WorldWideScience

Sample records for bus stop noise

  1. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  2. Design of intelligent bus stop based on GPRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思远

    2013-01-01

    To provide people waiting on the bus stop the information about the number of passengers on the bus traffic and distance between the site and the running bus. Design a set of intelligent bus stop system. This system counts up the number of the people gets on the bus and the people getting out of the bus to add up the people on the bus by infrared sensor and uses the hall sensor to measure the distance of having driven. Then, send data via GPRS. Finally display on the corresponding bus stop.

  3. Bus Stops, This shapefile contains existing bus stops for Charlotte Area Transit System, Published in 2006, Charlotte Area Transit System.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as 'This shapefile contains existing bus stops for...

  4. Model Passengers’ Travel Time for Conventional Bus Stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited number of berths can result in a subsequent bus stopping at the upstream of a bus stop when all berths are occupied. When this traffic phenomenon occurs, passengers waiting on the platform usually prefer walking to the stopped bus, which leads to additional walking time before boarding the bus. Therefore, passengers’ travel time consumed at a bus stop is divided into waiting time, additional walking time, and boarding time. This paper proposed a mathematical model for analyzing passengers’ travel time at conventional bus stop based on theory of stochastic service system. Field-measured and simulated data were designated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. By analyzing the results, conclusion was conducted that short headway can reduce passengers’ waiting time at bus stop. Meanwhile, the theoretical analysis explained the inefficiency of bus stops with more than three berths from the perspective of passengers’ additional walking time. Additional walking time will increase in a large scale when the number of berths at a bus stop exceedsthe threshold of three.

  5. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xiaobao; Huan Mei; Gao Ziyou

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the...

  6. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  7. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  8. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  9. Capacity models on expressway near a bus bay stop with an access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪宾; 孙小端; 贺玉龙; 宇仁德

    2015-01-01

    To determinate the expressway capacity near a bus bay stop with an access, capacity models on the expressway near a bus stop with an access were developed on the basis of gap acceptance theory and queuing theory. Depending on a bus stop position to an entrance or an exit ramp, the capacity models were developed for four cases. Bus bay stops with overflow and bus bay stops without overflow were considered. A comparison of simulation experiment and model calculation was carried out. Results show that the suggested models have high accuracy and reliability, at bus arrival rate below 60 vehicles per hour (veh/h) or vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit below 200 passenger cars units per hour (pcu/h), and there are no significant difference in the capacities for four cases. When bus arrival rate is above 240 veh/h, the capacities of all four cases will decline rapidly. With berth number increasing, the increasing of the capacities is no obvious for four cases. As the bus arrival rate and vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit increase, bus stops located downstream of an entrance and upstream of an exit have a remarkably effect on the capacities. The latter case is much heavier than the former. Those results can be used to traffic design and optimization on urban expressway near a bus stop with an access.

  10. Bus Stops, Ctran amd Rtp Bus Stops, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  11. Bus Stops, Maryland Transit Administration Local and Commuter Bus Stops, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'Maryland Transit...

  12. The influence of bus stop on traffic flow with velocity-difference-separation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pengjun; Wang, Wei; Ge, Hongxia

    2016-06-01

    Based on velocity-difference-separation model, the mixed traffic flow on two-lane road is investigated. For a fixed road length, the influence of bus and bus stops on traffic flow is studied with the increasing traffic density. Compared with the result without bus stops given by Li et al., a new traffic state is found, which is valuable for studying the impacts of public transport on urban traffic flow.

  13. Bus Stops, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2008. Data by this publisher are...

  14. Bus Stops Location and Bus Route Planning Using Mean Shift Clustering and Ant Colony in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supangat, Kenny; Eko Soelistio, Yustinus

    2017-03-01

    Traffic Jam has been a daily problem for people in Jakarta which is one of the busiest city in Indonesia up until now. Even though the official government has tried to reduce the impact of traffic issues by developing a new public transportation which takes up a lot of resources and time, it failed to diminish the problem. The actual concern to this problem actually lies in how people move between places in Jakarta where they always using their own vehicle like cars, and motorcycles that fill most of the street in Jakarta. Among much other public transportations that roams the street of Jakarta, Buses is believed to be an efficient transportation that can move many people at once. However, the location of the bus stop is now have moved to the middle of the main road, and its too far for the nearby residence to access to it. This paper proposes an optimal location of optimal bus stops in West Jakarta that is experimentally proven to have a maximal distance of 350 m. The optimal location is estimated by means of mean shift clustering method while the optimal routes are calculated using Ant Colony algorithm. The bus stops locations rate of error is 0.07% with overall route area of 32 km. Based on our experiments, we believe our proposed bus stop plan can be an interesting alternative to reduce traffic congestion in West Jakarta.

  15. Survival analysis of car travel time near a bus stop in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoBao; GAO ZiYou; GUO HongWei; HUAN Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an important investigation into car travel time affected by mixed traffic flow near a bus stop on the basis of survival analysis theory.Travel time data associated with mixed traffic characteristics near a bus stop were collected by video cameras.A hazard-based duration model was introduced to analyze the effects of mixed traffic flow on car travel time.The results indicate that mixed traffic flow impacts car travel time significantly.And the presence of bus berthing violation would delay car travel time.The proposed model can be used to forecast temporal shifts in car travel time due to changes in mixed traffic flow.The influential factors related to mixed traffic flow should be given full consideration in the planning and designing of bus stops in developing countries.

  16. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops.Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes in two New Zealand cities.Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%, both young people and adults (44%, just young people (6% and alone (5%. An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%–90%. Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk.Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  17. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Oliver, Jane; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%-90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  18. Influence of bus stop with left-turn lines between two adjacent signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ming-Bao; Ye, Lan-Hang; Pei, Ya-Nan

    2016-08-01

    Based on the symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a three-lane cellular automaton model between two intersections containing a bus stop with left-turning buses is established in which model the occurrences of vehicle accidents are taken into account. The characteristics of traffic flows with different ratios of left-turn lines are discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that the left-turn lines have more negative effects on capacity, accident rate as well as delay if the stop is located close to the intersections, where the negative effect in a near-side stop is more severe than that in a far-side one. The range of appropriate position for a bus stop without the bottleneck effect becomes more and more narrow with the increase of the ratio of left-turn bus lines. When the inflow is small, a short signal cycle and a reasonable offset are beneficial. When the inflow reaches or exceeds the capacity, a longer signal cycle is helpful. But if the stop position is inappropriate, the increase of cycle fails in reducing the negative effect of left-turning buses and the effectiveness of offset is weakened. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50478088) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2015202266).

  19. Particles exposure while sitting at bus stops of hot and humid Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Erik; Tan, Sok Huang

    2016-10-01

    Transport microenvironments represent hotspots of personal exposure to airborne toxics, particularly of ultrafine particles. Thus, a large exposure may be experienced during daily commuting trips. Amongst these microenvironments, bus stops are critical because of the commuters' close proximity to fresh fumes rich in particles emitted by passing, idling and accelerating buses and motor vehicles, in general. Standing at a bus stop may represent a period of disproportionately high exposure and it is, therefore, essential to know the number, chemical composition and physical characteristics of such particles for a proper public health assessment and design of mobility strategies. On this account, a set of portable and battery operated sensors were used to evaluate a number of properties of the traffic particles to which thousands of citizens are daily exposed at bus stops of Singapore. In terms of fine particles, the exposure concentration was on average 1.5-3 times higher than the mean concentration at ambient level reported by the local authorities. On average 60% of those particles corresponded to black carbon. An important presence of particle-bound polycyclic aromatics was observed. The particle number concentration and active surface area were effective metrics to quantify ultrafine particles, as expected both showed strong correlations. The number of particles at bus stops was on average 3.5 times higher than at ambient level. The most alarming issue was probably the size of the particles. Assuming spherical particles, a median of 27 nm was estimated based on the active surface area and particle number data. Particles of this size form the nucleation mode, which is related to harmful health effects.

  20. Bus Stops, RIPTA Park and Ride Bus Stops (September 2011); RIPTApkstops0911; Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (RIPTA) statewide bus stops for public transit service serving park and ride lots. Contains individual route information effective September 2011., Published in 2011, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2011. It is described as 'RIPTA Park...

  1. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela S Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A., a little annoyed (L.A. and highly annoyed (H.A.. The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality

  2. Bus Stops, Park and Ride Lots, Published in 2014, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Madison Area Transportation Planning Board.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2014. It is described as 'Park and...

  3. 城市公交车自动报站器设计%Design of Automotive Bus Stop Announcing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小军; 赵怀坤; 金英才; 张娟

    2011-01-01

    The Automotive Bus Stop Announcing System was designed, which used infrared sensing technology. It can be directly embedded into the existing bus stop announcing systems, and infrared transmitters were set up in front of the station. The infrared receivers were loaded in each bus, and the announcer was controlled by the received signal, and the phonetics chip could be used to achieve the automatic station report without manual operatlon%设计出城市公交自动报站器.该设备可直接嵌入到现有的公交车报站系统中,采用红外线传感技术,在站前或拐弯若干米处设立红外线发射器,在每辆公交车上装入红外接收器,以接收到的信号来控制报站器,声音系统可用语音芯片,实现了自动报站,无需人工操作.

  4. Vulnerability of bus and truck drivers affected from vehicle engine noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the vulnerability of bus and truck drivers due to constant exposure of vehicle-engine noise inside the vehicle cabin. Comparative results revealed that noise levels inside the cabin of buses and trucks were in the range of 88.6–102.4 dB and 87.95–103.4 dB, respectively. The health status of bus and truck drivers was assessed by measuring their systolic and diastolic pressure, pulse rate, BMI, digestion problem, hearing loss, vision problem, back pain and irritation. Paired t-test of the results revealed non-significant (p < 0.05 relation between systolic and diastolic pressure of both bus and truck drivers. The pulse rate of truck driver was significantly (p < 0.01 related with noise level inside the cabin of truck. The humidity level inside the cabin showed a positive relation with vehicle age (p < 0.01 and driving period (p < 0.01. This study clearly suggests that vehicle engine noise adversely affects the cardiovascular health of both bus and truck drivers.

  5. 关于站牌再设计的研究%Research on bus stop design again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安木; 蒙钟华

    2013-01-01

    with the progress of the society, the continuous improvement of living standards, the expanding of personal activities, for the things around, also with the high quality requirements, especially for travel service industry and convenient, and so on become more demanding. With the highly developed of large and medium-sized cities, urban area is expanding, increasing population and the rise in vehicle, the inconvenience of traffic is often the case, the use of the bus gradually by the people favor, more and more people choose bus travel, work and school. Followed for the services of bus system are exposed all sorts of problems. So need better bus stop information calls for more and more high.%随着社会的进步,生活水平的不断提高,个人活动范围的不断扩大,对于身边的事物,质量要求也随着变高,尤其对于服务行业和出行的便捷等等要求变的更加的高了。随着大中城市的高度发达,城市面积的不断扩张,人口的增多及车辆的增多所带来的不便,堵车是常有的事,公交车的使用渐渐的受到的人们得青睐,越来越多的人选择公交车的出行,上下班,上下学。随之而来对于公交车系统的服务也暴露出了各种各样的问题。所以需要更好的公交,站牌信息量的呼声越来越高。

  6. A Study on Bus Noise Reduction%大客车降噪的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴诰珪; 吴伟先

    2001-01-01

    运用噪声分离、频谱分析等技术手段,找出了GZ6921型后置柴油机大客车噪声超过国家标准的原因,并对主要噪声源及其频谱分布进行了分析.对各主要噪声源--排气系统、冷却系统和发动机舱采取相应的降噪措施,如降低风扇转速,改善抗性消声器的降噪能力,修改冷却风进风道,平衡车两侧的噪声源,在发动机舱中粘贴吸音材料等.改进后GZ6921型大客车最大加速度时的车外噪声由91.5dB(A)降到86dB(A)以下,达到国标GB1495-75"机动车允许噪声"的规定.%In this Paper,noise separation and frequency spectrum analyzingtechniques are used to find out why the noise level of the bus of GZ6921 model with rear-placed diesel engine layout exceeds the limit set by the national standard,the nain noise sources and their frequency spectrum distribution are thus identified.Noise reduction measures which are aimed at the main noise sources such as the exhaust system,the cooling air-intake system and the engine cabin are applied,including slowing down the fan's rotation speed,enhancing noise reduction ability of the acoustic-reactive type muffler,modifying the shape of cooling air-intake path,balancing noise in both sides of the bus and adopting sound-absorber in the engine cabin.After these treatments,outside noise level of the bus with maximum acceleration declines from 91.5 dB(A) to lower than 86 dB(A),which meets the "permitted Noise Level of Motor Vehicle"defined by the “GB 1495-79”national standard.

  7. Method for Computing On-Line Bus Stop Capacity%直线型公交停靠站通行能力计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锋; 王殿海; 马东方

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the precision of calculation of bus stop capacity,the servicing process of buses at on-line stops was analyzed using the bus trajectories according to metropolitan bus operation status.On this basis,a method for computing on-line bus stop capacity was developed taking into account both the queue probability and the dwell time distribution.Then,the dwell time distribution function was fitted to the field-observed data of Hangzhou city ; Kolmogorov-Smimov (K-S) test shows that the log-normal distribution has the best goodness of fit,with the K-S value of two traffic periods being 0.083 9 and 0.050 6,respectively.The capacities of three kinds of bus stops were computed by MATLAB programming with different parameters of dwell time distribution.The results indicate that the capacity of bus stop with different berths decreases from 44.4% to 47.3% as the natural logarithmic mean of the dwell time μ increases.In addition,the capacity of bus stops was obtained by simulation using VISSIM software.The average relative error between the calculated and simulated results is 6.5%.%为了提高公交停靠站通行能力计算方法的精确性,针对目前城市的公交运行现状,使用时空分布图分析了公交车在直线式停靠站的服务过程,在此基础上,综合考虑停靠站排队概率和停靠时间分布,推导了公交停靠站通行能力计算模型.对杭州市公交车停靠时间的分布函数进行了拟合,对数正态分布的拟合程度最优,2个交通时段的K-S检验值分别为0.083 9和0.050 6.用MATLAB编程得到不同分布参数下的通行能力结果表明:随着停靠时间对数平均值μ的增加,不同泊位数停靠站的通行能力减少了44.4% ~47.3%;通过VISSIM仿真得到了停靠站的通行能力,模型计算值与仿真结果的平均误差为6.5%.

  8. The Intelligent Bus stop Based on Mobile Communication Location%基于移动通讯定位的智能公交站牌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕学卓; 王媛媛; 陈洁

    2015-01-01

    At present,the structure of the domestic bus stop is simple and the content is single. It can only show the bus number and driving direction. You can not get the correct vehicle information at any time,as a result of which they can only passively waiting for the bus. To solve this problem,we design an intelligent electronic bus stop sign which can solve the above problems effectively. It has the the whole function and the large scalable space. People can know the real-time dynamic information by this electronic buses stop sign. It realized information communication between passengers and the bus driver through the wireless transceiver device,so that people travel more convenient. The 12C5A60S2 microcon-troller is the core of the system. Through its powerful micro-controlled processing capabilities,LED displaying technolo-gy and the networking technology,Intelligent transportation can be realized.%目前国内公交系统的站牌结构简单,内容单一,仅显示公交车次和行车路线,无法了解车辆的实时信息,乘客只能被动地等车。针对这一问题,本文设计了智能公交电子站牌,可以有效解决上述问题,且功能比较全面,可扩展的空间大。人们可以通过电子站牌知道途经该站点的公交车辆的实时动态信息,并且利用无线收发装置实现乘客与公交司机的信息沟通,使人们的出行更加方便。该系统以12C5A60S2单片机为核心,通过其强大的微控处理功能与LED显示技术、物联网技术,实现智慧公交。

  9. Scaling Laws in Chennai Bus Network

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the structural properties of the complex bus network of Chennai. We formulate this extensive network structure by identifying each bus stop as a node, and a bus which stops at any two adjacent bus stops as an edge connecting the nodes. Rigorous statistical analysis of this data shows that the Chennai bus network displays small-world properties and a scale-free degree distribution with the power-law exponent, $\\gamma > 3$.

  10. 公交车停靠诱发交通瓶颈的元胞自动机模拟%Investigation on traffic bottleneck induce by bus stopping with a two-lane cellular automaton model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆定; 董力耘; 戴世强

    2009-01-01

    利用双车道元胞自动机模型,研究公交车停靠对道路混合交通流的影响.针对港湾式和非港湾式两种不同公交车站设置,在开放边界下模拟了公交车停靠所产生的交通瓶颈问题,给出了车辆入流概率.公交车比例相平面上的相图,区分了自由流相和拥挤相,研究了相图各区中公交车站附近的平均密度和速度分布图,比较了两种公交车站情况下的道路交通流的动力学特征.研究发现,当公交车比例较小时,与非港湾式车站相比,港湾式车站可以显著改善车站处的交通状况.%In this paper, the influence of typical bus stops on traffic flow is investigated with the cellular automaton traffic model. For on-line and off-line bus stops, a two-lane cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate the traffic bottleneck induced by bus stopping under the open boundary condition. The phase diagram in the phase plane of injection probability and bus fraction is provided and two phases, i.e., the free flow phase and congested flow phase, are distinguished. The distributions of the mean density and velocity near the bus stop in different traffic phases are given and the comparison of dynamical characteristics of traffic flows is made for different types of bus stops. It is found that using the off-line bus stop can significandy improve the traffic flow in its neighboring region, compared with the on-line bus stop in the case of small fraction of buses.

  11. Improved Reproduction of Stops in Noise Reduction Systems with Adaptive Windows and Nonstationarity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Mauler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new block-based noise reduction system is proposed which focuses on the preservation of transient sounds like stops or speech onsets. The power level of consonants has been shown to be important for speech intelligibility. In single-channel noise reduction systems, however, these sounds are frequently severely attenuated. The main reasons for this are an insufficient temporal resolution of transient sounds and a delayed tracking of important control parameters. The key idea of the proposed system is the detection of non-stationary input data. Depending on that decision, a pair of spectral analysis-synthesis windows is selected which either provides high temporal or high spectral resolution. Furthermore, the decision-directed approach for the estimation of the a priori SNR is modified so that speech onsets are tracked more quickly without sacrificing performance in stationary signal regions. The proposed solution shows significant improvements in the preservation of stops with an overall system delay (input-output, excluding group delay of noise reduction filter of only 10 milliseconds.

  12. Noise measurements in the specific locations of traffic-engineering measures

    OpenAIRE

    Smejtek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with measurements of noise generated by road traffic. In theoretical part is described physical essence of sound, sound spread, perception of sound by human, effects of noise on human, methods of noise reduction, sources of noise from road traffic, legislation regarding noise and traffic-engineering measures. In practical part the noise was measured. Evaluate the noise at the bus stop, different noise level on straight road and sleeping policeman and different noise level on...

  13. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  14. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaqing Wu; Rui Song; Youan Wang; Feng Chen; Shubin Li

    2015-01-01

    The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT) and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the ...

  15. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  16. Numerical study on flow-induced noise for a steam stop-valve using large eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiming; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yong'ou

    2013-09-01

    The noise induced by the fluctuant saturated steam flow under 250 °C in a stop-valve was numerically studied. The simulation was carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and ACTRAN. The acoustic field was investigated with Lighthill's acoustic analogy based on the properties of the flow field obtained using a large-eddy simulation that employs the LES-WALE dynamic model as the sub-grid-scale model. Firstly, the validation of mesh was well conducted, illustrating that two million elements were sufficient in this situation. Secondly, the treatment of the steam was deliberated, and conclusions indicate that when predicting the flow-induced noise of the stop-valve, the steam can be treated as incompressible gas at a low inlet velocity. Thirdly, the flow-induced noises under different inlet velocities were compared. The findings reveal it has remarkable influence on the flow-induced noises. Lastly, whether or not the heat preservation of the wall has influence on the noise was taken into account. The results show that heat preservation of the wall had little influence.

  17. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  18. Modeling, solving and simulation for combinatorial optimization problem of bus stopping in BRT station-group%BRT车站组停靠线路组合优化问题的建模、求解与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林培群; 徐建闽

    2012-01-01

    针对国内外许多城市的BRT专用道仅有1个车道、车辆进站排队容易造成通道阻塞的情况,首先以最小化排队概率为目标,推导出车站组的停靠线路组合优化模型,然后定义上游交叉口的累积效应系数以使模型适应车辆间歇性批量到站的情况,随后针对模型的求解,给出了一种n进制数编码的新的遗传算法.算例以广州市某典型BRT车站组为例进行停靠线路配置优化,并利用VISSIM软件对原始方案及优化方案进行多次仿真和对比,结果表明所提出的方法能有效地缓解公交车辆的进站排队现象,并降低泊位占有率,减少停车次数和行程时间.%Queuing in the bus station often causes traffic jam owing to the fact that BRT system in many cities contains only one lane. In order to relieve this crunch, firstly, a combinatorial optimization model of bus stop in BRT station group was put forward to minimize the queuing probability, then by defining the intersection vehicle cumulative effect coefficient, the optimization model was improved to adapt to intermittent bus batch arrivals caused by the upstream intersection. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm with n-based number encoding was put forward to solve the optimization model. Finally, several bus stop optimization programs of a typical station group in Guangzhou BRT system were obtained in the example, and the simulated results of the original and the new programs from VISSIM software showed that the proposed method could reduce the queuing situation effectively, and decrease the berth occupation rate, bus stop times and travel time simultaneously.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF BUS LANES IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin KIM

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance impacts of reserved bus lanes in Seoul were evaluated and several suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the bus preferential treatment are proposed. The impacts of reserved bus lanes on both bus and auto performance were primarily measured by the relative speed changes of buses and autos and the average circulation rate of bus trips. Empirical results showed that the bus lanes were successful in improving average bus performance compared with other adjacent traffic. It was confirmed that right turning movement of the buses would cause the deterioration of bus speed in the curbside bus lanes. The average circulation rate of daily bus trips during the bus operation periods was somewhat increased by the bus lane introduction. A current warrant for reserved bus lanes in Korea was reviewed, and average bus speed during peak periods was proposed as a new warrant. In order to improve the effectiveness of the reserved bus lane, the type of lane markings in reserved bus lane, enforcement strategies for illegal parking in the bus lane and FIFO service at bus stops are discussed.

  20. Age-related differences in weighting and masking of two cues to word-final stop voicing in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan

    2005-08-01

    Because laboratory studies are conducted in optimal listening conditions, often with highly stylized stimuli that attenuate or eliminate some naturally occurring cues, results may have constrained applicability to the ``real world.'' Such studies show that English-speaking adults weight vocalic duration greatly and formant offsets slightly in voicing decisions for word-final obstruents. Using more natural stimuli, Nittrouer [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 1777-1790 (2004)] found different results, raising questions about what would happen if experimental conditions were even more like the real world. In this study noise was used to simulate the real world. Edited natural words with voiced and voiceless final stops were presented in quiet and noise to adults and children (4 to 8 years) for labeling. Hypotheses tested were (1) Adults (and perhaps older children) would weight vocalic duration more in noise than in quiet; (2) Previously reported age-related differences in cue weighting might not be found in this real-world simulation; and (3) Children would experience greater masking than adults. Results showed: (1) no increase for any age listeners in the weighting of vocalic duration in noise; (2) age-related differences in the weighting of cues in both quiet and noise; and (3) masking effects for all listeners, but more so for children than adults.

  1. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  2. 基于ZigBee技术的公交车自动报站系统设计%Bus-stop Auto-announcing System Based on ZigBee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国平

    2011-01-01

    针对中小城市公交系统的特点及实际运营环境,考虑性价比和实用性设计了基于ZigBee(紫蜂协议)技术的单片机自动报站系统.站台发射部分采用CC2430芯片实现站址编码信息的自动发射,外围电路简单,可用电池长时间供电.车载部分具有手动和自动报站模式实时切换功能,可通过U盘存储的线路信息方便地实现公交线路的更换,在自动报站的同时可滚动显示站名、日历、时间、星期、温度和服务用语等信息.该系统成本低、可扩展性强、运行可靠且易于安装、维护,适合推广使用.%MCU auto-announcing system based on ZigBee was designed with respect to the characteristics and actual operation environment of the bus system in small and medium cities and by taking into account the performance-cost ratio and utility. For the platform transmission module, CC2430 chip was adopted to realize automatic transmission of stop address coding information. The peripheral circuit is simple, which can be electrified by battery for a long time. Onboard module is armed with real-time shift function for manual and automatic announcing mode.The information on bus lines stored in USB disk can conveniently achieve replacement of bus lines. Along with auto-announcing, such information as stop name, calendar, time, week, temperature and service language can be roll-displayed.

  3. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  4. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  5. 一种基于ISD1760的公交车语音报站系统设计%Design of Bus Stops Speech System Based on ISD1760

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海军; 惠彩云; 李音; 薛娓娓

    2012-01-01

    设计了一种基于ISD1760语音芯片的公交车语音报站演示系统.主控芯片采用了基于首款采用ARM cortex M3内核的stellaris系列中具有代表性的LM3S811,通过ISD1760的独立按键模式录制语音信息,然后利用ISD1760的SSI模式接口和LM3S811同步串行端日连接通信,实现语音芯片按照主控芯片发送的信息组合语音片段,让语音芯片一定逻辑播放语音提示信息.搭建并调试了电路,结果表明,该系统能准确的进行语音报站.%Bus stops speech system was designed based on ISD1760. Master chip adopt the stellaris Texas instruments, the representative LM3S811 ISD1760 independent button mode through recorded voice messages, then use the SSI model ISD1760 interfaces and LM3S811 synchronous serial port to the communications, realize voice chip send information according to the main control chip vocal segments, realize the combination of voice chip certain logic broadcast audio information. Build and debug the circuit, the results show that the system can accurately voice stop.

  6. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  7. 公交站名的汉英翻译原则和技巧--以景市公交线路翻译为例%Principles and Techniques Used in Translating Bus -stop Names---A Case Study of Jing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琳

    2013-01-01

      公交站台名是公示语的一个重要组成部分,主要发挥着指示的交际功能,这类公示语的翻译除必须遵循公示语的一般翻译原则和策略,又具有其自身的翻译特点。从实际翻译经历出发,以景市公交线路英译为例,运用丰富的翻译例证,考查了公交站名的翻译技巧和策略。译者需要综合考查源语的特征和含义,使译文既能符合译入语的表达习惯,又能让读者(听者)易于理解,从而实现这类公示语的交际目的—指示功能。%Bus stop name is an important constituent of public signs ,which plays a role of directing for citizens .On the one hand ,the translation of bus top names into English should follow the general translation principles and techniques ;on the other hand , such kind of translation has its own specific requirements .This paper starts from the writer's own experience in translating the bus stop lines in Jing City , and sets real and rich examples in order to investigate the techniques involved .It is revealed that translators in dealing with such translation work need to take into account the comprehensive meaning and characteristics of bust stop names , and produce reader/listener-friendly target expression for the benefit of receivers'easy understanding so as to achieve the directing function of such public signs .

  8. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  9. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  10. STOCHASTIC BUS DISPATCHING MODEL UNTUK OPTIMALISASI JUMLAH BUS TRANSJAKARTA KORIDOR 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road user causing traffic jam finds out a way, busway. However, in its implementation, the number of fleet available does not enough to take the passengers. It results in the an amassed of passengers at several bus stops. This leads to passenger dissatisfaction satisfaction which eventually causes Transjakarta users to reuse private cars. Definitely this situation may builds up traffic jams. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model is used to simulate public transportation that operates regularly.

  11. BUS BAY PERFORMANCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CAPACITY OF ROAD NETWORK IN DAR ES SALAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin K. Mushule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of major problems facing motorists in Dar es Salaam city today is congestion. Bus bays have a significant influence on the capacity of a roadway because they interfere with passing vehicles primarily when buses maneuver to pull into and out of bus bays. Bus bay stops will also interfere with vehicles movement if bus demand exceeds the bus bay capacity resulting in some buses waiting in the travel lane until the buses occupying the bay exit the bay. This paper presents the results of a study which was carried out to evaluate the bus bay performance and its influence on the capacity of the roadway network in the city of Dar es Salaam. The case study area covered 11 bus stops along Morogoro road from Ubungo to Magomeni Mapipa. Capacity of bus bays was studied using procedure outlined in the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual of 2003. This enabled the researcher to determine parameters such as dwell times and clearance times which are major determinants of bus stop capacity. The results indicate that only 18% of the bus bay stops studied did not have adequate capacity to cater for the available demand. 9% did not have adequate capacity during peak hours but the capacity was adequate during off-peak hours. The remaining 73% of bus bay stops possess adequate capacity all the time. Although most bus bay stops studied possess adequate capacity, severe congestion was observed at these locations. This is due to erratic behavior of bus drivers who do not utilize the provided space for them to drop off and pick up passengers. Clearly, this is an area that requires more strict enforcement in order to ease the congestion problem in the city by operating the existing capacity more efficiently."

  12. Application of Remote Tripping and Bus Differential Protection Stops Sending Letters of 1 1 0 kV Double Power Supply Lines of Communication%浅谈110 kV双电源联络线“远跳”及“母差停信”功能的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 李巧荣

    2014-01-01

    Taking PSL621and ISA-311G as the example,this article elaborated the principle of remote tripping and bus differential protection stops sending letters of 1 1 0 kV double power supply lines of communication,and introduced the function application and the realization.Finally,for 1 1 0 kV double power source lines of communication,when dead area failure and the bus failure,it proposed several matters needing attention to ensure fast and reliable removal on both sides.%文中以PSL621和 ISA-311G为例阐述了110 kV双电源联络线的“远跳”及“母差停信”原理,并对其功能的应用和实现作了相应的介绍,最后针对110 kV双电源联络线线路死区故障及母线故障时,确保两侧快速可靠切除提出了几点注意事项。

  13. Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  14. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  15. Stop Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Stop Ticks Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... What to Do if You Find an Attached Tick Remove the attached tick as soon as you ...

  16. Brainstem evoked response in bus drivers with noise-induced hearing loss Audiometria de tronco encefálico em motoristas de ônibus com perda auditiva induzida pelo ruído

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Silveira Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out by Brainstem Evoked Auditory Potentials (BEAP in Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL workers show different results in relation to neuronal involvement, not involving bus drivers as study object. AIM: to use BEAP in a prospective case/control clinical study to check whether or not there is neural auditory pathway involvement in bus drivers with NIHL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we selected 50 bus drivers between 27 and 40 years with mild to moderate NIHL, and 20 individuals between 29 and 40 years with normal hearing and without prior history of noise exposure. BEAP tests were carried out and the traces were analyzed. RESULTS: in the NIHL group, the auditory thresholds in 3, 4 and 6 kHz were significantly higher in the left ear. In the NIHL group, potentials PI, PIII and/or PV were not present in a small number of the individuals; we observed a statistically significant increase in PI, PIII and PV absolute latencies, (LIP LIP I-III interpeak latencies, bilaterally and LIP I-V in the left ear. CONCLUSION: in the NIHL group, besides sensorial injury, changes in BEAP latencies suggest an early functional injury of the first auditory pathway afferent neuron.Estudos realizados com os Potenciais Auditivos Evocados de Tronco Encefálico (PEATE em trabalhadores com Perda Auditiva Induzida pelo Ruído (PAIR apresentam resultados díspares em relação ao comprometimento neuronal, além de não contemplar motoristas de ônibus como objeto de estudo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar pelo PEATE, em estudo clínico de série caso/controle, prospectivo, se há comprometimento das vias auditivas neurais em motoristas de ônibus com PAIR. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram selecionados 50 motoristas de ônibus entre 27 e 40 anos portadores de PAIR leve a moderada; e 20 sujeitos entre 29 e 40 anos com audibilidade normal e sem antecedentes de exposição a ruído. Os PEATEs foram realizados e os traçados analisados. RESULTADOS: No grupo PAIR, os limiares auditivos em 3, 4

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., inspection, and repair. It also should include the removal and reinstallation of the engine and drive train...) or for other purposes. 7. Noise The noise test should measure interior noise and vibration while the... transmission of exterior noise to the interior while the bus is not running. The exterior noise should...

  18. Perda auditiva induzida por ruído e hipertensão em condutores de ônibus Noise-induced hearing loss and high blood pressure among city bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleno Rodrigues Corrêa Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar as prevalências de perda auditiva induzida por ruído e hipertensão arterial em condutores de ônibus urbanos. MÉTODOS: Executou-se estudo transversal em amostra probabilística de 108 motoristas da cidade de Campinas, SP. Aplicou-se questionário sobre história profissional, jornadas de trabalho e repouso, e realizou-se exame físico e laboratorial incluindo medida da pressão arterial, audiometria tonal limiar, logoaudiometria e dados antropométricos, após a obtenção de consentimento. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de perda auditiva induzida por ruído foi de 32,7% do total examinado. Segundo a classificação de Merluzzi, nos 31 casos classificados em primeiro e segundo graus, observou-se que a freqüência audiométrica com perda auditiva mais acentuada foi a de 6 kHz (61,3%, seguida pela de 4 kHz (38,7%, sem diferenças significantes quanto à lateralidade. A prevalência de hipertensão arterial diastólica (PAD³90 mmHG; PAS³140 mmHG foi de 13,2% dos examinados. CONCLUSÕES: O risco de disacusia induzida por ruído foi maior para os motoristas com mais de seis anos de trabalho, após ajuste para a perda relacionada com a idade, com um odds ratio de 19,25 (1,59OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of occupational noise-induced hearing loss and arterial hypertension among city bus drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a probability random sample of 108 city bus drivers taken out of a total of 1,529 estimated professionals in the city of Campinas, Brazil, in 1991. Drivers were interviewed using questionnaires on job history, shift work and vacation schedules and underwent clinical and laboratory examinations including measures of blood pressure, pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and anthropometric data analysis after an informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was 32.7%. According to Merluzzi's classification, 91.2% (31 cases were classified as

  19. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  20. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  1. BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

      BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-100-introduction-to-business-entire-course/   BUS 100 Assignment 1 Fundamentals of Effective Communication in the Workplace BUS 100 Assignment 2 Ethical and Socially Responsive Business BUS 100 Introduction To Business Week 1-11 Discussions BUS 100 week 1 discussions BUS 100 week 2 Discussions BUS 100 week 3 Discussions BUS 100 week 4 Discussions ...

  2. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  3. Scheduling Combination Optimization Research for Bus Lane Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazao Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Different scheduling forms can be adopted in bus lane system to meet passengers’ travel demand well and improve operational efficiency. Therefore, this paper researched the optimal headway and bus scheduling combination of a bus lane line. Bus scheduling combination is composed of a sequence of full-length, express bus and short-turn. We established a model to minimize passengers’ waiting cost and vehicles’ operation cost and to optimize headway and bus scheduling combination, under the constraint of the headway restriction for each stop, the minimum number of vehicle trips in one hour and the proportion of short-turn and express bus trips in total trips. The model was solved by improved genetic algorithm, and the optimal solution was obtained by repeating the operation of genetic algorithm L times. The results of numerical example show that the whole cost can be saved by 21.77% at most after optimization, which indicate the model and algorithm we presented are reasonable and practicable.

  4. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  5. You can't stop the music: reduced auditory alpha power and coupling between auditory and memory regions facilitate the illusory perception of music during noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadia; Keil, Julian; Obleser, Jonas; Schulz, Hannah; Grunwald, Thomas; Bernays, René-Ludwig; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-10-01

    Our brain has the capacity of providing an experience of hearing even in the absence of auditory stimulation. This can be seen as illusory conscious perception. While increasing evidence postulates that conscious perception requires specific brain states that systematically relate to specific patterns of oscillatory activity, the relationship between auditory illusions and oscillatory activity remains mostly unexplained. To investigate this we recorded brain activity with magnetoencephalography and collected intracranial data from epilepsy patients while participants listened to familiar as well as unknown music that was partly replaced by sections of pink noise. We hypothesized that participants have a stronger experience of hearing music throughout noise when the noise sections are embedded in familiar compared to unfamiliar music. This was supported by the behavioral results showing that participants rated the perception of music during noise as stronger when noise was presented in a familiar context. Time-frequency data show that the illusory perception of music is associated with a decrease in auditory alpha power pointing to increased auditory cortex excitability. Furthermore, the right auditory cortex is concurrently synchronized with the medial temporal lobe, putatively mediating memory aspects associated with the music illusion. We thus assume that neuronal activity in the highly excitable auditory cortex is shaped through extensive communication between the auditory cortex and the medial temporal lobe, thereby generating the illusion of hearing music during noise.

  6. BUS 438 Concepts of Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    BUS 438 Concepts of Emerging Markets Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-438-concepts-of-emerging-markets/   BUS438 BUS/438  MODULE 3 ASSIGNMENT 3 Concepts of Emerging Markets [ARGOSY

  7. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  8. Pneumatic brake control for precision stopping of heavy-duty vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bu, Fanping; Tan, Han-Shue

    2007-01-01

    Precision stopping is an important automated vehicle control function that is critical in applications such as precision bus docking, automated truck or bus fueling, as well as automatic intersection, or toll booth stopping. The initial applications of this technology are most likely to be applied to heavy-duty vehicles such as buses or trucks. Such applications require specific attention to brake control since the characteristics of a typical pneumatic brake system of a heavy vehicle is inhe...

  9. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  10. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  11. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  12. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  13. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  14. 77 FR 48592 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... authorized by 49 U.S.C. 5309(b), as amended by Section 3011 of the Safe, Affordable, Flexible, Efficient... Livability Initiatives (77 FR 6178). The NOFA explained the requirements and procedures for eligible... facilities, bus-related equipment, and transit asset management systems. The FY 2012 Bus...

  15. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  16. Capacity Region of a New Bus Communication Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuojun Zhuang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a new bus communication model, where two transmitters wish to send their corresponding private messages and a common message to a destination, while they also wish to send the common message to another receiver connected to the same wire. From an information-theoretical point of view, we first study a general case of this new model (with discrete memoryless channels. The capacity region composed of all achievable (R0,R1,R2 triples is determined for this general model, where R1 and R2 are the transmission rates of the private messages and R0 is the transmission rate of the common message. Then, the result is further explained via the Gaussian example. Finally, we give the capacity region for the new bus communication model with additive Gaussian noises and attenuation factors. This new bus communication model captures various communication scenarios, such as the bus systems in vehicles, and the bus type of communication channel in power line communication (PLC networks.

  17. Closing the stop gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czakon, Michal [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchnphysik und Kosmologie; Mitov, Alexander [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.; Papucci, Michele [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ruderman, Joshua T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; New York Univ., NY (United States). Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.

    2014-07-15

    Light stops are a hallmark of the most natural realizations of weak-scale supersymmetry. While stops have been extensively searched for, there remain open gaps around and below the top mass, due to similarities of stop and top signals with current statistics. We propose a new fast-track avenue to improve light stop searches for R-parity conserving supersymmetry, by comparing top cross section measurements to the theoretical prediction. Stop masses below ∝180 GeV can now be ruled out for a light neutralino. The possibility of a stop signal contaminating the top mass measurement is also briefly addressed.

  18. The Myth of the "Ideal Bus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Does as an ideal bus technology exist? Many companies have and will promote a single technology as the ideal bus that will meet all application needs, but in actuality, each bus technology has its own strengths and weaknesses and thus is appropriate for different applications. History has shown the folly of claiming an ideal bus for every application.

  19. High-Speed Ring Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  20. Platform Screen Doors Enhanced Bus Rapid Transit Intelligent Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghua Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is the last straw to clutch at to solve the urban traffic issue, to develop high-capacity rapid transit and promote transit priority. Characterized by low cost, short construction cycle and flexible development, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has been favored by more and more cities in the world. The Platform Screen Doors (PSDs system is an important component at BRT stations, and it is original motive to be designed to satisfy the growing demand from BRT application to provide increased safety and comfort in the first. With the continual increased demand for BRT intelligent performance, the PSDs system is applied to get Bus Location Information with accurate position of arrival and departure at stop, to provide Real-Time Information (RTI for BRT passengers using PSDs/GPS compound location technology, to put into practice Bus Fleet Management (BFM. Considering the capability of accurate location, it can be applied to actualize Bus Sign Priority in the future. The authors are luck to take in part the practice of BRT system, especially in the BRT intelligent systems, the papers will introduce upwards application and conceive in detail.

  1. Implemented Wavelet Packet Tree based Denoising Algorithm in Bus Signals of a Wearable Sensorarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmack, M.; Nguyen, S.; Mercorelli, P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a thermosensing embedded system with a sensor bus that uses wavelets for the purposes of noise location and denoising. From the principle of the filter bank the measured signal is separated in two bands, low and high frequency. The proposed algorithm identifies the defined noise in these two bands. With the Wavelet Packet Transform as a method of Discrete Wavelet Transform, it is able to decompose and reconstruct bus input signals of a sensor network. Using a seminorm, the noise of a sequence can be detected and located, so that the wavelet basis can be rearranged. This particularly allows for elimination of any incoherent parts that make up unavoidable measuring noise of bus signals. The proposed method was built based on wavelet algorithms from the WaveLab 850 library of the Stanford University (USA). This work gives an insight to the workings of Wavelet Transformation.

  2. SCHOOL BUS GARAGES, 1966 REVISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, HERBERT F.

    STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL BUS GARAGES INCLUDING BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF--(1) SITE DEVELOPMENT, (2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND (3) MECHANICAL (HEATING, PLUMBING, AND VENTILATION) AND ELECTRICAL FACTORS. (JT)

  3. Toward Real-time Multi-criteria Decision Making for Bus Service Reliability Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vu The; Eklund, Peter; Cook, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses issues associated with the real-time control of public transit operations to minimize passenger wait time: namely vehicle headway, maintenance of passenger comfort, and reducing the impact of control strategies. The randomness of passenger arrivals at bus stops and external f...

  4. Spaceflight qualification of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanegan, Mark C.

    1993-09-01

    The small explorer (SMEX) project at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) launched the first spaceflight implementation of the MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) in July of 1992. The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), of which the MIL-STD-1773 data bus is a part, has been successful. The MIL-STD-1773 bus is the implementation of the MIL-STD-1553 protocol using fiber optics. Advantages of the fiber optic bus over the electrical bus include lower power, lower weight, and immunity from EMI/RFI. It does not radiate electrical or magnetic fields. It is a nonconductor so it cannot conduct electrical noise into or from a subsystem. This is particularly advantageous on a spacecraft with very sensitive instruments which are often susceptible to electrical interference. Although the MIL-STD-1773 bus is a 1 Mbps bus like the MIL-STD-1553 bus, the fiber optics also provide a path to the much higher rate systems required in upcoming NASA missions.

  5. Wishbone bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mohandeep; 10.5121/vlsic.2012.3210

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC). This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Micro controller Bus Architecture (AMBA) by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle). Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  6. Study on Braking Energy Regeneration System for City Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zheng-yao; CHEN Ru-wen; YANG Xue-mei; LIU Gou-bing; JIN Jia-jun

    2011-01-01

    Braking of the urban vehicles of public service wastes a large number of engine energy in the condition of starting and stopping frequently. Aiming at the problem, an electro-mechanical braking energy regeneration system was proposed which adopted a high-speed flywheel and a battery to recover the braking energy and achieve the secondary traction for the auxiliary start function. The system strategy was designed and the braking simulation was processed to validate its feasibility. The experiment results show that the system can effectively recover the braking energy, improve the starting performance of the city bus and it can be applied to the engineering.

  7. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  8. Aids to School Bus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  9. School bus and children's traffic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan

    2007-01-01

    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  10. Optimal Design of the Feeder-Bus Network Based on the Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the classic feeder-bus network design problem (FBNDP, which can be described as follows: for the passenger travel demand between rail stations and bus stops on a given urban transit network, it designs the optimal feeder bus routes and frequencies so as to minimize the passengers’ travel expense and the operator’s cost. We extended the demand pattern of M-to-1 in most existing researches to M-to-M. We comprehensively considered the passenger travel cost, which includes the waiting and riding cost on the bus, riding cost on rail, and transfer cost between these two transportation modes, and presented a new genetic algorithm that determines the optimal feeder-bus operating frequencies under strict constraint conditions. The numerical examples under different demand patterns have been experienced and analysed, which showed the robustness and efficiency of the presented algorithm. We also found that the distribution pattern of the travel demand has a significant influence on the feeder-bus network construction.

  11. Low-inductance bus lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernick, A.

    1977-01-01

    Laminated bus strips and bifilar litz cable connectors for high-power rectifiers, thrisistors, and transistors provide low inductance and eliminate electromagnetic interference in high-power circuits. These techniques offer significant cost advantages because of ease of assembly and consistent high quality of product. Effectiveness makes general usage in static power conversion likely.

  12. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  13. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  14. (Light) Stop Signs

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhenyu; Krohn, David; Reece, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Stop squarks with a mass just above the top's and which decay to a nearly massless LSP are difficult to probe because of the large SM di-top background. Here we discuss search strategies which could be used to set more stringent bounds in this difficult region. In particular, we note that both the rapidity difference Delta y(t,tbar) and spin correlations (inferred from, for example, Delta phi(l+,l-)) are sensitive to the presence of stops. We emphasize that systematic uncertainties in top quark production can confound analyses looking for stops, making theoretical and experimental progress on the understanding of Standard Model top production at high precision a very important task. We estimate that spin correlation alone, which is relatively robust against such systematic uncertainties, can exclude a 200 GeV stop at 95% confidence with 20 fb^-1 at the 8 TeV LHC.

  15. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  16. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  17. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  18. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  19. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  20. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  1. Bus Routes, Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  2. YUTONG BUS: Grateful To The Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shenyin&Wanguo Securities issued an announcement on Jan 9 rating Yutong Bus(600066)as"buying",on the basis that the bus maker's gross profits went better in the last quarter of 2008 and to be further improved in the first quarter of 2009,with an increased market share. The report drew attention inside the in- dustry when the entire bus segment was suffering a tough time.

  3. Wishbone Bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandeep Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC. This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle. Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  4. Sneaky light stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Eifert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  5. Ready to stop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molitoris, Joseph; Dribe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the Roteman Database for Stockholm, Sweden between 1878 and 1926 to examine the association of socioeconomic status and fertility and the adoption of stopping behaviour during the city's transition. Using piecewise constant hazard models and logistic regression, we find that a clear class pattern arises...... in which the elite were early practitioners of fertility control, followed by the working classes. As the transition unfolded, socioeconomic differences in stopping behaviour disappeared and overall fertility differentials were also minimized, both of them being consistent with patterns observed in rural...

  6. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try to do this when your baby is sitting at the table in a high chair. Generally, the last bottle to stop should be the nighttime bottle. That ...

  7. One-stop shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, C

    1996-11-25

    The long-term-care industry's new mantras are "continuum of care" and "one-stop shopping." Companies are trying to please consumers who are clamoring for more senior-living options and managed-care organizations that want administratively simple contracting arrangements.

  8. Stopping the unstoppable

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    How do you stop two very high energy proton beams circulating in opposite directions around a 27-kilometre ring? The answer is the beam dumps. Two tunnels, pointing in opposite directions, are being constructed at point 6 of the LHC. These will allow the beams to be directed into two large beam dumps housed at the ends of the tunnels.

  9. Hiding Solar-Array Bus Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    End terminals mounted under cells, maximizing usable illuminated area. Reconfigured solar panel bus bars placed under cells, reducing portion of module area not occupied by active silicon. Underside of last cell in string of cells serves as contact for positive bus. Negative tab of last cell in string is wrapped around from top of cell. Tabs are connected to output boards mounted under cells.

  10. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  11. From the hybrid bus to the fully electrical bus; Vom Hybridbus zum vollelektrischen Bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffel, Christian [VCDB VerkehrsConsult Dresden-Berlin GmbH, Dresden (Germany). Team Elektromobilitaet

    2013-05-15

    To an increasing extent, hybrid buses have become omnipresent in conurbations as far as public transport is concerned. However, they are only an intermediate stage on the path to the fully electrical bus. The development path has been marked out and depends on the progress made in energy storage technology and automobile industry. From an economic point of view, practicable and adequate funding measures are required for the time being for precisely arranging electromobility in public transport and thus before an audience of millions. (orig.)

  12. FAKTOR PENYEBAB KERUSAKAN SISTEM MESIN PADA BUS APTB PPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Chairani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Comfort and safety of public transportation, particularly APTB PPD buses, becomes high expectations for its customers. Those expectations must be supported by the application of a good engine maintenance system. By using the method of Reliability Centered Maintenance may be determined appropriate actions to mitigate damage. From the analysis known the failures of the APTB PPD bus are malfunctions of the fuel engine, power transfer systems, difficulty to move the gear lever, and lubricating system for the rough engine noise. The cause of engine malfunction is dirty diesel filter, vehicle acceleration malfunction is due to the clutch plate wear out. Difficulty to move the gear lever indicates that the clutch slips. Rough engine noise caused by the flow of oil to the engine stalled as the result of dirty oil filter. The results of the logic tree analysis show that for each failure requires scheduling of time directed task.

  13. Error protection capability of space shuttle data bus designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proch, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Error protection assurance in the reliability of digital data communications is discussed. The need for error protection on the space shuttle data bus system has been recognized and specified as a hardware requirement. The error protection techniques of particular concern are those designed into the Shuttle Main Engine Interface (MEI) and the Orbiter Multiplex Interface Adapter (MIA). The techniques and circuit design details proposed for these hardware are analyzed in this report to determine their error protection capability. The capability is calculated in terms of the probability of an undetected word error. Calculated results are reported for a noise environment that ranges from the nominal noise level stated in the hardware specifications to burst levels which may occur in extreme or anomalous conditions.

  14. Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

  15. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Goh

    Full Text Available Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  16. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    OpenAIRE

    TEMPLETON, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important ...

  17. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-11-01

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark simulated annealing on a class of maximum-2-satisfiability (MAX2SAT) problems. We also compare the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer to the Hamze-Freitas-Selby (HFS) solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low-tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N =1098 variables, the D-Wave device is 2 orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver, and, modulo known caveats related to suboptimal annealing times, exhibits identical scaling with problem size.

  18. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Emails CDC Features Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... you can increase acceptance by helping to stop bullying of children with TS. Bullying doesn't just ...

  19. Noise suppression by noise

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar, J. M. G.; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.

  20. End-Stop Exemplar Based Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren I.

    2003-01-01

    An approach to exemplar based recognition of visual shapes is presented. The shape information is described by attributed interest points (keys) detected by an end-stop operator. The attributes describe the statistics of lines and edges local to the interest point, the position of neighboring int...... interest points, and (in the training phase) a list of recognition names. Recognition is made by a simple voting procedure. Preliminary experiments indicate that the recognition is robust to noise, small deformations, background clutter and partial occlusion.......An approach to exemplar based recognition of visual shapes is presented. The shape information is described by attributed interest points (keys) detected by an end-stop operator. The attributes describe the statistics of lines and edges local to the interest point, the position of neighboring...

  1. FAST BUS Test Box (LAIKA) (Engineering Materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The assembly drawing AD 135-518-00-RO, and the drawings referenced thereon, provide the data and specifications for constructing the LAIKA Test Box. Some drawings are not available, although they are listed on the material lists included. The assembly is a manual tester for FAST BUS modules, both masters and slaves. FAST BUS signals are generated by means of switches or push buttons and provide the state of the bus lines by lighting LED's. The box acts as either a master or slave - depending upon the module under test. It also acts as an ATC to test the arbitration logic of a master or ATC device.

  2. Drivetrain system of an ultracapacitor electric bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Zhigu; Zhu Chunbo; Yang Shiyan; Cheng Shukang

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a design of the drivetrain system of an electric bus with ultracapacitor (UC) as the only on-board power source. The system includes three main parts, namely, UC bank, motor and the converter, vehicle management unit (VMU). Analyses results in detail on the functional design and experiments on work bench of each part were also presented, which validated the reliability of the system. Furthermore, driving results in field of the bus verified the feasibility of the design of the drivetrain system. The bus has very good dynamic performances and shows a promising applications prospect in the short and medium route buses system.

  3. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  4. BUS 1000母线保护的应用%Application of BUS 1000 Bus-Bar Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓光; 张贵金; 冷雪玉

    2001-01-01

    发电厂的母线是电厂中的一个重要组成元件,当母线上发生故障时,将使连接在故障母线上的所有元件在修复故障母线期间,或转换到另一组母线上运行以前遭到停电。同时还可能破坏系统稳定,造成严重后果。因此,母线保护装置是正确迅速切除母线故障的重要装置,它的拒动或误动将给电力系统带来严重危害。详细介绍了华能丹东发电厂350 MW发电机组采用的BUS 1000型母线保护的原理,并对其正常运行及区内、外故障、断路器失灵保护、母联断路器过流保护等几个方面作了详细分析。%Bus bar is an important component in e lectric power plant.When bus bar fault occurs,all components connected on the fa ulty bus bar will be in outage until power restores by repairing the faulty bus bar or switching them over to another bus bar.Furthermore,it may cause the destr uction of system stability resulting in serious consequence.Bus bar protection d evice is the very device to quickly remove bus bar faults,and its malfunctioning will bring serious harm to power system. The principle of BUS 1000 bus bar prot ection used for 350 MW unit of dandong power plant is introduced.Its normal oper ation and several aspects,such as in-and out-area faults,out-of-order breake r protection,bus bar breaker over-current protection,are analyzed in detail.

  5. A New PWM Modifying Technique for Reconstructing Three-phase Currents from DC Bus Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Shigehisa; Iwaji, Yoshitaka; Tobari, Kazuaki; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi

    Vector control is used to drive a DC brushless motor and generally needs current information. DC bus current detection is often adopted as a low cost method for reconstructing three-phase currents. PWM modifying techniques increase the DC pulse duration, thereby enabling easy detection of the DC bus current. However, these techniques have two problems: reducing a noise frequency and making the reconstructed current waveforms distorted by current ripple. In the techniques, modification signals are added to the three-phase voltage commands; the sum of the signals over a single cycle is zero. The authors examined several PWM modifying techniques from the points of view of noise and current distortion performance. One of the techniques had a good noise performance, and the frequency component of the noise was the same as the carrier frequency (fc). However, the reconstructed current waveforms were distorted. The total harmonic distortion (THD) varied from 1.7% to 4.1%. Another technique had a very poor noise performance, and the frequency component on the noise was one-fourth of fc. The authors developed a new PWM modifying method called “Half Pulse Shift”, which achieves the optimum noise and current distortion performance. The frequency component of the new method was two-thirds of fc, and the current waveforms were not distorted; the THD in the simulations and experiments was 0.5%-1.4% and 3.4%-3.6%, respectively.

  6. Effect of periodic inflow on speed-controlled shuttle bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus controlled the speed when passengers come periodically at the origin. We propose the nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of the speed-controlled bus with the periodic inflow. The bus schedule is closely connected to the motion. The motion of the speed-controlled bus is affected by the periodic inflow. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on both speed control and periodic inflow. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions by varying both periodic inflow and speed control. We clarify the dependence of the bus motion on both speed control and periodic inflow.

  7. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  8. DESIGN AND EXPERIMENT OF ELECTRIC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Performance and reliability experiments on BJD-6100EV electric buses, jointly developed by Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Public Transport Company, are introduced. Output power model of battery pack is established and maximum output power is analyzed. A permanent magnetic direct current (PMDC) motor with enhanced windings is developed for the bus. Torque-speed characteristics of the motor are modeled and performance of electric bus is analyzed. Computational method of the range of electric bus is proposed and discussed. Experiments show that electric bus can realize design requirements. Computational methods are verified with the help of field test. It is expected that design and computation method will provide helpful reference to development of electric vehicles.

  9. GMSB with Light Stops

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Antonio; Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) is an elegant mechanism to transmit supersymmetry breaking from the hidden to the MSSM observable sector, which solves the supersymmetric flavor problem. However the smallness of the generated stop mixing requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass. Two possible ways out are: i) To extend GMSB by direct superpotential messenger-MSSM Yukawa couplings to generate sizeable mixing, thus reintroducing the flavor problem; ii) To extend the MSSM Higgs sector with singlets and/or triplets providing extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Singlets will not get any soft mass from GMSB and triplets will contribute to the $\\rho$ parameter which could be an issue. In this paper we explore the second way by introducing extra supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges $Y=(0,\\pm 1)$, with a tree-level custodial $SU(2)_L\\otimes SU(2)_R$ global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the $\\rho$ parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of ...

  10. Book Review: Stop, Write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

  11. Baryon stopping probes deconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolschin, Georg

    2016-08-01

    Stopping and baryon transport in central relativistic Pb + Pb and Au + Au collisions are reconsidered with the aim to find indications for the transition from hadronic to partonic processes. At energies reached at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron ( √{s_{NN}} = 6.3-17.3 GeV) and at RHIC (62.4 GeV) the fragmentation-peak positions as obtained from the data depend linearly on the beam rapidity and are in agreement with earlier results from a QCD-based approach that accounts for gluon saturation. No discontinuities in the net-proton fragmentation peak positions occur in the expected transition region from partons to hadrons at 6-10GeV. In contrast, the mean rapidity loss is predicted to depend linearly on the beam rapidity only at high energies beyond the RHIC scale. The combination of both results offers a clue for the transition from hard partonic to soft hadronic processes in baryon stopping. NICA results could corroborate these findings.

  12. [Sleep habits and traffic accidents in inter-provincial bus drivers of Arequipa, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Alex; Rey de Castro, Jorge; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while driving. Sleepiness or fatigue while driving was common in this population and their driving and rest habits could contribute to this.

  13. GENERAL: Connectivity correlations in three topological spaces of urban bus-transport networks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Zhou; Fu, Chun-Hua; Chang, Hui; Li, Nan; He, Da-Ren

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an empirical investigation is presented, which focuses on unveiling the universality of connectivity correlations in three spaces (the route space, the stop geographical space and bus-transferring space) of urban bus-transport networks (BTNs) in four major cities of China. The underlying features of the connectivity correlations are shown in two statistical ways. One is the correlation between the (weighted) average degree of all the nearest neighbouring vertices with degree k, (Knnw (k)) Knn(k), and k, and the other is the correlations between the assortativity coefficient r and, respectively, the network size N, the network diameter D, the averaged clustering coefficient C, and the averaged distance . The obtained results show qualitatively the same connectivity correlations of all the considered cities under all the three spaces.

  14. Modulation schemes and error-probability of MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude, Ni; Jian, Wang; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2005-11-01

    Based on the analysis of the MIL-STD-1773 data bus modulation scheme, two optical modulation schemes are proposed for designing this kind of data bus, namely, partial tri-level Manchester II bi-phase coding (PTMBC) and extended Manchester II bi-phase coding with beginning-stopping flags (EMBC-BSF), which can efficiently solve the problem related to three outputs at a MIL-STD-1773 optical receiver with low complexity. Then we focus on the analysis of error probability and optical receiver sensitivity for MIL-STD-1773 data buses with three modulation schemes of Manchester II bi-phase coding, PTMBC , and EMBC-BSF. The results show that both the PTMBC and EMBC-BSF modulation schemes have almost the identical and worse receiver sensitivity than that of the Manchester bi-level coding by ~3dB.

  15. Analyzing the Effect of Passenger-Requested Unscheduled Stops on Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Paliska

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of unscheduled stops requestedby passengers on bus transit demand and presents theresults of its study. In the research a set of regression modelsthat estimate the route-level demand were developed using datacollected with Automatic Passenger Counters and AutomaticVehicle Location systems installed on buses, and demographic,socio-economic and land use information from other sources.The results obtained indicate that the number of rider-requestedunscheduled stops have no significant effect on demand,suggesting that the company policy which tolerates unscheduledstops is inadequate for attracting new riders.

  16. Utilizing the Optimum Start/Stop Control Strategy for Heating Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    b, block number) EMCS, energy conservation, energy management, single board computer , optimum start/stop and runtime mode control strategies 0 A BS...I 13 1 Appendix MEMCS HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE HARDWARE (see Figure 2b) Central Processing Unit (CPU) The CPU is a single - board computer made by INTEL...memory * One multimodule connector (ISBX bus) One reason the INTEL Single Board Computer products were selected is that a development system purchased

  17. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  18. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  19. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  20. Light Stops from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Pepin, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    In supersymmetric models the mass of the stops can be considered as the naturalness measure of the theory. Roughly, the lighter the stops are, the more natural the theory is. Both, the absence of supersymmetric signals at experiment and the measurement of the Higgs mass, put scenarios with light stops under increasing tension. I will present a supersymmetry breaking mechanism of the Scherk-Schwarz type that, by introducing extra $SU(2)_L$ triplets in the Higgs sector, is able to generate the correct Higgs mass while keeping stops light.

  1. Deadhead Trip Minimization in City Bus Transportation: A Real Life Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efendi Nasibov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of public transportation services is one of the most important performance indicators of modern urban policies for both planning and implementation aspects. Therefore, along with the size of the city, the significance of appropriate cost evaluation and optimization of all related transportation activities increases as well. One of the most important cost factors for the public transport agencies is naturally the fuel consumption of the vehicles. In this study, the attention is focused on the metropolitan bus transport service. The specific aim is to minimize a significant portion of total fuel utilization that occurs due to the so called deadhead trip or dead mileage, which is defined as the idle distance covered by the vehicle between the garage and the route terminal stops without carrying any passengers. In this study, the results of four mathematical models for minimizing the total deadhead trip distance covered in city bus services of Izmir are presented. The models vary due to the inclusion of garage capacity restrictions or operator distinction for supporting both operational and strategical decisions. All models are applied to the recent bus schedule data, which consist of 293 routes, 1,424 buses and 10 garages, for obtaining the optimal route bus-garage allocations and garage capacities. The results of the Decentralized-Capacitated model, which is appropriate for quick implementation, promise a 7.8% reduction in total dead mileage. While on the other hand, if all garage capacities can be expanded and the bus service is maintained only by one operator as modelled in the Centralized-Uncapacitated case, even a 31.4% improvement is possible in the long term. The environmental gains as well as the financial benefits to be achieved when the solutions are actually implemented, justify the practical contribution of the study.

  2. UDI STOP Femminicidio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Crivelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available L'UDI, Unione Donne in Italia, ha collaborato con l'Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi a un numero monografico della rivista scientifica M@gm@ dal titolo "Violenza maschile e femminicidio". Il numero monografico vuole mettere a disposizione le analisi, l’esperienza e la storia nostra e delle nostre interlocutrici, come contributo al nostro comune lavoro di sensibilizzazione, contrasto alla violenza maschile sulle donne – femminicidio. “UDI STOP femminicidio” è da anni la nostra campagna contro la violenza di genere, la collaborazione con l’Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi è parte integrante di questo sforzo. Il primo e dichiarato dei nostri progetti politici è il contrasto alla cultura e al potere ideologico che consente il femminicidio, la subordinazione culturale e sociale, la percezione della donna come oggetto di dominio, la riduzione in schiavitù di tante donne, comprese molte donne prostitute... Sappiamo di non voler tradire una “responsabilità di genere” che deve necessariamente concretizzarsi in tanti “gesti responsabili”, nella lunga pazienza quotidiana che consente la sedimentazione di un cambiamento radicale nelle coscienze. Vogliamo continuare ad essere l’associazione che coniuga insieme la soggettività personale e l'assunzione diretta di responsabilità, della progettualità a lungo termine che non trova “contraddittorio” misurarsi con la solidarietà concreta e quotidiana con le altre donne, nel tentativo di far nascere le nuove maniere di pensare.

  3. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  4. Has human evolution stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  6. 公交车专用变速箱设计%Dedicated Bus Gearbox Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀勇彪

    2013-01-01

    Introduces the bus gearbox market demand and development prospect of domestic bus transmission, analyzes research status, in the bus transmission noise, sealing, manipulation of the special characteristics, analysis of bus control mechanism of gearbox, transmission mechanism failure mode, combinative company is real, in the structural design measures, complete a five-speed gearbox design of buses.%  介绍了公交车变速箱的市场需求及发展前景,分析了国内公交车变速箱的研究状况,针对公交车变速箱对噪音、密封性、操纵性的特殊特性,结合公司实际,对变过相关体结构,助力器及其与缓速器的接口进行了设计,完成五档公交车变速箱的设计。

  7. Stress prevention in bus drivers: Evaluation of 13 natural experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Aust, B.; Berg, A.M. van den; Siegrist, J.

    2000-01-01

    The research aim was to select, compare, and analyze interventions and preventive actions from international bus companies to decrease bus drivers' occupational stress and sickness absenteeism. Through networking, international surveys, and literature study, 13 "natural experiments" were identified

  8. Secure Bus-Ticketing System using NFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Lopes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For making the day to day life more convenient for the passengers travelling in bus some technologies can be used like Near Field Communication (NFC, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID. The proposed system is based on ticketing and identification of passengers in public transport. The system suggest a user friendly automated ticketing system which will automatically deduct the passengers fare according to the distance travelled as well as detect the passengers detail information. The system also helps to calculate the total revenue of a single bus in a day. Another important aspect is reusability, which helps use ticket multiple times as it is rechargeable.

  9. Bus training for developmentally disabled adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D; Griffith, J; McComish, K; Swasbrook, K

    1984-07-01

    The effectiveness of a program combining classroom and community training in the teaching of bus-riding skills to developmentally disabled adults. These skills were taught sequentially using questions about a slide presentation, role playing, and performance in the natural environment. The experimental design was based upon the work of Neef, Iwata, and Page (1978). Test trials were conducted after each phase of training. Results showed that all subjects learned the necessary bus-riding skills and maintained their performance throughout the follow-up period of at least 1 year. The combination training method proved to be efficient and cost effective.

  10. An Efficient Segmental Bus-Invert Coding Method for Instruction Memory Data Bus Switching Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Ji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a bus coding methodology for the instruction memory data bus switching reduction. Compared to the existing state-of-the-art multiway partial bus-invert (MPBI coding which relies on data bit correlation, our approach is very effective in reducing the switching activity of the instruction data buses, since little bit correlation can be observed in the instruction data. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed encoding can reduce up to 42% of switching activity, with an average of 30% reduction, while MPBI achieves just 17.6% reduction in switching activity.

  11. Framework for Bus Rapid Transit Development and Deployment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark A.; Yin, Yafeng; Balvanyos, Tunde; Ceder, Avishai

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of its investigation into deployment planning for bus rapid transit systems. In this study, we conducted a macro-scale examination of bus rapid transit systems from technical, operational, institutional, and planning perspectives. We then developed the theoretical foundation for a deployment planning framework for bus rapid transit systems that specifically takes into account the unique features of bus rapid transit that differ from other transit alternatives....

  12. Air quality on bus routes in Umea, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, H.; Forsberg, B. [Dept. of Environmental Health and Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University SE, Umea (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    Bus traffic in some local streets with up to 650 buses per day has resulted in complaints about air pollution and suggestions from residents that the bus routes should be changed to other streets. We have studied nitrogen dioxide and benzene concentrations at five exposed sites and at two representative control sites without bus traffic, and found no general differences in air quality. However, the site and temperature adjusted concentrations fell significantly during a strike among bus drivers. (authors)

  13. Bus Routes, Bus Routes, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Anne Arundel County, OIT GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2011. It is described as 'Bus...

  14. Information management advanced development. Volume 3: Digital data bus breadboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and evaluation of the digital data bus breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) requirements summary, (2) parametric data for bus design, (3) redundancy concepts, and (4) data bus breadboard performance and interface requirements.

  15. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a foll...

  16. LHC Availability 2016: Technical Stop 1 to Technical Stop 2

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Technical Stop 1 (TS1) to Technical Stop 2 (TS2) in 2016. This period was dedicated to proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  17. LHC Availability 2016: Technical Stop 2 to Technical Stop 3

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Technical Stop 2 (TS2) to Technical Stop 3 (TS3) in 2016. This period was dedicated to proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  18. Blowers in bus systems; Einsatz von Ventilatoren in BUS-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneeweiss, H. [ebm - Werke GmbH und Co., Mulfingen (Germany). R und D

    2000-07-01

    Modern industrial blowers are compact and have good control characteristics. Centralized or decentralized monitoring has become a state-of-the-art technology. Bus systems make it possible to monitor and analyze component status at any time. Electronically commutated external rotor motors with bus interfaces offer a wide spectrum of applications. [German] Beim Einsatz von Ventilatoren und Geblaesen in der Industrie ist es heute Standard, dass die Geraete einen kompakten Aufbau und gute Regel- bzw. Steuereigenschaften aufweisen. Immer mehr setzt sich auch die zentrale und dezentrale Ueberwachung von Geraeten durch. Mit einem BUS-System kann der aktuelle Status jeder Komponente jederzeit abgefragt und der Zustand analysiert werden. Durch spezielle Einsatzbedingungen werden heute elektronisch kommutierte Aussenlaeufermotoren mit BUS-Schnittstellen versehen. Damit steht ein breites Anwendungsspektrum zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  19. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  20. Inrush-Current Limiter And Bus Isolator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolland, Carlisle R.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic circuit protects electrical power bus and source of power against excessive current demands. Circuit intended for use with power-consuming electronic system drawing pulsed currents and including capacitor bank as low-impedance secondary source from which pulsed currents drawn.

  1. SDRAM bus schedule of HDTV video decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; He, Yan L.; Yu, Lu

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, a time division multiplexed task scheduling (TDM) is designed for HDTV video decoder is proposed. There are three tasks: to fetch decoded data from SDRAM for displaying (DIS), read the reference data from SDRAM for motion compensating (REF) and write the motion compensated data back to SDRAM (WB) on the bus. The proposed schedule is based on the novel 4 banks interlaced SDRAM storage structure which results in less overhead on read/write time. Two SDRAM of 64M bits (4Bank×512K×32bit) are used. Compared with two banks, the four banks storage strategy read/write data with 45% less time. Therefore the process data rates for those three tasks are reduced. TDM is developed by round robin scheduling and fixed slot allocating. There are both MB slot and task slot. As a result the conflicts on bus are avoided, and the buffer size is reduced 48% compared with the priority bus scheduling. Moreover, there is a compacted bus schedule for the worst case of stuffing owning to the reduced executing time on tasks. The size of buffer is reduced and the control logic is simplified.

  2. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  3. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  4. Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The eGov-Bus project provides citizens and businesses with improved access to virtual public services, which are based on existing national eGovernment Web services and which support cross-border life events. Requirements and specific rules of these life events are considered, and personalization of user preferences is supported. eGov-Bus is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national eGovernment services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The eGov-Bus process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as eGovernment Web services. Further, eGov-Bus relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. The eGov-Bus architecture is business oriented, it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services and providing a Service Bus.

  5. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...... principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...

  6. Regenerative polymeric bus architecture for board-level optical interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N; Hashim, A; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2012-05-21

    A scalable multi-channel optical regenerative bus architecture based on the use of polymer waveguides is presented for the first time. The architecture offers high-speed interconnection between electrical cards allowing regenerative bus extension with multiple segments and therefore connection of an arbitrary number of cards onto the bus. In a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 4-channel 3-card polymeric bus module is designed and fabricated on standard FR4 substrates. Low insertion losses (≤ -15 dB) and low crosstalk values (bus modules using a prototype 3R regenerator.

  7. Heat Transfer in the LHC Main Superconducting Bus Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Richter, D

    2011-01-01

    CERN is performing a systematic analysis of the interconnecting bus bars of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) main magnets. Their thermal, electrical, mechanical and hydraulic performances are addressed. In the frame of these studies, the heat transfer between the main superconducting (SC) bus bars and the surrounding He bath is investigated. It represents a key parameter in the comprehension of the bus bars stability and quench propagation mechanisms, thus crucial for the analysis of the 2008 incident which was triggered by a defective bus bars joint. This paper reports on the experimental tests and relative analysis aiming at describing the thermal behavior of the LHC main bus bars.

  8. Probing Light Stops with Stoponium

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We derive new limits on light stops from diboson resonance searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, $ZZ$, $WW$ and $hh$ channels from the first run of the LHC. If the two-body decays of the light stop are mildly suppressed or kinematically forbidden, stoponium bound states will form in $pp$ collisions and subsequently decay via the pair annihilation of the constituent stops to diboson final states, yielding striking resonance signatures. Remarkably, we find that stoponium searches are highly complementary to direct collider searches and indirect probes of light stops such as Higgs coupling measurements. Using an empirical quarkonia potential model and including the first two $S$-wave stoponium states, we find that in the decoupling limit $m_{\\widetilde t_1} \\lesssim 130$ GeV is excluded for any value of the stop mixing angle and heavy stop mass by the combination of the latest resonance searches and the indirect constraints. The $\\gamma \\gamma$ searches are the most complementary to the indirect constraint...

  9. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  10. Second stop and sbottom searches with a stealth stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Li, Lingfeng; Qin, Qin

    2016-11-01

    The top squarks (stops) may be the most wanted particles after the Higgs boson discovery. The searches for the lightest stop have put strong constraints on its mass. However, there is still a search gap in the low mass region if the spectrum of the stop and the lightest neutralino is compressed. In that case, it may be easier to look for the second stop since naturalness requires both stops to be close to the weak scale. The current experimental searches for the second stop are based on the simplified model approach with the decay modes {overset{˜ }{t}}_2to {overset{˜ }{t}}_1Z and {overset{˜ }{t}}_2to {overset{˜ }{t}}_1h . However, in a realistic supersymmetric spectrum there is always a sbottom lighter than the second stop, hence the decay patterns are usually more complicated than the simplified model assumptions. In particular, there are often large branching ratios of the decays {overset{˜ }{t}}_2to {overset{˜ }{b}}_1W and {overset{˜ }{b}}_1to {overset{˜ }{t}}_1W as long as they are open. The decay chains can be even more complex if there are intermediate states of additional charginos and neutralinos in the decays. By studying several MSSM benchmark models at the 14 TeV LHC, we point out the importance of the multi- W final states in the second stop and the sbottom searches, such as the same-sign dilepton and multilepton signals, aside from the traditional search modes. The observed same-sign dilepton excesses at LHC Run 1 and Run 2 may be explained by some of our benchmark models. We also suggest that the vector boson tagging and a new kinematic variable may help to suppress the backgrounds and increase the signal significance for some search channels. Due to the complex decay patterns and lack of the dominant decay channels, the best reaches likely require a combination of various search channels at the LHC for the second stop and the lightest sbottom.

  11. Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Haisch, Ulrich; Tunstall, Lewis C.

    2016-09-01

    Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops {tilde{t}}_1 , making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are {tilde{t}}_1to t{tilde{χ}}_1^0 , {tilde{t}}_1to W b{tilde{χ}}_1^0 and {tilde{t}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 . We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 in a model-independent fashion, revealing that a large parameter space region with stop mass values {m_{tilde{t}}}{_1} up to 530 GeV is excluded for any {tilde{t}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 branching ratio by LHC Run I data. The impact of {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 decays is further illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 bounds are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing can lead to an increase in the allowed parameter space by at most 35%, with large areas excluded for arbitrary mixing.

  12. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  13. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  14. Stopped nucleons in configuration space

    CERN Document Server

    Bialas, Andrzej; Koch, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In this note, using the colour string model, we study the configuration space distribution of stopped nucleons in heavy-ion collisions. We find that the stopped nucleons from the target and the projectile end up separated from each other by the distance increasing with the collision energy. In consequence, for the center of mass energies larger than 6 or 10 GeV (depending on the details of the model) it appears that the system created is not in thermal and chemical equilibrium, and the net baryon density reached is likely not much higher than that already present in the colliding nuclei.

  15. Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

  16. Power-optimal encoding for low-power address bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented a novel bus encoding method to reduce the switching activity on address buses and hence reduce power dissipation. Dynamic-sorting encoding (DSE) method reduces the power dissipation of address bus based on the dynamic reordering of the modified offset address bus lines. This method reorders the ten least significant bits of offset address according to the range of offset address, and the optimal sorting pattern is transmitted through the high bits of address bus without the need for redundant bus lines. The experimental results using an instruction set simulator and SPEC2000 benchmarks show that DSE method can reduce signal transitions on the address bus by 88.2%, and the actual overhead of the encoder circuit is estimated after encoder is designed and synthesized in 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The results show that DSE method outperforms the low-power encoding schemes presented in the past.

  17. Osmotic regulation of transcription in Lactococcus lactis: ionic strength-dependent binding of the BusR repressor to the busA promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Yves; Bouvier, Jean; Gutierrez, Claude

    2007-07-24

    The busA locus of Lactococcus lactis encodes a glycine betaine uptake system. At low osmolarity, the transcription of busA is repressed by the BusR protein, which is responsible for the osmotic inducibility of the busA promoter (busAp). In this work, we investigated the mechanism of the osmo-dependent repression by BusR. We found that BusR binding to the busA promoter is dependent on the ionic strength in vitro. Using a BusR derivative carrying a phosphorylation site and the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme, we showed that these proteins are able to form a stable ternary complex by both binding to the same busAp fragment. The association/dissociation of BusR to the RNA polymerase-busAp complex is strictly correlated to the surrounding ionic strength. Together, these results suggest that during growth at low osmolarity BusR represses transcription from busAp at a step further the recruitment of the RNA polymerase. At high osmolarity, an elevated cytoplasmic ionic strength would dissociate BusR from busAp, resulting in the osmotic induction of the busA operon.

  18. Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Tunstall, Lewis C.

    2016-01-01

    Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops ${\\tilde t}_1$, making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are ${\\tilde t_1}\\to t \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, ${\\tilde t_1}\\to W b \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ and ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$. We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ in a model-independent fashion, revealing the existence of large regions in parameter space which are excluded for any ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ branching ratio. This effect is then illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the LHC bounds from ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ searches are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing leads only to a modest increase in the allowed regions of parameter...

  19. In Defence of Thought Stopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Gary Maria

    2009-01-01

    Thought stopping (TS) has a long and established history as an effective mental control technique among the cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT). Recent claims have arisen, particularly from acceptance and mindfulness-based authors, that thought suppression--and therefore TS--is counterproductive. These claims take the syllogistic form: TS is a…

  20. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    In [1], we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reparametrization of the unit interval. I am indebted to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out tome...

  1. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In [1] we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reprametrizations of the unit interval. I am grateful to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out to me...

  2. Remote Shutoff Stops Runaway Lawnmower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambo, Alan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how electronics students at Central Nine Career Center designed a kill switch circuit to stop a runaway lawnmower. This project is ideal for a career center since the electronics/robotics, small engines and horticulture classes can all work together on their respective parts of the modification, installation…

  3. Stopping Power for Degenerate Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    This is a first attempt at calculating the BPS stopping power with electron degeneracy corrections. Section I establishes some notation and basic facts. Section II outlines the basics of the calculation, and in Section III contains some brief notes on how to proceed with the details of the calculation. The remaining work for the calculation starts with Section III.

  4. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  5. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  6. Pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S. Q.; Li, Yueming

    1997-12-01

    We propose a pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus. Such a bus can use one of two hardwared priority schemes: the linear priority scheme and the round-robin priority scheme. Our simulation results show that the performance of the proposed bus is significantly better than the performances of known pipelined synchronous time-division multiplexing optical buses. The possibilities of using our buses to construct multichannel switches and multidimensional processor arrays are also discussed.

  7. A 3D bus interconnect for network line cards

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, J; Kocak, T

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a 3D bus architecture as a processor-memory interconnection system to increase the throughput of the memory system currently used on line cards. The 3D bus architecture allows multiple processing elements on a line card to access a shared memory. The main advantage of the proposed architecture is to increase the network processor off-chip memory bandwidth while diminishing the latency otherwise caused by the single bus competition.

  8. PNEUMATIC - LOGIC SYNTHESIS OF BUS DOOR FROM ASPECT OF AUTOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Stefanovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a logic synthesis procedure pneumatic control of the door of the bus for suburban traffic. Minimization of pneumatic control is determined graphically by Weitz – Carnot method. It also shows all pneumatic components belonging to installations used for opening and closing the door of the bus. Finally it is shown the basic maintenance of pneumatic system of the bus door.

  9. Bus coordination holding control for transit hubs under APTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Jing; ZHAO Ming

    2009-01-01

    To increase the passenger transferring efficiency, the bus coordination holding control for transit hubs,hich is as an important dynamic dispatching method for improving the service level of transit hubs, was studied in the framework of bus coordination dispatching mode. Firstly, the bus coordination holding control flow was studied based on Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) environment. Then a control model was presented to optimize the bus vehicle holding time, and a genetic algorithm was designed as the solving method. In the end, an example was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy and the algorithm.

  10. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  11. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  12. Stopping power: Effect of the projectile deceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kompaneets, Roman, E-mail: kompaneets@mpe.mpg.de; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Morfill, Gregor E. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    The stopping force is the force exerted on the projectile by its wake. Since the wake does not instantly adjust to the projectile velocity, the stopping force should be affected by the projectile deceleration caused by the stopping force itself. We address this effect by deriving the corresponding correction to the stopping force in the cold plasma approximation. By using the derived expression, we estimate that if the projectile is an ion passing through an electron-proton plasma, the correction is small when the stopping force is due to the plasma electrons, but can be significant when the stopping force is due to the protons.

  13. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul's data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  14. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Fergyanto E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  15. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  16. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  17. It's Time to Move for School Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ The 1st China School Buses Development Seminar &.International School Buses Expo will be held from February 15 to 18, 2012 in the National Convention Center in Beijing, according to the National Office of Education on the Traffic Safety of Primary and Secondary School Students.It aims to publicize the Chinese standards for school bus safety, improve the development, production and operation of school buses in China and the rest of the world, promote the application new technologies on school buses, and call on people to care about and support the development of school buses.

  18. Using the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft onboard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Chris; Bordes, Yves

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus as the principal onboard data handling bus for future spacecraft applications. The paper takes a pragmatic approach by: Identifying the characteristics of the onboard bus traffic and its characteristics; Looking at future trends in onboard bus traffic; Describing the characteristics of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus; Proposing techniques that can be used on the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft application.

  19. The calcaneo-stop procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuelli, F G; Montrasio, U Alfieri

    2012-06-01

    Flexible flatfoot is one of the most common deformities. Arthroereisis procedures are designed to correct this deformity. Among them, the calcaneo-stop is a procedure with both biomechanical and proprioceptive properties. It is designed for pediatric treatment. Results similar to endorthesis procedure are reported. Theoretically the procedure can be applied to adults if combined with other procedures to obtain a stable plantigrade foot, but medium-term follow up studies are missing.

  20. Simulation approach to define sustainable balance between automobile traffic and bus rapid transit (BRT) in urban corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, A.J.; Khan, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-07-01

    One of the key challenges facing Central Business Districts (CBD) of medium size urban areas in North America is how to minimize the dependence on automobiles while providing efficient transit service. Underground facilities, exclusive bus/rail corridor or elevated roadways may not be practical due to high cost, aesthetics, noise and adverse land use effects. Because of its compatibility with land use and infrastructure, bus rapid transit (BRT) is receiving more attention. Existing roadway infrastructure, when used as a shared facility, may support rapid transit service besides providing a sustainable level of automobile traffic. A microscopic simulation approach is required in order to assess design changes and throughput levels of shared corridors. The purpose of this paper was to advance the concept of a sustainable balance between public transit and automobile traffic in the CBD, and demonstrate the role of microsimulation as a tool to analyze policies and designs. Limitations of the existing planning methodology were explained and a description of how microscopic simulation approach could be used to overcome methodological gaps was presented. In addition, selected results of a research study conducted using microscopic simulation approach for BRT corridors in Ottawa were shown. It was concluded that BRT operations under favourable conditions in downtown corridors can potentially serve over 28,000 passengers per hour and that removing on-street parking from bus transit corridor expedites bus movement. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Review of bus drivers' occupational stress and stress prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Di Martino, V.

    1995-01-01

    Although heterogeneous in methodology and content, 32 studies from 13 countries on bus drivers' work and health are similar in their conclusions. Bus-driving–characterized by high demands, low control and low support – can be regarded as a classic example of high-strain occupation, with high risks o

  2. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  3. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  4. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  5. A High Efficiency DC Bus Regulator / RPC for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-02-01

    DC bus voltage regulation may be required in future high powered spacecraft due to the length of the busses or because they are not generated at precise voltage levels. In these cases the regulation range is often only a few percent increase or decrease, but conventional DC voltage regulators switch all the power passing through them, and this level of power switched determines the size and losses in the regulator. A recently developed concept uses a low power DC-DC converter in series with the bus to raise or lower the bus voltage over a small range. This partial power processing technique combines the small size and power losses of the low power converter with the ability to regulate, (over a small range) a high power bus. The Series Connected Buck Boost Regulator (SCBBR) described herein provides bus regulation with an efficiency of 98%. The circuit also provides bus switching and overcurrent limiting functions of a Remote Power Controller (RPC). This paper describes the circuit design and performance of a breadboard SCBBR configured as a bus voltage regulator providing +/- 40% voltage regulation range, bus switching, and overload limiting.

  6. A decentralized software bus based on IP multicas ting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd

    1995-01-01

    We describe decentralized reconfigurable implementation of a conference management system based on the low-level Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting protocol. IP multicasting allows low-cost, world-wide, two-way transmission of data between large numbers of conferencing participants through the Multicasting Backbone (MBone). Each conference is structured as a software bus -- a messaging system that provides a run-time interconnection model that acts as a separate agent (i.e., the bus) for routing, queuing, and delivering messages between distributed programs. Unlike the client-server interconnection model, the software bus model provides a level of indirection that enhances the flexibility and reconfigurability of a distributed system. Current software bus implementations like POLYLITH, however, rely on a centralized bus process and point-to-point protocols (i.e., TCP/IP) to route, queue, and deliver messages. We implement a software bus called the MULTIBUS that relies on a separate process only for routing and uses a reliable IP multicasting protocol for delivery of messages. The use of multicasting means that interconnections are independent of IP machine addresses. This approach allows reconfiguration of bus participants during system execution without notifying other participants of new IP addresses. The use of IP multicasting also permits an economy of scale in the number of participants. We describe the MULITIBUS protocol elements and show how our implementation performs better than centralized bus implementations.

  7. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  8. Superior decoupling capacitor for three-dimensional LSI with ultrawide communication bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araga, Yuuki; Nagata, Makoto; Miura, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Katsuya

    2017-04-01

    The superior noise reduction performance of an in-stack decoupling capacitor (DECAP) is demonstrated. A three-tier stacked demonstrator is manufactured with an ultrawide data bus that connects a top memory chip and a bottom logic chip. An in-stack evaluation circuitry on a middle tier (Si interposer) captures voltage variation waveforms during chip-to-chip data communication. In-stack DECAPs in arrays on a Si interposer and discrete ceramic capacitors on an organic interposer of a ball-grid array package are compared. Silicon measurements with an in-stack noise monitoring technique show that the DECAPs on the Si interposer more locally shunt out the AC components of power supply current over a wider frequency range than the capacitors on the package interposer.

  9. Mercer County off-peak fare-free bus demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dommasch, I.N.; Hollinger, R.L.

    1979-07-01

    A system-wide, off-peak fare-free bus demonstration project is being conducted in Mercer County, New Jersey to study effects of fare-free bus operation. Data collected for 2 1/2 months of operation are presented. Since implementation of the fare-free service, Mercer Metro off-peak ridership has increased approximately 45 to 50%. This equates to an overall system-wide ridership increase of about 10 to 15%. One effect of the fare-free operation has been to increase bus run times, caused in part by accompanying increases in the occurrence and length of bus delays in the downtown area. The percentage of filled bus seats has changed from about 10% before the demonstration, to over 50% after the off-peak fares were eliminated.

  10. An Overview of Staged-bus Operation in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hesam Hafezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, demand for passenger travel is higher, due to economic growth. Government policy encourages people to use public transportation instead of their private carsto reduce of traffic congestion and air pollution. In the city areas, bus networks are the major part of the public transportation system because they are easily accessible and cheaper compared to other types of public transportation. In this study revelation of details of bus operation included different agents is studied. Bus operations, during provision of their service, have interaction with three main agents: bus agent, passenger agent and traffic agent. Study of the influence of each agent in bus operation is presented in this study, using the macroscopic way.

  11. Method and systems for a radiation tolerant bus interface circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinstler, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A bus management tool that allows communication to be maintained between a group of nodes operatively connected on two busses in the presence of radiation by transmitting periodically a first message from one to another of the nodes on one of the busses, determining whether the first message was received by the other of the nodes on the first bus, and when it is determined that the first message was not received by the other of the nodes, transmitting a recovery command to the other of the nodes on a second of the of busses. Methods, systems, and articles of manufacture consistent with the present invention also provide for a bus recovery tool on the other node that re-initializes a bus interface circuit operatively connecting the other node to the first bus in response to the recovery command.

  12. MATHEMATIC MODEL FOR SITY BUS SCHEDULING IN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahid Sahid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Various methods can be used to construct a mathematical model of the transportation problems. One model that can be used is a linear model. Several studies have used a linear model to get the schedule and the optimal route of bus trips. This research will build a mathematical model of a city bus transportation problems in DIY using linear models. Linear model is built to get the condition density city bus passengers on shifts respectively that morning, noon, and evening. After finding a suitable model, applied to the bus passengers data in Yogyakarta. From these results it can be seen the optimum conditions in terms of density, because the condition of the city bus at this time that quiet enthusiasts. Besides, the optimum density at each shift in the morning is 11 passengers, 10 passengers during the day, and evening 9 passengers.   Keywords: transportation problems, the linear model, the optimal route, density

  13. Nonlinear scale space with spatially varying stopping time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Guy

    2008-12-01

    A general scale space algorithm is presented for denoising signals and images with spatially varying dominant scales. The process is formulated as a partial differential equation with spatially varying time. The proposed adaptivity is semi-local and is in conjunction with the classical gradient-based diffusion coefficient, designed to preserve edges. The new algorithm aims at maximizing a local SNR measure of the denoised image. It is based on a generalization of a global stopping time criterion presented recently by the author and colleagues. Most notably, the method works well also for partially textured images and outperforms any selection of a global stopping time. Given an estimate of the noise variance, the procedure is automatic and can be applied well to most natural images.

  14. Stopping of Ships Equipped with Azipods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nowicki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of different possibilities of stopping a large ship equipped with azipods. The model tests were carried out to compare the effectiveness of stopping the ship using the different methods. The ship model used in stopping tests reproduces a large LNG carrier of capacity ~150 000 m3

  15. Curing the noise epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Susan

    2005-09-01

    The argument is made that design does not stop when the fixed architectural and acoustical components are in place. Spaces live and breathe with the people who reside in them. Research and examples are presented that show that noise, auditory clutter, thrives on itself in hospitals. Application of the Lombard reflex studies fit into the hospital setting, but do not offer solutions as to how one might reduce the impact. In addition, the basis for looking at the noise component as a physical as well cultural dynamic will be addressed. Whether the result of the wrong conversation in the wrong place or the right conversation in an unfortunate place, talk mixed with sounds of technology is shown to cause its own symptoms. From heightened anxiety and stress to medical errors, staff burnout, or HIPAA violations, the case is made that noise is pandemic in hospitals and demands financial and operational investment. An explanation of how to reduce noise by design of the dynamic environment - equipment, technology, staff protocols is also provided.

  16. Which Srategy will stop Flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Shamsheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine is essentially the only measure by which there is a real opportunity to eliminate an infectious disease. And the flu is no exception. The high variability of influenza virus A/H1N1, which causes a pandemic, and most epidemics, is the problem of creating effective etiotropic treatments and vaccines. The emergence of new vaccine manufacturing technologies, such as genetic engineering, DNA technology, allows for a fresh look at the problem of influenza eradication on the planet. Universal year-round mass vaccination against influenza, not just high-risk groups, should be included in all national vaccination program, but this strategy will help stop influenza infection.

  17. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  18. A simulation study on proton computed tomography (CT) stopping power accuracy using dual energy CT scans as benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David Christoffer; Seco, Joao; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild;

    2015-01-01

    Background. Accurate stopping power estimation is crucial for treatment planning in proton therapy, and the uncertainties in stopping power are currently the largest contributor to the employed dose margins. Dual energy x-ray computed tomography (CT) (clinically available) and proton CT (in...... development) have both been proposed as methods for obtaining patient stopping power maps. The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of proton CT using dual energy CT scans of phantoms to establish reference accuracy levels. Material and methods. A CT calibration phantom and an abdomen cross section...... of detectors and the corresponding noise characteristics. Stopping power maps were calculated for all three scans, and compared with the ground truth stopping power from the phantoms. Results. Proton CT gave slightly better stopping power estimates than the dual energy CT method, with root mean square errors...

  19. Strategic nonviolent conflict: The Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Balcı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonviolent action emerges under the conditions of recognized an unacceptable political oppression and injustice. The people, who find the situation unacceptable, develop three ways of behavior. First, they exit the situation. Second, they engage in everyday forms of resistance. Third, they participate in political action which has two aspects: institutional and non-institutional. Institutional political action comprises of the regular political activities such as voting, taking part in legislative process, and joining political parties. Non-institutional political action, on the contrary, arises as either violent action or nonviolent action. This paper examines the emergence, progress, and spread of the Montgomery Bus Boycott as one of the leading examples of the nonviolent struggles in the last century.

  20. Strategic nonviolent conflict: The Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdaverdi Balcı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonviolent action emerges under the conditions of recognized an unacceptable political oppression and injustice. The people, who find the situation unacceptable, develop three ways of behavior. First, they exit the situation. Second, they engage in everyday forms of resistance. Third, they participate in political action which has two aspects: institutional and non-institutional. Institutional political action comprises of the regular political activities such as voting, taking part in legislative process, and joining political parties. Non-institutional political action, on the contrary, arises as either violent action or nonviolent action. This paper examines the emergence, progress, and spread of the Montgomery Bus Boycott as one of the leading examples of the nonviolent struggles in the last century

  1. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  2. Gauge mediation with light stops

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Antonio; Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) solves the supersymmetric flavor problem although it requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value (125 GeV) of the Higgs mass. A possible way out is to extend the MSSM Higgs sector with triplets which provide extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Triplets with neutral components getting vacuum expectation values (VEV) have the problem of generating a tree-level correction to the \\rho parameter. We introduce supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges Y=(0,\\pm 1), with a tree-level custodial SU(2)_L\\otimes SU(2)_R global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the \\rho parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of the Georgi-Machacek model. The renormalization group running from the messenger to the electroweak scale mildly breaks the custodial symmetry. We will present realistic low-scale scenarios, their main features being a Bino-like neutralino or right-handed stau as the NLSP, light (1 TeV) stops, exotic couplings (H^\\p...

  3. Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.

  4. Integrated optics bus access module for intramachine communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Tammela, Simo K. T.; Hannula, Tapio

    1991-12-01

    The feasibility of a passive bidirectional fiber optic bus and the packaging considerations of a bus access module have been studied. The bus uses 110/125 micrometers HCS fiber and passive integrated optic couplers for bus access. The access couplers are asymmetric and were fabricated using a Ag-Na ion exchange process. The asymmetry of the coupler was 5 dB, the launch loss to the bus was 6 dB and the tap-off loss to the node was 11 dB. With the integrated optics coupler it is possible to connect 6 nodes to the bidirectional bus. It is also possible to realize a simple, easy-to-use, and reliable bus access module for intramachine communication. The integrated optics coupler, a LED chip, and a PIN-diode chip and transceiver electronics are packaged in an electrical connector with a two-fiber optical cable pigtail. Active and passive components are butt coupled to the coupler. The 0.5 dB alignment tolerances for the fiber pigtails, the LED, and the PIN-diode chips are +/- 5 micrometers .

  5. Using microcomputers for lighting appliance control using a DALI bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article concerns the DALI bus theoretical and practical aspects. The DALI bus is a modern technology developed especially for illumination systems control. Authors are outlining communication basic principles related to the physical layer and going up to more complex data transactions among particular devices. The article main topic is aimed at two device models development based on microcontroller and exploiting that technology. The first of those two devices is a DALI slave unit enabling the light source or multi switch with light indication components control via DALI bus. The second device measures the ambient illumination intensity and it also detects errors in the load.

  6. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion.

  7. Development in Conducting Bus of RE-Al Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德富; 胡捷; 章萍芝; 石瑛; 李彦利

    2001-01-01

    Four kinds of deformed aluminum alloys were tested. One kind of RE-A1-Mg-Si alloy, which possessed high conductivity and strength, was the first priority by contrast test, The large specification bus of conducting aluminum all oys was made by thermomechanical process during the industrial experiment. The properties of the bus are as follows:the tensile strength σb is 238 MPa, the conductivity (v.s. IACS) is 54.3%, and the current-carrying capacity is beyond 3.1kA during working process. This kind of RE-Al alloy bus has been applied to several electrical transmitting and transforming work.

  8. Designing and modelling Havana’s future bus rapid transit

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, James; Ortegon-Sanchez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    A single bus route in Havana’s bus system is modelled from the current position to a modernised bus rapid transit (BRT). The system is based on an expert-led visioning process and Cuba’s official planning documents, which define the high-level design criteria and their objectives. Building on the experiences of BRT systems that operate in other Latin American cities, a conceptual design for Havana’s BRT system is defined in terms of the key institutional, technical and financial frameworks, a...

  9. Statistical Analysis for the Driving Cycle of Beijing's Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震坡; 孙逢春; 王军; 孙立清

    2004-01-01

    According to the test data of the driving model for Beijing's bus routes, 9 parameters and the actual values of Beijing bus are confirmed to evaluate the driving cycle, 2 ways of establishing driving cycle model are analyzed, the formula of calculating driving cycle is acquired, and the calculating driving cycle model and the statistical driving cycle model for the buses in Beijing urban areas are set up. This study provides scientific basis for selecting the bus type and confirming the design parameters and the running method in Beijing.

  10. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Choong-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, uninterruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS is discussed and elaborated.

  11. Bus drivers' mental conditions and their relation to bus passengers' accidents with a focus on the psychological stress concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Sugiura, Miyuki; Tanaka, Sumio; Mizuno, Yuki; Yanagiya, Toshio; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the psychological factors of bus drivers' instability that were related to bus passengers' accidents according to the hypothesis model based on the stress concept of Lazarus and Folkman (1984). This research was carried out in 2006. Participants of the study were 39 Japanese male bus drivers. Their average age was 40.2 (SD: 11.1). The average duration of employment was 4.5 (SD:6.1) years. A questionnaire was used that was composed of items concerning the frequency of bus passengers' accidents, performance of safe driving, job stressors, stress reaction and recognition from others. Based on the results, a model assuming that stress reaction caused by job stressors disturbed the bus driver's safe driving and was associated with passengers' accidents in the bus was verified to some degree. Especially, melancholy and tired feeling toward passengers showed a strong relation to the passengers' accidents in the bus. This suggested much room for intervention. Moreover, the recognition from others of their job was confirmed to act as a control factor of the stress reaction.

  12. Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    Following several years of work, the construction of the Jardin Alpin – CERN tramline is almost complete, and the first tram is due to arrive at CERN on 30 April. Celebrations to mark the occasion will be held in Meyrin-Village and at CERN.   First tests of the overhead lines, signals, and tracks on the stretch between Jardin-Alpin and CERN on 7 April 2011. From 30 April onwards you will be able to travel from Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes using the No. 18 tram. This is great news, especially when you think that, only four years ago, no part of the stretch between Cornavin and CERN was served by a tramline. At present, if you want to travel between CERN and the city centre by public transport, you have to take the No. 14 or the No. 16 tram and the No. 56 bus, changing at Meyrin-Gravière, where you sometimes have quite a long wait. On 30 April all this will be a thing of the past! The construction work for the Geneva-CERN tramline began in January 20...

  13. Threshold-Based Bit Error Rate for Stopping Iterative Turbo Decoding in a Varying SNR Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Roslina; Harun, Harlisya; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah; Adnan, Wan Azizun Wan; Dimyati, Kaharudin

    2017-01-01

    Online bit error rate (BER) estimation (OBE) has been used as a stopping iterative turbo decoding criterion. However, the stopping criteria only work at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and fail to have early termination at low SNRs, which contributes to an additional iteration number and an increase in computational complexity. The failure of the stopping criteria is caused by the unsuitable BER threshold, which is obtained by estimating the expected BER performance at high SNRs, and this threshold does not indicate the correct termination according to convergence and non-convergence outputs (CNCO). Hence, in this paper, the threshold computation based on the BER of CNCO is proposed for an OBE stopping criterion (OBEsc). From the results, OBEsc is capable of terminating early in a varying SNR environment. The optimum number of iterations achieved by the OBEsc allows huge savings in decoding iteration number and decreasing the delay of turbo iterative decoding.

  14. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuri...

  15. Intelligent Energy Management in a Two Power-Bus Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    Dirty Bus Branch 28V Battery Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator Load Clean Bus Branch 28V Battery Bus Bus 19 DISTRIBUTION...Motor Field Controlled DC generator DC Power Supply Electronic Load DC Power Supply (125V, 3A) Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator...Battery Lithium Battery Load Electronic Load Clean Bus Branch Original System Demo System Hydraulic System Permanent DC Motor Alternator Field

  16. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  17. Rfid-Based Automatic Bus Ticketing: Features and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudah, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advancements in various technologies have made remarkable developments in various fields for public welfare and public transport is one such area. In the near future public bus transport system with advanced technologies like Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), GSM, GPS, ZigBee and RF modules will gain spotlight due to their advantage of higher convenience and greater life standards as compared to the conventional bus systems. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all several proposed bus ticketing and bus information methods has been presented in detail. The study brings out improved solution in terms of cost, convenience, user satisfaction and future implementation. The choice of working modules and their efficient performance has been discussed along with the highlighted importance of the need of technology for welfare of common public and visually impaired.

  18. Study on the Bus Real-time Dispatching Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YingZou; JianguoLi; JianhuaHuang; ZhenminTang

    2004-01-01

    The real-time dispatching model on bus system is studied in this article. Realtime dispatching can resume the planned schedule quickly, and then to ensure the reliability of the public transport service and to well raise the service quality.

  19. Multi-Gigabit Rate Radiation Hard Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High speed robust very low power radiation hardened bus interconnects are required to accelerate on-board computations, further improve reconfigurability and upgrade...

  20. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  1. Bus Passenger Recognition and Track of Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Zhou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is a research aiming at realizing making a statistics on passenger flow volume of bus, which not only helps traffic services center rationally schedule vehicles, but also can avoid overload. The system makes machine vision technology and digital image processing technique applied in customer counting of bus. The key questions in the study include effective collection of video image, effective extraction of moving object in sequence images, recognition of moving targets, trace and count of moving objects. The paper makes deep analysis on relevant technology from the perspective of the theory and practical application of the algorithm, and the study makes achievements. The theoretical algorithm for the study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is distinctive. The practical experiments indicate that the system can satisfy the real-time requirements, and can accurately make statistics on the number of passengers, which has great application value.

  2. Compression and extraction of stopped muons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taqqu, D

    2006-11-10

    Efficient conversion of a standard positive muon beam into a high-quality slow muon beam is shown to be achievable by compression of a muon swarm stopped in an extended gas volume. The stopped swarm can be squeezed into a mm-size swarm flow that can be extracted into vacuum through a small opening in the stop target walls. Novel techniques of swarm compression are considered. In particular, a density gradient in crossed electric and magnetic fields is used.

  3. Light stop squarks and b-tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Petersson, Christoffer; Torre, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    A significant part of the parameter space for light stop squarks still remains unconstrained by collider searches. For both R-Parity Conserving (RPC) and R-Parity Violating (RPV) scenarios there are regions in which the stop mass is around or below the top quark mass that are particularly challenging experimentally. Here we review the status of light stop searches, both in RPC and RPV scenarios. We also propose strategies, generally based on exploiting b-tagging, to cover the unconstrained regions.

  4. Examining the Optimal Fuel Type for Urban Bus Operations

    OpenAIRE

    CAULFIELD, BRIAN

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Washington D.C. Public service fleets offer an attractive option for introducing renewable fuels and alternative technologies on a large scale, which allow for the reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and exhaust air pollutants. This paper ex amines the use of biomethane (bio-CNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) for part of the bus fleet in Dublin. Dublin is typical of many international urban centres with a large bus fleet; therefore the results...

  5. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  6. Bus Routes, CTran Bus routes, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  7. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  8. The Potential Stopping Power of Student Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Bruce E.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that capturing photographs that have "stopping power" should not be an impossible task, but a reality for student photographers. Lists 19 recent publications and web sites on photography and photojournalism. Discusses ways for scholastic photographers to take pictures with stopping power. (RS)

  9. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.675 Stops. (a) Each... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about...

  10. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.675 Stops. (a) Each... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about...

  11. Variance optimal stopping for geometric Levy processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt; Pedersen, Jesper Lund

    2015-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the solution to the optimal stopping problem of maximizing the variance of a geometric Lévy process. We call this problem the variance problem. We show that, for some geometric Lévy processes, we achieve higher variances by allowing randomized stopping. Furthermore...

  12. Stop the Violence: Overcoming Self-Destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nelson, Ed.

    The story of the Stop the Violence movement among rap music artists and music industry colleagues is told, along with the story of a video that was produced as part of this initiative. The Stop the Violence project grew out of the reaction to violence among concert goers at a 1987 rap concert on Long Island (New York). Rap musicians have joined…

  13. Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase)   The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.

  14. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  15. Underwater noise from a wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    A recent addition to the anthropogenic sources of underwater noise is offshore wave energy converters. Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter located at Hastholm, Denmark (57°7.73´N, 8°37.23´E). The Wavestar is a full-scale test and demonstration converter...... in full operation and start and stop of the converter. Median broad band (10 Hz – 20 kHz) sound pressure level (Leq) was 123 dB re. 1 Pa, irrespective of status of the wave energy converter (stopped, running or starting/stopping). The most pronounced peak in the third-octave spectrum was in the 160 Hz...... significant noise above ambient could be detected above the 250 Hz band. The absolute increase in noise above ambient was very small. L50 third-octave levels in the four bands with the converter running were thus only 1-2 dB above ambient L50 levels. The noise recorded 25 m from the wave energy converter...

  16. Stimulus devaluation induced by stopping action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; O'Doherty, John P; Berkebile, Michael M; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R

    2014-12-01

    Impulsive behavior in humans partly relates to inappropriate overvaluation of reward-associated stimuli. Hence, it is desirable to develop methods of behavioral modification that can reduce stimulus value. Here, we tested whether one kind of behavioral modification--the rapid stopping of actions in the face of reward-associated stimuli--could lead to subsequent devaluation of those stimuli. We developed a novel paradigm with three consecutive phases: implicit reward learning, a stop-signal task, and an auction procedure. In the learning phase, we associated abstract shapes with different levels of reward. In the stop-signal phase, we paired half those shapes with occasional stop-signals, requiring the rapid stopping of an initiated motor response, while the other half of shapes was not paired with stop signals. In the auction phase, we assessed the subjective value of each shape via willingness-to-pay. In 2 experiments, we found that participants bid less for shapes that were paired with stop-signals compared to shapes that were not. This suggests that the requirement to try to rapidly stop a response decrements stimulus value. Two follow-on control experiments suggested that the result was specifically due to stopping action rather than aversiveness, effort, conflict, or salience associated with stop signals. This study makes a theoretical link between research on inhibitory control and value. It also provides a novel behavioral paradigm with carefully operationalized learning, treatment, and valuation phases. This framework lends itself to both behavioral modification procedures in clinical disorders and research on the neural underpinnings of stimulus devaluation.

  17. Application of CAN Bus Technology on Zhongtong Bus%CAN总线技术在中通客车上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳

    2012-01-01

    The application status of CAN bus technology on Zhongtong bus is introduced, the methods of bus data collection and analysis on Zhongtong traditional and new energy bus are discussed and the development direction of CAN bus technology is prospected.%介绍CAN总线技术在中通客车上的应用状况,探讨中通传统客车及新能源客车的总线数据采集和分析方法。

  18. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Clean Air Act Overview Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Clean Air Act Title IV - ... noises in the community (from your neighbor, boom cars, lawn equipment, etc.) and from commercial businesses (factory, ...

  19. Antiproton stopping at low energies: confirmation of velocity-proportional stopping power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, S P; Csete, A; Ichioka, T; Knudsen, H; Uggerhøj, U I; Andersen, H H

    2002-05-13

    The stopping power for antiprotons in various solid targets has been measured in the low-energy range of 1-100 keV. In agreement with most models, in particular free-electron gas models, the stopping power is found to be proportional to the projectile velocity below the stopping-power maximum. Although a stopping power proportional to velocity has also been observed for protons, the interpretation of such measurements is difficult due to the presence of charge exchange processes. Hence, the present measurements constitute the first unambiguous support for a velocity-proportional stopping power due to target excitations by a pointlike projectile.

  20. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Stop-Bands in Finite and Infinite Periodic One-Dimensional Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Manconi, Elisabetta; Vanali, Marcello;

    2016-01-01

    method deals with the evaluation of a vibration level difference (VLD) in a finite periodic structure embedded within an infinite one-dimensional waveguide. This VLD is defined to predict the performance in terms of noise and vibration insulation of periodic cells embedded in an otherwise uniform...... vibration and noise transmission. The aim of this paper is to investigate, numerically and experimentally, stop-bands in periodic one-dimensional structures. Two methods for pre-dicting stop-bands are described: the first method applies to infinite periodic structures using a wave approach; the second...... of the structure) predict those obtained from the VLD of the corresponding finite periodic structure....

  1. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  2. Sudden stopping in patients with cerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, Mariano; Conte, Carmela; Casali, Carlo; Ranavolo, Alberto; Mari, Silvia; Di Fabio, Roberto; Perrotta, Armando; Coppola, Gianluca; Padua, Luca; Monamì, Stefano; Sandrini, Giorgio; Pierelli, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Stopping during walking, a dynamic motor task frequent in everyday life, is very challenging for ataxic patients, as it reduces their gait stability and increases the incidence of falls. This study was conducted to analyse the biomechanical characteristics of upper and lower body segments during abrupt stopping in ataxic patients in order to identify possible strategies used to counteract the instability in the sagittal and frontal plane. Twelve patients with primary degenerative cerebellar ataxia and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied. Time-distance parameters, dynamic stability of the centre of mass, upper body measures and lower joint kinematic and kinetic parameters were analysed. The results indicate that ataxic patients have a great difficulty in stopping abruptly during walking and adopt a multi-step stopping strategy, occasionally with feet parallel, to compensate for their inability to coordinate the upper body and to generate a well-coordinated lower limb joint flexor-extensor pattern and appropriate braking forces for progressively decelerating the progression of the body in the sagittal plane. A specific rehabilitation treatment designed to improve the ability of ataxic patients to transform unplanned stopping into planned stopping, to coordinate upper body and to execute an effective flexion-extension pattern of the hip and knee joints may be useful in these patients in order to improve their stopping performance and prevent falls.

  3. Noise-Induced Voltage Collapse in Power Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Du-Qu; LUO Xiao-Shu; ZHANG Bo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate numerically the influences of Gaussian white noise on the dynamical behaviors of power systems.The studied model is a three-bus system at some specific parameters,and it demonstrates a stable regime that is far from collapse.It is found that with the increasing noise intensity σ,power systems become unstable and fall into oscillations; as σ is further increased,noise-induced voltage collapse in power systems takes place.Our results confirm that the presence of noise has a detrimental effect on power system operation.Furthermore,the possible mechanism behind the action of noise is addressed based on a dynamical approach where the bifurcation of the system is analyzed.Our results may provide useful information for avoiding instability problems in power systems.

  4. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The presence of numerous local spatial constraints makes the process and extent of epidemic spreading extremely difficult to predict. Also, majority of the studies have focused on the contagion processes on scale-free network topologies whereas, spatially-constrained real-world networks such as, bus networks exhibit a wide-spectrum of network topology. Therefore, we aim in this study to understand this complex dynamical process of epidemic outbreak and information diffusion on the bus networks for six different Indian cities usin...

  5. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  6. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  7. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  8. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    a questionnaire in 1978 regarding psychosocial factors and health. The prevalence of frequent low back pain was 57%. In a control group of 195 motormen the prevalence was 40%. Standardized Morbidity Ratio for bus drivers discharged from hospital during the period 1978-1984 with the diagnosis lumbar disc...... herniation was 137 compared to all Danish men. These differences were statistically significant. Of psychosocial factors only "the feeling of being mentally unbalanced" was found to be statistically significantly related to subsequent hospital discharge with a LBT-diagnosis. Long seniority as bus driver...

  9. Persecution as a Theme in Isaac Bashevis Singer's The Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Minzhi

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Bashevis Singer is very much concerned about the fate of Jewish people,so he often presents Jews'sufferings in his literary works.The Bus,by means of describing the narrator's experiences during a bus tour through Spain,in different dimensions reinforces the destructive impact of persecution that Jews have gone through.Moreover,he implies such persecution is not merely confined between Jews and the Gentile,but also spreads among the whole human beings who hold differet beliefs.

  10. Development of fiber optic data bus for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komouchi, Yutaka; Sueoka, Akira

    1988-02-01

    An account is given of the design, construction, and both ground and flight testing of a star-coupled fiber-optic data bus consisting of an optic coupler, fibers, a connector, and a transmitter/receiver. This system precludes spark/fire hazards and crosstalk problems, while offering very small size and weight for a given capability. The communication protocol for the data bus is of 1 Mbit/sec command response type, and its design attempted to minimize the effect on electronic interfaces as a result of conversion from electrical to fiber-optic buses.

  11. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...... could provide a continuative power supply to the loads. An overview of Multi-DC-Bus solutions is presented in this paper. The performances are compared on the basis of possible DC microgrid configurations, redundancy, different DC voltage levels....

  12. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    “Sustainable transport” has become a headline for transport planning and policy making around the world. While there are many different definitions of what Sustainable Transport means, it commonly includes efforts to improve the environmental performance of transport systems, and to promote...... alternative modes of transport to private cars, such as public transport. In this paper we focus only on the potential of bus transport services in cities for attracting travellers from cars. It is a basic assumption behind this paper that the ability of public bus transport to attract travellers from cars...

  13. Performance evaluation of UHF RFID technologies for real-time bus recognition in the Taipei Bus Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-06-18

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses.

  14. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1 the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2 an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination results in a longer go reaction time (RT, a lower stop error rate, as well as a faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  15. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  16. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  17. When the brain simulates stopping: Neural activity recorded during real and imagined stop-signal tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villar, Alberto J; Bonilla, F Mauricio; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that mental rehearsal activates brain areas similar to those activated by real performance. Although inhibition is a key function of human behavior, there are no previous reports of brain activity during imagined response cancellation. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) and time-frequency data associated with motor execution and inhibition during real and imagined performance of a stop-signal task. The ERPs characteristic of stop trials-that is, the stop-N2 and stop-P3-were also observed during covert performance of the task. Imagined stop (IS) trials yielded smaller stop-N2 amplitudes than did successful stop (SS) and unsuccessful stop (US) trials, but midfrontal theta power similar to that in SS trials. The stop-P3 amplitude for IS was intermediate between those observed for SS and US. The results may be explained by the absence of error-processing and correction processes during imagined performance. For go trials, real execution was associated with higher mu and beta desynchronization over motor areas, which confirms previous reports of lower motor activation during imagined execution and also with larger P3b amplitudes, probably indicating increased top-down attention to the real task. The similar patterns of activity observed for imagined and real performance suggest that imagination tasks may be useful for training inhibitory processes. Nevertheless, brain activation was generally weaker during mental rehearsal, probably as a result of the reduced engagement of top-down mechanisms and limited error processing.

  18. Stopping, goal-conflict, trait anxiety and frontal rhythmic power in the stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Phoebe S-H; Thurlow, Jane K; McNaughton, Neil

    2011-12-01

    The medial right frontal cortex is implicated in fast stopping of an initiated motor action in the stop-signal task (SST). To assess whether this region is also involved in the slower behavioural inhibition induced by goal conflict, we tested for effects of goal conflict (when stop and go tendencies are balanced) on low-frequency rhythms in the SST. Stop trials were divided, according to the delays at which the stop signal occurred, into short-, intermediate-, and long-delay trials. Consistent with goal-conflict processing, intermediate-delay trials were associated with greater 7-8 Hz EEG power than short- or long-delay trials at medial right frontal sites (Fz, F4, and F8). At F8, 7-8 Hz power was linked to high trait anxiety and neuroticism. A separate 4-7 Hz power increase was also seen in stop, relative to go, trials, but this was independent of delay, was maximal at the central midline site Cz, and predicted faster stopping. Together with previous data on the SST, these results suggest that the right frontal region could be involved in multiple inhibition mechanisms. We propose a hierarchical model of the control of stopping that integrates the literature on the neural control of fast motor stopping with that on slower, motive-directed behavioural inhibition.

  19. How to Cut Costs by Saving School Bus Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiff, Hank

    A program started in Washington County, Maryland in 1980 has been successful in saving school bus fuel and bringing down transportation costs incurred by its fleet of 200 buses. Driver training and motivation, as well as a partial transfer to diesel buses, are at the heart of the program. The drivers are taught five fuel saving techniques: cut…

  20. Interface For MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic control-logic subsystem acts as interface between microcontroller and MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Subsystem made of relatively small number of integrated circuits. Advantages include low power, few integrated-circuit chips, and little need for control signals.

  1. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  2. Are Good Deeds Compulsory for Young Bus Riders?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A recent popular post on the Internet concerns friction on a bus in Hangzhou, east China’s Zhejiang Province. A young female passenger surnamed Wu refused to give herseat to a 77-year-old woman when she wasasked to do so by an elderly man surnamed

  3. Bullying on the School Bus: A Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of bullying on the school bus. Videotapes were used to identify occurrences of bullying on buses of elementary school students. Incidents were reviewed for forms of bullying, fullness, presence of friends, and severity of acts. Results indicated that approximately two incidents occurred per bus…

  4. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  5. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  6. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  7. Tram of Bus: Does the Tram Bonus Exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunschoten, T.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Nes, R.

    2013-01-01

    The tram bonus is a much discussed topic as there is severe uncertainty about its definition and its existence. In this paper the tram bonus is considered to be the extra value it generates for travellers, which causes a new tram service to gain more passengers when compared to an equivalent bus ser

  8. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  9. Energy Performance Optimization of a Bus for Urban Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many people use public transports in urban centres. Consequently, every day a lot of buses move within cities, trying to ensure the best service to citizens. During the year buses becomecrowded places and using an air conditioning system in constant operation, it tries to ensure a certain condition of comfort for the passengers on board. The aim of this study is to analyse and optimize the energy performance of a bus shell, identifying practical solutions that have not yet been adopted in order to reduce the impact of air conditioning on bus consumption and, therefore, on air pollution. For this reason it was decided to conduct a thermal analysis of a bus for public transport, in order to understandthe behaviour of the bus shell and to deduce possible optimization measures that have not yet been made until now. The analysis was carried out considering the hottest day of July and the coldest day ofJanuary, considering the conditions of operation based on the most common graphics TGM able to define the concentration of traffic city during the 24 hours per day. The study was done using the dynamicsimulation software TRNSYS. With this software it was possible to recreate faithfully the structure of the bus and the external environmental conditions, assessing the impact of different technical solutions for an improvement of internal conditions and a reduction of the cooling capacity required. Because the presence of passengers in public transport is considered like a “benefit” during the winter, the analysis started with the identification of a summer solution and the subsequent evaluation of this solution for the wintertime. The aim of this study was to optimize the bus shell and select the most appropriate solutions. Regarding the transparent surfaces it has been given importance to factors such as the thermal transmittance and the solar gain factor (g-value. Aware of the influence given by the solar radiation on the energy loads, we

  10. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  11. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  12. Separate BRT Corridor Stop Spacing Optimization Model Based on the Travel Time of Walking-to-Stop Passengers%基于步行到站者出行时间的独立BRT走廊站距优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兵; 靳文舟; 罗云辉

    2014-01-01

    The spacing between bus rapid transit (BRT ) stops influences the average travel time that the passengers spent for getting to BRT Stops .This effect is greater for the passengers who walk to the BRT Stops .First ,this paper analyzed the area affected by the BRT corridor ,and studied the average walking-to-stop time affected significantly by the stop spacing .The functional relationship between the average walking-to-stop time and the stop spacing based on the studies was obtained .Based on the functional relationship ,the balance between the walking-to-stop time reduction and bus travel time increase caused by the increase of the number of BRT stops was taken as an objective function ,and a BRT stop spacing optimization model was developed .Meanwhile ,the paper proposed a parameter calibration method .The model reflects more realistic condition ,which can provide a certain reference for the establishment of BRT stops .%BRT站距影响乘客到达BRT 站点所花费的平均时间,这种影响对步行到站者的出行显得尤为明显。首先,对BRT走廊辐射区域进行了细致的解析,以到站时间受站距影响较大的步行到站者为研究对象,分析步行到站者的平均到站时间,得到了步行到站平均时间同站距的函数关系。在此基础上,以增加站点数量造成的平均步行到站时间减少同BRT车辆运行时间的增加两者之间的平衡为目标,建立了BRT走廊站距优化模型,给出了模型参数的标定方法。该模型对BRT 影响区进行细化,更加符合实际情况,能为BRT实际设站提供一定的参考。

  13. Hybrid stop schedule of urban rail train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmin Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better serve the transport demand of urban area by rail, target at the Ur-ban Rail Train Stop Schedule problem.Design/methodology/approach: Bi-level mathematical programming model and game relation was used.Findings: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed when game relation between train Stop Schedule and passenger transfer choice is considered.Research limitations/implications: The research is still in progress. Practical implications: ChongQing urban rail line 2 was taken as an example, the practical application of the model has proved its feasibility and efficiency.Originality/value: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed. The upper level model is Stop Schedule targeting at the optimal profit from the operators side. The lower level model is passenger routing aims to minimize total travel time. According to its features, the bi-level model is integrated in order to be directly solvable by optimizing software.

  14. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  15. Optimization analysis of bus lines based on geographical information system%基于GIS的公交线路优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦明连; 贾艳红; 陈海燕

    2013-01-01

    针对公交线路规划设计的特点与目标,以实地采集数据及地图数据为基础,利用GIS空间分析中的缓冲区分析、叠置分析及网络分析功能,以江苏省连云港市新浦区某实验区为例,对研究区域的公交站点辐射范围、区域交通设施完备度、区域交通便捷度和区域交通道路通达性指标进行了分析。并结合空间信息叠置原理,以沟通淮海工学院苍梧校区与通灌校区的公交线路为例,以路线长短和乘客数量为权重进行网络分析,并结合研究区公交站点辐射范围、区域交通设施完备度、区域交通便捷度和区域交通道路通达性分析结果,对现有公交线路优化问题进行了分析。明确了目前公共交通存在的若干问题,为进一步实施公交线网优化方案及提高公交运行效率提供参考。研究表明,GIS技术对于解决城市公共交通线路优化和分析问题具有重要作用。%According to the characteristics and objectives of planning and design of bus lines, some indices are analyzed based on the map and data acquiring on the spot in Xinpu District of Lianyungang City in Jiangsu Province, China.The indices include the radiation scope of bus stops, the facilities complete degree of regional transportation, the convenience degree of regional transportation and the accessible degree of regional road.The technology of the geographical information system ( GIS) is introduced to this study, including spatial buffer analysis and spatial information overlay and network analysis.The optimal choice for the bus line from Cangwu campus to Tongguan campus of the Hua-ihai Institute of Technology is carried out based on the spatial network analysis by the weight of the length of bus lines and the quantity of passengers.The results are imported into this optimal choice simultaneously from the radiation scope of bus stops, the facilities complete degree of regional trans-portation, the

  16. Impact of Impulse Stops on Pedestrian Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    We numerically study the impact of impulse stops on pedestrian flow for a straight corridor with multiple attractions. The impulse stop is simulated by the switching behavior model, a function of the social influence strength and the number of attendees near the attraction. When the pedestrian influx is low, one can observe a stable flow where attendees make a complete stop at an attraction and then leave the attraction after a certain amount of time. When the pedestrian influx is high, an unstable flow is observed for strong social influence. In the unstable flow, attendees near the attraction are crowded out from the clusters by others due to the interpersonal repulsion. The expelled pedestrians impede the pedestrian traffic between the left and right boundaries of the corridor. These collective patterns of pedestrian flow are summarized in a schematic phase diagram.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of classical stopping power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Paul E; Surh, Michael P; Richards, David F; Graziani, Frank R; Murillo, Michael S

    2013-11-22

    Molecular dynamics can provide very accurate tests of classical kinetic theory; for example, unambiguous comparisons can be made for classical particles interacting via a repulsive 1/r potential. The plasma stopping power problem, of great interest in its own right, provides an especially stringent test of a velocity-dependent transport property. We have performed large-scale (~10(4)-10(6) particles) molecular dynamics simulations of charged-particle stopping in a classical electron gas that span the weak to moderately strong intratarget coupling regimes. Projectile-target coupling is varied with projectile charge and velocity. Comparisons are made with disparate kinetic theories (both Boltzmann and Lenard-Balescu classes) and fully convergent theories to establish regimes of validity. We extend these various stopping models to improve agreement with the MD data and provide a useful fit to our results.

  18. The Extent of the Stop Coannihilation Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Zheng, Jiaming

    2014-01-01

    Many supersymmetric models such as the CMSSM feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino \\chi is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), the lighter stop squark \\tilde t_1 is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic \\chi cold dark matter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark \\tilde t_1 NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the \\tilde t_1 may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper.

  19. New stopping criteria for segmenting DNA sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Li, W

    2001-01-01

    We propose a solution on the stopping criterion in segmenting inhomogeneous DNA sequences with complex statistical patterns. This new stopping criterion is based on Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in the model selection framework. When this stopping criterion is applied to a left telomere sequence of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the complete genome sequence of bacterium Escherichia coli, borders of biologically meaningful units were identified (e.g. subtelomeric units, replication origin, and replication terminus), and a more reasonable number of domains was obtained. We also introduce a measure called segmentation strength which can be used to control the delineation of large domains. The relationship between the average domain size and the threshold of segmentation strength is determined for several genome sequences.

  20. StopWatcher: A Mobile Application to Improve Stop Sign Awareness for Driving Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stop signs are the primary form of traffic control in the United States. However, they have a tendency to be much less effective than other forms of traffic control like traffic lights. This is due to their smaller size, lack of lighting, and the fact that they may become visually obscured from the road. In this paper, we offer a solution to this problem in the form of a mobile application implemented in the Android platform: StopWatcher. It is designed to alert a driver when they are approaching a stop sign using a voice notification system (VNS. A field test was performed in a snowy environment. The test results demonstrate that the application can detect all of the stop signs correctly, even when some of them were obstructed by the snow, which in turn greatly improves the user awareness of stop signs.

  1. Stop consonant discrimination based on human audition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, C L; Jacobson, J Z; Rayment, S G

    1979-03-01

    A system for discrimination of stop consonants has been designed on the basis of studies of auditory physiology and psychophysics. The system consists of a one-third octave filter bank as an approximation to auditory tuning curves, a bank of high speed, wide dynamic range envelope detectors, a logarithmic amplifier, and a digital computer for analysis and display. Features, chosen on the basis of psychophysical experiments, are then abstracted, and fed to a discriminant analysis program which decides on the most probable phomene. Discrimination accuracy of about 77% for stop consonants in initial position has been achieved, with a 15-speaker data set.

  2. Low noise road surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bolčina, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    Noise is everywhere. Noise is a sound that makes people stressful and irritate. It often couses sleep disorders and also health problems like different cardiovascular disorders, hearing loss…In most cases traffic noise is the most disturbing. There are different ways to prevent people from traffic noise like building noise barriers and insulation of facades. However noise barriers and insulation of facades do not prevent noise formation, but are lowering existing noise. Another disadvantage i...

  3. BEAM STOP DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SNS BEAM STOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Plum, Michael A [ORNL; Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Jacobs, Lorelei L [ORNL; Lu, Wei [ORNL; McTeer, Stephen Mark [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The design of accelerator components such as magnets, accelerator cavities and beam instruments tends to be a fairly standardized and collective effort within the particle accelerator community with well established performance, reliability and, in some cases, even budgetary criteria. Beam stop design, by contrast, has been comparatively subjective historically with much more general goals. This lack of rigor has lead to a variety of facility implementations with limited standardization and minimal consensus on approach to development within the particle accelerator community. At the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), for example, there are four high power beam stops in use, three of which have significantly different design solutions. This paper describes the design of a new off-momentum beam stop for the SNS. The technical description of the system will be complemented by a discussion of design methodology. This paper presented an overview of the new SNS HEBT off-momentum beam stop and outlined a methodology for beam stop system design. The new beam stop consists of aluminium and steel blocks cooled by a closed-loop forced-air system and is expected to be commissioned this summer. The design methodology outlined in the paper represents a basic description of the process, data, analyses and critical decisions involved in the development of a beam stop system.

  4. Bystanders Are the Key to Stopping Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Sharon; Notar, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is the dominance over another. Bullying occurs when there is an audience. Peer bystanders provide an audience 85% of instances of bullying. If you remove the audience bullying should stop. The article is a review of literature (2002-2013) on the role of bystanders; importance of bystanders; why bystanders behave as they do; resources to…

  5. Five Reasons To Stop Saying "Good Job."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Alfie

    2001-01-01

    Offers five reasons to stop use of positive social reinforcement, or praise, with young children. Maintains that praise manipulates children by taking advantage of their need for adult approval and exploits that dependence for adult convenience, creates "praise junkies," steals the child's pride in his or her own accomplishment, reduces interest…

  6. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem; Kallenberg, Wilbert C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  8. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, R.; Albers, W.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  9. StarBus+: Distributed Object Middleware Practice for Internet Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-Min Wang; Yu-Feng Wang; Yang-Bin Tang

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, the booming of Internet challenges the middleware in three aspects: quality of service,balance of changes and stabilization, and across-Internet integration. This paper presents our work on distributed object computing middleware technology for these challenges, as well as the research and development on StarBus+, which is a CORBA standard-compliant middleware suite with the features such as object request broker supporting multi-* quality of service, component model, and integration with Web Service. This paper comprehensively presents the design and characteristics of StarBns+, and demonstrates how StarBus+ is enhanced to address the challenges of Internet computing through three case studies: inter-enterprise integration over Internet, application evolution through dynamic reconfiguration,and great massive information system building. The paper also suggests some research directions which are important for Internet computing.

  10. Implementation of I 2C Master Bus Protocol on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regu Archana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on I 2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit protocol interface between Master Bus protocol and slave. Here we are interfacing between micro-controller and DS1307. I 2C bus protocol sends 8 bit data from micro-controller to DS1307. This module was designed in VHDL and simulated and synthesized using Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.2. I 2C and optimized for area and power. This concept is widely applicable from any high speed device or low speed device to any low speed device or high speed device. This module acts as a slave for the DS1307 at the same time acts like a master for the micro-controller device which can be considered as a slave. . It can be used to interface low speed peripherals like motherboard, embedded system, mobile phones, set top boxes, DVD, PDA’s or other electronic devices.

  11. Distributed cooperative synchronization strategy for multi-bus microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Zhong, Chaolu; Hou, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    communication breaks down, the primary droop control can still operate robustly. Small signal model of entire system is developed to adjust the parameters of distributed active synchronization controller. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method....... synchronization methods based on centralized communication are very costly and not suitable for multi-bus microgrids that have a large number of distributed generators (DGs). To address this concern, this study presents an active synchronization control strategy based on distributed cooperation technology...... for multi-bus microgrids. The proposed method can reconnect the microgrid in island to UG seamlessly with sparse communication channels. Synchronization correction signals are generated by a voltage controller, which are only transmitted to the leader DGs. Meanwhile, each DG exchanges information with its...

  12. THE DESIGN OF VMEBUS BRIDGE CONTROLLER WITH SHARC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Wu Shunjun; Su Tao

    2005-01-01

    Targeting at the high expense and inflexibility to realize VMEbus bridge controller by professional Integrated Circuit (IC), this paper presents a scheme of adopting CPLD/FPGA (Complicated Programmable Logic Device/Field Programmable Gate Array) to design bridge controller between VMEbus and local bus. SHARC DSP (Digital Signal Processor) bus is an example. It has functions of nearly entire master/slave interface of VMEbus, and can act as DMA (Direct Memory Access) controller and perform block transfer in DMA or master processor initiative way without length limit. External circuit of the design is very simple. In comparison with special ICs, it has high performance to price ratio and can be easily applied to local buses of other processors with quite a little modification.

  13. Bus Encoder for Crosstalk Avoidance in RLC Modeled Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nagendra Babu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the encoding methods proposed in recent years have dealt with only RC modeled VLSI interconnects. For deep sub micron technologies (DSM, on-chip inductive effects have increased due to faster clock speeds, smaller signal rise times and longer length of on-chip interconnects. All these issues raise the concern for cross talk, propagation delay and power dissipation of overall. Therefore, this research work introduces an efficient Bus Encoder using Bus Inverting (BI method. The proposed design dramatically reduces both cross talk and power dissipation in RLC modeled interconnects which makes it suitable for current high-speed low-power VLSI interconnects. The proposed model demonstrates an overall reduction of power dissipation and cross talk induced delay by 55.43% and 45.87%, respectively.

  14. Technology Update of a Control System Trough Corba Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Bertocchi, A; Buceti, G; Centioli, C; Muzio, D D; Iannone, F; Mazza, G; Panella, M; Vitale, V

    2001-01-01

    After more than 10 years of activity, FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) has to face the problem of taking advantage of the new hardware and software technology saving all the investments yet done. So, for example, the 20 years old Westinghouse PLCs (communicating only through a serial line) have to be leaved in operation while a web-based tool has to be released for plan monitoring purpose. CORBA bus has been demonstrated to be the answer to set up the communication between old and new hardware and software blocks. On FTU the control system is based on Basestar, a Digital/Compaq software suite. We will describe how the real time database of Basestar is now accessed by Java graphic tools, LabView and, in principle, any package accepting external routines. An account will be also done in the data acquisition area where a Camac serial highway driver has been integrated in the new architecture still through the CORBA bus

  15. Investigation on full distribution CNC system based on SERCOS bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A full distribution CNC system based on SERCOS bus is studied in accordance with the limitations of traditional PC-based motion card.The conventional PC-based motion control card is dispersed into several autonomous intelligent servo-control units with the function of servo driver.The autonomous intelligent servocontrol units realize the loop control of position,velocity and current.Interpolation computation is completed in PC and the computational results are transferred to every autonomous intelligent servo-control unit by high speed SERCOS bus.Software or hardware synchronization technology is used to ensure all servomotors are successive and synchronously running.The communication and synchronization technology of SERCOS are also researched and the autonomous intelligent servo-control card is developed byself.Finally,the experiment of circle contour process on a prototype system proves the feasibility.

  16. Health effect of a bus ride in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, T.

    1983-07-01

    Health effects on subjects during a bus drive on an urban road were investigated in a real situation. Leukocyte count, adrenalin level in blood and urine, noradrenalin and dopamine in urine, diastolic blood pressure, and index of vascular resistance increased significantly on the drive day compared with the control day. A bus drive on an urban road induced enhanced sympathetic-adreno-medullary activity in real life as a result of the comprehensive effect of various factors. The concentrations of air pollutants were excessively high on the road, and correlated with traffic volume. It was concluded that the interactions between psychogenic, physical nonspecific and physical specific effects should be taken into consideration when evaluating human health effects of air pollution in the urban environment.

  17. Leveraging Bus Mobility to Enable Communications in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Gaito, Sabrina; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that the deployment of an opportunistic network on any public transportation system leads to obtain a scalable and efficient urban communication platform. We use the term Bus Switched Networks (BSNs) to indicate this urban backbone that complements the services of 3G networks and enables to meet the application level requirements for a large class of applications by ensuring high delivery ratio and acceptable delays under different conditions of packet load. We sustain these arguments by providing three contributions. The first contribution is a novel and lightweight probabilistic routing protocol for BSN which we prove to be highly effective in satisfying the loose QoS required by urban-wide delay-tolerant information services. The second contribution is the proposal of URBeS, an analysis platform that, given a specific city served by public transportation, produces real bus mobility traces and traffic analysis for any given routing protocol. The last contribution is an extensive benchmark a...

  18. Design of CAN Bus Application in the Process of Papermaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisheng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the design of can bus application in the process of papermaking. The design for an intelligent measure and control system based on the technology of CAN bus, is applied to detect and control the concentration of wood-pulp, the temperature of multistage dryer and other parameters in the process of papermaking, in order to meet the control requirements and characters for the study quality and ensure paper even and cohesive under the course of manufacturer. The intelligence of measure and control system has been predominantly researched in the article, including the proposal of intelligent control node and communication model, the design of hardware interface circuit in the intelligent measure and control node and the design of whole system.

  19. Virtual Instrument Based on GPIB Interface Bus1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao,Ying; Qi,Hanhong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the technique of GPIB businterface. Through the controlling of the GPIB interface board,the computer controlled the current source and the voltmeter, both of which have GPIB bus interface, and a virtual instrument testing system for I~V curve was composed. The virtual instrument front panel and the background graphical control program in Labview environment accomplish virtual instrument testing task along with the hardware system.

  20. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  1. MEASURING CUSTOMER’S SATISFACTION ON BUS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rabiul Islam; Mohammed S. Chowdhury; Mohammad Sumann Sarker; Salauddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the factors measuring customers’ satisfaction, especially the impact of service quality on customers’ satisfaction in public transportation industry in the university town of Sintok located in Kedah province of Malaysia. In order to assess the relationships between service quality and customer satisfaction survey http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1003.htmdata were collected from 300 Bus commuters. All hypotheses were tes...

  2. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  3. The Designing Bus for Nuclear Safety Class Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa [PONUTech Co,. Ltd., Research Institute, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Kwangki [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is based on the IEEE 802.3 standard as one of the communication which is the I/O (Input/Output), sensors and communication function of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in industry and factory environment use is increasing. The Nuclear Safety Class Controller implemented by the EtherCAT applied bus can be shown the improving performance of data transmission in the controller.

  4. Nearly deterministic Bell measurement using quantum communication bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Ming; Zhu, Meng-zheng; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-03-01

    We present a scheme to implement Bell states measurement for an arbitrary number of photons by using robust continuous variable coherent modes, called as quantum communication bus (qubus) and weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. Remarkably, the success probability of our scheme is close to unity, and our scheme does not require any ancillary resource entanglement. Our scheme is likely to yield versatile applications for quantum computation and quantum teleportation.

  5. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    Full Text Available The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  6. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  7. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  8. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ávila Assunção

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  9. Ring Bus Architecture for a Solid-State Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. John; Kopf, Edward; Cox, Brian

    2008-01-01

    A document concisely describes a ring bus architecture for a proposed solid-state recorder (SSR) that would serve as buffer of data to be transmitted from a spacecraft to Earth. This architecture would afford fault tolerance needed for reliable operation in an anticipated high-radiation environment in which traditional SSRs cannot operate reliably. Features of the architecture include one or more controller boards and multiple memory boards interconnected in a ringlike topology. The interconnections would be high-speed serial links complying with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 1393 (which pertains to a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus). Accordingly, each controller and memory board would be equipped with an IEEE-1393-compliant ring-bus-interface unit. The ringlike topology and the multiplicity of memory boards (and, optionally, of controller boards) would afford the redundancy needed for fault tolerance. Each board would be a fault-containment region. The IEEE 1393 links could be routed so that the SSR would continue to function even in the event of multiple failures. This architecture would also support scalability over a wide range. In a fully redundant configuration, it could accommodate between 1 and 125 memory boards.

  10. Designing Parallel Bus Using Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyandra Sharad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper entitled “DESIGNING PARALLEL BUSUSING UNIVERSAL ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER TRANSMITTER” is designed to the core of a UART interface module, which includes both receive and transmit modules, and the command parser. This paper will be a viable solution to design parallel buses with the help of UART. In the test bench , there is a RFM(register file model to which we write/read back data from just to check our design .The txt file issues serial inputs to the core and the core outputs parallel data and address in the form of bus. This bus is connected to our RFM (register file model instantiated in the test bench along with the design. This makes easy to retrieve parallel data from serial input. The base of the paper is to use microcontroller along with other components to interface with the physical world. In contrast, most serial communication must first be converted back into parallel form by a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART before they may be directly connected to a data bus. Both Transmissions (Parallel and Serial are used to connect peripheral devices and enable us to communicate with these devices. The UART core described here is designed using VHDL and implemented on Xilinx Vertex FPGA.

  11. Fuel cell transit bus development & commercialization programs at Gerogetown University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, R.; Larkins, J.; Romano, S. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fourteen years ago, Georgetown University (GU) perceived the need for a clean, efficient power systems for transportation that could operate on non-petroleum based fuels. The transit bus application was selected to begin system development. GU recognized the range and recharge constraints of a pure battery powered transit bus. A Fuel Cell power system would circumvent these limitations and, with an on board reformer, accommodate liquid fuel for rapid refueling. Feasibility studies for Fuel Cell power systems for transit buses were conducted with the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1983. Successful results of this investigation resulted in the DOT/DOE Fuel Cell transit bus development program. The first task was to prove that small Fuel Cell power plants were possible. This was achieved with the Phase I development of two 25 kW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) brassboard systems. A liquid cooled version was selected for the Phase II activity in which three 30-foot Fuel Cell powered Test Bed Buses (TBBs) were fabricated. The first of these TBBs was delivered in the spring of 1994. All three of these development vehicles are now in Phase III of the program to conduct testing and evaluation, is conducting operational testing of the buses. The test will involve two fuel cell-operated buses; one with a proton exchange fuel cell and the other with a phosphoric acid fuel cell.

  12. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  13. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  14. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers. PMID:25741657

  15. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  16. Lifespan changes in global and selective stopping and performance adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Van De Laar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined stopping and performance adjustments in four age groups (M ages: 8, 12, 21, and 76 years. All participants performed on three tasks, a standard two-choice task and the same task in which stop-signal trials were inserted requiring either the suppression of the response activated by the choice stimulus (global stop task or the suppression of the response when one stop signal was presented but not when the other stop signal occurred (selective stop task. The results showed that global stopping was faster than selective stopping in all age groups. Global stopping matured more rapidly than selective stopping. The developmental gain in stopping was considerably more pronounced compared to the loss observed during senescence. All age groups slowed the response on trials without a stop signal in the stop task compared to trials in the choice task, the elderly in particular. In addition, all age groups slowed on trials following stop-signal trials, except the elderly who did not slow following successful inhibits. By contrast, the slowing following failed inhibits was disproportionally larger in the elderly compared to young adults. Finally, sequential effects did not alter the pattern of performance adjustments. The results were interpreted in terms of developmental change in the balance between proactive and reactive control.

  17. The light stop quark with small stop-neutralino difference in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstene, C.; Carena, Marcela S.; Freitas, A.; Finch, A.; Sopczak, A.; Kluge, Hannelies

    2005-12-01

    The MSSM can explain electro-weak symmetry breaking if one scalar top quark (stop) is light. In addition, in this framework, the neutralino is a good dark matter candidate and for small stop-neutralino mass differences dm{sub i} = 30 GeV, co-annihilation plays an important role to match the results from WMAP and SDSS for the relic density in the universe. In this scenario, the stops mainly decays into charm and neutralino, making its discovery difficult at hadron colliders due to background and trigger limitations. They present results for the discovery reach of the ILC for a DM candidate as low as 0(5 GeV) based on a realistic experimental simulation. Moreover, the stop parameters could be measured with high precision.

  18. Bioclimatic transport stop: Urban equipment kit; Parada bioclimatica de transporte: Kit de equipamiento urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Maria V; Barroso, Helen; Bonvino, Michelangelo; Puerta, Marigabriela [Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Arquitectura de la Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

    2000-07-01

    Related to the analysis of offer of the urban public transportation, quantity and quality variables are identified, finding in the last one, the related to bus stop designing and equipping. This is, which elements a bus stop has to count with for its insertion in the urban public transportation system: information for the user, bench, trash can, et cetera: generally omitting, relevant aspects that must be considerate in its design and insertion: 1) the urban public transport, 2) the climate variables and 3) renewable energy and environmental preservation. For this presentation, thermal evaluations were made, using a thermal analysis software on prototypes of urban public transportation bus stops existent in Maracaibo (1.6 Mhab.)-Venezuela, city characterized for its high sunning, which duration approximately the same between the day period and night period: and for a marine climate of temperature (27.70 Celsius degrees) and high relative humidity (75%), low precipitation (490 mm) and predominant nor-northeast winds. The year average values of solar radiation corresponds to 5,59 kw/m{sup 2} day for the global radiation, 3.53 kw/m{sup 2} day for the direct radiation (63.1%) and 2.06% kw/m{sup 2} day for the diffuse radiation (36.9%). The maximum average value was obtained in the month of March with 6.4 kw/m{sup 2} day and the minimum on October, 4.7 kw/m{sup 2} day. In the other hand calculations about energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions of the conventional bus stop were made. It is proposed a bus stop design conceptualized as the bioclimatic condenser of the urban equipment. Where beside to comply its clearly determined transportation functions, it can conjunct: 1) complementary urban service activities, depending to its categorization in the urban public transportation system of Maracaibo; 2) orientation; 3) regulator of the urban microclima; and 4) area insertion of these. [Spanish] Dentro de lo que corresponde al analisis de la oferta de transporte publico

  19. A Note on the Stopping Redundancy of Linear Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Tao Xia

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the stopping sets, stopping distance and stopping redundancy for binary linear codes.Stopping redundancy is a new concept proposed by Schwartz and Vardy recently for evaluating the performance of a linear code under iterative decoding over a binary erasure channel (BEC). Since the exact value of stopping redundancy is difficult to obtain in general, good lower and upper bounds are important. We obtain a new general upper bound on the stopping redundancy of binary linear codes which improves the corresponding results of Schwartz and Vardy.

  20. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  1. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  2. Design and VHDL simulation of a special high speed spaceborne bus controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The application of high speed data bus on the satellites having several remote sensors could not only satisfy the demand of high speed data transfer,but also could reuse the equipment at both the com-ponent and subsystem levels for other space missions,thus reducing the costs of on-board processing system integration.In this article,a special high speed data bus with simple interfaces is chosen for transferring the data produced by remote sensors and other instrumentations.First,the function and the structure of the data bus are discussed carefully.And then,the bus controller,which is a key mod-ule of the data bus,is designed.At last,the function and performance of the bus controller are verified by VHDL simulation.

  3. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS, which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus, coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introducing novel functions: asynchronous meter trigger, adaptive slot scheduling, and bitmap-wise retransmission request. Through experiments, we demonstrate that BWM-Bus guarantees higher data success ratio with lower data aggregation time, as well as longer lifetime than WM-Bus standard.

  4. The RRR of the Cu components of the LHC main bus bar splices

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, S; Fessia, P; Principe, R; CERN. Geneva. TE Department

    2010-01-01

    The different LHC main bus bar splice components (bus bar cable, splice U-piece and wedge and bus bar stabilizer) are subjected to different heat treatments (HTs) during bus bar assembly and splice soldering. The influence of soldering HTs on the RRR of the LHC main bus bar cable strands has been determined. The RRR of several splice U-pieces and wedges dismounted from the LHC has been measured. A correlation between the Vickers hardness and the RRR of the high purity Cu profiles has been established. All U-pieces tested that were produced before 2009 have a RRR>200, while the RRR of all wedges and of U-pieces of 2009 production have a much lower RRR. All tests of LHC main bus bar samples performed so far in the laboratory indicate a RRR of approximately 200 or higher.

  5. Stop codon reassignments in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Natalia N; Schwientek, Patrick; Tripp, H James; Rinke, Christian; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Visel, Axel; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Rubin, Edward M

    2014-05-23

    The canonical genetic code is assumed to be deeply conserved across all domains of life with very few exceptions. By scanning 5.6 trillion base pairs of metagenomic data for stop codon reassignment events, we detected recoding in a substantial fraction of the >1700 environmental samples examined. We observed extensive opal and amber stop codon reassignments in bacteriophages and of opal in bacteria. Our data indicate that bacteriophages can infect hosts with a different genetic code and demonstrate phage-host antagonism based on code differences. The abundance and diversity of genetic codes present in environmental organisms should be considered in the design of engineered organisms with altered genetic codes in order to preclude the exchange of genetic information with naturally occurring species.

  6. NEW POLIMER SEALING FLUID STOPS MUD LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Stryczek

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a composition of sealing fluid, prepared from acrylic acid salt water solution Solakryl M. Laboratory test results of technological properties of its modifications with mineral agents are shown. A new method of sealing mud loss operations with given sealing liquid is discussed along with comments on effects of its use for stopping mud loss in case of freeze-well drilling is described (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Upgoing stopping muons in Soudan 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, T. [Argonne National Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Tufts University (United States); Oxford University, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-15

    A hitherto untapped sector of Soudan-2 data has been examined, consisting of upgoing stopping muons, originating in neutrino interactions within the rock surrounding the detector, and of one-prong neutrino interactions occuring within the detector that can be ambiguous with upgoing tracks. We observe features of the upgoing data that are compatible with the hypothesis of neutrino oscillations, and we do not observe any such features in the downgoing data.

  8. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Hyderabad

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda; Maddali Sai Satya Goutham

    2014-01-01

    Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS). Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BR...

  9. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-06-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  10. The cryogenic gas stopping cell of SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droese, C., E-mail: christian.droese1@uni-greifswald.de [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Felix-Hausdorff-Straße 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Eliseev, S.; Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Block, M.; Herfurth, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Laatiaoui, M. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Lautenschläger, F. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Pankratiusstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Minaya Ramirez, E. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schweikhard, L. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Felix-Hausdorff-Straße 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Simon, V.V. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Thirolf, P.G. [Ludwig Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The overall efficiency of the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt, employed for high-precision mass measurements of exotic nuclei in the mass region above fermium, is presently mostly limited by the stopping and extraction of fusion-evaporation products in the SHIPTRAP gas cell. To overcome this limitation a second-generation gas cell with increased stopping volume was designed. In addition, its operation at cryogenic temperatures leads to a higher gas density at a given pressure and an improved cleanliness of the helium buffer gas. Here, the results of experiments with a {sup 219}Rn recoil ion source are presented. An extraction efficiency of 74(3)% was obtained, a significant increase compared to the extraction efficiency of 30% of the present gas stopping cell operated at room temperature. The optimization of electric fields and other operating parameters at room as well as cryogenic temperatures is described in detail. Furthermore, the extraction time of {sup 219}Rn ions was determined for several operating parameters.

  11. Stopped-Rotor Cyclocopter for Venus Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseyin, Sema; Warmbrodt, William G.

    2016-01-01

    The cyclocopter system can use two or more rotating blades to create lift, propulsion and control. This system is explored for its use in a mission to Venus. Cyclocopters are not limited to speed and altitude and can provide 360 degrees of vector thrusting which is favorable for good maneuverability. The novel aspect of this study is that no other cyclocopter configuration has been previously proposed for Venus or any (terrestrial or otherwise) exploration application where the cyclocopters rotating blades are stopped, and act as fixed wings. The design considerations for this unique planetary aerial vehicle are discussed in terms of implementing the use of a cyclorotor blade system combined with a fixed wing and stopped rotor mechanism. This proposed concept avoids many of the disadvantages of conventional-rotor stopped-rotor concepts and accounts for the high temperature, pressure and atmospheric density present on Venus while carrying out the mission objectives. The fundamental goal is to find an ideal design that implements the combined use of cyclorotors and fixed wing surfaces. These design concepts will be analyzed with the computational fluid dynamics tool RotCFD for aerodynamic assessment. Aspects of the vehicle design is 3D printed and tested in a small water tunnel or wind tunnel.

  12. Bucket shaking stops bunch dancing in Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, A.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Bunches in Tevatron are known to be longitudinally unstable: their collective oscillations, also called dancing bunches, persist without any signs of decay. Typically, a damper is used to stop these oscillations, but recently, it was theoretically predicted that the oscillations can be stabilized by means of small bucket shaking. Dedicated measurements in Tevatron have shown that this method does stop the dancing. According to predictions of Refs. [2,3], the flattening of the bunch distribution at low amplitudes should make the bunch more stable against LLD. An experiment has been devised to flatten the distribution by modulating the RF phase at the low-amplitude synchrotron frequency for a few degrees of amplitude. These beam studies show that stabilisation really happens. After several consecutive shakings, the dancing disappears and the resulting bunch profile becomes smoother at the top. Although not shown in this report, sometimes a little divot forms at the centre of the distribution. These experiments confirm that resonant RF shaking flattens the bunch distribution at low amplitudes, and the dancing stops.

  13. A Prediction System Using a P2P Overlay Network for a Bus Arrival System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Hsuan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of times and the surge of metropolitan populations, government agencies often promote the construction of public transport. Unlike rail transportation or rapid transit systems, it is often difficult to estimate the vehicle arrival times at each station in a bus transportation system due to metropolitan transportation congestion. Traffic status is often monitored using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, WSNs are always separated from one another spatially. Recent studies have considered the connection of multiple sensor networks. This study considers a combination view of peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks and WSN architecture to predict bus arrival times. Each bus station, which is also a P2P overlay peer, is connected in a P2P overlay network. A sensor installed in each bus can receive data via peers to obtain the moving speed of a bus. Then, each peer can exchange its data to predict bus arrival times at bus stations. This method can considerably increase the accuracy with which bus arrival times can be predicted and can provide traffic status with high precision. Furthermore, these data can also be used to plan new bus routes according to the information gathered.

  14. An interactive wireless communication system for visually impaired people using city bus transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-04-25

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  15. Stopping power of charged particles due to ion wave excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, H.; Muroki, C.; Nambu, M.

    2002-08-01

    Stopping power due to ion wave excitations is derived for a charged particle moving in a two-component plasma. Unlike previous theories based on ion-acoustic-wave approximation (IAWA), the excitation of short-wavelength ion waves is taken into account. The obtained stopping power has a magnitude larger than that of IAWA. Stopping power at subsonic velocities, where stopping power in IAWA disappears, is even larger than that of supersonic velocities.

  16. Stopping power of charged particles due to ion wave excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, H; Muroki, C; Nambu, M

    2002-08-01

    Stopping power due to ion wave excitations is derived for a charged particle moving in a two-component plasma. Unlike previous theories based on ion-acoustic-wave approximation (IAWA), the excitation of short-wavelength ion waves is taken into account. The obtained stopping power has a magnitude larger than that of IAWA. Stopping power at subsonic velocities, where stopping power in IAWA disappears, is even larger than that of supersonic velocities.

  17. Inhibitory noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Destexhe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vivo may operate in high-conductance states, in which the major part of the neuron's input conductance is due to synaptic activity, sometimes several-fold larger than the resting conductance. We examine here the contribution of inhibition in such high-conductance states. At the level of the absolute conductance values, several studies have shown that cortical neurons in vivo are characterized by strong inhibitory conductances. However, conductances are balanced and spiking activity is mostly determined by fluctuations, but not much is known about excitatory and inhibitory contributions to these fluctuations. Models and dynamic-clamp experiments show that, during high-conductance states, spikes are mainly determined by fluctuations of inhibition, or by inhibitory noise. This stands in contrast to low-conductance states, in which excitatory conductances determine spiking activity. To determine these contributions from experimental data, maximum likelihood methods can be designed and applied to intracellular recordings in vivo. Such methods indicate that action potentials are indeed mostly correlated with inhibitory fluctuations in awake animals. These results argue for a determinant role for inhibitory fluctuations in evoking spikes, and do not support feed-forward modes of processing, for which opposite patterns are predicted.

  18. Noise and Hearing Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Noise and Hearing Protection Noise and Hearing Protection Patient ... it is. How can I tell if a noise is dangerous? People differ in their sensitivity to ...

  19. Occupational noise management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-15

    Occupational noise is a frequently encountered on-the-job health hazard. This guide presented the responsibilities and regulatory requirements related to business activities where noise above 80 decibels is present. The guide provided a definition of noise and discussed noise hazards, types of noise, and on-the-job noise exposure. A risk assessment to noise in the work environment was also discussed. A guide to a hearing conservation program was also included. The main purpose of a hearing conservation program is the prevention of noise induced hearing loss for employees exposed to occupational noise. The components of such a program were outlined, with particular reference to noise monitoring; noise exposure control; worker education and training; hearing (audiometric) testing; and annual program review and record keeping. It was concluded that in terms of record keeping, it can be very helpful to file noise exposure assessments, particularly personal exposure measurements, with hearing test records to facilitate for future reference. refs., appendices.

  20. Moments of random sums and Robbins' problem of optimal stopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnedin, A.V.; Iksanov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Robbins' problem of optimal stopping is that of minimising the expected rank of an observation chosen by some nonanticipating stopping rule. We settle a conjecture regarding the value of the stopped variable under the rule that yields the minimal expected rank, by embedding the problem in a much mor

  1. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  2. Stopping Speech Suppresses the Task-Irrelevant Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weidong; Oldenkamp, Caitlin L.; Aron, Adam R.

    2012-01-01

    Some situations require one to quickly stop an initiated response. Recent evidence suggests that rapid stopping engages a mechanism that has diffuse effects on the motor system. For example, stopping the hand dampens the excitability of the task-irrelevant leg. However, it is unclear whether this "global suppression" could apply across wider motor…

  3. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intermediate and rest stops. 37.201 Section 37.201... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes an intermediate or rest stop, a passenger with a disability, including an individual using...

  4. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  5. Communication Architecture Synthesis for Multi-bus SoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Zitouni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the systems on chip (SoC design, the synthesis of communication architecture constitutes the bottleneck which can affect the performances of the system. Various schemes and protocols can be necessary, just as various topologies of interconnection. To reduce the complexity of the communications refinement, we present in this study a model and a synthesis approach for multi-bus communication architecture containing centralized bridge. The automation of the arbiter synthesis step profited from a detailed attention. This stage generates a hierarchical arbiter integrating various priority arbitration modules. The proposed approach was integrated in a toolbox based environment

  6. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  7. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  8. Development of a Multi‐bus platform for automation testbed

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Mathias; Knapik, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    The task for this thesis was to develop, construct and evaluate a multi‐bus communication system,connected to a PC via USB and capable of communicating in CAN, I2C and SPI and develop drivers for itin National Instruments LabVIEW.In the beginning a study was made of the communication buses followed by an investigation of whattype of hardware that could accomplish this task. A microcontroller unit was selected andprogrammed in MikroElektronika MikroC Pro v.3.2 to act as the interface between t...

  9. Distributed Data Acquisition and Control by Software Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecil Bruce-Boye; Dmitry A. Kazakov

    2004-01-01

    Increasing global competition forces manufacturers of products from all technical fields to guarantee a high product quality for a long period of time. At the same time it is necessary to minimize production costs. In order to meet all these requirements, on-line data acquisition and processing are of increasing importance in distributed automation systems. A software bus operating on industrial Ethernet has an ability to minimize operating costs by offering easy installation, scalability,high degree of reliability and remote monitoring and control.

  10. Bus ride: an ethnographic exercise in Cafezal Quarter

    OpenAIRE

    Fé, Janine Damasceno Moura; Universidade Federal do Piauí; Souza, Maria Irene Pellegrino de Oliveira; Universidade Estadual de Londrina

    2006-01-01

     This work studies ethnography with theory basis from Collier Jr; Achutti; Maffesoli. The research method is photography and the target population are workers and passengers of a bus line, the Cafezal (quarter in the outskirts of Londrina-PR). It is noted that even in the most regular situations, it is possible to capture significant elements for ethnographic research.   O trabalho estuda a etnografia com referencial teórico de Collier Jr; Achutti, Maffesoli. O método de pesquisa é a fotog...

  11. DC Bus Regulation with a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the DC bus regulation control algorithm for the NASA flywheel energy storage system during charge, charge reduction and discharge modes of operation. The algorithm was experimentally verified with results given in a previous paper. This paper presents the necessary models for simulation with detailed block diagrams of the controller algorithm. It is shown that the flywheel system and the controller can be modeled in three levels of detail depending on the type of analysis required. The three models are explained and then compared using simulation results.

  12. [Investigation on events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X G; Liu, Y; Cen, Y; Wu, P; Zhou, H L; Han, C M

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the characteristics of events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China. Methods: Events of bus on fire happened between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrieved through Baidu search engine, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, and PubMed database in the search strategy with " bus" and " fire" or " arson" as keywords combined with the name of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of the mainland of China. The occurrence time, region, cause of fire, casualties of each event were recorded, and the correlative analysis was conducted. Data were processed with Microsoft Excel software. Results: Totally 287 events of bus on fire were retrieved, among which 49 events happened in 2009, 36 events happened in 2010, 35 events happened in 2011, 37 events happened in 2012, and respectively 65 events happened in 2013 and 2014. The events of bus on fire most frequently happened in June and July, respectively 49 and 39 events. Among the distribution of occurrence regions of events of bus on fire, there were 78 events (27.18%) in east China, 52 events (18.12%) in northeast China, 41 events (14.29%) both in north China and south China. Among the causes of events of bus on fire, spontaneous combustion of bus ranked in the first (267 events, accounting for 93.03%), followed by arson (13 events, accounting for 4.53%). Among the 13 events of bus on fire caused by arson, 7 events happened between 16: 00 and 20: 00, and 3 events happened between 8: 00 and 10: 00. Totally 27 events of bus on fire (9.41%) were with casualties, among which 13 events (48.15%) were caused by spontaneous combustion of bus, 10 events (37.04%) were caused by arson, and 4 events (14.81%) were caused by traffic accidents. Arson caused the most severe casualties (at least 88 deaths and 287 injuries), followed by spontaneous combustion of bus (at least 35 deaths and 140 injuries) and traffic accidents (at least 9 deaths and 20 injuries). Conclusions

  13. Stop feeling: Inhibition of emotional interference following stop-signal trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal eKalanthroff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although a great deal of literature has been dedicated to the mutual links between emotion and the selective attention component of executive control, there is very little data regarding the links between emotion and the inhibitory component of executive control. In the current study we employed an emotional stop-signal task in order to examine whether emotion modulates and is modulated by inhibitory control. Results replicated previous findings showing reduced inhibitory control (longer stop-signal reaction time following negative, compared to neutral pictures. Most importantly, results show decreased emotional interference following stop-signal trials. These results show that the inhibitory control component of executive control can serve to decrease emotional effects. We suggest that inhibitory control and emotion have a two-way connection in which emotion disrupts inhibitory control and activation of inhibitory control disrupts emotion.

  14. On the momentum distribution of particles participating in nuclear stopping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mandeep Kaur; Suneel Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear stopping is studied as a function of incident energy and charge of the fragment produced in central heavy-ion collisions (HIC) of $^{197}_{79}$Au+$^{197}_{79}$Au and $^{58}_{28}$Ni+$^{58}_{28}$Ni using stopping parameter VARXZ. Various momentum constraints were imposed to get better insight into the stopping. The comparison of measured and calculated values of stopping for protons reveals the significance of these constraints. Maximum stopping is obtained for the particles lying in the lowest range of the momentum distribution at all incident energies.

  15. Plasmon damping and proton stopping in jellium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinner, Andreas (Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Abteilung fuer Atom- und Kernphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, A-4040 Linz (Austria)); Bachlechner, M.E. (Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, Linz (Austria)); Boehm, H.M. (Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, Linz (Austria))

    1994-07-01

    Two-pair excitations in a homogeneous electron gas are investigated within screened second order perturbation theory. Based on a suggestion by Ichimaru [K. Utsumi and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. B 22 (1980) 5203] an additional method of obtaining the effective interelectron interaction is presented. A closer inspection of the basic equation, rewritten as a self-consistency problem, justifies the use of static screening within this model. Fit formulae for all main results are made available. Finally, an application of these calculations to the problem of proton stopping in aluminium is presented, which is in good agreement with the experiment. ((orig.))

  16. Plasmon damping and proton stopping in jellium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinner, Andreas; Bachlechner, Martina E.; Böhm, Helga M.

    1994-07-01

    Two-pair excitations in a homogeneous electron gas are investigated within screened second order perturbation theory. Based on a suggestion by Ichimaru [K. Utsumi and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. B 22 (1980) 5203] an additional method of obtaining the effective interelectron interaction is presented. A closer inspection of the basic equation, rewritten as a selfconsistency problem, justifies the use of static screening within this model. Fit formulae for all main results are made available. Finally, an application of these calculations to the problem of proton stopping in aluminium is presented, which is in good agreement with the experiment.

  17. Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognese, Jeffrey; Irish, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). A STOP analysis is a multidiscipline analysis, consisting of Structural, Thermal and Optical Performance Analyses, that is performed for all space flight instruments and satellites. This course will explain the different parts of performing this analysis. The student will learn how to effectively interact with each discipline in order to accurately obtain the system analysis results.

  18. Jojoba could stop the desert creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-25

    The Sahara desert is estimated to be expanding at a rate of 5km a year. The Sudanese government is experimenting with jojoba in six different regions as the bush has the potential to stop this ''desert creep''. The plant, a native to Mexico, is long known for its resistance to drought and for the versatile liquid wax that can be extracted from its seeds. It is estimated that one hectare of mature plants could produce 3000 kg of oil, currently selling at $50 per litre, and so earn valuable foreign currency.

  19. Stop IT Project Failures Through Risk Management

    CERN Document Server

    Remenyi, D

    1999-01-01

    This book is about information systems development failures and how to avoid them. .It considers what goes wrong with information systems development projects and what actions may be taken to avoid potential difficulties.The reduction of the impact,or even the elimination of the problems,is discussed in terms of an information systems risk management programme. Stop I.T.Project failure helps to ensure that IS project managers are successful in helping to deliver application systems. However, IS development risk can never be entirely eliminated and consequently the practitioner needs to bear in

  20. Neural - glial circuits : Can Interneurons stop seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Recent progress in neurobiology suggests that astrocytes - through calcium excitability - are active partners to the neurons by integrating their activity and, in turn, regulating synaptic transmission. In a similar fashion neurons and interneurons are the 'Yin and Yang' of the hippocampus. The dichotomy of excitation and inhibition between pyramidal neurons and interneurons plays a crucial role in the function of the neuronal circuit.We consider a model of a pyramidal cell in contact with one synaptic astrocytes. It has been shown that such a circuit - triggered by transient stimulation - can exhibit sustained oscillations ("seizures") for strong coupling. The question we are considering is, under what conditions synaptic inhibition can stop these seizures?

  1. Do Stops Slow Down Electroweak Bubble Walls?

    CERN Document Server

    John, P

    2001-01-01

    We compute the wall velocity in the MSSM. We therefore generalize the SMequations of motion for bubble walls moving through a hot plasma at theelectroweak phase transition and calculate the friction terms which describethe viscosity of the plasma. We give the general expressions and apply them toa simple model where stops, tops and W bosons contribute to the friction. In awide range of parameters including those which fulfil the requirements ofbaryogenesis we find a wall velocity of order v = 0.001-0.01 much below the SMvalue.

  2. Frame by frame stop motion non-traditional approaches to stop motion animation

    CERN Document Server

    Gasek, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In a world that is dominated by computer images, alternative stop motion techniques like pixilation, time-lapse photography and down-shooting techniques combined with new technologies offer a new, tangible and exciting approach to animation. With over 25 years professional experience, industry veteran, Tom Gasek presents a comprehensive guide to stop motion animation without the focus on puppetry or model animation. With tips, tricks and hands-on exercises, Frame by Frame will help both experienced and novice filmmakers get the most effective results from this underutilized branch of animation

  3. Bus Routes, Maryland Transit Administration Local and Commuter Bus Routes, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'Maryland Transit...

  4. Bus Routes, This shapefile contains lines that follow the path of the existing bus routes, Published in 2006, Charlotte Area Transit System.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'This shapefile contains lines that follow the path of...

  5. Optimal Stopping and Policyholder Behaviour in Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt

    at the stopping time. First we solve the problem for spectrally negative geometric Lévy process. We derive both static and dynamic solutions which are excess boundary stopping times. Afterwards we solve the problem for a Cramér-Lundberg process with exponential upwards jumps. We derive a statically optimal...... stopping time which is a hitting time of an interval, and we derive a dynamically optimal stopping time which is an excess boundary stopping time. Finally, we derive optimal stopping times to the optimal stopping problem of minimizing the variance conditioned on a lower bound on the mean. In Chapter 4 we....... This parameter we denote the rationality parameter. We give sufficient conditions and a probabilistic proof that when the rationality parameter increases to infinity the corresponding prices converge to to classical arbitrage-free price. We conclude the chapter with partial differential equations for valuation...

  6. UNIVERSALIZATION OF BUS BODY FACING DETAILS AND PRODUCTION TOOLING FOR THEIR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taranenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The directions concerning bus body production costs reduction based on large-size facing details stamping on electric-hydraulic presses are considered. The engineering of unified large-size facing detail blanks, manufacturing processes and variants of unified technological tooling for bus body facing details production, including simple- or multi-type details are described.

  7. Converter Power Density Increase using Low Inductive Integrated DC-link Capacitor/Bus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Franke, Toke; Rannested, Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    The power losses in switching devices have a direct effect on the maximum converter power. For a voltage source converter, the DC-link bus has a major influence on the power loss and safe operating area of the power devices. The Power Ring Film CapacitorTM integrated with an optimized bus structu...

  8. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength. 571.221 Section 571.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221, School bus body joint...

  9. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength. S1. Scope. This standard establishes requirements for the strength of the body panel joints in...

  10. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  11. This Could Save Your Child's Life. A School Bus Handrail Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    School-bus handrails have had the same basic design for more than 30 years. However, students' recent propensity to wear oversized and baggy clothing increases the likelihood that clothing or accessories may become snagged on bus handrails. Children across the United States have been injured or killed when their clothing or accessories caught in…

  12. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  13. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA-bus data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) data was designed. This module was realized using complex programmable gate arrays. The gate arrays were connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter is used for set up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADC's can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules which process ADC data with pipeline arithmetics and produce the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision is transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was developed for the proposed neutral particle search. It was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data, and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision.

  14. Studying customer loyalty at Daewoo express bus service, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables. However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.

  15. Improved blood pressure control among school bus drivers with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Joseph; Severance-Fonte, Tina; Morandi-Matricaria, Elizabeth; Wogen, Jenifer; Frech-Tamas, Feride

    2010-04-01

    The impact of a hypertension awareness and educational program, BP DownShift, was evaluated among school bus drivers in a southern US state. At baseline (August 2007), blood pressure (BP) measurements, self-reported demographics, and hypertension awareness and management practices were collected from drivers who consented to participate in the study. Interventions included 4 educational mailings, installation of BP machines at all bus terminals, and access to free dietitian consultations and gym memberships. BP was evaluated using Department of Transportation guidelines. BP was remeasured and a survey was administered at follow-up (May 2008). At baseline, 208 drivers consented to the BP screening; 120 (58%) returned for a follow-up assessment. Most participants completing the study were female (73%) and African American (72%). Mean age was 50 years and mean body mass index was 32 kg/m(2); 52% of participants were obese. In all, 58% of participants reported a prior diagnosis of hypertension by a physician, and 63% reported taking antihypertensive medication. Both systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) were lower at follow-up (135/82 mmHg vs. 145/87 mmHg at baseline; P 10 mmHg, and 44% had a reduction in DBP > 5 mmHg. At follow-up, 58% were controlled to BP improvement in BP control, which may positively impact commercial driver's license recertification as well as improve employee health.

  16. CERPEN FARUK “BUS KOTA” DALAM SEMIOTIK ROLAND BARTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Widyatwati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature called beautiful if it contains the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful for the readers. Short story “Bus Kota” (City Bus containing the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful to the reader. The mandate will be revealed by Roland Barthes' semiotic theory in the book S/Z. Literature has its own allure and text have accrued but not due to independence because of the difference in quality. Texts merge into a unity, or restore any text not as an individual but as a form of plurality. Literature as part of a social system is an expression of the author's sense of the outpouring of public life. Literary works can express themselves in the author's view the social and cultural changes in society because of the development of information technology and rapid. Technological developments and socio-cultural information can change in society so as to affect the psychology of the people. Society must have a thickness of faith not only for themselves, but to be able to maintain equanimity in the life of a pluralistic society

  17. Study on the optimum design of bus window pillar join40t; Bus window pillar ketsugo buzai no saiteki sekkei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomioka, N. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Lim, S.; Kim, M.; Lee, H.; Kang, S.; Bae, D.

    1997-10-01

    Automobile body structure is generally assembled using various spot welded box sectional members. Especially, in the case of the bus, the shape of window pillar joint is assembled m T-type. This T-type member has some problem such as high stress concentration, low fatigue strength and structural rigidity. Therefore, in this report, performed a study on the optimum design of the bus window pillar joint for such problem by FEM analysis and experiments. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Bus rapid transit (BRT) and transitoriented development (TOD) : How to transform and adjust the Swedish cities for attractive bus systems like BRT? What demands BRT?

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovski, Todor

    2013-01-01

    Bus rapid transit (BRT) is an innovative bus system with sophisticated vehicles and inflexible busways integrated in the cities, high capacity and high quality, high speed and frequency, distinctive image and comfort. Many in Sweden believe that is impossible to introduce BRT, even though the Swedish towns and cities can benefit from the image, speed and frequency that BRT symbolizes. The archipelago-like urbanization, urban sprawl and the uncompetitive journey times of public transportation ...

  19. When to stop propranolol for infantile hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Gu, Yifei; Yu, Zhang; Ying, Hanru; Qiu, Yajing; Ma, Gang; Chen, Hui; Jin, Yunbo; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2017-01-01

    There is no definitive conclusion regarding the optimal timing for terminating propranolol treatment for infantile hemangioma (IH). A total of 149 patients who underwent detailed color Doppler ultrasound examination were included in this study. The characteristics and propranolol treatment of all patients were summarized and analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the lesion regression rate. Among the 149 patients, 38 were assigned to the complete regression group, and 111 were assigned to the partial regression group. The age at which propranolol treatment started, duration of follow-up after treatment discontinuation and rate of adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups. The duration of oral propranolol treatment was shorter in the complete regression group. The age at which propranolol was terminated was younger in the complete regression group, and this group had a lower recurrence rate. Propranolol is safe and effective for the treatment of IHs that require intervention, but it should be stopped at an appropriate time, which is determined primarily by the lesion regression rate after propranolol treatment. Ultrasound is helpful in determining when to stop propranolol for IH. PMID:28225076

  20. Interaction between two stopped light pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi-Hsin, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Lee, Meng-Jung, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Hung, Weilun, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Yu, Ite A., E-mail: yu@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ying-Cheng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan and Department of Physics and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yong-Fan [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-05

    The efficiency of a nonlinear optical process is proportional to the interaction time. We report a scheme of all-optical switching based on two motionless light pulses via the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. One pulse was stopped as the stationary light pulse (SLP) and the other was stopped as stored light. The time of their interaction via the medium can be prolonged and, hence, the optical nonlinearity is greatly enhanced. Using a large optical density (OD) of 190, we achieved a very long interaction time of 6.9 μs. This can be analogous to the scheme of trapping light pulses by an optical cavity with a Q factor of 8×10{sup 9}. With the approach of using moving light pulses in the best situation, a switch can only be activated at 2 photons per atomic absorption cross section. With the approach of employing a SLP and a stored light pulse, a switch at only 0.56 photons was achieved and the efficiency is significantly improved. Moreover, the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data and show that the efficiency can be further improved by increasing the OD of the medium. Our work advances the technology in quantum information manipulation utilizing photons.

  1. Development of a New Hybrid Electric City Bus%一种新型混合动力城市客车的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红涛; 史广奎; 王仁广; 张林涛; 于潮

    2012-01-01

    It introduces a new kind of hybrid power train which can be used in parallel/series HEV city bus to meet the requirements of saving energy and reducing pollution. The power train has low and high speed operation modes. The HEV city bus adopting this new type hybrid power train has four operation modes including pure electric driving, parallel /series driving, generating with bus stop, and charging from grid. The new technology makes the engine, generator and motor work match smoothly to reach the target of reducing pollution and using fuel more efficiently.%针对城市公交客车的实际运行工况需要,开发出一种新型混合动力总成装置,用于混合动力城市公交客车.混合动力总成具有高低速双电机模式,能充分发挥串联式和并联式优点.混合动力客车具有纯电、混联、驻车发电和电网充电4种工作模式,使发动机、发电机、电机等部件更优化地匹配工作,在结构上保证了在复杂的工况下系统工作在最优状态,达到更高的节能和减排目标.

  2. A multi-band environment-adaptive approach to noise suppression for cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, Fatemeh; Mirzahasanloo, Taher; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an improved environment-adaptive noise suppression solution for the cochlear implants speech processing pipeline. This improvement is achieved by using a multi-band data-driven approach in place of a previously developed single-band data-driven approach. Seven commonly encountered noisy environments of street, car, restaurant, mall, bus, pub and train are considered to quantify the improvement. The results obtained indicate about 10% improvement in speech quality measures.

  3. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  4. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  5. Can Noise Kill People?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲娣

    2007-01-01

    Someone is singing next door,but you feel unhappy because her singing is just making a noise.We know that too much noise makes people feel terrible. Scientists are still trying to find out more about noise,but already it is known that a noise of over 85 decibels can make some people tired and anxious.

  6. Active Noise Control for Dishwasher noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin

    2016-09-01

    The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher noise, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power levels of the noise are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of noise sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active noise control for dishwasher noise. It is observed that the noise is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-noise are designed for active noise control. Simulation result shows proposed active noise control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher noise reduction.

  7. Studies on assessment of traffic noise level in Aurangabad city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B J Bhosale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rate of urbanization of Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization, the problem of noise pollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is one of the growing environmental problems of urban centers. The study deals with the assessment of traffic noise levels in Aurangabad city. With respect to the total number of vehicles passing the road in unit time, which was surveyed by direct count method, six different sites from Aurangabad city, viz., Nagar Naka, Kranti Chowk, CIDCO bus stand, Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump were selected to study the vehicular noise level. Noise measurements were carried out at these six locations on both working day and holiday during the peak traffic hours, i.e. 8:00 a.m. - 11:a.m., 1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m., in the morning, afternoon and evening sessions, respectively, after 5 minutes time interval. The noise level was monitored using noise level meter. The results obtained from this investigation showed that the Nagar Naka, Kranti chowk and CIDCO bus stand area have dense traffic zones when compared with the Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump. The minimum and the maximum noise levels are 74 and 86 dB, respectively, on working day and 70 and 81 dB, respectively, on holiday. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level.

  8. Mechanics of underwater noise

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Donald

    1976-01-01

    Mechanics of Underwater Noise elucidates the basic mechanisms by which noise is generated, transmitted by structures and radiated into the sea. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with a description of noise, decibels and levels, significance of spectra, and passive sonar equation. Subsequent chapters discuss sound waves in liquids; acoustic radiation fundamentals; wind-generated ocean ambient noise; vibration isolation and structural damping; and radiation by plate flexural vibrations. Other chapters address cavitation, propeller cavitation noise, radiation by fluctuating-force (dipo

  9. 城市公交车机电复合制动能量回收系统研究%Study on Electro-mechanical Braking Energy Regeneration System for City Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹政耀; 陈晓东; 金佳骏

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the city bus characteristics of low speed operation and frequent start and stop conditions,an electro-mechanical braking energy regeneration system was proposed in this paper,which adopted a high-speed flywheel and a battery to recover the braking energy and achieve the secondary traction for the auxiliary start function.The system was designed and the braking simulation validated its feasibility.The experiment results show that the system can effectively recover the braking energy,improve the starting performance of the bus and it will be applied to city bus engineering in the future.%城市公交车辆运行工况复杂,需频繁启停,大量的能量浪费于车辆的制动。针对该现象,提出了采用高速飞轮和蓄电池组合的机电复合制动能量回收及二次牵引理论;进行了系统设计和制动工况仿真实验,验证了方案的可行性。实验证明:该系统能有效地回收利用城市公交车制动能量,改善起步性能,并具有成本低、易实现的特点。

  10. The phase effect of electronic stopping power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaZhong-Quan; ZhengYu-Feng

    1998-01-01

    A corrective factor(φ(E,ρ)≤1) dependent on ion energy and mass density of material for energy loss has been introduced into Bethe-Bloch formula,so that the energy deposition process of fast ion penetrating through the allotropic solid films are well discussed with the two-component assumption.An analysis expression of electronic stopping power for different phase structures has been derived from the contribution of "valence ”and “Core” electrons.The two thirds of inelastic scattering arisen from valence electron was revealed by comparing the theoretical calculation and experimental results on both random and oriented lattice site.THe corrective factor representative to the role of inner electrons increases with the projectile energy but decreases with mass density of solids.

  11. Scan Quantum Mechanics: Quantum Inertia Stops Superposition

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    A novel interpretation of the quantum mechanical superposition is put forward. Quantum systems scan all possible available states and switch randomly and very rapidly among them. The longer they remain in a given state, the larger the probability of the system to be found in that state during a measurement. A crucial property that we postulate is quantum inertia, that increases whenever a constituent is added, or the system is perturbed with all kinds of interactions. Once the quantum inertia $I_q$ reaches a critical value $I_{cr}$ for an observable, the switching among the different eigenvalues of that observable stops and the corresponding superposition comes to an end. Consequently, increasing the mass, temperature, gravitational force, etc. of a quantum system increases its quantum inertia until the superposition of states disappears for all the observables and the system transmutes into a classical one. The process could be reversible decreasing the size, temperature, gravitational force, etc. leading to...

  12. Stop Codon Reassignment in the Wild

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Natalia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Schwientek, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Tripp, H. James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Rinke, Christian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Pati, Amrita [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Huntemann, Marcel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Visel, Axel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Woyke, Tanja [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Kyrpides, Nikos [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Rubin, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Since the discovery of the genetic code and protein translation mechanisms (1), a limited number of variations of the standard assignment between unique base triplets (codons) and their encoded amino acids and translational stop signals have been found in bacteria and phages (2-3). Given the apparent ubiquity of the canonical genetic code, the design of genomically recoded organisms with non-canonical codes has been suggested as a means to prevent horizontal gene transfer between laboratory and environmental organisms (4). It is also predicted that genomically recoded organisms are immune to infection by viruses, under the assumption that phages and their hosts must share a common genetic code (5). This paradigm is supported by the observation of increased resistance of genomically recoded bacteria to phages with a canonical code (4). Despite these assumptions and accompanying lines of evidence, it remains unclear whether differential and non-canonical codon usage represents an absolute barrier to phage infection and genetic exchange between organisms. Our knowledge of the diversity of genetic codes and their use by viruses and their hosts is primarily derived from the analysis of cultivated organisms. Advances in single-cell sequencing and metagenome assembly technologies have enabled the reconstruction of genomes of uncultivated bacterial and archaeal lineages (6). These initial findings suggest that large scale systematic studies of uncultivated microorganisms and viruses may reveal the extent and modes of divergence from the canonical genetic code operating in nature. To explore alternative genetic codes, we carried out a systematic analysis of stop codon reassignments from the canonical TAG amber, TGA opal, and TAA ochre codons in assembled metagenomes from environmental and host-associated samples, single-cell genomes of uncultivated bacteria and archaea, and a collection of phage sequences

  13. Report on the first VLHC photon stop cryogenic design experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Geynisman, M; Bossert, R; Darve, C; Ewald, K D; Klebaner, A; Limon, P; Martínez, A

    2004-01-01

    As part of Fermilab's study of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC), a water-cooled photon stop was proposed as a device to intercept the synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy proton beams in the high-field superconducting magnets with minimal plug-cooling power. Photon stops are radiation absorbers operating at room temperature that protrude into the beam tube at the end of each bending magnet to scrape the synchrotron light emitted by the beam one magnet up- stream. Among the technological challenges regarding photon stops is their cryo-design. The photon stop is water-cooled and operates in a cryogenic environment. A careful cryo-design is therefore essential to enable operation at minimum heat transfer between the room temperature sections and the cryogenic parts. A photon stop cryo- design was developed and a prototype was built. This paper presents the results of the cryogenic experiments conducted on the first VLHC photon-stop prototype.

  14. Characterisation of vibration input to flywheel used on urban bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Kanarachos, S.; Christensen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Vibration induced from road surface has an impact on the durability and reliability of electrical and mechanical components attached on the vehicle. There is little research published relevant to the durability assessment of a flywheel energy recovery system installed on city and district buses. Relevant international standards and legislations were reviewed and large discrepancy was found among them, in addition, there are no standards exclusively developed for kinetic energy recovery systems on vehicles. This paper describes the experimentation of assessment of road surface vibration input to the flywheel on a bus as obtained at the MIRA Proving Ground. Power density spectra have been developed based on the raw data obtained during the experimentation. Validation of this model will be carried out using accelerated life time tests that will be carried out on a shaker rig using an accumulated profile based on the theory of fatigue damage equivalence in time and frequency domain aligned with the model predictions.

  15. Application of gravity model on the Korean urban bus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Inho; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2016-11-01

    Mobility models have been studied to describe the underlying mechanism of human mobility. The mobility patterns in various transportation systems were understood with the gravity model by estimating the traffic as a simple function of population and distance. Compared to most studies on large-scale systems, we focused on the validity and characteristics of gravity model for intraurban mobility. Several variations of gravity model are applied on the urban bus systems of five medium-sized cities in Korea. The gravity model successfully estimates the intraurban traffic without universal exponents for cities. From the change of exponents by predictor types, we figure out the effect by a non-trivial relation between traffic and population in the urban areas.

  16. Design and Analysis of Bus Front Panel Usin G FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Advance composite materials have taken the significant share with other engineering materials due to its mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Advance composite like E-glass, S-glass, Carbon fiber, Kevlar are not yet confined at the aerospace industry but gradually these are taking over the position of other industries as well. Because of its attaining high intricacy in designing factors and as well as cheaper mould design and also less cost in production of few numbers. The applications of FRPs are spirally increasing. The aim of this project is to develop a BUS FRONT PANEL with a help of FRPs in order to sustain all the mechanical properties which are equivalent to the metals with the help of advanced computer aided software designs like ANSYS. In computer aided engineering to make the product proven in the realistic market.

  17. [Bus drivers' biomechanical risk assessment in two different contexts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracco, A; Coggiola, M; Perrelli, F; Banchio, M; Martignone, S; Gullino, A; Romano, C

    2012-01-01

    The application of standardize methods for the biomechanical risk assessment in non-industrial cycled activity is not always possible. A typical case is the public transport sector, where workers complain of suffering for shoulder more than elbow and wrist pains. The Authors present the results of two studies involving two public transport companies and the risk of biomechanical overload of upper limbs for bus and tram drivers. The analysis has been made using three different approaches: focus groups; static analysis by using anthropometric manikins; work sampling technique by monitoring worker's activity and posture at each minute, for two hours and for each binomial vehicle-route, considering P5F e P95M drivers and assessing the perceived efforts thorough the Borg's CR10 Scale. The conclusive results show that the ergonomic analysis managed by multiple non-standardized techniques may reach consistent and repeatable results according to the epidemiological evidences.

  18. Wind farm protection using an IEC 61850 process bus architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinn, D. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed wind farm protection using an IEC 61850 process bus architecture. Data is transmitted via IEC 61850 messages over a fiber optic communications network to a central relaying unit (CRU) that executes protection and control (P and C) functions for a whole wind farm. The presentation also discussed the need to further simplify P and C design. Challenges of wind farm protection include physical distance; relay location; and selectivity/isolation. P and C hardware evolution was illustrated and its advantages were presented. These included one relay to set, configure, test, and maintain; eliminate the need for transfer trips; free monitoring; free disturbance recording; and easy integration of data. The development of commercially available systems began around 1990 with the IPACS system developed by Hydro One, and the SIPSUR system developed in Spain. 7 figs.

  19. Stopping Condition for Greedy Block Sparse Signal Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yu; Xie, Ronggui; Yin, Huarui; Wang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    For greedy block sparse recovery where the sparsity level is unknown, we derive a stopping condition to stop the iteration process. Focused on the block orthogonal matching pursuit (BOMP) algorithm, we model the energy of residual signals at each iteration from a probabilistic perspective. At the iteration when the last supporting block is detected, the resulting energy of residual signals is supposed to suffer an obvious decrease. Based on this, we stop the iteration process when the energy ...

  20. Moments of random sums and Robbins' problem of optimal stopping

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Robbins' problem of optimal stopping asks one to minimise the expected {\\it rank} of observation chosen by some nonanticipating stopping rule. We settle a conjecture regarding the {\\it value} of the stopped variable under the rule optimal in the sense of the rank, by embedding the problem in a much more general context of selection problems with the nonanticipation constraint lifted, and with the payoff growing like a power function of the rank.

  1. Entangling a Series of Trapped Ions by Moving Cavity Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Miao; JIA Huan-Yu; WEI Lian-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing. We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity. The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus. Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled. As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated. The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.%@@ Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing.We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity.The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus.Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled.As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated.The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  2. Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.

  3. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Kale; S V Veeravalli; H D Punekar; M M Yelmule

    2007-08-01

    Open window buses without air-conditioning are a major mode of urban and inter-city transport in most countries. High occupancy combined with hot and humid conditions makes travel in these buses quite uncomfortable. In this study air flow through a bus has been studied that could be the basis for low cost and ecofriendly methods of increasing passenger comfort and possibly reduce drag. The aerodynamics of such a road vehicle has not been studied as previous investigations have been confined to vehicles with closed windows that present a smooth exterior to air flow. Using a 1:25 scaled Perspex model of an urban bus in Delhi, flow visualization was performed in a water channel. The Reynolds numbers were onetenth of a real bus moving at $10 m/s$. Smoke and tuft visualizations were also performed on an urban bus at 40 km/h. Numerical simulations were performed at the actual Reynolds number. Even though there were Reynolds number differences, the broad features were similar. Air enters the bus from the rear windows, moves to the front (relative to the bus) and exits from the front windows. Inside air velocity relative to the bus is about one-tenth of the free-stream velocity. The flow is highly three-dimensional and unsteady.

  4. DESIGN OF TRANSITION TIME ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUE FOR REDUCING BUS DELAY EFFECTS ON NOC INTERCONNECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEERA K S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing computation-intensive applications the number of computing resources in single-chip has enormously increased, because current VLSI technology can support such an extensive integration of transistors. By adding many computing resources such as CPU, DSP, specific IPs, etc to build a system in System-on-Chip, its interconnection between each other becomes another challenging issue. In most System-on-Chip applications, a shared bus interconnection which needs arbitration logic to serialize several bus access requests, is adopted to communicate with each integrated processing unit because of its low-cost and simple control characteristics. However, such shared bus interconnection has some limitation in its scalability because only one master at a time can utilize the bus which means all the bus accesses should be serialized by the arbitrator. Therefore, in such an environment where the number of bus requesters is large and their required bandwidth for interconnection is more than the current bus, some other interconnection methods should be considered. Such scalable bandwidth requirement can be satisfied by using on-chip packet-switched micro-network of interconnects, generally known as Network-on-Chip (NoC architecture. It suffers however from increasingly serious interconnect crosstalk effects, which constrain the overall performance of NOC systems. In this paper some delay tolerance methods are proposed.

  5. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  6. Implementation of an AMBA Advanced High Performance Bus protocol IP block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Vucha Sandeep Magarde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of an AMBA advanced high performance bus (AHB protocol IP block is presented in this paper. The AHB (Advanced High-performance Bus is a high-performance bus in AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture family. This AHB can be used in high clock frequency system modules. The AHB acts as the high-performance system backbone bus. AHB supports the efficient connection of processors, on-chip memories and off-chip external memory interfaces with low-power peripheral macro cell functions. In this work, the design of the Advanced High-Performance Bus Protocol is developed which has the basic blocks such as Master and Slave. The arbitration mechanism is used to ensure that only one master has access to the bus at any one time and the AHB decoder is used to decode the address of each transfer and provide a select signal for the slave that is involved in the transfer. This AMBA-AHB protocol can be adopted in all the application provided the design should be an AHB compliant.

  7. Solar noise storms

    CERN Document Server

    Elgaroy, E O

    2013-01-01

    Solar Noise Storms examines the properties and features of solar noise storm phenomenon. The book also presents some theories that can be used to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. The coverage of the text includes topics that cover the features and behavior of noise storms, such as the observable features of noise storms; the relationship between noise storms and the observable features on the sun; and ordered behavior of storm bursts in the time-frequency plane. The book also covers the spectrum, polarization, and directivity of noise storms. The text will be of great use to astr

  8. An Analysis and Prevention of Stop Marks in Weaving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ge; LIN Shen; CHEN Ming

    2002-01-01

    The cause of stop marks of fabrics in weaving is introduced, and the floating displacement of the cloth fell during loom stoppage is a primary cause of stop marks. The stop marks caused by fabric system are analyzed. A new method to eliminate stop marks by using the electronic let-off system is presented. This new method needn't any special detecting equipment, it can control the fell position by the powerful control program,so the cost is decreased greatly. The method is so flexible that can be applied to weaving all kinds of fabrics.

  9. Stop search in the compressed region via semileptonic decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Gao, Christina; Li, Lingfeng; Neill, Nicolás A.

    2016-05-01

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the superpartners of the top quark (stops) play the crucial role in addressing the naturalness problem. For direct pair-production of stops with each stop decaying into a top quark plus the lightest neutralino, the standard stop searches have difficulty finding the stop for a compressed spectrum where the mass difference between the stop and the lightest neutralino is close to the top quark mass, because the events look too similar to the large toverline{t} background. With an additional hard ISR jet, the two neutralinos from the stop decays are boosted in the opposite direction and they can give rise to some missing transverse energy. This may be used to distinguish the stop decays from the backgrounds. In this paper we study the semileptonic decay of such signal events for the compressed mass spectrum. Although the neutrino from the W decay also produces some missing transverse energy, its momentum can be reconstructed from the kinematic assumptions and mass-shell conditions. It can then be subtracted from the total missing transverse momentum to obtain the neutralino contribution. Because it suffers from less backgrounds, we show that the semileptonic decay channel has a better discovery reach than the fully hadronic decay channel along the compressed line {m}_{tilde{t}}-{m}_{tilde{χ}}≈ {m}_t . With 300 fb-1, the 13 TeV LHC can discover the stop up to 500 GeV, covering the most natural parameter space region.

  10. Measuring the Stop Mixing Angle at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to determine the stop mixing angle and its CP-violating phase at the LHC. As an observable we use ratios of branching ratios for different decay modes of the light stop ~t_1 to charginos and neutralinos. These observables can have a very strong dependence on the parameters of the stop sector. We discuss in detail the origin of these effects. Using various combinations of the ratios of branching ratios we show that, depending on the scenario, one can achieve accuracies in the range of a few percent for determining the light stop mass, the mixing angle and the CP phase.

  11. 基于SPCE061A板语音识别公交车报站器的设计%The design of speech recognition bus stations device based on SPCE061A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炳堃

    2011-01-01

    从司机角度出发,以凌阳公司SPCE061A板为硬件基础,用unSPTM软件进行编程,通过相关软件对语音资源进行录制、格式转化、压缩和管理,构成了增加语音输入识别方式的公交车报站器.报站器具有按键控制和语音控制两种方式,构成更具人性化特点.%This paper focuses in the view of drivers,based on the Sunplus SPCE061A SCM of the company as hardware and unSPTM as software to preparation for the process,and does voice recording,format conversion,compression and management through the relevant software resources to increase the voice input means of identification the stops the bus-stop device.In short,the two ways' combination approach allow drivers to have completed stations selectivity,and made the Bus Station device more human characteristics.

  12. Electronic stopping power of hydrogen in KCl at the stopping maximum and at very low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primetzhofer, D.; Markin, S. N.; Bauer, P.

    2011-10-01

    The electronic energy loss of hydrogen ions in KCl was investigated in a wide energy range. Thin films of KCl were evaporated on an Au/Si substrate. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was performed with protons and deuterons at energies from 30 to 400 keV/nucleon. At lower energies experiments were performed by Time-Of-Flight Low energy ion scattering (TOF-LEIS) again with proton and deuteron projectiles. Experimental results are compared to calculated/tabulated values for the electronic energy loss. Whereas at energies beyond the stopping maximum very good agreement is found, at lower ion energies discrepancies between experiment and calculations increase. At very low ion velocities the extrapolated stopping cross section ɛ predicts vanishing electronic energy loss at energies below 100 eV/nucleon.

  13. Helicopter Noise And Noise Abatement Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The helicopter generated noise at and around the airports islower than the noise generated by aeroplanes, since their numberof operations, i. e. the number of takeoffs and landings ismuch lower than the takeoffs and landings of the aeroplanes.Out of some hundred operations a day, helicopters participatewith approximately 15%, but the very impact of noise is by nomeans negligible, since the number of helicopter flights aboveurban areas is constantly increasing.This paper attempts to analyse this phenomenon and thetype of helicopter generated noise, its negative impacts, to explainthe flight procedures and the operative procedures duringtakeoff, landing and overflight of helicopters in operations inthe vicinity and outside airports, as well as the methods of measuringand determining the limit of noise [eve~ and the resultingproblems.

  14. On the road : non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investi...

  15. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act...... that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because...

  16. Simulation of the Control Strategy for an Electric Bus with Motorized Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liqiang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to simulate the running state of the bus as real as possible and verify the correctness of electric bus control system that is developing, which is good for reducing the development cycle and cost for enterprise. The vehicle dynamics model is built and the actual vehicle driving condition is simulated in AMESim and the vehicle control strategy is established in Simulink. The co-simulation platform is used to simulate the actual running state of the bus with the action of the control system, which provides the reference for subsequent real vehicle test.

  17. Introduction of MAN Lion’s City Conceptual Articulated Bus%德国曼恩客车系列愈加丰富

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云清文

    2016-01-01

    During IAA 2016, German based MAN demonstrated total of ten models of various buses including city-bus, city-to-city bus and long-distance bus, etc. Among all these models, the most innovative highlight is the model of MAN Lion’s City Conceptual Articulated bus, as well as the re-charging technology associated to it.

  18. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  19. Driving While Non-White: Exploring Traffic Stops and Post-Stop Activities in North Carolina, 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron D. Lippard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has established that Blacks face disproportionate amounts of traffic stops, searches, and arrests by police compared to Whites. However, few studies have ventured past the Black-White dichotomy and considered how Hispanics or other minorities may face the same disparities, especially in places where the Hispanic population has dramatically increased in recent years. Using traffic stop and post-stop data compiled by the North Carolina Department of Justice from 2005 to 2009, this study explored whether Hispanics, Blacks, as well as other racial minorities experienced a higher likelihood of traffic stops, citations, searches, and arrests compared to Whites within sample of city, county, and state law enforcement agencies. We found that generally all racial and ethnic minority groups face higher rates of traffic stops than Whites by almost every law enforcement agency sampled. We also found that rates of post-stop activities including searches, citations, and arrests are higher for all racial and ethnic minority groups examined compared to Whites, especially for Hispanics. Hispanic and non-White disparities in traffic stops also cannot be explained away when controlling for population size, type of law enforcement agency, or the reason stated for the traffic stop (e.g., DWI, speeding, or investigation. More important, however, is that the rate of searches for racial and ethnic minorities did not necessarily match the rates of citations and arrests minorities receive, suggesting that some stops could be racially or ethnically motivated.

  20. The study on factors affecting customized city bus service fares base on logistic model%基于乘客接受度的定制公交票价分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 杨铭; 肖润谋

    2016-01-01

    基于对西安高新区上班族通勤需求进行的实证研究,归纳出上班族的出行选择特性;结合二项logistic回归分析研究影响乘客接受定制公交的各种因素,建立影响定制公交票价接受度的回归模型。结果表明,影响乘客是否接受定制公交票价的重要因素为是否有座位、沿途停靠站点次数和通勤距离。研究结果可为后期不同城市和线路推广定制公交时,结合通勤距离和停靠站点数量快速准确地确定基础票价提供理论支撑。%An empirical study of commuting demands in high‐tech district of Xi’an was conducted in this study ,which summed up the characteristics commuters travel choice .Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the impact of various factors affecting the customized bus service .The model of acceptance of fares on customized bus service was also developed .The results show that the acceptance of customized bus service was mainly determined by seats availability ,stop times along the way and commuting distance .The research can provide some guidance for cities to open customized bus service .

  1. Noise-Measuring Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....

  2. Stopping Mass Atrocities: Targeting the Dictator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Weerdesteijn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The international community has determined it carries the responsibility to protect civilians from atrocity crimes if a state is unable or unwilling to do so. These crimes are often perpetrated in authoritarian regimes where they are legitimized through an exclusionary ideology. A comparative case study of Pol Pot and Milosevic indicates that whether the leader truly believes in the ideology he puts forward or merely uses it instrumentally to manipulate the population, is an important variable, which affects the manner in which third parties can respond effectively to these crimes. While Pol Pot was motivated by his ideological zeal, Milosevic used ideology to create a climate in which mass atrocities could be perpetrated in order to garner further power and prestige. In Max Weber’s terminology, Milosevic was guided by instrumental rationality while Pol Pot acted on the basis of value rationality. This case study compares two crucial moments—Vietnam’s invasion of Cambodia and NATO’s bombing of Serbia when the crisis in Kosovo escalated—to analyze the responsiveness of the two leaders. It is argued that ideological leaders are less responsive than non-ideological leaders to foreign policy measures targeted to stop or mitigate the occurrence of atrocities.

  3. Towards the end of the technical stop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After several weeks of hard work, the short technical stop of the LHC accelerator is coming to an end. Following a very intense campaign to repair and retest many thousand high voltage connectors, the upgraded magnet protection system is being commissioned. During this period, the current in the main dipole and quadrupole magnets is carefully increased up to 6kA, required to collide protons at 7TeV centre-of-mass energy. This has been achieved for most of the sectors.   The parameters of the upgraded magnet protection system are accurately calibrated. This operation is needed in order for the magnet protection system to be triggered only when a real problem occurs. The system is now able to detect a transition from superconducting to normal conducting state of the superconducting cable joints between magnets, a necessary condition to operate the magnet system above 2kA. Highly accurate measurements of the joint resistances have been performed by stepping up the current to 5kA. The magnets and the...

  4. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  5. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  6. Stopping Drug Abuse. ERIC Digest Series Number EA32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    This digest discusses the issue of stopping drug abuse as a national priority. Several aspects of the drug abuse issue are covered in question-and-answer format: (1) Why should educators be concerned about drug abuse by students? (2) What are school districts doing to stop drug abuse? (3) What social issues are involved? (4) How can schools plan…

  7. [Loosening of a Calcaneo-Stop Screw after Trampolining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, K; Fingernagel, T; Petershofer, A; Hofstaetter, S G

    2015-06-01

    Flexible flatfoot is a common malalignment in the paediatric population. Arthroereisis with a calcaneo-stop screw is an effective surgical procedure for treating juvenile flexible flatfoot after conservative measures have been fully exploited. In the present report, we describe the case of a loosening of a calcaneo-stop screw in a 12-year-old youth after excessive trampolining.

  8. Stop Search in the Compressed Region via Semileptonic Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Li, Lingfeng; Neill, Nicolas A

    2016-01-01

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the superpartners of the top quark (stops) play the crucial role in addressing the naturalness problem. For direct pair-production of stops with each stop decaying into a top quark plus the lightest neutralino, the standard stop searches have difficulty finding the stop for a compressed spectrum where the mass difference between the stop and the lightest neutralino is close to the top quark mass, because the events look too similar to the large $t\\bar{t}$ background. With an additional hard ISR jet, the two neutralinos from the stop decays are boosted in the opposite direction and they can give rise to some missing transverse energy. This may be used to distinguish the stop decays from the backgrounds. In this paper we study the semileptonic decay of such signal events for the compressed mass spectrum. Although the neutrino from the $W$ decay also produces some missing transverse energy, its momentum can be reconstructed from the kinematic assumptions and ma...

  9. A gas cell for stopping, storing and polarizing radioactive particles

    CERN Document Server

    Sytema, A; Böll, O; Chernowitz, D; Dijck, E A; Grasdijk, J O; Hoekstra, S; Jungmann, K; Mathavan, S C; Meinema, C; Mohanty, A; Müller, S E; Portela, M Nuñez; Onderwater, C J G; Pijpker, C; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2016-01-01

    A radioactive beam of 20Na is stopped in a gas cell filled with Ne gas. The stopped particles are polarized by optical pumping. The degree of polarization that can be achieved is studied. A maximum polarization of 50% was found. The dynamic processes in the cell are described with a phenomenological model.

  10. A gas cell for stopping, storing and polarizing radioactive particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytema, Auke; van den Berg, Joost; Böll, Oliver; Chernowitz, Daniel; Dijck, Elwin; Grasdijk, Jan; Hoekstra, Steven; Jungmann, Klaus-Peter; Chirayath Mathavan, Sreekanth; Meinema, Jacoba Roelien; Mueller, Stefan E.; Portela, M. N.; Onderwater, Cornelis; Pijpker, Coen; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, H. W.

    2016-01-01

    A radioactive beam of Na-20 is stopped in a gas cell filled with Ne gas. The stopped particles are polarized by optical pumping. The degree of polarization that can be achieved is studied. A maximum polarization of 50% was found. The dynamic processes in the cell are described with a phenomenologica

  11. Higgs-stoponium mixing near the stop-antistop threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodwin, Geoffrey T.; Chung, Hee Sok; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model contain additional heavy neutral Higgs bosons that are coupled to heavy scalar top quarks (stops). This system exhibits interesting field theoretic phenomena when the Higgs mass is close to the stop-antistop production threshold. Existing work in the literature has examined the digluon-to-diphoton cross section near threshold and has focused on enhancements in the cross section that might arise either from the perturbative contributions to the Higgs-to-digluon and Higgs-to-diphoton form factors or from mixing of the Higgs boson with stoponium states. Near threshold, enhancements in the relevant amplitudes that go as inverse powers of the stop-antistop relative velocity require resummations of perturbation theory and/or nonperturbative treatments. We present a complete formulation of threshold effects at leading order in the stop-antistop relative velocity in terms of nonrelativistic effective field theory. We give detailed numerical calculations for the case in which the stop-antistop Green's function is modeled with a Coulomb-Schrödinger Green's function. We find several general effects that do not appear in a purely perturbative treatment. Higgs-stop-antistop mixing effects displace physical masses from the threshold region, thereby rendering the perturbative threshold enhancements inoperative. In the case of large Higgs-stop-antistop couplings, the displacement of a physical state above threshold substantially increases its width, owing to its decay width to a stop-antistop pair, and greatly reduces its contribution to the cross section.

  12. Nuclear Stopping:. Paving the way from Rhic to Lhc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing

    Nuclear stopping has been measured at a range of different energies in heavy ion experiments. In this contribution proton data from the BRAHMS experiment at RHIC running at √ {SNN} = 62.4\\ GeV are presented. Furthermore data from AGS, SPS and RHIC are used to estimate the stopping, energy loss and multiplicity at LHC.

  13. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  14. A stop sign for use in the dark.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, D.J.

    1969-01-01

    The present official stop sign for use at night - a red light or a red light in combination with an illuminated white vat-type sign - are not sufficiently for road users. A new stop sign has accordingly been developed, which in daylight looks the same as the existing one - a white disc with red edge

  15. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  16. Flywheel bus opens doors for investors; Vliegwielbus opent deuren voor investeerders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    1999-03-01

    A brief impression is given of the performance of the first prototype of the CCM-developed (Centre for Construction and Mechatronics in Nuenen, Netherlands) flywheel bus, fuelled by LPG and powered by a flywheel

  17. Traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus in two-lane traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoichi; Nagatani, Takashi; Taniguchi, Naoki

    2005-05-01

    We study the traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus (slow car) in a two-lane traffic of cars. We use the dynamic model which is an extended one of the optimal velocity model to take into account the lane changing. The fundamental (flow-density) diagram is presented. The fundamental diagram changes highly by introducing a bus on a two-lane roadway. It is found that there are the six distinct states for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus. The spatio-temporal patterns are presented for the distinct traffic states. The dynamical state of traffic changes with density of cars. It is shown that the dynamical transitions among the distinct traffic states occur at some values of density. The phase diagram (region map) is shown for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus.

  18. Scheduling bus services in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mawardi; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Oughalime, Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    This study deals with bus scheduling problem in a local public university. Given existing bus daily trips, set of buses used and set of policy, the aims of this study are to optimize the use of buses for in-campus trips and to cover the trip demands. This study is conducted at Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam that involves six-zone trips and a single depot. The bus scheduling problem in UiTM is formulated using the integer programming model and the LINGO 12.0 software is used for solving this bus scheduling model. The results of this model showed that the number of buses can be reduced during off-peak hours. Furthermore, optimal trips can also be identified from the results.

  19. Performance analysis of time triggered communication bus based on network calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiandong; Ma, Lianchuan; Cao, Yuan; Mu, Jiancheng

    2017-03-01

    The time triggered mechanism is the activity of incentive system in the scheduled time. Each node of the time-triggered communication bus knows when the data information can be transmitted, so the behavior of communication nodes is determined and predictable. This feature is very suitable for appling in the industry field of high safety requirement. According to EN50159 standard for railway signal system security related communication, this paper analyzes the reliability of the physical layer of communication bus, and uses the network calculus method to establish the arrival curve model and service curve model which quantitatively calculate the time delay characteristic of time trigger bus to determine the number of retransmissions of data communications. The time-triggered communication bus is proved that it can meet the security requirements of the railway signal transmission system.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Different Arbitration Protocols for Multiple—Bus Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄旗铭; 杨庆; 等

    1996-01-01

    Earlier performance studies of multiple-bus multiprocessor systems assume a random selection of competing requests for bus assignment and ignore the effects of realistic bus arbitraion schemes on the performance of such systems.In this paper,we present performance analysis of the multiple-bus systems with different arbitration protocols.The priority protocols considered are random selection,fixed priority,rotating priority,round-robin and FIFO.Analytical models are developed for each of these five different priority protocols.Each of our analyses models exactly the behavior of the corresponding priority protocol with little computation cost.The analytical models are validated through extensive simulations and are them used to carry out performance analysis and comparison of different priority protocols.Numerical results obtained from our models show that the round-robin protocol performs the best amont the five protocols in the system with a few buses.

  1. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  2. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  3. Exploring public bus service quality in South Africa: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanda M. Vilakazi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, which is a deviation from the usual practice of using SERVQUAL or an adaptedversion thereof, uses McKnight, Pagano and Paaswell’s (1986 service quality dimensions,namely reliability; extent of service; comfort; safety; and affordability (RECSA and structuralequation modelling to determine commuters’ perception of public bus service quality in amajor city in South Africa. The RECSA model was adapted and fitted to the data collectedfrom a convenience sample of bus commuters in Johannesburg, using structural equationmodelling. It was ascertained that reliability, service, comfort and safety influenced thepublic bus commuters’ perception of the overall service quality. The implications of theaforementioned findings for providers of public bus services are explained.

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  5. Bavarian liquid hydrogen bus demonstration project - safety, licensing and acceptability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R.; Knorr, H.; Pruemm, W.

    1999-07-01

    A regular 12 m city bus of the MAN SL 202 type with an internal combustion engine adapted to hydrogen operation and auxiliary gasoline operation was demonstrated in the Bavarian cities of Erlangen and Munich between April 1996 and August 1998. Three bus operators, Erlanger Stadtwerke, Stadtwerke Muenchen and Autobus Oberbayern were testing the bus in three different operating schemes. In order to be able to perform this worldwide first public demonstration of a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) city bus in regular service, several requirements with respect to safety, licensing, training and acceptability had to be fulfilled. These activities were focusing mainly on the hydrogen specific issues such as (a) integration of onboard LH{sub 2} storage vessels, piping and instrumentation, (b) implementation of storage and refueling infrastructure in the operators' yards, (c) adaptation of the maintenance garages, (d) training of operating and maintenance personnel. During phase II of the demonstration activity a poll was performed on passengers traveling onboard the hydrogen-powered city bus in order to determined the level of acceptance among the users of the bus. The bus was designed and manufactured by MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktiengesellschaft. The cryogenic fuel storage and the refueling equipment were designed and manufactured by Linde AG. The realization of the hardware was financially supported by the European Commission (EC) within the Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project. The demonstration phase was financially supported by EC and the Bavarian State Government. Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik performed project monitoring for both funding organizations. The presentation will summarize the most important results of this demonstration phase and will address the measures undertaken in order to get the bus, the refueling infrastructure and the maintenance and operating procedures approved by the relevant authorities.

  6. Mechanical analysis of the main bus bars in the DFBA shuffling modules

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, D

    2012-01-01

    The main bus bars (13 kA) inside the shuffling modules of the distribution feed boxes powering the LHC arcs (DFBA) are subjected to high Lorentz forces. The structural behaviour of the bus bars under such forces is here analysed. The results are discussed with respect to a risk of structural failure due to excessive deformation or degradation of the electrical insulation by repeated contact with other surfaces.

  7. Effects of Self Stretching on Pain and Musculoskeletal Symptom of Bus Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed ...

  8. Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems Based on Schedulability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach to bus access optimization and schedulability analysis for the synthesis of hard real-time distribution embedded systems. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication delays proposing four different message...... scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the bus access scheme are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments....

  9. 基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制方案%Air-conditioner Control Project for Electric Bus Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桥生

    2012-01-01

    The author simply introduces two kinds of present control modes for air-conditioner of electric bus in domestic market,puts forward a new kind of its control mode based on CAN bus,and design the CAN's messages reports.%简述国内电动客车空调的两种控制模式;提出一种基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制模式,并设计CAN通讯报文。

  10. Low-noise amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Gulkov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of signal and noise processing device is considered in this article. It contains two channels: the main channel (MC contains the mixture of signal and noise, and compensation channel (CC that extracts just a noise from the mixture. The feature of the processing circuit is that the mixture samples are formed by short impulses at the moments of passing signal through zero. Further antiphase noise is set in the channels, adder by which the noise is removed from mixture is set on the cannels output. Study of the described device was carried out for simulated AM signal and white Gaussian noise in simulation environment Matlab. The results are shown, that device reduces noise by 16 dB of power.

  11. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Chen

    Full Text Available As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopan; Kong, Yunfeng; Dang, Lanxue; Hou, Yane; Ye, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Evaluating the Impacts of Bus Fare on Social Equity Based on IC Card Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowu Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bus fare equity has attracted significant attention in China in the past few years. Compared with developed countries, China’s intelligent transportation systems are in their infancy, with immature bus fare policies being used in many public transit systems. The methods used for evaluating public transit fare equity in developed countries compare different fare policies based on rich data and cannot be directly applied in developing countries like China. In this paper, we present a method that uses IC card data, bus-mounted GPS data, and relevant statistical yearbook data to evaluate the equity of flat bus fare. The method ranks the factors that influence the impacts of bus fare on social equity for different passenger groups and indicates that trip distance and passenger boarding time are the two primary factors for bus fare equity from a resource allocation perspective. Finally, we present a case study that evaluates the flat fare policy for route 204 in Suzhou using the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible.

  14. EtherBone - A Network Layer for the Wishbone SoC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Kreider, M; Lewis, J; Włostowski, T; Serrano, J

    2011-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was de...

  15. An analytical algorithm to determine allowable ampacities of horizontally installed rectangular bus bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenta Dardan O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to propose an algorithm for the determination of the allowable ampacities of single rectangular-section bus bars without the occurrence of correction factors. Without correction factors, the ampacity computation of the copper and aluminium bus bars is fully automatized. The analytical algorithm has been implemented in a computer program code that along with the allowable ampacity can compute the bus bar temperature and the individual heat transfer coefficient for each side of the bus bar, as well as their corresponding power losses. Natural and forced convection correlations for rectangular bus bars are applied. Effects of the solar radiation and radiation heat losses from the bus bar surface are taken into consideration as well. The finite element method (FEM has been used for the linear/non-linear steady-state thermal analysis, i.e. for validation of the analytical algorithm. All FEM-based numerical computations were carried out using the COMSOL Heat Transfer Module. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33046

  16. Multi Resolution AHB Bus Tracer with Real Time Compression for SOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jagadish Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller based Bus Architecture consists of AHB, APB, ASB and AXI. In this project we are Tracing AHB (Advanced High performance Bus signals with Real time Compression and Multi-resolution Techniques. A simple transaction on the AHB consists of an address phase and a subsequent data phase. Access to the target device is controlled through a MUX , thereby admitting bus-access to one bus-master at a time. In AHB Tracer we have to Trace Address signals, Data signals and Control signals, we have to compress them depending on AHB protocols. A multi-resolution AHB on-chip bus tracer is named as SYS_HMRBT (AHB Multi-resolution Bus Tracer and is used for monitoring. The goal is to provide better compression quality and multiple resolution traces to meet the complex SoC debugging needs. Compressing all signals at cycle-accurate-level does not always meet the debugging needs. As SOCs become more complex, the transaction level debugging becomes increasingly important, since it helps designers focus on the functional behaviors, instead of interpreting complex signals. By using this SYS_HMRBT, we can achieve 79%-96% of compression depending on selected resolution mode. Tools Used for this Project are Modelsim for Simulation, and Xilinx ISE II for Synthesis

  17. Route Design Model of Feeder Bus Service for Urban Rail Transit Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of urban public transportation systems, the feeder bus fills a service gap left by rail transit, effectively extending the range of rail transit’s service and solving the problem of short-distance travel and interchanges. By defining the potential demand of feeder bus services and considering its relationship with the traffic demands of corresponding staging areas, the distance between road and rail transit, and the repetition factor of road bus lines, this paper established a potential demand model of roads by opening feeder bus services and applying a logit model for passenger flow distribution. Based on a circular route model, a route starting and ending at urban rail transit stations was generated, and a genetic algorithm was then applied to solve it. The Wei-Fang community of Shanghai was selected as the test area. Per the model and algorithm, the feeder route length was conformed to a functional orientation of short-distance travel and the feeder service of a feeder bus; the route mostly covered where conventional bus lines were fewer, which is a finding that is in agreement with the actual situation; the feasibility of the model and algorithm was verified.

  18. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  19. Bus Travel Willingness under the Condition of Bus Information%公交信息条件下的公交出行意愿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左毅刚; 李文权; 陈茜; 李洁; 郭士永

    2014-01-01

    In-depth analysis of influencing mechanism of bus information on the residents travel mode choice is the theoretical basis of rational planning of urban bus travel information environment ,which has important significance for ur-ban traffic management and congestion mitigation .Based on the theory of planned behavior ,at the basis of three basic variables of behavior attitude ,subjective norm ,perceived behavioral control in the theory of planned behavior ,variables of transit information ,personal attributes and travel experience are added to improve the theory of planned behavior .An improved theory of planned behavior is used to build a bus travel willingness model under the condition of bus Informa-tion .With the Nanjing residents as research object ,a structural equation model is used to verify the survey data in order to determine the interaction between various factors and their impact on the willingness of bus travel .The results show that the bus information has significant and positive impact on bus travel variables of attitude ,subjective norm and per-ceived behavioral control with the influencing coefficients of 0 .533 ,0 .451 and 0 .576 respectively ,and that the bus infor-mation has indirect influence on bus travel willingness and the total effect is 0 .92 ,which shows that high quality of the in-formation can improve the appeal of bus and enhance bus travel willingness of residents .%深入解析公交信息对居民公交出行意愿的影响机理,是合理规划城市公交出行信息环境的理论基础,对于城市交通管理以及交通拥堵的缓解有着重要的意义。基于计划行为理论在行为态度、主观规范、知觉行为控制3个基本变量的基础上加入公交信息、出行经验、个人属性等变量,对计划行为理论加以改进,利用改进的计划行为理论建立公交信息条件下的公交出行意愿模型。以南京市居民为调查研究对象,运用结构方程模型对调查数

  20. MEASURING CUSTOMER’S SATISFACTION ON BUS TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the factors measuring customers’ satisfaction, especially the impact of service quality on customers’ satisfaction in public transportation industry in the university town of Sintok located in Kedah province of Malaysia. In order to assess the relationships between service quality and customer satisfaction survey http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1003.htmdata were collected from 300 Bus commuters. All hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlations, controlling for the background variables of gender, marital status, ethnicity and education. The results indicate that hypotheses 1 through 5 were supported. Using multiple regressions as a basis for causal paths, a model was developed that examined the influence of all five dimensions of service quality on customers’ satisfaction. The model explained 26.9% of the variance which indicates that 26.9% of the changes in the dependent variable are explained by the independent variables. Altogether, independent variables explained 26.9% of the variations.

  1. Bus Based Synchronization Method for CHIPPER Based NoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muralidharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network on Chip (NoC reduces the communication delay of System on Chip (SoC. The main limitation of NoC is power consumption and area overhead. Bufferless NoC reduces the area complexity and power consumption by eliminating buffers in the traditional routers. The bufferless NoC design should include live lock freeness since they use hot potato routing. This increases the complexity of bufferless NoC design. Among the available propositions to reduce this complexity, CHIPPER based bufferless NoC is considered as one of the best options. Live lock freeness is provided in CHIPPER through golden epoch and golden packet. All routers follow some synchronization method to identify a golden packet. Clock based method is intuitively followed for synchronization in CHIPPER based NoCs. It is shown in this work that the worst-case latency of packets is unbearably high when the above synchronization is followed. To alleviate this problem, broadcast bus NoC (BBus NoC approach is proposed in this work. The proposed method decreases the worst-case latency of packets by increasing the golden epoch rate of CHIPPER.

  2. A synchronous serial bus for multidimensional array acoustic logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Baiyong; Ju, Xiaodong; Lu, Junqiang; Qiao, Wenxiao

    2016-12-01

    In high-temperature and spatial borehole applications, a distributed structure is employed in a multidimensional array acoustic logging tool (MDALT) based on a phased array technique for electronic systems. However, new challenges, such as synchronous multichannel data acquisition, multinode real-time control and bulk data transmission in a limited interval, have emerged. To address these challenges, we developed a synchronous serial bus (SSB) in this study. SSB works in a half-duplex mode via a master-slave architecture. It also consists of a single master, several slaves, a differential clock line and a differential data line. The clock line is simplex, whereas the data line is half-duplex and synchronous to the clock line. A reliable communication between the master and the slaves with real-time adjustment of synchronisation is achieved by rationally designing the frame format and protocol of communication and by introducing a scramble code and a Hamming error-correcting code. The control logic of the master and the slaves is realized in field programmable gate array (FPGA) or complex programmable logic device (CPLD). The clock speed of SSB is 10 MHz, the effective data rate of the bulk data transmission is over 99%, and the synchronous errors amongst the slaves are less than 10 ns. Room-temperature test, high-temperature test (175 °C) and field test demonstrate that the proposed SSB is qualified for MDALT.

  3. Spot the stop with a b-tag

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Petersson, Christoffer; Torre, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The LHC searches for light compressed stop squarks have resulted in considerable bounds in the case where the stop decays to a neutralino and a charm quark. However, in the case where the stop decays to a neutralino, a bottom quark and two fermions via an off-shell W-boson, there is currently a significant unconstrained region in the stop-neutralino mass plane, still allowing for stop masses in the range 90-140 GeV. In this paper we propose a new monojet-like search for light stops, optimized for the four-body decay mode, in which at least one b-tagged jet is required. We show that, already by using the existing 8 TeV LHC data set, such a search would cover the entire unconstrained region. Moreover, in the process of validating our tools against an ATLAS monojet search, we show that the existing limit can be extended to exclude also stop masses below 100 GeV.

  4. Free choice task effects in cross-linguistic stop perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, Alexei

    2005-04-01

    This paper examines the identification of stop place and secondary articulation using a free choice task. Russian syllable-initial and syllable-final stops /p pj t tj/ in nonsense utterances were presented to Russian and Japanese listeners (N=30). Correct identification rates for place and secondary articulation of the target consonants were determined based on written responses (in Cyrillic or Katakana). Both groups of listeners showed better identification of syllable-initial stops compared to syllable-final stops. Among the consonants, /p/ was identified better, and /pj/ was identified worse than the other stops. Native listeners performed better than non-native listeners. The overall correct identification rates were lower than (yet strongly correlated with) the rates previously obtained with the same stimuli using a forced choice phoneme identification task. The lower identification rates in the current study can be explained in part by the errors involving the segmentation and syllabification of palatalized stops. Thus, the palatal articulation of the syllable-final palatalized /pj/ was often interpreted as independent of the stop (e.g., /tapj api/ rendered as /taj papi/ or /tjap api/). It is concluded that the free choice task can successfully complement the forced choice task, providing additional information about the perception of secondary palatalization. [Supported by SSHRC.

  5. Measurement of the antiproton stopping power of gold - the Barkas effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.; Elsener, K.; Morenzoni, E.

    1991-05-01

    The stopping power of gold has been measured for antiprotons in the energy range 0.2-3 MeV using a novel time-of-flight technique. The antiproton stopping power is found to be less than half the equivalent proton stopping power near the electronic stopping power maximum. In the high-energy limit the two stopping powers merge.

  6. Measurement of the antiproton stopping power of gold - the Barkas effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Moeller, S.P.; Uggerhoej, E.; Worm, T. (Inst. for Synchrotron Radiation, Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)); Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H. (Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark)); Elsener, K. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Morenzoni, E. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland))

    1991-05-06

    The stopping power of gold has been measured for antiprotons in the energy range 0.2-3 MeV using a novel time-of-flight technique. The antiproton stopping power is found to be less than half the equivalent proton stopping power near the electronic stopping power maximum. In the high-energy limit the two stopping powers merge. (orig.).

  7. A Phonemic and Acoustic Analysis of Hindko Oral Stops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ur RASHID

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hindko is an Indo-Aryan language that is mainly spoken in Khyber Pukhtoonkhaw province of Pakistan. This work aims to identify the oral stops of Hindko and determine the intrinsic acoustic cues for them. The phonemic analysis is done with the help of minimal pairs and phoneme distribution in contrastive environments which reveals that Hindko has twelve oral stops with three way series. The acoustic analysis of these segments shows that intrinsically voice onset time (VOT, closure duration and burst are reliable and distinguishing cues of stops in Hindko.

  8. Light Stop MSSM versus R-parity violation

    CERN Document Server

    Porod, Werner; Valle, José W F

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of the lightest stops in models where R-parity is broken by bilinear terms. In this class of models we consider scenarios where the R-parity breaking two-body decay stop_1 -> tau + b competes with the leading three-body decays stop_1 -> W^+ + b + neutralino_1, H^+ + b + neutralino_1, b slepton^+_i neutrino_l, b sneutrino_l l^+ (l=e, mu, tau). We demonstrate that the R-parity violating decay can be the dominant one. In particular we focus on the implications for a future electron posistion Linear Collider.

  9. 49 CFR 571.131 - Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... on the vertical centerline of the stop arm. One of the lamps shall be located at the extreme top of the stop arm and the other at its extreme bottom. S5.4The stop signal arm shall be installed on the... opened while the engine is running and the manual override is engaged. S6 Test Procedures....

  10. Adaptive noise cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Akram, N

    1999-01-01

    In this report we describe the concept of adaptive noise canceling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise of interference. The method uses 'primary' input containing the corrupted signal and a 'reference' input containing noise correlated in some unknown way with the primary noise, the reference input is adaptively filtered and subtracted from the primary input to obtain the signal estimate. Adaptive filtering before subtraction allows the treatment of inputs that are deterministic or stochastic, stationary or time variable. When the reference input is free of signal and certain other conditions are met then noise in the primary input can be essentially eliminated without signal distortion. It is further shown that the adaptive filter also acts as notch filter. Simulated results illustrate the usefulness of the adaptive noise canceling technique.

  11. 太阳能电子公交站牌设计%Design of Solar Energy Electronic Bus-Stop Sign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄槟凌; 章杰; 程树英

    2013-01-01

    文章设计了基于太阳能供电的智能公交站牌系统,该系统主要由电子公交站牌,车载系统和公交监控中心组成.该系统利用Zigbee和GSM无线通信技术,通过具体软硬件设计,实现车辆与站牌之间、站牌与站牌之间的无线连接.该系统可为乘客及公交管理人员提供各种服务,并在监控中心上实时监控各公交站及车辆运行数据,实现公交车智能管理.

  12. 上海市公交站牌的调查与分析%Investigation and analysis of Bus Stop sign in Shnghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁红艺; 朱玮倩; 郭进利

    2009-01-01

    论文分析了上海三种常见公交站牌的优缺点,通过问卷调查的方式和参考网络上市民的意见和建议,了解市民对于现有公交站牌的评价,对公交站牌设计中存在的问题进行总结,并提出了改进建议.

  13. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  14. Noise at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The notion of noise occupies a contested territory, in which it is framed as pollution and detritus even as it makes its opposite a possibility - noise is always defined in opposition to something else, even if this ‘other’ is not quite clear. This paper explores noise in the context of ‘the...... interface’ asking what its affordances as an idea may contribute to our understanding of interface. I draw historically on information theory in particular to initiate this exploration....

  15. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjec...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  16. A new vehicle data bus architecture and IVIS evaluation platform for ITS modulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelt, P.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kirson, A.M. [Motorola, Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States); Scott, S. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    An increasing number of ITS-related after-market systems present a set of in-vehicle installation and use problems relatively unique in the history of automobile use. Many automobile manufacturers would like to offer these new state of the art devices to customers, but are hampered by the current design cycle of new cars. While auto manufacturers are indeed using multiplex buses (the automotive equivalent of a computer local area network), problems remain because manufacturers are not converging on a single bus standard. This paper presents a new dual-bus architecture to address these problems, with an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) research platform on which the principles embodied in the ITS Data Bus architecture can be evaluated. The dual-bus architecture has been embodied in a proposed SAE standard, with a ratification vote in December, 1996. The architecture and a reference model for the interfaces and protocols of the new bus are presented and described. The goals of the ITS Data Bus are to be inexpensive and easy to install, and to provide for safe and secure functioning. These high-level goals are embodied in the proposed standard. The IVIS Development Platform comprises a number of personal computers linked via ethernet LAN, with a high-end PC serving as the IVIS computer. In this LAN, actual devices can be inserted in place of the original PC which emulated them. This platform will serve as the development and test bed for an ITS Data Bus Conformity Test, the SAE standard for which has also been developed.

  17. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  18. Vaccines Stop Illness | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... like polio and meningitis will affect their children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  19. PROTON STOPPING POWER OF DIFFERENT DENSITY PROFILE PLASMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stopping power of a partially ionized plasma is analyzed by means of free electron stopping and bound electron stopping. For the first instance, the RPA dielectric function is used, and for the latter one, an interpolation of high and low projectile velocity formulas is used. The dynamical energy loss of a ion beam inside a plasma is estimated by using an iterative scheme of calculation. The Abel inversion is also applied when we have a plasma with radial symmetry. Finally, we compare our methods with two kind of plasmas. In the first one, we estimate the energy loss in a plasma created by a laser prepulse, whose density is approximated by a piecewise function. For the latter one, a radial electron density is supposed and the stopping is obtained as a function of radius from the calculated lateral points. In both cases, the dependence with the density profile is observed.

  20. Body Cooling Little Help to Kids When Heart Stops: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163215.html Body Cooling Little Help to Kids When Heart Stops: Study ... 2017 TUESDAY, Jan. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Body cooling offers no advantage over normal temperature control in ...