shelters. It addresses such issues as the actions people should take upon ending shelter-in-place, what clothing they should wear, how they should handle animals, and what they should do about food in their homes and produce in their gardens.

  19. Infections with helminths and/or protozoa in cats in animal shelters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, S.R.; Nobel, le W.E.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of infections with helminths and protozoa in cats in animal shelters, faecal samples from 305 cats from 22 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined, using a centrifugation-sedimentation-flotation-technique. The association between potential risk factors and the

  20. Measurement of Wind Loads on Large-Scale Air-Supported Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    of internal pr.essures and wind velocities tested, both shelters were · remarkably stable, although the doub le-wall . shelter · exhibited some...4 ~- \\ \\ I \\ . . I I ., I ’ J ...._ ... ...,., JT/3 ll/2 ll / 3 5fl/6 ANGLE (9) FIG . 16. PRESS URE DIS TRI BU TION ON DOUB LE-WAL L SHELT

  1. Five City Study. Physiological Reactions to Temperatures in New Orleans Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five City Study. Heat distress and water requirements are examined as functions of activity level and physiological conditions of the shelterees for a...within 24 hours of shelter entry; Water requirements of all shelterees will be excessive and could lead to shelter defections; and The ventilation criteria

  2. Shelters for Battered Women and Their Children: An Under-Recognized Source of Communicable Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas P.; Rosenberg, Mark L.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study of various aspects of communicable disease occurrence (focusing on diarrheal illness) in shelters for battered women and their children, the extent and methods of screening for disease, training of staff in health care principles, resources available for health care needs, and the health regulations governing these shelters. (PS)

  3. The Voices of Black and White Rural Battered Women in Domestic Violence Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, April L.

    2005-01-01

    Very little research has examined the experiences of Black and White rural battered women. In this exploratory study of 88 participants, 30 rural battered women who sought assistance from domestic violence shelters in southwest Virginia were interviewed. Black and White rural women's experiences in the shelters, helpseeking, and perceived social…

  4. Investigation of Millennial Students' Responses to a Shelter-in-Place Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas C.; Frick, Melodie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated millennial students' responses to an armed gunman threat and shelter-in-place warnings that occurred on a university campus. Using descriptive statistics and quantitative analysis, several significant differences were found for students' responses for sheltering-in-place and engaging in protective behaviors. Baxter Magolda'…

  5. Releasing sheltered northern red oak during the early stem exclusion stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Schuler; Gary W. Miller

    1999-01-01

    The utility of releasing sheltered northern red oak was examined in mesic hardwood stands in north central West Virginia. Different levels of release were applied in the spring of 1996 - six growing seasons after planting 2-0 seedlings that were protected with 5 ft corrugated plastic shelters. The planting was done in a 7.77 acre forest opening that developed abundant...

  6. Euthanasia-related strain and coping strategies in animal shelter employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Benjamin E; Allen, Joseph A; Rogelberg, Steven G; Spitzmüller, Christiane; Digiacomo, Natalie A; Webb, Jennifer B; Carter, Nathan T; Clark, Olga L; Teeter, Lisa A; Walker, Alan G

    2009-07-01

    To identify and evaluate coping strategies advocated by experienced animal shelter workers who directly engaged in euthanizing animals. Cross-sectional study. Animal shelters across the United States in which euthanasia was conducted (5 to 100 employees/shelter). With the assistance of experts associated with the Humane Society of the United States, the authors identified 88 animal shelters throughout the United States in which animal euthanasia was actively conducted and for which contact information regarding the shelter director was available. Staff at 62 animal shelters agreed to participate in the survey. Survey packets were mailed to the 62 shelter directors, who then distributed them to employees. The survey included questions regarding respondent age, level of education, and role and asked those directly involved in the euthanasia of animals to provide advice on strategies for new euthanasia technicians to deal with the related stress. Employees completed the survey and returned it by mail. Content analysis techniques were used to summarize survey responses. Coping strategies suggested by 242 euthanasia technicians were summarized into 26 distinct coping recommendations in 8 categories: competence or skills strategies, euthanasia behavioral strategies, cognitive or self-talk strategies, emotional regulation strategies, separation strategies, get-help strategies, seek long-term solution strategies, and withdrawal strategies. Euthanizing animals is a major stressor for many animal shelter workers. Information regarding the coping strategies identified in this study may be useful for training new euthanasia technicians.

  7. Identification of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durlav Hazarika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several online methods were proposed for investigating the voltage stability condition of an interconnected power system using the measurements of voltage and current phasors at a bus. For this purpose, phasor measurement units (PMUs are used. A PMU is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electrical network, using a common time source (reference bus for synchronisation. This study proposes a method for online monitoring of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables namely – (i real power, (ii reactive power and (iii bus voltage magnitude at a bus. The measurements of real power, reactive power and bus voltage magnitude could be extracted/captured from a smart energy meter. The financial involvement for implementation of the proposed method would significantly lower compared with the PMU-based method.

  8. The effect of an active steering system on city bus drivers muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Christer; Gink Lövgren, Maria; Nilsson, Mats; Willstrand, Tania; Anund, Anna

    2018-02-26

    City bus drivers spend hours driving under time pressure, in congested traffic and in a monotonous sitting position. This leads to unhealthy working conditions, especially in terms of physical and psychological stress. The aim of this study is to investigate if an active steering system can alleviate the musculoskeletal stress involved in manoeuvring a bus. Twenty bus drivers drove a city bus equipped with the Volvo dynamic steering (VDS) support system in real traffic. Steering effort was evaluated with fyography and with a questionnaire. Compared to baseline, VDS significantly reduced the required muscle activity by on average 15 - 25 % while turning, and with up to 68 % in the part of the manoeuvre requiring maximum effort. The bus drivers believed that VDS will help reduce neck and shoulder problems, and they expressed a desire to have VDS installed in their own bus.

  9. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS, which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus, coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introducing novel functions: asynchronous meter trigger, adaptive slot scheduling, and bitmap-wise retransmission request. Through experiments, we demonstrate that BWM-Bus guarantees higher data success ratio with lower data aggregation time, as well as longer lifetime than WM-Bus standard.

  10. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  11. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5% recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.

  12. Stops making sense: translational trade-offs and stop codon reassignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgar Greg S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient gene expression involves a trade-off between (i premature termination of protein synthesis; and (ii readthrough, where the ribosome fails to dissociate at the terminal stop. Sense codons that are similar in sequence to stop codons are more susceptible to nonsense mutation, and are also likely to be more susceptible to transcriptional or translational errors causing premature termination. We therefore expect this trade-off to be influenced by the number of stop codons in the genetic code. Although genetic codes are highly constrained, stop codon number appears to be their most volatile feature. Results In the human genome, codons readily mutable to stops are underrepresented in coding sequences. We construct a simple mathematical model based on the relative likelihoods of premature termination and readthrough. When readthrough occurs, the resultant protein has a tail of amino acid residues incorrectly added to the C-terminus. Our results depend strongly on the number of stop codons in the genetic code. When the code has more stop codons, premature termination is relatively more likely, particularly for longer genes. When the code has fewer stop codons, the length of the tail added by readthrough will, on average, be longer, and thus more deleterious. Comparative analysis of taxa with a range of stop codon numbers suggests that genomes whose code includes more stop codons have shorter coding sequences. Conclusions We suggest that the differing trade-offs presented by alternative genetic codes may result in differences in genome structure. More speculatively, multiple stop codons may mitigate readthrough, counteracting the disadvantage of a higher rate of nonsense mutation. This could help explain the puzzling overrepresentation of stop codons in the canonical genetic code and most variants.

  13. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1 the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2 an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination results in a longer go reaction time (RT, a lower stop error rate, as well as a faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  14. PREFERENSI MANAJEMEN LABA AKRUAL ATAU MANAJEMEN LABA RIIL DALAM AKTIVITAS TAX SHELTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Geraldina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of accrual or real earnings management on the possibility of companies involved in tax shelter activities by using Surat Ketetapan Pajak Kurang Bayar (notice of tax deficiency as a proxy to measure the tax shelter. By using a sample of companies who received Surat Ketetapan Pajak Kurang Bayar (notice of tax deficiency in manufacturing industry and listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period 2001-2010, this study finds that the company tends to favor accrual earnings management for decreasing possibility of aggressive tax shelter activities. This finding is not supporting the hyphotesis. Real earnings management via abnormal operating cash flows and abnormal discretionary production increasing possibility of aggressive tax shelter activities. Both findings are supporting the hypothesis. This study also finds that both practices of accrual earnings management or real earnings management have substitute effect in explaining the possibility of companies involved in tax shelter activities.

  15. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-09-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kt detonation in Chicago. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at selected exemplary points. For many Chicago neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  16. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-12-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  17. When the brain simulates stopping: Neural activity recorded during real and imagined stop-signal tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villar, Alberto J; Bonilla, F Mauricio; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that mental rehearsal activates brain areas similar to those activated by real performance. Although inhibition is a key function of human behavior, there are no previous reports of brain activity during imagined response cancellation. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) and time-frequency data associated with motor execution and inhibition during real and imagined performance of a stop-signal task. The ERPs characteristic of stop trials-that is, the stop-N2 and stop-P3-were also observed during covert performance of the task. Imagined stop (IS) trials yielded smaller stop-N2 amplitudes than did successful stop (SS) and unsuccessful stop (US) trials, but midfrontal theta power similar to that in SS trials. The stop-P3 amplitude for IS was intermediate between those observed for SS and US. The results may be explained by the absence of error-processing and correction processes during imagined performance. For go trials, real execution was associated with higher mu and beta desynchronization over motor areas, which confirms previous reports of lower motor activation during imagined execution and also with larger P3b amplitudes, probably indicating increased top-down attention to the real task. The similar patterns of activity observed for imagined and real performance suggest that imagination tasks may be useful for training inhibitory processes. Nevertheless, brain activation was generally weaker during mental rehearsal, probably as a result of the reduced engagement of top-down mechanisms and limited error processing.

  18. Optimizing Bus Frequencies under Uncertain Demand: Case Study of the Transit Network in a Developing City

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhengfeng; Ren, Gang; Liu, Haixu

    2013-01-01

    Various factors can make predicting bus passenger demand uncertain. In this study, a bilevel programming model for optimizing bus frequencies based on uncertain bus passenger demand is formulated. There are two terms constituting the upper-level objective. The first is transit network cost, consisting of the passengers’ expected travel time and operating costs, and the second is transit network robustness performance, indicated by the variance in passenger travel time. The second term reflect...

  19. An Interactive Wireless Communication System for Visually Impaired People Using City Bus Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  20. A Prediction System Using a P2P Overlay Network for a Bus Arrival System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Hsuan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of times and the surge of metropolitan populations, government agencies often promote the construction of public transport. Unlike rail transportation or rapid transit systems, it is often difficult to estimate the vehicle arrival times at each station in a bus transportation system due to metropolitan transportation congestion. Traffic status is often monitored using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, WSNs are always separated from one another spatially. Recent studies have considered the connection of multiple sensor networks. This study considers a combination view of peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks and WSN architecture to predict bus arrival times. Each bus station, which is also a P2P overlay peer, is connected in a P2P overlay network. A sensor installed in each bus can receive data via peers to obtain the moving speed of a bus. Then, each peer can exchange its data to predict bus arrival times at bus stations. This method can considerably increase the accuracy with which bus arrival times can be predicted and can provide traffic status with high precision. Furthermore, these data can also be used to plan new bus routes according to the information gathered.

  1. An interactive wireless communication system for visually impaired people using city bus transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-04-25

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Bus Operation Control System Based on Cooperative Speed Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Teng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buses often have strong bunching or large interval tendency when traveling further along the route. To restrain this further deterioration of operation service, this paper developed a bus operation control system to dynamically adjust bus speed, bus dwell time, and traffic signal timings along the running path. In addition, a simulation platform was developed to evaluate the proposed control system with the actual data collected from bus route number 210 in Shanghai. The simulation results show that the proposed control system can mitigate the amplification trend of the headway deviation along the route to produce headways within a given tolerance.

  3. The process of homelessness : an event history analysis of length of stay for the Groningen shelter accommodation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernee, H.; Oldersma, F.; Popping, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the process of shelter exits for homeless individuals and for different shelter types in the public shelter system in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. Individualised administrative data from the Groningen Homelessness Monitor (2003–2006) are used for estimating a Weibull

  4. Self-erecting temporary shelter: Kinetic Design and Vacuumatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Sapienza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available SETS (Self-Erecting Temporary Shelter is a project born to realize a temporary, flexible, lightweight, experimental pavilion. It is a synthesis between the ancient origami’s art and the innovative vacuumatics. So SETS is able to switch from two-dimensional configuration, for transportation and storage, to the spatial one, adaptable to several uses (from fashion shows to emergencies. To achieve this goal SETS is based on two qualifying items: a strong geometric control, due to the parametric design tool, and the vacuum technology, that is able to ‘freeze’ it into the chosen configuration. In this article the authors will describe the topics of the first steps of the research, that allowed them to make some physic model in scale. They will also show the program of the following phases, that are addressed to the building of a prototype.

  5. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  6. Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shannon

    Full Text Available Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana and elk (Cervus elephus in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk, lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity.

  7. Hybrid stop schedule of urban rail train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmin Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better serve the transport demand of urban area by rail, target at the Ur-ban Rail Train Stop Schedule problem.Design/methodology/approach: Bi-level mathematical programming model and game relation was used.Findings: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed when game relation between train Stop Schedule and passenger transfer choice is considered.Research limitations/implications: The research is still in progress. Practical implications: ChongQing urban rail line 2 was taken as an example, the practical application of the model has proved its feasibility and efficiency.Originality/value: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed. The upper level model is Stop Schedule targeting at the optimal profit from the operators side. The lower level model is passenger routing aims to minimize total travel time. According to its features, the bi-level model is integrated in order to be directly solvable by optimizing software.

  8. Light stop decays: implications for LHC searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeber, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Muehlleitner, M.M.; Wlotzka, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Popenda, E. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    We investigate the flavour-changing neutral current decay of the lightest stop into a charm quark and the lightest neutralino and its four-body decay into the lightest neutralino, a down-type quark and a fermion pair. These are the relevant stop search channels in the low-mass region. The SUSY-QCD corrections to the two-body decay have been calculated for the first time and turn out to be sizeable. In the four-body decay both the contributions from diagrams with flavour-changing neutral current couplings and the mass effects of final state bottom quarks and τ leptons have been taken into account, which are not available in the literature so far. The resulting branching ratios are investigated in detail. We find that in either of the decay channels the branching ratios can deviate significantly from 1 in large parts of the allowed parameter range. Taking this into account, the experimental exclusion limits on the stop, which are based on the assumption of branching ratios equal to 1, are considerably weakened. This should be taken into account in future searches for light stops at the next run of the LHC, where the probed low stop mass region will be extended. (orig.)

  9. Physics Bus: An Innovative Model for Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire

    The Physics Bus is about doing science for fun. It is an innovative model for science outreach whose mission is to awaken joy and excitement in physics for all ages and walks of life - especially those underserved by science enrichment. It is a mobile exhibition of upcycled appliances-reimagined by kids-that showcase captivating physics phenomena. Inside our spaceship-themed school bus, visitors will find: a microwave ionized-gas disco-party, fog rings that shoot from a wheelbarrow tire, a tv whose electron beam is controlled by a toy keyboard, and over 20 other themed exhibits. The Physics Bus serves a wide range of public in diverse locations from local neighborhoods, urban parks and rural schools, to cross-country destinations. Its approachable, friendly and relaxed environment allows for self-paced and self-directed interactions, providing a positive and engaging experience with science. We believe that this environment enriches lives and inspires people. In this presentation we will talk about the nuts and bolts that make this model work, how the project got started, and the resources that keep it going. We will talk about the advantages of being a grassroots and community-based organization, and how programs like this can best interface with universities. We will explain the benefits of focusing on direct interactions and why our model avoids ``teaching'' physics content with words. Situating our approach within a body of research on the value of informal science we will discuss our success in capturing and engaging our audience. By the end of this presentation we hope to broaden your perception of what makes a successful outreach program and encourage you to value and support alternative outreach models such as this one. In Collaboration with: Eva Luna, Cornell University; Erik Herman, Cornell University; Christopher Bell, Ithaca City School District.

  10. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  11. Implementation of PMSM speed control software based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenlun; Chen, Bei; He, Yuyao

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the driver's hardware structure based on TMS320F28335 is introduced, the control software flow of host computer based on CAN bus is designed, the rule of CAN communication protocol is fulfilled and accordingly the hybrid programming is realized in the background of low speed and large sinusoid operation. This system can realize the CAN communication setting, download the PID parameters to DSP, operate at constant rotate speed and at given large sinusoid rotate speed. Meanwhile the dynamical monitoring and alarm are implemented. Finally the real-time display and storage of measured current, voltage and rotate speed are completed well.

  12. Bubble formation after a 20-m dive: deep-stop vs. shallow-stop decompression profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Nico A. M.; Corstius, Jan-Jaap Brandt; Germonpré, Peter; Sterk, Wouter

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is claimed that performing a "deep stop," a stop at about half of maximal diving depth (MDD), can reduce the amount of detectable precordial bubbles after the dive and may thus diminish the risk of decompression sickness. In order to ascertain whether this reduction is caused by the

  13. ERP components associated with successful and unsuccessful stopping in a stop-signal task.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.; Ramataur, J.R.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Band, G.P.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine how response inhibition is reflected in components of the event-related potential (ERP), using the stop-signal paradigm as a tool to manipulate response inhibition processes. Stop signals elicited a sequence of N2/P3 components that partly overlapped with

  14. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Olive, Keith A; Zheng, Jiaming

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino [Formula: see text] is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark [Formula: see text] is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic [Formula: see text] cold dark matter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark [Formula: see text] NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the [Formula: see text] may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper.

  15. Impact of Impulse Stops on Pedestrian Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    We numerically study the impact of impulse stops on pedestrian flow for a straight corridor with multiple attractions. The impulse stop is simulated by the switching behavior model, a function of the social influence strength and the number of attendees near the attraction. When the pedestrian influx is low, one can observe a stable flow where attendees make a complete stop at an attraction and then leave the attraction after a certain amount of time. When the pedestrian influx is high, an unstable flow is observed for strong social influence. In the unstable flow, attendees near the attraction are crowded out from the clusters by others due to the interpersonal repulsion. The expelled pedestrians impede the pedestrian traffic between the left and right boundaries of the corridor. These collective patterns of pedestrian flow are summarized in a schematic phase diagram.

  16. StopWatcher: A Mobile Application to Improve Stop Sign Awareness for Driving Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stop signs are the primary form of traffic control in the United States. However, they have a tendency to be much less effective than other forms of traffic control like traffic lights. This is due to their smaller size, lack of lighting, and the fact that they may become visually obscured from the road. In this paper, we offer a solution to this problem in the form of a mobile application implemented in the Android platform: StopWatcher. It is designed to alert a driver when they are approaching a stop sign using a voice notification system (VNS. A field test was performed in a snowy environment. The test results demonstrate that the application can detect all of the stop signs correctly, even when some of them were obstructed by the snow, which in turn greatly improves the user awareness of stop signs.

  17. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1303 Stop-work orders. (a) Stop-work orders may be used, when appropriate, in any negotiated... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stop-work orders. 42.1303...

  18. Modeling transit bus fuel consumption on the basis of cycle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Oscar F; Clark, Nigel N; Thompson, Gregory J

    2011-04-01

    A method exists to predict heavy-duty vehicle fuel economy and emissions over an "unseen" cycle or during unseen on-road activity on the basis of fuel consumption and emissions data from measured chassis dynamometer test cycles and properties (statistical parameters) of those cycles. No regression is required for the method, which relies solely on the linear association of vehicle performance with cycle properties. This method has been advanced and examined using previously published heavy-duty truck data gathered using the West Virginia University heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with the trucks exercised over limited test cycles. In this study, data were available from a Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority emission testing program conducted in 2006. Chassis dynamometer data from two conventional diesel buses, two compressed natural gas buses, and one hybrid diesel bus were evaluated using an expanded driving cycle set of 16 or 17 different driving cycles. Cycle properties and vehicle fuel consumption measurements from three baseline cycles were selected to generate a linear model and then to predict unseen fuel consumption over the remaining 13 or 14 cycles. Average velocity, average positive acceleration, and number of stops per distance were found to be the desired cycle properties for use in the model. The methodology allowed for the prediction of fuel consumption with an average error of 8.5% from vehicles operating on a diverse set of chassis dynamometer cycles on the basis of relatively few experimental measurements. It was found that the data used for prediction should be acquired from a set that must include an idle cycle along with a relatively slow transient cycle and a relatively high speed cycle. The method was also applied to oxides of nitrogen prediction and was found to have less predictive capability than for fuel consumption with an average error of 20.4%.

  19. Quality of healthcare services provided in disaster shelters: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Rains, Adam B; Casey-Lockyer, Mary; Springer, Janice; Kowal, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Globally, shelters are a resource to promote critical health and safety in disasters, particularly for vulnerable populations (e.g., children, elderly, chronically ill). This study examines the nature and quality of healthcare services rendered in disaster and emergency shelters. To determine based upon systematic and accurate measurement the scope and quality of health care services rendered in disaster shelters and to describe the health outcomes experienced by shelter residents. An integrative review of English-language literature pertaining to the assessment, evaluation, and systematic measurement of healthcare quality and client outcomes in disaster and emergency shelters was undertaken. Articles were identified using a structured search strategy of six databases and indexing services (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar). Limited literature exists pertaining specifically to metrics for quality of health care in acute disaster and emergency shelters, and the literature that does exist is predominately U.S. based. Analysis of the existing evidence suggests that nurse staffing levels and staff preparedness, access to medications/medication management, infection control, referrals, communication, and mental health may be important concepts related to quality of disaster health care services. A small number of population-based and smaller, ad hoc outcomes-based evaluation efforts exist; however the existing literature regarding systematic outcomes-based quality assessment of disaster sheltering healthcare services is notably sparse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evacuating People and Their Pets: Older Floridians' Need for and Proximity to Pet-Friendly Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Rachel; Kocatepe, Ayberk; Barrett, Anne E; Ozguven, Eren Erman; Gumber, Clayton

    2017-10-04

    Pets influence evacuation decisions, but little is known about pet-friendly emergency shelters' availability or older adults' need for them. Our study addresses this issue, focusing on the most densely populated area of Florida (Miami-Dade)-the state with the oldest population and greatest hurricane susceptibility. We use Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based methodology to identify the shortest paths to pet-friendly shelters, based on distance and congested and uncongested travel times-taking into account the older population's spatial distribution. Logistic regression models using the 2013 American Housing Survey's Disaster Planning Module examine anticipated shelter use as a function of pet ownership and requiring pet evacuation assistance. Thirty-four percent of older adults in the Miami-Dade area have pets-35% of whom report needing pet evacuation assistance. However, GIS accessibility measures show that travel time factors are likely to impede older adults' use of the area's few pet-friendly shelters. Logistic regression results reveal that pet owners are less likely to report anticipating shelter use; however, the opposite holds for pet owners reporting they would need help evacuating their pets-they anticipate using shelters. High pet shelter need coupled with low availability exacerbates older adults' heightened vulnerability during Florida's hurricane season.

  1. Public health response to a rabid dog in an animal shelter --- North Dakota and Minnesota, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    On March 31, 2010, the North Dakota Department of Health (NDDoH) was notified by a local public health department that a stray dog found in rural Minnesota and housed during March 9-20 in a North Dakota animal shelter had been found to have rabies. NDDoH, along with the local public health department, the North Dakota Board of Animal Health (BOAH), the Minnesota Board of Animal Health, and the Minnesota Department of Health, immediately began an investigation to identify persons requiring rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) and to prevent further rabies transmission. This report summarizes the public health investigation, which used animal shelter records and public notification to identify possible human and animal contacts of the rabid dog. Among 32 persons who might have been exposed to the rabid dog at the shelter, 21 persons, including nine shelter employees and one volunteer, received PEP. In accordance with 2009 Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control guidance, the 25 dogs in the shelter with the rabid dog were euthanized. Among 25 other dogs without an up-to-date rabies vaccination that were adopted or claimed from the shelter and might have been exposed, 11 were euthanized, 13 were isolated for 6 months in their owners' homes, and one was unintentionally killed. No additional cases of rabies in dogs or humans had been identified as of December 2010. This event supports consideration of preexposure vaccination of animal shelter employees and highlights the continued importance of routine rabies vaccination of domestic animals.

  2. Earth-sheltered housing: an evaluation of energy-conservation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The Innovative Structures Program (ISP) began an evaluation of the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered houses in late 1979. Since that time, several projects have been undertaken as part of this evaluation. The findings of these projects, plus a discussion of the work of others in the field, form the body of this report. Although a comprehensive evaluation of earth-sheltered housing has not been completed, this report presents a compendium of knowledge on the subject. The conclusions are more qualitative than quantitative in nature because of the limited information on which to base projections. The major conclusions to date are as follows: Earth-sheltered houses are capable of very good energy performance. Earth-sheltered houses, as a passive means to conserve energy, perform significantly better in some climatic regins than in others. Earth-sheltered houses are not the optimum passive concept in several major housing growth regions of the country. Earth-sheltered houses, including their land and site improvements, will cost an estimated 10 to 35% more than comparable aboveground houses, and this additional cost may not be justified on a life cycle cost basis, given 1981 market conditions. The use of earth sheltering will probably grow in some parts of the country; however, broad-scale national or regional utilization is not likely to occur in the next 20 to 30 years.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  4. Evaluation of Faecal Salmonella Shedding Among Dogs at Seven Animal Shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Rankin, S C; Hamer, S A

    2016-11-01

    Estimates of prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding among dogs in the United States have varied widely. Surveillance among shelter dogs has been limited, although dogs in animal shelters may be at elevated risk of Salmonella infection because of their previous exposure history as well as factors inherent to shelter environments. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella shedding among shelter dogs across Texas, to identify risk factors for shedding and to characterize the isolates. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs on two or three visits to each of seven Texas animal shelters between May 2013 and December 2014. Standard bacteriologic culture methods were used to isolate Salmonella from samples, and isolates were characterized via serotyping and anti-microbial susceptibility testing. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding among sampled dogs was 4.9% (27/554), and within-shelter prevalence ranged from 1.9% to 8.3%. There was a marginal association (P = 0.09) between watery faecal samples and positive Salmonella status, as estimated by a logistic regression model that controlled for shelter as a random effect. However, over 60% of Salmonella-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Salmonella prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The most common serovars were Newport (22%) and Javiana (15%), both of which were widespread among shelters. Resistance to anti-microbial agents was uncommon. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding among shelter dogs in Texas appears to be comparable to that seen among pet dogs in general. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Diel foraging and shelter use of large juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) under food satiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Jyde, M.; Filrup, K.

    2012-01-01

    The diel partitioning of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta foraging behaviour is controlled by a number of factors including predation risk, competition, temperature and food availability. The present study uses PIT-tagging and visual observation to asses the use of shelter and foraging behaviour...... of Danish wild juvenile brown trout (13.5-15.6 cm). The experiment was conducted in a fluvarium and the fish were fed to satiation. It was hypothesised that food satiation would promote nocturnal foraging and increase daytime shelter use. Our results showed a significant difference in diel shelter use...

  6. The safety evaluation of earthquake emergency shelter based on the finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baitao; Yu, Jingjing; Yan, Peilei

    2017-08-01

    The earthquake emergency shelter is the powerful safeguard to resist the natural hazard, human accident and other accidents, so evaluate the buildings whether can be the earthquake emergency shelter appear to be particularly important. So far the adoptive evaluation system inland has not the united criterion and subjectivity, hence it is necessary to realize the quantitative evaluation. The paper set the example of Nenjiang county to make the safety evaluation, the method is combining the measured project profile and the calculative anti-earthquake performance index, comprehensive assessment the buildings' anti-earthquake redundancy, finally providing the identification results. Initially summary, the safety identification method to earthquake emergency shelter has definite guiding significance.

  7. Impact of Efficient Driving in Professional Bus Fleets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Garcia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines of the vehicles in the transport sector are responsible for most of the CO2 emissions into the environment. An alternative to reduce fuel consumption is to promote efficient driving techniques. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of efficient driving on fuel consumption in professional fleets. Data captured from the engine control unit (ECU of the vehicles are complemented with external information from weather stations and context data from the transport companies. The paper proposes linear and quadratic models in order to quantify the impact of all the terms influencing energy consumption. The analysis was made from the traces captured from a passenger transport company in Spain with more than 50 bus routes. 20 vehicles of five different models were monitored and 58 drivers participated in the study. The results indicate that efficient driving has significant influence on fuel consumption, which confirms efficient driving as a valid and economical option for reducing consumption and therefore emissions of harmful particles into the atmosphere. According to the proposed model, in average external conditions, a driver that increases efficiency from 25% to 75% can reach savings in fuel consumption of up to 16 L/100 km in the analysed bus fleet, which is a significant improvement considering the long distances covered by professionals of the transport sector.

  8. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.

  9. Operational efficiency of the lighting system of bus salons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brytkovskyi V.M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of safety of people is studied primarily in aspects of natural and man-made disasters, fire, health and safety in the workplace. A problem connected with the way of life of the people, in particular with the use of bus transport remains almost out of sight. In addition to the foregoing, there is another side to the issue: modern development of industry and transport is characterized by large-scale introduction of technical measures aimed at saving energy In the specified aspect theoretical dependences for evaluation of technological economic efficiency of light sources in indoor lighting system buses are grounded. This theoretical dependency will make analytical framework justification applying the respective sources of light, taking into account the hygiene requirements to illumination. The methodology of calculation of economic efficiency of lighting of bus salons is offered. Estimating parameter is justified relative objective function value costs per unit of time or distance. The greatest costs are typical for lamps with incandescent bulbs. The least is common to lamps with fluorescent lamps. Led bulbs have no significant advantage even over incandescent lamps. The reason for this is the relatively high color temperature radiation of LED lamps that requires more light levels and, consequently, the high cost of energy, as well as relatively large initial cost of these lamps.

  10. The school bus routing and scheduling problem with transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögl, Michael; Doerner, Karl F; Parragh, Sophie N

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we study the school bus routing and scheduling problem with transfers arising in the field of nonperiodic public transportation systems. It deals with the transportation of pupils from home to their school in the morning taking the possibility that pupils may change buses into account. Allowing transfers has several consequences. On the one hand, it allows more flexibility in the bus network structure and can, therefore, help to reduce operating costs. On the other hand, transfers have an impact on the service level: the perceived service quality is lower due to the existence of transfers; however, at the same time, user ride times may be reduced and, thus, transfers may also have a positive impact on service quality. The main objective is the minimization of the total operating costs. We develop a heuristic solution framework to solve this problem and compare it with two solution concepts that do not consider transfers. The impact of transfers on the service level in terms of time loss (or user ride time) and the number of transfers is analyzed. Our results show that allowing transfers reduces total operating costs significantly while average and maximum user ride times are comparable to solutions without transfers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. NETWORKS, Vol. 65(2), 180-203 2015.

  11. CERPEN FARUK “BUS KOTA” DALAM SEMIOTIK ROLAND BARTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Widyatwati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature called beautiful if it contains the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful for the readers. Short story “Bus Kota” (City Bus containing the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful to the reader. The mandate will be revealed by Roland Barthes' semiotic theory in the book S/Z. Literature has its own allure and text have accrued but not due to independence because of the difference in quality. Texts merge into a unity, or restore any text not as an individual but as a form of plurality. Literature as part of a social system is an expression of the author's sense of the outpouring of public life. Literary works can express themselves in the author's view the social and cultural changes in society because of the development of information technology and rapid. Technological developments and socio-cultural information can change in society so as to affect the psychology of the people. Society must have a thickness of faith not only for themselves, but to be able to maintain equanimity in the life of a pluralistic society

  12. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  13. Studying customer loyalty at Daewoo express bus service, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables. However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.

  14. Efficiency and robustness of different bus network designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, John Zhen Fu; Bin Othman, Nasri; Ng, Keng Meng; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    We compare the efficiencies and robustness of four transport networks that can be possibly formed as a result of deliberate city planning. The networks are constructed based on their spatial resemblance to the cities of Manhattan (lattice), Sudan (random), Beijing (single-blob) and Greater Cairo (dual-blob). For a given type, a genetic algorithm is employed to obtain an optimized set of the bus routes. We then simulate how commuter travels using Yen's algorithms for k shortest paths on an adjacency matrix. The cost of traveling such as walking between stations is captured by varying the weighted sums of matrices. We also consider the number of transfers a posteriori by looking at the computed shortest paths. With consideration to distances via radius of gyration, redundancies of travel and number of bus transfers, our simulations indicate that random and dual-blob are more efficient than single-blob and lattice networks. Moreover, dual-blob type is least robust when node removals are targeted but is most resilient when node failures are random. The work hopes to guide and provide technical perspectives on how geospatial distribution of a city limits the optimality of transport designs.

  15. MANAJEMEN RISIKO DAN KINERJA LABA : STUDI KASUS PADA BANK UMUM SYARIAH (BUS)

    OpenAIRE

    -, RAHMAT NURUL PRIMA. N

    2016-01-01

    2016 Manajemen Risiko dan Kinerja Laba : Studi Kasus Pada Bank Umum Syariah (BUS) Rahmat Nurul Prima Muhammad Sobarsyah Nur Alamsyah Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh implementasi manajemen risiko terhadap kinerja laba pada bank umum syariah (BUS) yang diproksikan dengan ROE. Spektrum implementasi manajemen risiko yang dijadikan objek penelitian adalah risiko kredit yang diproksikan dengan NPF, risiko likuiditas yang diproksikan dengan F...

  16. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  17. Split, Send, Reassemble: A Formal Specification of a CAN Bus Protocol Stack

    OpenAIRE

    van Glabbeek, Rob; Höfner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We present a formal model for a fragmentation and a reassembly protocol running on top of the standardised CAN bus, which is widely used in automotive and aerospace applications. Although the CAN bus comes with an in-built mechanism for prioritisation, we argue that this is not sufficient and provide another protocol to overcome this shortcoming.

  18. Desain Dan Implementasi Sistem Komunikasi Prosesor Parallel Pada Aplikasi Robotik Berbasis Bus Serial I2C

    OpenAIRE

    Mubarak, Tito; Sumaryo, Sony; Abdurohman, Maman

    2008-01-01

    Dewasa ini desain sistem embedded tidak cukup lagi hanya dengan menerapkan satu buahmicroprocessor atau microcontroller saja. Karena sistem yang dikontrol mempunyai peralatan dan tugas yangsemakin banyak. Sehingga perlu menerapkan desentralisasi dan paralelisme pada sistem berbasismicroprocessor.Pada Penelitian ini, dirancang suatu sistem komunikasi antar microcontroller sebagai implementasi darimicroprocessor. Yaitu berupa suatu sistem bus yang berbasis pada I2C serial bus yang dikeluarkan o...

  19. Successfulness of bus rapid transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as “a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility”. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is p

  20. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Jasper; Langer, Martin; Gill, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a questionnaire representing 60 launched CubeSats and 44 to be launched CubeSats. It is found that the bus interfaces are not the main driver for mission failures. However, it is concluded that the Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) data bus, as implemented in a great majority of the CubeSats, caused some catastrophic satellite failures and a vast amount of bus lockups. The power distribution may lead to catastrophic failures if the power lines are not protected against overcurrent. A connector and wiring standard widely implemented in CubeSats is based on the PC/104 standard. Most participants find the 104 pin connector of this standard too large. For a future CubeSat bus interface standard, it is recommended to implement a reliable data bus, a power distribution with overcurrent protection and a wiring harness with smaller connectors compared with PC/104.

  1. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 8. Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    generated for the resulting formatted word or an additional bit appended to the bus/group identification label as described in Paragraph 8.2.3. 8.2.3...shall be identical to that described in Paragraph 8.2. (5) The frame length shall be fixed and shall be the same for each track used for a given bus

  2. 75 FR 71792 - National Express Corporation-Control Exemption-Vogel Bus Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... passenger carrier (MC-274520). NEC indirectly owns and controls one interstate motor passenger carrier... Surface Transportation Board National Express Corporation--Control Exemption--Vogel Bus Company, Inc... approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 14303(a)(5) and 49 CFR 1182 to acquire control of Vogel Bus Company, Inc...

  3. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  4. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  5. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  6. Bus driving assistance system for town area by using ATmega328P microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Fauzi; Soon, Tan Jiah; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-09-01

    Recently, several bus accidents happened because of bus driver's behavior. In fact, there is no dedicated tool for assisting them to drive safely. This project gives solutions to this by assisting the driver, according to the speed and acceleration of the bus. These data are collected by using a motion processing unit (MPU-6050) and a global positioning system (GPS) and then indicate the driving mode status on the LEDs. All data and status are recorded in a secure digital (SD) card for the authority or the bus company to analyze the driving behavior of a bus driver. This system has been successfully developed and tested in two different areas which includes the UTHM main campus and the road from Parit Raja to Batu Pahat.

  7. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  8. Early Stop Criterion from the Bootstrap Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan; Fog, Torben L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generalization error estimation in neural networks. A new early stop criterion based on a Bootstrap estimate of the generalization error is suggested. The estimate does not require the network to be trained to the minimum of the cost function, as required by ot...

  9. Why We Need to Stop Promoting Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollard, Mindy Miner

    2009-01-01

    Book displays have always been an important part of the library field. However, despite all the time and effort, children do not read them. In this article, the author stresses the need to stop promoting reading. Instead, she encourages library media specialists to help children find reading material they will be eager to read.

  10. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically begins ... to bite your nails, you can figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to ...

  11. Bystanders Are the Key to Stopping Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Sharon; Notar, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is the dominance over another. Bullying occurs when there is an audience. Peer bystanders provide an audience 85% of instances of bullying. If you remove the audience bullying should stop. The article is a review of literature (2002-2013) on the role of bystanders; importance of bystanders; why bystanders behave as they do; resources to…

  12. Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard. Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifically, we compare the proportion of potentially open-to-stopped strings in a sample of slow, minor-mode movements with matched major-mode movements. By way of illustration, a preliminary analysis of Samuel Barber's famous Adagio from his Opus 11 string quartet shows that the selected key (B-flat minor provides the optimum key for minimizing open string tones. However, examination of a broader controlled sample of quartet movements by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven failed to exhibit the conjectured relationship. Instead, major-mode movements were found to avoid possible open strings more than slow minor-mode movements.

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gloves to prevent biting. Replace the nail-biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, try ... recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting one set of nails, ...

  14. Bioclimatic transport stop: Urban equipment kit; Parada bioclimatica de transporte: Kit de equipamiento urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Maria V; Barroso, Helen; Bonvino, Michelangelo; Puerta, Marigabriela [Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Arquitectura de la Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

    2000-07-01

    Related to the analysis of offer of the urban public transportation, quantity and quality variables are identified, finding in the last one, the related to bus stop designing and equipping. This is, which elements a bus stop has to count with for its insertion in the urban public transportation system: information for the user, bench, trash can, et cetera: generally omitting, relevant aspects that must be considerate in its design and insertion: 1) the urban public transport, 2) the climate variables and 3) renewable energy and environmental preservation. For this presentation, thermal evaluations were made, using a thermal analysis software on prototypes of urban public transportation bus stops existent in Maracaibo (1.6 Mhab.)-Venezuela, city characterized for its high sunning, which duration approximately the same between the day period and night period: and for a marine climate of temperature (27.70 Celsius degrees) and high relative humidity (75%), low precipitation (490 mm) and predominant nor-northeast winds. The year average values of solar radiation corresponds to 5,59 kw/m{sup 2} day for the global radiation, 3.53 kw/m{sup 2} day for the direct radiation (63.1%) and 2.06% kw/m{sup 2} day for the diffuse radiation (36.9%). The maximum average value was obtained in the month of March with 6.4 kw/m{sup 2} day and the minimum on October, 4.7 kw/m{sup 2} day. In the other hand calculations about energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions of the conventional bus stop were made. It is proposed a bus stop design conceptualized as the bioclimatic condenser of the urban equipment. Where beside to comply its clearly determined transportation functions, it can conjunct: 1) complementary urban service activities, depending to its categorization in the urban public transportation system of Maracaibo; 2) orientation; 3) regulator of the urban microclima; and 4) area insertion of these. [Spanish] Dentro de lo que corresponde al analisis de la oferta de transporte publico

  15. Stop Motion Don't Stop, la exposición

    OpenAIRE

    Herráiz Zornoza, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    [ES] En 2013, y durante apenas dos meses, pudo verse en el MuVIM de Valencia la exposición Stop Motion Don’t Stop, una exposición comisariada por MacDiego, en la que se mostró el trabajo de tres productoras de animación stop-motion afincadas en Valencia, actualmente produciendo series y películas que compiten a nivel internacional. Javier Tostado, Sam y Pablo Llorens, al mando respectivamente de Clay Animation, Conflictivos Productions y Potens Plastianimation, nos acercaron a sus creaciones,...

  16. Determinants of stopping cigarette smoking in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, E; Pagano, R; La Vecchia, C

    1989-01-01

    The relation between socio-demographic factors, general lifestyle habits, smoking-related variables and rates for stopping cigarette smoking was evaluated using data from the 1983 Italian National Health Survey, on the basis of a sample of 19,472 males (15,473 current and 3,999 ex-smokers) and 7,371 females (6,707 current and 664 ex-smokers), representative of the whole Italian population of smokers. Overall rates for stopping (20.5% for males and 9.0% for females) were substantially lower than those observed over comparable calendar periods in other western countries. Besides age, and after allowance for it, stopping smoking was positively associated with higher education and socio-economic status, greater body mass index and the presence of smoking-related symptoms or diseases. Further, a strong inverse association was observed with coffee consumption, and a direct one with physical leisure activity. There was an U-shaped relation between average number of cigarettes per day and stopping smoking, since rates were lower for intermediate (15 to 24 cigarettes per day) smokers, and elevated both for light and heavy smokers, probably reflecting a lower degree of addiction and a greater prevalence of smoking-related disorders, respectively. The effect of most factors was independent, and these associations with quitting rate ratios were still evident after simultaneous allowance by means of multiple logistic regression. The existence of smoking related diseases or symptoms was the most frequent reason for quitting (50.7%); 30.3% reported to have stopped because of knowledge of the health consequences of smoking, 1.3% for economic reasons and 17.6% for other or undefined reasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Will Duct Tape and Plastic Really Work? Issues Related to Expedient Shelter-In-Place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.

    2002-08-30

    Expedient sheltering involves the use of common materials to enhance the safety of a room inside a building against the impacts of a chemical plume. The central premise behind taping and sealing with duct tape and plastic is to reduce airflow into a room. This paper reviews issues associated with the use of expedient sheltering materials and the effectiveness of this strategy. Expedient sheltering provides additional protection to people sheltering in place beyond that provided by the house and by a safe room without expedient measures. The materials chosen for taping and sealing--duct tape and plastic--are appropriate because they effectively reduce infiltration and the materials should withstand a vapor challenge. Taping is essential to reduce air infiltration. Plastic sheeting is not a critical element for reducing air infiltration, but it makes sealing off large windows easier.

  18. Self-Healing Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter for the Lunar Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Any manned missions to extraterrestrial locations will require shelter structures for a variety of purposes ranging from habitat usage to biomass production. Such...

  19. Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels: e96254

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denae Wagner; Sandra Newbury; Philip Kass; Kate Hurley

    2014-01-01

    ... being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door...

  20. Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels: e96254

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denae Wagner; Sandra Newbury; Philip Kass; Kate Hurley

    2014-01-01

    .... Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door...