WorldWideScience

Sample records for bus stop shelters

  1. Shelter from the Storm: Optimizing Distribution of Bus Stop Shelters in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Philip; Taylor, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The functions of bus stop shelters and factors affecting their placement at stops in transit systems are analyzed. Drawing on information from a variety of sources, current shelter placement policy in Los Angeles was found to be guided principally by the revenue-generating potential of shelter advertisements, secondarily by political concerns over geographic equity, and only peripherally on the basis of bus stop use. Using data on shelter and stop locations, boardings, and headways, a methodo...

  2. IMPACTS OF BUS STOP IMPROVEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Improving bus stops by providing shelters, seating, signage, and sidewalks is relatively inexpensive and popular among riders and local officials. Making such improvements, however, is not often a priority for U.S. transit providers because of compet...

  3. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Razi Iqbal; Muhammad Usman Ghani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT), the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming ...

  4. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  5. Determinants of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) for waiting passengers at bus stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Daniel Baldwin; Ray, Paul David; Stinson, Anne E.; Park, JiYoung

    2010-12-01

    This research evaluates commuter exposure to particulate matter during pre-journey commute segments for passengers waiting at bus stops by investigating 840 min of simultaneous exposure levels, both inside and outside seven bus shelters in Buffalo, New York. A multivariate regression model is used to estimate the relation between exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 measured in μg m -3) and three vectors of determinants: time and location, physical setting and placement, and environmental factors. Four determinants have a statistically significant effect on particulate matter: time of day, passengers' waiting location, land use near the bus shelter, and the presence of cigarette smoking at the bus shelter. Model results suggest that exposure to PM 2.5 inside a bus shelter is 2.63 μg m -3 (or 18 percent) higher than exposure outside a bus shelter, perhaps due in part to the presence of cigarette smoking. Morning exposure levels are 6.51 μg m -3 (or 52 percent) higher than afternoon levels. Placement of bus stops can affect exposure to particulate matter for those waiting inside and outside of shelters: air samples at bus shelters located in building canyons have higher particulate matter than bus shelters located near open space.

  6. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  7. Analysis of movable bus stop boarding and alighting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using movable and reusable boarding and alighting (B&A) pads at bus stops. : Potential design alternatives in terms of materials and structural support for these pads were evaluated. The review : focused on the ...

  8. Magnitude and correlates of bird collisions at glass bus shelters in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christine M; Riding, Corey S; Loss, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife residing in urban landscapes face many human-related threats to their survival. For birds, collision with glass on manmade structures has been identified as a major hazard, causing hundreds of millions of avian fatalities in North America every year. Although research has investigated factors associated with bird-glass collision mortality at buildings, no prior studies have focused on bird fatalities at glass-walled bus shelters. Our objectives in this study were to describe the magnitude of bird-bus shelter collisions in the city of Stillwater, Oklahoma and assess potential predictors of collision risk, including characteristics of shelters (glass area) and surrounding land cover (e.g., vegetative features). We surveyed for bird carcasses and indirect collision evidence at 18 bus shelters over a five-month period. Linear regression and model selection results revealed that the amount of glass on shelters and the area of lawn within 50 m of shelters were both positively related to fatal bird collisions; glass area was also positively associated with observations of collision evidence on glass surfaces. After accounting for scavenger removal of carcasses, we estimate that a minimum of 34 birds are killed each year between May and September by collision with the 36 bus shelters in the city of Stillwater. While our study provides an initial look at bird fatalities at bus shelters, additional research is needed to generate a large-scale estimate of collision mortality and to assess species composition of fatalities at a national scale. Designing new bus shelters to include less glass and retrofitting existing shelters to increase visibility of glass to birds will likely reduce fatal bird collisions at bus shelters and thus reduce the cumulative magnitude of anthropogenic impacts to birds in cities.

  9. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  10. Analysing passenger arrivals rates and waiting time at bus stops

    OpenAIRE

    Kaparias, I.; Rossetti, C.; Trozzi, V.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the rather under-explored topic of passenger waiting times at public transport facilities. Using data collected from part of London’s bus network by means of physical counts, measurements and observations, and complemented by on-site passenger interviews, the waiting behaviour is analysed for a number of bus stops served by different numbers of lines. The analysis employs a wide range of statistical methods and tools, and concentrates on three aspects: passenger...

  11. Effect of passenger position on fear of danger experienced during sudden bus stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takeo; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of bus passengers' positions on their fear of danger when a bus stopped suddenly. A temporary bus running course with one bus stop was set up on the campus of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT). The bus ran the course 14 times with the bus stopping twice during the course, once at the bus stop and again just after re-starting from the bus stop. The driver was asked to brake more strongly than usual when stopping. Sixteen students (15 males and 1 female) between the ages of 18 and 21 years participated. In turn, all participants were asked to take 14 different postures in the bus. Participants were also asked to report their level of fear on a rating scale each time the bus stopped. The study showed that (1) passengers' fear of danger at the first sudden stop was typically higher than that at the second stop, (2) standing passengers who held hand straps experienced more fear than those who held fixed safety devices, (3) bus passengers sitting on the centre of the rear seat had a great risk of injury if the bus stopped suddenly, and (4) when passengers faced the window and stood transversely with respect to from the moving direction of the bus and the bus stopped suddenly, passengers' fear of danger was affected by the side of the bus on which they stood as well as which hand they used to grasp a safety device.

  12. Biobjective Optimization and Evaluation for Transit Signal Priority Strategies at Bus Stop-to-Stop Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new optimization framework for the transit signal priority strategies in terms of green extension, red truncation, and phase insertion at the stop-to-stop segment of bus lines. The optimization objective is to minimize both passenger delay and the deviation from bus schedule simultaneously. The objective functions are defined with respect to the segment between bus stops, which can include the adjacent signalized intersections and downstream bus stops. The transit priority signal timing is optimized by using a biobjective optimization framework considering both the total delay at a segment and the delay deviation from the arrival schedules at bus stops. The proposed framework is evaluated using a VISSIM model calibrated with field traffic volume and traffic signal data of Caochangmen Boulevard in Nanjing, China. The optimized TSP-based phasing plans result in the reduced delay and improved reliability, compared with the non-TSP scenario under the different traffic flow conditions in the morning peak hour. The evaluation results indicate the promising performance of the proposed optimization framework in reducing the passenger delay and improving the bus schedule adherence for the urban transit system.

  13. Pilot survey of subway and bus stop noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-09-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 +/- 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure.

  14. Flexible solar strips light up campus bus shelter at McMaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2009-10-15

    This article described the installation of solar cells to illuminate a bus shelter on the campus of McMaster University. The innovative flexible solar cell technology was developed by a group of engineering researchers at the university who are hoping that the prototype will help commercialize the new technology. The solar technology is suitable for lighting up bus shelter signage and providing light for general safety. One of the main features of the technology is the ability to bend the solar cells to fit the curved roof of the bus shelter. The flexibility is achieved by tilting a large number of small silicon elements into an array, mounting them onto a flexible sheet, and connecting them through a proprietary method. The 2 solar strips installed on the roof of the bus shelter are about 90 centimeters long and 12 centimeters wide. Each strip has 720 one-centimetre square solar cells and generates up to 4.5 Watts of power. The solar strip is connected to 2 energy-efficient, multi-LED, light fixtures. Each light fixture uses only 600 milliwatts of power and produces about the same light output as a three watt regular tungsten bulb. The installation is being monitored to determine how much solar power is needed to fully recharge the batteries based on weather conditions, particularly during the winter months. 5 figs.

  15. Cellular Automata Based Modeling for Evaluating Different Bus Stop Designs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate mixed traffic flow composed of motor vehicles and bicycles near bus stops. Three typical types of bus stops which are common in China are considered in the model, including two types of curbside bus stops and one type of bus bay stops. Passenger transport capacity of three types of bus stops, which is applied to evaluate the bus stop design, is calculated based on the corresponding traffic flow rate. According to the simulation results, the flow rates of both motor vehicles and bicycles exhibit phase transition from free flow to the saturation one at the critical point. The results also show that the larger the interaction between motor vehicle and bicycle flow is near curbside bus stops, the more the value of saturated flows drops. Curbside bus stops are more suitable when the conflicts between two flows are small and the inflow rate of motor vehicles is low. On the contrary, bus bay stops should be applied due to their ability to reduce traffic conflicts. Findings of this study can provide useful suggestions on bus stop selection considering different inflow rate of motor vehicles and bicycles simultaneously.

  16. Particulate air pollution and vascular reactivity: the bus stop study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dales, Robert; Liu, Ling; Szyszkowicz, Mietek; Dalipaj, Mary; Willey, Jeff; Kulka, Ryan; Ruddy, Terrence D

    2007-11-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular morbidity but mechanisms are not well understood. We tested the effects on vascular reactivity of exposure to fine particulates matter mass (PM(2.5)), number of particles bus stops. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was then measured by ultrasound and expressed as: (maximum artery diameter after release of a blood pressure cuff inflated above systolic pressure-baseline resting diameter)/baseline resting diameter. A 30 microg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) exposure corresponded to a 0.48% reduction in FMD, P=0.05 representing a 5% relative change in the maximum ability to dilate. Results were consistent between the two bus stops and not sensitive to type of analysis. No significant association was found between FMD and NO(2), PM(1.0) or traffic density. PM(2.5) may reduce the capacity to vasodilate, a potential explanation for the documented association with cardiovascular morbidity.

  17. DETERMINATION OF THE DELAY DEPARTURE TIME OF THE BUS FROM STOPPING POINT INTO THE CAR FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for estimation of the bus departure delax from the bus stopping point after passenger loading is presented. The model allows to take into account the traffic density on a particular road section of the transport network, as well as the bus parameters.

  18. Iterated Local Search Algorithm with Strategic Oscillation for School Bus Routing Problem with Bus Stop Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saied Fallah Niasar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available he school bus routing problem (SBRP represents a variant of the well-known vehicle routing problem. The main goal of this study is to pick up students allocated to some bus stops and generate routes, including the selected stops, in order to carry students to school. In this paper, we have proposed a simple but effective metaheuristic approach that employs two features: first, it utilizes large neighborhood structures for a deeper exploration of the search space; second, the proposed heuristic executes an efficient transition between the feasible and infeasible portions of the search space. Exploration of the infeasible area is controlled by a dynamic penalty function to convert the unfeasible solution into a feasible one. Two metaheuristics, called N-ILS (a variant of the Nearest Neighbourhood with Iterated Local Search algorithm and I-ILS (a variant of Insertion with Iterated Local Search algorithm are proposed to solve SBRP. Our experimental procedure is based on the two data sets. The results show that N-ILS is able to obtain better solutions in shorter computing times. Additionally, N-ILS appears to be very competitive in comparison with the best existing metaheuristics suggested for SBRP

  19. The volume and type of unhealthy bus shelter advertising around schools in Perth, Western Australia: Results from an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Ashleigh; Edmunds, Melinda; Pierce, Hannah; Stoneham, Melissa J

    2018-03-05

    Exposure to advertising for unhealthy food, alcohol and gambling has been shown to influence children and adolescents' behaviours and attitudes. This exploratory study aimed to assess the volume and type of unhealthy bus shelter advertisements near schools in five local government areas in Perth, Western Australia and to monitor whether the volume of unhealthy advertisements varied seasonally. The 29 local governments in the Perth metropolitan region were contacted seeking information regarding the locations of bus shelters featuring advertisements in their local government area. Five local governments provided sufficient information for an audit of the bus shelter advertisements in their area to be conducted. Every bus shelter within 500 m of a school was photographed and the type of advertisement recorded. The advertisements in the food, non-alcoholic beverage, alcohol, or gambling categories were then classified as being healthy, moderate, or unhealthy. This process was carried out in June, September, December 2016, and March 2017 to ascertain whether the type of advertisements displayed changed depending on the season. Of the 293 advertisements recorded over the four audits, 31% featured unhealthy products, 3% moderate, and <1% healthy. Only two of the 293 advertisements were classified as being healthy. Seasonal variation in the volume of unhealthy advertisements was not identified. SO WHAT?: Western Australian school students are regularly exposed to unhealthy bus shelter advertisements. Stricter regulation of outdoor advertising is needed to ensure that young people are protected from the influence of unhealthy industries. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  20. Evaluation of Effective Factors on Travel Time in Optimization of Bus Stops Placement Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargegol, Iraj; Ghorbanzadeh, Mahyar; Ghasedi, Meisam; Rastbod, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    In congested cities, locating and proper designing of bus stops according to the unequal distribution of passengers is crucial issue economically and functionally, since this subject plays an important role in the use of bus system by passengers. Location of bus stops is a complicated subject; by reducing distances between stops, walking time decreases, but the total travel time may increase. In this paper, a specified corridor in the city of Rasht in north of Iran is studied. Firstly, a new formula is presented to calculate the travel time, by which the number of stops and consequently, the travel time can be optimized. An intended corridor with specified number of stops and distances between them is addressed, the related formulas to travel time are created, and its travel time is calculated. Then the corridor is modelled using a meta-heuristic method in order that the placement and the optimal distances of bus stops for that are determined. It was found that alighting and boarding time along with bus capacity are the most effective factors affecting travel time. Consequently, it is better to have more concentration on indicated factors for improving the efficiency of bus system.

  1. Individual and population intake fractions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) in bus stop microenvironments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jia; Jin, Taosheng; Miao, Yaning; Han, Bin; Gao, Jiajia; Bai, Zhipeng; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is associated with adverse human health effects. This study aims to investigate the relationship between DPM exposure and emissions by estimating the individual intake fraction (iF_i) and population intake fraction (iF_p) of DPM. Daily average concentrations of particulate matter at two bus stops during rush hours were measured, and then they were apportioned to DPM due to heavy-duty diesel bus emissions using Chemical Mass Balance Model. The DPM emissions of diesel buses for different driving conditions (idling, creeping and traveling) were estimated on the basis of field observations and published emission factors. The median iF_i of DPM was 0.67 and 1.39 per million for commuters standing at the bus stop and pedestrians/cyclists passing through the bus stop during rush hours, respectively. The median iF_p of DPM was 94 per million. Estimations of iF_i and iF_p of DPM are potentially significant for exposure assessment and risk management. - Highlights: • Methods to estimate the individual and population intake fraction in bus stop microenvironments were established. • Source apportionment was performed to estimate the DPM due to diesel bus emissions in bus stop microenvironments. • The DPM emission in bus stop microenvironments rather than in the entire urban area was considered. • The movement of people and their exposure duration were introduced in the estimation of population intake fraction. - This work established a method to estimate the individual and population intake fraction in transportation microenvironments on the basis of PM source apportionment.

  2. An Improved Model for Headway-Based Bus Service Unreliability Prevention with Vehicle Load Capacity Constraint at Bus Stops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved model for improving headway-based bus route service reliability at bus stops using real-time preventive operation control, taking into account dynamic interaction among random passenger demand, stochastic driving conditions of route segments, and vehicle load capacity constraint. In this model, the real-time information of passenger demand and vehicle operation is involved to predict the imminent unacceptable headway deviation, in the case of which some in-time preventive control strategies are deployed according to the given control rules. As a case study, a single fixed bus route with high-frequency services was simulated and different scenarios of real-time preventive operation control were performed. Headway adherence and average passenger wait time were used to measure bus service reliability. The results show that the improved model is closer to the real bus route service, and using real-time information to predict potential service unreliability and trigger in-time preventive control can reduce bus bunching and avoid big gap.

  3. Bus Stops and Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Collisions in Lima, Peru: A Matched Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Johnston, Brian D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Ebel, Beth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. Design Matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossing. Setting Random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February, 2011 to September, 2011. Participants 97 intersection cases representing 1,134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October, 2010 and January, 2011 and their matched controls. Main Exposures Presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. Main Outcome Occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision. Results Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53-7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Both formal and informal bus stops were associated with a higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76-22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37-6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02-5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high income countries. Conclusions In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a three-fold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety. PMID:24357516

  4. Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creechan, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    A simple collapsible nuclear shelter is described, comprising a frame and a sheet of fabric supported on the frame, thus enclosing a sheltered space within. This inexpensive form of shelter could be quickly made available on a large scale and would be capable of protecting people against nuclear fallout. (U.K.)

  5. Individual and population intake fractions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) in bus stop microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Jin, Taosheng; Miao, Yaning; Han, Bin; Gao, Jiajia; Bai, Zhipeng; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is associated with adverse human health effects. This study aims to investigate the relationship between DPM exposure and emissions by estimating the individual intake fraction (iFi) and population intake fraction (iFp) of DPM. Daily average concentrations of particulate matter at two bus stops during rush hours were measured, and then they were apportioned to DPM due to heavy-duty diesel bus emissions using Chemical Mass Balance Model. The DPM emissions of diesel buses for different driving conditions (idling, creeping and traveling) were estimated on the basis of field observations and published emission factors. The median iFi of DPM was 0.67 and 1.39 per million for commuters standing at the bus stop and pedestrians/cyclists passing through the bus stop during rush hours, respectively. The median iFp of DPM was 94 per million. Estimations of iFi and iFp of DPM are potentially significant for exposure assessment and risk management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bus-stop Based Real Time Passenger Information System - Case Study Maribor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čelan, Marko; Klemenčič, Mitja; Mrgole, Anamarija L.; Lep, Marjan

    2017-10-01

    Real time passenger information system is one of the key element of promoting public transport. For the successful implementation of real time passenger information systems, various components should be considered, such as: passenger needs and requirements, stakeholder involvement, technological solution for tracking, data transfer, etc. This article carrying out designing and evaluation of real time passenger information (RTPI) in the city of Maribor. The design phase included development of methodology for selection of appropriate macro and micro location of the real-time panel, development of a real-time passenger algorithm, definition of a technical specification, financial issues and time frame. The evaluation shows that different people have different requirements; therefore, the system should be adaptable to be used by various types of people, according to the age, the purpose of journey, experience of using public transport, etc. The average difference between perceived waiting time for a bus is 35% higher than the actual waiting time and grow with the headway increase. Experiences from Maribor have shown that the reliability of real time passenger system (from technical point of view) must be close to 100%, otherwise the system may have negative impact on passengers and may discourage the use of public transport. Among considered events of arrivals during the test period, 92% of all prediction were accurate. The cost benefit analysis has focused only on potential benefits from reduced perceived users waiting time and foreseen costs of real time information system in Maribor for 10 years’ period. Analysis shows that the optimal number for implementing real time passenger information system at the bus stops in Maribor is set on 83 bus stops (approx. 20 %) with the highest number of passenger. If we consider all entries at the chosen bus stops, the total perceived waiting time on yearly level could be decreased by about 60,000 hours.

  7. Impacts of Bus-stops on the Speed of Motorized Vehicles under Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions: A Case-Study of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Bansal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of friction generators1 such as bus-stops, intersections, petrol pumps and pedestrian crossings, etc. significantly influences the speed of traffic stream. Among all the friction generators, understanding the impact of bus-stops is particularly important from planning and modeling perspective in the Indian context. Therefore, this study presents a methodology to quantify the impact of bus-stops on the speed of other motorized vehicles (the total motorized vehicle fleet minus the buses under heterogeneous traffic conditions. The methodology was validated on the typical urban arterials in Delhi, India. Two types of data, location of bus-stops and speed profiles of motorized vehicles, were collected by GPS and V-box respectively. These two data sets were mapped and merged using ArcGIS. To understand the nature of traffic stream near bus-stops, ‘influence regions’ of bus-stops were extracted. Later, characteristic parameters such as lengths of the influence regions and average speeds in the influence regions were computed. Finally, 95% confidence intervals of these characteristic parameters were obtained and regression analysis was performed to quantify the impact of bus-stops on the speed of motorized vehicles. The results of study suggest that the influence region of bus-stops on the corridors investigated varies from 140–170 meters and average speed of motorized vehicles in the influence region is reduced by 26–38% of the free flow speed. These findings can better inform planners about the speeds used in traffic flow and travel demand modeling under heterogeneous conditions by helping them in accounting for the speed-reducing impacts of bus-stops. Moreover, transit planners may also consider the magnitudes and characteristics of the influence regions of bus-stops while determining their locations along the corridor to minimize their adverse impacts on the speed of other motorized vehicles.

  8. Does Operation Scheduling Make a Difference: Tapping the Potential of Optimized Design for Skipping-Stop Strategy in Reducing Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of corporate social responsibility has promoted bus operation agencies to rethink how to provide not only efficient but also environmentally friendly services for residents. A study on the potential of using an optimized design of skip-stop services, one of the essential operational strategies in practice, to reduce emissions is conducted in this paper. The underlying scheduling problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem with the primary objective of optimizing the total costs for both passengers and operating agencies, as well as with the secondary objective of minimizing bus emissions. A solution method is developed to solve the problem. A real-world case of Route 16 in Beijing is studied, in which the optimal scheduling strategy that maximizes the cost savings and environmental benefits is determined. The costs and emissions of the proposed scheduling strategy are compared with the optimal scheduling with skip-stop services without considering bus emissions. The results show that the proposed scheduling strategy outperforms the other operating strategy with respect to operational costs and bus emissions. A sensitivity study is then conducted to investigate the impact of the fleet size in operations and passenger demand on the effectiveness of the proposed stop-skipping strategy considering bus emissions.

  9. Estimating bus passenger waiting times from incomplete bus arrivals data

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of estimating bus passenger waiting times at bus stops using incomplete bus arrivals data. This is of importance to bus operators and regulators as passenger waiting time is a key performance measure. Average waiting times are usually estimated from bus headways, that is, time gaps between buses. It is both time-consuming and expensive to measure bus arrival times manually so methods using automatic vehicle location systems are attractive; however, these syste...

  10. Outdoor fine and ultrafine particle measurements at six bus stops with smoking on two California arterial highways--results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Jiang, Ruo-Ting; Klepeis, Neil E; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    As indoor smoking bans have become widely adopted, some U.S. communities are considering restricting smoking outdoors, creating a need for measurements of air pollution near smokers outdoors. Personal exposure experiments were conducted with four to five participants at six sidewalk bus stops located 1.5-3.3 m from the curb of two heavily traveled California arterial highways with 3300-5100 vehicles per hour. At each bus stop, a smoker in the group smoked a cigarette. Gravimetrically calibrated continuous monitors were used to measure fine particle concentrations (aerodynamic diameter bus stop, ultrafine particles (UFP), wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and traffic counts were also measured. For 13 cigarette experiments, the mean PM2.5 personal exposure of the nonsmoker seated 0.5 m from the smoker during a 5-min cigarette ranged from 15 to 153 microg/m3. Of four persons seated on the bench, the smoker received the highest PM2.5 breathing-zone exposure of 192 microg/m3. There was a strong proximity effect: nonsmokers at distances 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m from the smoker received mean PM2.5 personal exposures of 59, 40, and 28 microg/m3, respectively, compared with a background level of 1.7 microg/m3. Like the PM2.5 concentrations, UFP concentrations measured 0.5 m from the smoker increased abruptly when a cigarette started and decreased when the cigarette ended, averaging 44,500 particles/cm3 compared with the background level of 7200 particles/cm3. During nonsmoking periods, the UFP background concentrations showed occasional peaks due to traffic, whereas PM2.5 background concentrations were extremely low. The results indicate that a single cigarette smoked outdoors at a bus stop can cause PM2.5 and UFP concentrations near the smoker that are 16-35 and 6.2 times, respectively, higher than the background concentrations due to cars and trucks on an adjacent arterial highway. Rules banning smoking indoors have been widely adopted in the United States and in

  11. Scaling Laws in Chennai Bus Network

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the structural properties of the complex bus network of Chennai. We formulate this extensive network structure by identifying each bus stop as a node, and a bus which stops at any two adjacent bus stops as an edge connecting the nodes. Rigorous statistical analysis of this data shows that the Chennai bus network displays small-world properties and a scale-free degree distribution with the power-law exponent, $\\gamma > 3$.

  12. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  13. Request-Centric Wireless Bus Information Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This invention relates to a wireless bus information management system, which includes bus stop and vehicle management subsystems. The management signals are transmittable between bus stops and the vehicle. Based on vehicle management signals, the bus stop management subsystem can obtain information about the bus route identification, the number of unoccupied seats, the intention to stop or not, etc. Similarly, with the bus stop management signals, the vehicle management subsystem can make the decision of stopping. Accordingly, when a passenger wants to get off the vehicle or there are unoccupied seats, the vehicle management subsystem will inform the bus stop management subsystem such that the passengers waiting at the bus stop may flexibly schedule their travel plan. The proposed distributed wireless system is detailed by a prototype implementation and a simulation analysis, which is shown to be feasible and scalable.

  14. Nuclear shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast, L.; Prendergast, P.; Prendergast, E.J.; Prendergast, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    An underground nuclear shelter, fabricated from a series of transverse metal hoop frames connected by longitudinal metal members and plates, is described. The shelter chamber has two hatches in the roof each with a shaft fitted with a shield cover. One shaft houses an air inlet and filter, the other is used for access. Two or more shelter units can be linked. (U.K.)

  15. What’s going on at the bus stop? The impact of Auckland’s real time passenger information system on patrons timespace perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa Mitchell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transport innovations have predominantly been recognised for their power to alter geographic space through time space compression. The emergence of Intelligent Transport Systems provides an interesting new lens through which to investigate individuals’ perceptions and constitution of time and space. This paper focuses on one of these systems, the Real Time Passenger Information Signal Pre-emption System (RTPISP System currently being installed in Auckland, New Zealand. It explores how individuals’ travel experiences are being shaped by interface the RTPISP System provides between the ubiquitous computing background and individuals’ everyday lives. This paper proposes that such technologies are causing more than just the compression of space by time. By embedding the mundane activity of catching the bus in the coded spaces of the RTPISP System new conditions of possibility are emerging allowing these bus patrons to constitute alternative timespaces while waiting for the bus, timespaces which they previously were unable or unwilling to access.

  16. Radiation shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crookes, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    This patent application describes a shelter comprising a cavity for receiving life to be sheltered; a roof for covering at least a portion of said cavity, and at least one aqueous, protective barrier layer adapted to prevent transmission through said roof and into said cavity of at least a portion of radiation in a predetermined spectrum. The cavity walls may be impregnated with an oil suitable for dressing burns. (author)

  17. Wartime shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabtree, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification relates to a wartime shelter for giving protection against nuclear blast and radiation, comprising a main chamber having a dog leg access passage and preferably a decontamination chamber. The chamber comprises a large diameter (say 21/2 metres) corrugated steel tube and the access passage comprises a small diameter (say 11/4 metres) tube communicating with the main chamber through a shock proof hatch. The main chamber may have a hatch leading to a dog leg escape passage. Connections between the tubes and other fixed structural parts of the shelter are by means of permanent banded and/or welded joints. (author)

  18. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  19. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  20. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  1. Bus basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobinson, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The aims of this course are: 1. To introduce the general concepts of buses used to interconnect processors, perpherals, and instrumentation. 2. To classify, albeit crudely, different types of bus systems. 3. To give some examples of past, present, and future buses as applied to the field of high-energy physics, including some details of software. 4. To provide references for further study. (orig.)

  2. Socioeconomic differences in outdoor food advertising at public transit stops across Melbourne suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Philippa J; Cameron, Adrian J; Thornton, Lukar E

    2014-10-01

    To assess and compare the number and type of outdoor food advertisements at public transit stops within suburbs of varying levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. An observational audit tool was developed and implemented to assess the number and type of food advertisements at public transit stops within Melbourne, Victoria. A total of 20 Melbourne neighbourhoods (suburbs) from across the least and the most socioeconomically disadvantaged areas were selected. All public transit stops, including train stations and bus and tram stops with a shelter were audited.  A similar proportion of transit stops in the least and most-disadvantaged suburbs displayed food advertisements (total n=203). However, some differences in the type of advertisements across suburbs were noted with advertisements for fast food restaurants, flavoured milk and fruit juice more common in the most-disadvantaged neighbourhoods (all padvertisements for diet soft drink, tea, coffee and convenience stores more common in the least-disadvantaged neighbourhoods (all padvertising at Melbourne transit stops found 30% displayed food advertisements, with those in more disadvantaged suburbs more frequently promoting chain-brand fast food and less frequently promoting diet varieties of soft drinks. These findings may help raise awareness of unhealthy environmental exposures. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Evacuation Shelters - MDC_HurricaneShelter

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label feature class of Miami-Dade County Hurricane Evacuation Shelters (HEC) including Special Need Evacuation Centers (SNEC) and Medical Management Facilities...

  4. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance with... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes...

  5. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  6. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model untuk Optimalisasi Jumlah Bus Transjakarta Koridor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road user causing traffic jam finds out a way, busway. However, in its implementation, the number of fleet available does not enough to take the passengers. It results in the an amassed of passengers at several bus stops. This leads to passenger dissatisfaction satisfaction which eventually causes Transjakarta users to reuse private cars. Definitely this situation may builds up traffic jams. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model is used to simulate public transportation that operates regularly. 

  7. Innovative shelter for disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.A.; Akkerman, M.S.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Haas, de T.C.A.; Brouwer, E.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Disasters cause tremendous material and immaterial damage to people and their habitat. During the first days after the disaster the victims have to be provided with food, shelter, security, health care and registration. For sheltering, depending on the local circumstances, tents are often used for a

  8. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  9. A Model of Bus Bunching under Reliability-based Passenger Arrival Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fonzone, Achille; Schmöcker, Jan-Dirk; Liu, Ronghui

    2015-01-01

    If bus service departure times are not completely unknown to the passengers, non-uniform passenger arrival patterns can be expected. We propose that passengers decide their arrival time at stops based on a continuous logit model that considers the risk of missing services. Expected passenger waiting times are derived in a bus system that allows also for overtaking between bus services. We then propose an algorithm to derive the dwell time of subsequent buses serving a stop in order to illustr...

  10. Nuclear fallout shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, J.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear fallout shelter, to be buried below ground level exposing only an access hatch with a cover and ventilators, is constructed of two preformed hollow end sections connected by one or more preformed hollow tubular intermediate sections. The ventilators include a filter for removing radioactive particles from the air entering the shelter. The sections may be moulded shells of glass fibre reinforced plastics material having inwardly directed peripheral end flanges to enable the sections to be bolted together from inside the shelter after they have been positioned in an excavated trench. (author)

  11. A collapsible shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Asadulin, Kh.F.; Maloiaroslavtsev, D.A.; Prokopov, O.I.; Rastorquev, M.A.

    1980-08-15

    A collapsible shelter is proposed which includes a foundation, a framework with reinforced elements which form a roof, tie bolt elements which are riveted to the reinforced elements, and a railing; it is characterized by an arrangement whereby in order to simplify its construction and improve its reliability, the reinforced elements are detachable and are equipped with rigid connecting rods made of separate sections which are mounted to allow for movement via the reinforced elements; the connecting rod of each reinforcement element is connected to the connecting rod of the adjacent reinforced element using horizontal rods on which the shelter is secured. The shelter is made from separate planks.

  12. Nuclear effects hardened shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindke, P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Houston Fearless 76 Government Projects Group that has been actively engaged for more than twenty-five years as a sub-contractor and currently as a prime contractor in the design, manufacture, repair and logistics support of custom mobile ground stations and their equipment accommodations. Other associated products include environmental control units (ECU's), mobilizers for shelters and a variety of mobile power generation units (MPU's). Since 1984, Houston Fearless 76 has designed and manufactured four 8 foot by 8 foot x 22 foot nuclear hardened mobile shelters. These shelters were designed to contain electronic data processing/reduction equipment. One shelter is currently being operated by the Air Force as a Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) approved and certified Special Compartmented Information Facility (SCIF). During the development and manufacturing process of the shelters, we received continual technical assistance and design concept evaluations from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Operations Analysis and Logistics Engineering Division and the Nondestructive Inspection Lab at McClellan AFB. SAIC was originally employed by the Air Force to design the nuclear hardening specifications applied to these shelters

  13. GO Bus impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    NJ TRANSIT launched two relatively new enhanced bus services: GO 25 serving the : Springfield Avenue corridor in 2008 and GO 28 serving the Bloomfield Avenue corridor in 2009. : As an enhanced but not full Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) service, GO Bus feat...

  14. R.I.P. Computer Animal Shelter

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Due to a brutal and unjustified attack on our facilities in front of the CERN Computer Centre, we had to close the CERN Animal Shelter on 5/1/2012 after only 9 months of operation (the shelter was inaugurated on 1/4/2011). With deep sadness we look back to the old days when everything was fine. R.I.P.   The Computer Mice shelter after the attack. More photographs available here.  All surviving mice have been returned to their owners, who have also been advised to "Stop --- Think --- Click" in order to securely browse the Internet and securely read e-mails. Users who have followed this recommendation in the past were less likely to have their computer infected or their computing account compromised. However, still too many users click on malicious web-links and put their computer and account at risk. Thank you all for your support during the last 9 months. The Computer Animal Shelter    

  15. Urban Shelter Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syagga, P.M.; Olima, W.H.A.

    1999-01-01

    The central concern for every individual or family is adequate shelter which is more than roof over one's head. Shelter incorporates both housing and the entire environment within which housing must function (Kenya, 1995: 163). adequate shelter means adequate privacy and security including security of tenure, adequate space for socio-economic activities for the advancement of the quality of life physical accessibility and adequate basic infrastructural services (UNCHS, 1996: 26). Shelter provision is, therefore, an important investment to the individual, family and economy as a whole. This is not only determined by the space and facilities it provides, but by other external services it offers such as accessibility to education and health facilities, employment and trade opportunities and public and community services all available in the neighbourhood. The provision of a shelter plays a significant role in the overall national development. For instance, between 1990 and 1994 about 30 percent of the employees in the construction industry were directly engaged in the construction of building of which housing is an important component

  16. 49 CFR 37.169 - Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of such devices, shall be permitted in the passenger compartment. When the bus is at rest at a stop... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service... Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities. (a) Private entities...

  17. Emergency Shelter Grantee (ESG) Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Emergency Shelter Grants (ESG) program is designed to identify sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons, as well as those at risk of homelessness, and provide...

  18. The Search for Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Nora Richter

    This report describes the response of the American Institute of Architects' Housing Committee to the homeless crisis in the United States. Based on information shared at two conferences held by the Committee in 1985, this publication examines the question of how to provide secure, dignified shelter for those with little financial resources. It…

  19. Shielding: people and shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krissdottir, M; Simon, J

    1977-01-01

    Housing is something that protects and defends. This book explores the ways in which humans have sought to defend themselves against physical dangers and to protect themselves against the imagined evils of the natural world by means of the shelters built. The book examines briefly the shelters built in ancient times, and shows how several basic types recurred in different ages and at different times. Following this there is a brief survey of the kinds of shelters built by the native peoples of Canada, depending on their environment--climate, the natural materials on hand--and the culture and life-style of each people. The next chapter explores the psychology of human beings, and how shelters should satisfy not only physical needs but psychological needs as well--the need for companionship and yet for privacy, space for children to play and community centers for adults to meet. The second half of the book looks at the dilemmas of housing today, and at various attempts around the world and in Canada to solve the problems--garden cities in England, the famous community of Tapiola in Finland, the technological innovations of Disneyland, new housing suburbs in Canada. There is a discussion of the problems of urban renewal, of overcoming the high cost of home-ownership--condominiums, cooperatives, owner-built homes, and the disadvantages of trailers--and of overcoming the energy crisis by building ecological houses.

  20. The feasibility of BRT corridor VI shelters in Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Andi; Setiawan, Moch Fathoni

    2018-03-01

    Like other big cities in Indonesia, Semarang City as the capital of Central Java Province also has various city problems, one of them is the transportation problem. Transportation problems arise due to increased mobility of society that is not in balanced with the public transportation facilities and infrastructure availability. In order to create a better transportation system, the local government of Semarang City held Trans Semarang bus rapid transit (BRT) which began operating in 2010. This study aims to analyze the feasibility of BRT Trans Semarang corridor VI shelters. This research uses descriptive critique technique. The results are expected to be considered in determining the right policy in creating a better transportation system. Based on observations made, the majority of BRT Trans Semarang corridor VI uses non-permanent shelters and is less feasible to be a BRT shelter. Thus, the local government is expected to improve the feasibility of BRT Trans Semarang shelter so that the sense of security and comfort can be obtained by users of BRT. In addition, the local government is also expected to maintain the quality of services provided. These services include ticket service, the condition of buses, speed and waiting time, as well as the placement and condition of shelters.

  1. Survey of animal shelter managers regarding shelter veterinary medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman-Jones, B E; Hurley, K F; Kass, P H

    2016-04-01

    Veterinary services are increasingly used in animal shelters, and shelter medicine is an emerging veterinary specialty. However, little is known about working relationships between animal shelters and veterinarians. The aims of this survey were to characterize working relationships that shelter personnel have and want with veterinarians, identify opinions that shelter managers have regarding the veterinarians they work with, and determine areas for relationship growth between veterinarians and shelter managers. An electronic survey was distributed to 1373 managers of North American animal shelters; 536 (39.0%) responded. Almost all shelters had some veterinary relationship, and most had regular relationships with veterinarians. The proportion of shelters that used local clinics (73.9%) was significantly higher than the proportion that retained on-site paid veterinarians (48.5%). The proportion of respondents who did not have but wanted a paid on-site veterinarian (42%) was significantly higher than the proportion of respondents who did not use local clinics but wanted to (7.9%). These data suggest shelter managers valued veterinary relationships, and wished to expand on-site veterinary services. Almost all shelters in this study provided some veterinary care, and all respondents identified at least one common infectious disease, which, for most, had a substantial negative impact on shelter successes. Respondents indicated that the most important roles and greatest expertise of veterinarians were related to surgery, diagnosis and treatment of individual animals. Education of both veterinarians and shelter managers may help ensure that shelters benefit from the full range of services veterinarians can provide, including expertise in disease prevention and animal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  3. The erigone bus study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durieu, L.; Vignes, M.; Wolstenholme, P.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been made of some factors determining the performance and cost-effectiveness of microcomputer bus systems implemented in Europa crates. An experimental system has been specified and a number of modules constructed in accordance with the specification, in order to test the validity of some of the ideas proposed. It has been demonstrated that the bus interfacing logic can be simple and inexpensive, while maintaining a high degree of processor independence and also a high degree of transparency in operation. The number of pins required by the bus is minimized by multiplexing address and data. A series termination for the drive of the multiplexed lines permits cross-talk to be reduced to insignificant levels: this technique is recommended for wider application. The experimental bus is proposed as a basis for the construction of simple microcomputer-based instrumentation systems. (orig.)

  4. Creative Bus Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Wade

    1982-01-01

    Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)

  5. SPFC bus design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, L.; Reinkingh, J.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study assessing the design options for a solid polymer fuel cell bus. Commercial and operation requirements, environmental and market drivers, and fuel processor modeling are examined. Power train specifications and detailed system design are investigated covering fuel cell system dynamic response, hybrid system size, fuel cell system start-up time, system specifications, and hybrid bus component dimensions and costs. (UK)

  6. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  7. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  8. PyBus -- A Python Software Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrijsen, W

    2005-01-01

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer...

  9. Nuclear fall-out shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An underground nuclear fall-out shelter has a plastics shell which, apart from service and access openings, is waterproof and provided, if desired, with a concrete roof. The shelter has an access opening, an air system, lighting, water storage, sanitation and sewage facilities. (author)

  10. A descriptive study on public transport user behaviour from Live Bus Arrivals

    OpenAIRE

    Dell’Amico, M.; Hadjidimitriou, S.; Kaparias, I.

    2014-01-01

    In order to offer public transport that meet citizens’ needs for transport and further increase the use of bus services, Public Authorities need to analyse and understand travellers behaviour. Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) data provide information on the observed time of arrival and departure of a bus at each stop. These data are fed into an algorithm to provide information to users on the expected time of arrival at the bus stop by an on-line service. In the city of London this service is...

  11. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan-Gibbons, Heather; Dolan, Emily D.; Reid, Pamela; Slater, Margaret R.; Mulligan, Hugh; Weiss, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Recent research has called into question the value of the food guarding assessment as a predictive tool for determining the safety of shelter dogs. This study examined the effect of eliminating the food guarding assessment in nine U.S. animal shelters. It was found that when the food guarding assessment was removed, bites or other injuries to staff or adopters did not increase. However, dogs exhibiting food guarding behavior were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized than dogs in the general population. Based on previous research and this study’s findings, the authors recommend that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment. Abstract Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs, even though more dogs were adopted because fewer were identified with food guarding behavior. Additionally, the number of injuries to staff, volunteers, and adopters was low (104 incidents from a total of 14,180 dogs) and did not change when the food guarding assessment was omitted. These results support a recommendation that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment. PMID:29419746

  12. Bus fuel consumption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargari, S.A. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, A.M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The interest in rapid bus transit has increased sharply with the realization that modern metropolitan areas rely on public transit to provide for strong economies and communities. As a prevention tool against traffic congestion, deteriorating air quality and rising greenhouse gas emissions, this study of bus fuel consumption was designed to assist in the planning and management of rapid bus transit. The Australian Road Research Board's (ARRB) Road Fuel Consumption Model was used as a starting point. The estimations required were realized with the help of Newtonian Mechanics. The four states of vehicular traffic were examined: acceleration, cruise, deceleration, and idle. The estimated total power required from the engine to overcome resistance forces, to run vehicle accessories and overcome internal engine friction was calculated. The data for the standard and articulated bus was obtained from OC Transpo in Ottawa. The study permitted the authors to conclude that the estimations for the parameters for power requirements and fuel consumption for heavy duty vehicles are appropriate. The methodology for the estimation of fuel consumption on the Transitway, which is part of the rapid bus transit system, proved adequate. In addition, the methodology was useful to estimate fuel savings resulting from demand management strategies with potential for modal shift. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Temporary air-raid shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, J.; Olin, J.; Koukkari, H.

    1983-05-01

    This report deals with materials and structures of temporary air-raid shelters. At first, the weapon effects against which the temporary shelters can protect are described. These are, primarily, the fragmentation and blast pressure caused by conventional weapons and those effects of the nuclear weapons which exist outside the total disaster and fire areas. Temporary shelters built into existing buildings can give protection either from radioactive fallout or from fallout and collapse of the building above. For fallout protection heavy materials are needed, which simultaneously protect from fragmentation. In the research report, the methods and materials used for the contruction of a fallout shelter into an apartment house and a small house are introduced. The collapse loads acting on a basement ceiling and the design of additional timber supports are also presented. The use of various materials in the construction of shelters outside the buildings are introduced. Separate shelters can be built either under the ground or on the ground. The same materials can be used in both cases, but the underground shelters have a better level of protection. (author)

  14. Design of limited-stop service based on the degree of unbalance of passenger demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a limited-stop service for a bus fleet to meet the unbalanced demand of passengers on a bus route and to improve the transit service of the bus route. This strategy includes two parts: a degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand and an optimization of the limited-stop service. The degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand, which is based on the different passenger demand between stations and the unbalance of passengers within the station, is used to judge whether implementing the limited-stop service is necessary for a bus route. The optimization of limited-stop service considers the influence of stop skipping action and bus capacity on the left-over passengers to determine the proper skipping stations for the bus fleet serving the entire route by minimizing both the waiting time and in-vehicle time of passengers and the running time of vehicles. A solution algorithm based on genetic algorithm is also presented to evaluate the degree of unbalanced passenger demand and optimize the limited-stop scheme. Then, the proper strategy is tested on a bus route in Changchun city of China. The threshold of degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand can be calibrated and adapted to different passenger demands. PMID:29505585

  15. Design of limited-stop service based on the degree of unbalance of passenger demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hu; Zhao, Shuzhi; Liu, Huasheng; Liang, Shidong

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a limited-stop service for a bus fleet to meet the unbalanced demand of passengers on a bus route and to improve the transit service of the bus route. This strategy includes two parts: a degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand and an optimization of the limited-stop service. The degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand, which is based on the different passenger demand between stations and the unbalance of passengers within the station, is used to judge whether implementing the limited-stop service is necessary for a bus route. The optimization of limited-stop service considers the influence of stop skipping action and bus capacity on the left-over passengers to determine the proper skipping stations for the bus fleet serving the entire route by minimizing both the waiting time and in-vehicle time of passengers and the running time of vehicles. A solution algorithm based on genetic algorithm is also presented to evaluate the degree of unbalanced passenger demand and optimize the limited-stop scheme. Then, the proper strategy is tested on a bus route in Changchun city of China. The threshold of degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand can be calibrated and adapted to different passenger demands.

  16. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a 40-inch...

  17. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  18. Will technology make shelters obsolete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, C.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-01-01

    The fears and hopes that shelters for civil defense might be made obsolete by technology fall along diametrically opposed paths. Along the pessimistic direction is the fear that strategic offensive weapons have become so numerous and terrible that no shelter program is worthwhile. This fear has been nurtured by the US deterrence policy of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD), about which we will say more in the first part of this article. In the opposite direction along the optimistic path is the hope that active defensive technology will become so good that shelters will be unnecessary. Very few hold this viewpoint today, although there was a time during the development of antiballistic missiles (ABM) when such a hope was common. The recent emphasis on research and development of laser- and particle-beam weapons has again raised some hopes that defense against strategic missiles may become effective. Researchers will discuss the impact of defensive technology on shelters in Part II of this article

  19. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Mohan-Gibbons

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs, even though more dogs were adopted because fewer were identified with food guarding behavior. Additionally, the number of injuries to staff, volunteers, and adopters was low (104 incidents from a total of 14,180 dogs and did not change when the food guarding assessment was omitted. These results support a recommendation that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment.

  20. Analysis of movable bus stop boarding and alighting areas : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Floridas transit ridership comprises persons from : varying demographic backgrounds, including : those with disabilities. An important goal for the : Florida Deaprtment of Transportation (FDOT) : and Florida transit agencies is to ensure that all ...

  1. Methodology of mixed load customized bus lines and adjustment based on time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Custom bus routes need to be optimized to meet the needs of a customized bus for personalized trips of different passengers. This paper introduced a customized bus routing problem in which trips for each depot are given, and each bus stop has a fixed time window within which trips should be completed. Treating a trip as a virtual stop was the first consideration in solving the school bus routing problem (SBRP). Then, the mixed load custom bus routing model was established with a time window that satisfies its requirement and the result were solved by Cplex software. Finally, a simple network diagram with three depots, four pickup stops, and five delivery stops was structured to verify the correctness of the model, and based on the actual example, the result is that all the buses ran 124.42 kilometers, the sum of kilometers was 10.35 kilometers less than before. The paths and departure times of the different busses that were provided by the model were evaluated to meet the needs of the given conditions, thus providing valuable information for actual work. PMID:29320505

  2. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  3. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  4. Circuit breaker and bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    Two close-open operations are required each pulse cycle at approximately 3 MA with the breaker in series with the burn supply, both forming a leg in parallel with the E-coil and the homopolar. To conduct the 3-MA current, approximately 30 breaker units are connected in parallel. Each unit is equipped with a counterpulse capacitor bank, and the bus for the 30 units is provided with a common saturable reactor core made of strip steel wound around the bus. Oil breakers of a special design are chosen because of their high arc resistance facilitating the current transfer to the homopolar machine and for obtaining precision timing in opening and closing of the contacts. The precision timing is achieved by a shock wave method with the oil serving as hydraulic medium. Each of the parallel breaker units possesses two sets of contacts, a stationary and a transient one. A 1-mΩ resistor in series with the transient contacts of each breaker unit is to improve the current sharing. The bus consists of room temperature copper, stranded and transposed to help provide current equalization under transient conditions

  5. Spatial analysis of bus transport networks using network theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmukhappa, Tanuja; Ho, Ivan Wang-Hei; Tse, Chi Kong

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we analyze the bus transport network (BTN) structure considering the spatial embedding of the network for three cities, namely, Hong Kong (HK), London (LD), and Bengaluru (BL). We propose a novel approach called supernode graph structuring for modeling the bus transport network. A static demand estimation procedure is proposed to assign the node weights by considering the points of interests (POIs) and the population distribution in the city over various localized zones. In addition, the end-to-end delay is proposed as a parameter to measure the topological efficiency of the bus networks instead of the shortest distance measure used in previous works. With the aid of supernode graph representation, important network parameters are analyzed for the directed, weighted and geo-referenced bus transport networks. It is observed that the supernode concept has significant advantage in analyzing the inherent topological behavior. For instance, the scale-free and small-world behavior becomes evident with supernode representation as compared to conventional or regular graph representation for the Hong Kong network. Significant improvement in clustering, reduction in path length, and increase in centrality values are observed in all the three networks with supernode representation. The correlation between topologically central nodes and the geographically central nodes reveals the interesting fact that the proposed static demand estimation method for assigning node weights aids in better identifying the geographically significant nodes in the network. The impact of these geographically significant nodes on the local traffic behavior is demonstrated by simulation using the SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility) tool which is also supported by real-world empirical data, and our results indicate that the traffic speed around a particular bus stop can reach a jammed state from a free flow state due to the presence of these geographically important nodes. A comparison

  6. SHELTER MEDICINE: A NEW ESPECIALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. S. Moretto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shelter Medicine is a new branch in Veterinary Medicine which aims to improve the health and welfare of animals that do not have a home and live at risk. The specialty was created in the United States of America (USA with this denomination, and intended the population control of dogs and cats through sterilization, reintegration and socialization of abandoned animals, handling feral cats and control of common diseases in shelters. In this sense, Shelter Medicine proposes a solution to the rampant increase in the non domiciled animals population and, hence, the spread of zoonotic diseases. In addition, to improve the quality of life of those animals, by reducing the euthanasia procedures, damage to property and assault cases

  7. Shelters. History, state and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'ko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Korneev, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time were made attempt to systematize the result of scientific investigations in object 'Shelter' for the ten last years since the accident on 4-th unit of Chernobyl NPP. These materials contain the detailed analyses of the accident, the diagnostic of destroyed unit, the description of control systems, the results of investigations fuel-containing materials characteristics, there placement and state of nuclear and radiation safety. The results of inspect the building constructions, which are base of new defence construction present in this book. Were made the analyse of the influence on environment the 'Shelter' and estimated the consequences of accident on the object. Were estimated the projects, presented on the competition of implementation object 'Shelter', examined the perspective on realization of these projects

  8. Nuclear blast and fallout shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.R.; Maddock, C.E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The underground shelter has walls, floor, and roof comprising at least one layer of fibre glass reinforced resin on each side of a layer of a light material, e.g. balsa wood or foamed material. The walls and other sections of the shelter are made by moulding at least one layer of resin impregnated fibre glass in a suitable mould, placing a layer of balsa wood on the moulded fibre glass/resin, and adding one or more further layers of fibre glass reinforced resin onto the balsa wood to form a sandwich type construction. The sections may have joists and reinforcing webs, and peripheral flanges. (author)

  9. Miniature JPL Universal Instrument Bus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a Universal Digital Processor Bus architecture using state of the art commercial packaging technologies. This work will transition commercial advanced- yet...

  10. Chemical Agents: Facts about Sheltering in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Sheltering in Place Format: Select ... What “sheltering in place” means Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may make going outdoors dangerous. ...

  11. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in consultation with concerned department/agencies. Field surveys were also conducted to get input from passengers and local people. Initial investigation informed that out of four operational bus routes, only two routes are profitable. The overall bus operation is running in loss (only 0.3% net profit. It has barely any profit for the bus operator against its investment thereby making the urban bus operation financially non-viable. The whole revenue flow is dependent on passenger ticketing revenue only. Around 35% of the buses are in poor condition with major issues of quality of tyres, no speedometer, worse condition of seats, floor and ceiling, and display of route. Illegal operation of Qingqis/Rickshaws (as para-transit mode along the bus routes is also decreasing the revenue by capturing the passenger volume. According to passenger opinion analysis, around 55% of the passenger are not satisfied with the service quality and prefer other modes of transport. Their major concerns are absence of facilities for disables and bus stops, bus seating and standing capacity, poor bus condition and pick pocketing. Collectively, these factors are contributing

  12. 'Shelter' object safety. Structural aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivosheev, P.I.; Nemchinov, Yu.I.; Bambura, A.N.; Sokolov, A.P.; Shenderovich, V.Ya.; Vasyagin, R.V.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Shcherbin, V.N.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Tokarevskij, V.V.; Belousov, E.L.; Khejger, D.; Gorodetskij, L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 the group of the international experts including Ukrainian organizations and 'Shelter' Object ChNPP are developed the plan of SO transformation into ecological safe status (plan SIP). The realization of the plan was carried out on basis of international tender. The results of structural aspects of SO safety and it transformation into ecological safe state (ESS) are resented in this report

  13. Design of an Emergency Shelter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a light and robust temporary emergency shelter with a triangulated polyhedral grid to transfer the lateral and vertical loads efficiently. To simplify the construction the variety of the elements is minimized, only two sizes of elements are applied. For the

  14. Assessment of Passenger Satisfaction with Public Bus Transport Services: A Case Study of Lucknow City (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is threefold. First, it tries to assess the passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city of Lucknow in India. Second, it tries to examine the service quality attributes that influence the passenger satisfaction. Third, it tries to evaluate the relative importance of service quality attributes to find out the priority for service quality improvements to enhance passenger satisfaction. The study is based on a survey of objective as well as subjective questions conducted between May and July 2014. Five major bus stops of Lucknow were selected for the survey. Total 148 respondents were randomly selected to elicit their overall satisfaction and factors that influence their satisfaction in the use of public bus transport services in Lucknow using a self-rated questionnaire. The collected sample of responses is subjected to principal component analysis, a statistical technique for dimensionality reduction of the dataset, and descriptive analysis. The result of theses analyses shows that passengers are mostly dissatisfied with public bus transport services in Lucknow. Using principal component analysis, five underlying factors were extracted that influenced passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city. Out of these five factors, comfort and safety has the greatest impact on overall satisfaction, followed by the adequacy of capacity of public bus transport services, orderly and clean environment inside buses, elegant design of buses and bus stops, and accessibility to public bus transport services in the city. The study thus provides a direction for public bus transport administration in the city to understand the gaps that exist and try to fill them to improve its services so that passenger satisfaction can be enhanced and consequently more people can be attracted towards public bus transport.

  15. Performance Analysis of Trans-Jakarta Bus Suburban Service Move-Across Greater Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkudung, ESW; Widyadayinta, C.

    2018-03-01

    Trans-Jakarta have developed their services scope as Suburban Service or Feeder move-across service that operate from greater Jakarta into Jakarta central vice versa. One of the route is Ciputat – Bundaran Hotel Indonesia (Tosari) and integrated with corridor 1 (one) and 8 (eight). This service is not travel on the exclusive lane or bus-way. Objective of Government Jakarta to provide this service is to decrease private car to enter the central of Jakarta. The objective of this study is to find the performance of the service. Survey have conducted static and dynamic on work day to get variable of travel time and delay, waiting time of passenger at the bus stop, headway and ridership of the bus. Service Standard Minimum of Trans-Jakarta have compared with the result of variable headway, travel speed, and waiting time at bus stop as concern of all the passengers. Analysis use correlation test method and linear regression model have done. The performance of Trans-Jakarta bus suburban service, based on travel speed indicator is fairly bad, only 8.1% of trip could comply with Minimum Service Standard. Bus performance based on the indicator of density in the bus is good, where all points are below the maximum limit i.e. 8 people/m2 at peak hour and 5 people/m2 at off-peak hour.

  16. The role of a bus network in access to primary health care in Metropolitan Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C M; McGuire, S; Whyman, R; Kruger, E; Tennant, M

    2015-09-01

    Background: This study examined the spatial accessibility of the population of metropolitan Auckland, New Zealand to the bus network, to connect them to primary health providers, in this case doctors (GP) and dentists. Analysis of accessibility by ethnic identity and socio-economic status were also carried out, because of existing health inequalities along these dimensions. The underlying hypothesis was that most people would live within easy reach of primary health providers, or easy bus transport to such providers. An integrated geographic model of bus transport routes and stops, with population and primary health providers (medical. and dental practices) was developed and analysed. Although the network of buses in metropolitan Auckland is substantial and robust it was evident that many people live more than 150 metres from a stop. Improving the access to bus stops, particularly in areas of high primary health care need (doctors and dentists), would certainly be an opportunity to enhance spatial access in a growing metropolitan area.

  17. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  18. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  19. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  20. Operating Time Division for a Bus Route Based on the Recovery of GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time is an important source of data for time of day partition of the bus route. However, in practice, a bus driver may deliberately speed up or slow down on route so as to follow the predetermined timetable. The raw GPS data collected by the GPS device equipped on the bus, as a result, cannot reflect its real operating conditions. To address this concern, this study first develops a method to identify whether there is deliberate speed-up or slow-down movement of a bus. Building upon the relationships between the intersection delay, link travel time, and traffic flow, a recovery method is established for calculating the real bus travel time. Using the dwell time at each stop and the recovered travel time between each of them as the division indexes, a sequential clustering-based time of day partition method is proposed. The effectiveness of the developed method is demonstrated using the data of bus route 63 in Harbin, China. Results show that the partition method can help bus enterprises to design reasonable time of day intervals and significantly improve their level of service.

  1. Natural gas powered bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted

  2. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  3. 76 FR 37184 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... transporting bicycles on public transportation vehicles. The FY 2011 Appropriations Act allows a 90 percent Federal share for the total cost of a biodiesel bus. The Act also allows a 90 percent Federal share for...

  4. Air-pollution and economics: diesel bus versus electric bus

    OpenAIRE

    Adheesh, SR; Vasisht, Shravanth M; Ramasesha, Sheela K

    2016-01-01

    The Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) took an initiative to check the overall benefits of introducing electric buses as a suitable replacement for the diesel buses to tackle the burgeoning pollution in the city of Bengaluru, India. For a trial run of three months, an electric bus was procured from a Chinese company `Build Your Dreams' (BYD). Data were collected by BMTC on the operation and maintenance of the bus. This new initiative, if rightly guided, could have a direct im...

  5. Characterisation of an urban bus network for environmental purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Michel; Villanova, André

    2004-12-01

    Since pollutant emissions are closely related to the operating conditions of vehicles, their evaluation usually involves studying these operating conditions (through bus instrumentation and monitoring under actual operation), the design of representative driving or engine test cycles and the measurement of pollutant emissions. A preliminary characterisation of the routes on a bus network should make it possible to identify typical routes, the driving conditions and pollutant emissions of which are then studied. Two approaches are envisaged and applied to the Paris area, for which a wealth of information is available, which should be transferable to other bus networks. Both approaches are based on factorial analysis and automatic clustering, to allow optimum description and the identification of a pertinent typology of the bus routes in several classes. The first attempt at characterisation is based on statistics relating to bus operations: route characteristics (length, dedicated bus lanes, number of stops, location of stops: schools, tourist sites, hospitals, railways or underground stations), travel time, commercial speed, annual statistics (number of passengers, number of vehicles per hour, total kilometres), the irregularity of travel (variation of travel times, injuries, congestion.), as well as information on the problems encountered (congestion, distribution of the passenger load, junctions, bends). A second approach is based on the analysis of the "urban context" in which buses are driven. Population, employment, housing, road network, traffic and places that generate or disturb traffic (schools, railway stations, shopping areas, etc.) are calculated for the Ile de France region, by cells of 100 x 100 m, and collected in a geographical information system (GIS). Statistical analyses enable a typology of these urban cells to be established, the main parameters being density, type of housing, road types and traffic levels. The bus routes are then analysed

  6. GDSS Penentuan Lokasi Shelter Baru Transjogja Menggunakan Metode Brown-Gibson dan Borda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti Susilo

    2013-07-01

    Abstract The purpose of establishment of the Transjogja bus fleet is to solve the problems of congestion, pollution and adequate public transport. To provide the best service, one thing is to place the shelter afforded in the right position. Department of Communication, cooperate with other agencies in the collection of executive aspirations, for the determination of the location of the new shelter. The combinations of  Brown-Gibson and Borda methods, possible used for site selection as a group. This method is used to select an alternative location based on the size of a particular preference (preference measurement taking into account the objective factors and subjective factors. Objective factor in the form of cost effectiveness is the total amount of expenses incurred for an alternative location. Subjective weighting factor of the decision makers of the criteria required in determining the location of the new shelter. These criteria include land, position, and access to space, competition, transportation and security. In the assessment of subjective factors is using the AHP model. The result of this study is to GDSS using the Brown-Gibson method and Borda shown to accommodate the preferences of many decision makers. With the output of the value location preference and rankings, it facilitated DM to determine new location. Location that has the highest ranking is more potent as a location for a new shelter. Keywords— Location, Brown-Gibson, Borda

  7. Bus systems in motor vehicles; Bussysteme im Kfz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schule, Roland

    2008-07-01

    There is hardly any modern vehicle without a bus system. This interactive learning software explains why electric and electronic systems in motor vehicles should be linked and uses various bus types to illustrate the various alternatives, bus structures, and data types. The physical side of bus systems is gone into, the data structure is explained, and the various bus typologies are outlined. From the fundamentals of bus systems, the software proceeds to present the most important bus systems and their main properties. Subjects: Diagnosis bus, LIN bus, CAN bus, MOST bus, Bluetooth. The bus systems EIA-485, LVDS, D{sup 2}B, byteflight, and Flexray are briefly characterised. (orig.)

  8. Fuel cell bus operation, system investigation H2 bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The WP covers two tasks: - Prepartion of Technical Catalogue: In cooperation with ICIL, AR have compiled a technical catalogue, providing the impartial descriptions, both of existing technology and regulations, and the likely future developments of these, as to remedy the first problem faced by a potential hydrogen bus fleet operator viz the absence of an impartial description of the available vehicle and fuels systems together with the absence of a description of regulatory and safety factors which need consideration. - Fuel Cell Bus Operation - System Investigation H 2 Bus: The application of fuel cell electric generation systems to hybrid electrical buses or electrical busses without any storage system on board is considered. The task will cover safety and environmental aspects, a cost estimate and a market evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  10. Kajian Implementasi Graph Database pada Rute Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panji Wisnu Wirawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT merupakan salah satu sarana transportasi publik yang memiliki rute perjalanan tertentu atau disebut sebagai koridor. Satu koridor BRT dengan koridor yang lain bukanlah koridor yang terpisah, melainkan saling terhubung. Dalam melakukan perjalanan, penumpang BRT boleh jadi melakukan perpindahan koridor melalui shelter. Informasi tersebut perlu didapatkan seorang calon penumpang sebelum melakukan perjalanan supaya tidak terjadi perpindahan koridor yang salah. Teknologi informasi memungkinkan representasi informasi pencarian koridor yang tepat ketika penumpang akan melakukan sebuah perjalanan, terlebih dengan hadirnya graph database. Graph Database memungkinkan representasi BRT yang baik karena sifat graph yang secara standar telah menunjukkan node dan relationship. Artikel ini mengkaji penerapan graph database untuk data pada BRT. Selain itu, artikel ini mendesain sebuah algoritma pencarian koridor BRT. Harapannya, algoritma tersebut dapat digunakan untuk membangun aplikasi yang memanfaatkan data pada graph database. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa graph database dapat diterapkan untuk data BRT dan algoritma yang dibangun dapat digunakan untuk menyajikan informasi rute sekaligus menyampaikan informasi perpindahan koridor.

  11. Shelter provision and state sovereignty in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boyle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Government provision of shelter for Calais’ migrant population over the last twenty years has prioritised the assertion of state authority over the alleviation of human suffering. Policies in 2015-16, which involved the destruction of informal shelter and the provision of basic alternative accommodation, continued this trend.

  12. Explaining excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Birkelund, Jesper Fels

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This article analyses excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users compared to the general Danish population. The study provides an extensive control for confounding and investigates to what extent excess morbidity is explained by homelessness or other risk factors. METHODS: Data set...... includes administrative micro-data for 4,068,926 Danes who were 23 years or older on 1 January 2007. Nationwide data on shelter use identified 14,730 individuals as shelter users from 2002 to 2006. Somatic diseases were measured from 2007 to 2011 through diagnosis data from hospital discharges. The risk...... of somatic diseases amongst shelter users was analysed through a multivariate model that decomposed the total effect into a direct effect and indirect effects mediated by other risk factors. RESULTS: The excess morbidity associated with shelter use is substantially lower than in studies that did not include...

  13. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  14. A fall-out shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatchford, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A strong structure of precast concrete for use as, for example, a fallout shelter, strong-room or electricity sub-station is described. The major portion is generally tubular in construction and rectangular in cross-section. The tube may be formed in one piece or with two directed channel elements. Pairs of U legs abut either along the sides or along the top and bottom. End slabs close the compartment. An entrance shaft is formed by an upstanding channel element with upper and lower end slabs; alternatively the entrance shaft may be horizontal. Doors or hatches are provided. The whole structure may be buried. This invention provides a structure capable of withstanding considerable overpressure and of offering good resistance to radiation and is cheap and simple to manufacture. (U.K.)

  15. San Antonio's 1983 Bus Passenger Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Many transit operators routinely collect ridership data in order to provide a : basis for the planning of bus services. Often a survey is conducted of bus : riders to determine their riding habits, their views about the quality of : current service, ...

  16. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  17. Optimizing Tailored Bus Bridging Paths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Wei; Yu, Jie; Ji, Yuxiong; van der Gun, J.P.T.; Pel, A.J.; Zhang, H. Michael; van Arem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Metro disruptions due to unexpected events reduce transit system reliability, resulting in significant productivity loss and long passenger delays. Bus bridging strategy is often used to connect stations affected by metro disruptions such that passengers could continue their journey. The literature

  18. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    component regards the organisation of public bus transport at the local level. This involves the deregulation and privatisation reforms introduced by the Conservative Government from 1986 onwards, as well as the ‘partnerships’ and other new instruments introduced by the Labour Government in the Transport...

  19. Pybus - A Python Software Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.

    2004-01-01

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the concept of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user

  20. Vaccines in Shelters and Group Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Richard A

    2018-03-01

    Dogs and cats entering animal shelters are at high risk of acquiring 1 or more contagious infectious diseases. Such animals may be severely stressed, exhausted, and unwell, as well as malnourished and parasitized. The typically high throughput of shelter animals, many of them young and of unknown vaccination status, plays a role. Vaccines are a crucially important part of the management approach to limiting morbidity, mortality, and spread of infection. Guidelines for the use of vaccines in shelters have been published and are reviewed and discussed in this article. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Injuries sustained by bus passengers in the municipality of Odense 1996-1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, T; Faergemann, C; Larsen, L B

    2001-10-22

    Owing to several recent bus-related accidents in Denmark, we wished to investigate injuries sustained by passengers. From our ongoing registration of patients treated in the casualty department at Odense University Hospital, we identified all residents of Odense Municipality who had sustained injuries as bus passengers from 1996 to 1999. Market analysis and demographic information were used to calculate the incidence and risk. Over this four-year period, 327 consecutive injuries had been sustained by 246 bus passengers, 72 men and 174 women, mean ages 44 and 53 years. The incidence rate was 3.3 injured per 10,000 inhabitants per year, with no increasing tendency during the study period. The risk was 2.2 injured per 1,000,000 bus passengers per year, highest in women and increasing with age. Injuries most frequently occurred when the bus stopped (31%), as passengers were boarding or alighting (23%), or during collision with another vehicle (20%). Most commonly injured areas were the lower (30%) and upper (28%) extremities and the head or neck (27%). Contusions and sprains were the most common injuries (59%). The most common fractures were those of the humerus and hip region. Bus passenger injuries are not a growing problem. The incidence increases with age.

  2. Optimal Design of the Feeder-Bus Network Based on the Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the classic feeder-bus network design problem (FBNDP, which can be described as follows: for the passenger travel demand between rail stations and bus stops on a given urban transit network, it designs the optimal feeder bus routes and frequencies so as to minimize the passengers’ travel expense and the operator’s cost. We extended the demand pattern of M-to-1 in most existing researches to M-to-M. We comprehensively considered the passenger travel cost, which includes the waiting and riding cost on the bus, riding cost on rail, and transfer cost between these two transportation modes, and presented a new genetic algorithm that determines the optimal feeder-bus operating frequencies under strict constraint conditions. The numerical examples under different demand patterns have been experienced and analysed, which showed the robustness and efficiency of the presented algorithm. We also found that the distribution pattern of the travel demand has a significant influence on the feeder-bus network construction.

  3. Highway/Railroad Accident Report: Collision Of Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation (METRA) Train And Transportation Joint Agreement School District 47/155 School Bus At Railroad/Highway Grade Crossing In Fox River Grove, Illinois, On

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-29

    This report explains the collision of a Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation commuter train with a Transportation Joint Agreement School District 47/155 school bus that was stopped at a railroad/highway grade crossing in Fox Rive...

  4. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  5. Repurposing shelter for displaced people in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Dean

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Buildings in Ukraine are being repurposed to provide shelter for those fleeing conflict in the country but, as the war continues, the need for more permanent solutions must be acknowledged.

  6. Net-Zero Energy Technical Shelter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    Technical shelters are the basic structures for storing electronic and technical equipment, and commonly used for telecommunication base station, windmill, gas station, etc. Due to their high internal heat load density and special operation schedule, they consume more energy than normal residential...... or commercial buildings. On the other hand, it is a big challenge to power the technical shelter in remote area where the grids are either not available or the expansion of grid is expensive. In order to minimize the energy consumption and obtain a reliable and cost-efficient power solution for technical...... shelter, this study will apply the net-zero energy concept into the technical shelter design. The energy conservation can be achieved by proper design of building envelop and optimization of the cooling strategies. Both experiments and numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the indoor...

  7. Level of Bus Performance Based On the Relationship Between Distance and Travel Time of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM Bus Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetijo Joewono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UTHM bus service is an important transport mode for most students at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn because it such primary public vehicle to support students movements around the campus, within and outside student apartments. This service is often associated with the quality of service in terms of time, stops and comforts. Therefore, this following study is focused on investigation on several UTHM bas routes which was based on bas operations such as distance and travel time/travel distance that would determine the level of service provided. Primary data were collected mainly to obtain information relate to speed, bas position, time movement/circulations of bus and time headway. These were obtained by installing GPS-Slute Gear i-trail along bus travels. In addition, additional data were collected by exploring previous studies regarding to the bus services such as Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010. The approach used was based on assessment of progress used to determine the level of quest service and such obstacle frequently occurs with results on bus delays, volume of unequal that can be overcome according to the assessments that have been provided.

  8. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU OF... Minor-in-Need-of-Care Procedure § 11.1104 Shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a minor-in-need-of-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility...

  9. Design of mobile shelters for communication purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotens, W. A.; Leebeek, H. J.

    1982-03-01

    A general design for a future generation of shelters, to be used as mobile work places, is presented. Design criteria involve ergonomics, functional suitability, and air conditioning. Electronics, power supply, and personnel get their own compartments. Work space is provided for two people with room for two more. Center of mass and cable connections are considered. Air conditioning requirements are calculated with a computer program. The result is an integrated design, applicable to shelters for several purposes.

  10. Effect of isolator plates on telecom shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, M. Mebrouk; Dokkar, Boubekeur; Dokkar, Abdelghani; Settou, Noureddine; Chennouf, Nasreddine

    2018-05-01

    Passive ventilation systems are being increasingly proposed as an alternate to mechanical ventilation systems. This tendency is due to their potential benefits in terms of operational cost, energy requirement and carbon dioxide emission. In the present work, fresh flow is introduced under external isolator plates in order to reduce indoor temperature of telecom shelter located at neighboring of Ouargla city (south of Algeria). The metallic plates play two roles; the first one is to protect shelter from sun rays and the second is to operate as solar chimney. This chimney creates upward airflow which operates as passive cooling for the microwave relay. During the whole year, Shelter audit energy has been examined using Trnsys 16 software. Then, CFD code (Fluent 6.3) is used to predict thermal performance and fluid flow in two-dimensional computational domain for solar chimneys. The obtained results show that flow increase at shelter inlet causes a marked improvement in shelter cooling. This improvement indicates that shelter can be designed with small conventional air conditioning which leads to significant energy consumption fall. Indeed, with this technique, indoor temperature reduction can reach about 30°K without any electrical energy dispenses.

  11. Agutaynen Glottal Stop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quakenbush, J. Stephen

    A study investigated the phonemic and morphophonemic patterning of the glottal stop in Agutaynen, a Meso-Philippine language, and some comparison with two northern Philippine languages. Agutaynen glottal stop has as its sole origin a neutralization of contrast rule, the operation of which can be noted in three different linguistic environments.…

  12. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  13. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  14. Luminescent beam stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Diane; Morton, Simon A.

    2017-10-25

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to beam stops. In one aspect, a device comprises a luminescent material, a beam stop plate, and an optical fiber. The luminescent material is a parallelepiped having a first side and a second side that are squares and having a third side that is a rectangle or a square. The first side and the second side are perpendicular to the third side. The beam stop plate is attached to the first side of the luminescent material. The optical fiber has a first end and a second end, with the first end of the optical fiber attached to the third side of the luminescent material.

  15. Shrinking the Need for Homeless Shelter Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Kneebone

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has confirmed that only a minority of people who use emergency shelter beds are long-term users. Most shelter clients stay for short periods and do so relatively infrequently. These people use shelters as a temporary solution to problems that stem from poverty as opposed to problems arising from addiction or mental health problems. The implication is that addressing poverty may be an effective way of shrinking the need for emergency shelter beds. Our study uses information describing demographic characteristics and a measure of housing affordability in 51 Canadian cities to identify to what extent efforts at poverty reduction may enable the closing of emergency shelter beds. Across Canada in 2011, 15,493 permanent beds were available in 408 emergency shelters. The provision of emergency shelter beds varies widely across cities. Calgary, for example, provides more than twice as many beds per 100,000 people than does Vancouver or Toronto and more than four times the number provided in Montreal. The number of emergency beds provided is an indication not only of the number of homeless people but it is also a measure of the local response to the issue. We show that an effective strategy for shrinking the need for shelter beds is to provide improved income support to the very poor. Accounting for differences in climate, housing affordability, and demographics that may be associated with discrimination in housing markets, we show how a relatively modest increase in the incomes of those with very low incomes can shrink the need for emergency beds by nearly 20%. We also show that a modest increase in rent subsidies would have a similar impact. Still other policies that can prove effective are those that reduce the cost of building housing that can be profitably rented at prices those with low incomes can afford. These may involve tax incentives to builders and may call into question efforts at urban densification which makes low

  16. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  17. Bus Route Design with a Bayesian Network Analysis of Bus Service Revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yi; Jia, Yuanhua; Feng, Xuesong; Wu, Jiang

    2018-01-01

    A Bayesian network is used to estimate revenues of bus services in consideration of the effect of bus travel demands, passenger transport distances, and so on. In this research, the area X in Beijing has been selected as the study area because of its relatively high bus travel demand and, on the contrary, unsatisfactory bus services. It is suggested that the proposed Bayesian network approach is able to rationally predict the probabilities of different revenues of various route services, from...

  18. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  19. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  20. Radon in dwellings and shelters in Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Sencar, J.; Bauman, A.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1990, radon activity was measured in dwellings of Zagreb. In only small number of dwellings radon activity exceeded 100 Bq.m -3 . Since the inhabitants of Croatia have to stay in the facilities below the ground due to the war against Croatia, the paper gives also data on radon activity measured in the shelters and cellars in 1991. Measurements were performed using Kodak LR-115 detectors, type II. At several locations radon activity was measured with a silicon detector (Radhome). Radon values obtained for the shelters, cellars and dwellings at all locations were compared. With respect to children as most susceptable population group the paper gives data on radon activity for kindergartens and elementary schools (and its shelters) where children usually spend almost one-third to the day. (orig.)

  1. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  2. Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations NREL's technology validation team evaluates fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) to provide comprehensive, unbiased evaluation results of fuel cell bus early transportation applications for fuel cell technology. Buses operate in congested areas where

  3. Design & Development of FPGA Based VME Bus Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Himali Patel; Poornima Talwai

    2015-01-01

    The VME bus interface Controller (VIC068A) is used to interface Local CPU bus and VME bus. VME Bus Controller is used in wide application areas where high reliability, good accuracy and high speed are desired to withstand industrial environment like nuclear power plant and process industries. VME Bus controller can configure as Master, Slave, Interrupt Handler, arbiter as well as power monitor. Commercial VME Bus interface controller chips are available from a few vend...

  4. A decision support tool to locate shelters in emergency logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a systematic methodology to locate shelters considering both : transportation and social factors in the aftermath of disasters. When anticipated demands for hurricane evacuation : shelter spaces exceed exi...

  5. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  6. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, K.

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG. (WB) [de

  7. The Financial Structure of Sheltered Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly, John R.

    The first section of this report provides descriptive information about the financial structure of a sample of sheltered workshops (n=123) in terms of the variety of their sources of income and their expenses during fiscal year 1966. The relationship between differences in financial structure and other organizational characteristics is examined in…

  8. Preserving Childhood for Children in Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Thelma, Ed.; Ray, Adele Richardson, Ed.; Rolandelli, Pam, Ed.

    This book provides useful "how-to" information to help shelters create a safe, healthful, and supportive environment for their youngest residents. The chapters of the book are: (1) "The Effects of Homelessness on Children and Families" (Janice Molnar); (2) "Children and Domestic Violence: Recognizing Effects and Building…

  9. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  10. Temporary/portable nuclear fallout shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, V E

    1991-01-15

    The design and invention of a temporary/portable fallout shelter has been described in context of schematic and representative embodiments. Tent structures are described which include disposable, exterior, semi-transparent plastic and/or fabric shield membranes covering a tent composed of stretched, tightly woven, rip-resistant fabric panels supported by tensile rods/wands. 16 figs.

  11. Deep Space Storm Shelter Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Kathryn; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Cerro, Jeffrey; Simon, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Missions outside of Earth's magnetic field are impeded by the presence of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. To overcome this issue, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Radiation Works Storm Shelter (RadWorks) has been studying different radiation protective habitats to shield against the onset of solar particle event radiation. These habitats have the capability of protecting occupants by utilizing available materials such as food, water, brine, human waste, trash, and non-consumables to build short-term shelters. Protection comes from building a barrier with the materials that dampens the impact of the radiation on astronauts. The goal of this study is to develop a discrete event simulation, modeling a solar particle event and the building of a protective shelter. The main hallway location within a larger habitat similar to the International Space Station (ISS) is analyzed. The outputs from this model are: 1) the total area covered on the shelter by the different materials, 2) the amount of radiation the crew members receive, and 3) the amount of time for setting up the habitat during specific points in a mission given an event occurs.

  12. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75... Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not... holes should be readily accessible and should be at least 5 feet in depth, not more than 4 feet in width...

  13. Military electronic equipment shelter electrical wiring design of electromagnetic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility is the military electronics shelter design is an important indicator of the shelter's electrical wiring is the key to the design of electromagnetic compatibility. Introduces the basic concepts of electromagnetic compatibility, and focusing on the shelter layout design problems that need attention, and to solve these problems. (authors)

  14. 24 CFR 576.53 - Use as an emergency shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.53 Use as an emergency shelter. (a)(1) Restrictions and definition... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use as an emergency shelter. 576.53...

  15. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, D. B.; Haryanto, I.; Laksono, N. P.

    2016-01-01

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  16. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, D. B.; Haryanto, I.; Laksono, N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  17. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, D. B., E-mail: rmt.bowo@gmail.com; Haryanto, I., E-mail: ismoyo2001@yahoo.de; Laksono, N. P., E-mail: priyolaksono89@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  18. Connective Heating Improvement for Emergency Fire Shelters (CHIEFS): Composition and Performance of Fire Shelter Concepts at Close-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fody, Joshua M.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Bruce, Walter E., III; Wells, John M.; Wusk, Mary E.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Miller, Steve D.

    2018-01-01

    Summary of highlights of the Convective Heating Improvement for Emergency Fire Shelters (CHIEFS) taskunder NASA. CHIEFS was tasked with providing the US Forest Service with an emergency fire shelter forimproved resistance to flame contact. Emphasis is on the final shelter designs at task close-out (end of FY17).

  19. Tsunami shelter in Padang city: Location suitability and management issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Eva; Permata, Robby; Yonne, Hilma; Carlo, Nasfryzal

    2017-11-01

    The building of Temporary Evacuation Sites (TES/shelter) is an effort to minimize the vulnerability of the population who live in coastal city areas with high risk of tsunami. Padang city in Indonesia, one of the cities with high risk of tsunami, has built shelter in North Ulak Karang Village, North Padang Sub-district. The problems are the location of shelter does not meet the standard of population number, how to manage the shelter in normal condition (without disaster), and who will be responsible for the management of the shelter. The aim of the study is to learn the suitability of shelter location and the management of the shelter in normal condition as well as the expectation of the people who live near the shelter location. This research uses evaluative-descriptive method with the collection of secondary and primary data through structured interviews with 200 respondents in the area of shelter building. The result shows that the furthest location of the shelter is located at RW 03 with a distance of 1.3 kms which takes 12.15-24.30 minutes. It shows that the shelter location in Padang meets the requirement of FEMA P646. At normal condition, shelter can be used for sport and educational activities, as a center for socialisation and simulation of disaster and other activities. The management of the shelter is done together by government and stakeholders. The proposed management is by forming a team (organization) which involves Disaster Alert groups (KSB) and by making the Standard Operational Procedures (SOP) for their implementation. People expect that the number of shelter is added and the building of the shelter is based on the suitability of location, number of population and availability of land.

  20. Stopping the unstoppable

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    How do you stop two very high energy proton beams circulating in opposite directions around a 27-kilometre ring? The answer is the beam dumps. Two tunnels, pointing in opposite directions, are being constructed at point 6 of the LHC. These will allow the beams to be directed into two large beam dumps housed at the ends of the tunnels.

  1. Ready to stop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molitoris, Joseph; Dribe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the Roteman Database for Stockholm, Sweden between 1878 and 1926 to examine the association of socioeconomic status and fertility and the adoption of stopping behaviour during the city's transition. Using piecewise constant hazard models and logistic regression, we find that a clear class pattern arises...

  2. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, Moo Young; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  3. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Goh

    Full Text Available Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  4. Assessment of Clicker Training for Shelter Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Living conditions in animal shelters can be stressful for cats. Clicker training might be able to alleviate this stress, by giving cats an opportunity to learn new behaviors and interact with humans. In this study, we assessed the initial ability of 100 shelter cats to perform four cued behaviors: touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five. Each cat completed 15, five-min training sessions over a two-week span. At the end of the program, we assessed the cats’ ability to perform the same behaviors. On average, the cats performed better on all four behaviors after clicker training, suggesting that the cats could learn to perform specific behaviors on cue. Individual cats with a higher level of interest in food showed greater gains in learning for two of the behaviors (high-five and touching a target). Cats with a bolder temperament at post-assessment demonstrated greater gains in learning than those classified as shy. We suggest that clicker training can be used to enhance cats’ well-being while they are housed in shelters, and that the learned behaviors might make them more desirable to adopters. Abstract Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the

  5. Stress and strain of short haul bus drivers: psychophysiology as a design oriented method for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, M; Springer, J; Scherff, J

    1998-05-01

    Psychophysiological measures offer objective information for workplace design according to user requirements. They are, however, rarely applied in industrial practice due to weak points from the designer's point of view, such as the differentiation of various superimposed stressors, inter-individual differences, and the effort required for data acquisition and handling. In this study a set of psychophysiological methods was used to analyse bus driver workplaces as a basis for redesign, and afterwards to evaluate design improvements. During inner-city operation bus drivers are exposed to a particular workload situation, especially due to the high density of traffic and bus stops. Their job is characterized by highly frequent and often simultaneous task execution, performed with a compulsory body posture and under exposure to vibration and noise. To reduce the workload related to the equipment and tasks of bus driving, a research project was initiated to design a new driver workplace that meets the specific ergonomic requirements of the drivers. A detailed workload analysis, consisting of a task analysis, a strain analysis derived from ECG measures and an eye movement analysis was performed during public bus driving in different cities and with different drivers and bus types. Although the results have to be considered as somewhat limited owing to the methodological restraints and conditions of a field study, they provided valuable guidance for design. A new concept for the driver cabin was created based on this database. After installation, this design was evaluated by similar psychophysiological measures. Comparison of the pre- and post results indicates that the redesigned work station reduced workload levels.

  6. Bus Route Design with a Bayesian Network Analysis of Bus Service Revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian network is used to estimate revenues of bus services in consideration of the effect of bus travel demands, passenger transport distances, and so on. In this research, the area X in Beijing has been selected as the study area because of its relatively high bus travel demand and, on the contrary, unsatisfactory bus services. It is suggested that the proposed Bayesian network approach is able to rationally predict the probabilities of different revenues of various route services, from the perspectives of both satisfying passenger demand and decreasing bus operation cost. This way, the existing bus routes in the studied area can be optimized for their most probable high revenues.

  7. Bus and Tag Terminators for IBM system/360

    CERN Multimedia

    Control units were connected to the channels with "Bus and Tag" cable pairs. The bus cables carried the address and data information and the tag cables identified what data was on the bus. There were three general types of bus-and-tag cables produced by IBM.

  8. PCISIM - A Simulation Tool for PCI Bus Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    This document describes a PCI bus simulator for use in evaluating the feasibility of system designs based on this bus.......This document describes a PCI bus simulator for use in evaluating the feasibility of system designs based on this bus....

  9. Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

    2012-01-01

    An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

  10. Antiradiation pharmacological protection of the 'Shelter' staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorovoj, L.F.; Danilov, V.M.; Senyuk, O.F.

    2002-01-01

    The stressful effects and discomfortable working conditions of the 'Shelter' staff demand strengthening of protective systems ensuring acclimatization of an organism to penetration irradiation and other harmful factors. Thus, the drugs for antiactinic protection of staff OY should have properties adaptive drugs. Complex biological preparation Mycoton has this broad spectrum of antiradiation properties. This drug is designed in Ukraine on the basis of biopolmers of a cell-like wall of funguses: chitin, glucan and melanins

  11. Berlin: Emergency shelters and contemporary border struggles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Podgornik-Jakil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researching the developments of present political economy must necessarily include investigating the tools of contemporary border regime. These are used for surveillance and control of populations in order to create new divisions of labour and enable extraction of rent by using peoples’ bodies. The article focuses on emergency shelters in Berlin, that is, on their function and ways in which the asylum seekers accommodated there spontaneously struggle against them. The research was done as a militant and cooperative work of the network Lager Mobilisation Network in Berlin’s district Wedding, which builds connections with people housed in the sports halls in the mentioned district. The author underlines that exhausting the aslyum seekers psychically is one of the strategies for filtering the ‘unwanted’ from the ‘wanted’, that is the ones that are interesting for the labour market. At the same time, the restriction of movement and limited access to civil rights confine asylum seekers in emergency shelters run by private companies, which seek profits on their account. Far from claiming that non-profit companies have a ‘better’ shelter administration, since the boundaries between them and profit-oriented companies are often blurred, the author rather speaks of new forms of anticolonial struggles by the people living inside. He understands these struggles as the struggles against the contemporary border regime in Germany and the EU and as a potential for building an inclusive society.

  12. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  13. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  14. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  15. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  16. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  17. Passenger bus industry weather information application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Adverse weather significantly affects the United States national transportation system, including commercial companies : that rely on highways to support their enterprises. The Passenger Bus (Motorcoach) Industry (PBI) is one such affected : user who...

  18. Understanding & modeling bus transit driver availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Bus transit agencies are required to hire extraboard (i.e. back-up) operators to account for unexpected absences. Incorrect sizing of extra driver workforce is problematic for a number of reasons. Overestimating the appropriate number of extraboard o...

  19. Bicycle-bus conflict area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Increasing bicycle use and bus ridership are both desirable policy goals : from a sustainability standpoint, but on city streets these two modes of : transport are often in conflict. While occupying opposite ends of the size : and weight spectrum, th...

  20. Investigation of RADTRAN Stop Model input parameters for truck stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griego, N.R.; Smith, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the risks and consequences as transport of radioactive materials (RAM). RADTRAN was developed and is maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy (DOE). For incident-free transportation, the dose to persons exposed while the shipment is stopped is frequently a major percentage of the overall dose. This dose is referred to as Stop Dose and is calculated by the Stop Model. Because stop dose is a significant portion of the overall dose associated with RAM transport, the values used as input for the Stop Model are important. Therefore, an investigation of typical values for RADTRAN Stop Parameters for truck stops was performed. The resulting data from these investigations were analyzed to provide mean values, standard deviations, and histograms. Hence, the mean values can be used when an analyst does not have a basis for selecting other input values for the Stop Model. In addition, the histograms and their characteristics can be used to guide statistical sampling techniques to measure sensitivity of the RADTRAN calculated Stop Dose to the uncertainties in the stop model input parameters. This paper discusses the details and presents the results of the investigation of stop model input parameters at truck stops

  1. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known, and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time, optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer and the HFS solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N = 1098 variables, the D-Wave device is between one to two orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver.

  2. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  3. Comparison and status of 32 bit backplane bus architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    With the introduction of 32 bit microprocessors several new 32 bit backplane bus architectures have been developed and are in the process for standardization. Among these are Future Bus (IEEE P896.1), VME-Bus (IEEE 1014), MULTIBUS II, Nu-Bus and Fastbus (IEEE 960). The paper describes and compares the main features of these bus architectures and mentions the status of national and international standardization efforts

  4. The seated bus passenger--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, J A

    1978-09-01

    The paper describes the inter-relationship of anthropometry, rig studies and dynamic testing of aspects related to problems of the seated bus passenger. It seeks to draw together sub-sections of a very large study sponsored by the government through the Transport and Road Research Laboratory and undertaken by the Human Factors Group of Leyland Truck and Bus. It is relevant to all those designing passenger carrying transport systems.

  5. The Gozo discovery bus : a successful experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Maryrose

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of a tourist discovery bus in Gozo came about as a result of an EU Project which is part of the Interreg III B Archimed programmes in which the Islands and Small States Institute of the University of Malta participated. Other countries participating in this programme besides Malta, represented by the Islands and Small States Institute, are Italy, Cyprus and Greece. The discovery bus service was aimed at encouraging more tourists to come to Gozo and enabling them to visit stra...

  6. NOC AND BUS ARCHITECTURE: A COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    RAJEEV KAMAL; NEERAJ YADAV

    2012-01-01

    Network-on-chip designs promise to offer considerable advantages over the traditional bus-based architecture. As continuing scaling of Moore’s law enables ever greater transistor densities, design complexity, power limitations and application convergence networks have started to replace busses in much smaller systems and the enhancement of NoC. This paper summarizes the advantages of the NoC and the limitations of traditional bus based architecture. In this paper we discuss a detailed compari...

  7. Bus line classification using neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Alonso, Felipe; Serradilla García, Francisco; Román de Andrés, Alfonso; Naranjo Hernandez, Jose Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Grouping urban bus routes is necessary when there are evidences of significant differences among them. In Jiménez et al. (2013), a reduced sample of routes was grouped into clusters utilizing kinematic measured data. As a further step, in this paper, the remaining urban bus routes of a city, for which no kinematic measurements are available, are classified. For such purpose we use macroscopic geographical and functional variables to describe each route, while the clustering process is perform...

  8. Determinants of spikes in ultrafine particle concentration whilst commuting by bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shanon; Dirks, Kim N.; Salmond, Jennifer A.; Xie, Shanju

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs) based on data collected using high-resolution UFP monitors whilst travelling by bus during rush hour along three different urban routes in Auckland, New Zealand. The factors influencing in-bus UFP concentration were assessed using a combination of spatial, statistical and GIS analysis techniques to determine both spatial and temporal variability. Results from 68 bus trips showed that concentrations varied more within a route than between on a given day, despite differences in urban morphology, land use and traffic densities between routes. A number of trips were characterised by periods of very rapid increases in UFPs (concentration 'spikes'), followed by slow declines. Trips which recorded at least one spike (an increase of greater than 10,000 pt/cm3) resulted in significantly higher mean concentrations. Spikes in UFPs were significantly more likely to occur when travelling at low speeds and when passengers were alighting and boarding at bus stops close to traffic light intersections.

  9. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Can I Stop Cutting? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Stop Cutting? ... in a soft, cozy blanket Substitutes for the Cutting Sensation You'll notice that all the tips ...

  10. Common bus multinode sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, T.F.; Naviasky, E.H.; Evans, W.P.; Jefferies, D.W.; Smith, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear power plant including a common bus multinode sensor system for sensors in the nuclear power plant, each sensor producing a sensor signal. The system consists of: a power supply providing power; a communication cable coupled to the power supply; plural remote sensor units coupled between the cable and one or more sensors, and comprising: a direct current power supply, connected to the cable and converting the power on the cable into direct current; an analog-to-digital converter connected to the direct current power supply; an oscillator reference; a filter; and an integrated circuit sensor interface connected to the direct current power supply, the analog-to-digital converter, the oscillator crystal and the filter, the interface comprising: a counter receiving a frequency designation word from external to the interface; a phase-frequency comparator connected to the counter; an oscillator connected to the oscillator reference; a timing counter connected to the oscillator, the phase/frequency comparator and the analog-to-digital converter; an analog multiplexer connectable to the sensors and the analog-to-digital converter, and connected to the timing counter; a shift register operatively connected to the timing counter and the analog-to-digital converter; an encoder connected to the shift register and connectable to the filter; and a voltage controlled oscillator connected to the filter and the cable

  11. Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pay (RSLSP), providing $500 for each month/partial month served in stop loss status. Service members served under stop loss must submit a claim for the special pay. Throughout the year, the services have or extension of service, became ineligible to receive retroactive stop loss special pay. There may be

  12. GMSB with light stops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Antonio [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame,225 Nieuwland Science Hall, IN 46556, Notre Dame (United States); Theory Division, Physics Department CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Garcia-Pepin, Mateo [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Quiros, Mariano [ICREA at Institut de Física d’Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-08-31

    Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) is an elegant mechanism to transmit supersymmetry breaking from the hidden to the MSSM observable sector, which solves the supersymmetric flavor problem. However, the smallness of the generated stop mixing requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass. A possible way out is to extend the MSSM Higgs sector with singlets and/or triplets providing extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Singlets will not get any soft mass from GMSB and triplets will contribute to the ρ parameter which could be an issue. In this paper we explore the second possibility by introducing extra supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges Y=(0,±1), with a tree-level custodial SU(2){sub L}⊗SU(2){sub R} global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the ρ parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of the Georgi-Machacek model, dubbed as supersymmetric custodial triplet model (SCTM). The renormalization group running from the messenger to the electroweak scale mildly breaks the custodial symmetry. We will present realistic low-scale scenarios (with the NLSP being a Bino-like neutralino or the right-handed stau) based on general (non-minimal) gauge mediation and consistent with all present experimental data. Their main features are: i) Light (∼1 TeV) stops; ii) Exotic couplings (H{sup ±}W{sup ∓}Z and H{sup ±±}W{sup ∓}W{sup ∓}) absent in the MSSM and proportional to the triplets VEV, v{sub Δ}; and, iii) A possible (measurable) universality breaking of the Higgs couplings λ{sub WZ}=r{sub WW}/r{sub ZZ}≠1.

  13. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents 16 case studies of attacks planned or carried out against Israeli bus targets, along with statistical data on the number, frequency, and lethality of attacks against bus targets that have taken place in Israel since 1970 and duri...

  14. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... not limited to: Rail, ferry, intercity bus and private transportation providers. In order to be..., intercity bus, and private transportation providers. In order to be eligible for funding, intermodal... automobile travel, improving the pedestrian environment of a community or, use of environmental design...

  15. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems). Digitale Prozessdaten-Kommunikations-Systeme (Bus Systeme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleck, K

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG.

  16. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes. PMID:26294903

  17. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  18. Strategy and technologies of 'Shelter' radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, A.M.; Batij, V.G.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Korchagin, P.A.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Saverskij, S.Yu.; Stoyanov, A.I.; Shcherbin, V.N.; Shcherbina, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    The main directions of technical activity under the Chernobyl NPP 'Shelter' waste management during its transformation to ecologically safe system are determined. Comprehensive classification of 'Shelter' radioactive waste according to the requirements of the Ukrainian laws and normative documents was worked out for the first time. The sequence of works was proposed in accordance with the decisions of the Ukrainian government and with works on 'Shelter' condition stabilization and preparation for Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. 1 figs

  19. Blast tests of expedient shelters in the DICE THROW event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearny, C.H.; Chester, C.V.

    1978-03-01

    To determine the worst blast environments that eight types of expedient shelters can withstand, we subjected a total of 18 shelters to the 1-kiloton blast effects of Defense Nuclear Agency's DICE THROW main event. These expedient shelters included two Russian and two Chinese types. The best shelter tested was a Small-Pole Shelter that had a box-like room of Russian design with ORNL-designed expedient blast entries and blast doors added. It was undamaged at the 53-psi peak overpressure range; the pressure rise inside was only 1.5 psi. An unmodified Russian Pole-Covered Trench Shelter was badly damaged at 6.8 psi. A Chinese ''Man'' Shelter, which skillfully uses very small poles to attain protective earth arching, survived 20 psi, undamaged. Two types of expedient shelters built of materials found in and around most American homes gave good protection at overpressures up to about 6 psi. Rug-Covered Trench Shelters were proved unsatisfactory. Water storage pits lined with ordinary plastic trash bags were proven practical at up to 53 psi, as were triangular expedient blast doors made of poles

  20. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234

  1. Book Review: Stop, Write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

  2. GMSB with Light Stops

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Antonio; Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) is an elegant mechanism to transmit supersymmetry breaking from the hidden to the MSSM observable sector, which solves the supersymmetric flavor problem. However the smallness of the generated stop mixing requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass. Two possible ways out are: i) To extend GMSB by direct superpotential messenger-MSSM Yukawa couplings to generate sizeable mixing, thus reintroducing the flavor problem; ii) To extend the MSSM Higgs sector with singlets and/or triplets providing extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Singlets will not get any soft mass from GMSB and triplets will contribute to the $\\rho$ parameter which could be an issue. In this paper we explore the second way by introducing extra supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges $Y=(0,\\pm 1)$, with a tree-level custodial $SU(2)_L\\otimes SU(2)_R$ global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the $\\rho$ parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of ...

  3. Classifying the Diversity of Bus Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mohd Shahmy Mohd; Forrest, David

    2018-05-01

    This study represents the first stage of an investigation into understanding the nature of different approaches to mapping bus routes and bus network, and how they may best be applied in different public transport situations. In many cities, bus services represent an important facet of easing traffic congestion and reducing pollution. However, with the entrenched car culture in many countries, persuading people to change their mode of transport is a major challenge. To promote this modal shift, people need to know what services are available and where (and when) they go. Bus service maps provide an invaluable element of providing suitable public transport information, but are often overlooked by transport planners, and are under-researched by cartographers. The method here consists of the creation of a map evaluation form and performing assessment of published bus networks maps. The analyses were completed by a combination of quantitative and qualitative data analysis of various aspects of cartographic design and classification. This paper focuses on the resulting classification, which is illustrated by a series of examples. This classification will facilitate more in depth investigations into the details of cartographic design for such maps and help direct areas for user evaluation.

  4. Estimating Bus Loads and OD Flows Using Location-Stamped Farebox and Wi-Fi Signal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiong Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic fareboxes integrated with Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL systems can provide location-stamped records to infer passenger boarding at individual stops. However, bus loads and Origin-Destination (OD flows, which are useful for route planning, design, and real-time controls, cannot be derived directly from farebox data. Recently, Wi-Fi sensors have been used to collect passenger OD flow information. But the data are insufficient to capture the variation of passenger demand across bus trips. In this study, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate trip-level OD flow matrices and a period-level OD flow matrix using sampled OD flow data collected by Wi-Fi sensors and boarding data provided by fareboxes. Bus loads on each bus trip are derived directly from the estimated trip-level OD flow matrices. The proposed method is evaluated empirically on an operational bus route and the results demonstrate that it provides good and detailed transit route-level passenger demand information by combining farebox and Wi-Fi signal data.

  5. Deadhead Trip Minimization in City Bus Transportation: A Real Life Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efendi Nasibov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of public transportation services is one of the most important performance indicators of modern urban policies for both planning and implementation aspects. Therefore, along with the size of the city, the significance of appropriate cost evaluation and optimization of all related transportation activities increases as well. One of the most important cost factors for the public transport agencies is naturally the fuel consumption of the vehicles. In this study, the attention is focused on the metropolitan bus transport service. The specific aim is to minimize a significant portion of total fuel utilization that occurs due to the so called deadhead trip or dead mileage, which is defined as the idle distance covered by the vehicle between the garage and the route terminal stops without carrying any passengers. In this study, the results of four mathematical models for minimizing the total deadhead trip distance covered in city bus services of Izmir are presented. The models vary due to the inclusion of garage capacity restrictions or operator distinction for supporting both operational and strategical decisions. All models are applied to the recent bus schedule data, which consist of 293 routes, 1,424 buses and 10 garages, for obtaining the optimal route bus-garage allocations and garage capacities. The results of the Decentralized-Capacitated model, which is appropriate for quick implementation, promise a 7.8% reduction in total dead mileage. While on the other hand, if all garage capacities can be expanded and the bus service is maintained only by one operator as modelled in the Centralized-Uncapacitated case, even a 31.4% improvement is possible in the long term. The environmental gains as well as the financial benefits to be achieved when the solutions are actually implemented, justify the practical contribution of the study.

  6. Real-time bus location monitoring using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Y. M.; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of objects, such as a vehicles, mobile devices, and buildings that have electronic components, software, and network connectivity that enable them to collect data, run commands, and be controlled through the Internet. Controlling physical items from the Internet will increase efficiency and save time. The growing number of devices used by people increases the practicality of having IoT devices on the market. The IoT is also an opportunity to develop products that can save money and time and increase work efficiency. Initially, they need more efficiency for real-time bus location systems, especially in university campuses. This system can easily find the accurate locations of and distances between each bus stop and the estimated time to reach a new location. This system has been separated into two parts, which are the hardware and the software. The hardware parts are the Arduino Uno and the Global Positioning System (GPS), while Google Earth and GpsGate are the software parts. The GPS continuously takes input data from the satellite and stores the latitude and longitude values in the Arduino Uno. If we want to track the vehicle, we need to send the longitude and latitude as a message to the Google Earth software to convert these into maps for navigation. Once the Arduino Uno is activated, it takes the last received latitude and longitude positions' values from GpsGate and sends a message to Google Earth. Once the message has been sent to Google Earth, the current location will be shown, and navigation will be activated automatically. Then it will be broadcast using ManyCam, Google+ Hangouts, and YouTube, as well as Facebook, and appear to users. The additional features use Google Forms for determining problems faced by students, who can also take immediate action against the responsible department. Then after several successful simulations, the results will be shown in real time on a map.

  7. Analyzing the Effect of Passenger-Requested Unscheduled Stops on Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Paliska

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of unscheduled stops requestedby passengers on bus transit demand and presents theresults of its study. In the research a set of regression modelsthat estimate the route-level demand were developed using datacollected with Automatic Passenger Counters and AutomaticVehicle Location systems installed on buses, and demographic,socio-economic and land use information from other sources.The results obtained indicate that the number of rider-requestedunscheduled stops have no significant effect on demand,suggesting that the company policy which tolerates unscheduledstops is inadequate for attracting new riders.

  8. Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S

    2017-08-01

    Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. VICbus: A standard inter-crate bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkman, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    VICbus is a standard inter-crate cable bus being developed by a working group of the ISO/IEC. Derived from an initiative of the VMEbus Working Group of ESONE, VICbus aims to provide users of multi-crate VMEbus and other backplane bus systems with a standard inter-crate connection. Multi-drop operation is provided for up to 31 devices on a cable of maximum 100 metres in length. Two data transfer protocols are specified, compelled (asynchronous) transfers for transparent interconnection of backplane bus systems (VMEbus in the first instance), and high-speed, non-compelled (synchronous) transfers between VICbus interfaces. A limited interrupt mechanism is specified, as well as simple, but efficient arbitration technique. Conventional technology is employed: copper cables, existing transcievers, and differential signal transmission, together with proven low-level protocols. Data transfer rates in excess of 30 Mbyte/s will be possible on a cable length of 30 metres

  10. One-Stop Dispensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlind, Morten Baltzer; McNulty, Helle Bach Ølgaard; Treldal, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    (1) Objective: To assess hospital medication costs and staff time between One-Stop Dispensing (OSD) and the Traditional Medication System (TMS), and to evaluate patient perspectives on OSD. (2) Methods: The study was conducted at Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark in an elective...... gastric surgery and acute orthopedic surgery department. This study consists of three sub-studies including adult patients able to self-manage medication. In Sub-study 1, staff time used to dispense and administer medication in TMS was assessed. Medication cost and OSD staff time were collected in Sub......-study 2, while patient perspectives were assessed in Sub-study 3. Medication costs with two days of discharge medication were compared between measured OSD cost and simulated TMS cost for the same patients. Measured staff time in OSD was compared to simulated staff time in TMS for the same patients...

  11. Current stopping power analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    Modified Bethe-Bloch stopping power theory permits fairly accurate calculation of energy losses over a broad interval of projectile velocity v = νc insofar as several parameters appearing in the revised Bethe-Bloch formula have been corectly evaluated. Since the parameters cannot in general be ascertained by calculation from first principles, fits of theory to measurement remain the best method of evaluation. The parameters alluded to are: the target mean excitation energy; the shell correction scaling parameters; the composite single free parameter of the Barkas (projectile-z 3 ) effect correction formalism, and the strength of the correction term; the high velocity density effect correction parameter; and the low velocity charge state parameter. These parameters are discussed

  12. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bus safety is a concern not only in developing countries, but also in the U.S. and Europe. In Denmark, disentangling risk factors that are positively or negatively related to bus accident severity and injury occurrence to bus passengers can contribute to promote safety as an essential...... principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...... examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...

  14. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-16

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The report discusses the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment us...

  15. Pet overpopulation: data and measurement issues in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenstrup, J; Dowidchuk, A

    1999-01-01

    Data collection and analysis within animal shelters are critical to developing effective programs that reduce the number of dogs and cats euthanized each year. However, current data collection efforts are insufficient to identify the magnitude, dynamics, or root causes of euthanasia in animal shelters across the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine potential solutions to the underlying root causes of pet overpopulation, with 2 elements. The first, more explicit goal was to establish a baseline of shelter data, policies, and viewpoints through a detailed survey of 186 shelters, 12 site visits, and numerous interviews. The findings suggest large variation in local issues faced by shelters, as well as a nearly universal focus on sterilization as a solution. The greater objective, however, was to use this information as an impetus to improve the process by which shelters amalgamate information and effectively use it to target the most pressing needs within their communities. We believe the essential step is to provide shelters with an analytical tool that would yield informational benefits exceeding the cost of data collection. Such an improvement would have a positive spillover effect on researchers, donors, and others attempting to collect standardized, geographically scalable data. This article presents an overview of the survey findings, as well as a prototype of a tool to help improve data amalgamation and analysis efforts within shelters.

  16. Understanding How Domestic Violence Shelter Rules May Influence Survivor Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Katie; Nnawulezi, Nkiru; Sullivan, Cris M

    2017-10-01

    Domestic violence shelters have historically gone beyond providing emergency residential space for survivors by assisting in obtaining future housing, employment, health care, child care, or legal services. Domestic violence shelters are expected to operate within an empowerment philosophy, with an understanding that survivors are self-determining, can identify their needs, and know what it takes to meet those needs. Recent research has indicated that, as many shelters have become more rigid in creating rules that survivors must follow to access and retain free temporary housing, the result has been survivors' feelings of disempowerment, the complete opposite of what was originally intended. This study builds on the small amount of research conducted regarding survivors' experiences of shelter rules by specifically examining how rules were perceived to affect empowerment. Seventy-three survivors from two domestic violence shelters were asked about their experiences around specific shelter rules relating to curfew, parenting, chores, time limits, food, alcohol, drugs, and medications. A transcendental phenomenological approach was used to analyze the qualitative data, seeking explanations of how survivors made meaning of the rules and how those rules influenced their empowerment. Among those survivors who found the rules problematic, three major themes emerged: (a) rules acted as barriers to carrying out their normal, day-to-day activities; (b) the shelter staff's flexibility with rules was based on contingencies; and (c) rules negatively affected their psychological well-being, and required them to engage in protective behaviors. Recommendations are made for the reexamination and restructuring of rules within domestic violence shelters.

  17. Defining Flexible Standards for Post-Disaster Emergency Sheltering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafahomi, M.; Egyedi, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Post-disaster emergency-sheltering requires that various relief agencies and other actors with different backgrounds cooperate in a tremendously short amount of time and under very different circumstances. Lives depend on the quality of aid and, specifically, on the quality of sheltering. Standards

  18. The fence experiment - a first evaluation of shelter models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bechmann, Andreas; Conti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We present a preliminary evaluation of shelter models of different degrees of complexity using full-scale lidar measurements of the shelter on a vertical plane behind and orthogonal to a fence. Model results accounting for the distribution of the relative wind direction within the observed direct...

  19. The Bus Stops Here: The Case for Biodiesel in School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that diesel exhaust from most of the nation's school buses may be hazardous to children's health. Documents studies on the nature and potential magnitude of the risk to children and proposes replacing petroleum diesel with biodiesel as the fuel for school buses. Presents the merits and practicality of switching to biodiesel as a healthier…

  20. 25 CFR 170.152 - What transit facilities and activities are eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... development, such as bus shelters in shopping centers, parking lots, pedestrian improvements, and support facilities that incorporate other community services; (h) Passenger shelters, bus stop signs, and similar..., buildings, facilities, buses, vans, water craft, and other vehicles for use in mass transportation; (b...

  1. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  2. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Government regulators and transportation operators of public bus systems are concerned about terrorist attacks. Bus attacks in Israel between late September 2000 and the end of 2006, a period known as the Second Intifada, are particularly well known....

  3. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Availability on June 24, 2011. The SGR Initiative makes funds available to public transit providers to finance capital projects to replace, rehabilitate, and purchase buses and related equipment and to construct bus...

  4. 76 FR 37393 - FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... 90 percent Federal share for the total cost of a biodiesel bus. The Act also allows a 90 percent... transit systems or roadways. iv. Will improve accessibility and transport services for economically...

  5. Advanced Competencies for School Bus Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Four units are provided for formal classroom instruction in advanced competencies for school bus drivers in Illinois. Units cover passenger control, accidents and emergencies, detecting hazards, and first aid. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: table of contents; a list of objectives; informative material, including an…

  6. Functional Bus Driver-Pupil Passenger Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Successful school bus drivers bring much more than mechanical know-how to the job. They develop good rapport with students while acting to bring undesirable student behavior under control. Drivers must also show an interest in students' welfare and have a good sense of humor. (MLH)

  7. School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

  8. An Experimental Platform for Autonomous Bus Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Montes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with highly developed instrumentation, sensing and actuation technologies, it is possible to foresee an important advance in the field of autonomous and/or semi-autonomous transportation systems. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS have been subjected to very active research for many years, and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT is one area of major interest. Among the most promising transport infrastructures, the articulated bus is an interesting, low cost, high occupancy capacity and friendly option. In this paper, an experimental platform for research on the automatic control of an articulated bus is presented. The aim of the platform is to allow full experimentation in real conditions for testing technological developments and control algorithms. The experimental platform consists of a mobile component (a commercial articulated bus fully instrumented and a ground test area composed of asphalt roads inside the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC premises. This paper focuses also on the development of a human machine interface to ease progress in control system evaluation. Some experimental results are presented in order to show the potential of the proposed platform.

  9. Bus safety study : a report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Section 20021(b) of the Moving Ahead for Progress for the 21st Century (MAP-21) legislation requires the Secretary of Transportation : to submit a report of the results of a Bus Safety Study to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affai...

  10. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  11. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  12. Energy DataBus (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    NREL has developed the Energy DataBus, an open-sourced software that collects massive amounts of energy-related data at second-to-second intervals; stores it in a massive, scalable database; and turns it into useful information.

  13. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  14. UDI STOP Femminicidio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Crivelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available L'UDI, Unione Donne in Italia, ha collaborato con l'Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi a un numero monografico della rivista scientifica M@gm@ dal titolo "Violenza maschile e femminicidio". Il numero monografico vuole mettere a disposizione le analisi, l’esperienza e la storia nostra e delle nostre interlocutrici, come contributo al nostro comune lavoro di sensibilizzazione, contrasto alla violenza maschile sulle donne – femminicidio. “UDI STOP femminicidio” è da anni la nostra campagna contro la violenza di genere, la collaborazione con l’Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi è parte integrante di questo sforzo. Il primo e dichiarato dei nostri progetti politici è il contrasto alla cultura e al potere ideologico che consente il femminicidio, la subordinazione culturale e sociale, la percezione della donna come oggetto di dominio, la riduzione in schiavitù di tante donne, comprese molte donne prostitute... Sappiamo di non voler tradire una “responsabilità di genere” che deve necessariamente concretizzarsi in tanti “gesti responsabili”, nella lunga pazienza quotidiana che consente la sedimentazione di un cambiamento radicale nelle coscienze. Vogliamo continuare ad essere l’associazione che coniuga insieme la soggettività personale e l'assunzione diretta di responsabilità, della progettualità a lungo termine che non trova “contraddittorio” misurarsi con la solidarietà concreta e quotidiana con le altre donne, nel tentativo di far nascere le nuove maniere di pensare.

  15. Assessing Domestic Violence Shelter Workers Views and Practices Pertaining to HIV Prevention Services for Women Residing in Domestic Violence Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Harvey, Jenna; Alexander, Kamila A; Saraczewski, Samantha; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2018-06-01

    There is a need for studies to assess domestic violence (DV) shelter workers views about brief HIV prevention interventions for shelter residents to improve these workers' provision of HIV prevention interventions to shelter residents. This mixed methods study assessed DV shelter workers' views about the following: (a) the need for and appropriateness of HIV prevention services within DV shelters, (b) the utility (i.e., acceptability, systems support, understanding, and feasibility) of an HIV Risk Assessment and Safety Plan (HIV RASP) for women in DV shelters, and (c) suggested changes to or concerns about using the HIV RASP. Workers from DV shelters located in the 10 states in the United States with the highest rates of HIV reviewed the HIV RASP and answered survey questions about it including the Usage Rating Profile-Intervention (URP-I) Questionnaire and two open-ended questions. Although workers felt it was appropriate to provide HIV prevention interventions within DV shelters, only 23% reported that HIV prevention interventions had ever been implemented at their shelter and only 42% had provided residents with educational brochures about HIV prevention. Workers generally agreed that the HIV RASP was acceptable, understandable, and feasible. They somewhat disagreed about their ability to implement the tool independently. Findings suggest that little progress has been made in engaging DV shelter workers in HIV prevention efforts for residents during the past decade and reveal ways to improve the HIV RASP and overcome barriers to implementing it. The study findings may be used to help reduce gaps between the science and practice of HIV prevention for abused women.

  16. Tohyco-Rider: hybrid bus with super-caps and inductive power transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harri, V.; Carriero, D. [HTA Luzern, Horw (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    The TOHYCO-Rider-Bus was developed during a Swiss research project at HTA Lucerne (University of Applied Sciences of Central Switzerland). Each time, the bus only picks up enough energy to safely reach the next charging station. Instead of common re-chargeable batteries, the TOHYCO-Rider uses electrical high-power capacitors, so-called super-capacitors, as energy storage. In combination with an absolutely non-dangerous, non-contact, inductive energy re-charging system the S-CAPs can be reloaded with a higher efficiency and much more quickly than batteries. Within 3-5 minutes of charging time the vehicle is prepared for its next trip. A further advantage of this concept is that, with the S-CAPs, only the energy supply has to be taken along for the next stop (approx. 300 kg) and not a charge of batteries for the entire day (approx. 2t). Because of the lighter weight, the TOHYCO-Rider is therefore an economically and ecologically interesting mean of transportation. In summer 2004 the TOHYCO-Rider ran in a pilot operation. During three months the mini-bus drove in a time-scheduled operation in the city of Lucerne, with the aim of proving the reliability and fitness of the developed system in daily operation. The test operation was terminated recently and the results were very promising. (authors)

  17. Combined Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm Approach to Bus Network Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Olszewski, Piotr; Goh, Pong-Chai

    A new method - combined simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithm (GA) approach is proposed to solve the problem of bus route design and frequency setting for a given road network with fixed bus stop locations and fixed travel demand. The method involves two steps: a set of candidate routes is generated first and then the best subset of these routes is selected by the combined SA and GA procedure. SA is the main process to search for a better solution to minimize the total system cost, comprising user and operator costs. GA is used as a sub-process to generate new solutions. Bus demand assignment on two alternative paths is performed at the solution evaluation stage. The method was implemented on four theoretical grid networks of different size and a benchmark network. Several GA operators (crossover and mutation) were utilized and tested for their effectiveness. The results show that the proposed method can efficiently converge to the optimal solution on a small network but computation time increases significantly with network size. The method can also be used for other transport operation management problems.

  18. Towards smart mobility in urban spaces: Bus tracking and information application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wong Seng; Chye, Koh Keng; Hoy, Cheong Wan

    2017-10-01

    Smart city can be defined as an urban space with complete and advanced infrastructure, intelligent networks and platforms, with millions of sensors among which people themselves and their mobile devices. Urban mobility is one of the global smart city project which offers traffic management in real-time, management of passenger transport means, tracking applications and logistics, car sharing services, car park management and more smart mobility services. Due to the frustrated waiting time for the arrival of buses and the difficulty of accessing shuttle bus-related information in a one-stop centre, bus tracking and information application (BTA) is one the proposed solutions to solve the traffic problems in urban spaces. This paper is aimed to design and develop a bus tracking and information application in a selected city in Selangor state, Malaysia. Next, this application also provides an alternative to design public transport tracking and information application for the urban places in Malaysia. Furthermore, the application also provides a smart solution for the management of public infrastructures and urban facilities in Malaysia in future.

  19. Nitrogen Research Programme STOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.; Van der Eerden, L.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen pollution is one of the main threats to the environment now in the Netherlands as well as other parts of Europe. In order to address the main gaps on the issues of nitrogen pollution related to the local scale, the Ministries of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment (VROM) and of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries (LNV) have initiated a research programme, the Dutch Nitrogen Research Programme (STOP), which aims to provide a scientific basis to develop and implement policy on a local scale for the realisation and conservation of the EHS ('Dutch Mainframe of Natural Landscapes'). The results of the programme show that the description of emissions from manure in the field is difficult to describe and show large uncertainties. On the contrary, emissions from housings could be modelled well, if local actual data were available. The OPS model to describe the dispersion and deposition was evaluated with the measurements and the limitations were quantified. It appears that the model works well on the long term, whereas on the short term (hours) and short distance (tenths of meters) there is large uncertainty, especially in complex terrain. Critical loads for nitrogen for ecosystems were evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of management options was quantified. A method to determine critical loads as a function of soil conditions, such as acidification and water availability was derived. This resulted in a combination of the soil model SMART and the so-called 'nature planner' (Natuurplanner). It was concluded that the combination of SMART, the nature planner and OPS provide a good tool to develop and support policy on the local scale. 4 refs

  20. Ungendering and Regendering Shelters for Survivors of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Hacker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on intensive fieldwork in the two Israeli shelters designated for victims of human trafficking and slavery. The shelters, one for women and one for men, are a refuge for survivors of sex trafficking; labor migrants subjected to severe exploitation by their employers; and asylum seekers who arrived in Israel after experiencing severe physical and emotional abuse at the hands of kidnappers and smugglers en route to Israel. The study included interviews with policy makers and professionals, and with women and men who resided at the shelters, as well as an analysis of the relevant legislation and official reports. The article explores the problematic gendered differentiations between the two shelters. Most significantly, while support for residents of the shelter for women is anchored by emotional and psychological rehabilitation, residents of the shelter for men do not receive any therapeutic support. At the same time, while staff in the shelter for men put significant effort into the reintegration of the men into the labor force, the women’s employment prospects receive less attention. Based on these and other findings, the article cautions against gender-biased rehabilitation services for victims of human trafficking and slavery, and calls for a gender-sensitive rehabilitation theory and practice.

  1. Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, P A; Murphy, B G

    2014-03-01

    The beneficial role that animal shelters play is unquestionable. An estimated 3 to 4 million animals are cared for or placed in homes each year, and most shelters promote public health and support responsible pet ownership. It is, nonetheless, inevitable that shelters are prime examples of anthropogenic biological instability: even well-run shelters often house transient, displaced, and mixed populations of animals. Many of these animals have received minimal to no prior health care, and some have a history of scavenging or predation to survive. Overcrowding and poor shelter conditions further magnify these inherent risks to create individual, intraspecies, and interspecies stress and provide an environment conducive to exposure to numerous potentially collaborative pathogens. All of these factors can contribute to the evolution and emergence of new pathogens or to alterations in virulence of endemic pathogens. While it is not possible to effectively anticipate the timing or the pathogen type in emergence events, their sites of origin are less enigmatic, and pathologists and diagnosticians who work with sheltered animal populations have recognized several such events in the past decade. This article first considers the contribution of the shelter environment to canine and feline disease. This is followed by summaries of recent research on the pathogenesis of common shelter pathogens, as well as research that has led to the discovery of novel or emerging diseases and the methods that are used for their diagnosis and discovery. For the infectious agents that commonly affect sheltered dogs and cats, including canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, Streptococcus spp, parvoviruses, feline herpesvirus, feline caliciviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis virus, we present familiar as well as newly recognized lesions associated with infection. Preliminary studies on recently discovered viruses like canine circovirus, canine bocavirus, and feline norovirus

  2. Shuttle bus services quality assessment Tangerang Selatan toward smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassa, Ferdinand; Sitorus, Fredy Jhon Philip; Adikesuma, Tri Nugraha

    2017-11-01

    Around the world, shuttle bus operation played the significant role to accommodate transportation for commuting bus passengers. Shuttle Bus services in cities are provided by various bus agencies with kinds of own specific purposes. For instance, at Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia, it was said that shuttle bus In Trans Bintaro is run and operated by private bus companies hire by Bintaro developer. The aim of this research is to identify factors of satisfaction of shuttle bus service in Kota Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia. Several factors are used to analyze sums of 20 parameters performance indicators of Shuttle Bus. A face to face interview using a questionnaire (N=200) was used to collect data on October and March 2017. Likert and diagram Cartesian were used to model the all the parameters. This research succeeded in finding some categories of Shuttle bus service attributes such as accessibility, comfort, and safety. Users agreed that eight indicators in shuttle bus have the excellent achievement, while three indicators on performance remain low and should receive more attention especially punctuality of the bus.

  3. Life defence against big storm surges. Cyclone shelter in Bangladesh; Kyodai takashio kara seimei wo mamoru. Bangladesh no cyclone shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Disaster Prevention Research Inst.

    1996-08-15

    This paper presents the cyclone shelters in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has been damaged by flooding due to big storm surges caused by cyclone every year, losing many human lives and properties. The sea within 100km apart from the coast is gradually shoaling beach shallower than 10m because of sediment transport by the Ganges. Consequently, huge storm surges are easily caused by cyclone generated in Bay of Bengal. The cyclone shelter is only one refuge from cyclone. Construction of the cyclone shelters was opened in the 1960s, and the public work department (PWD) in the government had constructed the cyclone shelters under support by International Development Association (IDA) since 1970. At the same time, BDRCS had constructed the shelters under support by Red Cross Societies of every country, and positive NGOs such as Caritas had been also in the same action. Because many cyclone shelters became too old for use, construction of new cyclone shelters was opened again just after disaster in 1991. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. LHC Availability 2017: Technical Stop 1 to Technical Stop 2

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; Walsh, David John; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Technical Stop 1 (TS1) to Technical Stop 2 (TS2) in 2017. This period was dedicated to proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  5. Ergonomic and macro ergonomic factors of the 'Ukrytie' shelter personnel safe activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, G.E.; Kupnyj, V.I.; Danilov, V.M.; Vtornikov, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    Four actions are planned based upon this preliminary analysis of Human Factors technology applied to the Chernobyl Shelter activities, namely: 1. Provide expertise to and participate in all projects regarding the Shelter's future. 2. Conduct a detailed on-site survey of the current Shelter's situation. 3. Organize a business game (brain-storming) to shape the system of the Shelter's HF problems

  6. Public protection strategies for potential nuclear reactor accidents: sheltering concepts with existing public and private structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.C.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Johnson, J.D.

    1978-02-01

    Three generic sheltering/relocation strategies are identified and discussed. They are: population relocation only (no specific sheltering response initiated); sheltering at location following by relocation; and preferential sheltering followed by relocation. Shielding factors representative of these strategies are calculated, and the adequacy of using average shielding factors for the calculation of public health effects is discussed

  7. VME bus based microcomputer system boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, A.K.; Ganesh, G.; Mayya, Anuradha; Chachondia, A.S.; Premraj, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Several operator information systems for nuclear plants has been developed in the Division and these have involved extensive use of microcomputer boards for achieving various functions. Standard VME bus based boards have been developed to provide the most used functions. These boards have been fabricated and tested and used in several systems including Channel Temperature Monitoring systems, Disturbance Recording Systems etc. and are also proposed to be used in additional systems under developement. The use of standard bus and boards provides considerable savings in engineering time, prototyping, testing and evaluation costs, and maintenance support. This report desribes the various boards developed and the functions available on each. (author). 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 appendixes

  8. Multi-hazard evacuation route and shelter planning for buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    A bi-level, two-stage, binary stochastic program with equilibrium constraints, and three variants, are presented that : support the planning and design of shelters and exits, along with hallway fortification strategies and associated : evacuation pat...

  9. Planning, design and technological criteria of conventional and nuclear shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoon, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis aims to establish a special criteria for building the shelters in two types. The conventional and nuclear, in respect to planning design and technological aspects, and finally establishing a special reference of planning, design and technology for Iraq which can be used when planning or designing a conventional or nuclear shelter. The thesis included four chapters, the first chapter included definition of shelters, and explanation of the effects of all types of weapons on buildings, and the second chapter included definition of planning and design concepts of shelters in its two types and analytical studies for international examples. The third chapter covered definition for technologies of structural, mechanical, electrical and sanitary systems. The fourth chapter included details of a case study in order to approach the results of research which included the conclusions, recommendations, criteria and prospects of planning design and technological aspects. 51 tabs.; 180 figs.; 32 refs.; 15 apps

  10. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  11. A whistle-stop tour of statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everitt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    "Preface according to my Penguin English dictionary, whistle-stop, used before a noun means 'consisting of brief stops in several places' and this whistle-stop tour of statistics does just that, with...

  12. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  13. Exploring telehealth opportunities in domestic violence shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Susan; Shearer, Nelma; Long, Carol

    2002-10-01

    To determine the degree of interest in using a computer for the purpose of accessing services from a nurse practitioner (NP) at domestic violence shelters (DVSs); and to identify issues of privacy and confidentiality that might arise from participation by victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a Telehealth intervention. Focus groups with 19 women residing in two DVSs. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and themes were identified that answered the questions posed in the interviews. Most of the women understood the term NP and were favorably inclined to seek services from one. Over half of the women were not familiar with computer use, but were willing to learn in order to receive health care services, both for episodic needs and for maintenance of chronic conditions. After learning of the method proposed to allow them to access an NP through the internet while still protecting their privacy and confidentiality, the women felt comfortable with this approach to meeting their health care needs. Results from this study can be used to support the development and testing of Telehealth interventions for these victims of IPV.

  14. Terminals for Suburb Bus Transport in Bratislava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Tibor; Schlosser, Peter; Cápayová, Silvia; Hodáková, Dominika

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe the strategy for development of the public transport terminals in the city of Bratislava, Capital of Slovak Republic. The reason goes from the private operator Slovak Lines, who operates the suburb bus transport in the agglomeration of the city. For this operator was created a transport model, while placing emphasis on optimizing the compliance of suburban public transport with urban public transport in the city of Bratislava and evaluating the significance of the new Bus Station to be constructed at Mlynské Nivy - in a new down town centre of the city. The main issue is to ensure the best available offer of public transport (PT) to passengers in the Bratislava agglomeration. The subject of the study was oriented to specify and propose changes in the transport infrastructure and integrated public transport organisation on the area of the city in terms of the significant position of the new Mlynské Nivy Bus Station (MN BS), which is under preparation with realization in the year 2017.

  15. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  16. Probing Light Stops with Stoponium

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We derive new limits on light stops from diboson resonance searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, $ZZ$, $WW$ and $hh$ channels from the first run of the LHC. If the two-body decays of the light stop are mildly suppressed or kinematically forbidden, stoponium bound states will form in $pp$ collisions and subsequently decay via the pair annihilation of the constituent stops to diboson final states, yielding striking resonance signatures. Remarkably, we find that stoponium searches are highly complementary to direct collider searches and indirect probes of light stops such as Higgs coupling measurements. Using an empirical quarkonia potential model and including the first two $S$-wave stoponium states, we find that in the decoupling limit $m_{\\widetilde t_1} \\lesssim 130$ GeV is excluded for any value of the stop mixing angle and heavy stop mass by the combination of the latest resonance searches and the indirect constraints. The $\\gamma \\gamma$ searches are the most complementary to the indirect constraint...

  17. Investigating the key indicators for evaluating post-disaster shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Ronita; Shannon, Harry; Kabali, Conrad; Oremus, Mark

    2017-07-01

    This study sought to identify the primary indicators for evaluating shelter assistance following natural disasters and then to develop a shelter evaluation instrument based on these indicators. Electronic databases and the 'grey' literature were scoured for publications with a relation to post-disaster shelter assistance. Indicators for evaluating such assistance were extracted from these publications. In total, 1,525 indicators were extracted from 181 publications. A preliminary evaluation instrument was designed from these 1,525 indicators. Shelter experts checked the instrument for face and content validity, and it was revised subsequently based on their input. The revised instrument comprises a version for use by shelter agencies (48 questions that assess 23 indicators) and a version for use by beneficiaries (52 questions that assess 22 indicators). The instrument can serve as a standardised tool to enable groups to gauge whether or not the shelter assistance that they supply meets the needs of disaster-affected populations. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  18. Attitudes Toward Smoking Cessation Among Sheltered Homeless Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Holly C; Stevenson, Terrell N; Bruce, Janine S; Greenberg, Brian; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking among homeless adults is approximately 70 %. Cessation programs designed for family shelters should be a high priority given the dangers cigarette smoke poses to children. However, the unique nature of smoking in the family shelter setting remains unstudied. We aimed to assess attitudes toward smoking cessation, and unique barriers and motivators among homeless parents living in family shelters in Northern California. Six focus groups and one interview were conducted (N = 33, ages 23-54). The focus groups and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and a representative team performed qualitative theme analysis. Eight males and 25 females participated. The following major themes emerged: (1) Most participants intended to quit eventually, citing concern for their children as their primary motivation. (2) Significant barriers to quitting included the ubiquity of cigarette smoking, its central role in social interactions in the family shelter setting, and its importance as a coping mechanism. (3) Participants expressed interest in quitting "cold turkey" and in e-cigarettes, but were skeptical of the patch and pharmacotherapy. (4) Feelings were mixed regarding whether individual, group or family counseling would be most effective. Homeless parents may be uniquely motivated to quit because of their children, but still face significant shelter-based social and environmental barriers to quitting. Successful cessation programs in family shelters must be designed with the unique motivations and barriers of this population in mind.

  19. Second stop and sbottom searches with a stealth stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Li, Lingfeng; Qin, Qin [Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-29

    The top squarks (stops) may be the most wanted particles after the Higgs boson discovery. The searches for the lightest stop have put strong constraints on its mass. However, there is still a search gap in the low mass region if the spectrum of the stop and the lightest neutralino is compressed. In that case, it may be easier to look for the second stop since naturalness requires both stops to be close to the weak scale. The current experimental searches for the second stop are based on the simplified model approach with the decay modes t̃{sub 2}→t̃{sub 1}Z and t̃{sub 2}→t̃{sub 1}h. However, in a realistic supersymmetric spectrum there is always a sbottom lighter than the second stop, hence the decay patterns are usually more complicated than the simplified model assumptions. In particular, there are often large branching ratios of the decays t̃{sub 2}→b̃{sub 1}W and b̃{sub 1}→t̃{sub 1}W as long as they are open. The decay chains can be even more complex if there are intermediate states of additional charginos and neutralinos in the decays. By studying several MSSM benchmark models at the 14 TeV LHC, we point out the importance of the multi-W final states in the second stop and the sbottom searches, such as the same-sign dilepton and multilepton signals, aside from the traditional search modes. The observed same-sign dilepton excesses at LHC Run 1 and Run 2 may be explained by some of our benchmark models. We also suggest that the vector boson tagging and a new kinematic variable may help to suppress the backgrounds and increase the signal significance for some search channels. Due to the complex decay patterns and lack of the dominant decay channels, the best reaches likely require a combination of various search channels at the LHC for the second stop and the lightest sbottom.

  20. A methodology for rearranging transit stops for enhancing transit users generalized travel time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nurul Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a methodology to consolidate transit stops. It develops a mathematical model and a program which takes stop consolidation decision(s according to users generalized travel time savings and desired accessibility. The model iterates until the users generalized travel time savings are maximized. The study tests this mathematical model in different hypothetical scenarios. Six factors (distance between stops, passenger activity, average cruising speed, maximum walking distance, service frequency, and percentage of decreased passengers with multiple levels were set to build the scenarios. Three responses (percentage of consolidated stops, percentages of travel time and operating time savings were observed. The findings showed that the distance between the stops the passenger activity, and the probable demand change (or the percentage of decreased passengers are the most influential factors. The frequency of service was found to be influential as well. The average cruising speed has very little influence on the response variables. Finally, the model is tested on two routes (route 900 and 930 of Al Ain City public bus service. It shows that 22 and 32 out of 98 and 126 stops can be consolidated in route 900 and 930 respectively. This can save considerable amounts of users travel and operating times. In monetary values, the savings are about $329,827 and $491,094 per year for routes 900 and 930, respectively.

  1. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a follow......-up study was also conducted. All hospital discharges with a peptic ulcer diagnosis among the bus drivers were registered from the Danish National Patient Register. All Danish men were used as reference group. On the basis of the 1978-questionnaire association between occupational and psychosocial factors...... and subsequent hospital discharge with a peptic ulcer diagnosis was studied. The prevalence of abdominal pain alleviated by food intake was 12% among bus drivers and 6% in the reference group. The incidence of hospital discharge with duodenal ulcer among younger bus drivers was twice the incidence among Danish...

  2. Modelling and Simulation of Cooperative Control for Bus Rapid Transit Vehicle Platoon in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a cooperative control model for improving the operational efficiency of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT vehicles. The model takes advantage of the emerging connected vehicle technology. A connected vehicle centre is established to assign a specific reservation time interval and transmit the corresponding dynamic speed guidance to each BRT vehicle. Furthermore, a set of constraints have been set up to avoid bus queuing and waiting phenomena in downstream BRT stations. Therefore, many BRT vehicles are strategically guided to form a platoon, which can pass through an intersection with no impedance. An actual signalized intersection along the Guangzhou BRT corridor is employed to verify and assess the cooperative control model in various traffic conditions. The simulation-based evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can reduce delays, decrease the number of stops, and improve the sustainability of the BRT vehicles.

  3. Aspek Hukum Perlindungan terhadap Penumpang Bus dalam Mewujudkan Perlindungan Konsumen

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Rabiah Z

    2016-01-01

    Bus is the one of transportation which is often used by society. Society as passenger of bus righteously gains protection. Many of accident happens in public transportation especially bus that rises a question the important of protection for people as the accicent victim. This question is worthy to be solved because many of public transportation company ignores the passenger's right. Based on this, government shall take control with presentation of new regulation that aims protection people ...

  4. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  5. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    TERMS Android , RS-485, isolated, USB, smartphone 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER...controlled wired RS-485 network. The Android -based smartphone or tablet is used in conjunction with a USB to serial bridge to operate as the bus master in...the system. The Android device operates in USB Host mode and communicates to the RS-485 bus as if a single peripheral on the USB bus. 15. SUBJECT

  6. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause ...

  7. A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

  8. Countermeasures for Developing New Energy Bus Standards in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of new energy vehicle technology, new energy bus has become more and more popular in China, and the relevant standards and policy are urgently needed to guide the market. According to the assessment of the development situation on new energy vehicle technology and new energy bus, combing with traffic policy guidance and the development trend of new energy vehicles, this paper aims to put forward the countermeasures of the new energy bus standard in China, including standard system, key standards and relevant recommendations. Research result is expected to provide decision support for the wide application of new energy bus in China.

  9. Status of the IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1983-10-01

    The IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus project has been influenced by and has influenced FASTBUS and several other contemporary bus designs. This paper summarizes the current status of that project, which is directed toward the needs of modern 32-bit microprocessor systems with multiple processors. Some of the technology developed for P896 will be important for future non-ECL implementations of FASTBUS and other buses. In particular, new bus drivers and receivers should greatly improve the performance and reliability of backplane buses and cable buses. The current status of the P896 serial bus is also summarized

  10. The Software Bus, an Object-Oriented Data Exchange System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerbaek, T.; Louka, M.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the Software Bus System, developed for object-oriented task to task communication in a TCP/IP based network. The Software Bus is a set of library functions, developed to be used for the Picasso-3 UIMS, and as a general purpose tool for dynamically interfacing programs at run-time. The Software Bus offers a high level object-oriented data exchange mechanism that relieves the application programmer of the low level TCP/IP-programming and communication protocol handling. The Software Bus is currently available under several UNIX platforms and a version for Windows NT is planned for late 1996. (author)

  11. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  12. Bus Rapid Transit and Socioeconomic Condition of Bus Commuters in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owolabi L. Kuye

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Road transport is one of the most common means of transportation across the world. Bus transportation in Nigeria had witnessed many problems for the past decades considering the growing population with the attendant loss of lives and properties in most cities like Lagos in Nigeria. This paper focuses on the adequacy of services provided by Bus Rapid Transit (BRT in Lagos State with respect to the extent to which it influences the socioeconomic conditions of bus commuters. It examines the effect of services rendered by BRT on cost reduction potential, income and safety. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 20 samples each from all respondents in all local government area in Lagos State to reach a total of three hundred and thirty (330 samples. The data collection instrument was the questionnaire which was validated. Data collected were analysed with the use of descriptive statistics such as means, percentages and standard deviation and inferential statistics such as regression and analysis of variance techniques. Findings showed that BRT services has reduced the cost of bus commuters and also increased safety and security thereby increasing the socioeconomic condition of Lagosians. The study recommends improvements in BRT services through the deployment of technology as it had been used in developed countries.

  13. Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

  14. Could stops lighten the top?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, A.; Ellis, J.; Fogli, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the presently available electroweak data including radiative corrections in the standard model suggests that the top quark weighs more than the Z 0 . We examine whether squark loops in the minimal supersymmetric model, particularly those involving stops (partners of the top quark), could reduce substantially the preferred range of top quark masses. Given the present lower bounds on squark masses, we find that stop effects can reduce the central value of m t by at most a few GeV, although they do make a very heavy top quark increasingly unlikely. (orig.)

  15. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  16. Bus bar joints stability and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A

    2009-01-01

    A defective bus connection between two dipole magnets was the primary cause of the incident in sector 34 on September 19th. I will show how this could have happened, i.e. how a highly resistive joint has caused a thermal runaway and burned (or opened) before the QPS threshold was reached. In the second part of the talk I will present the new detection limits for the QPS upgrade of the RB and RQ circuits, required to avoid similar thermal runaways in the future.

  17. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  18. Optimizing Performance of at-grade Intersection with Bus Rapid Transit Corridor and Heterogeneous Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has emerged as a preferred mode of public transport in various countries all over the world for its cost effectiveness in construction as well as in operation and maintenance. The rapid transit feature of BRT is seen as a solution to many traffic problems in these countries. However, in developing countries like India, the right -of-way for most of the roads is restricted and traffic is heterogeneous in nature. Provision of BRT in existing right -of-way reduces the capacity available for other motorized traffic. As the buses travel with a certain frequency on dedicated bus- ways, the dedicated corridor remains unused for most of the period when other traffic on motorized vehicle (MV lanes suffers from congestion. The problem gets severe at intersections. However, if buses are operated in mixed traffic it is no more rapid transit. Hence, a solution is required to address this problem and optimize the performance of traffic as a whole. This paper presents the effect if dedicated bus-ways end at a reasonable distance before the stop line at a busy signalized at-grade intersection, and bus lanes (beyond that are made available to all the motorized vehicular traffic (heterogeneous traffic at intersection. The performance evaluation is done in terms of average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle, vehicle throughput, average speed in network and emission of Carbon monoxide CO, mono-nitrogen oxides NOx and Volatile organic compounds (VOC. It is observed that availability of bus lanes to other motorized traffic for a reasonable distance before intersection considerably reduces the average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle and emission per vehicle, while there is an increase in vehicle throughput and average speed of all the vehicles in the network. Thus it results in reduction of congestion and performance enhancement of at-grade intersections and network. Results of

  19. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  20. Nuclear stopping in transmission experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, Lev G.; Sigmund, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Energy-loss spectra, mean and peak energy loss, and straggling due to elastic nuclear scattering have been studied theoretically as a function of target thickness and deflection angle of an initially monochromatic and well-collimated ion beam. The goal of this work has been to provide a generally valid scheme for nuclear-stopping corrections, allowing to determine electronic-stopping forces from energy-loss spectra measured in transmission geometry. Calculations have been based on the generalized Bothe-Landau theory of energy loss and multiple scattering. Our peak energy losses at zero emergence angle show close (∼10%) agreement with predictions of Fastrup et al. on the basis of the Bohr-Williams theory. However, predicted mean and peak energy losses are found to more sensitively depend on the underlying interatomic potential than unrestricted, i.e. angle-integrated mean or peak energy losses. Both elastic energy loss and multiple scattering are known to obey scaling laws involving only two combinations of the pertinent variables and atomic parameters. The dependence on deflection angle and foil thickness of mean and peak energy loss obeys a simple combination of these scaling laws. Comments are made on potential errors due to uncertainties in the nuclear-stopping correction applied in the literature with specific reference to central papers in low-velocity stopping

  1. Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Tunstall, Lewis C.

    2016-01-01

    Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops ${\\tilde t}_1$, making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are ${\\tilde t_1}\\to t \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, ${\\tilde t_1}\\to W b \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ and ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$. We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ in a model-independent fashion, revealing the existence of large regions in parameter space which are excluded for any ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ branching ratio. This effect is then illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the LHC bounds from ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ searches are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing leads only to a modest increase in the allowed regions of parameter...

  2. Correlated ion stopping in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicknagel, G.; Deutsch, C.

    1997-01-01

    The basic features of correlated ion stopping in plasmas are demonstrated by employing two opposite extremes of cluster structures, a statistical model with a spatial ion distribution of Gaussian shape and the highly regular configuration of N-ion chains and cubic boxes. In the case of the ion chains the resonant character of correlated stopping due to the interference of the excited wake fields is discussed in detail. The general behavior of correlation effects is summarized and its dependence on the ratio of cluster size and interion spacing to the screening length in the plasma, as well as the ratio of the cluster velocity to the mean electron velocity in the target, is stressed out. The validity and applicability of the dielectric response formalism used for describing correlated stopping is critically reviewed. A scheme is presented to extend the linear formalism to weak nonlinear situations that occur, in particular, for small highly charged clusters at moderate or low velocities. For the Gaussian cluster a fit formula is given, which allows a fast and accurate calculation of the enhancement of stopping due to correlation effects and applies for all degrees of degeneracy of the electrons and arbitrary cluster velocities. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Remote Shutoff Stops Runaway Lawnmower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambo, Alan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how electronics students at Central Nine Career Center designed a kill switch circuit to stop a runaway lawnmower. This project is ideal for a career center since the electronics/robotics, small engines and horticulture classes can all work together on their respective parts of the modification, installation…

  4. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In [1] we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reprametrizations of the unit interval. I am grateful to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out to me...

  5. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    In [1], we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reparametrization of the unit interval. I am indebted to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out tome...

  6. Stopping Power for Degenerate Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    This is a first attempt at calculating the BPS stopping power with electron degeneracy corrections. Section I establishes some notation and basic facts. Section II outlines the basics of the calculation, and in Section III contains some brief notes on how to proceed with the details of the calculation. The remaining work for the calculation starts with Section III.

  7. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  8. Stop researching transformational leadership! Now!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Intro__ Researchers all over the world, stop with your research on transformational leadership! Now! This could be the provocative conclusion after reading the recent article of Profs. Daan van Knippenberg and Sim Sitkin in The Academy of Management Annals (2013). These

  9. Stop researching transformational leadership! Now!

    OpenAIRE

    Tummers, Lars

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Intro__ Researchers all over the world, stop with your research on transformational leadership! Now! This could be the provocative conclusion after reading the recent article of Profs. Daan van Knippenberg and Sim Sitkin in The Academy of Management Annals (2013). These leadership professors write about the problems surrounding transformational leadership.

  10. Persisting roughness when deposition stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Moshe; Edwards, S F

    2004-12-01

    Useful theories for growth of surfaces under random deposition of material have been developed by several authors. The simplest theory is that introduced by Edwards and Wilkinson (EW), which is linear and soluble. Its nonlinear generalization by Kardar, Parisi, and Zhang (KPZ) resulted in many subsequent studies. Yet both EW and KPZ theories contain an unphysical feature. When deposition of material is stopped, both theories predict that as time tends to infinity, the surface becomes flat. In fact, of course, the final surface is not flat, but simply has no gradients larger than the gradient related to the angle of repose. We modify the EW and KPZ theories to accommodate this feature and study the consequences for the simpler system which is a modification of the EW equation. In spite of the fact that the equation describing the evolution of the surface is not linear, we find that the steady state in the presence of noise is not very different in the long-wavelength limit from that of the linear EW equation. The situation is quite different from that of EW when deposition stops. Initially there is still some rearrangement of the surface, but that stops as everywhere on the surface the gradient is less than that related to the angle of repose. The most interesting feature observed after deposition stops is the emergence of history-dependent steady-state distributions.

  11. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work on Tourette Syndrome Tourette Association information on bullying What it’s like to have Tourette – Mary tells her story What children wish people knew about Tourette Syndrome CDC Children’s Mental Health StopBullying.gov Features Media Sign up for Features ...

  12. Schedule and complex motion of shuttle bus induced by periodic inflow of passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Naito, Yuichi

    2011-09-01

    We have studied the dynamic behavior of a bus in the shuttle bus transportation with a periodic inflow. A bus schedule is closely related to the dynamics. We present the modified circle map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus. The motion of the shuttle bus depends on the loading parameter and the inflow period. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions with varying both loading parameter and inflow rate.

  13. Lifestyles and Goals of Homeless Male Shelter Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Schwend

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the health, lifestyles, and goals of homeless male shelter users. The mixed-methods descriptive non-experimental study was conducted at a homeless shelter cot program. The Dykeman biopsychosocial interventional model was used as a framework for this study. Thirty men utilizing the program were interviewed using the Chapin Lifestyle Assessment Survey. In addition, the men were asked about their social support system and goals. The results demonstrated that the group had a strong sense of responsibility for their own actions, a desire to learn, and were motivated to make a meaningful contribution. Goals focused on obtaining employment and securing housing. Shelter staff was reported as a source of social support.

  14. Illinois School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Trainee Guide. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This trainee guide contains six units of materials for use by those studying to become school bus drivers in the State of Illinois. Covered in the units are the following topics: school bus driver role and responsibility, passenger control, first aid, driving fundamentals, accidents and emergencies, and detecting hazards. Each unit contains a…

  15. Connecticut nutmeg fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administra-tion (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP). A team led by the Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium a...

  16. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  17. 3D reconstructions of a controlled bus bombing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Hansen, Nikolaj Friis; Hansen, Kamilla Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: to demonstrate the usefulness of 3D reconstructions to better understand the dynamic of a controlled bus bombing. Materials and methods: 3D models of the victims (pigs) were created from post-mortem CT scanning using Mimic software; 3D models of the crime scene (bus) were generated by...

  18. Review of bus drivers' occupational stress and stress prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Di Martino, V.

    1995-01-01

    Although heterogeneous in methodology and content, 32 studies from 13 countries on bus drivers' work and health are similar in their conclusions. Bus-driving–characterized by high demands, low control and low support – can be regarded as a classic example of high-strain occupation, with high risks

  19. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  20. Bus Lifecycle Cost Model for Federal Land Management Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The Bus Lifecycle Cost Model is a spreadsheet-based planning tool that estimates capital, operating, and maintenance costs for various bus types over the full lifecycle of the vehicle. The model is based on a number of operating characteristics, incl...

  1. Smoking policy change at a homeless shelter: attitudes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2015-01-01

    Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43 years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12 months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8 parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    alternative modes of transport to private cars, such as public transport. In this paper we focus only on the potential of bus transport services in cities for attracting travellers from cars. It is a basic assumption behind this paper that the ability of public bus transport to attract travellers from cars...... depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes...... of governance of bus transport in several countries, including Denmark and the United Kingdom. Our focus is on how New Public Mangement Reforms have changed the mix of governance modes and thus may have influenced the ability of urban bus transport to attract travellers from cars. We focus on a particular case...

  3. SISTEM RESERVASI TIKET BUS DI TERMINAL ARJOSARI MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Wirawan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bus Ticket Reservation System is an application that can be used to help booking bus tickets and the buyer will get a report via SMS Gateway. The reservation system is made by conducting field studies in Arjosari Bus Station Malang. This system uses SMS Gateway to send the report to the buyer after booking bus tickets online. SMS Gateway on this application serves as a liaison which delays sms between External Short Message entitiy (ESME and Short Message Service Center (SMSC and so does in reserve.The reservation system made is developed with the PHP programming language and has a prototype system pattern. System functions were tested using the validation testing, performance testing, and usability testing. The results percentage of responses usability testing is 67.7%. This shows that Ticket Reservation System at Arjosari Bus Station can be used well enough.

  4. Improved design of HIRFL-CSR EVME bus controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Long; Liu Wufeng; Qiao Weimin; Jing Lan

    2009-01-01

    The EVME bus controller which is a key component of the HIRFL-CSR control system was improved. Besides reconfiguring the embedded Linux, a utility program was developed for data exchange between the controller and the database. The bus controller is based on ARM920T(ARM9) micro processor which is BGA packaged. The bus controller has the universal interface of VGA display, keyboard, and mouse. The backboard interface logic is programmed in an in-system configurable FPGA device. The bus can drive high current up to 64 mA, with the flexibility of the programmable signal definitions. All the improved performance helped the EVME bus controller play a crucial role in HIRFL-CSR control system. (authors)

  5. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Human caretaking of cats was explored in a sample of people surrendering cats to shelters in Australia. At the shelters surrenderers classified themselves as owners or non-owners and a questionnaire identified that this was related to their method of acquisition of the cat, their association time with the cat, the closeness of their relationship with the cat and their degree of responsibility for the cat’s care. A model of ownership perception was developed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. Understanding ownership perceptions in cats surrendered to shelters is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats. Abstract The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception). Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59%) fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception

  6. Trip-oriented stochastic optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yongchang; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Qinpu; Zhang, Yuanbo; Xia, Huaicheng

    2016-01-01

    A trip-oriented stochastic optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric bus is presented in this paper, which includes the offline stochastic dynamic programming part and the online implementation part performed by equivalent consumption minimization strategy. In the offline part, historical driving cycles of the fixed route are divided into segments according to the position of bus stops, and then a segment-based stochastic driving condition model based on Markov chain is built. With the segment-based stochastic model obtained, the control set for real-time implemented equivalent consumption minimization strategy can be achieved by solving the offline stochastic dynamic programming problem. Results of stochastic dynamic programming are converted into a 3-dimensional lookup table of parameters for online implemented equivalent consumption minimization strategy. The proposed strategy is verified by both simulation and hardware-in-loop test of real-world driving cycle on an urban bus route. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms both the well-tuned equivalent consumption minimization strategy and the rule-based strategy in terms of fuel economy, and even proved to be close to the optimal result obtained by dynamic programming. Furthermore, the practical application potential of the proposed control method was proved by hardware-in-loop test. - Highlights: • A stochastic problem was formed based on a stochastic segment-based driving condition model. • Offline stochastic dynamic programming was employed to solve the stochastic problem. • The instant power split decision was made by the online equivalent consumption minimization strategy. • Good performance in fuel economy of the proposed method was verified by simulation results. • Practical application potential of the proposed method was verified by the hardware-in-loop test results.

  7. Effects of passengers on bus driver celeration behavior and incident prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Af Wåhlberg, A E

    2007-01-01

    Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers has previously been found to predict their traffic incident involvement, but it has also been ascertained that the level of celeration is influenced by the number of passengers carried as well as other traffic density variables. This means that the individual level of celeration is not as well estimated as could be the case. Another hypothesized influence of the number of passengers is that of differential quality of measurements, where high passenger density circumstances are supposed to yield better estimates of the individual driver component of celeration behavior. Comparisons were made between different variants of the celeration as predictor of traffic incidents of bus drivers. The number of bus passengers was held constant, and cases identified by their number of passengers per kilometer during measurement were excluded (in 12 samples of repeated measurements). After holding passengers constant, the correlations between celeration behavior and incident record increased very slightly. Also, the selective prediction of incident record of those drivers who had had many passengers when measured increased the correlations even more. The influence of traffic density variables like the number of passengers have little direct influence on the predictive power of celeration behavior, despite the impact upon absolute celeration level. Selective prediction on the other hand increased correlations substantially. This unusual effect was probably due to how the individual propensity for high or low celeration driving was affected by the number of stops made and general traffic density; differences between drivers in this respect were probably enhanced by the denser traffic, thus creating a better estimate of the theoretical celeration behavior parameter C. The new concept of selective prediction was discussed in terms of making estimates of the systematic differences in quality of the individual driver data.

  8. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmund, P., E-mail: sigmund@sdu.dk [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Schinner, A. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul’s data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  9. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul’s data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  10. Orientation Assistance for Visually Impaired Passengers within a Bus Rapid Transit System (Transmilenio, using Satellite Geolocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Camargo

    2017-05-01

    Results: 100% of the users were able to reach their destination successfully in the pilot test. In regards to the usability perception, users highlighted features such as sound indications for setting the device and orientation guidance throughout the journey. On the other hand, one of the main difficulties found was to correctly identify the bus approaching the stop and similarly locating the corresponding boarding door, as multiple bus routes may alight in the same door. Conclusions: The device was built incorporating low-cost technologies intended to make it affordable in an eventual mass—scale production. Likewise, a discreet design was chosen so as to lessen the risk of robbery, which unfortunately is a frequent issue in the Transmilenio system due to overcrowding of buses and stations. Additionally, we remark that the prototype can be made smaller by using special—purpose circuit boards. Policy-makers may take into account these considerations for an eventual wide implementation as part of governments’ plans for mobility inclusion in mass-transport systems for disabled people, in comparison with other alternatives such as smart cell phones Language: Spanish.

  11. Economic Benefit of Introducing a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in Kano State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. A.; Afolabi, S.; Nda, M.; Daura, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is to know the variables use in quantifying economic benefits of public transport project, contribution of public transport to economic productivity This paper attempts to provide a Road User Cost (RUC) comparison of current usage of Buses and Cars in three different stages which are the present time, do nothing and the introduction of new modes. Vehicle operating cost (VOC), value of time (VOT), pollution cost, accident cost and environmental cost are calculated in other to know the benefits for their abilities to ensure accessibility and mobility, reduce accidents and reduce environmental loss. The study stretch involves an 11.1 km of 2-lane divided carriageway road connecting Kabuga bus stop to Janguza market. Social costs which included accident costs, accident cost of cars (private modes) were found to be 50 times the accident cost of bus accidents. California Air Resource Board (CARB) model was adopted to evaluate Environmental costs. The total road user costs were then obtained to provide comparative evaluation among the study modes. Furthermore, the multiple future scenarios were created to provide understanding about the need for inclusion of other modes. In this regard, this paper provided a framework for the cost evaluation for an urban area and results indicate that buses are more cost-effective in transportation of equivalent number of passengers.

  12. The Wheels on the Bus Go “Buy Buy Buy”: School Bus Advertising Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment “forum analysis” as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property. PMID:22742065

  13. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  14. Opinions of UK rescue shelter and rehoming center workers on the problems facing their industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stavisky, Jenny; Brennan, Marnie L.; Downes, Martin J.; Dean, Rachel S.

    2017-01-01

    Animal shelters exist worldwide to care for and rehome unwanted or straying pets. Previous studies have examined why owners breed unwanted animals, or relinquish their pets to shelters. However, the views of shelter workers, who receive and care for these animals, have previously been largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of animal shelter workers on the problems facing their industry. A sampling frame was constructed, consisting of every identified shel...

  15. Assessing Bus Performance Rating in Kajang, Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhisham, S.; Ismail, A.; Sidek, L. M.; Borhan, M. N.; Zaini, N.; Yen, A. T. G.

    2018-04-01

    The Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual (TCQSM) was chosen based on the review with four manuals and guidelines for the method will be applied. Six (6) attributes, namely Hours of Service, Passenger Load, Transit Auto Travel Time, Service Frequency, Punctuality Performance and Service Coverage were chosen for evaluation.[6][7][8]. A total of three (3) operators with seven (7) routes were identified in Kajang. Based on the final results, the Quality of Service (QOS) findings was rated as D, which was regarded as minimum or satisfactory. Most stakeholders’ recommendations were: for the operators to provide information on bus scheduling and have accurate information for the passengers. It was suggested that in future this study can be extended to all routes and could be repeated after the opening of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) stations in Kajang, so as to provide a comparison and better evaluation of the public buses in Kajang.

  16. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  17. Field bus technology in accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shuming

    1999-01-01

    Since eighties to now, the computer technology, network communication and ULSI technology have been developing rapidly. The level of control for industries and scientific experiments has been upgraded accordingly, so as to meet the increasing requirements for automation. The control systems become more complicated; the devices in control systems become more and more intelligent. However the cost of DCS (Distributed Control System) is quite expensive and the period of system integration is very long. More than ten measurement results for two methods defined in the world, in order to get inter operability of intelligent devices and reduce the costs. The author presents the development trend of fieldbuses briefly and describes the main performances of CAN, LONWORKS, WOLDFIP and PROFIBUS which are mainly used in the world today. The author proposes that the field bus technology will be introduced into the accelerator control systems in the country

  18. Status of the FASTBUS standard data bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    1980-11-01

    FASTBUS is a new laboratory standard data bus intended for use in experimental data acquisition and control. The development of FASTBUS began with a feasibility study in 1976, and is presently at the development prototyping stage. The principal aims of the standard are to provide a factor of ten or more improvement in speed of data transfers over present systems, as well as to provide an architecture for systems containing multiple processors. Developmental prototypes now in progress include crates, backplanes, cooling devices, power supplies, test and diagnostic modules, and user modules. A sizeable software development effort is also underway. Several experiments have made commitments to use FASTBUS. A review of current work and potential applications is given. 10 figures

  19. Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). WWC Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) is a framework for planning and delivering instruction in content areas such as science, history, and mathematics to limited-English proficient students. The goal of SIOP is to help teachers integrate academic language development into their lessons, allowing students to learn and practice…

  20. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, registration shall in all events be required with respect to any interests in the... claimed to be proprietary or exclusive to the tax shelter promoter or any party other than the offeree. (2... any tax advisor (including a tax advisor independent from all other entities involved in the...

  1. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Infections with endoparasites in dogs in Dutch animal shelters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobel, le W.E.; Robben, S.R.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Faecal samples from 224 dogs from 23 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined for endoparasites. In total 20.5% of the faecal sample were positive for helminth and/or protozoa infections. Eggs of Toxocara canis were found in 8.5% of the faecal samples. Other endoparasites found were

  3. Some aspects of shelter FCM surfaces with water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhidkov, A.V.; Gonchar, V.V.; Veklich, E.L.

    2000-01-01

    The water affinity and adhesion energy temperature dependences for all main sort of FCM have been both measured for the first time. It was established that FCM are slightly hydrophilous only and their wettability depends on its certain type, The data obtained allows to suggest the certain technological recommendations concerning the FCM of Shelter object treatment

  4. Body condition score (BCS and metabolic status of shelter dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrighetto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A group of 147 shelter dogs were weighted and assigned a body condition score (BCS using a 9 point scale system, in order to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in the kennel. More than 60% of the animals showed a BCS³6 (overweight and obese and this condition was mainly attributed to an excess of carbohydrates and fat in the diet. In 67/147 dogs, a blood sample was drawn and the effects of BCS, age and time spent in the shelter were evaluated on biochemical parameters. Obese dogs showed significantly higher levels of triglycerides (P<0.01, while increasing BCS determined only an increasing non significant trend on cholesterol values. Age influenced creatinine (P<0.05 and the oldest dogs scoring BCS³6 registered significant higher NEFA (P<0.05 and CK (P=0.01 levels. Time spent in the shelter did not affect any parameter. The dogs’ metabolic condition reflects the need of taking more care of the quality of feed administered in the shelters to avoid the negative health effects caused by chronic obesity.

  5. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception. Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59% fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception was proposed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. This model consisted of a set of variables proposed as directly or indirectly influencing ownership perception, with connecting arrows to indicate proposed causal relationships. Understanding ownership perception and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intake is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats.

  6. SHELTER COMPETITION BETWEEN TWO INVASIVE CRAYFISH SPECIES: A LABORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALONSO F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alien crayfishes represent a common threat to aquatic ecosystems. Their spread in Europe is leading to more frequent contacts between different invasive species populations. Shelter can be an important factor in the resulting interactions. A laboratory experiment was designed to analyse the competition for shelter in similarly sized males of two species that show an invasive behaviour in Spain, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii. We carried out 24 heterospecific, six-hour trials, with 30 min behavioural observations per hour. Most often, red swamp crayfish were both the first (70.8% and the long-term winner (62.5%. Usually, the long-term winner was the first winner. Whenever shelter was occupied, a passive behaviour by unsheltered individuals was more frequent in signal crayfish than in red swamp crayfish. When both were unsheltered, signal crayfish displayed more often a passive behaviour. Although the observed behaviour might be explained as the result of dominance by the red swamp crayfish over the signal crayfish, shelter availability and class, as well as different growth patterns and population size structures, could change the intensity and the outcome of the encounters in the wild, where signal crayfish usually reach larger sizes than red swamp crayfish.

  7. National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

  8. Sheltered Workshops and Transition: Old Bottles, New Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Edmund

    This paper provides a historical overview of sheltered workshops and presents information about service innovations and mission expansion. The first workshop in the United States was the Perkins Institute, opened in 1837 for individuals with visual handicaps. This workshop was typical of "categorical" workshops that were established during this…

  9. KAJIAN AWAL SIMULASI KOMPUTER MODEL KEBIJAKAN PENENTUAN JUMLAH OPTIMAL ARMADA BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Budiawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keberadaan Bus Rapid Transit (BRT di Kota Semarang diharapkan dapat menjadi salah satu solusi akan permasalahan kemacetan, adanya BRT ini terutama pada trayek perjalanan koridor II, ternyata mendapatkan tanggapan positif dari masyarakat pengguna, terbukti dari meningkatnya permintaan yang terjadi dari tahun 2012 hingga 2013 yakni hampir menyentuh angka 90% dari tahun sebelumnya. Dari hasil pengamatan pada trayek perjalanan Koridor II yang telah dilakukan, ternyata diketahui bahwa pada beberapa shelter (halte terjadi permintaan yang cukup tinggi, dan akhirnya pada saat peak hour armada BRT tidak mampu menampung seluruh permintaan yang terjadi, sehingga mengakibatkan penumpang harus menunggu lebih lama untuk dilayani oleh armada tersebut. Hal tersebut memicu permasalahan baru yakni kurang optimalnya jumlah armada yang beroperasi dan juga jadwal antar keberangkatan armada yang kurang menyesuaikan kondisi ketika tingginya permintaan pada setiap halte. Adapun metode yang digunakan adalah dengan melakukan pendekatan sistem, yang selanjutnya melakukan pemodelan sistem transportasi dan simulasi computer yang terjadi pada rute perjalanan tersebut. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah rancangan model simulasi dalam bentuk model matematis dan simulasi komputer. Variabel pengendali pada model matematis dan simulasi komputer adalah frekuensi waktu antar kedatangan armada BRT, sehingga diharapkan mengurangi panjang antrian penumpang. Kata kunci: sistem transportasi, pemodelan sistem, simulasi komputer.

  10. Optimation of Operation System Integration between Main and Feeder Public Transport (Case Study: Trans Jakarta-Kopaja Bus Services)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Priadi, Y. N.

    2018-05-01

    Promoting a better public transport is a key strategy to cope with urban transport problems which are mostly caused by a huge private vehicle usage. A better public transport service quality not only focuses on one type of public transport mode, but also concerns on inter modes service integration. Fragmented inter mode public transport service leads to a longer trip chain as well as average travel time which would result in its failure to compete with a private vehicle. This paper examines the optimation process of operation system integration between Trans Jakarta Bus as the main public transport mode and Kopaja Bus as feeder public transport service in Jakarta. Using scoring-interview method combined with standard parameters in operation system integration, this paper identifies the key factors that determine the success of the two public transport operation system integrations. The study found that some key integration parameters, such as the cancellation of “system setoran”, passenger get in-get out at official stop points, and systematic payment, positively contribute to a better service integration. However, some parameters such as fine system, time and changing point reliability, and information system reliability are among those which need improvement. These findings are very useful for the authority to set the right strategy to improve operation system integration between Trans Jakarta and Kopaja Bus services.

  11. Project survey for trolley-bus transport; Johdinautoliikenteen hankeselvitys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, T.; Eklund, P.; Airaksinen, S.; Maettoe, R.; Laehdetie, A.

    2011-04-15

    To investigate the feasibility and rationality of the revival of trolley bus traffic in Helsinki a full size project plan was conducted for a variety of alternatives. This included a survey on the latest developments of the trolley bus technology, three optional plans for route network, a budgetary level design for a fully functional depot in Koskela bus depot, examination of urban landscape structures, a study on organisational options, particular technical specifications applicable on suitable trolley buses and an examination of the impacts on the environment and on the future development of public transport. The basic concept of a trolley bus as a means of electric public transport vehicle has found its form over the years, but all the components of the system undergo at present intensive development. In context of this survey also the option of a fully autonomous electric bus powered by accumulators or fuel cells and the like was investigated. However, such technology is still totally inadequate for a heavy duty bus. There are no economically competitive and effective systems available as yet. The trolley bu is the far most reliable system and gives the best life cycle economy for a foreseeable future. Earliest estimates for alternative electric technologies in regular bus service are viable just after one investment cycle some time beyond 2030. Then it should be possible to run without the support of a comprehensive overhead line. The latest achievements in the development of trolley bus are auxiliary engine and accumulator systems allowing for more autonomous propulsion. Nowadays, trolley buses are equipped with an auxiliary power unit that alleviates the traditional restrictions of the overhead line. The modern trolley bus may run short distances without the trolley lines. Recuperation of the kinetic energy at deceleration (braking) either into the overhead line network or by storing it in the vehicle is one of the characteristics of modern trolley buses

  12. Establishment in treeshelter. II. Effect of shelter color on gas exchange and hardiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelgren, R.; Montague, D.T.; Rupp, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the microclimate, gas exchange, and growth of feild-grown Norway maple (Acerplatanoides L.) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) trees nonsheltered, and in brown and white shelters. Shelter microclimate-air temperature (Ta), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and radiation -and tree leaf area, growth in diameter, stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthesis were measured during the first growing season after bare-root transplanting. Bark temperatures in midwinter were also measured. Treeshelter microclimate was greenhouse-like compared to ambient conditions, as shortwave radiation was lower, and midday Ta and relative humidity were higher. Although trees in shelters had greater shoot elongation and higher gs than trees grown without shelters, photosynthesis was not different. White shelters allowed 25% more shortwave radiation penetration and increased Ta by 2 to 4 degrees C and VPD by 0.5-1 kPa over brown shelters. However, tree growth and gas exchange generally were not affected by shelter color. Winter injury was increased for trees in shelters and varied with species and shelter color. Both species exhibited shoot dieback in shelters the spring following a winter where bark temperatures varied 40 to 50 degrees C diurnally. More new growth died on maple, particularly in white shelters where several trees were killed. These data suggest that supra optimal summer and winter temperatures may reduce vigor and interfere with cold tolerance of some species grown in shelters

  13. For Youth, by Youth: A Third Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    This past winter, the third student-run homeless shelter in the United States came into being. Two recent Harvard graduates, Sam Greenberg and Sarah Rosenkrantz, who had volunteered at the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter as college students, saw a need within the Boston and Cambridge communities for a homeless shelter serving young adults. Drawing…

  14. 76 FR 51381 - Supplemental Awards to Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS... grants to seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers. CFDA Number: 93.676. Statutory Authority...) announces the award of single-source expansion supplement grants to seven unaccompanied alien shelter care...

  15. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement... recipient on behalf of its employees for the purpose of contributing to or funding a tax sheltered annuity...

  16. Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.

  17. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your fingers and from your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some ...

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources ... Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  19. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  20. DWPF Melter No.2 Prototype Bus Bar Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.

    2003-01-01

    Characterization and performance testing of a prototype DWPF Melter No.2 Dome Heater Bus Bar are described. The prototype bus bar was designed to address the design features of the existing system which may have contributed to water leaks on Melter No.1. Performance testing of the prototype revealed significant improvement over the existing design in reduction of both bus bar and heater connection maximum temperature, while characterization revealed a few minor design and manufacturing flaws in the bar. The prototype is recommended as an improvement over the existing design. Recommendations are also made in the area of quality control to ensure that critical design requirements are met

  1. Using microcomputers for lighting appliance control using a DALI bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article concerns the DALI bus theoretical and practical aspects. The DALI bus is a modern technology developed especially for illumination systems control. Authors are outlining communication basic principles related to the physical layer and going up to more complex data transactions among particular devices. The article main topic is aimed at two device models development based on microcontroller and exploiting that technology. The first of those two devices is a DALI slave unit enabling the light source or multi switch with light indication components control via DALI bus. The second device measures the ambient illumination intensity and it also detects errors in the load.

  2. POPULATION OF DOGS AND HOUSING CONDITIONS IN POLISH SHELTERS FOR HOMELESS ANIMALS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE DATA FROM THE SZCZECIN SHELTER FOR HOMELESS ANIMALS IN THE YEARS 2002 - 2007

    OpenAIRE

    MAŁGORZATA PIERKO; MARCELINA GAIK

    2009-01-01

    The analysis included the state and the housing conditions in the shelter, the population of dogs, adoptions, euthanasias, castrations, deaths, escapes, the number of dogs rehomed by the original owners. The observations ascertained the trends regarding the homeless dogs in the shelter, the future prospects for the center and its rank among other animal shelters in Poland. The overpopulation problem was noted, and henceforth the the exceeding quantity of euthanized and dead cases. Another pro...

  3. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  4. Speed limiter integrated fatigue analyzer (SLIFA) for speed and fatigue control on diesel engine truck and bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Haris; Pranoto, Hadi; Leman, A. M.; Sebayang, Darwin; Baba, I.

    2017-09-01

    Every second, the number of road traffic deaths is increased globally with millions more sustaining severe injuries and living with long-term adverse health consequences. Jakarta alone in year 2015 had recorded 556 people died due to road accidents, approximately reached 6.231 road accident cases. The identified major contributory factors of such unfortunate events are both driver fatigue and over speeding habit especially related to the driving of truck and bus. This paper presents the idea on how to control the electronic system from input fuel system of injection pump and the combustion chamber engine will control the valve solenoid in injection pump which can lock and fuel will stop for moment, and speed limit can be success, by using sensor heart rate we can input reduce speed limit when fatigue detection driver. Integration process this tool can be relevant when Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) trial in the diesel engine for truck and bus, the result of this research Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) able to control speed of diesel engine for truck and bus almost 30km/h, 60km/h, and until 70 km/h. The installation of the sensor heart rate as the input speed limit SLIFA would work when the driver is detected to be in the fatigue condition. We make Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) for control and monitoring system for diesel engine in truck and bus. Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) system can save the historical of the speed record, fatigue, rpm, and body temperature of the driver.

  5. Why does sleep stop migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigal, Marcelo E; Hargreaves, Richard J

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between sleep and migraine headaches is complex. Changes in sleep patterns can trigger migraine attacks, and sleep disorders may be associated with increased migraine frequency. Furthermore, migraine patients and their doctors very consistently report that sleep relieves already established migraine attacks. Herein we will try to answer the question, "Why does sleep stop migraine?" Since evidence for this relationship is largely based on empirical clinical observation, we will not provide a clinical review of the association. Instead, we will focus on the pathophysiology of migraine attacks and its intersections with sleep biology.

  6. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  7. Global Optimization for Bus Line Timetable Setting Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines bus timetables setting problem during each time period divided in terms of passenger flow intensity; it is supposed that passengers evenly arrive and bus runs are set evenly; the problem is to determine bus runs assignment in each time period to minimize the total waiting time of passengers on platforms if the number of the total runs is known. For such a multistage decision problem, this paper designed a dynamic programming algorithm to solve it. Global optimization procedures using dynamic programming are developed. A numerical example about bus runs assignment optimization of a single line is given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology, showing that optimizing buses’ departure time using dynamic programming can save computational time and find the global optimal solution.

  8. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2008. 

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2008. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  9. CFD Investigation on Long-Haul Passenger Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Law, H. C.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Air flow distribution is one of the important factors that will influence the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel. Poor air flow distribution not only cause discomfort to the bus passenger but also influence their travel mode as well. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the air flow performance of the bus air-conditioning system through CFD simulation approach. A 3D CAD model of air ducts was drawn and hence analysed by using CFD software, namely ANSYS Fluent, to determine the airflow rate for every outlets of the air-conditioning system. The simulated result was then validated with experimental data obtained from prototype model of air duct. Based on the findings, new design concepts is proposed with the aim to meet the industry requirement as well as to improve the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel.

  10. Transit bus applications of lithium ion batteries : progress and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    This report provides an overview of diverse transit bus applications of advanced Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs). The report highlights and illustrates several FTA programs that fostered the successful development, demonstration, and deployment of fuel-...

  11. How to Reduce Those Costly School Bus Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    The deterrent to school bus accidents is preparedness. Training programs for drivers and mechanics, equipment specifications, and a community support base are some of the ways to prevent tragedy. (MLF)

  12. Southwest Direct Express Bus Demonstration in Orlando, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    In August 1983, the Orange-Seminole-Osceola Transit Authority (OSOTA) initiated six express bus routes in the southwest corridor of Orlando (known collectively as the Southwest Direct) as an UMTA-funded demonstration project. While one objective of t...

  13. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  14. Understanding Factors of Distraction among Intrastate Bus Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunos Muhammad Nur Annuar Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in number of the world population have affected the demand for public transport especially in larger cities. Intrastate buses are chosen as the main public transport by many people due to its affordable fares. Therefore, a better performance of the intrastate bus drivers would be significant to cater the high demand. Nevertheless, distraction among the intrastate bus drivers have been found as one of the major factors that could affect the performance of the drivers. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding on the factors of distraction among intrastate bus drivers. This paper refers to findings from previous researches which are related to this field of study. In conclusion, this paper will provide a list of factors of distraction among the intrastate bus drivers which may degrade their performance.

  15. FTA fuel cell bus program : research accomplishments through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Prepared by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Office of Research, Demonstration, and Innovation (TRI), this report summarizes the accomplishments of fuel-cell-transit-bus-related research and demonstrations projects supported by FTA through 20...

  16. Modelling Field Bus Communications in Mixed-Signal Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassir Mohamad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a modelling platform using the SystemC-AMS language to simulate field bus communications for embedded systems. Our platform includes the model of an I/O controller IP (in this specific case an C controller that interfaces a master microprocessor with its peripherals on the field bus. Our platform shows the execution of the embedded software and its analog response on the lines of the bus. Moreover, it also takes into account the influence of the circuits's I/O by including their IBIS models in the SystemC-AMS description, as well as the bus lines imperfections. Finally, we present simulation results to validate our platform and measure the overhead introduced by SystemC-AMS over a pure digital SystemC simulation.

  17. Modelling Field Bus Communications in Mixed-Signal Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Garda

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a modelling platform using the SystemC-AMS language to simulate field bus communications for embedded systems. Our platform includes the model of an I/O controller IP (in this specific case an I2C controller that interfaces a master microprocessor with its peripherals on the field bus. Our platform shows the execution of the embedded software and its analog response on the lines of the bus. Moreover, it also takes into account the influence of the circuits's I/O by including their IBIS models in the SystemC-AMS description, as well as the bus lines imperfections. Finally, we present simulation results to validate our platform and measure the overhead introduced by SystemC-AMS over a pure digital SystemC simulation.

  18. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN TRANSPORTASI WISATA KURA-KURA BUS DI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Kusuma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kura-Kura Bus is one of tourist transportation companies in Bali with public shuttle bus service in tourism route. Data analysis in this research were using SWOT and AHP analysis, with participants who have position minimal as a supervisor. Participants selected based on their expertise and relevance with this article. Based on the results of SWOT and AHP analysis to develop tourist transportation is Kura-Kura Bus, which is considered the most realistic scenario is an optimistic scenario, with the goal to be a safe and comfortable transportation. To achieve the goal, based on priority strategies that could be done by management of Kura-Kura Bus are developing unique products, finding new markets, favoring public transport services, enchance brand reputation, developing smartphone application, and cross promotion with supplier.

  19. Ventilation of Animal Shelters in Wildland Fire Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bova, A. S.; Bohrer, G.; Dickinson, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of wildland fires on cavity-nesting birds and bats, as well as fossorial mammals and burrow-using reptiles, are of considerable interest to the fire management community. However, relatively little is known about the degree of protection afforded by various animal shelters in wildland fire events. We present results from our ongoing investigation, utilizing NIST’s Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and experimental data, of the effectiveness of common shelter configurations in protecting animals from combustion products. We compare two sets of simulations with observed experimental results. In the first set, wind tunnel experiments on single-entry room ventilation by Larsen and Heiselberg (2008) were simulated in a large domain resolved into 10 cm cubic cells. The set of 24 simulations comprised all combinations of incident wind speeds of 1,3 and 5 m/s; angles of attack of 0, 45, 90 and 180 degrees from the horizontal normal to the entrance; and temperature differences of 0 and 10 degrees C between the building interior and exterior. Simulation results were in good agreement with experimental data, thus providing a validation of FDS code for further ventilation experiments. In the second set, a cubic simulation domain of ~1m on edge and resolved into 1 cm cubic cells, was set up to represent the experiments by Ar et al. (2004) of wind-induced ventilation of woodpecker cavities. As in the experiments, we simulated wind parallel and perpendicular to the cavity entrance with different mean forcing velocities, and monitored the rates of evacuation of a neutral-buoyancy tracer from the cavity. Simulated ventilation rates in many, though not all, cases fell within the range of experimental data. Reasons for these differences, which include vagueness in the experimental setup, will be discussed. Our simulations provide a tool to estimate the viability of an animal in a shelter as a function of the shelter geometry and the fire intensity. In addition to the above

  20. Growth and water relations of Kentucky coffee tree in protective shelters during establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelgren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Growth and water relations of Kentucky coffee tree [Gymnocladus dioica (L.) K. Koch] whips in translucent tubelike shelters were investigated. In a container study, 1.2-m-high shelters were placed over whips following transplanting, then diurnal microclimate, water relations, and water use were measured. Shelter air temperature and vapor pressure were substantially higher, and solar radiation was 70% lower, than ambient conditions. Sheltered trees responded with nearly three-times higher stomatal conductance than nonsheltered trees. However, due to substantially lower boundary layer conductance created by the shelter, normalized water use was 40% lower. In a second experiment, same-sized shelters were placed on whips following spring transplanting in the field. Predawn and midday leaf water potentials and midday stomatal conductance (g(s)) were monitored periodically through the season, and growth was measured in late summer. Midday g(s) was also much higher in field-grown trees with shelters than in those without. Sheltered trees in the field had four times greater terminal shoot elongation but 40% less stem diameter growth. Attenuated radiation in the shelters and lower-specific leaf area of sheltered trees indicated shade acclimation. Shelters can improve height and reduce water loss during establishment in a field nursery, but they do not allow for sufficient trunk growth

  1. Training veterinary students in shelter medicine: a service-learning community-classroom technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Brenda J; Gruen, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. A range of sheltering systems now exists, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community-classroom approach introduces students to a diverse array of sheltering systems while providing practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of 2-week elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and delivered primary-care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, animal enrichment, and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience.

  2. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethylether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operation in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the

  3. Source and specificity of chemical cues mediating shelter preference of Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Amy J; Nickles, Scott P; Weissburg, Marc J; Derby, Charles D

    2006-10-01

    Caribbean spiny lobsters display a diversity of social behaviors, one of the most prevalent of which is gregarious diurnal sheltering. Previous research has demonstrated that shelter selection is chemically mediated, but the source of release and the identity of the aggregation signal are unknown. In this study, we investigated the source and specificity of the aggregation signal in Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus. We developed a relatively rapid test of shelter choice in a 5000-l laboratory flume that simulated flow conditions in the spiny lobster's natural environment, and used it to examine the shelter preference of the animals in response to a variety of odorants. We found that both males and females associated preferentially with shelters emanating conspecific urine of either sex, but not with shelters emanating seawater, food odors, or the scent of a predatory octopus. These results demonstrate specificity in the cues mediating sheltering behavior and show that urine is at least one source of the aggregation signal.

  4. Performance of shelter in coal mines agains smoke problems. Konai taihisho no kemuri ni taisuru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, S.; Shikada, N.; Tanaka, M.; Kinoshita, M. (Coal Mine Safety Research Center, Kyushu, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1991-10-25

    Relation between a coal mine shelter and smoke was discussed. An enclosing method using combination of ceder boards and vinyl curtains affect greatly the amount of leaking air and the smoke entrance because of tightness of the vinyl curtains changing with temperatures and time. Rope curtains and air curtains show very little effect of preventing smoke from coming in. Upper levels in a shelter restrict the range of sight and have carbon monoxide in higher concentration, whereby people in the shelter are required to take a low posture. It is possible to block smoke and carbon monoxide from coming into a shelter at fire by means of keeping the shelter supplied with certain amount of pressurized air. The time required for smoke to enter a shelter is as relatively short as about 5 to 6 minutes, but 40 minutes or longer is required to discharge it, hence a shelter must be so devised that smoke can never enter it. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Scenario-based electric bus operation: A case study of Putrajaya, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lay Eng Teoh; Hooi Ling Khoo; Siew Yoke Goh; Lai Mun Chong

    2018-01-01

    Globally, transportation sector has emerged as one of the major sources of air pollution. Correspondingly, green mobility (with electric bus) is gaining increasing attention as an essential step to mitigate emission concern. As such, a proper electric bus network design and fleet planning is important especially for bus operator to acquire an adequate number of electric bus, right on time, in order to operate electric bus system viably. Thus, this paper aims to examine the possibility to oper...

  6. Regenerative Braking System for Series Hybrid Electric City Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junzhi; Lu, Xin; Xue, Junliang; Li, Bos

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist hybrid electric buses achieve better fuel economy while lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of three regenerative braking systems, one of which is a series regenerative braking system and two of which are parallel regenerative braking systems. The existing friction based Adjustable Braking System (ABS) on the bus is integrated with each of the new braking systems in order to ensure bus...

  7. Digital bus technology in new coal-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaney, J.; Murray, J. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The main issues associated with including digital bus technology such as Foundation fieldbus, Profibus-DP or DeviceNet, in a coal-fired power plant are deciding which systems to install and determining how to implement it. Although still new, digital bus experiences to date have shown that the technology performs solidly and when wiring best practices are followed a significantly shorted commissioning cycle can be achieved. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. VHDL resolved function based inner communication bus for FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses a method of building an internal, universal and parametric bus. The solution was designed for a variety of FPGA families and popular VHDL compilers. The algorithm of automatic configuration of address space and methods of receiving and sending addressed data are discussed. The basic solution realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form and chosen examples of practical use of the internal bus are presented in detail.

  9. Optimal Stopping with Information Constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempa, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    We study the optimal stopping problem proposed by Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141–157, 2002). In this maximization problem of the expected present value of the exercise payoff, the underlying dynamics follow a linear diffusion. The decision maker is not allowed to stop at any time she chooses but rather on the jump times of an independent Poisson process. Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141–157, 2002), solve this problem in the case where the underlying is a geometric Brownian motion and the payoff function is of American call option type. In the current study, we propose a mild set of conditions (covering the setup of Dupuis and Wang in Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141–157, 2002) on both the underlying and the payoff and build and use a Markovian apparatus based on the Bellman principle of optimality to solve the problem under these conditions. We also discuss the interpretation of this model as optimal timing of an irreversible investment decision under an exogenous information constraint.

  10. Design professional units on maternity home of teens sheltered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Garcia Penna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory descriptive study describes the view of government shelters’ professionals regarding pregnancy in institutionalized adolescents and discusses the acting of such professionals to support the construction of a healthy motherhood in this population group. In an investigation performed between December 2009 and January 2010, contents of the reports of six professionals that took care of them in the circles of Community Therapy sheltered adolescents were analyzed. According to the view of such professionals, motherhood in institutionalized adolescents is something precocious and harmful, resultant of the immaturity of those young mothers, and because of that, their schooling process has to be interrupted. The actions of these professionals alternates between social reintegration and care with the motherhood of the adolescents. The dialogical action, the "problematization" concerning motherhood, as well as reproductive, sexual health and family planning are strategies proposed to reach health promotion among sheltered adolescents.

  11. Thermal environment and sleep in winter shelter-analogue settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yosuke; Maeda, Kazuki; Nabeshima, Yuki; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings in winter to determine the sleep and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. Twelve young healthy students took part in the sleep study of two nights for seven hours from 0 AM to 7 AM in a gymnasium. One night the subject used a pair of futons and on the other the subject used emergency supplies consisting of four blankets and a set of portable partitions. Air temperature, humidity were measured around the sleeping subjects through the night. Sleep parameters, skin temperature, microclimate temperature, rectal temperature, and heart rate of the subjects were continuously measured and recorded during the sleeping period. The subjects completed questionnaires relating to thermal comfort and subjective sleep before and after sleep. The sleep efficiency indices were lower when the subjects slept using the blankets. As the microclimate temperature between the human body and blanket was lower, mean skin temperature was significantly lower in the case of blankets.

  12. Counselling and Psychological Services for Clients at the Shelter Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Fonferová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The paper is dealing with a psychological approach to the work with families and their children at a shelter home. It describes the circumstances and conditions for the work in the specific socio-therapeutic environment of the Horni Pocernice Shelter Home. The main research question - 'What are the options of psychological intervention and psychotherapeutic work with clients in the scope of services offered by the shelter home in Horni Pocernice'- works with the hypopaper that psychology and psychotherapy have their place within and next to social services. For clients who use services of this shelter home is this work essential and contributes to better understanding of their life situation and their social relations. Effectivity of psychological work in the environment of a shelter home is in a great deal connected to its acceptance, inner belief and understanding of its real possibilities by every single social worker. Lack of understanding, distorted expectations both on the side of social workers and psychologists complicate or even prevent psychotherapeutic work with clients for whom the requirements and demands of social workers are determining during their stay. Methods: This paper is based on the design of ethnographic field research. Empirical design of this research is defined by the premises of the shelter home and the time period from 2007 to 2012. Therapeutic possibilities of clients are examined from the position of psychologist and psychotherapist of this centre who offers his/her services once a week for about 5 to 7 hours. The research sample was being created during the collection of data in the examined period and its analysis when it was early established with respect to the research question that all available cases typical for full collection will be included (there were 646 clients in the examined period. Results: The answer to the main research question concerns two variables which are related to each other. The

  13. Homeless health needs: shelter and health service provider perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Alicia J; Secor-Turner, Molly

    2014-01-01

    The effects of homelessness on health are well documented, although less is known about the challenges of health care delivery from the perspective of service providers. Using data from a larger health needs assessment, the purpose of this study was to describe homeless health care needs and barriers to access utilizing qualitative data collected from shelter staff (n = 10) and health service staff (n = 14). Shelter staff members described many unmet health needs and barriers to health care access, and discussed needs for other supportive services in the area. Health service providers also described multiple health and service needs, and the need for a recuperative care setting for this population. Although a variety of resources are currently available for homeless health service delivery, barriers to access and gaps in care still exist. Recommendations for program planning are discussed and examined in the context of contributing factors and health care reform.

  14. Experimental studies of radioactive new formations of object 'Shelter'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevskij, A.S.; Kuz'mina, I.E.; Tkach, V.N.; Tokarevskij, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical and phase composition of radioactive new-formations of object 'Shelter ' have been experimentally studied by the X-ray and local electronic probe methods of the substance analysis. Leaching of uranium is shown to be a result of attack by alkali-carbonate solutions, migration of uranium take place in the form of double alkali-carbonate system Na 4 [U O 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ]. Carbonates, sulphates, halite and probably sulphates-carbonates were found in the mineral association of new-formations. A hypothesis of formation of sodium uranyltetracarbonate Na 6 (U O 2 )(CO 3 ) 4 , under conditions of object 'Shelter' which was not described in scientific literature before has been advanced

  15. Effectiveness and risks associated with sheltering and evacuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, A.; McKenna, T.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have assessed the risks and benefits associated with evacuation and sheltering following a severe reactor accident. In the case of a severe accident and the associated uncertainties with the source term and containment behaviour, these assessments suggest that prompt evacuation of areas close to the plant offers the highest protection of the public against acute doses. Sheltering may be used as an alternative in special circumstances where evacuation may not be feasible. The source term associated with reactor accidents and containment failure mechanism affect the effectiveness of different protective measures. A comparison of different protective measures is made and results discussed. (Author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Faecal virome of cats in an animal shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Pesavento, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the metagenomics-derived feline enteric virome in the faeces of 25 cats from a single shelter in California. More than 90 % of the recognizable viral reads were related to mammalian viruses and the rest to bacterial viruses. Eight viral families were detected: Astroviridae, Coronaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, Caliciviridae and Picobirnaviridae. Six previously known viruses were also identified: feline coronavirus type 1, felid herpes 1, feline calicivirus, feline norovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and picobirnavirus. Novel species of astroviruses and bocaviruses, and the first genome of a cyclovirus in a feline were characterized. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region from four highly divergent partial viral genomes in the order Picornavirales were sequenced. The detection of such a diverse collection of viruses shed within a single shelter suggested that such animals experience robust viral exposures. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in cats, facilitating future evaluation of their pathogenic and zoonotic potentials. PMID:25078300

  17. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  18. Environmental Assessment of Bus Transport in the Trondheim Region - Evaluation of Relevant Bus and Fuel Technologies and their Potential for Mitigating Emissions from Passenger Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Buø, Tonje

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to assess the carbon footprint of transport by bus in the Trondheim region. Bus transportation is promoted as a strategy both to combat local pollution problems in urban areas and to mitigate global greenhouse gas emissions from passenger transport. Still, the environmental impacts of bus transport have received fairly limited attention in research. The environmental impacts of bus transport are calculated through life cycle assessment. A model is develo...

  19. Cooling a telecommunication shelter using mini-eolic technology

    OpenAIRE

    García Cipolletti, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Refrigeration nowadays is needed in many applications throughout different sectors. Especially in electronic components where material temperature raises considerably and cooling is necessary in order to maintain the optimal working conditions for its correct function. Telecommunication shelters are no exception, and high temperatures are reached in their components. Therefore, there is an important develop to be done in this sector in order to reduce costs of energy for this process. In this...

  20. An evaluation of a lane support system for bus rapid transit on narrow shoulders and the relation to bus driver mental workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Nicholas J.; Shankwitz, Craig; Gorgestani, Alec; Donath, Max; De Waard, Dick; Boer, Erwin R.

    2006-01-01

    The use of dedicated bus shoulders is a key method for implementing bus rapid transit (BRT) in areas that do not have the space for additional infrastructure. However, the narrow width of the bus shoulder and the need to anticipate traffic hazards in the adjacent lane can both be significant

  1. Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    Following several years of work, the construction of the Jardin Alpin – CERN tramline is almost complete, and the first tram is due to arrive at CERN on 30 April. Celebrations to mark the occasion will be held in Meyrin-Village and at CERN.   First tests of the overhead lines, signals, and tracks on the stretch between Jardin-Alpin and CERN on 7 April 2011. From 30 April onwards you will be able to travel from Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes using the No. 18 tram. This is great news, especially when you think that, only four years ago, no part of the stretch between Cornavin and CERN was served by a tramline. At present, if you want to travel between CERN and the city centre by public transport, you have to take the No. 14 or the No. 16 tram and the No. 56 bus, changing at Meyrin-Gravière, where you sometimes have quite a long wait. On 30 April all this will be a thing of the past! The construction work for the Geneva-CERN tramline began in January 20...

  2. ANALISIS SARANA ANGKUTAN UMUM BUS DAMRI DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhan Rizal Amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the availability and use of public transportation by taking a case study of the Damri bus which has Ngaliyan-Pucanggading route. The availability of public transport is not comparable to the demand for public transportation services so that the problems of transportation emerge. Additionally, the use of public transport becomes an important factor to develop the transportation. The study is conducted by surveying the Damri passengers of B.04 lane and logistic regression is used for the analysis. The method of determining the needs of transportation is issued by Departemen Perhubungan. It is used to calculate and determine whether the public transportation should be added or reduced. Then, the factors used as the independent variables in the analysis are the Damri’s safety, effectiveness, efficiency, service and reliability. The results show that Perum Damri does not need to add more Damri bus for B.04 because the results’ calculation is 0.6. and the factors that significantly influence the use Damri bus is the variable of safety, effectiveness and efficiency. However, the variables of service and reliability do not significantly influence the use of B.04 Damri bus.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ketersediaan dan penggunaan angkutan sarana angkutan umum penumpang dengan mengambil studi kasus pada bus Damri jalur dengan trayek Ngaliyan-Pucanggading. Ketersediaan sarana angkutan umum yang tersedia tidak sebanding dengan besarnya permintaan akan jasa angkutan umum oleh masyarakat umum sehingga muncul permasalahan transportasi. Di samping itu, penggunaan angkutan umum yang beroperasi menjadi faktor penting dalam upaya pengembangan sarana transportasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode survey terhadap para penumpang bus Damri jalur B.04 dan dianalisis dengan Regresi Logistik. Metode penentuan kebutuhan armada dikeluarkan oleh Departemen Perhubungan yang digunakan untuk menghitung apakah suatu

  3. Optimally stopped variational quantum algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Shabani, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    Quantum processors promise a paradigm shift in high-performance computing which needs to be assessed by accurate benchmarking measures. In this article, we introduce a benchmark for the variational quantum algorithm (VQA), recently proposed as a heuristic algorithm for small-scale quantum processors. In VQA, a classical optimization algorithm guides the processor's quantum dynamics to yield the best solution for a given problem. A complete assessment of the scalability and competitiveness of VQA should take into account both the quality and the time of dynamics optimization. The method of optimal stopping, employed here, provides such an assessment by explicitly including time as a cost factor. Here, we showcase this measure for benchmarking VQA as a solver for some quadratic unconstrained binary optimization. Moreover, we show that a better choice for the cost function of the classical routine can significantly improve the performance of the VQA algorithm and even improve its scaling properties.

  4. How to stop global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on how to stop global warming. At the Toronto Conference on Climate Change in 1988, the world's industrialized nations agreed on a goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent by the year 2005. This would not stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases but would at least slow their accumulation. Although difficult to achieve, the Toronto goal is certainly reachable. Newer, more efficient technologies can lower energy consumption without effecting economic output. CFC- substitutes can provide refrigeration. In fact, an international carbon tax of just $1 per barrel of oil, or $6 per ton of coal, would generate more than enough revenue to pay for the necessary fuel-saving measures. This tax could result from an international agreement similar to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which obliges its signatories to cut down on production of CFCs

  5. The process of homelessness: an event history analysis of length of stay for the Groningen shelter accommodation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernee, H.; Oldersma, F.; Popping, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the process of shelter exits for homeless individuals and for different shelter types in the public shelter system in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. Individualised administrative data from the Groningen Homelessness Monitor (2003–2006) are used for estimating a Weibull hazard rate regression model. Results show that the different shelter types fit adequately with their policy purposes : lengths of stay in emergency shelter accommodation appear to be shorter than...

  6. Measurement of the Residual Resistivity Ratio of the Bus Bars Copper Stabilizer of the 13 kA Circuits of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonio, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Schmidt, R; Verweij, A; Siemko, A; Claudet, S; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H

    2012-01-01

    After the incident of September 2008, the operational beam energy of the LHC has been set to 3.5 TeV, since not all joints of the superconducting (SC) bus bars between magnets have the required quality for 7 TeV operation. This decision is based on simulations to determine the safe current in the main dipole and quadrupole circuits, reproducing the thermal behaviour of a quenched superconducting joint by taking into account all relevant factors that affect a possible thermal runaway. One important parameter is the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the copper stabilizer of the bus bar connecting the superconducting magnets. A dedicated campaign to measure the RRR for the main 13 kA circuits of the LHC in all sectors was performed during the Christmas stop in December 2010 and January 2011. The measurement method as well as the data analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  7. Planning Emergency Shelters for Urban Disaster Resilience: An Integrated Location-Allocation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laijun Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, extreme natural hazards threaten cities more than ever due to contemporary society’s high vulnerability in cities. Hence, local governments need to implement risk mitigation and disaster operation management to enhance disaster resilience in cities. Transforming existing open spaces within cities into emergency shelters is an effective method of providing essential life support and an agent of recovery in the wake of disasters. Emergency shelters planning must identify suitable locations for shelters and reasonably allocate evacuees to those shelters. In this paper, we first consider both the buildings’ post-disaster condition and the human choice factor that affect evacuees’ decision, and propose a forecasting method to estimate the time-varying shelter demand. Then we formulate an integrated location-allocation model that is used sequentially: an emergency shelter location model to satisfy the time-varying shelter demand in a given urban area with a goal of minimizing the total setup cost of locating the shelters and an allocation model that allocates the evacuees to shelters with a goal of minimizing their total evacuation distance. We also develop an efficient algorithm to solve the model. Finally, we propose an emergency shelters planning based on a case study of Shanghai, China.

  8. Improving radiation worker safety at the Chernobyl Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, G.J.; Korneev, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Shelter (i.e. 'sarcophagus') enclosing the remains of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 that was destroyed in the April 1986 accident presents a unique radiological and nuclear safety challenge. The Chomobyl Shelter holds over 190 tons of irradiated nuclear fuel in the form of lava fuel containing masses and dust. Hazards include very high radiation, surface contamination and transient airborne radioactivity concentrations. A state-of-the-art radiation protection program is needed to support international efforts stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter, reduce the potential for major structural failure, minimize the consequences of a such an event, and develop a long-term strategy and study for its conversion into an environmentally safe site. This project consists of the first phase of efforts to transfer health physics technology necessary to support stabilization of the Chornobyl Shelter. Technical specifications for each major system and component were jointly developed by staff from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Chornobyl Shelter. Major elements of this technology transfer include equipment for external dose control (electronic dosimeters, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system, portable radiation survey instruments, and area radiation monitors), internal dose control (whole body counter, bioassay system design and technical support), health physics training, and other radiological technical support. A work planning system that includes the capability to collect data such as radiological surveys, photographs, video clips, and other data, was developed from a system demonstrated at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. An access control system similar to one used at several commercial nuclear facilities in the U.S. was converted for bilingual support (Russian and English). Technology for improving contamination control includes HEPA-ventilation and vacuum cleaner systems, semi-permanent and portable

  9. Schedule and complex motion of shuttle bus induced by periodic inflow of passengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Naito, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the dynamic behavior of a bus in the shuttle bus transportation with a periodic inflow. A bus schedule is closely related to the dynamics. We present the modified circle map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus. The motion of the shuttle bus depends on the loading parameter and the inflow period. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions with varying both loading parameter and inflow rate. -- Highlights: → We studied the dynamic behavior of a bus in the shuttle bus transportation. → We presented the modified circle map model for the bus schedule. → We clarified the dependence of the tour time on both loading parameter and inflow period.

  10. Improvement of multiprocessing performance by using optical centralized shared bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuliang; Chen, Ray T.

    2004-06-01

    With the ever-increasing need to solve larger and more complex problems, multiprocessing is attracting more and more research efforts. One of the challenges facing the multiprocessor designers is to fulfill in an effective manner the communications among the processes running in parallel on multiple multiprocessors. The conventional electrical backplane bus provides narrow bandwidth as restricted by the physical limitations of electrical interconnects. In the electrical domain, in order to operate at high frequency, the backplane topology has been changed from the simple shared bus to the complicated switched medium. However, the switched medium is an indirect network. It cannot support multicast/broadcast as effectively as the shared bus. Besides the additional latency of going through the intermediate switching nodes, signal routing introduces substantial delay and considerable system complexity. Alternatively, optics has been well known for its interconnect capability. Therefore, it has become imperative to investigate how to improve multiprocessing performance by utilizing optical interconnects. From the implementation standpoint, the existing optical technologies still cannot fulfill the intelligent functions that a switch fabric should provide as effectively as their electronic counterparts. Thus, an innovative optical technology that can provide sufficient bandwidth capacity, while at the same time, retaining the essential merits of the shared bus topology, is highly desirable for the multiprocessing performance improvement. In this paper, the optical centralized shared bus is proposed for use in the multiprocessing systems. This novel optical interconnect architecture not only utilizes the beneficial characteristics of optics, but also retains the desirable properties of the shared bus topology. Meanwhile, from the architecture standpoint, it fits well in the centralized shared-memory multiprocessing scheme. Therefore, a smooth migration with substantial

  11. Scenario-based electric bus operation: A case study of Putrajaya, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, transportation sector has emerged as one of the major sources of air pollution. Correspondingly, green mobility (with electric bus is gaining increasing attention as an essential step to mitigate emission concern. As such, a proper electric bus network design and fleet planning is important especially for bus operator to acquire an adequate number of electric bus, right on time, in order to operate electric bus system viably. Thus, this paper aims to examine the possibility to operate electric bus as a replacement for the conventional bus operation (with natural gas buses for the study area in Putrajaya, Malaysia. In order to determine a proper-designed electric bus operating system in terms of electric bus route, service frequency and quantity, the proposed methodology is developed with the aid of a traffic modeling software to cater various scenarios. Based on the existing (conventional traffic and transit system in Putrajaya, the developed electric bus operating model is calibrated accordingly by considering various operational concerns including battery capacity and charging facility. The resultant findings revealed that the developed electric bus operating system in Putrajaya outperforms the conventional bus operation, not only in generating a higher profit margin for the bus operator, but also satisfying the passengers in a better manner (by carrying more passengers per unit of bus with a lower energy consumption.

  12. Stop Negative Thinking Effects for Drug Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Windiarti, Sri Endang; Indriati, Indriati; Surachmi, Fajar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of therapy stop thinking negatively against drug addiction in Rehabilitation Orphanage Rumah Damai Gunung Pati Semarang. This research is quasy experiment with pretest - posttes without the control group design. Thirty respondents were taken to the reseach sujects. Stop thinking negative therapy before and after thebehavior of drug addiction there are differences (t = 0.00), so it can be stated that the therapy stop thinking negatively inf...

  13. Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?

    OpenAIRE

    David Huron; Caitlyn Trevor

    2017-01-01

    String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut) or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard). Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifica...

  14. Measurement of stopping power of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    The stopping power of heavy ions is discussed. In the low energy region, heavy ions keep some of their orbital electrons, and have equilibrium electron charge. The stopping power of penetrating particles depends on this effective charge. At present, it is hard to estimate this effective charge theoretically, accordingly, the estimation is made experimentally. Another difficulty in this estimation is that the Born approximation is not effective for heavy ions. In the low energy region, electronic stopping and nuclear stopping contribute to the stopping power. For the electronic stopping, a formula for the stopping power was given by Lindhard et al. The experimental values were obtained at GSI, and are inconsistent with the estimation by the Lindhard's formula. In the high energy region, where the Born approximation can be used, the Bethe's formula is applied, but the experimental data are scarce. Oscillations are seen in the Z dependence graph of the experimental stopping cross sections. Experimental works on the stopping power have been done. The differential and the integral methods were carried out. (Kato, T.)

  15. Potential Influence of Metro on Bus: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, M.; Abishek Reddy, M.; Sathish, V.; Venkatesh, R.

    2018-06-01

    A modal shift occurs when one mode of transport has a comparative advantage in a similar market over another. The present work concerns with the development of modal shift model for urban travel in Chennai, India. The modal shift model was calibrated using binary logit technique and validated using hold-out sample method. The validated model was used to predict the probability of shift in selected corridor. The recent introduction of metro rail in Chennai has lead to an increasing competition among public transport modes. To study the influence of metro on bus transport, a Stated Preference (SP) survey was conducted among express bus travellers. Using the SP survey data, a modal shift model was calibrated to estimate the plausible shift from bus to metro. Results indicate that variables like fare- difference, age, and income play an important role in the shift behaviour. When metro fare increases with respect to express bus fare, bus passengers are less willing to use metro and vice-versa.

  16. 1393 Ring Bus at JPL: Description and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocky, Terry R.

    2007-01-01

    Completed Ring Bus IC V&V Phase - Ring Bus Test Plan Completed for SIM Project - Applicable to Other Projects Implemented a Avionics Bus Based upon the IEEE 1393 Standard - Excellent Starting Point for a General Purpose High-Speed Spacecraft Bus - Designed to Meet SIM Requirements for - Real-time deterministic, distributed systems. - Control system requirements - Fault detection and recovery Other JPL Projects Considering Implementation F'light Software Ring Bus Driver Module Began in 2006, Continues Participating in Standard Revision. Search for Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars and measure the masses and orbits of the planets it finds. Survey 2000 nearby stars for planetary systems to learn whether our Solar System is unusual, or typical. Make a new catalog of star position 100 times more accurate than current measurements. Learn how our galaxy formed and will evolve by studying the dynamics of its stars. Critically test models of exactly how stars shine, including exotic objects like black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs.

  17. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.K.

    2015-01-01

    The auxiliary power system of many generating stations consists of offsite power supply system and onsite power supply system, including emergency diesel generators (EDG) to provide secure power to auxiliary loads. If a normal power supply fails to supply power, then the power source is transferred to a standby power supply. In the case of nuclear power plants (NPP), the unit auxiliary transformer (UAT) and standby auxiliary transformer (SAT) - or station service transformer - are installed and powered from 2 offsite power circuits to meet regulatory requirements. The transfer methods of a motor bus from a normal source to a standby source used in power generating stations are fast bus transfer, in-phase transfer, or residual transfer. Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, un-interruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS (Un-interruptible Power Supply) is discussed and elaborated

  18. Bus network redesign for inner southeast suburbs of Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandangwati, S. T.; Milyanab, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Public transport is the most effective mode of transport in the era of climate change and oil depletion. It can address climate change issues by reducing urban greenhouse gas emission and oil consumption while at the same time improving mobility. However, many public transport networks are not effective and instead create high operating costs with low frequencies and occupancy. Melbourne is one example of a metropolitan area that faces this problem. Even though the city has well-integrated train and tram networks, Melbourne’s bus network still needs to be improved. This study used network planning approach to redesign the bus network in the City of Glen Eira, a Local Government Area (LGA) in the southeastern part of Metropolitan Melbourne. The study area is the area between Gardenvale North and Oakleigh Station, as well as between Caulfield and Patterson Stations. This area needs network improvement mainly because of the meandering bus routes that run within it. This study aims to provide recommendations for improving the performance of bus services by reducing meandering routes, improving transfer point design and implementing coordinated timetables. The recommendations were formulated based on a ‘ready-made’ concept to increase bus occupancy. This approach can be implemented in other cities with similar problems and characteristics including those in Indonesia.

  19. Potential Influence of Metro on Bus: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, M.; Abishek Reddy, M.; Sathish, V.; Venkatesh, R.

    2018-03-01

    A modal shift occurs when one mode of transport has a comparative advantage in a similar market over another. The present work concerns with the development of modal shift model for urban travel in Chennai, India. The modal shift model was calibrated using binary logit technique and validated using hold-out sample method. The validated model was used to predict the probability of shift in selected corridor. The recent introduction of metro rail in Chennai has lead to an increasing competition among public transport modes. To study the influence of metro on bus transport, a Stated Preference (SP) survey was conducted among express bus travellers. Using the SP survey data, a modal shift model was calibrated to estimate the plausible shift from bus to metro. Results indicate that variables like fare-difference, age, and income play an important role in the shift behaviour. When metro fare increases with respect to express bus fare, bus passengers are less willing to use metro and vice-versa.

  20. Sensitivity analysis to aid shelter management decisions: how does altering expenditure affect operational viability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, Nicole Olynk; Lord, Emily; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Streamlining purchasing in nonhuman animal shelters can provide multiple financial benefits. Streamlining shelter inputs and thus reducing shelter costs can include trading paid labor and management for fewer, more involved volunteers or purchasing large quantities of medical supplies from fewer vendors to take advantage of bulk-purchasing discounts. Beyond direct savings, time and energy spent on purchasing and inventory control can be reduced through careful management. Although cost-cutting measures may seem attractive, shelter managers are cautioned to consider the potential unintended consequences of short-term cost reduction measures that could limit revenues or increase costs in the future. This analysis illustrates an example of the impact of cost reductions in specific expense categories and the impact on shelter net revenue, as well as the share of expenses across categories. An in-depth discussion of labor and purchasing cost-reducing strategies in the real world of animal shelter management is provided.

  1. Effects of Prior Experience on Shelter-Seeking Behavior of Juvenile American Lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Skylar R; Bianchi, Katherine M; Atema, Jelle; Jacobs, Molly W

    2017-04-01

    Shelter-seeking behaviors are vital for survival for a range of juvenile benthic organisms. These behaviors may be innate or they may be affected by prior experience. After hatching, American lobsters Homarus americanus likely first come into contact with shelter during the late postlarval (decapodid) stage, known as stage IV. After the subsequent molt to the first juvenile stage (stage V), they are entirely benthic and are thought to be highly cryptic. We hypothesized that postlarval (stage IV) experience with shelter would carry over into the first juvenile stage (stage V) and reduce the time needed for juveniles to locate and enter shelters (sheltering). We found some evidence of a carryover effect, but not the one we predicted: stage V juveniles with postlarval shelter experience took significantly longer to initiate sheltering. We also hypothesized that stage V juveniles would demonstrate learning by relocating shelters more quickly with immediate prior experience. Our findings were mixed. In a maze, juveniles with immediate prior experience were faster to regain visual contact with shelter, suggesting that they had learned the location of the shelter. In contrast, there was no significant effect of immediate prior experience on time to initiate sheltering in an open arena, or in the maze after juveniles had regained visual contact. We conclude that very young (stage V) juvenile lobsters modify their shelter-seeking behavior based on prior experiences across several timescales. Ecologically relevant variation in habitat exposure among postlarval and early juvenile lobsters may influence successful recruitment in this culturally and commercially important fishery species.

  2. Inventory assessment and determination of properties of dust contamination in the Shelter under-roof space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogatov, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental results on study of radionuclide contamination of surfaces under the roof of Shelter have been analyzed. Values of 'loose' and fixed fuel contamination densities and aerodynamic diameters of dust particles capable of resuspension are obtained. Long term efficiency of dust suppression system under the Shelter roof has been estimated. On the base of retrospective analysis of the results, fuel dust inventory on the surfaces under the Shelter roof was evaluated. 14 refs., 5 tab., 3 figs

  3. Driving a Bus in India: A Study of Indore Bus Rapid Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha K. RASTOGI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indore is a typical tier-2 town in the central province of India, fast becoming a regional commercial hub in an economically booming state. The city has a population of over 2 million with no significant public transport. Among the multiple options available, the city started implementing a dedicated corridor based Bus Rapid Transport System (BRTS. The project was jointly mooted by the central, state, and city authorities. However, the system encountered a range of problems, including conflicts and pulls between multiple implementing agencies, delays in delivery of hardware and constructions, land acquisition and compensation, vested interests, public interest litigations, and court orders. The paper analyses the BRTS, introduced in Indore in the midst of 2013, from multiple party perspectives with an underlying search for public policy and public management insights. The broad results indicate feasibility and desirability of the project; however, real problems emerge in public and public perception management.

  4. Slow, stopped and stored light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, G.; Scully, M.

    2005-01-01

    Light that can been slowed to walking pace could have applications in telecommunications, optical storage and quantum computing. Whether we use it to estimate how far away a thunderstorm is, or simply take it for granted that we can have a conversation with someone on the other side of the world, we all know that light travels extremely fast. Indeed, special relativity teaches us that nothing in the universe can ever move faster than the speed of light in a vacuum: 299 792 458 ms sup - sup 1. However, there is no such limitation on how slowly light can travel. For the last few years, researchers have been routinely slowing light to just a few metres per second, and have recently even stopped it dead in its tracks so that it can be stored for future use. Slow-light has considerable popular appeal, deriving perhaps from the importance of the speed of light in relativity and cosmology. If everyday objects such as cars or people can travel faster than 'slow' light, for example, then it might appear that relativistic effects could be observed at very low speeds. Although this is not the case, slow light nonetheless promises to play an important role in optical technology because it allows light to be delayed for any period of time desired. This could lead to all-optical routers that would increase the bandwidth of the Internet, and applications in optical data storage, quantum information and even radar. (U.K.)

  5. Stopping atoms with diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, R.N.; Wieman, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The use of light pressure to cool and stop neutral atoms has been an area of considerable interest recently. Cooled neutral atoms are needed for a variety of interesting experiments involving neutral atom traps and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. Laser cooling of sodium has previously been demonstrated using elegant but quite elaborate apparatus. These techniques employed stabilized dye lasers and a variety of additional sophisticated hardware. The authors have demonstrated that a frequency chirp technique can be implemented using inexpensive diode lasers and simple electronics. In this technique the atoms in an atomic beam scatter resonant photons from a counterpropagating laser beam. The momentum transfer from the photons slows the atoms. The primary difficulty is that as the atoms slow their Doppler shift changes, and so they are no longer in resonance with the incident photons. In the frequency chirp technique this is solved by rapidly changing the laser frequency so that the atoms remain in resonance. To achieve the necessary frequency sweep with a dye laser one must use an extremely sophisticated high-speed electrooptic modulator. With a diode laser, however, the frequency can be smoothly and rapidly varied over many gigahertz simply by changing the injection current

  6. Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase)   The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.

  7. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  8. Perceptual assessment of fricative--stop coarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, B H; Mann, V A

    1981-04-01

    The perceptual dependence of stop consonants on preceding fricatives [Mann and Repp, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 69, 548--558 (1981)] was further investigated in two experiments employing both natural and synthetic speech. These experiments consistently replicated our original finding that listeners, report velar stops following [s]. In addition, our data confirmed earlier reports that natural fricative noises (excerpted from utterances of [st alpha], [sk alpha], [(formula: see text)k alpha]) contain cues to the following stop consonants; this was revealed in subjects' identifications of stops from isolated fricative noises and from stimuli consisting of these noises followed by synthetic CV portions drawn from a [t alpha]--[k alpha] continuum. However, these cues in the noise portion could not account for the contextual effect of fricative identity ([formula: see text] versus [sp) on stop perception (more "k" responses following [s]). Rather, this effect seems to be related to a coarticulatory influence of a preceding fricative on stop production; Subjects' responses to excised natural CV portions (with bursts and aspiration removed) were biased towards a relatively more forward place of stop articulation when the CVs had originally been preceded by [s]; and the identification of a preceding ambiguous fricative was biased in the direction of the original fricative context in which a given CV portion had been produced. These findings support an articulatory explanation for the effect of preceding fricatives on stop consonant perception.

  9. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of hangnails, or other triggers, such as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting ...

  10. All in One Stop? The Accessibility of Work Support Programs at One-Stop Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Elise; Kubo, Hitomi; Frank, Abbey

    The accessibility of work support programs at one-stop centers was examined in a study during which 33 telephone directors or managers of one-stop centers in 22 states were interviewed by telephone. The interviews established the existence of extensive differences between one-stop centers from the standpoint of all aspects of their operation,…

  11. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-08-14

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  12. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Menchetti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this ‘no-kill policy’ has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001. The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  13. Instrumentation requirements for radiological defense of the U.S. population in community shelters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, C.M.; Gant, K.S.

    1978-08-01

    Estimates are made of requirements for instruments for radiological defense of the U.S. population in the event of a nuclear attack. A detailed Community Shelter Plan posture is developed for each of 42,000 Standard Location Areas. Travel distance from residence to shelter in urban areas is limited to approximately 1 mile. Sixty percent of the U.S. population is sheltered in home basements, thirty-one percent in National Shelter Survey shelters, and nine percent is in neither. Three minimum allocations of instruments are developed. Allocation A, one radiological defense set per shelter, is essentially the same as the current civil defense allocations but is found to be inadequate for about 100,000 shelters having more than 100 occupants. Allocation B requires 3.4 million new dosimeters based on estimated shelter occupancy and provides a minimum instrumentation for radiological defense but not enough instruments to maintain individual dose records. Allocation C would require 18.1 million new dosimeters and would provide adequate instrumentation to maintain dose records for all shelter occupants

  14. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  15. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. RS-485 Bus Design of a Missile Simulation Training System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a missile simulation training system with one-master and multi-slaves distributed system structure, a universal controller is necessary due to the system composed with several controllers. In this research, the designed controllers communicate with each other and upper control computer through RS-485 field bus. RS-485 bus including interface circuits, transmission protocol, Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC method and upper control test software is designed and proposed. The universal controller adopting the designed RS-485 interface circuits is connected through twisted-pair and makes the simulation system, then the controller is tested in line. The results show that the RS-485 bus communicates effectively using the protocol and CRC method, data transmission rates reaches 115.2 kbps, and has a good stability.

  17. DESIGN OF CITY BUS LIFT FOR THE HANDICAPPEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Turgut GÜRSEL

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the technological developments, the handicappeds do not take part sufficiently in the social and economic life, because buildings, road construction features and means of the transport are not suitable for them. In this study, a lift for handicappeds was designed, that is supposed to be installed to the middle door of city buses. The lift, whose installation should require a few changes at the bus, is driven by a hydraulic system from the street to the level of the bus floor and vice-versa. In the work, at first a construction was developed in accordance with the dimensions of the middle door of a city bus. After determining of dimensions of all elements, a hydraulic mechanism was constructed, that raises the handicapped, its wheelchair and the platform. Furthermore the construction of the elements of the system were determined, and its proofs of strength analysis were indicated

  18. Workplace Field Characterisation at Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.; Bakhanova, E.; Volosky, V.; Shylo, S.; Chernyshov, G.; Dmitrienko, A.; Rozumny, V.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: When assessment of effective dose is required, radiation field needs to be characterised in terms of energy spectrum and geometry of exposure. Prior to application of pre-calculated (e.g. ICRP 74) or site-specific conversion coefficients, one need to demonstrate compliance with one of standard irradiation geometries and determine appropriate energy (or energy spectrum). Particular conditions of the entombment of Chernobyl Unit 4 (Object 'Shelter') high dose rate fields, complex source-target geometry, presence of heavy shielding structures and, as a result, significant scattered component in radiation field make application of conventional area monitoring instruments like in situ spectrometers complicated if possible at all. Unique techniques and devices were developed for workplace field characterisation at Object 'Shelter'. The set of devices includes passive spectrometric system, which makes use of simultaneous exposing several TLD detectors placed inside spherical attenuators (principle much similar to Bonner sphere neutron spectroscopy). Deconvolution of gamma spectra is performed through solving a system of simultaneous linear equations. Geometry of irradiation at given workplace is determined by TLD detectors placed in the six-vector collimator. This simple device allows determination of anisotropy of radiation field, both horizontal and vertical. Another design incorporates portable gamma spectrometer with 1'x2' NaI detector placed in the specially designed lead-copper collimator with aperture compatible with the one of the described above six-vector passive system. The discussed experimental set-up was extensively tested in various locations within Object 'Shelter'. Results of both energy spectrum and exposure geometry characterisation demonstrated feasibility of the proposed approach. (author)

  19. Shelter-based palliative care for the homeless terminally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podymow, Tiina; Turnbull, Jeffrey; Coyle, Doug

    2006-03-01

    The homeless have high rates of mortality, but live in environments not conducive to terminal care. Traditional palliative care hospitals may be reluctant to accept such patients, due to behavior or lifestyle concerns. The Ottawa Inner City Health Project (OICHP) is a pilot study to improve health care delivery to homeless adults. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of terminally ill homeless individuals and the effectiveness of shelter-based palliative care. As proof of principle, a cost comparison was performed. 28 consecutive homeless terminally ill patients were admitted and died at a shelter-based palliative care hospice. Demographics, diagnoses at admission and course were recorded. Burden of illness was assessed by medical and psychiatric diagnoses, addictions, Karnofsky scale and symptom management. An expert panel was convened to identify alternate care locations. Using standard costing scales, direct versus alternate care costs were compared. 28 patients had a mean age 49 years; average length of stay 120 days. DIAGNOSES: liver disease 43%, HIV/AIDS 25%, malignancy 25% and other 8%. Addiction to drugs or alcohol and mental illness in 82% of patients. Karnofsky performance score mean 40 +/- 16.8. Pain management with continuous opiates in 71%. The majority reunited with family. Compared to alternate care locations, the hospice projected 1.39 million dollars savings for the patients described. The homeless terminally ill have a heavy burden of disease including physical illness, psychiatric conditions and addictions. Shelter-based palliative care can provide effective end-of-life care to terminally ill homeless individuals at potentially substantial cost savings.

  20. A fall-out shelter or basement structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatchford, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A strong structure of precast concrete for use as a fallout shelter, tank, basement structure, blast-proof garage is described. It consists of several upright, concrete wall elements, including L-shaped sections, and at least one concrete roof element. The concrete elements are preferably encased in, and may also be supported on, a concrete surround which is formed in situ and which may be secured to the elements by projecting links. The structure may be assembled as an underground or above-ground building. This invention provides a strong structure of quite large span which is relatively simple in construction and can be rapidly assembled. (U.K.)

  1. The strategy of the shelter implementation plan (SIP) performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'ko, V.N.; Nosovskij, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997 the 'Shelter Implementation Plan' (SIP) was developed it's purpose was to transform Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP into the ecologically safe system. The Plan was developed by common efforts of the Ukrainian scientists, CES representatives and experts from the United States of America. The fact that there are no nuclear and radiation safety criteria for the projects will result into the situation when different designers might use within the various project tasks various design criteria. Till now o exact date for the constructions stabilization activities has been defined, and it creates a kind of on definiteness while developing the Radioactive Waste Management strategy and Safe Confinement

  2. Lightweight power bus for a baseload nuclear reactor in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberly, C.E.; Massie, L.D.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Space environmental interactions with the power distribution/power processing subsystem can become a serious problem for power systems rated at 10's to 100's of kilowatts. Utilization of ceramic superconductors at 1000 A/cm/sup 2/, which has already been demonstrated at 77 K in a conductor configuration may eliminate both bus mass and distribution voltage problems in a high power satellite. The analytical results presented here demonstrate that a superconducting coaxial power transmission bus offers significant benefits in reduced distribution voltage and mass

  3. Quantum bus of metal nanoring with surface plasmon polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhirong; Guo Guoping; Tu Tao; Li Haiou; Zou Changling; Ren Xifeng; Guo Guangcan; Chen Junxue; Lu Yonghua

    2010-01-01

    We develop an architecture for distributed quantum computation using quantum bus of plasmonic circuits and spin qubits in self-assembled quantum dots. Deterministic quantum gates between two distant spin qubits can be reached by using an adiabatic approach in which quantum dots couple with highly detuned plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring. Plasmonic quantum bus offers a robust and scalable platform for quantum optics experiments and the development of on-chip quantum networks composed of various quantum nodes, such as quantum dots, molecules, and nanoparticles.

  4. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...... could provide a continuative power supply to the loads. An overview of Multi-DC-Bus solutions is presented in this paper. The performances are compared on the basis of possible DC microgrid configurations, redundancy, different DC voltage levels....

  5. Bus bays inventory using a terrestrial laser scanning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobkowska Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the use of laser scanning technology for the assessment of bus bay geo-location. Ground laser scanning is an effective tool for collecting three-dimensional data. Moreover, the analysis of a point cloud dataset can be a source of a lot of information. The authors have outlined an innovative use of data collection and analysis using the TLS regarding information on the flatness of bus bays. The results were finalized in the form of colour three-dimensional maps of deviations and pavement type.

  6. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  7. Design of temperature monitoring system based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2017-10-01

    The remote temperature monitoring system based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is designed to collect the multi-node remote temperature. By using the STM32F103 as main controller and multiple DS18B20s as temperature sensors, the system achieves a master-slave node data acquisition and transmission based on the CAN bus protocol. And making use of the serial port communication technology to communicate with the host computer, the system achieves the function of remote temperature storage, historical data show and the temperature waveform display.

  8. California Bus Aid Still in Budget Cross Hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    California legislators swiftly passed a budget bill last week aimed at sheltering school busing dollars from a midyear budget cut many districts and advocates said particularly hurt rural school systems, along with urban districts with desegregation plans. While the measure, which Gov. Jerry Brown was expected to sign into law, would restore $248…

  9. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM; ZAHARA BATOOL

    2017-01-01

    This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in c...

  10. Active Power Filter DC Bus Voltage Piecewise Reaching Law Variable Structure Control

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Baolian; Ding, Zujun; Zhao, Huanyu; Jin, Defei

    2014-01-01

    The DC bus voltage stability control is one key technology to ensure that Active Power Filter (APF) operates stably. The external disturbances such as power grid and load fluctuation and the system parameters changing may affect the stability of APF DC bus voltage and the normal operation of APF. The mathematical model of DC bus voltage is established according to power balance principle and a DC bus voltage piecewise reaching law variable structure control algorithm is proposed to solve the ...

  11. Kajian Keamanan Pengoperasian Public Transport Tinjauan Terhadap Kekuatan Rangka Body Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiro, B. M

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the safety and security of the public transportation, design specification of construction body bus or bus frame structures should have an appropriate structural strength and comply with standard design including the safety factor and selection of material besides static and dynamic testing of the part of body bus. It is also realized that a bus carrying passengers have to give secure to the passengers also driver.The fact that a technology concerning with metal works indus...

  12. Developing a viable electric bus service: the Milton Keynes demonstration project

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, John; Potter, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Buses can be a serious source of city centre air pollution. Electric buses deliver zero emissions but, because of the time required to recharge, more buses are needed for a given timetable than diesel counterparts, so making mainstream electric bus operations prohibitively expensive.\\ud \\ud Early 2014 saw the implementation in Milton Keynes of an electric bus service designed to overcome this problem. An entire bus route has been converted to electric operation with inductive charging at bus ...

  13. Radon in energy-efficient earth-sheltered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.

    1983-05-01

    Exposure o the radioactive-decay products of radon 222 that are present in indoor air constitutes the most-significant radiation dose received by the general population in most countries. Indoor concentrations vary from one building to another, ranging from insignificant to very high levels that cause radiation doses higher than those experienced by uranium miners. This wide range of concentrations is attributable to variability in the rate at which radon enters buildings, and differences in the ventilation rate. Earth-sheltered dwellings, because they are more completely surrounded by earth material than other structures, have an as yet unquantified potential for having radon entry rates that are higher than typical for other houses in the region. Moreover, measures that save energy by reducing ventilation rates (for example by reducing infiltration) can also raise indoor radon concentrations. For these reasons a significant effort is needed to determine the potential for ventilation-reducing measures and earth sheltering to increase radon concentrations, especially in regions where they are already high. Where necessary, proper attention to specific design features that affect radon entry rates or residence time indoors should be adequate to avoid undue risk to the public

  14. An Ecocritical Reading of Paul Bowles's The Sheltering Sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sheikhzadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes are not simply something objective and unchallenged out there but the work of the mind made by the strata of memory. This paper attempts to show that an ecocritical reading of Paul Bowles’s The Sheltering Sky (1949 helps one in better understanding of this novel of post-colonial alienation and existential despair. Bowles is an American writer and a composer who is undoubtedly the most arresting example of cross-cultural influence concerning a Western author and the Middle East and North Africa.  His fiction mostly focuses on American expatriates travelling in exotic locations. The Sheltering Sky is an encounter with the Sahara, not only the physical one but the desert of moral nihilism into which one may wander blindly. The boundless desert acts here as a metaphor and the journey symbolizes one’s own journey into the depth of his/her soul. The desert also projects an apocalyptic vision in the struggle between the West and the East and the Sahara becomes in fact a Conradian Heart of Darkness, an Eliotian Waste Land, and a Sartrean No Exit. In the novel the actual environment becomes in some ways pale and covert under the psyche of the writer. Consequently we come to know that Bowles's own knowledge and awareness of the same environments left traces in his work. Accordingly we may wrap up that the environment bears a direct impact on our understanding of it.

  15. Stopping of hypervelocity clusters in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Christian; Ziegenhain, Gerolf; Urbassek, Herbert M; Bringa, Eduardo M

    2011-01-01

    Using molecular-dynamics simulations, we study the processes underlying the stopping of energetic clusters upon impact in matter. We investigate self-bombardment of both a metallic (Cu) and a van-der-Waals bonded (frozen Ar) target. Clusters with sizes up to N = 10 4 atoms and with energies per atom of E/N = 0.1-1600 eV atom -1 were studied. We find that the stopping force exerted on a cluster follows an N 2/3 -dependence with cluster size N; thus large clusters experience less stopping than equi-velocity atoms. In the course of being stopped, the cluster is strongly deformed and attains a roughly pancake shape. Due to the cluster inertia, maximum deformation occurs later than the maximum stopping force. The time scale of projectile stopping is set by t 0 , the time the cluster needs to cover its own diameter before impacting the target; it thus depends on both cluster size and velocity. The time when the cluster experiences its maximum stopping force is around (0.7-0.8)t 0 . We find that the cluster is deformed with huge strain rates of around 1/2t 0 ; this amounts to 10 11 -10 13 s -1 for the cases studied here. (paper)

  16. A light sneutrino rescues the light stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chala, M. [Departament de Física Tèorica, Universitat de València and IFIC, Universitat de València-CSIC,Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (València) (Spain); Delgado, A. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nardini, G. [Albert Einstein Center (AEC), Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP), University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Quirós, M. [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats - ICREA, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-04-18

    Stop searches in supersymmetric frameworks with R-parity conservation usually assume the lightest neutralino to be the lightest supersymmetric particle. In this paper we consider an alternative scenario in which the left-handed tau sneutrino is lighter than neutralinos and stable at collider scales, but possibly unstable at cosmological scales. Moreover the (mostly right-handed) stop t̃ is lighter than all electroweakinos, and heavier than the scalars of the third generation lepton doublet, whose charged component, τ̃, is heavier than the neutral one, ν̃. The remaining supersymmetric particles are decoupled from the stop phenomenology. In most of the parameter space, the relevant stop decays are only into tτ̃τ, tν̃ν and bν̃τ via off-shell electroweakinos. We constrain the branching ratios of these decays by recasting the most sensitive stop searches. Due to the “double invisible” kinematics of the t̃→tν̃ν process, and the low efficiency in tagging the tτ̃τ decay products, light stops are generically allowed. In the minimal supersymmetric standard model with ∼ 100 GeV sneutrinos, stops with masses as small as ∼ 350 GeV turn out to be allowed at 95% CL.

  17. Application of the RADTRAN 5 stop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, R.L.; Weiner, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A number of environmental impact analyses with the RADTRAN computer code have shown that dose to persons at stops is one of the largest components of incident-free dose during overland carriage of spent fuel and other radioactive materials (e.g., USDOE, 1994). The input data used in these analyses were taken from a 1983 study that reports actual observations of spent fuel shipments by truck. Early RADTRAN stop models, however, were insufficiently flexible to take advantage of the detailed information in the study. A more recent study of gasoline service stations that specialize in servicing large trucks, which are the most likely stop locations for shipments of Type B packages in the United States, has provided additional, detailed data on refueling/meal stops. The RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis allows exposures at stops to be more fully modeled than have previous releases of the code and is able to take advantage of detailed data. It is the intent of this paper first to compare results from RADTRAN and RADTRAN 5 for the old, low-resolution form of input data, and then to demonstrate what effect the new data and input format have on stop-dose estimates for an individual stop and for a hypothetical shipment route. Finally, these estimated public doses will be contrasted with doses calculated for a special population group -- inspectors

  18. Application of the radtran 5 stop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, R.L.; Weiner, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    A number of environmental impact analyzes with the RADTRAN computer code have shown that dose to persons at stops is one of the largest components of incident-free dose during overland carriage of spent fuel and other radioactive materials. The input data used in these analyses were taken from a 1983 study that reports actual observations of spent fuel shipments by truck. Early RADTRAN stop models, however, were insufficiently flexible to take advantage of the detailed information in the study. A more recent study of gasoline service stations that specialize in servicing large trucks, which are the most likely stop locations for shipments of Type B packages in the United States, has provided additional, detailed data on refueling/meal stops. The RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis allows exposures at stops to be more fully modelled than have previous releases of the code and is able to take advantage of detailed data. It is the intent of this paper first to compare results from RADTRAN 4 and RADTRAN 5 for the old, low-resolution form of input data, and then to demonstrate what effect the new data and input format have on stop-dose estimates for an individual stop and for a hypothetical shipment route. Finally, these estimated public doses will be contrasted with doses calculated for a special population group-inspectors. (authors)

  19. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices required for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for a school bus endorsement must satisfy the...

  20. The Role of the Coroner in School Bus Accident Prevention: Some Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Following the deaths of two elementary school students in bus-related accidents in 1992, the Coroner of Quebec held extensive hearings investigating school bus safety and accident prevention. A subsequent report addressed responsibilities of government and school board officials to correct deficiencies in school bus services and provided…

  1. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  2. Old-Fashioned Bus Trips: New Age Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhues, Katherine; Epley, Hannah K.

    2018-01-01

    Two 4-H Camp-related bus tours offered new nontraditional professional development (PD) experiences that better align Extension's PD opportunities with the organization's experiential education pedagogy. Creating quality PD opportunities for employees is important because such experiences can affect overall work performance, community connections,…

  3. Analyzing injury severity of bus passengers with different movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Zhao, Yifei; Bai, Qiang; Zhou, Bei; Ling, Hongbiao

    2017-07-04

    Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high due to the high passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This article presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements. Three different passenger movement types including standing, seated, and boarding/alighting were analyzed individually using classification and regression tree (CART) method based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain. According to the results of exploratory analyses, passenger age and vehicle maneuver are associated with passenger injury severity in all 3 types of accidents. Moreover, the variable "skidding and overturning" is associated with injury severity of seated passengers and driver age is correlated with injury severity of standing and boarding/alighting passengers. The CART method shows its ability to identify and easily explain the complicated patterns affecting passenger injury severity. Several countermeasures to reduce bus passenger injury severity are recommended.

  4. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service § 374.317 Identification...

  5. A Quantitative Economics Of Seasonality In Bus Patronage In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation is a well-known phenomenon, in many endeavrous and enterprises. Passenger of patronage of road transportation by bus is generally implicated as exhibiting excessive seasonality. The study thus set out to empirically investigate the myth or reality of the thesis that trip generation and trip attraction can ...

  6. Aerodynamic study of state transport bus using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Siddhesh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop the aerodynamic study of a Maharashtra state road transport bus. The rising fuel price and strict government regulations makes the road transport uneconomical now days. With the objective of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing the emission of harmful exhaust gases. It has been proven experimentally that vehicle consumes almost 40% of the available useful engine power to overcome the drag resistance. This provides us a huge scope to study the influence of aerodynamic drag. The initial of the project was to identify the drag coefficient of the existing ordinary type model called “Parivartan” from ANSYS fluent. After preliminary analysis of the existing model corresponding changes are made in such a way that their implementation should be possible at workshop level. The simulation of the air flow over the bus was performed in two steps: design on SolidWorks CAD and ANSYS (FLUENT) is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus. We have used the turbulence models k-ε Realizable having a better approximation of the actual result. Around 28% improvement in the drag coefficient is achieved by CFD driven changes in the bus design. Coefficient of drag is improved by 28% and fuel efficiency increased by 20% by CFD driven changes.

  7. Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a booster! Get in the Back Here's another important safety rule: Sit in the back seat. Kids 12 ... or band concerts once in a while, it's important to follow these rules. When you see the bus driving up, everyone waiting should get into a line. ...

  8. Bus-oriented digital control techniques in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salm, M.

    1987-01-01

    The author states the conservative principles which govern the authorization procedures for nuclear reactor control systems. Using the example of a feedwater supply regulator, employing a digital, bus-oriented control system, he describes how the stigma attached to the word nuclear can be alleviated. (G.T.H.)

  9. Energy efficient motion control of the electric bus on route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotiev, G. O.; Butarovich, D. O.; Kositsyn, B. B.

    2018-02-01

    At present, the urgent problem is the reduction of energy costs of urban motor transport. The article proposes a method of solving this problem by developing an energy-efficient law governing the movement of an electric bus along a city route. To solve this problem, an algorithm is developed based on the dynamic programming method. The proposed method allows you to take into account the constraints imposed on the phase coordinates, control action, as well as on the time of the route. In the course of solving the problem, the model of rectilinear motion of an electric bus on a horizontal reference surface is considered, taking into account the assumptions that allow it to be adapted for the implementation of the method. For the formation of a control action in the equations of motion dynamics, an algorithm for changing the traction / braking torque on the wheels of an electric bus is considered, depending on the magnitude of the control parameter and the speed of motion. An optimal phase trajectory was obtained on a selected section of the road for the prototype of an electric bus. The article presents the comparison of simulation results obtained with the optimal energy efficient control law with the results obtained by a test driver. The comparison proved feasibility of the energy efficient control law for the automobile city electric transport.

  10. Economic impacts of bus rapid transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has generated great interest across the United States. There are more than 20 BRT : systems in existence, and more are in the planning stage (including in Detroit). Within the next few years, BRT will be plann...

  11. Improving School Bus Safety. Transportation Research Board Special Report 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    While school buses transport more passengers per trip, the rate of occupant fatalities per mile driven for school buses is one-quarter that for passenger cars. Nevertheless, the public expects school districts and other school bus operators to take all reasonable precautions to protect children as they travel to and from school. Although a variety…

  12. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  13. Optical bus of centralized relay protection and automation system of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article deals with the system of information collection and transfer from a centralized relay protection and automation system for medium voltage electrical units based on a passive optical bus. The issues of electromagnetic compatibility of technical devices are also considered, and the intensity of electromagnetic ...

  14. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  15. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  16. Spanish version of Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Prizmic-Kuzmica, Aldo-Javier; González-Fernández, Marcos-David; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2013-01-01

    Karasek and Theorell's Job Demands-Control Model argues that adverse health-related outcomes, both psychological and physiological, arise from a combination of high job demand and a low level of job control. The objective was to adapt Meijman and Kompier's Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24), which enables us to assess the job demands of bus drivers, to Spanish. The final version of the Spanish adaptation was applied to a sample made up of 287 bus drivers living in Spain (80.1% men and 19.9% women), whose average age was 40.44 (SD= 11.78). The results yielded a three-factor structure for the scale used: Time Pressure, Safety, and Passengers. These findings confirm that the Spanish version replicates the factor structure of the original English scale. The reliability of the three subscales was acceptable, ranging from .75 to .84. Furthermore, the subscales were also related to different external correlates and to other scales and showed good convergent and criterion validity. The present instrument can be used to evaluate job demands of bus drivers, as its psychometrics are substantially sound.

  17. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  18. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  19. Steering characteristic of an articulated bus under quasi steady maneuvering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Setiawan, Budi Agus; Aridharma, Airlangga Putra; Lenggana, Bhre Wangsa; Caesar, Bernardus Placenta Previo

    2018-02-01

    Articulated buses have been being preferred as public transportation modes due to their operational capacity. Therefore, passenger safety must be the priority of this public service vehicle. This research focused on the analytical approach of steering characteristics of an articulated bus when it maneuvered steadily. Such turning condition could be referred as a stability parameter of the bus for preliminary handling assessment. The analytical approach employed kinematics relationship between front and rear bodies as well as steering capabilities. The quasi steady model was developed to determine steering parameters such as turning radius, oversteer, and understeer. The mathematical model was useful for determining both coefficients of understeer and oversteer. The dimension of articulated bus followed a commonly used bus as utilized in Trans Jakarta busses. Based on the simulation, for one minimum center of the body, the turning radius was calculated about 8.8 m and 7.6 m at steady turning speed of 10 km/h. In neutral condition, the minimum road radius should be 6.5 m at 10 km/h and 6.9 m at 40 km/h. For two centers of the body and oversteer condition, the front body has the turning radius of 8.8 m, while, the rear body has the turning radius of 9.8 m at both turning speeds of 40 km/h. The other steering parameters were discussed accordingly.

  20. Investigation of Millennial Students' Responses to a Shelter-in-Place Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas C.; Frick, Melodie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated millennial students' responses to an armed gunman threat and shelter-in-place warnings that occurred on a university campus. Using descriptive statistics and quantitative analysis, several significant differences were found for students' responses for sheltering-in-place and engaging in protective behaviors. Baxter Magolda'…

  1. State and forecast of radioactive contamination of geological environment in the region of 'Shelter' object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestopalov, V.M.; Boguslavskij, A.S.; Kukharenko, D.E.; Onishchenko, I.P.; Panasyuk, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Chornobyl NPP and especially the surroundings of the 'Shelter' object are the epicenter of radioactive impact of Chornobyl accident on geological environment, including groundwater. The two data sets- north from the 'Shelter' where groundwater from under the 'Shelter' moves, and south from the 'Shelter' characterizing the groundwater flow in the up-stream direction from the 'Shelter'. After data processing the generalized models of present distribution of 3 H, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs in groundwater around the 'Shelter' were obtained. They reflect the major role of the 'Shelter' in access of tritium and Strontium-90 into groundwater and main influence of the buned active layer on groundwater contamination with Cesium-137. The result obtained corresponds to high migrational activity of these isotopes. Along with this, the significantly higher migrational activity of Tritium, as compared to Strontium-90, has been proved. Obtained model schematic maps were used for onented assessment of accumulated amounts of radionuclides sorbed by rocks of geological environment around the 'Shelter' object. In watered zone of Quaternary deposits they reach more than 4000 Ci of 137 Cs, and about 6000 Ci of 90 Sr

  2. Shelter-based convalescence for homeless adults in Amsterdam: a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laere, Igor; de Wit, Matty; Klazinga, Niek

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate support for homeless populations includes shelter and care to recuperate from illness and/or injury. This is a descriptive analysis of diagnoses and use of shelter-based convalescence in a cohort of homeless adults in Amsterdam. METHODS: Demographics of ill homeless

  3. Using random event simulation to evaluate the effectiveness of indoor sheltering during a sour gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the event of sour gas releases to the atmosphere, there is a strong bias toward evacuation rather than sheltering-in-place. This paper described the critical factors in decision-making for shelter-in-place versus evacuation. These include: delay time expected before release begins; size of potential release, explosion or fire; expected duration; direction to safety for evacuation; the air tightness of the building; and, the number of people in the emergency response zone. A shelter-in-place decision chart developed by the Canadian Association of Fire Chiefs was presented. It shows the usual bias toward evacuation as the default position. It also shows the greatest drawbacks of sheltering-in-place. The main factor in maintaining the effectiveness of the building shelter is the rate of air infiltration into the building. Other issues to consider include: reactive versus passive chemicals in the release; light versus heavy gas releases; building type (houses, high-rise apartments, office buildings, or warehouses); tightness of building construction; whether to turn the house heating and air conditioning on or off during shelter; daytime versus nighttime conditions; and, cost factors. Equations for calculating indoor and outdoor toxic exposure to decide on shelter versus evacuation were also presented. It was concluded that the absence of peak concentrations dramatically reduce the risk of fatality to people sheltering indoors. Keeping people indoors is the best way to assure their safety for the first hour following a toxic release. 8 refs., 6 figs

  4. Problems of Chernobyl. Materials of International scientific and practical conference 'Shelter-98'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchnikov, O.O.

    1999-01-01

    These transactions contain materials of International Scientific and Practical Conference 'Shelter-98', which was held 27-30 November 1998 in Slavutich. They describe the results of the research work of the specialists from Ukraine, neighborhood and far foreign counties. The results, targeted at solving the problems of converting the Shelter Object into oncologically safe state

  5. Infections with helminths and/or protozoa in cats in animal shelters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, S.R.; Nobel, le W.E.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of infections with helminths and protozoa in cats in animal shelters, faecal samples from 305 cats from 22 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined, using a centrifugation-sedimentation-flotation-technique. The association between potential risk factors and the

  6. Schools As Post-Disaster Shelters: Planning and Management Guidelines for Districts and Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

    This guidebook outlines a method for preparing school facilities and personnel in the event that schools are needed for disaster shelters. It serves as a blueprint for planning and preparedness. Chapter 1 provides descriptions of actual incidents in which California schools served as emergency shelters. Chapter 2 describes schools' legal…

  7. Development of a membrane roofing system with integrated climate control for community shelters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, R.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Haas, de T.C.A.; Kok, P.J.A.; Hulsbergen, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    In case of calamities and emergencies, shelters offer great relief to large groups of survivors. For community supporting functions the current sheltering solutions are not satisfactory. A humane and feasible solution should be developed to fill this niche. The research group product development has

  8. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  9. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  10. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  11. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  12. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5% recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.

  13. Optimal bus temperature for thermal comfort during a cool day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velt, K B; Daanen, H A M

    2017-07-01

    A challenge for electric buses is to minimize heating and cooling power to maximally extend the driving range, but still provide sufficient thermal comfort for the driver and passengers. Therefore, we investigated the thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) of passengers in buses during a cool day (temperature 13.4 ± 0.5 °C, relative humidity (RH) 60 ± 5.8%) typical for the Dutch temperate maritime climate. 28 Males and 72 females rated TS and TC and gave information on age, stature, body weight and worn garments. The temperature in the bus of 22.5 ± 1.1 °C and RH of 59.9 ± 5.8% corresponded to a slightly warm feeling (TS = 0.85 ± 1.06) and TC of 0.39 ± 0.65. TS related significantly to bus temperature, clothing insulation and age. Linear regression based on these parameters showed that the temperature in the bus corresponding to TC = 0 and TS = 0 would have been 20.9 ± 0.6 °C. In conclusion, a 1.6 °C lower bus temperature during the investigated cool day probably would have led to less thermal discomfort and energy savings of electrical busses. The methodology to relate climatic measurements to subjective assessments is currently employed in a wider climatic range and may prove to be useful to find a better balance between thermal comfort and energy savings of the bus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diel foraging and shelter use of large juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) under food satiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Jyde, M.; Filrup, K.

    2012-01-01

    The diel partitioning of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta foraging behaviour is controlled by a number of factors including predation risk, competition, temperature and food availability. The present study uses PIT-tagging and visual observation to asses the use of shelter and foraging behaviour...... of Danish wild juvenile brown trout (13.5-15.6 cm). The experiment was conducted in a fluvarium and the fish were fed to satiation. It was hypothesised that food satiation would promote nocturnal foraging and increase daytime shelter use. Our results showed a significant difference in diel shelter use...... between day and night with a significant increase in shelter use during daytime conditions. Visual observations showed a significant preference for nocturnal feeding. Together with the significantly reduced shelter use during the night, our results support the hypothesis that young stream living trout...

  15. Survey on radon concentration of civil air defense shelter in Hengyang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Quan; Ma Xiao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the radon concentration of civil air defense shelter was surveyed in Hengyang area, where there is higher background of radon concentration. If civil air defense shelter is not pressure-tight, the average radon concentration is about 55.9 -167.3 Bq/m 3 , lower than the intervened quantity: 200 Bq/m 3 , which is given by the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP). Maybe radon protection is not needed with the ventilation of civil air defense shelter like that. The radon concentration of airtight civil air defense shelter change along with the season, which is lower in spring and higher in autumn. The results can be a reference for using civil air defense shelter during the time of peace or war. (authors)

  16. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  17. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-12-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’ ... a doctor. If you bite your nails and develop a skin or nail infection, consult a board- ...

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your nails, dermatologists recommend the ... stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help keep your hands busy and away from your ...

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and away from your mouth. Identify your triggers: These could be physical triggers, such as the presence ... nails, you can figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just ...

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a dermatologist Why ... how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’re inclined ...

  2. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Stops

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — All transit stops within the Port Authority of Allegheny County's service area for the November 20, 2016 - March (TBD) 2017 schedule period.

  3. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  4. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated image library Board ... gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try ...

  5. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  6. Analysis of Public Bus Transportation of a Brazilian City Based on the Theory of Complex Networks Using the P-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. De Bona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Curitiba, located at Southern Brazil, is recognized by its urban planning structured on three pillars: land use, collective transportation, and traffic. With 3.8 million people in its metropolitan area, the public transport system deals with approximately 2.5 million passengers daily. The structure and properties of such a transportation system have substantial implications for the urban planning and public politics for sustainable development of Curitiba. Therefore, this paper analyzes the structure of the public transportation system of Curitiba through the theory of complex networks in a static approach of network topology and presents a comparative analysis of the results from Curitiba, three cities from China (Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou, and three cities from Poland (GOP, Warszawa, and Łódź. The transportation network was modeled as a complex network with exact geographical coordinates of its bus stops. In all bus lines, the method used was the P-Space. The results show that this bus network has characteristics of both small-world and scale-free networks.

  7. A Frequency-Based Assignment Model under Day-to-Day Information Evolution of Oversaturated Conditions on a Feeder Bus Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silin Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Day-to-day information is increasingly being implemented in transit networks worldwide. Feeder bus service (FBS plays a vital role in a public transit network by providing feeder access to hubs and rails. As a feeder service, a space-time path for frequent passengers is decided by its dynamic strategy procedure, in which a day-to-day information self-learning mechanism is identified and analyzed from our survey data. We formulate a frequency-based assignment model considering day-to-day evolution under oversaturated conditions, which takes into account the residual capacity of bus and the comfort feelings of sitting or standing. The core of our proposed model is to allocate the passengers on each segment belonging to their own paths according to multi-utilities transformed from the time values and parametric demands, such as frequency, bus capacity, seat comfort, and stop layout. The assignment method, albeit general, allows us to formulate an equivalent optimization problem in terms of interaction between the FBS’ operation and frequent passengers’ rational behaviors. Finally, a real application case is generated to test the ability of the modeling framework capturing the theoretical consequents, serving the passengers’ dynamic externalities.

  8. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  9. Empirical stopping powers for ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.; Biersack, J.P.; Littmark, U.

    1983-01-01

    The work of Brandt and collaborators on low energy ion stopping powers has been extended to create an empirical formulation for the stopping of ions in solids. The result is a simple computer program (about 60 lines of code) which calculates stopping powers from zero to 100 MeV/amu for all ions in all elemental solids. This code has been compared to the data in about 2000 papers, and has a standard error of 9% for energies above keV/amu. This approach includes high energy relativistic effects and shell-corrections. In the medium energy range it uses stopping theory based on the local-density approximation and Lindhard stopping in a free electron gas. This is applied to realistic Hartree-Fock charge distributions for crystalline solids. In the low energy range it uses the Brandt concepts of ion stripping relative to the Fermi velocity of solids, and also his formalism for the relation of projectile ionization to its effective charge. The details of the calculation are presented, and a broad comparison is shown with experiment. Special comparative examples are shown of both the low energy stopping power oscillations which depend on the atomic number of the ion, and also of the target

  10. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs

    OpenAIRE

    Zea Escamilla, E.; Habert, G.

    2015-01-01

    This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelter...

  11. Problems of radiation protection during SIP implementation on the Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogorad, V.I.; Litvinskaya, T.V.; Nikonov, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most urgent problems for today, during the SIP plans implementation of the Shelter transformation, is personnel radiation safety. The first of them assumes that a worker can be exposed to permitted annual dose during a short period of time with subsequent withdrawal of the person from radiation-hazardous activities. The second approach is based on the determination of derived dose limits that would provide for non-excess of the main limits on the assumption that a person is involved in radiation-hazardous work during the whole year. Radiation protection during practical activity should be formed on the basis of optimization principle. The optimization, in this case, implies that activities in the fields of ionizing radiation should be planned and performed in such way that, during their performance, the levels of individual doses and/or the quantity of exposed persons be as low as possible with taking into account the economic and social factors

  12. Incorporating civil-defense shelter space in new underground construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.

    1981-01-01

    At the present time, the population of the US is approximately ten times more vulnerable to nuclear weapons than the Soviet population. This vulnerability can be reduced rapidly by urban evacuation in a crisis. However, the need to keep the essential economy running in a crisis, as well as coping with attacks on short warning, makes the construction of shelter space where people live very desirable. This can be done most economically by slightly modifying underground construction intended for peacetime use. The designer must consider all elements of the emergency environment when designing the space. Provisions must be made for emergency egress, light and ventilation (without elecric power), blast closures, water, sanitation, and food. The option of upgrading the space in a crisis should be considered. An example is given

  13. Rancang Bangun Sistem Pemesanan Tiket Bus Kupang-Atambua Berbasis SMS Gateway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerensiana Ngaga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bus merupakan alat transportasi yang paling banyak digunakan masyarakat karena harga yang murah dan masih terjangkau untuk masyarakat kalangan ekonomi menengah ke bawah.  Umumnya pemesanan tiket bus dilakukan dengan mendatangi langsung tempat penjualan tiket bus atau dengan cara menelepon ke kantor agen. Proses pemesanan seperti ini  memiliki kekurangan dimana pegawai kerepotan dalam mencatat dan seringkali terjadi kesalahan dalam mencatat pemesanan tiket. Sedangkan untuk waktu pemesanan, umumnya calon penumpang melakukan pemesanan tiket, satu atau dua hari sebelum keberangkatan dan ada juga yang tidak sempat memesan tiket beberapa hari sebelumnya dan melakukan pembelian tiket pada hari keberangkatan sehingga sering kali tidak mendapatkan tiket. Penelitian ini bertujuan merancang bangun sistem pemesanan tiket bus berbasis SMS Gateway yang memberikan kemudahan layanan pemesanan tiket bus bagi masyarakat secara jarak jauh serta kemudahan mengetahui informasi penjadwalan bus dengan cepat. Aplikasi dibangun menggunakan metode Unified Process, dengan bahasa pemrograman Java NetBeansIDE 7.3.1, MySQL sebagai database dan Gammu sebagai software untuk membantu pembangunan aplikasi SMS Gateway. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah sebuah sistem pemesanan tiket bus yang memberikan alternatif baru proses pemesanan tiket bus secara baik tanpa ada permasalahan jarak dan waktu. Selain itu masyarakat juga dapat mengetahui informasi jadwal bus, harga tiket dan juga informasi bila terjadi perubahan jadwal keberangkatan bus.   Kata kunci— Bus, Tiket, SMS Gateway, Unified Process

  14. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  15. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1 the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2 an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination results in a longer go reaction time (RT, a lower stop error rate, as well as a faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  16. The process of homelessness : an event history analysis of length of stay for the Groningen shelter accommodation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernee, H.; Oldersma, F.; Popping, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the process of shelter exits for homeless individuals and for different shelter types in the public shelter system in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. Individualised administrative data from the Groningen Homelessness Monitor (2003–2006) are used for estimating a Weibull

  17. Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shannon

    Full Text Available Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana and elk (Cervus elephus in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk, lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity.

  18. Stopping, goal-conflict, trait anxiety and frontal rhythmic power in the stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Phoebe S-H; Thurlow, Jane K; McNaughton, Neil

    2011-12-01

    The medial right frontal cortex is implicated in fast stopping of an initiated motor action in the stop-signal task (SST). To assess whether this region is also involved in the slower behavioural inhibition induced by goal conflict, we tested for effects of goal conflict (when stop and go tendencies are balanced) on low-frequency rhythms in the SST. Stop trials were divided, according to the delays at which the stop signal occurred, into short-, intermediate-, and long-delay trials. Consistent with goal-conflict processing, intermediate-delay trials were associated with greater 7-8 Hz EEG power than short- or long-delay trials at medial right frontal sites (Fz, F4, and F8). At F8, 7-8 Hz power was linked to high trait anxiety and neuroticism. A separate 4-7 Hz power increase was also seen in stop, relative to go, trials, but this was independent of delay, was maximal at the central midline site Cz, and predicted faster stopping. Together with previous data on the SST, these results suggest that the right frontal region could be involved in multiple inhibition mechanisms. We propose a hierarchical model of the control of stopping that integrates the literature on the neural control of fast motor stopping with that on slower, motive-directed behavioural inhibition.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft 2 per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft 2 per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements

  20. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.