WorldWideScience

Sample records for bus rapid transit

  1. Framework for Bus Rapid Transit Development and Deployment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark A.; Yin, Yafeng; Balvanyos, Tunde; Ceder, Avishai

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of its investigation into deployment planning for bus rapid transit systems. In this study, we conducted a macro-scale examination of bus rapid transit systems from technical, operational, institutional, and planning perspectives. We then developed the theoretical foundation for a deployment planning framework for bus rapid transit systems that specifically takes into account the unique features of bus rapid transit that differ from other transit alternatives....

  2. Platform Screen Doors Enhanced Bus Rapid Transit Intelligent Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghua Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is the last straw to clutch at to solve the urban traffic issue, to develop high-capacity rapid transit and promote transit priority. Characterized by low cost, short construction cycle and flexible development, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has been favored by more and more cities in the world. The Platform Screen Doors (PSDs system is an important component at BRT stations, and it is original motive to be designed to satisfy the growing demand from BRT application to provide increased safety and comfort in the first. With the continual increased demand for BRT intelligent performance, the PSDs system is applied to get Bus Location Information with accurate position of arrival and departure at stop, to provide Real-Time Information (RTI for BRT passengers using PSDs/GPS compound location technology, to put into practice Bus Fleet Management (BFM. Considering the capability of accurate location, it can be applied to actualize Bus Sign Priority in the future. The authors are luck to take in part the practice of BRT system, especially in the BRT intelligent systems, the papers will introduce upwards application and conceive in detail.

  3. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT System Impacts to Environmental Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shojaei Baghini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the mechanism and performance of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system and its impacts on environment quality. Environment quality is an indicator of regional quality of life, supporting the health and well-being of the public and sustainability of the urban and natural environment. Transit agencies are adopting vehicles with alternative fuels, propulsion systems and pollutant emissions controls. One of the ways to improve the transportation environment is through the reduction of BRT emissions to improve air quality. The primary advantage of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system is that it can be adapted to a multitude of operating environments, with sufficient scalability to deliver increased carrying capacity to meet future ridership growth. Moreover, the system will also likely reduce overall the noise levels by determining suitable noise management systems. The paper finds that a BRT system offers the greatest potential for greenhouse gas reductions primarily because BRT vehicles generally offer lower CO2 emissions per passenger mile than other transportation system.

  4. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Hyderabad

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda; Maddali Sai Satya Goutham

    2014-01-01

    Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS). Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BR...

  5. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS in Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS. Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BRT is the best way to overcome it. If a country gets richer the development will be seen in different aspects like education, industry, science and technology etc., except transport which will get worse. There are many ways to get rid of these traffic issues and transport problems. What attracted the countries to install BRT is the bus way concept as that it can cover whole city and is cheaper than the rail. BRT is a high speed rapid transit system using high capacity vehicles, physically separated bus ways, modern station with electronic fare collection, rapid boarding and high service frequency which result more passengers and less congestion. This paper presents an overview of BRTS and corridor selection & assessment for it in Hyderabad through surveys etc.

  6. Learning through policy tourism: circulating bus rapid transit from South America to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Wood

    2014-01-01

    Study tours, a form of ‘policy tourism’ in which local actors travel elsewhere to see best practice and meet with those in the exporting locality who implemented it, have become a basic tenet for policy exchange. In the pursuit of these lessons, hundreds of South African public transport enthusiasts visited South America, particularly Bogota, to learn of its thriving bus rapid transit (BRT) network. This paper evaluates the influence of these exchanges on BRT circulation and adoption—what tak...

  7. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  8. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  9. Empirical Assessment on Factors Affecting Travel Time of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergyanto E Gunawan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the century, many cities around the world adopt the bus rapid transit (BRT system to fulfill their need of mass transportation system. The system features with platform-level boarding, bus lanes in the central verge of the road, off-vehicle fare collection, and physically protected busway. So far, these criteria are considered to be the most important aspects with respect to the BRT performance. In this research, we intend to study to what extent the BRT performance may be affected by the interference of the mixed traffic during the BRT operation. We adopt an empirical approach by observing the phenomenon unfolding in the eleven TransJakarta BRT corridors. The TransJakarta BRT operates in the city of Jakarta, the capital of the Republic of Indonesia. We record the travel time data from station to station for the case where the TransJakarta bus can travel smoothly and the case where the traveling bus is interfered with the mixed traffic. For the cases, we evaluate the travel time variation. As the results, we found that the Corridor 1 of TransJakarta BRT has the best performance in term of the travel time variation. For the two directions, the corridor has the mean travel time of 34 min, the standard deviation of 3 min, and the travel time variation of 8%. On this corridor, the mixed-traffic interference is relatively negligible. On the Corridor 7, the two-direction travel times have the mean of 45 min, the standard deviation of 8 min, and the travel time variation of 16%. On the Corridor 9, the twodirection travel times have the mean of 1 hr and 25 min, the standard deviation of 11 min, and the travel time variation of 14%. On the last two corridors, the busways are heavily interfered by the mixed traffic; thus, the end-to-end travel times are significantly uncertain although only very few road segments are interfered. The research leads us to a conclusion that the interference, although only occurs on a road segment, may

  10. Successfulness of Bus Rapid Transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogdenko, N. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as 'a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility'. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is particularly important for developing countries, since the majority of the population in those countries is highly reliant on public transport. Nevertheless, the service of public transportation in those countries in general can be characterised as deteriorating, slow, unsafe and uncomfortable. There are many BRT systems implemented in various cities in the developing world. However, no scientific evaluation of these systems on their successfulness was performed so far. The main goal of this research was to gain insight in BRT system functioning in large Asian cities and identify how knowledge from these system operation can be applied on future BRT system planning/implementation processes with the intention to make BRT systems more successful. In order to perform an evaluation of the selected BRT systems on their successfulness, a new evaluation methodology was developed in this research, since no methodology applicable for such an evaluation existed. According to the developed methodology, a BRT system was considered successful when it showed a high contribution to the sustainable development of the selected city. This contribution was evaluated using nine indicators on three sustainability dimensions: environment, society and economics. This research consisted of four main blocks, respectively, 'definition', 'description of the case studies', 'evaluation of each case study' and 'result analysis'. In the first block, behavioural theories for analysis of transport behaviour of people were studied. Next, a theoretical framework was selected and the new methodology for BRT system evaluation was developed. In the following blocks, based on the literature study, the selected BRT

  11. Using agent based modeling to assess the effect of increased Bus Rapid Transit system infrastructure on walking for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Pablo D; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Zambrano, Juan Manuel; Sarmiento, Olga L; Meisel, Jose D; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Zarama, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The effect of transport infrastructure on walking is of interest to researchers because it provides an opportunity, from the public policy point of view, to increase physical activity (PA). We use an agent based model (ABM) to examine the effect of transport infrastructure on walking. Particular relevance is given to assess the effect of the growth of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Bogotá on walking. In the ABM agents are assigned a home, work location, and socioeconomic status (SES) based on which they are assigned income for transportation. Individuals must decide between the available modes of transport (i.e., car, taxi, bus, BRT, and walking) as the means of reaching their destination, based on resources and needed travel time. We calibrated the model based on Bogota's 2011 mobility survey. The ABM results are consistent with previous empirical findings, increasing BRT access does indeed increase the number of minutes that individuals walk for transportation, although this effect also depends on the availability of other transport modes. The model indicates a saturation process: as more BRT lanes are added, the increment in minutes walking becomes smaller, and eventually the walking time decreases. Our findings on the potential contribution of the expansion of the BRT system to walking for transportation suggest that ABMs may prove helpful in designing policies to continue promoting walking. PMID:27012602

  12. The bus rapid transit system: A service quality dimension of commuter uptake in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince D. Ugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated commuter uptake of the bus rapid transit (BRT system in Cape Town,South Africa. As a stated preference survey was not carried out prior to the launch of the new BRT system in the City of Cape Town, it became difficult to assess commuters’ preferences,which would have provided City policymakers and planners with an understanding of customer satisfaction of the proposed bus service. The commuting trend of the BRT system in the City indicates that tickets sales and utilisation by commuters is gradually picking up, but one would have expected high commuter engagement in terms of the modernity profile of the BRT system. This study investigated commuters’ (n = 260 satisfaction levels with 30 service quality variables on a self-rated questionnaire, using quantitative research methodology.The study result showed that passengers were not satisfied with the transport fare and the availability or accessibility of ticket sales outlets. In the context of this study, this result implies that the ‘responsiveness and affordability’ variable of the service quality dimensions should be an area of interest and review to City of Cape Town policymakers and planners. Service quality trends in public transport were also highlighted.

  13. Institutional Aspects on Bus Rapid Transit Systems Implementation in Mexico City, Estado de Mexico and Le¨®n Guanajuato

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Lambarry Vilchis; Luis Arturo Rivas Tovar; Mara Maricela Trujillo Flores

    2010-01-01

    The paradigm of bus rapid transit as a mean of public transportation has been studied from different perspectives by renowned international researchers and, although there is a consensus in its implementation because of the operational institutional traditional structures toward a public-private participation scheme,there is few specialized literature that analyzes these institutional aspects: the actors involved, the new system organization and the legal norms of the new transport system. Th...

  14. SmartBRT: A Set of Planning, Analysis and Evaluation Tools for Bus Rapid Transit: Final Report Year 1 of 2

    OpenAIRE

    Balvanyos, Tunde; Bethel, Wes; Gardes, Yonnel; Kourjanskaia, Natalia; Liu, Hongchao; Misener, Jim; Sousa, Joao; Vander Werf, Joel; Wei, Wenbin

    2003-01-01

    We report Year 1 results from a two-year project to develop a computer simulation, evaluation and visualization "toolbox", SmartBRT, to describe and evaluate operational aspects of bus rapid transit (BRT) concepts in order to aid decision-making. In conceiving and developing SmartBRT, we have maintained two objectives: 1. To provide FTA, Caltrans and local decision-makers with a rigorous and defensible, yet intuitive BRT operation evaluation method along with a general purpose BRT simulator/c...

  15. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  16. The impact of a Bus Rapid Transit system on commuters' exposure to Benzene, CO, PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; Zuk, Miriam; Martínez-Villa, Gerardo; Cerón, Julia; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    Carbon monoxide (CO), benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and suspended particles PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured inside public transportation vehicles, before and after a new Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system was implemented in Mexico City in June 2005. The objective was to evaluate the BRT system's impact on commuters' exposure to these air pollutants. The BRT system replaced conventional transport modes along 20 km of Insurgentes Avenue, and features confined corridors and new articulated diesel buses. We assessed the impact of the transportation mode on commuters' exposure using least squares regression models. We also analyzed the chemical composition of VOCs to evaluate the possible origin of these species. The implementation of the BRT system resulted in reductions in commuters' exposure to CO, benzene and PM 2.5 ranging between 20% and 70%. No significant reductions in PM 10 exposure were observed. Lower commuting times further reduced total commuters' exposure. Major sources affecting VOCs inside all transport modes are likely to be related to traffic and to emissions from the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas. The results suggest that BRT systems could in general be an effective means of reducing human exposure to traffic related air pollutants and associated health impacts.

  17. Rapid transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Barry [Aston Univ. (United Kingdom). Logistics and Transport Management Group

    2000-02-10

    Although the value of park-and-ride schemes is recognised, they can actually create new problems. For example, where formerly a journey was completed wholly on public transport, there is now a tendency to use the car for say the first part of the journey and the park-and-ride for the second part - so increasing the use of cars. Similarly, where people walked to the shops they may now travel to the park-and-ride and walk from there. Some calculations of how many passengers a bus must carry for park-and-ride to be environmentally attractive are presented. It is argued that bus priority will rarely increase road capacity except for peak-hour commuting; at other times the bus lanes will reduce capacity. (uk)

  18. 城市快速公交系统规划过程中公众参与研究%Bus rapid transit system are proposed by public participation during the planning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴黎明; 王栋; 王涛; 宋莎

    2012-01-01

    快速公交系统运输安全、高效,具备减少小汽车使用率、缓解交通拥堵、节能减排等优势,但在其规划阶段容易引起诸多利益方和市民的异议,会影响到快速公交的实施进程和“效率优先、兼顾公平”的失衡.本文在分析快速公交系统规划中公众参与目的的基础上,提出了当前公众参与存在的问题,并从宣传和沟通的角度对城市快速公交系统规划中公众参与的方法进行了分析和研究,最后以国内公众参与的典范城市-常州市为例,阐明了城市快速公交系统规划过程中公众参与的重要性.%Bus rapid transit system has the advantages of safety, efficiency, alleviating traffic jam and energy saving and emission reduction, however disputes often arise in the planning stage from many stakeholders and the citizens, which will affect the bus rapid transit implementation processes and lead to imbalances between efficiency priority and fairness concurrent. It is urgently need to establish a good communication relationship between the subject and the object. Firstly, based on the analysis of the purpose of public participation in bus rapid transit system planning, this article presents the problems of the current public participation; then this paper analyzes the methods of public participation in terms of propaganda and communication; finally this paper clarifies the importance of public participation in bus rapid transit system planning in the case of Changzhou city.

  19. Energy consumption of bus rapid transit system based on cellular automata theory%基于元胞自动机理论的快速公交系统能耗研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永; 王晓明; 党建武

    2012-01-01

    交通运输能源消耗已经成为决策管理者高度关注的信息.采用元胞自动机(CA)理论研究了快速公交系统能耗问题,以元胞自动机NaSch交通流模型为基础,通过结合动能定理,建立了快速公交系统的元胞自动机能耗动力学仿真模型.并以目前建设的兰州市快速公交系统为例,仿真研究了周期性边界条件下,不同行车密度、不同停靠站时间以及驾驶员行为差异下随机慢化对快速公交车系统能耗的影响,得到了相应的定量分析结论.仿真结果表明,快速公交车辆停靠站时间越长,拥堵的范围越大,路面交通流能耗损失越小,对应的流量、速度也越小,系统越早进入堵塞相.%Transportation energy consumption has aroused high attention of the decision-makers. In this case, an energy consumption of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Cellular Automata (CA) model was designed, which was based on NaSch traffic model and Kinetic energy theorem. Taking Lanzhou city bus rapid transit traffic system as an example, the effects of BRT vehicle random slowness in the different traffic density, different road condition and drivers' behavior under periodic boundary conditions was studied. And corresponding quantitative analysis conclusion was get. The simulation results show that the rapid transit vehicle stops longer, the greater the range of congestion and the smaller the energy loss of the road traffic flow. Besides, the corresponding flow rate is also smaller, thus the system is plugged into congestion phase earlier.

  20. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  1. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  2. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  3. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  4. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  5. Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

  6. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  7. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  8. Bus Stops, Maryland Transit Administration Local and Commuter Bus Stops, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'Maryland Transit...

  9. Evolution of weighted complex bus transit networks with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ailing; Xiong, Jie; Shen, Jinsheng; Guan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Study on the intrinsic properties and evolutional mechanism of urban public transit networks (PTNs) has great significance for transit planning and control, particularly considering passengers’ dynamic behaviors. This paper presents an empirical analysis for exploring the complex properties of Beijing’s weighted bus transit network (BTN) based on passenger flow in L-space, and proposes a bi-level evolution model to simulate the development of transit routes from the view of complex network. The model is an iterative process that is driven by passengers’ travel demands and dual-controlled interest mechanism, which is composed of passengers’ spatio-temporal requirements and cost constraint of transit agencies. Also, the flow’s dynamic behaviors, including the evolutions of travel demand, sectional flow attracted by a new link and flow perturbation triggered in nearby routes, are taken into consideration in the evolutional process. We present the numerical experiment to validate the model, where the main parameters are estimated by using distribution functions that are deduced from real-world data. The results obtained have proven that our model can generate a BTN with complex properties, such as the scale-free behavior or small-world phenomenon, which shows an agreement with our empirical results. Our study’s results can be exploited to optimize the real BTN’s structure and improve the network’s robustness.

  10. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The evaluation period in this report (January 2008 through February 2009) has been chosen to coincide with a UTC Power propulsion system changeout that occurred on January 15, 2008.

  11. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2009-08-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fifth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from October 2008 through June 2009. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous four evaluation reports.

  12. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fourth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from April 2008 through October 2008. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous three evaluation reports.

  13. Bus Stops, This shapefile contains existing bus stops for Charlotte Area Transit System, Published in 2006, Charlotte Area Transit System.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as 'This shapefile contains existing bus stops for...

  14. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  15. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  16. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  17. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  18. Ecodriving for Reduction of Bus Transit Emission with Vehicle’s Hybrid Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzheng Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a global ecodriving optimal control to advise the green driving speed for bus transit to minimize the exhaust emission using Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I communication. Assuming communication between vehicles and infrastructure (V2I and knowledge of traffic signal timings and waiting passengers at stations are known, an optimal driving speed is proposed to minimize the total vehicle emissions of the bus route. The dwell time of the bus transit at each station which includes two parts is proposed. A traffic lights timing model is employed as constraints to control the formation of the green wave band. Vehicle specific power (VSP model is further applied to evaluate the exhaust emission level linked with the speed and acceleration of the bus transit. An approximate sixteen-kilometer traffic network including fourteen intersections and fifteen stations of Beijing bus transit line 1 in Chaoyang District, Beijing, is chosen to investigate the performance of the developed ecodriving approach.

  19. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  20. What is a clean bus? Object conflicts in the greening of urban transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hess

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Object conflicts—struggles over the design, definition, and diffusion of technologies—are analyzed to understand the changing history of the greening of bus technologies in the United States from the late 1980s to 2006. Conflicts are examined over the controversy between compressed natural gas (CNG and emissions-controlled diesel (ECD buses in four fields: regulations, research on emissions differences, fleet-purchase decisions, and political mobilizations from bus users and environmental justice groups. Given rapidly changing scientific research on emissions and health effects and rapidly changing bus technology, controversies tend not to stabilize or close for long. In general, the trend has been for some of the largest city bus fleets to reverse pro-CNG decisions in favor of ECD. A framework for the analysis of “object conflicts” is developed to elucidate the factors behind the choices between ECD and CNG and to provide a general model for thinking about technology politics and sustainability.

  1. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  2. An Analysis of Transit Bus Driver Distraction Using Multinomial Logistic Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Kelwyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the problem of distracted driving at a regional bus transit agency to identify the sources of distraction and provide an understanding of factors responsible for driver distraction. A risk range system was developed to classify the distracting activities into four risk zones. The high risk zone distracting activities were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression models to determine the impact of various factors on the multiple categorical levels of driver distraction...

  3. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  4. Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration (Report and Appendix)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-11-01

    This document describes the fuel cell transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA). This document provides a description of the demonstration sites, funding sources, and data collection activities for fuel cell transit bus evaluations currently planned from FY10 through FY12.

  5. Land use impacts of rapid transit: implications of recent experience. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.L.; Trygg, L.L.

    1977-08-01

    Evidence of land use impacts of recent major rapid transit improvements are reviewed and conclusions drawn concerning the extent and nature of such impacts and the conditions under which they have occurred. Transit improvements studied are primarily post-World War II in origin. American and Canadian examples are stressed, although European experience is teated briefly. Virtually all major modern American and Canadian rapid transit investments are included, covering conventional rapid rail, commuter rail, light rail and bus/busway. In addition to conclusions on general patterns of land use impact and causes, research recommendations and Federal policy implications are drawn.

  6. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Transit Bus Experience Survey: April 2009--April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.; Horne, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    This survey was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect and analyze experiential data and information from a cross-section of U.S. transit agencies with varying degrees of compressed natural gas (CNG) bus and station experience. This information will be used to assist DOE and NREL in determining areas of success and areas where further technical or other assistance might be required, and to assist them in focusing on areas judged by the CNG transit community as priority items.

  7. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration (Report and Appendix)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2008-05-01

    This document describes the hydrogen transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA).

  8. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  9. Analysis of Control Characteristic for the Drive System of Electric Transit Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张承宁; 李红林; 孙逢春; 张旺

    2003-01-01

    The drive control system of the permanent magnetic direct current motor with the enhanced magnetism windings used in the electric transit bus is developed. The mathematics model of the drive control system for this motor is established. The new mode that the added-exiting magnetism field could be weakened and the speed of the motor could be controlled automatically is proposed and realized. The method of root locus design is applied to analyze the acceleration control characteristic. The results of simulation show that the new drive motor control system has extraordinary response characteristic and adjustable performance. Experiments of vehicle running show that the drive control system's antijamming ability is strong and the adjustable performance is fast and smooth, it can meet the demand of power characteristic very well.

  10. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  11. DESIGN OF TRANSITION TIME ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUE FOR REDUCING BUS DELAY EFFECTS ON NOC INTERCONNECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEERA K S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing computation-intensive applications the number of computing resources in single-chip has enormously increased, because current VLSI technology can support such an extensive integration of transistors. By adding many computing resources such as CPU, DSP, specific IPs, etc to build a system in System-on-Chip, its interconnection between each other becomes another challenging issue. In most System-on-Chip applications, a shared bus interconnection which needs arbitration logic to serialize several bus access requests, is adopted to communicate with each integrated processing unit because of its low-cost and simple control characteristics. However, such shared bus interconnection has some limitation in its scalability because only one master at a time can utilize the bus which means all the bus accesses should be serialized by the arbitrator. Therefore, in such an environment where the number of bus requesters is large and their required bandwidth for interconnection is more than the current bus, some other interconnection methods should be considered. Such scalable bandwidth requirement can be satisfied by using on-chip packet-switched micro-network of interconnects, generally known as Network-on-Chip (NoC architecture. It suffers however from increasingly serious interconnect crosstalk effects, which constrain the overall performance of NOC systems. In this paper some delay tolerance methods are proposed.

  12. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  13. Synchronous Routing for Personal Rapid Transit Pods

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Mrad; Olfa Chebbi; Mohamed Labidi; Mohamed Ali Louly

    2014-01-01

    Personal rapid transit (PRT) is a public and automated transport system in which a fleet of small driverless vehicles operate in order to transport passengers between a set of stations through a network of guided ways. Each customer is carried from one station to another directly with no stop in intermediate stations. This mode of transport can result in a high level of unused capacity due to the empty moves of the vehicles. In this paper, we model the problem of minimizing the energy consume...

  14. Public perception related to a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus demonstration and hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen has been widely considered as a potentially viable alternative to fossil fuels for use in transportation. In addition to price competitiveness with fossil fuels, a key to its adoption will be public perceptions of hydrogen technologies and hydrogen fuel. This paper examines public perceptions of riders of a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus and hydrogen as a fuel source

  15. Synchronous Routing for Personal Rapid Transit Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal rapid transit (PRT is a public and automated transport system in which a fleet of small driverless vehicles operate in order to transport passengers between a set of stations through a network of guided ways. Each customer is carried from one station to another directly with no stop in intermediate stations. This mode of transport can result in a high level of unused capacity due to the empty moves of the vehicles. In this paper, we model the problem of minimizing the energy consumed by the PRT system while assuming predeterministic list of orders; then we solve it using some constructive heuristics. Experiments are run on 1320 randomly generated test problems with various sizes. Our algorithms are shown to give good results over large trip instances.

  16. Bus Routes, This shapefile contains lines that follow the path of the existing bus routes, Published in 2006, Charlotte Area Transit System.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'This shapefile contains lines that follow the path of...

  17. Estimating welfare changes from efficient pricing in public bus transit in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deb, Kaushik; Filippini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Three different and feasible pricing strategies for public bus transport in India are developed in a partial equilibrium framework with the objective of improving economic efficiency and ensuring revenue adequacy, namely average cost pricing, marginal cost pricing, and two-part tariffs. These are assessed not only in terms of gains in economic efficiency, but also in changes in travel demand and consumer surplus. The estimated partial equilibrium price is higher in all three pricing reg...

  18. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  19. Effectiveness of Rapid Rail Transit System in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Ning, Yi-Zi; Ma, Xiaoke; Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, but there is st...

  20. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  1. Transfer benefit model between rail transit and bus transit%轨道交通与常规公交换乘优惠模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 严新平; 李旭宏; 吴超仲

    2011-01-01

    为给公共交通票价票制的整合提供决策参考,从理论上研究了轨道交通与常规公交换乘优惠问题。根据福利经济学理论,分析了轨道交通与常规公交运营协调系统的消费者剩余和生产者剩余;并以社会福利最大化为目标,建立了换乘优惠的非线性规划模型,同时给出了模型求解步骤,以确定轨道交通与常规公交运营协调方向、换乘优惠率、同步发车间隔和车辆衔接富余时间等决策变量。结合算例,对比分析了协调控制情况下换乘优惠实施前后换乘网络的运营效果。结果表明,实行换乘优惠能增加整个运营系统的社会福利,其中消费者剩余和生产者剩余分别增加了7.13%和2.95%。%Transfer benefit between rail transit and bus transit is studied in theory for providing a reference for the integration of public transport fares.According to the theory of welfare economics,the consumer surplus and producer surplus of coordination system between rail transit and bus transit are analyzed.And taking maximizing social welfare as the target,a nonlinear programming model for transfer benefit is proposed.At the same time,the steps to solve the model are introduced to determine the decision-making variables such as coordination direction,transfer discount rate,common headway and slack time.Based on the example,the comparative analysis is performed on operation effect of transfer network before and after the implementation of transfer benefit under coordination control.The results show that the implementation of transfer benefit can increase social welfare of operation system,the consumer surplus and producer surplus are increased 7.13% and 2.95% respectively.4 tabs,12 refs.

  2. 77 FR 48592 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... authorized by 49 U.S.C. 5309(b), as amended by Section 3011 of the Safe, Affordable, Flexible, Efficient... Livability Initiatives (77 FR 6178). The NOFA explained the requirements and procedures for eligible... facilities, bus-related equipment, and transit asset management systems. The FY 2012 Bus...

  3. BUS 650 UOP Material - bus650dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    lucky108

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus650.com BUS 650 Week 1 DQ 1 The Role of Financial Management in a Firm BUS 650 Week 1 DQ 2 Short Term or Long Term View BUS 650 Week 1 Financial Management Challenges BUS 650 Week 2 DQ 1 Initial Investment BUS 650 Week 2 DQ 2 Managing Earnings BUS 650 Week 2 Return on Investment Education Funding BUS 650 Week 3 DQ 1 GAAP vs. IFRS BUS 650 Week 3 DQ 2 Capital Rationing BUS 650 Week 3 Journal Capital Budgeting BUS 650 Week 3 Management of Working Capital Ca...

  4. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  5. Implementation of Bus Rapid Transit in Copenhagen: A Mesoscopic Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Kornerup Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    in service reliability whereas only small reductions to travel time are observed. By combining all BRT elements it is possible to obtain synergies where the improved reliability due to planning and technology elements makes it possible to utilise the infrastructure optimally. Hence, it is possible...... to increase commercial speed from 14.8to19.9km/h and service reliability in terms of headway time regularity from 46% to 84% aggregated on both directions for the morning peak period making the implementation of BRT feasible from a pure financial point of view....

  6. Bus Stops, Bus stops created from hard copy CAT transit maps. Includes information on if there is a shelter present or not., Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, City of Bismarck.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as 'Bus stops...

  7. A Prediction System Using a P2P Overlay Network for a Bus Arrival System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Hsuan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of times and the surge of metropolitan populations, government agencies often promote the construction of public transport. Unlike rail transportation or rapid transit systems, it is often difficult to estimate the vehicle arrival times at each station in a bus transportation system due to metropolitan transportation congestion. Traffic status is often monitored using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, WSNs are always separated from one another spatially. Recent studies have considered the connection of multiple sensor networks. This study considers a combination view of peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks and WSN architecture to predict bus arrival times. Each bus station, which is also a P2P overlay peer, is connected in a P2P overlay network. A sensor installed in each bus can receive data via peers to obtain the moving speed of a bus. Then, each peer can exchange its data to predict bus arrival times at bus stations. This method can considerably increase the accuracy with which bus arrival times can be predicted and can provide traffic status with high precision. Furthermore, these data can also be used to plan new bus routes according to the information gathered.

  8. IPH response to DRD Belfast Rapid Transit Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2010-01-01

    The Department for Regional Development (NI) recently consulted on policy proposals for a Belfast rapid transit.   The IPH response highlighted the need for the proposal to maximise potential for health and a coordinated approach to the development of active travel in Northern Ireland providing alternatives to private transport, increasing physical activity and reducing obesity.

  9. BusTechn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Introduced the characteristics of series communicat io n I 2C bus and basic communication protocol, and introduced the application of the bus I 2C according to the image sensor OV7610.The computer correspondence s tyle can be divided the parallel correspondence and the series correspondence. T he rate of series correspondence is rapid, and the property of real time is exce llent. Because the number of ports which it takes is great, it is not proper to miniaturize. Whereas the rate of series corresponden...

  10. BUS 372 ASH Material - bus372dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    lucky108

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus372.com       BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 1 The Role of Unionization (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 2 Meeting Member Needs (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 1 Profit Interest and Employee Interest (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 2 Union Requirements (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Assignment Changing Landscape of Unions (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 3 DQ 1 Strikes (Ash Course) BUS ...

  11. BUS 372 Tutorials / bus372dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    sunshine3811

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus372.com       BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 1 The Role of Unionization (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 2 Meeting Member Needs (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 1 Profit Interest and Employee Interest (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 2 Union Requirements (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Assignment Changing Landscape of Unions (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 3 DQ 1 Strikes (Ash Course) BUS ...

  12. Effectiveness of Rapid Rail Transit System in Beijing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, but there is still room to improve. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  13. Social Transitions Cause Rapid Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karen P

    2015-08-01

    In species that form dominance hierarchies, there are often opportunities for low-ranking individuals to challenge high-ranking ones, resulting in a rise or fall in social rank. How does an animal rapidly detect, process, and then respond to these social transitions? This article explores and summarizes how these social transitions can rapidly (within 24 h) impact an individual's behavior, physiology, and brain, using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, as a model. Male A. burtoni form hierarchies in which a few brightly-colored dominant males defend territories and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, more drab-colored, do not hold a territory, and have minimal opportunities for reproduction. These social phenotypes are plastic and reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. When the social environment is manipulated to create males that either ascend (subordinate to dominant) or descend (dominant to subordinate) in rank, there are rapid changes in behavior, circulating hormones, and levels of gene expression in the brain that reflect the direction of transition. For example, within minutes, males ascending in status show bright coloration, a distinct eye-bar, increased dominance behaviors, activation of brain nuclei in the social behavior network, and higher levels of sex steroids in the plasma. Ascending males also show rapid changes in levels of neuropeptide and steroid receptors in the brain, as well as in the pituitary and testes. To further examine hormone-behavior relationships in this species during rapid social ascent, the present study also measured levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estradiol, progestins, and cortisol in the plasma during the first week of social ascent and tested for correlations with behavior. Plasma levels of all steroids were rapidly increased at 30 min after social ascent, but were not correlated with

  14. BUS 401 Courses / bus401tutorialdotcom

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

     FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT www.bus401tutorial.com BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 1 Corporate Income Tax and Real Interest Rates (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 2 Cash Flow and Ratio Analysis (Ash Course)  BUS 401 Week 1 Assignment Ratio Analysis (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 1 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 1 Annuity and Capital Asset Pricing (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 2 Bonds and Common Stock (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 Assignment Alternative Investments (Ash Co...

  15. BUS 401 COURSES / bus401tutordotcom

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT www.bus401tutor.com   BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 1 Corporate Income Tax and Real Interest Rates (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 2 Cash Flow and Ratio Analysis (Ash Course)  BUS 401 Week 1 Assignment Ratio Analysis (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 1 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 1 Annuity and Capital Asset Pricing (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 2 Bonds and Common Stock (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 Assignment Alternative Investments (Ash ...

  16. Hybrid fuel cell bus demonstration: advanced technology moves bus forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Province of Manitoba has been actively pursuing hydrogen since 2001 as one part of a portfolio of renewable energy alternatives. Six priority hydrogen actions have been underway covering a variety of opportunities, including two recently completed major transit bus and refueling demonstrations. A brief overview of Manitoba's activities on hydrogen will be provided, emphasizing the lessons learned from recent projects such as the hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus demonstration, and in particular implications for the research community. (author)

  17. Hydrogen Bus Technology Validation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andy; McCaffrey, Zach; Miller, Marshall; Collier, Kirk; Mulligan, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Heavy duty engines are substantial contributors to NOX and PM emissions inventories in urban areas, and stringent emissions standards have been adopted as a consequence. CARB has passed very strict emissions standards for heavy duty engines beginning in 2007. Meeting these standards, especially for NOX emissions, may be difficult for conventional transit bus technologies. The purpose of the Hydrogen Bus Technology Evaluation Program was to develop and evaluate hydrogen enriched natural gas (H...

  18. Rapid current transition in a crossed-field diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transmitted current in a crossed-field gap has been characterized analytically by a number of authors. Using a one dimensional PIC simulation, we explore the behavior of the crossed-field diode at B=BHull. For mono-energetic (cold) emission, a rapid reduction of transmitted current is observed when the injected current exceeds the critical current by just 1%. The addition of a small electron temperature normal to the cathode eliminates the transition, even for kT/V∼10-5 (V=10 kV, gap = 1 cm, B=337 G, J=1.69 A/cm2), while an isotropic velocity distribution accelerates the transition. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. BUS 660 ASH Course Tutorial / bus660dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    vasanthi moola

    2015-01-01

    BUS 660 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.bus660.com   BUS 660 Week 1 Assignment Developing Leaders at UPS BUS 660 Week 2 Assignment Leadership Style BUS 660 Week 3 Assignment Leadership Traits BUS 660 Week 4 Assignment Leadership Skills BUS 660 Week 5 Assignment Big Changes for a Small Hospital BUS 660 Week 6 Assignment Research Paper BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 1 Leadership Defined BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 2 Education and Experience BUS 66...

  20. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  1. 城市轨道交通与地面公交换乘评价模型研究%Research on the city rail transit and ground bus transfer evaluation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛兆雨

    2015-01-01

    在分析轨道交通与地面公交基本属性的基础上,选取换乘距离、安全性、换乘环境、等候时长、换乘信息、换乘公交站点及公交线路总数等评价指标为参数,建立了轨道交通与地面公交换乘站点灰熵模型,其计算结果能够直观地对轨道交通站点换乘的便捷性进行评价,具有一定的应用价值。%This paper analyzed the basic attributes of the rail transit and ground bus,choosed indicators of distance,safety,environment,waiting time,information,number of transfer stations and lines as optimal parameters to evaluate the transfer of rail transit and ground bus site,and estab-lished the rail transit and ground bus transfer site model based on grey entropy. The result can intuitively to evaluate the rail transit site,what’s valuable of practical application.

  2. Bus Routes, Reno County Area Transit polyline layer, Published in 2005, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. It is described as 'Reno County...

  3. Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known

  4. Urban Quality vs Single Travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with theconsequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, togetherwith short-sighted policies of transport and urban developmentspread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion andunlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel topeople living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to thoseliving in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonableurban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic,considered, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of thedeterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italiancities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities,although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovativesolutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by publicadministrations. One of the main environmental detractors is cartraffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike theprevious period.Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reachingthe modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managingthe demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation.,such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developingand increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport,car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollutionreduction and vehicular traffic reduction.For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal RapidTransit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to jointwo apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuringindividual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acousticand air pollution as well as the congestion caused by privatevehicular traffic.In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility ofits fields

  5. BUS 210 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    WVFD

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BUS 210 Week 1 DQ1 and DQ2 BUS 210 Week 1 Checkpoint Business Models and Systems (2 Sets) BUS 210 Week 1 Knowledge Check BUS 210 Week 2 CheckPoint Business Organization  (2 Sets) BUS 210 Week 2 Knowledge Check BUS 210 Week 2 Assignment Evolution of Business Presentation (2 Sets) BUS 210 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 BUS 210 Week 3 CheckPoint Code of Ethics (2 Sets) BUS 210 Week 3 Knowledge Check BUS 2...

  6. 76 FR 77302 - Federal Transit Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Sustainability Funding Opportunity; Transit... Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA...'s (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the selection of Fiscal Year (FY)...

  7. Climatic implications of a rapid wind/solar transition

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartzman, Peter D; Zhang, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    A transition to a fully global renewable energy infrastructure is potentially possible in no more than a few decades, even using current wind/solar technologies. We demonstrate that at its completion this transition would terminate anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere derived from energy consumption in roughly 25 years as well as double current global energy production. This result would provide all human energy needs worldwide and additional energy required for climate adaptation as well as carbon sequestration from the atmosphere to bring down the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to safer levels. The implementation of this energy transition in the near future would maximize the probability for achieving a less than 2 deg C, with a potential 1.5 deg C limit, increase to global temperature over the pre-industrial level by 2100. Our best case scenario utilizes less than 3% of current annual global energy consumption per year with an annual reinvestment of 10% of its growing renewable ...

  8. Jacobi shape transition and hyperdeformation in rapidly rotating warm nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jacobi shape transition from noncollective oblate to hyperdeformed collective prolate or triaxial shape in nuclei is analogous to the Jacobi shape instability occurring in gravitating rotating stars. This happens at a very high spin where pairing has vanished. Thermal fluctuations do not come into play because of near zero temperature in warm nuclei. Further, Jacobian instability occurs before fission instability in light and medium mass nuclei. In the present work, the theoretical approach of Nilsson-Strutinsky extended method for high spin have been followed

  9. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  10. Pre-transitional effects in rapidly expanding quark-gluon plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, A K; Gleiser, Marcello; Gleiser, Marcelo

    2000-01-01

    Within first-order phase transitions, pre-transitional effects are nonperturbative, large-amplitude thermal fluctuations which can promote phase mixing before the critical temperature is reached from above. We investigate if these effects are relevant during heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. In contrast with the cosmological quark-hadron transition, we find that the rapid cooling typical of collider experiments and the fact that the quark-gluon plasma is chemically unsaturated suppress the role of pre-transitional effects at current collider energies.

  11. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  12. 公交地铁一体化下的网络模型与最优路选择算法%Transit network models and optimal path selection algorithm for the integrated bus and subway system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇; 贾欣; 王哲; 王翠柳

    2015-01-01

    公交地铁网络出行线路优选问题是公交网络系统研究的核心问题之一。为此研究了公交地铁一体化条件下的公交网络出行优化模型与算法。构造公交地铁网络的标号模型及映射网络模型,以适当倍数缩小地铁线路上站点之间的权值,进而可将公交与地铁进行一体化处理,缩小后可使地铁线路具有明显的优势以达到优选地铁的目的。运用映射网络图、二分图、半张量积等理论给出了公交地铁一体化网络的最优路选择算法。最后实证了该方法在公交地铁网络线路优选的有效性。%In this paper, the travel optimal model and algorithm of public transit network for the integrated bus and subway system are studied. First, a label model and mapped network model are constructed for the bus and subway network. The weight between two subway stations is appropriately reduced to deal with the bus and subway integra⁃tion problem. The subway has obvious advantages after reduction and subway becomes the preferred option. Next, the optimal path selection algorithm of the integration network of bus and subway is given using the mapping net⁃work graph, bipartite graph, and semi⁃tensor product theory. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method in optimized selection of the public transit network is illustrated by a numerical example.

  13. The physical origins of transit time measurements for rapid, single cell mechanotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Kendra D; Scott, Michael B; Bruce, Samuel L; Gopinath, Ajay B; Bikos, Dimitri; Mason, Thomas G; Kim, Jin Woong; Choi, Hong Sung; Rowat, Amy C

    2016-08-16

    The mechanical phenotype or 'mechanotype' of cells is emerging as a potential biomarker for cell types ranging from pluripotent stem cells to cancer cells. Using a microfluidic device, cell mechanotype can be rapidly analyzed by measuring the time required for cells to deform as they flow through constricted channels. While cells typically exhibit deformation timescales, or transit times, on the order of milliseconds to tens of seconds, transit times can span several orders of magnitude and vary from day to day within a population of single cells; this makes it challenging to characterize different cell samples based on transit time data. Here we investigate how variability in transit time measurements depends on both experimental factors and heterogeneity in physical properties across a population of single cells. We find that simultaneous transit events that occur across neighboring constrictions can alter transit time, but only significantly when more than 65% of channels in the parallel array are occluded. Variability in transit time measurements is also affected by the age of the device following plasma treatment, which could be attributed to changes in channel surface properties. We additionally investigate the role of variability in cell physical properties. Transit time depends on cell size; by binning transit time data for cells of similar diameters, we reduce measurement variability by 20%. To gain further insight into the effects of cell-to-cell differences in physical properties, we fabricate a panel of gel particles and oil droplets with tunable mechanical properties. We demonstrate that particles with homogeneous composition exhibit a marked reduction in transit time variability, suggesting that the width of transit time distributions reflects the degree of heterogeneity in subcellular structure and mechanical properties within a cell population. Our results also provide fundamental insight into the physical underpinnings of transit measurements

  14. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  15. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences bet

  16. 75 FR 20541 - Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Defining “Homeless”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... the proposal by name and docket number (FR-5333-P-01) and must be sent to: HUD Desk Officer, Office of... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 577 RIN 2506-AC26 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Defining ``Homeless'' AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning...

  17. Sex reversal triggers the rapid transition from genetic to temperature-dependent sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleley, Clare E; O'Meally, Denis; Sarre, Stephen D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Ezaz, Tariq; Matsubara, Kazumi; Azad, Bhumika; Zhang, Xiuwen; Georges, Arthur

    2015-07-01

    Sex determination in animals is amazingly plastic. Vertebrates display contrasting strategies ranging from complete genetic control of sex (genotypic sex determination) to environmentally determined sex (for example, temperature-dependent sex determination). Phylogenetic analyses suggest frequent evolutionary transitions between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination in environmentally sensitive lineages, including reptiles. These transitions are thought to involve a genotypic system becoming sensitive to temperature, with sex determined by gene-environment interactions. Most mechanistic models of transitions invoke a role for sex reversal. Sex reversal has not yet been demonstrated in nature for any amniote, although it occurs in fish and rarely in amphibians. Here we make the first report of reptile sex reversal in the wild, in the Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and use sex-reversed animals to experimentally induce a rapid transition from genotypic to temperature-dependent sex determination. Controlled mating of normal males to sex-reversed females produces viable and fertile offspring whose phenotypic sex is determined solely by temperature (temperature-dependent sex determination). The W sex chromosome is eliminated from this lineage in the first generation. The instantaneous creation of a lineage of ZZ temperature-sensitive animals reveals a novel, climate-induced pathway for the rapid transition between genetic and temperature-dependent sex determination, and adds to concern about adaptation to rapid global climate change. PMID:26135451

  18. Bus holding control method in public transit systems with multi- agent reinforcement learning%基于多智能体增强学习的公交驻站控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春晓; 陈治亚; 陈维亚

    2015-01-01

    车辆驻站是减少串车现象和改善公交服务可靠性的常用且有效控制策略,其执行过程需要在随机交互的系统环境中进行动态决策。考虑实时公交运营信息的可获得性,研究智能体完全合作环境下公交车辆驻站增强学习控制问题,建立基于多智能体系统的单线公交控制概念模型,描述学习框架下包括智能体状态、动作集、收益函数、协调机制等主要元素,采用hysteretic Q-learning算法求解问题。仿真实验结果表明该方法能有效防止串车现象并保持单线公交服务系统车头时距的均衡性。%Vehicle holding is a commonly used strategy among a variety of control strategies in transit operation for improv-ing transit service reliability, whose implementation needs dynamic decision-making in an interactive and stochastic sys-tem environment. This paper introduces a novel use of a reinforcement learning framework to obtain vehicle holding autonomous control strategy in cooperative multi-agent system. Transit operation control model is developed based on multi-agent system. In the multi-agent reinforcement learning framework, each bus is modeled as an independent agent with learning abilities, for which the state, actions and reward are defined and a coordination mechanism for multiple bus agents is designed to obtain a joint holding actions. The hysteretic Q-learning algorithm is used to solve this holding prob-lem. From the simulation experiments, the results illustrate that the proposed approach is able to prevent buses from bunching and regulate bus headway.

  19. 面向换乘枢纽的轨道交通与道路公交协调调度方法%Coordination Dispatching between Urban Rail Transit and Regular Bus for Transfer Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华; 刘志钢; 高云峰

    2011-01-01

    Connection at the transfer center influences directly the operational reliability of multi-modal transit network. Aimed at the problems of public transit operation management in China's big cities,this paper puts forward a coordinated dispatching model between urban rail transit (URT) and bus for transfer center from the angle of transportation management. Based on the connotation and the mechanism of coordination dispatching, on the analysis of the time and space process of transfer,this paper proposes a method of coordination dispatching between URT and bus for transfer center. The researching results demonstrate that the setting of equal headway or integral multiple one, the reasonable interval of time between arrival/departure and slack time can improve the probability of transfer coordination between URT and bus,correspondingly reduce passengers' transfer time.%枢纽换乘是影响多模式公共交通网络运行可靠性的关键环节.针对我国大城市公共交通运营管理现状,从运输管理层面提出了换乘枢纽的轨道交通与道路公交协调调度管理模式.基于轨道交通与道路公交运营调度协调的内涵、模式及换乘时空过程解析,提出了实现换乘枢纽内轨道交通与道路公交运营调度协调的方法.研究结果表明,通过设置相同或成整数倍的发车间隔、合理的到达和出发时间间隔以及离站松弛时间,可以提高换乘枢纽内轨道交通和道路公交间的换乘协调概率,确保乘客换乘时间最优化.

  20. The erigone bus study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of some factors determining the performance and cost-effectiveness of microcomputer bus systems implemented in Europa crates. An experimental system has been specified and a number of modules constructed in accordance with the specification, in order to test the validity of some of the ideas proposed. It has been demonstrated that the bus interfacing logic can be simple and inexpensive, while maintaining a high degree of processor independence and also a high degree of transparency in operation. The number of pins required by the bus is minimized by multiplexing address and data. A series termination for the drive of the multiplexed lines permits cross-talk to be reduced to insignificant levels: this technique is recommended for wider application. The experimental bus is proposed as a basis for the construction of simple microcomputer-based instrumentation systems. (orig.)

  1. Bus.py

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-07-21

    GridLAB-D is an agent? based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. GridLAB-D addresses the lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator.

  2. LHC on the bus

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  3. BUS 660 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

      www.uophelp.com         BUS 660 Week 1 Assignment Developing Leaders at UPS BUS 660 Week 2 Assignment Leadership Style BUS 660 Week 3 Assignment Leadership Traits BUS 660 Week 4 Assignment Leadership Skills BUS 660 Week 5 Assignment Big Changes for a Small Hospital BUS 660 Week 6 Assignment Research Paper BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 1 Leadership Defined BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 2 Education and Experience BUS 660 Week 2 DQ 1 Lea...

  4. Rapid increases in ventilation accompany the transition from passive to active movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Harold J; Duffin, James

    2006-06-01

    We used a novel movement transition technique to look for evidence of a rapid onset drive to breathe related to the active component of exercise in humans. Ten volunteers performed the following transitions in a specially designed tandem exercise chair apparatus: rest to passive movement, passive to active movement, and rest to active movement. The transition from rest to active exercise was accompanied by an immediate increase in ventilation, as was the transition from rest to passive leg movement (Delta = 6.06 +/- 1.09 l min(-1), p ventilation again increased immediately and significantly (Delta = 2.55 +/- 0.52 l min(-1), p = 0.032). Ventilation at the first point of active exercise was the same when started either from rest or from a background of passive leg movement (p = 1.00). We conclude that the use of a transition from passive to active leg movements in humans recruits a ventilatory drive related to the active component of exercise, and this can be discerned as a rapid increase in breathing.

  5. Rapid Fatal Outcome from Pulmonary Arteries Compression in Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Voutsadakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a malignancy that metastasizes frequently to lymph nodes including the mediastinal lymph nodes. This occurrence may produce symptoms due to compression of adjacent structures such as the superior vena cava syndrome or dysphagia from esophageal compression. We report the case of a 59-year-old man with metastatic transitional cell carcinoma for whom mediastinal lymphadenopathy led to pulmonary artery compression and a rapidly fatal outcome. This rare occurrence has to be distinguished from pulmonary embolism, a much more frequent event in cancer patients, in order that proper and prompt treatment be initiated.

  6. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  7. The Great Transformations of Tibet and Xinjiang: a comparative analysis of rapid labour transitions in times of rapid growth in two contested minority regions of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRapid growth since the mid-1990s in the Tibetan and Uyghur areas in Western China has been associated with the rapid transition of the local (mostly Tibetan and Uyghur) labour forces out of the primary sector (mostly farming and herding) and into the tertiary sector (services). The TAR,

  8. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  9. The Impacts of the Mass Rapid Transit System on Household Car Ownership in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiu Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT system on household car ownership and analyses how socioeconomic characteristics affect household car ownership. We employ a difference-in-difference (DID strategy integrated with generalized Poisson regression models to examine the effects of MRT. The results are as follows: first, the establishment of Taipei MRT significantly reduced the level of household car ownership. Expanding the network of MRT system can be a feasible policy to control car ownership. Second, the levels of household car ownership are related to household’s socioeconomic characteristics. Third, households with high dependence on public transport own fewer cars after Taipei MRT began operation. Hence, the traffic authority should adopt more effective methods to encourage public transit use in order to decrease household car ownership.

  10. BUS 401 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 1 Corporate Income Tax and Real Interest Rates BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 2 Cash Flow and Ratio Analysis BUS 401 Week 1 Assignment Ratio Analysis BUS 401 Week 1 Quiz BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 1 Annuity and Capital Asset Pricing BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 2 Bonds and Common Stock BUS 401 Week 2 Assignment Alternative Investments BUS 401 Week 2 Quiz BUS 401 Week 3 DQ 1 NPV, PI, and IRR BUS 401 Week 3 ...

  11. Financing Rail Rapid Transit System: A Comparison Between Chicago and Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Detailed financial information of a rail rapid line project is often unavailable to the general public until a project has been completed for a couple of years and even for decades. This is especially true in the Chinese context. Based on available information, this paper compares four aspects of the financing of two rail rapid lines that were built almost simultaneously in Shanghai of China and Chicago of the US. The author finds: first, the central governments had the greatest impact on the capital investment in both lines; second, the formation of transit and financial plans in two cities both involved complicated political processes which were shaped by certain political figures and unforeseeable events; third, in the longer term, it was more expensive to maintain a rail rapid line than to build a new line in both countries; and finally, mainly depending on foreign loans and bonds, Shanghai faced greater challenge in offsetting the financial deficit. But this situation was improved as the Shanghai rail rapid system expanded and matured.

  12. BUS 437 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 1 Assignment Company Description ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 1 DQ 1 Writing the Business Plan ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 1 DQ 2 Using Outside Help to Write the Plan ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 2 Assignment Marketing Section ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 2 DQ 1 Customer Survey ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 2 DQ 2 Industry Analysis ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 3 Assignment Strategy...

  13. 城市轨道交通接运公交最优长度与线路布设研究%Optimization Model and Planning Method of Feeder Bus Route for Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭本峰; 张杰林; 李铁柱

    2012-01-01

    本文首先考虑了土地性质、出行需求和公交运营成本等因素,建立公交运营效益最大的接驳范围单变量非线性单变量规划模型,经过参数标定与约束的简化后采用二分法求解。在模型的约束中使用站点聚集效应距离衰减函数建立需求与接驳距离的关系式,并通过单约束重力模型获得的距离与需求样本对其进行参数标定。然后,以接驳范围为约束指导新增线路布设和原有线路调整。前者以站点覆盖率、非直线系数、运营费用等为指标,整体客运系统运输效率最大为目标,使用启发式解法布设新增公交接驳线路;后者根据定性定量相结合的原则,依流程调整原有线路走向。本研究需要采集的数据并不复杂,可用于指导轨道站点公交接驳相关工程实践。%This paper established a single-variable linear programming model considering the land-use condition, travel demand, transit operating costs and other factors, which aimed to determine what feeder scope could maximum the feeder bus's efficiency. Using the dichotomy the solution was get after fitting the parameters and simplifying the constraints. Using the range attenuation function of site aggregation effect a relationship was between the traffic demand and feeder distance, and using the distance and deman obtained from single gravity model the relation's parameters were calibrated. Then, the new lanes and adjusted the existed lanes of the feeder scope. To arrange the ne created d sample planted w lanes:site coverage, non-linear coefficients and operating costs were used as the indicators, the maximum of overall efficiency of the passenger transport system as the ultimate goal,the heuristic solution was used to arrange the new bus feeder lines. Based on the quantitative and qualitative synthetic analysis, the exited lines were adjusted on process. The needed data in this study is not complex, so the outcome of this

  14. Mobility Innovation Through a Combined System of Rapid Mass Transit and Bike Rental in Shanghai Suburbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Residents of the Shanghai suburbs find it hard to access transportation. This paper begins by introducing the context and features of the bike-rental rental system, and then describes the innovative mobility project combining Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and a public bike rental system jointly established and run by the Forever Group and local government through a PPP model. The project, which has many technical patents, is headed by Forever Group and run in cooperation with local government, providing bottom-up popularization and development of bike-rental services in the areas surrounding the main rail transit stations. On the basis of a case study on Minhang District and a questionnaire, the paper further demonstrates that the bike rental system improves travel conditions for residents of the suburbs, expands the effective service radius around the rail transit stations and provides possibilities for more wide-ranging restructuring of land-use, which will help to balance the unidirectional tidal flow of transportation.

  15. A high-resolution chronology of rapid forest transitions following polynesian arrival in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B McWethy

    Full Text Available Human-caused forest transitions are documented worldwide, especially during periods when land use by dense agriculturally-based populations intensified. However, the rate at which prehistoric human activities led to permanent deforestation is poorly resolved. In the South Island, New Zealand, the arrival of Polynesians c. 750 years ago resulted in dramatic forest loss and conversion of nearly half of native forests to open vegetation. This transformation, termed the Initial Burning Period, is documented in pollen and charcoal records, but its speed has been poorly constrained. High-resolution chronologies developed with a series of AMS radiocarbon dates from two lake sediment cores suggest the shift from forest to shrubland occurred within decades rather than centuries at drier sites. We examine two sites representing extreme examples of the magnitude of human impacts: a drier site that was inherently more vulnerable to human-set fires and a wetter, less burnable site. The astonishing rate of deforestation at the hands of small transient populations resulted from the intrinsic vulnerability of the native flora to fire and from positive feedbacks in post-fire vegetation recovery that increased landscape flammability. Spatially targeting burning in highly-flammable seral vegetation in forests rarely experiencing fire was sufficient to create an alternate fire-prone stable state. The New Zealand example illustrates how seemingly stable forest ecosystems can experience rapid and permanent conversions. Forest loss in New Zealand is among the fastest ecological transitions documented in the Holocene; yet equally rapid transitions can be expected in present-day regions wherever positive feedbacks support alternate fire-inhibiting, fire-prone stable states.

  16. 76 FR 37175 - FY 2011 Discretionary Sustainability Funding Opportunity Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... project; (2) Constructing or leasing clean fuel bus facilities or electrical recharging facilities and... With Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT... (TIGGER) program and Clean Fuels Grant program, augmented with Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities...

  17. BUS 402 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp-

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     BUS 402 Week 1 DQ 1 Environmental Changes BUS 402 Week 1 DQ 2 Vision and Mission BUS 402 Week 2 DQ 1 Components of External Environment  BUS 402 Week 2 DQ 2 Components of Internal Analysis BUS 402 Week 2 Assignment Starbucks S.W.O.T. Analysis BUS 402 Week 3 DQ 1 Market Positioning Strategies BUS 402 Week 3 DQ 2 Vertical Integration BUS 402 Week 4 DQ 1 International Markets BUS 40...

  18. BUS 642 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    www.uophelp.com     BUS 642 Week 1 DQ 1 Scientific Thinking (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 1 DQ 2 Making Research Decisions (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 1 Exercises (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 2 DQ 1 Ethics in Business Research (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 2 DQ 2 Design of Research (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 2 Exercises (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 3 DQ 1 Measurement Scales (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 3 DQ 2 Clarifying the Research Questions (Ash Course) BUS...

  19. BUS 437 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 437 Week 1 Assignment Company Description BUS 437 Week 1 DQ 1 Writing the Business Plan BUS 437 Week 1 DQ 2 Using Outside Help to Write the Plan BUS 437 Week 2 Assignment Marketing Section BUS 437 Week 2 DQ 1 Customer Survey BUS 437 Week 2 DQ 2 Industry Analysis BUS 437 Week 3 Assignment Strategy, Implementation, & Management Sections BUS 437 Week 3 DQ 1 Implementation BUS 437 Week 3 DQ ...

  20. Best Operational and Maintenance Practices for City Bus Fleets to Maximize Fuel Economy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In most large cities in developing countries, buses continue to be the public transport option of choice, carrying a large share of urban travelers. However, transit bus companies in these countries are often cash-strapped. In many cases, the operating cost per bus kilometer exceeds revenues and bus fares are often kept low irrespective of the cost of providing service. Many cities are dom...

  1. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Park, Changyong; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin, E-mail: gshen@ciw.edu [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03–13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Q{sub eff}) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Q{sub eff} is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Q{sub eff} with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed.

  2. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Park, Changyong; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2016-01-01

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03-13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Qeff) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Qeff is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Qeff with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed.

  3. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03–13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Qeff) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Qeff is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Qeff with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed

  4. The Effects of Bus Ridership on Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Her

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by rapid urbanization and the increased use of private vehicles seriously affects citizens’ health. In order to alleviate air pollution, many cities have replaced diesel buses with compressed natural gas (CNG buses that emit less exhaust gas. Urban planning strategies such as transit-oriented development (TOD posit that reducing private vehicle use and increasing public transportation use would reduce air pollution levels. The present study examined the effects of bus ridership on airborne particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in the capital region of Korea. We interpolated the levels of PM10 from 128 air pollution monitoring stations, utilizing the Kriging method. Spatial regression models were used to estimate the impact of bus ridership on PM10 levels, controlling for physical environment attributes and socio-economic factors. The analysis identified that PM10 concentration levels tend to be lower in areas with greater bus ridership. This result implies that urban and transportation policies designed to promote public transportation may be effective strategies for reducing air pollution.

  5. Simulating Congestion Dynamics of Train Rapid Transit using Smart Card Data

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Nasri Bin; Selvam, Vicknesh; Monterola, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Investigating congestion in train rapid transit systems (RTS) in today's urban cities is a challenge compounded by limited data availability and difficulties in model validation. Here, we integrate information from travel smart card data, a mathematical model of route choice, and a full-scale agent-based model of the Singapore RTS to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the congestion dynamics than can be obtained through analytical modelling alone. Our model is empirically validated, and allows for close inspection of the dynamics including station crowdedness, average travel duration, and frequency of missed trains---all highly pertinent factors in service quality. Using current data, the crowdedness in all 121 stations appears to be distributed log-normally. In our preliminary scenarios, we investigate the effect of population growth on service quality. We find that the current population (2 million) lies below a critical point; and increasing it beyond a factor of $\\sim10\\%$ leads to an exponenti...

  6. Structure of a strong supernova shock wave and rapid electron acceleration confined in its transition region

    CERN Document Server

    Shimada, Nobue; Amano, Takanobu; 10.1063/1.3322828

    2010-01-01

    A new rapid energization process within a supernova shock transition region (STR) is reported by utilizing numerical simulation. Although the scale of a STR as a main dissipation region is only several hundreds of thousands km, several interesting structures are found relating to generation of a root of the energetic particles. The nonlinear evolution of plasma instabilities lead to a dynamical change in the ion phase space distribution which associates with change of the field properties. As a result, different types of large-amplitude field structures appear. One is the leading wave packet and another is a series of magnetic solitary humps. Each field structure has a microscopic scale (~ the ion inertia length). Through the multiple nonlinear scattering between these large-amplitude field structures, electrons are accelerated directly. Within a STR, quick thermalization realizes energy equipartition between the ion and electron, hot electrons play an important role in keeping these large-amplitude field str...

  7. A rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal approach to lower-valent transition metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead-Rosenberg, Zachary; Harrison, Katharine L; Turner, Travis; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-11-18

    A green, rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal process using tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as a reducing agent has been explored as a soft-chemistry route for the preparation of various lower-valent transition metal oxides. To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, lower-valent binary oxides such as V4O9, Mn3O4 or MnO, CoO, and Cu2O have been obtained within a short reaction time of 30 min by reducing, respectively, V2O5, MnO2, Co3O4, and CuO with TEG at LaCoO3, LaNiO3, and La4Ni3O10. The oxidation state of the transition metal ions and the oxygen content in these ternary oxides could be tuned by precisely controlling the reaction temperatures from 160 to 300 °C. The products have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and iodometric titration. The versatility of this novel technique is demonstrated by the facile synthesis of V4O9, which has only been produced recently in single-phase form.

  8. Experiments on the rapid mechanical expansion of liquid 4He through its superfluid transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, V B; Griffiths, O J; Hendry, P C; Kolmakov, G V; McClintock, P V E; Skrbek, L

    2006-11-01

    Phenomena following a rapid mechanical quench of liquid 4He from its normal to its superfluid phase are reported and discussed. The mechanical expansion apparatus is an improved version of that described previously. It uses a double-cell geometry to effect a partial separation of the sample from the convolutions of the bellows that form the outer wall of the cell. Consistent with earlier work, no evidence is found for the production of quantized vortices via the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) mechanism. Although the expansion is complete within 15ms , the second-sound velocity and attenuation continue to increase for a further approximately 60ms ; correspondingly the temperature decreases. Subsequently, the temperature rises again toward its final value as the second-sound velocity and attenuation decrease. It is shown that this unexpected behavior is apparently associated with a large-amplitude second-sound oscillation produced by the expansion, and it is suggested that the observed vortices are created by the normal fluid-superfluid counterflow that constitutes the second-sound wave. If production of large-amplitude second sound is inherent to the mechanical expansion of liquid 4He through the superfluid transition, as appears to be the case for final temperatures more than 3mK from the lambda transition, the phenomenon sets a lower bound on the density of KZ vortices that can be detected in this type of experiment. PMID:17279991

  9. Does rapid urbanization aggravate health disparities? Reflections on the epidemiological transition in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Kroll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid urbanization in low- and middle-income countries reinforces risk and epidemiological transition in urban societies, which are characterized by high socioeconomic gradients. Limited availability of disaggregated morbidity data in these settings impedes research on epidemiological profiles of different population subgroups. Objective: The study aimed to analyze the epidemiological transition in the emerging megacity of Pune with respect to changing morbidity and mortality patterns, also taking into consideration health disparities among different socioeconomic groups. Design: A mixed-methods approach was used, comprising secondary analysis of mortality data, a survey among 900 households in six neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles, 46 in-depth interviews with laypeople, and expert interviews with 37 health care providers and 22 other health care workers. Results: The mortality data account for an epidemiological transition with an increasing number of deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs in Pune. The share of deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases remained nearly constant, though the cause of deaths changed considerably within this group. The survey data and expert interviews indicated a slightly higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among higher socioeconomic groups, but a higher incidence and more frequent complications and comorbidities in lower socioeconomic groups. Although the self-reported morbidity for malaria, gastroenteritis, and tuberculosis did not show a socioeconomic pattern, experts estimated the prevalence in lower socioeconomic groups to be higher, though all groups in Pune would be affected. Conclusions: The rising burden of NCDs among all socioeconomic groups and the concurrent persistence of communicable diseases pose a major challenge for public health. Improvement of urban health requires a stronger focus on health promotion and disease prevention for all

  10. Rapid solid-state metathesis route to transition-metal doped titanias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Nathaniel; Perera, Sujith; Gillan, Edward G.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid solid-state metathesis (SSM) reactions are often short-lived highly exothermic reactions that yield a molten alkali halide salt that aids in product growth and crystallization. SSM reactions may also produce kinetically stabilized structures due to the short (seconds) reaction times. This report describes the investigation of rapid SSM reactions in the synthesis of transition-metal doped titanias (M-TiO2). The dopant targeted compositions were ten mol percent and based on elemental analysis, many of the M-TiO2 samples were close to this targeted level. Based on surface analysis, some samples showed large enrichment in surface dopant content, particularly chromium and manganese doped samples. Due to the highly exothermic nature of these reactions, rutile structured TiO2 was observed in all cases. The M-TiO2 samples are visible colored and show magnetic and optical properties consistent with the dopant in an oxide environment. UV and visible photocatalytic experiments with these visibly colored rutile M-TiO2 powders showed that many of them are strongly absorbent for methylene blue dye and degrade the dye under both UV and visible light illumination. This work may open up SSM reactions as an alternate non-thermodynamic reaction strategy for dopant incorporation into a wide range of oxide and non-oxides.

  11. BUS 611 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 611 Week 1 Assignment Article Review (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 2 Assignment Project Risk (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 3 Assignment WBS (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 4 Assignment Integrated Project Management Tools (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 5 Assignment Monthly Status Reports (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 6 Final Research Paper (Ash Course)  

  12. BUS 620 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 1 What is Marketing (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 2 Marketing Strategies (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 1 The Future of the New York Times (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 1 Buyer Behavior (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 2 Customer Needs (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 2 Industry Forecasting (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 3 DQ 1 Braining Nordstrom (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 3 DQ 2 Marketing Segmentat...

  13. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  14. Standard satellite data bus initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Timothy; Yousef, Hassan

    The USAF Space Technology Center manages programs to reduce satellite costs through the appropriate use of microelectronics standardization. Ongoing programs such as the Standard Spacecraft Memory Module and Generic VHSIC Spaceborne Computer have provided an insight into the value of standardization and led to an initiative to coordinate microelectronics development around a standard satellite data bus, which should reduce costs by eliminating program- and contractor-unique interfaces, increasing production runs, and developing generic test equipment. Current efforts focus on the satellite housekeeping functions, and it is expected that the mission payload would also use this data bus. Based on existing housekeeping data-traffic requirements, several candidates have been identified for the standard data bus. The two candidates selected for further work are the ANSI X3T9.5 data bus and the linear token-passing data bus being proposed as part of the Advanced Tactical Fighter effort.

  15. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  16. Capacity models on expressway near a bus bay stop with an access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪宾; 孙小端; 贺玉龙; 宇仁德

    2015-01-01

    To determinate the expressway capacity near a bus bay stop with an access, capacity models on the expressway near a bus stop with an access were developed on the basis of gap acceptance theory and queuing theory. Depending on a bus stop position to an entrance or an exit ramp, the capacity models were developed for four cases. Bus bay stops with overflow and bus bay stops without overflow were considered. A comparison of simulation experiment and model calculation was carried out. Results show that the suggested models have high accuracy and reliability, at bus arrival rate below 60 vehicles per hour (veh/h) or vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit below 200 passenger cars units per hour (pcu/h), and there are no significant difference in the capacities for four cases. When bus arrival rate is above 240 veh/h, the capacities of all four cases will decline rapidly. With berth number increasing, the increasing of the capacities is no obvious for four cases. As the bus arrival rate and vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit increase, bus stops located downstream of an entrance and upstream of an exit have a remarkably effect on the capacities. The latter case is much heavier than the former. Those results can be used to traffic design and optimization on urban expressway near a bus stop with an access.

  17. Bus Routes, This Layer was compiled by GRTA to support the annual submission of transit route information to the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) for inclusion in the National Transit Database (NTD)., Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Atlanta Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'This Layer was...

  18. Planning and Design of Intelligent System for Bus Rapid Transit%快速公交(BRT)智能系统规划与设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少飞; 高乃明

    2011-01-01

    First, this paper sums up the definition of BRT intelligent system, and analyzes the designing objective ot BRT intelligent system. Then, it concludes the functions of BRT intelligent system. Furthermore, it establishes the framework and integration model of BRT intelligent system. Finally, this paper puts forward the concept of" one-design,phased implementation" and the priority intelligent technology options for BRT.%随着快速公交系统在我国的迅猛发展及运营管理经验的逐步积累,更加重视快速公交智能技术的创新与应用正成为专业人士的共识,但目前快速公交系统总体规划却忽视了智能系统的实际用户需求,使得快速公交系统运营无法实现效益最优.对快速公交智能系统进行了定义,分析其设计目标和主要功能,建立其框架结构和集成模型,在此基础上提出"一次设计、分期实施"的理念和快速公交智能技术优先选择方案.

  19. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study on Leadership: Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Presentation); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (RFTA) represents a series of unique successes in alternative fuel deployment by pushing the envelope with innovative solutions. In the last year, RFTA demonstrated the ability to utilize compressed natural gas buses at a range of altitudes, across long distances, in extreme weather conditions and in a modern indoor fueling and maintenance facility - allwhile saving money and providing high-quality customer service. This case study will highlight how the leadership of organizations and communities that are implementing advances in natural gas vehicle technology is paving the way for broader participation.

  20. Status and future transition of rapid urbanizing landscape in central Western Ghats - CA based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, S..; Rajan, K. S.; Ramachandra, T. V.

    2014-11-01

    The land use changes in forested landscape are highly complex and dynamic, affected by the natural, socio-economic, cultural, political and other factors. The remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques coupled with multi-criteria evaluation functions such as Markov-cellular automata (CA-Markov) model helps in analysing intensity, extent and future forecasting of human activities affecting the terrestrial biosphere. Karwar taluk of Central Western Ghats in Karnataka state, India has seen rapid transitions in its forest cover due to various anthropogenic activities, primarily driven by major industrial activities. A study based on Landsat and IRS derived data along with CA-Markov method has helped in characterizing the patterns and trends of land use changes over a period of 2004-2013, expected transitions was predicted for a set of scenarios through 2013-2022. The analysis reveals the loss of pristine forest cover from 75.51% to 67.36% (1973 to 2013) and increase in agriculture land as well as built-up area of 8.65% (2013), causing impact on local flora and fauna. The other factors driving these changes are the aggregated level of demand for land, local and regional effects of land use activities such as deforestation, improper practices in expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development, deteriorating natural resources availability. The spatio temporal models helped in visualizing on-going changes apart from prediction of likely changes. The CA-Markov based analysis provides us insights into the localized changes impacting these regions and can be useful in developing appropriate mitigation management approaches based on the modelled future impacts. This necessitates immediate measures for minimizing the future impacts.

  1. BUS BAY PERFORMANCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CAPACITY OF ROAD NETWORK IN DAR ES SALAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin K. Mushule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of major problems facing motorists in Dar es Salaam city today is congestion. Bus bays have a significant influence on the capacity of a roadway because they interfere with passing vehicles primarily when buses maneuver to pull into and out of bus bays. Bus bay stops will also interfere with vehicles movement if bus demand exceeds the bus bay capacity resulting in some buses waiting in the travel lane until the buses occupying the bay exit the bay. This paper presents the results of a study which was carried out to evaluate the bus bay performance and its influence on the capacity of the roadway network in the city of Dar es Salaam. The case study area covered 11 bus stops along Morogoro road from Ubungo to Magomeni Mapipa. Capacity of bus bays was studied using procedure outlined in the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual of 2003. This enabled the researcher to determine parameters such as dwell times and clearance times which are major determinants of bus stop capacity. The results indicate that only 18% of the bus bay stops studied did not have adequate capacity to cater for the available demand. 9% did not have adequate capacity during peak hours but the capacity was adequate during off-peak hours. The remaining 73% of bus bay stops possess adequate capacity all the time. Although most bus bay stops studied possess adequate capacity, severe congestion was observed at these locations. This is due to erratic behavior of bus drivers who do not utilize the provided space for them to drop off and pick up passengers. Clearly, this is an area that requires more strict enforcement in order to ease the congestion problem in the city by operating the existing capacity more efficiently."

  2. Effect of formulated ingredients on rapidly disintegrating oral tablets prepared by the crystalline transition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masaaki; Narisawa, Shinji; Matsubara, Koji; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Minoru; Handa, Tetsurou

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this article was to determine the optimal ingredients for the rapidly disintegrating oral tablets prepared by the crystalline transition method (CT method). The effect of ingredients (diluent, active drug substance and amorphous sugar) on the characteristics of the tablets was investigated. The ingredients were compressed and the resultant tablets were stored under various conditions. The oral disintegration time of the tablet significantly depended on diluents, due to differences in the penetration of a small amount of water in the mouth and the viscous area formed inside the tablet. The oral disintegration time was 10-30 s for tablets with a tensile strength of approximately 1 MPa, when erythritol, mannitol or xylitol was used as the diluent. The increase in the tensile strength of tablets containing highly water-soluble active drug substances during storage was as large as that of tablets without active drug substances, while the increase in the tensile strength of tablets containing low water-soluble active drug substances was small. It was therefore found that highly water-soluble active drug substances were more suitable for the formulation prepared by the CT method than low water-soluble active drug substances. Irrespective of the type of amorphous sugar (amorphous sucrose, lactose or maltose) used, the porosity of tablets with 1 MPa of tensile strength was 30-40%, and their oral disintegration time was 10-20 s. The optimal ingredients for rapidly disintegrating oral tablets with reasonable tensile strength and disintegration time were therefore determined from these results. PMID:16462059

  3. The Myth of the "Ideal Bus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Does as an ideal bus technology exist? Many companies have and will promote a single technology as the ideal bus that will meet all application needs, but in actuality, each bus technology has its own strengths and weaknesses and thus is appropriate for different applications. History has shown the folly of claiming an ideal bus for every application.

  4. High-Speed Ring Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  5. BUS 402 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    jonh

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 1 DQ 1 Environmental Changes ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 1 DQ 2 Vision and Mission ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 2 DQ 1 Components of External Environment ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 2 DQ 2 Components of Internal Analysis ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 2 Assignment Starbucks S.W.O.T. Analysis ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 3 DQ 1 Market Positioning Strategies ASHFORD BUS 402 W...

  6. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  7. BUS 501 Str course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophel

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     BUS 501 Week 3 Assignment 1 The Independent Government Cost Estimate and the Statement of Work (Str Course) BUS 501 Week 4 Assignment 2 Types of Contracts and Performance-Based Acquisition (Str Course) BUS 501 Week 7 Assignment 3 Small Business Program and Source Selection Plans (Str Course) BUS 501 Assignment 4 Technical and Cost or Price Evaluations and Price Reasonableness (Str Course) BUS 501 Wee...

  8. BUS 599 Str course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 599 Week 1 Assignment Crafting and Executing Strategy Case JetBlue Airways BUS 599 Assignment #2 Competitive Forces and SWOT Analysis # Case Whole Foods Market BUS 599 Week 3 Assignment Foreign Market Entry and Diversification Case Corona Beer BUS 599 Week 4 Assignment HRM Issues Diversification Strategies Case Nucor Corporation BUS 599 Week 5 Assignment Corporate Culture Leadership Actions for Strategy Imp...

  9. SCHOOL BUS GARAGES, 1966 REVISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, HERBERT F.

    STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL BUS GARAGES INCLUDING BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF--(1) SITE DEVELOPMENT, (2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND (3) MECHANICAL (HEATING, PLUMBING, AND VENTILATION) AND ELECTRICAL FACTORS. (JT)

  10. Mid-Pleistocene climate transition drives net mass loss from rapidly uplifting St. Elias Mountains, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Sean P S; Jaeger, John M; Mix, Alan C; Asahi, Hirofumi; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Belanger, Christina L; Berbel, Glaucia B B; Childress, Laurel; Cowan, Ellen; Drab, Laureen; Forwick, Matthias; Fukumura, Akemi; Ge, Shulan; Gupta, Shyam; Kioka, Arata; Konno, Susumu; LeVay, Leah J; März, Christian; Matsuzaki, Kenji M; McClymont, Erin L; Moy, Chris; Müller, Juliane; Nakamura, Atsunori; Ojima, Takanori; Ribeiro, Fabiana R; Ridgway, Kenneth D; Romero, Oscar E; Slagle, Angela L; Stoner, Joseph S; St-Onge, Guillaume; Suto, Itsuki; Walczak, Maureen D; Worthington, Lindsay L; Bailey, Ian; Enkelmann, Eva; Reece, Robert; Swartz, John M

    2015-12-01

    Erosion, sediment production, and routing on a tectonically active continental margin reflect both tectonic and climatic processes; partitioning the relative importance of these processes remains controversial. Gulf of Alaska contains a preserved sedimentary record of the Yakutat Terrane collision with North America. Because tectonic convergence in the coastal St. Elias orogen has been roughly constant for 6 My, variations in its eroded sediments preserved in the offshore Surveyor Fan constrain a budget of tectonic material influx, erosion, and sediment output. Seismically imaged sediment volumes calibrated with chronologies derived from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program boreholes show that erosion accelerated in response to Northern Hemisphere glacial intensification (∼ 2.7 Ma) and that the 900-km-long Surveyor Channel inception appears to correlate with this event. However, tectonic influx exceeded integrated sediment efflux over the interval 2.8-1.2 Ma. Volumetric erosion accelerated following the onset of quasi-periodic (∼ 100-ky) glacial cycles in the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (1.2-0.7 Ma). Since then, erosion and transport of material out of the orogen has outpaced tectonic influx by 50-80%. Such a rapid net mass loss explains apparent increases in exhumation rates inferred onshore from exposure dates and mapped out-of-sequence fault patterns. The 1.2-My mass budget imbalance must relax back toward equilibrium in balance with tectonic influx over the timescale of orogenic wedge response (millions of years). The St. Elias Range provides a key example of how active orogenic systems respond to transient mass fluxes, and of the possible influence of climate-driven erosive processes that diverge from equilibrium on the million-year scale.

  11. Bus Stop - Environment Connection: Do Characteristics of the Built Environment Correlate with Bus Stop Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Robin S Liggett; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Can we understand why some bus stops are safe and others are crime-ridden? Can we predict which features of the bus stop environment are likely to encourage or discourage crime? Can we design safer bus stops? These questions are addressed by exploring the relationship between environmental variables and bus stop crime. An earlier study used crime data, along with environmental indicators, for a sample of 60 bus stops in downtown Los Angeles. Crime rates were higher for bus stops near alleys, ...

  12. Wishbone bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mohandeep; 10.5121/vlsic.2012.3210

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC). This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Micro controller Bus Architecture (AMBA) by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle). Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  13. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  14. BUS 210 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

                      For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 6 Times, Rating: A+   BUS 210 Week 1 DQ1 and DQ2 (UOP Course) BUS 210 Week 1 Checkpoint Business Models and Systems (UOP Course) BUS 210 Week 2 CheckPoint Business Organization (UOP Course) BUS 210 Week 2 Assignment Evolution of Business Presentation (UOP Course) BUS 210 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 (UOP Course) BUS 210 W...

  15. 76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 13580). Furthermore, due to the complexity of the issues proposed in the NPRM, FTA is..., FTA published an NPRM in the Federal Register (76 FR 13850) proposing to amend its bus testing... Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 665 RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average...

  16. Aids to School Bus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  17. Smart Parking Management Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit use. In the San Francisco Bay Area, parking has recently been at or near capacity a...

  18. School bus and children's traffic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan

    2007-01-01

    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  19. TRUFAS, a wavelet based algorithm for the rapid detection of planetary transits

    CERN Document Server

    Regulo, C; Alonso, R; Deeg, H J; Cortes, T Roca

    2007-01-01

    Aims: We describe a fast, robust and automatic detection algorithm, TRUFAS, and apply it to data that are being expected from the CoRoT mission. Methods: The procedure proposed for the detection of planetary transits in light curves works in two steps: 1) a continuous wavelet transformation of the detrended light curve with posterior selection of the optimum scale for transit detection, and 2) a period search in that selected wavelet transformation. The detrending of the light curves are based on Fourier filtering or a discrete wavelet transformation. TRUFAS requires the presence of at least 3 transit events in the data. Results: The proposed algorithm is shown to identify reliably and quickly the transits that had been included in a standard set of 999 light curves that simulate CoRoT data. Variations in the pre-processing of the light curves and in the selection of the scale of the wavelet transform have only little effect on TRUFAS' results. Conclusions: TRUFAS is a robust and quick transit detection algor...

  20. Beijing by Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Frequent traffic jams and worsening air quality are the bane of many Chinese cities. The problem is particularly pronounced in big and medium-sized ones. With rapid economic growth and a rise in living standards, more people are buying cars, leading to a worsening of the transportation woes in cities. Public transport, once the lifeline of city transportation, has fallen into neglect.

  1. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  2. Low-inductance bus lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernick, A.

    1977-01-01

    Laminated bus strips and bifilar litz cable connectors for high-power rectifiers, thrisistors, and transistors provide low inductance and eliminate electromagnetic interference in high-power circuits. These techniques offer significant cost advantages because of ease of assembly and consistent high quality of product. Effectiveness makes general usage in static power conversion likely.

  3. Pybus -- A Python Software Bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.

    2004-10-14

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the concept of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user.

  4. Pybus - A Python Software Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the concept of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user

  5. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  6. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge. PMID:26908198

  7. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  8. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  9. A High-Resolution Chronology of Rapid Forest Transitions following Polynesian Arrival in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    McWethy, David B.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Whitlock, Cathy; Wood, Jamie R.; Matt S McGlone

    2014-01-01

    Human-caused forest transitions are documented worldwide, especially during periods when land use by dense agriculturally-based populations intensified. However, the rate at which prehistoric human activities led to permanent deforestation is poorly resolved. In the South Island, New Zealand, the arrival of Polynesians c. 750 years ago resulted in dramatic forest loss and conversion of nearly half of native forests to open vegetation. This transformation, termed the Initial Burning Period, is...

  10. BUS 620 ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    atwater

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 1 What is Marketing   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 2 Marketing Strategies   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 1 Assignment Tesco Case   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 1 Buyer Behavior   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 2 Customer Needs   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 2 Industry Forecasting   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 3...

  11. BUS 660 ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   BUS 660 Week 1 Assignment Developing Leaders at UPS  BUS 660 Week 2 Assignment Leadership Style  BUS 660 Week 3 Assignment Leadership Traits  BUS 660 Week 4 Assignment Leadership Skills  BUS 660 Week 5 Assignment Big Changes for a Small Hospital  BUS 660 Week 6 Assignment Research Paper BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 1Leadership Defined BU...

  12. Searching for onset of quark deconfinement and critical point of QGP phase transition from rapidity distribution in high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results of the rapidity distributions of negatively charged pions produced in proton-proton (p-p) and beryllium-beryllium (Be-Be) collisions at different beam momentums, measured by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration at the super proton synchrotron (SPS), are described by a revised (three-source) Landau hydrodynamic model. The squared speed-of-sound parameter c^2_s is then extracted from the width of rapidity distribution. There is a knee point appearing at about 40A GeV/c (or 8.8 GeV) in the dependence of c^2_s on incident beam momentum (or center-of-mass energy). This knee point can be possibly regarded as the onset of deconfinement of the quarks and gluons in proton-proton collisions, and the critical point of phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is possible that the quark deconfinement and QGP phase transition happen initially in collisions at 8.8 GeV.

  13. Reducing crime through physical modification: Evaluating the use of situational crime prevention strategies in a rapid transit environment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Situational crime prevention and crime prevention through environmental design are strategies that reduce criminal opportunities through modification of the physical environment. Although limited, evidence suggests that these strategies are successful at reducing crime that occurs in transit environments. The rapid transit system in Vancouver, British Columbia provides a unique opportunity for evaluation of situational prevention strategies as both control and experimental groups are availa...

  14. Shooting the Rapids: Navigating Transitions to Adaptive Governance of Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The case studies of Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden; the Northern Highlands Lake District and the Everglades in the USA; the Mae Nam Ping Basin, Thailand; and the Goulburn-Broken Catchment, Australia, were compared to assess the outcome of different actions for transforming social-ecological systems (SESs. The transformations consisted of two phases, a preparation phase and a transition phase, linked by a window of opportunity. Key leaders and shadow networks can prepare a system for change by exploring alternative system configurations and developing strategies for choosing from among possible futures. Key leaders can recognize and use or create windows of opportunity and navigate transitions toward adaptive governance. Leadership functions include the ability to span scales of governance, orchestrate networks, integrate and communicate understanding, and reconcile different problem domains. Successful transformations rely on epistemic and shadow networks to provide novel ideas and ways of governing SESs. We conclude by listing some 𔄬rules of thumb” that can help build leadership and networks for successful transformations toward adaptive governance of social-ecological systems.

  15. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  16. Gradual assembly of avian body plan culminated in rapid rates of evolution across the dinosaur-bird transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Lloyd, Graeme T; Wang, Steve C; Norell, Mark A

    2014-10-20

    The evolution of birds from theropod dinosaurs was one of the great evolutionary transitions in the history of life. The macroevolutionary tempo and mode of this transition is poorly studied, which is surprising because it may offer key insight into major questions in evolutionary biology, particularly whether the origins of evolutionary novelties or new ecological opportunities are associated with unusually elevated "bursts" of evolution. We present a comprehensive phylogeny placing birds within the context of theropod evolution and quantify rates of morphological evolution and changes in overall morphological disparity across the dinosaur-bird transition. Birds evolved significantly faster than other theropods, but they are indistinguishable from their closest relatives in morphospace. Our results demonstrate that the rise of birds was a complex process: birds are a continuum of millions of years of theropod evolution, and there was no great jump between nonbirds and birds in morphospace, but once the avian body plan was gradually assembled, birds experienced an early burst of rapid anatomical evolution. This suggests that high rates of morphological evolution after the development of a novel body plan may be a common feature of macroevolution, as first hypothesized by G.G. Simpson more than 60 years ago.

  17. KELT-7b: A hot Jupiter transiting a bright V=8.54 rapidly rotating F-star

    CERN Document Server

    Bieryla, Allyson; Beatty, Thomas G; Eastman, Jason; Siverd, Robert J; Pepper, Joshua; Gaudi, B Scott; Stassun, Keivan G; Canas, Caleb; Latham, David W; Buchhave, Lars A; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Winn, Joshua N; Jensen, Eric L N; Kielkopf, John F; McLeod, Kim K; Gregorio, Joao; Colon, Knicole D; Street, Rachel; Ross, Rachel; Penny, Matthew; Mellon, Samuel N; Oberst, Thomas E; Fulton, Benjamin J; Wang, Ji; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; DePoy, Darren L; Gould, Andrew; Marshall, Jennifer; Pogge, Richard; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-7b, a transiting hot Jupiter with a mass of $1.28 \\pm 0.18$ MJ, radius of $1.53_{-0.047}^{+0.046}$ RJ, and an orbital period of $2.7347749 \\pm 0.0000039$ days. The bright host star (HD33643; KELT-7) is an F-star with $V=8.54$, Teff $=6789_{-49}^{+50}$ K, [Fe/H] $=0.139_{-0.081}^{+0.075}$, and $\\log{g}=4.149 \\pm 0.019$. It has a mass of $1.535_{-0.054}^{+0.066}$ Msun, a radius of $1.732_{-0.045}^{+0.043}$ Rsun, and is the fifth most massive, fifth hottest, and the ninth brightest star known to host a transiting planet. It is also the brightest star around which KELT has discovered a transiting planet. Thus, KELT-7b is an ideal target for detailed characterization given its relatively low surface gravity, high equilibrium temperature, and bright host star. The rapid rotation of the star ($73 \\pm 0.5$ km/s) results in a Rossiter-McLaughlin effect with an unusually large amplitude of several hundred m/s. We find that the orbit normal of the planet is likely to be well-aligned with ...

  18. Experiments on the rapid mechanical expansion of liquid 4He through its superfluid transition.

    OpenAIRE

    Efimov, V. B.; Griffiths, O. J.; Hendry, P. C.; Kolmakov, G. V.; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Skrbek, L.

    2006-01-01

    Phenomena following a rapid mechanical quench of liquid 4He from its normal to its superfluid phase are reported and discussed. The mechanical expansion apparatus is an improved version of that described previously. It uses a double-cell geometry to effect a partial separation of the sample from the convolutions of the bellows that form the outer wall of the cell. Consistent with earlier work, no evidence is found for the production of quantized vortices via the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) mechanism. A...

  19. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  20. Behavioral and physiological changes during benthic-pelagic transition in the harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo: potential for rapid bloom formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Tobin

    Full Text Available Many species of harmful algae transition between a motile, vegetative stage in the water column and a non-motile, resting stage in the sediments. Physiological and behavioral traits expressed during benthic-pelagic transition potentially regulate the timing, location and persistence of blooms. The roles of key physiological and behavioral traits involved in resting cell emergence and bloom formation were examined in two geographically distinct strains of the harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Physiological measures of cell viability, division and population growth, and cell fatty acid content were made using flow cytometry and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry techniques as cells transitioned between the benthic resting stage and the vegetative pelagic stage. Video-based tracking was used to quantify cell-level swimming behaviors. Data show increased temperature and light triggered rapid emergence from the resting stage and initiated cell swimming. Algal strains varied in important physiological and behavioral traits, including survivorship during life-stage transitions, population growth rates and swimming velocities. Collectively, these traits function as "population growth strategies" that can influence bloom formation. Many resting cells regained the up-swimming capacity necessary to cross an environmentally relevant halocline and the ability to aggregate in near-surface waters within hours after vegetative growth supporting conditions were restored. Using a heuristic model, we illustrate how strain-specific population growth strategies can govern the timescales over which H. akashiwo blooms form. Our findings highlight the need for identification and quantification of strain-specific physiological and behavioral traits to improve mechanistic understanding of bloom formation and successful bloom prediction.

  1. Bus Routes, Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  2. YUTONG BUS: Grateful To The Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shenyin&Wanguo Securities issued an announcement on Jan 9 rating Yutong Bus(600066)as"buying",on the basis that the bus maker's gross profits went better in the last quarter of 2008 and to be further improved in the first quarter of 2009,with an increased market share. The report drew attention inside the in- dustry when the entire bus segment was suffering a tough time.

  3. Bus Vent Design Evolution for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As a spacecraft undergoes ascent in a launch vehicle, its pressure environment transitions from one atmosphere to high vacuum in a matter of minutes. Venting of internal cavities is necessary to prevent the buildup of pressure differentials across cavity walls. Opposing the need to vent these volumes freely into space are thermal, optical, and electrostatic requirements for limiting or prohibiting the intrusion of unwanted energy into the same cavities. Bus vent design evolution is discussed for the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Design changes were influenced by a number of factors and concerns, such as contamination control, electrostatic discharge, changes in bus material, and driving fairing ascent pressure for a launch vehicle that was just entering service as this satellite project had gotten underway.

  4. Wishbone Bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandeep Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC. This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle. Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  5. Large-scale CFD simulations of the transitional and turbulent regime for the large human airways during rapid inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, Hadrien; Gambaruto, Alberto M; Bates, Alister J; Vázquez, Mariano; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Doorly, Denis J

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of unsteady flow in the human large airways during a rapid inhalation were investigated using highly detailed large-scale computational fluid dynamics on a subject-specific geometry. The simulations were performed to resolve all the spatial and temporal scales of the flow, thanks to the use of massive computational resources. A highly parallel finite element code was used, running on two supercomputers, solving the transient incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. Given that the finest mesh contained 350 million elements, the study sets a precedent for large-scale simulations of the respiratory system, proposing an analysis strategy for mean flow, fluctuations and wall shear stresses on a rapid and short inhalation (a so-called sniff). The geometry used encompasses the exterior face and the airways from the nasal cavity, through the trachea and up to the third lung bifurcation; it was derived from a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of a 48-year-old male. The transient inflow produces complex flows over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re). Thanks to the high fidelity simulations, many features involving the flow transition were observed, with the level of turbulence clearly higher in the throat than in the nose. Spectral analysis revealed turbulent characteristics persisting downstream of the glottis, and were captured even with a medium mesh resolution. However a fine mesh resolution was found necessary in the nasal cavity to observe transitional features. This work indicates the potential of large-scale simulations to further understanding of airway physiological mechanics, which is essential to guide clinical diagnosis; better understanding of the flow also has implications for the design of interventions such as aerosol drug delivery.

  6. Large-scale CFD simulations of the transitional and turbulent regime for the large human airways during rapid inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, Hadrien; Gambaruto, Alberto M; Bates, Alister J; Vázquez, Mariano; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Doorly, Denis J

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of unsteady flow in the human large airways during a rapid inhalation were investigated using highly detailed large-scale computational fluid dynamics on a subject-specific geometry. The simulations were performed to resolve all the spatial and temporal scales of the flow, thanks to the use of massive computational resources. A highly parallel finite element code was used, running on two supercomputers, solving the transient incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. Given that the finest mesh contained 350 million elements, the study sets a precedent for large-scale simulations of the respiratory system, proposing an analysis strategy for mean flow, fluctuations and wall shear stresses on a rapid and short inhalation (a so-called sniff). The geometry used encompasses the exterior face and the airways from the nasal cavity, through the trachea and up to the third lung bifurcation; it was derived from a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of a 48-year-old male. The transient inflow produces complex flows over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re). Thanks to the high fidelity simulations, many features involving the flow transition were observed, with the level of turbulence clearly higher in the throat than in the nose. Spectral analysis revealed turbulent characteristics persisting downstream of the glottis, and were captured even with a medium mesh resolution. However a fine mesh resolution was found necessary in the nasal cavity to observe transitional features. This work indicates the potential of large-scale simulations to further understanding of airway physiological mechanics, which is essential to guide clinical diagnosis; better understanding of the flow also has implications for the design of interventions such as aerosol drug delivery. PMID:26773939

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Microstructure Transitions in a Large-Scale Liquid Metal A1 System During Rapid Cooling Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘让苏; 董科军; 李基永; 余艾冰; 邹瑞萍

    2002-01-01

    We perform a molecular dynamics simulation of microstructure transitions in a large-scale system consisting of 400000 atoms of liquid metal Al by the Clare supercomputer. A cluster-type index method is proposed to describe the structures of various short-range-order clusters in the liquid system. It is demonstrated that the icosahedron cluster (12 0 12 0) plays the most important role in the microstructure transition and that some larger clusters (containing more than 130 atoms) are formed in the system during the rapid cooling processes. It is obvious that the larger clusters are formed by means of combining some middle clusters, and that the middle clusters are formed with several smaller clusters. However, the larger clusters are not formed to be the multi-shell configuration as shown in the mass spectrum analysis of the cluster configurations of A1 obtained by gaseous deposition, ionic spray methods and so on. This result can be used to explain the essential distinction between the cluster configurations of Al formed in two different ways.

  8. Combinatorial Optimization Model of Bus Stop in BRT Station-group%BRT车站组的线路停靠组合优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林培群; 徐建闽

    2011-01-01

    In order to relieve the problem that queuing for bus stop in the single-lane of bus rapid transit (BRT) station occurs frequently, a combinatorial optimization model of bus stop in BRT station-group was put forward. Firstly, the non-queuing probability model for a single-lane of BRT station was deduced based on queuing theory. Then, a mixed integer programming model of minimizing the queuing probability of bus stop in station-group was proposed. Furthermore, a global-optimal solution algorithm on the basis of distributed parallel-search, and a local-optimal solution algorithm on the basis of greedy strategy were proposed to solve the combinatorial optimization model. Finally, the optimal bus stop program of a typical BRT station-group in Guangzhou was obtained by the proposed method in the example. Using VISSIM software, the optimal program and existing program were simulated. Results show that the proposed method can relieve the queuing situation of bus stop in station effectively.%为了缓解公交车辆进入单车道快速公交(BRT)车站容易出现排队的问题,提出了BRT车站组的线路停靠组合优化模型.首先基于排队论推导出BRT车辆进站不发生排队的概率模型,然后以最小排队概率为目标,提出整个车站组的线路停靠混合整数规划模型,并针对该模型的求解分别给出了一种基于分布式并行搜索的全局最优解算法和一种基于贪心策略的次优解快速算法;最后通过算例计算出广州市某个典型BRT车站组的线路停靠最优方案,利用VISSIM软件对优化方案及现有方案进行了多次仿真.结果表明:所提出的方法能够有效缓解公交车辆的进站排队现象.

  9. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  10. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  11. Market brief : the alternative fuels bus market in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2003, alternative fuel bus technologies in India were valued at approximately $1.5 billion. There are an estimated 600,000 buses in India, of which 21 per cent are owned by public transit. Bus production is currently 33,000 per year and increasing at 4 per cent annually. The main alternative fuel bus technologies include fuel cells, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Since urban centres in India are among the most polluted in the world, demand for these technologies is strong. India is ranked fifth in the world in terms of vehicles converted to natural gas. In 2003, New Delhi switched from diesel to CNG fuel for buses but has faced challenges because there is no well-developed underground distribution system and refilling times are long due to weak pressure at fueling stations. India's new $28 million fuel cell bus development project aims to place 8 fuel cell powered buses with the Delhi Transport Corporation. This market brief describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. It describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers listed the companies that buy alternative fuel buses in India. Considerations for market-entry in India were also outlined

  12. Growing City and Rapid Land Use Transition: Assessing Multiple Hazards and Risks in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagawat Rimal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pokhara is one of the most naturally beautiful cities in the world with a unique geological setting. This important tourist city is under intense pressure from rapid urbanization and population growth. Multiple hazards and risks are rapidly increasing in Pokhara due to unsustainable land use practices, particularly the increase in built-up areas. This study examines the relationship among urbanization, land use/land cover dynamics and multiple hazard and risk analysis of the Pokhara valley from 1990 to 2013. We investigate some of the active hazards, such as floods, landslides, fire, sinkholes, land subsidence and earthquakes, and prepare an integrated multiple hazard risk map indicating the highly vulnerable zones. Land use and land cover maps from 1990 and 2013 from Landsat images (30 m resolution have been prepared and analyzed for the spatial dynamics of urbanization and the transition of land use and land cover. In the 23-year period, the built-up area more than doubled from 24.03 km² to 54.20 km². Although the landscape in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas appears to be fragmented, different drivers play pivotal roles in landscape change in these areas. The results provide substantial information for establishing innovative action plans for disaster risk management in the valley. Recommendations are made for the most suitable places for future urban expansion in the valley. This study is important for raising awareness among policy makers and other public officials to include multiple hazard risk mitigation in land use policies and plans. Establishing connections between urban expansions, escalating population growth and multiple hazards and risk assessment will also improve in modelling the latent impact of future catastrophes and emergency preparedness.

  13. Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage in a Large Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    The power requirements for inner city transit buses are characterized by power peaks about an order of magnitude larger than the average power usage of the vehicle. For these vehicles, hybrid power trains can offer significantly improved fuel economy and exhaust emissions. A critical design challenge, however, has been developing the energy storage and power management system to respond to these rapid power variations. Most hybrid vehicles today use chemical energy storage batteries to supplement the power from the fuel burning generator unit. Chemical storage batteries however, present several difficulties in power management and control. These difficulties include (1) inadequate life, (2) limited current delivery as well as absorption during regenerative braking, (3) inaccurate measurement of state of charge, and (4) stored energy safety issues. Recent advances in ultra-capacitor technology create an opportunity to address these concerns. The NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with industry and academia, has developed an advanced hybrid electric transit bus using ultra-capacitors as the primary energy storage system. At over 15,000-kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using this advanced energy storage technology. Results of analyses show that the vehicle will match the performance of an equivalent conventionally powered vehicle over typical inner city drive cycles. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and analysis of power flow and vehicle performance.

  14. Utility and Weight of Factors of Bus Transit’ s Service Quality Analysis in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrong Liu; Tangyi Guo

    2015-01-01

    Service quality is a major factor that affects how public transport users evaluate bus service. In order to evaluate how bus users make trade⁃offs across travel cost, time, reliability, etc., and to investigate the extent to which the components of service quality vary according to relevant trip characteristics, this paper analyzes service quality of bus transit with the conjoint analysis. Through data analysis, the levels ’ utility values of reliability, waiting time, walking time, etc.,on the commuter trip and the non⁃commuter trip are gotten, so it is the utility function of the transit system. Then the factors’ weights are obtained through the utility values. The results show that on the commuter trip, passengers value reliability the most, which is followed by waiting time and walking time, while in⁃bus environment, price and station environment’ s weights are small. While on the non⁃commuter trip, the weights in a higher order to lower order are the first for reliability, the second for in⁃bus environment, the third for walking time, the fourth for station environment and the last for ticket price.

  15. High speed bus technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrow, Marlan B.; Hatfield, Donald W.

    1989-09-01

    The development and demonstration of the High Speed Data Bus system, a 50 Million bits per second (Mbps) local data network intended for avionics applications in advanced military aircraft is described. The Advanced System Avionics (ASA)/PAVE PILLAR program provided the avionics architecture concept and basic requirements. Designs for wire and fiber optic media were produced and hardware demonstrations were performed. An efficient, robust token-passing protocol was developed and partially demonstrated. The requirements specifications, the trade-offs made, and the resulting designs for both a coaxial wire media system and a fiber optics design are examined. Also, the development of a message-oriented media access protocol is described, from requirements definition through analysis, simulation and experimentation. Finally, the testing and demonstrations conducted on the breadboard and brassboard hardware is presented.

  16. Human annoyance, acceptability and concern as responses to vibration from the construction of Light Rapid Transit lines in residential environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-McSweeney, D; Woodcock, J S; Peris, E; Waddington, D C; Moorhouse, A T; Redel-Macías, M D

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of different self-reported measures for assessing the human response to environmental vibration from the construction of an urban LRT (Light Rapid Transit) system. The human response to environmental stressors such as vibration and noise is often expressed in terms of exposure-response relationships that describe annoyance as a function of the magnitude of the vibration. These relationships are often the basis of noise and vibration policy and the setting of limit values. This paper examines measures other than annoyance by expressing exposure-response relationships for vibration in terms of self-reported concern about property damage and acceptability. The exposure-response relationships for concern about property damage and for acceptability are then compared with those for annoyance. It is shown that concern about property damage occurs at vibration levels well below those where there is any risk of damage. Earlier research indicated that concern for damage is an important moderator of the annoyance induced. Acceptability, on the other hand, might be influenced by both annoyance and concern, as well as by other considerations. It is concluded that exposure-response relationships expressing acceptability as a function of vibration exposure could usefully complement existing relationships for annoyance in future policy decisions regarding environmental vibration. The results presented in this paper are derived from data collected through a socio-vibration survey (N=321) conducted for the construction of an urban LRT in the United Kingdom.

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech Comparing Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized controlled trial compared the experimental Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment to the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition (NDP3; Williams & Stephens, 2004), used widely in clinical practice in Australia and the United Kingdom. Both programs aim to improve speech motor planning/programming for children…

  18. A Functional Thinking Approach to the Design of Future Transportation Systems: Taxis as a Proxy for Personal Rapid Transit in South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Bae, Hyun Hye

    2014-01-01

    taxis can be used as an alternative embodiment of personal rapid transit and can serve as a test bed to support PRT-related design, research, and development. The paper then explores the transportation patterns and characteristics of cities in South Korea and the United States in order to determine...

  19. 77 FR 5295 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... by Section 3038 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). The OTRB... FTA's Transportation Electronic Awards Management System (TEAM) for the projects identified in Tables... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of...

  20. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  1. Drivetrain system of an ultracapacitor electric bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Zhigu; Zhu Chunbo; Yang Shiyan; Cheng Shukang

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a design of the drivetrain system of an electric bus with ultracapacitor (UC) as the only on-board power source. The system includes three main parts, namely, UC bank, motor and the converter, vehicle management unit (VMU). Analyses results in detail on the functional design and experiments on work bench of each part were also presented, which validated the reliability of the system. Furthermore, driving results in field of the bus verified the feasibility of the design of the drivetrain system. The bus has very good dynamic performances and shows a promising applications prospect in the short and medium route buses system.

  2. BUS 1000母线保护的应用%Application of BUS 1000 Bus-Bar Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓光; 张贵金; 冷雪玉

    2001-01-01

    发电厂的母线是电厂中的一个重要组成元件,当母线上发生故障时,将使连接在故障母线上的所有元件在修复故障母线期间,或转换到另一组母线上运行以前遭到停电。同时还可能破坏系统稳定,造成严重后果。因此,母线保护装置是正确迅速切除母线故障的重要装置,它的拒动或误动将给电力系统带来严重危害。详细介绍了华能丹东发电厂350 MW发电机组采用的BUS 1000型母线保护的原理,并对其正常运行及区内、外故障、断路器失灵保护、母联断路器过流保护等几个方面作了详细分析。%Bus bar is an important component in e lectric power plant.When bus bar fault occurs,all components connected on the fa ulty bus bar will be in outage until power restores by repairing the faulty bus bar or switching them over to another bus bar.Furthermore,it may cause the destr uction of system stability resulting in serious consequence.Bus bar protection d evice is the very device to quickly remove bus bar faults,and its malfunctioning will bring serious harm to power system. The principle of BUS 1000 bus bar prot ection used for 350 MW unit of dandong power plant is introduced.Its normal oper ation and several aspects,such as in-and out-area faults,out-of-order breake r protection,bus bar breaker over-current protection,are analyzed in detail.

  3. Incremental bus service design: combining limited-stop and local bus services

    OpenAIRE

    Chiraphadhanakul, Virot; Barnhart, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Long in-vehicle travel times resulting from frequent stops make bus service an unattractive choice for many commuters. Limited-stop bus services however have the advantage of shorter in-vehicle times experienced by passengers. In this work, we seek to modify a given bus service by optimally reassigning some number of bus trips, as opposed to providing additional trips, to operate a limited-stop service. We propose an optimization model to determine a limited-stop service route to be operated ...

  4. BUS 599 STRAYER Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    alfonos

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+ STRAYER BUS 599 Week 1 Assignment Crafting and Executing Strategy Case JetBlue Airways STRAYER BUS 599 Week 2 Assignment Competitive Forces and SWOT Analysis Case Whole Foods Market STRAYER BUS 599 Week 3 Assignment Foreign Market Entry and Diversification Case Corona Beer STRAYER BUS 599 Week 4 Assignment HRM Issues Diversification Strategies Case Nucor Corporation STRAYER BUS 5...

  5. The high speed bus technology development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigson, M. T.; Modrow, M. B.; Goldman, P. C.

    The current development status of a high-speed data bus to link MIL-STD-1750A computers in avionics applications is reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. The bus requirements include data rate 50 Mb/s, a linear token-passing scheme permitting both electronic and fiber-optic implementation, up to 64-terminal capacity, maximum terminal separation 300 ft, latency control via token-rotation-timer priority, self-test and bus-loop test capability, and automatic clock synchronization. The design concept and performance of a breadboard wire bus tested in July 1986 are discussed in detail, with particular attention to the redundancy manager, the output controller, the input controller, the ringmaster topology manager, and typical initial-placement problems.

  6. DESIGN AND EXPERIMENT OF ELECTRIC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Performance and reliability experiments on BJD-6100EV electric buses, jointly developed by Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Public Transport Company, are introduced. Output power model of battery pack is established and maximum output power is analyzed. A permanent magnetic direct current (PMDC) motor with enhanced windings is developed for the bus. Torque-speed characteristics of the motor are modeled and performance of electric bus is analyzed. Computational method of the range of electric bus is proposed and discussed. Experiments show that electric bus can realize design requirements. Computational methods are verified with the help of field test. It is expected that design and computation method will provide helpful reference to development of electric vehicles.

  7. Systems evaluation of thermal bus concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal bus concepts, to provide a centralized thermal utility for large, multihundred kilowatt space platforms, were studied and the results are summarized. Concepts were generated, defined, and screened for inclusion in system level thermal bus trades. Parametric trade studies were conducted in order to define the operational envelope, performance, and physical characteristics of each. Two concepts were selected as offering the most promise for thermal bus development. All of four concepts involved two phase flow in order to meet the required isothermal nature of the thermal bus. Two of the concepts employ a mechanical means to circulate the working fluid, a liquid pump in one case and a vapor compressor in another. Another concept utilizes direct osmosis as the driving force of the thermal bus. The fourth concept was a high capacity monogroove heat pipe. After preliminary sizing and screening, three of these concepts were selected to carry into the trade studies. The monogroove heat pipe concept was deemed unsuitable for further consideration because of its heat transport limitations. One additional concept utilizing capillary forces to drive the working fluid was added. Parametric system level trade studies were performed. Sizing and weight calculations were performed for thermal bus sizes ranging from 5 to 350 kW and operating temperatures in the range of 4 to 120 C. System level considerations such as heat rejection and electrical power penalties and interface temperature losses were included in the weight calculations.

  8. Implementation of Ada protocols on Mil-STD-1553 B data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhman, Smil; Rosemberg, Flavia

    1986-01-01

    Standardization activity of data communication in avionic systems started in 1968 for the purpose of total system integration and the elimination of heavy wire bundles carrying signals between various subassemblies. The growing complexity of avionic systems is straining the capabilities of MIL-STD-1553 B (first issued in 1973), but a much greater challenge to it is posed by Ada, the standard language adopted for real-time, computer embedded-systems. Hardware implementation of Ada communication protocols in a contention/token bus or token ring network is proposed. However, during the transition period when the current command/response multiplex data bus is still flourishing and the development environment for distributed multi-computer Ada systems is as yet lacking, a temporary accomodation of the standard language with the standard bus could be very useful and even highly desirable. By concentrating all status informtion and decisions at the bus controller, it was found to be possible to construct an elegant and efficient harware impelementation of the Ada protocols at the bus interface. This solution is discussed.

  9. Design and Implementation of High Performance AHB Arbiter for on chip Bus Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHUTOSH KUMAR SINGH,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resolution is a big issue in SOC( system On Chip while dealing with number of master trying to sense a single data bus . The ffectiveness of a system to resolve this priority resides in its ability to logical assignment of the chance to transmit data width of the data, response to the interrupts etc. The purpose of this paper is to propose the scheme to implement such a system using the specification of AMBA bus protocol .The scheme involves the typical AMBA features of ‘single clock edge transition ‘, Split transaction ‘,’several bus masters ‘, ‘burst transfer ’.The bus arbiter ensures that only one bus master at a time is allowed to initiate data ransfers. Even though the arbitration protocol is fixed, any arbitration algorithm, such as highest priority or fair access can be implemented depending on the application requirements .The design architecture is written using VHDL(Very High Speed Integrated CircuitsHardware Description Language code using Xilinx ISE Tools .The architecture is modeled and synthesized using RTL(Register Transfer Level abstraction and Implemented on Virtex2 series.

  10. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lea Nowack; Daniel Grolimund; Vallerie Samson; Federica Marone; Vanessa Wood

    2016-01-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition...

  11. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  12. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  13. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  14. Chronic escitalopram treatment attenuated the accelerated rapid eye movement sleep transitions after selective rapid eye movement sleep deprivation: a model-based analysis using Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyalik, Diána; Vas, Szilvia; Kátai, Zita; Kitka, Tamás; Gyertyán, István; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Tóthfalusi, László

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency and increased REM sleep amount are presumed biological markers of depression. These sleep alterations are also observable in several animal models of depression as well as during the rebound sleep after selective REM sleep deprivation (RD). Furthermore, REM sleep fragmentation is typically associated with stress procedures and anxiety. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants reduce REM sleep time and increas...

  15. Geometric-Process-Based Battery Management Optimizing Policy for the Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry and promotive policies worldwide, the electric bus (E-bus has been adopted in many major cities around the world. One of the most important factors that restrain the widespread application of the E-bus is the high operating cost due to the deficient battery management. This paper proposes a geometric-process-based (GP-based battery management optimizing policy which aims to minimize the average cost of the operation on the premise of meeting the required sufficient battery availability. Considering the deterioration of the battery after repeated charging and discharging, this paper constructs the model of the operation of the E-bus battery as a geometric process, and the premaintenance time has been considered with the failure repairment time to enhance the GP-based battery operation model considering the battery cannot be as good as new after the two processes. The computer simulation is carried out by adopting the proposed optimizing policy, and the result verifies the effectiveness of the policy, denoting its significant performance on the application of the E-bus battery management.

  16. An interconnecting bus power optimization method combining interconnect wire spacing with wire ordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; Hao Bao-Tian; En Yun-Fei; Yang Yin-Tang; Li Yue-Jin

    2011-01-01

    On-chip interconnect buses consume tens of percents of dynamic power in a nanometer scale integrated circuit and they will consume more power with the rapid scaling down of technology size and continuously rising clock frequency,therefore it is meaningful to lower the interconnecting bus power in design. In this paper, a simple yet accurate interconnect parasitic capacitance model is presented first and then, based on this model, a novel interconnecting bus optimization method is proposed. Wire spacing is a process for spacing wires for minimum dynamic power, while wire ordering is a process that searches for wire orders that maximally enhance it. The method, i.e., combining wire spacing with wire ordering, focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with a consideration of bus performance requirements.The optimization method is verified based on various nanometer technology parameters, showing that with 50% slack of routing space, 25.71% and 32.65% of power can be saved on average by the proposed optimization method for a globalbus and an intermediate bus, respectively, under a 65-nm technology node, compared with 21.78% and 27.68% of power saved on average by uniform spacing technology. The proposed method is especially suitable for computer-aided designof nanometer scale on-chip buses.

  17. Line-profile tomography of exoplanet transits -- II. A gas-giant planet transiting a rapidly-rotating A5 star

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, A Collier; Smalley, B; McDonald, I; Hebb, L; Andersen, J; Augusteijn, Th; Barros, S C C; Brown, D J A; Cochran, W D; Endl, M; Fossey, S J; Hartmann, M; Maxted, P F L; Pollacco, D; Skillen, I; Telting, J; Waldmann, I P; West, R G

    2010-01-01

    Most of our knowledge of extrasolar planets rests on precise radial-velocity measurements, either for direct detection or for confirmation of the planetary origin of photometric transit signals. This has limited our exploration of the parameter space of exoplanet hosts to solar- and later-type, sharp-lined stars. Here we extend the realm of stars with known planetary companions to include hot, fast-rotating stars. Planet-like transits have previously been reported in the lightcurve obtained by the SuperWASP survey of the A5 star HD15082 (WASP-33; V=8.3, v sin i = 86 km/sec). Here we report further photometry and time-series spectroscopy through three separate transits, which we use to confirm the existence of a gas giant planet with an orbital period of 1.22d in orbit around HD15082. From the photometry and the properties of the planet signal travelling through the spectral line profiles during the transit we directly derive the size of the planet, the inclination and obliquity of its orbital plane, and its r...

  18. Designing Bus Structure for Digital Controller of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the bus structure design for the digital controller of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. The most important portion is the bus in the digital controller. A bus is responsible for transmission data among the various Input/Output (I/O) board, Processor board and Communication board. An existing bus is a parallel bus structure such as the VERSA Module Euro (VME) bus and an extended Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) Controller. Central Processing Unit (CPU) processing speed and communication speed is faster than before, but the parallel bus has a speed limit. Because it is the physically lines shared and the weakness about reflected wave. That is, use of the parallel bus has been the cause of the performance degradation of system. To solve the parallel bus problem, the bus has been developed by serial. The configuration of transceiver logic was simplified by not share the bus that all boards and processor boards was connected to the point-to-point. Serial bus was configured using physically Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS). The speed limit of bus was broken by the LVDS what is consisted of a strong against the reflected-wave of signal, noise and etc. Each channel of bus has a different speed mode and is able to set a required transmission way. Different transmission ways of each channel are able to transmit data to match the required response time of system. The LVDS speed has about basically 1Gbps but the bus was composed with less than 50Mbps considering the environmental characteristics of nuclear. It was shown that the configuration of the serial bus was the performance and the reliability more improving than parallel bus

  19. Bus application of oxygen-enrichment technology and diesel-electric hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.

    1993-10-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) mandate very strict limits on particulate, smoke, and other emissions from city buses. The use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol, can help transit operators, such as the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), meet the mandated limits. However, the capital investment needed to convert the fueling infrastructure and buses is large, as is the expense of training personnel. If a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus can be implemented with the help of oxygen-enrichment technology or a diesel-electric hybrid system, this large investment could be postponed for many years. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) initiated this project to evaluate the possibility of applying these technologies to CTA buses. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a limited number of engine tests and computer analyses and concluded that both concepts are practical and will help in a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus that can meet the mandated limits of the CAA amendments. The oxygen enrichment of combustion air depends on the availability of a compact and economical membrane separator. Because the technology for this critical component is still under development, it is recommended that an actual bus demonstration be delayed until prototype membranes are available. The hybrid propulsion system is ready for the demonstration phase, and it is recommended that the CTA and RTA commence planning for a bus demonstration.

  20. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  1. High speed data bus design validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Rick

    The SAE Linear Implementation Task Group has developed the SAE Linear Token Passing Multiplex Data Bus Standard (AS4074.1) and is currently working on a validation plan. This validation plan will define the test requirements for determining that an implementation of the standard meets the requirements of SAE AS4074.1. Once completed, the test requirements contained in this plan will be executed on bus interface units (BIUs) for validation purposes. In the present work, the author describes the use of a validation model that incorporates many of the capabilities of the validation test plan. This model can also be thought of as a VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) behavioral representation of the SAE Linear Token Passing Multiplex Data Bus Standard. It is tightly coupled to the standard and provides a model that can be used during the BIU development to validate the design.

  2. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  3. Design of E-City Bus Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar Shinde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available E-city bus tracking system will serve as a viable notification system that will effectively assist passengers in making the decision of whether to wait for the bus or not. This system is a standalone system designed to display the real-time location(s of the buses with the use of GSM module technology. The system will consist of an IR transmitter module installed on the buses, receiver boards installed on the bus stops and GSM receiver connected with PC monitoring the whole arrangement. It will also have passenger information system software installed at the bus stops and which will provide user the relevant information regarding all the bus numbers going for his source to destination along with the route details. It will also transmit its bus numbers and route names, with the help of LED transmitter, continuously as soon as the bus comes within the range of the receiver at the bus stop.

  4. Bus Travel Willingness under the Condition of Bus Information%公交信息条件下的公交出行意愿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左毅刚; 李文权; 陈茜; 李洁; 郭士永

    2014-01-01

    In-depth analysis of influencing mechanism of bus information on the residents travel mode choice is the theoretical basis of rational planning of urban bus travel information environment ,which has important significance for ur-ban traffic management and congestion mitigation .Based on the theory of planned behavior ,at the basis of three basic variables of behavior attitude ,subjective norm ,perceived behavioral control in the theory of planned behavior ,variables of transit information ,personal attributes and travel experience are added to improve the theory of planned behavior .An improved theory of planned behavior is used to build a bus travel willingness model under the condition of bus Informa-tion .With the Nanjing residents as research object ,a structural equation model is used to verify the survey data in order to determine the interaction between various factors and their impact on the willingness of bus travel .The results show that the bus information has significant and positive impact on bus travel variables of attitude ,subjective norm and per-ceived behavioral control with the influencing coefficients of 0 .533 ,0 .451 and 0 .576 respectively ,and that the bus infor-mation has indirect influence on bus travel willingness and the total effect is 0 .92 ,which shows that high quality of the in-formation can improve the appeal of bus and enhance bus travel willingness of residents .%深入解析公交信息对居民公交出行意愿的影响机理,是合理规划城市公交出行信息环境的理论基础,对于城市交通管理以及交通拥堵的缓解有着重要的意义。基于计划行为理论在行为态度、主观规范、知觉行为控制3个基本变量的基础上加入公交信息、出行经验、个人属性等变量,对计划行为理论加以改进,利用改进的计划行为理论建立公交信息条件下的公交出行意愿模型。以南京市居民为调查研究对象,运用结构方程模型对调查数

  5. Secure Bus-Ticketing System using NFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Lopes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For making the day to day life more convenient for the passengers travelling in bus some technologies can be used like Near Field Communication (NFC, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID. The proposed system is based on ticketing and identification of passengers in public transport. The system suggest a user friendly automated ticketing system which will automatically deduct the passengers fare according to the distance travelled as well as detect the passengers detail information. The system also helps to calculate the total revenue of a single bus in a day. Another important aspect is reusability, which helps use ticket multiple times as it is rechargeable.

  6. NOC AND BUS ARCHITECTURE: A COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJEEV KAMAL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Network-on-chip designs promise to offer considerable advantages over the traditional bus-based architecture. As continuing scaling of Moore’s law enables ever greater transistor densities, design complexity, power limitations and application convergence networks have started to replace busses in much smaller systems and the enhancement of NoC. This paper summarizes the advantages of the NoC and the limitations of traditional bus based architecture. In this paper we discuss a detailed comparison of area, power, scalability andperformance of traditional busses in comparison with NoC.

  7. An Efficient Segmental Bus-Invert Coding Method for Instruction Memory Data Bus Switching Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Ji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a bus coding methodology for the instruction memory data bus switching reduction. Compared to the existing state-of-the-art multiway partial bus-invert (MPBI coding which relies on data bit correlation, our approach is very effective in reducing the switching activity of the instruction data buses, since little bit correlation can be observed in the instruction data. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed encoding can reduce up to 42% of switching activity, with an average of 30% reduction, while MPBI achieves just 17.6% reduction in switching activity.

  8. Air quality on bus routes in Umea, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, H.; Forsberg, B. [Dept. of Environmental Health and Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University SE, Umea (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    Bus traffic in some local streets with up to 650 buses per day has resulted in complaints about air pollution and suggestions from residents that the bus routes should be changed to other streets. We have studied nitrogen dioxide and benzene concentrations at five exposed sites and at two representative control sites without bus traffic, and found no general differences in air quality. However, the site and temperature adjusted concentrations fell significantly during a strike among bus drivers. (authors)

  9. CERPEN FARUK “BUS KOTA” DALAM SEMIOTIK ROLAND BARTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Widyatwati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature called beautiful if it contains the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful for the readers. Short story “Bus Kota” (City Bus containing the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful to the reader. The mandate will be revealed by Roland Barthes' semiotic theory in the book S/Z. Literature has its own allure and text have accrued but not due to independence because of the difference in quality. Texts merge into a unity, or restore any text not as an individual but as a form of plurality. Literature as part of a social system is an expression of the author's sense of the outpouring of public life. Literary works can express themselves in the author's view the social and cultural changes in society because of the development of information technology and rapid. Technological developments and socio-cultural information can change in society so as to affect the psychology of the people. Society must have a thickness of faith not only for themselves, but to be able to maintain equanimity in the life of a pluralistic society

  10. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a follow...

  11. Methods and Procedures in the rescue of burn injury patients in the bus rapid transit (BRT) bomb blasts case in Xiamen%厦门公交车纵火案烧伤伤员救治的护理管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄榕; 殷婷婷; 卓龙彩; 夏哲远; 孔悦

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨批量烧伤伤员救治的方法与程序。方法:迅速启动批量伤员救治应急预案,准备各种抢救物资,合理分配人员,高效实施救治,积极应对突发公共卫生事件。结果:18名患者平稳度过休克期,救治工作取得阶段性成果。结论:有效的救护管理体系可以在突发公共卫生事件中发挥重要作用。%Objective:To explore the methods and procedures in the rescue of mass patients with burn injuries. Methods:The emergency preparedness which included the preparation of medical supplies, rational division of nursing staff, and effective treatment were carried out to respond positively to the public health emergencies. Results:Eighteen burn injury patients passed the shock stage smoothly and signiifcant results were achieved. Conclusion:The effective ifrst aid system plays a major role in public health emergencies.

  12. An appraisal of QR code use to deliver bus arrival time information at bus stops in Southampton

    OpenAIRE

    Gammer, Nick

    2011-01-01

    The provision of at-stop bus arrival time information has numerous potential benefits to bus users. With real-time passenger information well established in the UK the challenge is relaying accurate bus arrival times to passengers in a cost effective manner. Display screens are costly to install and maintain, rendering placement at all bus stops economically undesirable. QR codes represent an inexpensive alternative to delivering this information, usually at zero marginal cost to users. Q...

  13. Inrush-Current Limiter And Bus Isolator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolland, Carlisle R.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic circuit protects electrical power bus and source of power against excessive current demands. Circuit intended for use with power-consuming electronic system drawing pulsed currents and including capacitor bank as low-impedance secondary source from which pulsed currents drawn.

  14. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  15. Virginia School Bus Driver Training: Does Training Program Adequacy Affect school Bus Accident Rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, James O

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of data provided by the Virginia Departments of Motor Vehicles, Transportation, and Education all show school buses as having a significantly higher number of accidents per hundred million miles of travel than other forms of transportation. Such statistics are alarming and formal study of school bus accident factors has been limited. The purposes of this study were to (a) establish the adequacy of the school bus driver training programs of Local Education Agencies(LEAs...

  16. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  17. Economical launching and accelerating control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Song, Jian; Li, Liang; Li, Shengbo; Cao, Dongpu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an economical launching and accelerating mode, including four ordered phases: pure electrical driving, clutch engagement and engine start-up, engine active charging, and engine driving, which can be fit for the alternating conditions and improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric bus (HEB) during typical city-bus driving scenarios. By utilizing the fast response feature of electric motor (EM), an adaptive controller for EM is designed to realize the power demand during the pure electrical driving mode, the engine starting mode and the engine active charging mode. Concurrently, the smoothness issue induced by the sequential mode transitions is solved with a coordinated control logic for engine, EM and clutch. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed launching and accelerating mode and its control methods are effective in improving the fuel economy and ensure the drivability during the fast transition between the operation modes of HEB.

  18. Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The eGov-Bus project provides citizens and businesses with improved access to virtual public services, which are based on existing national eGovernment Web services and which support cross-border life events. Requirements and specific rules of these life events are considered, and personalization of user preferences is supported. eGov-Bus is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national eGovernment services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The eGov-Bus process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as eGovernment Web services. Further, eGov-Bus relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. The eGov-Bus architecture is business oriented, it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services and providing a Service Bus.

  19. Regenerative polymeric bus architecture for board-level optical interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N; Hashim, A; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2012-05-21

    A scalable multi-channel optical regenerative bus architecture based on the use of polymer waveguides is presented for the first time. The architecture offers high-speed interconnection between electrical cards allowing regenerative bus extension with multiple segments and therefore connection of an arbitrary number of cards onto the bus. In a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 4-channel 3-card polymeric bus module is designed and fabricated on standard FR4 substrates. Low insertion losses (≤ -15 dB) and low crosstalk values (bus modules using a prototype 3R regenerator.

  20. Heat Transfer in the LHC Main Superconducting Bus Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Richter, D

    2011-01-01

    CERN is performing a systematic analysis of the interconnecting bus bars of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) main magnets. Their thermal, electrical, mechanical and hydraulic performances are addressed. In the frame of these studies, the heat transfer between the main superconducting (SC) bus bars and the surrounding He bath is investigated. It represents a key parameter in the comprehension of the bus bars stability and quench propagation mechanisms, thus crucial for the analysis of the 2008 incident which was triggered by a defective bus bars joint. This paper reports on the experimental tests and relative analysis aiming at describing the thermal behavior of the LHC main bus bars.

  1. Minimizing the Impact of Electromagnetic Interference Affecting the Control System of Personal Rapid Transit in the Context of the Competitiveness of the Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choromański, Włodzimierz; Dyduch, Janusz; Paś, Jacek

    2011-06-01

    Personal Rapid Transit control system is exploited in diverse electromagnetic enlivenments. The unintentional or intentional electromagnetic disturbances on a vast railway area can disturb operation of PRT control system. The security systems are responsible for security of humans and goods transpiration and therefore their disturbance can threaten life or health their disturbance can threaten life or health of people exploitation decisions in the reference to these systems. The paper presents the ways of minimization of the influence of electromagnetic disturbances on PRT control system.

  2. Talent 2 - the new vehicle family for regional and rapid transit rail services; Talent 2 - Die neue Fahrzeugfamilie fuer den Regional- und S-Bahnverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segieth, Christian [Bombardier Transportation, Hennigsdorf (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In February 2007, Deutsche Bahn AG concluded a framework contract with railway vehicle manufacturer Bombardier for the supply of 321 new-generation Talent 2 electrical multiple unit trains for regional and rapid transit rail services. In light of changing market requirements, the trains are not being delivered in predetermined numbers at predetermined dates, as used to be customary, but will be released according to need up until 2014. The contract covers the basic conditions and agreements for the overall order, which is worth some 1.2 billion of Euros. Deutsche Bahn AG has already concluded similar contracts with Bombardier for double-deck coaches. (orig.)

  3. Life-cycle assessment of diesel, natural gas and hydrogen fuel cell bus transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Jamie; Pryor, Trevor

    The Sustainable Transport Energy Programme (STEP) is an initiative of the Government of Western Australia, to explore hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the existing diesel and natural gas public transit infrastructure in Perth. This project includes three buses manufactured by DaimlerChrysler with Ballard fuel cell power sources operating in regular service alongside the existing natural gas and diesel bus fleets. The life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the fuel cell bus trial in Perth determines the overall environmental footprint and energy demand by studying all phases of the complete transportation system, including the hydrogen infrastructure, bus manufacturing, operation, and end-of-life disposal. The LCAs of the existing diesel and natural gas transportation systems are developed in parallel. The findings show that the trial is competitive with the diesel and natural gas bus systems in terms of global warming potential and eutrophication. Emissions that contribute to acidification and photochemical ozone are greater for the fuel cell buses. Scenario analysis quantifies the improvements that can be expected in future generations of fuel cell vehicles and shows that a reduction of greater than 50% is achievable in the greenhouse gas, photochemical ozone creation and primary energy demand impact categories.

  4. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  5. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-wei; Wang, Dian-hai

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays. PMID:25759720

  6. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  7. Research and Development of Hybrid Electric Vehicles CAN-Bus Data Monitor and Diagnostic System through OBD-II and Android-Based Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Yalian Yang; Baolin Chen; Lin Su; Datong Qin

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of the smartphone market, future cars seem to have more connections with intelligent cell phone and Internet. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) and telematics system have become research focus in recent years. There is an increasing demand for remote monitoring and diagnostic system as the further research of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) goes on. In this paper, a remote controller area network bus (CAN-Bus) data monitor and diagnostic system for HEV is presen...

  8. Multi-Mission Suitability of the NASA Ames Modular Common Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Tietz, Sascha; Bell, James; Hine, Butler

    2009-01-01

    The obvious advantages of small spacecraft - their lower cost structure and the rapid development schedule - have enabled a large number of missions in the past. However, most of these missions have been focused on Earth observation from low Earth orbits. In 2006, the Small Spacecraft Division at the NASA Ames Research Center began the development of the Modular Common Bus, a spacecraft capable of delivering scientifically and technically useful payloads to a variety of destinations within 0....

  9. Precipitation of coherent FeRh nanoparticles with highly suppressed magnetostructural transition temperatures in rapidly solidified (FeRh)5Cu95 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Radhika; Jiang, Xiujuan; Shield, Jeff; Heiman, Don; Lewis, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Magnetostructural phase transitions have the capability of delivering large functional effects in response to small excursions in magnetic field, temperature and strain; this potential might be amplified in nanostructured systems by virtue of large surface:volume ratios. Nanoprecipitates (˜10nm) of FeRh, a well-known magnetostructural material, were studied with structural and magnetic probes in a rapidly solidified phase-separated system of (FeRh)5Cu95. Magnetization studies indicate a dramatic reduction in the magnetostructural phase transition temperature (Tt) of the nanoscaled FeRh phase relative to the bulk value (δT=Tt,Bulk - Tt,Nano = 220 K). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) reveals a coherent orientational relationship between the FeRh (aFeRh = 3.09 å)and Cu (aCu = 3.78 å) phases. At the matrix/precipitate interface a constrained misfit strain of ɛ = 0.18 is observed. The reduction of the magnetostructural phase transition temperature and evolution of the magnetic properties with system annealing is analyzed in the context of the strain between the FeRh nanoparticles and the Cu matrix.

  10. BUS 475 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 6 Times, Rating: A+   BUS 475 Capstone Final Examination Part 1   1.    In the managerial function of __________, managers encourage and motivate workers to work toward organizational goals.   2.    eBay.com is a vast auction site that is similar to a competitive market in some ways but differs from it in others. Which of the following describes...

  11. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  12. Structural elucidation of rapid solution-mediated phase transitions in pharmaceutical solids using in situ synchrotron SAXS/WAXS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetker, Johan; Rades, Thomas; Rantanen, Jukka; Hawley, Adrian; Boyd, Ben J

    2012-09-01

    In situ elucidation of kinetics of solution-mediated phase transformations using direct structural determination has been achieved using synchrotron SAXS/WAXS radiation. Using theophylline as a model drug with known phase transformation from anhydrate to monohydrate form in aqueous conditions within a few minutes, the kinetics of the structural transition were resolved at the second scale, and the results achieved agreed well with those determined using indirect approaches such as Raman spectroscopy. The recrystallization of the monohydrate in situ (due to its lower solubility) from dissolved anhydrate solution (higher solubility) is demonstrated directly, highlighting a major issue for such compounds in application. The technique has the additional benefit of having the potential to identify intermediate structures which are not readily achievable with in situ spectroscopic techniques, as well as being amenable to high throughput approaches.

  13. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  14. Changes in melatonin secretion in tourists after rapid movement to another lighting zone without transition of time zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Joanna; Blazejczyk, Krzysztof; Morita, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research in the field of Chronobiology is focused on the problem of the circadian rhythms (CR) desynchronization. In travelers, it results mostly from the changes of surrounding: photoperiod, local climate conditions (radiation and thermal load) and behavior (e.g. type and place of tourism and activity level). Until now, it was not documented whether the changes in melatonin (MLT) secretion occur in effect of mid-distance transparallel travels (TpT), without complications arising due to time-zone transitions (e.g. jet-lag syndrome). To cope with this problem, a special field experiment was carried out. In the experiment, MLT characteristics were examined twice a year in real conditions through a group of young tourists (23-26 years old) at their place of habitual residence (Warsaw, Poland), and at their tourist destination (Tromso, Norway). Transition to circumpolar zone in summer has resulted in insignificant reduction in melatonin peak value (MPV) compared to preflight control (2 days before travel) and the melatonin peak time (MPT) was delayed. However, after traveling southward on the returning flight, MPV was lower compared to control and MPT was advanced. In winter, MPV was insignificantly higher in comparison to preflight control and MPT was almost unchanged. While changes in MPV do not depend on season, flight direction and day of stay after flight than MPT was differentiated seasonally and due to direction of flight. MPV and MPT were significantly modified by characteristics of individual light exposure during daytime and evening. The experiment showed also that in real conditions activity level is an important factor affected melatonin peak in tourists. In winter, greater daytime activity significantly influenced earlier MPT occurrence, both after northward and southward flights. PMID:26817496

  15. Rapid synthesis of transition metal dichalcogenide few-layer thin crystals by the microwave-induced-plasma assisted method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Apoorva; Slabon, Adam; Hu, Peng; Feng, Shuanglong; Zhang, Ke-ke; Prabhakar, Rajiv Ramanujam; Kloc, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Few-layer thin crystals of WS2, MoS2, WSe2, MoSe2 and ReS2 were synthesized via the microwave-induced-plasma-assisted method. The synthesis was accomplished in plasma that was formed inside sealed quartz ampoules heated by plasma surrounding the sealed ampoule. Powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy indicate thin crystals of high-quality. The proposed method is rapid, reproducible and environmentally friendly. It is applicable to practically every direct reaction between metals and nonmetals if the nonmetal vapor pressure can reach a pressure of a few torr, which is required for plasma formation inside a sealed ampoule.

  16. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2009-10-01

    This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

  17. Design and Manufacture of the Superconducting Bus-bars for the LHC Main Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Belova, L M; Perinet-Marquet, J L; Ivanov, P; Urpin, C

    2002-01-01

    The main magnets of the LHC are series-connected electrically in different powering circuits by means of superconducting bus-bars, carrying a maximum current of 13 kA. These superconducting bus-bars consist of a superconducting cable thermally and electrically coupled to a copper profile all along the length. The function of the copper profile is essentially to provide an alternative path for the current in case the superconducting cable loses its superconducting state and returns to normal state because of a transient disturbance or of a normal zone propagation coming from the neighbouring magnets. When a superconducting bus-bar quenches to normal state its temperature must always stay below a safe values of about 100°C while the copper is conducting. When a resistive transition is detected, the protection systems triggers the ramping down of the current from 13000 A to 0. The ramp rate must not exceed a maximum value to avoid the transition of magnets series-connected in the circuit. This paper concerns th...

  18. Study of bus driving parameters on urban route

    OpenAIRE

    Fuad DASHDAMIROV

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with bus traffic time and speed on stage and route in the whole. The factors affecting bus driving parameters are divided into groups. The factors of significant impact are found in each group. The method of consideration of such factors impact on driving parameters in timetable making, is proposed. The extent of impact of selected factors on bus driving time and speed is studied.

  19. OH reactivity in urban and suburban regions in Seoul, South Korea - an East Asian megacity in a rapid transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saewung; Sanchez, Dianne; Wang, Mark; Seco, Roger; Jeong, Daun; Hughes, Stacey; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R; Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Deugsoo; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Ahn, Joonyoung; Lee, Sang-Deok; Cho, Gangnam; Sung, Min-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Dan Bi; Kim, Younha; Woo, Jung-Hun; Jo, Duseong; Park, Rokjin; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Hong, You-Deog; Hong, Ji-Hyung

    2016-07-18

    South Korea has recently achieved developed country status with the second largest megacity in the world, the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). This study provides insights into future changes in air quality for rapidly emerging megacities in the East Asian region. We present total OH reactivity observations in the SMA conducted at an urban Seoul site (May-June, 2015) and a suburban forest site (Sep, 2015). The total OH reactivity in an urban site during the daytime was observed at similar levels (∼15 s(-1)) to those previously reported from other East Asian megacity studies. Trace gas observations indicate that OH reactivity is largely accounted for by NOX (∼50%) followed by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (∼35%). Isoprene accounts for a substantial fraction of OH reactivity among the comprehensive VOC observational dataset (25-47%). In general, observed total OH reactivity can be accounted for by the observed trace gas dataset. However, observed total OH reactivity in the suburban forest area cannot be largely accounted for (∼70%) by the trace gas measurements. The importance of biogenic VOC (BVOCs) emissions and oxidations used to evaluate the impacts of East Asian megacity outflows for the regional air quality and climate contexts are highlighted in this study. PMID:27138104

  20. The SMART MIL-STD-1553 bus adapter hardware manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The SMART Multiplexer Interface Adapter, (SMIA) a complete system interface for message structure of the MIL-STD-1553, is described. It provides buffering and storage for transmitted and received data and handles all the necessary handshaking to interface between parallel 8-bit data bus and a MIL-STD serial bit stream. The bus adapter is configured as either a bus controller of a remote terminal interface. It is coupled directly to the multiplex bus, or stub coupled through an additional isolation transformer located at the connection point. Fault isolation resistors provide short circuit protection.

  1. Examination of an Urban City Bus Operating Conditions and Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Soylu, Seref (Coordinador); Bal, Ayda; Semercioglu, Hulya; Ay, Eyup Fatih

    2010-01-01

    It was observed that real world driving characteristics of the city bus don’t correlate well with that of the ETC, which is the certification cycle for the city bus engines. For this reason it is not realistic to expect emission levels lower than corresponding EURO standards from the city bus during real world driving. City bus NOx emissions in terms of grams per second are increasing with engine load and speed but the total NOx emissions for entire trip are the maximum at the locations whe...

  2. Multi-Gigabit Rate Radiation Hard Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High speed robust very low power radiation hardened bus interconnects are required to accelerate on-board computations, further improve reconfigurability and...

  3. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    light. Occurrence of injury to bus passengers is positively related to (i) the involvement of heavy vehicles, (ii) crossing intersections in yellow or red light, (iii) open areas, (iv) high speed limits, and (v) slippery road surface. Conclusions The findings of the current study provide a comprehensive...... examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...

  4. Status of the IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus project has been influenced by and has influenced FASTBUS and several other contemporary bus designs. This paper summarizes the current status of that project, which is directed toward the needs of modern 32-bit microprocessor systems with multiple processors. Some of the technology developed for P896 will be important for future non-ECL implementations of FASTBUS and other buses. In particular, new bus drivers and receivers should greatly improve the performance and reliability of backplane buses and cable buses. The current status of the P896 serial bus is also summarized

  5. Rapidkl Bus Service in City Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: An Epitome of Good Service?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Abdullah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Public transportation in Kuala Lumpur (the capital city of Malaysia serves the daily commuting needs of all strata of society. To meet the ever increasing needs of reliable public transport in and around the capital city, the Rangkaian Pengangkutan Integrasi Deras Sdn Bhd (RapidKL has been established. Notwithstanding the effort by the company to provide the best public service, it seems there are more brickbats than bouquet of flowers given at the level of service rendered. Gamut of complaints range from late arrival, overcrowding, poor customer service, and bad general upkeep of the bus to frequent mechanical letdown. Hence, this research attempts to ascertain factors which influence the latitude of customer satisfaction towards RapidKL bus service in the Klang Valley. The picked independent variables of service quality; consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction are assessed. The findings indentify factors that influence customers’ satisfaction to choose bus as a public transportation. The results will be used to suggest plan of improvement so that the public can experience better service in the Klang Valley.

  6. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  7. Bus bar joints stability and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A

    2009-01-01

    A defective bus connection between two dipole magnets was the primary cause of the incident in sector 34 on September 19th. I will show how this could have happened, i.e. how a highly resistive joint has caused a thermal runaway and burned (or opened) before the QPS threshold was reached. In the second part of the talk I will present the new detection limits for the QPS upgrade of the RB and RQ circuits, required to avoid similar thermal runaways in the future.

  8. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  9. A High Efficiency DC Bus Regulator / RPC for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-02-01

    DC bus voltage regulation may be required in future high powered spacecraft due to the length of the busses or because they are not generated at precise voltage levels. In these cases the regulation range is often only a few percent increase or decrease, but conventional DC voltage regulators switch all the power passing through them, and this level of power switched determines the size and losses in the regulator. A recently developed concept uses a low power DC-DC converter in series with the bus to raise or lower the bus voltage over a small range. This partial power processing technique combines the small size and power losses of the low power converter with the ability to regulate, (over a small range) a high power bus. The Series Connected Buck Boost Regulator (SCBBR) described herein provides bus regulation with an efficiency of 98%. The circuit also provides bus switching and overcurrent limiting functions of a Remote Power Controller (RPC). This paper describes the circuit design and performance of a breadboard SCBBR configured as a bus voltage regulator providing +/- 40% voltage regulation range, bus switching, and overload limiting.

  10. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  11. Review of bus drivers' occupational stress and stress prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Di Martino, V.

    1995-01-01

    Although heterogeneous in methodology and content, 32 studies from 13 countries on bus drivers' work and health are similar in their conclusions. Bus-driving–characterized by high demands, low control and low support – can be regarded as a classic example of high-strain occupation, with high risks o

  12. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  13. An Overview of Staged-bus Operation in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hesam Hafezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, demand for passenger travel is higher, due to economic growth. Government policy encourages people to use public transportation instead of their private carsto reduce of traffic congestion and air pollution. In the city areas, bus networks are the major part of the public transportation system because they are easily accessible and cheaper compared to other types of public transportation. In this study revelation of details of bus operation included different agents is studied. Bus operations, during provision of their service, have interaction with three main agents: bus agent, passenger agent and traffic agent. Study of the influence of each agent in bus operation is presented in this study, using the macroscopic way.

  14. Improved design of HIRFL-CSR EVME bus controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EVME bus controller which is a key component of the HIRFL-CSR control system was improved. Besides reconfiguring the embedded Linux, a utility program was developed for data exchange between the controller and the database. The bus controller is based on ARM920T(ARM9) micro processor which is BGA packaged. The bus controller has the universal interface of VGA display, keyboard, and mouse. The backboard interface logic is programmed in an in-system configurable FPGA device. The bus can drive high current up to 64 mA, with the flexibility of the programmable signal definitions. All the improved performance helped the EVME bus controller play a crucial role in HIRFL-CSR control system. (authors)

  15. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of low back trouble and possible connection with psychosocial conditions among urban bus drivers were studied using a questionnaire and subsequent registration of hospital discharges. 2,045 (83%) full-time male bus drivers in the three largest cities in Denmark answered a questionn......The occurrence of low back trouble and possible connection with psychosocial conditions among urban bus drivers were studied using a questionnaire and subsequent registration of hospital discharges. 2,045 (83%) full-time male bus drivers in the three largest cities in Denmark answered...... a questionnaire in 1978 regarding psychosocial factors and health. The prevalence of frequent low back pain was 57%. In a control group of 195 motormen the prevalence was 40%. Standardized Morbidity Ratio for bus drivers discharged from hospital during the period 1978-1984 with the diagnosis lumbar disc...

  16. Evaluation of Orion/BAE Hybrid Buses and Orion CNG Buses at New York City Transit: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Chandler, K.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses the NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric transit buses operated by New York City Transit.

  17. Evidence from a mouse model that epithelial cell migration and mesenchymal-epithelial transition contribute to rapid restoration of uterine tissue integrity during menstruation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona L Cousins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In women dynamic changes in uterine tissue architecture occur during each menstrual cycle. Menses, characterised by the shedding of the upper functional layer of the endometrium, is the culmination of a cascade of irreversible changes in tissue function including stromal decidualisation, inflammation and production of degradative enzymes. The molecular mechanisms that contribute to the rapid restoration of tissue homeostasis at time of menses are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: A modified mouse model of menses was developed to focus on the events occurring within the uterine lining during endometrial shedding/repair. Decidualisation, vaginal bleeding, tissue architecture and cell proliferation were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after progesterone (P4 withdrawal; mice received a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU 90 mins before culling. Expression of genes implicated in the regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET was determined using a RT2 PCR profiler array, qRTPCR and bioinformatic analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice exhibited vaginal bleeding between 4 and 12 hours after P4 withdrawal, concomitant with detachment of the decidualised cell mass from the basal portion of the endometrial lining. Immunostaining for BrdU and pan cytokeratin revealed evidence of epithelial cell proliferation and migration. Cells that appeared to be in transition from a mesenchymal to an epithelial cell identity were identified within the stromal compartment. Analysis of mRNAs encoding genes expressed exclusively in the epithelial or stromal compartments, or implicated in MET, revealed dynamic changes in expression, consistent with a role for reprogramming of mesenchymal cells so that they could contribute to re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies have provided novel insights into the cellular processes that contribute to re-epithelialisation post-menses implicating both epithelial cell migration and

  18. Resilience, rapid transitions and regime shifts: fingerprinting the responses of Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) to climate variability and human disturbance since 1000 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Grosjean, Martin; José Gómez Navarro, Juan; Larocque-Tobler, Isabelle; Bonk, Alicja; Enters, Dirk; Ustrzycka, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Witak, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    Rapid ecosystem transitions and adverse effects on ecosystem services as responses to combined climate and human impacts are of major concern. Yet few quantitative observational data exist, particularly for ecosystems that have a long history of human intervention. Here, we combine quantitative summer and winter climate reconstructions, climate model simulations and proxies for three major environmental pressures (land use, nutrients and erosion) to explore the system dynamics, resilience, and the role of disturbance regimes in varved eutrophic Lake Żabińskie since AD 1000. Comparison between regional and global climate simulations and quantitative climate reconstructions indicate that proxy data capture noticeably natural forced climate variability, while internal variability appears as the dominant source of climate variability in the climate model simulations during most parts of the last millennium. Using different multivariate analyses and change point detection techniques, we identify ecosystem changes through time and shifts between rather stable states and highly variable ones, as expressed by the proxies for land-use, erosion and productivity in the lake. Prior to AD 1600, the lake ecosystem was characterized by a high stability and resilience against considerable observed natural climate variability. In contrast, lake-ecosystem conditions started to fluctuate at high frequency across a broad range of states after AD 1600. The period AD 1748-1868 represents the phase with the strongest human disturbance of the ecosystem. Analyses of the frequency of change points in the multi-proxy dataset suggests that the last 400 years were highly variable and flickering with increasing vulnerability of the ecosystem to the combined effects of climate variability and anthropogenic disturbances. This led to significant rapid ecosystem transformations.

  19. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  20. The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) Design, Trades, and Analyses Performed in the First Year of a Two Year Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2016-01-01

    The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS)1 was one of the seven total Phase II NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) that was down-selected in 2015 for continued funding and research. In Phase I we learned that a spacecraft propelled by an Electric Sail (E-Sail) can travel great astronomical distances, such as to the Heliopause region of the solar system (approx.100 to 120 AU) in approximately one quarter of the time (10 years) versus the time it took the Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977 (36 years). The current work within the Phase II NIAC effort builds upon the work that was done in the Phase I NIAC and is focused on: 1) Testing of plasma interaction with a charged wire in a unique MSFC test chamber, 2) Development of a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) models that are validated in the plasma testing and used to extrapolate to the E-Sail propulsion system design. 3) Further down select of a wire deployment and control approach from those narrowed down in the Phase I effort. This paper will document the findings to date (June, 2016) of the above focused areas.

  1. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  2. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  3. Statistical Analysis for the Driving Cycle of Beijing's Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震坡; 孙逢春; 王军; 孙立清

    2004-01-01

    According to the test data of the driving model for Beijing's bus routes, 9 parameters and the actual values of Beijing bus are confirmed to evaluate the driving cycle, 2 ways of establishing driving cycle model are analyzed, the formula of calculating driving cycle is acquired, and the calculating driving cycle model and the statistical driving cycle model for the buses in Beijing urban areas are set up. This study provides scientific basis for selecting the bus type and confirming the design parameters and the running method in Beijing.

  4. Development in Conducting Bus of RE-Al Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德富; 胡捷; 章萍芝; 石瑛; 李彦利

    2001-01-01

    Four kinds of deformed aluminum alloys were tested. One kind of RE-A1-Mg-Si alloy, which possessed high conductivity and strength, was the first priority by contrast test, The large specification bus of conducting aluminum all oys was made by thermomechanical process during the industrial experiment. The properties of the bus are as follows:the tensile strength σb is 238 MPa, the conductivity (v.s. IACS) is 54.3%, and the current-carrying capacity is beyond 3.1kA during working process. This kind of RE-Al alloy bus has been applied to several electrical transmitting and transforming work.

  5. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Choong-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, uninterruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS is discussed and elaborated.

  6. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  7. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qiqi Wang; , Wei Zhang; Rendong Yang; Yuanxiu Huang; Lin Zhang; Peishan Ning; Xunjie Cheng; Schwebel, David C; Guoqing Hu; Hongyan Yao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China. Methods We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city) were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicte...

  8. Rfid-Based Automatic Bus Ticketing: Features and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudah, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advancements in various technologies have made remarkable developments in various fields for public welfare and public transport is one such area. In the near future public bus transport system with advanced technologies like Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), GSM, GPS, ZigBee and RF modules will gain spotlight due to their advantage of higher convenience and greater life standards as compared to the conventional bus systems. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all several proposed bus ticketing and bus information methods has been presented in detail. The study brings out improved solution in terms of cost, convenience, user satisfaction and future implementation. The choice of working modules and their efficient performance has been discussed along with the highlighted importance of the need of technology for welfare of common public and visually impaired.

  9. Constant of heat conduction and stabilization of bus bar conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, G.

    Using the one-dimensional, time-independent conduction state, a constant of heat conduction is given bringing about the known stabilization theorem and a closed expression for the bus bar to be cryogenically stable in superconducting accelerators.

  10. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  11. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  12. Optimal control system of the intermittent bus-only approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Jiang; Yulin Chang

    2014-01-01

    To guarantee bus priority with a minimum impact on car traffic at intersections, an optimal control system of the intermittent bus-only approach (IBA) was proposed. The problems of the existing system are first solved through optimization: the judgment time of the IBA system was advanced to allow a bus to jump car queues if the bus was detected to arrive at the intersection, and the instant that the IBA lane became available to cars was controlled dynamically to increase the capacity of the IBA lane. The total car delay in one cycle was then analyzed quantitatively when implementing the optimal control system. The results show that in comparison with the existing system of the IBA, the car delay is greatly reduced and the probability of a car stopping twice is low after optimizing the IBA system.

  13. Study on the Bus Real-time Dispatching Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YingZou; JianguoLi; JianhuaHuang; ZhenminTang

    2004-01-01

    The real-time dispatching model on bus system is studied in this article. Realtime dispatching can resume the planned schedule quickly, and then to ensure the reliability of the public transport service and to well raise the service quality.

  14. Global Optimization for Bus Line Timetable Setting Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines bus timetables setting problem during each time period divided in terms of passenger flow intensity; it is supposed that passengers evenly arrive and bus runs are set evenly; the problem is to determine bus runs assignment in each time period to minimize the total waiting time of passengers on platforms if the number of the total runs is known. For such a multistage decision problem, this paper designed a dynamic programming algorithm to solve it. Global optimization procedures using dynamic programming are developed. A numerical example about bus runs assignment optimization of a single line is given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology, showing that optimizing buses’ departure time using dynamic programming can save computational time and find the global optimal solution.

  15. Bus Passenger Recognition and Track of Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Zhou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is a research aiming at realizing making a statistics on passenger flow volume of bus, which not only helps traffic services center rationally schedule vehicles, but also can avoid overload. The system makes machine vision technology and digital image processing technique applied in customer counting of bus. The key questions in the study include effective collection of video image, effective extraction of moving object in sequence images, recognition of moving targets, trace and count of moving objects. The paper makes deep analysis on relevant technology from the perspective of the theory and practical application of the algorithm, and the study makes achievements. The theoretical algorithm for the study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is distinctive. The practical experiments indicate that the system can satisfy the real-time requirements, and can accurately make statistics on the number of passengers, which has great application value.

  16. HAT-P-57b: A Short-period Giant Planet Transiting a Bright Rapidly Rotating A8V Star Confirmed Via Doppler Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Buchhave, L. A.; Torres, G.; Latham, D. W.; Kovács, G.; Bhatti, W.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.; Penev, K.; Huang, C. X.; Béky, B.; Bieryla, A.; Quinn, S. N.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Johnson, J. A.; Isaacson, H.; Fischer, D. A.; Noyes, R. W.; Falco, E.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Knox, R. P.; Hinz, P.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2015-12-01

    We present the discovery of HAT-P-57b, a P = 2.4653 day transiting planet around a V=10.465+/- 0.029 mag, {T}{{eff}}=7500+/- 250 K main sequence A8V star with a projected rotation velocity of v{sin}i=102.1+/- 1.3 {km} {{{s}}}-1. We measure the radius of the planet to be R=1.413+/- 0.054 {R}{{J}} and, based on RV observations, place a 95% confidence upper limit on its mass of M\\lt 1.85 {M}{{J}}. Based on theoretical stellar evolution models, the host star has a mass and radius of 1.47+/- 0.12 {M}⊙ and 1.500+/- 0.050 {R}⊙ , respectively. Spectroscopic observations made with Keck-I/HIRES during a partial transit event show the Doppler shadow of HAT-P-57b moving across the average spectral line profile of HAT-P-57, confirming the object as a planetary system. We use these observations, together with analytic formulae that we derive for the line profile distortions, to determine the projected angle between the spin axis of HAT-P-57 and the orbital axis of HAT-P-57b. The data permit two possible solutions, with -16\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 7\\lt λ \\lt 3\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 3 or 27\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 6\\lt λ \\lt 57\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 4 at 95% confidence, and with relative probabilities for the two modes of 26% and 74%, respectively. Adaptive optics imaging with MMT/Clio2 reveals an object located 2\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 7 from HAT-P-57 consisting of two point sources separated in turn from each other by 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 22. The H- and {L}\\prime -band magnitudes of the companion stars are consistent with their being physically associated with HAT-P-57, in which case they are stars of mass 0.61+/- 0.10 {M}⊙ and 0.53+/- 0.08 {M}⊙ . HAT-P-57 is the most rapidly rotating star, and only the fourth main sequence A star, known to host a transiting planet. Based on observations obtained with the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network. Based in part on observations made with the Keck-I telescope at Mauna

  17. Examining the Optimal Fuel Type for Urban Bus Operations

    OpenAIRE

    CAULFIELD, BRIAN

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Washington D.C. Public service fleets offer an attractive option for introducing renewable fuels and alternative technologies on a large scale, which allow for the reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and exhaust air pollutants. This paper ex amines the use of biomethane (bio-CNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) for part of the bus fleet in Dublin. Dublin is typical of many international urban centres with a large bus fleet; therefore the results...

  18. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  19. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Neeta Pandey; Bharat Choudhary; Kirti Gupta; Ankit Mittal

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL) tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are id...

  20. Support and power plant documentation for the gas turbine powered bus demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, D. N.; Stewart, R. G.; Apple, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    The operational experience obtained for the GT404-4 gas turbine engines in the intercity and intracity Bus Demonstration Programs is described for the period January 1980 through September 1981. Support for the engines and automatic transmissions involved in this program provided engineering and field service, spare parts and tools, training, and factory overhauls. the Greyhound (intercity) coaches accumulated 183,054 mi (294,595 km) and 5154 hr of total operation. The Baltimore Transit (intracity) coaches accumulated 40,567 mi (65,285 km) and 1840 hr of total operation. In service, the turbine powered Greyhound and Transit coaches achieved approximately 25% and 40% lower fuel mileage, respectively, than did the production diesel powered coaches. The gas turbine engine will require the advanced ceramic development currently being sponsored by the DOE and NASA to achieve fuel economy equivalent not only to that of today's diesel engines but also to the projected fuel economy of the advanced diesel engines of the 1990s. Sufficient experience was not achieved with the coaches prior to the start of service to identify and eliminate many of the problems associated with the startup of new equipment. Because of these problems, the mean miles between incident were unacceptably low. The future gas turbine system should be developed sufficiently to establish satisfactory durability prior to evaluation in revenue service. Commercialization of the gas turbine bus engine remains a viable goal for the future.

  1. Can propulsion and fuel diversity for the bus fleet achieve the win–win strategy of energy conservation and environmental protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We first report WTW energy and environmental impacts of new-energy buses in China. • Both CNGV and BEV eliminate petroleum use but increase the burden of other fossil fuels. • BEV is the best to reduce WTW NOX and VOC emissions but no benefit for PM2.5 and SO2. • CNGV has PM2.5 emission reductions by 70% greater than DV but no benefit in GHG emissions. • HEV is the only option that can reduce energy use and pollutant emissions at the same time. - Abstract: China is facing serious issues involving energy sufficiency, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution caused partly by the rapid growth of vehicles. In order to relieve those problems, new energy vehicles are introduced into the bus and car market. We adopt life cycle analysis to evaluate the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy consumption, CO2 emissions and pollutant emissions from the traditional diesel bus and new energy buses, including diesel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), compressed natural gas vehicles (CNGVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This study reports the current situation and projects future scenarios for the BEV bus for several regions in China due to significant regional differences in the power generation mix. Compared to the diesel bus, the HEV bus can reduce petroleum, fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions by about 20%, and, at the same time, produce stable reduction benefits for all air pollutants. The CNG bus achieves reductions of WTW primary PM2.5 emissions by 70% over its diesel counterpart and, of course, uses little petroleum; but increases fossil fuel consumption moderately and has no benefit in GHG emissions. The BEV bus can deliver a substantial petroleum consumption advantage and greatly reduce the WTW NOX, VOC and CO emissions; but, if the electricity is generated from burning coal, the BEV bus has no PM2.5 emission benefit compared to the conventional diesel bus. Currently, the BEV bus increases fossil energy use and CO2 emissions in the coal

  2. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  3. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  4. Calculation of the Autocorrelation Function of the Stochastic Single Machine Infinite Bus System

    CERN Document Server

    Ghanavati, Goodarz; Lakoba, Taras; Cotilla-Sanchez, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Critical slowing down (CSD) is the phenomenon in which a system recovers more slowly from small perturbations. CSD, as evidenced by increasing signal variance and autocorrelation, has been observed in many dynamical systems approaching a critical transition, and thus can be a useful signal of proximity to transition. In this paper, we derive autocorrelation functions for the state variables of a stochastic single machine infinite bus system (SMIB). The results show that both autocorrelation and variance increase as this system approaches a saddle-node bifurcation. The autocorrelation functions help to explain why CSD can be used as an indicator of proximity to criticality in power systems revealing, for example, how nonlinearity in the SMIB system causes these signs to appear.

  5. Miniature JPL Universal Instrument Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work will transition commercial advanced- yet mature- packaging approaches, such as surface mount and system-in-package, into mainstream use at JPL. Starting...

  6. Application of CAN Bus Technology on Zhongtong Bus%CAN总线技术在中通客车上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳

    2012-01-01

    The application status of CAN bus technology on Zhongtong bus is introduced, the methods of bus data collection and analysis on Zhongtong traditional and new energy bus are discussed and the development direction of CAN bus technology is prospected.%介绍CAN总线技术在中通客车上的应用状况,探讨中通传统客车及新能源客车的总线数据采集和分析方法。

  7. Integrated Smart Feeder / Shuttle Bus Service

    OpenAIRE

    Ceder, Avishai; Yim, Youngbin

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an integrated smart feeder/shuttle system. The design of such a system was motivated by the need to provide easy access to main haul transit services. Park and ride lots in many train stations can no longer accommodate automobiles brought to the stations. Some train riders have switched their mode of transportation from public transit to solo driving. Shortage of parking spaces at rail stations encourages passengers to drive alone, hence more cars on freeways...

  8. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  9. Capacity Region of a New Bus Communication Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuojun Zhuang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a new bus communication model, where two transmitters wish to send their corresponding private messages and a common message to a destination, while they also wish to send the common message to another receiver connected to the same wire. From an information-theoretical point of view, we first study a general case of this new model (with discrete memoryless channels. The capacity region composed of all achievable (R0,R1,R2 triples is determined for this general model, where R1 and R2 are the transmission rates of the private messages and R0 is the transmission rate of the common message. Then, the result is further explained via the Gaussian example. Finally, we give the capacity region for the new bus communication model with additive Gaussian noises and attenuation factors. This new bus communication model captures various communication scenarios, such as the bus systems in vehicles, and the bus type of communication channel in power line communication (PLC networks.

  10. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The presence of numerous local spatial constraints makes the process and extent of epidemic spreading extremely difficult to predict. Also, majority of the studies have focused on the contagion processes on scale-free network topologies whereas, spatially-constrained real-world networks such as, bus networks exhibit a wide-spectrum of network topology. Therefore, we aim in this study to understand this complex dynamical process of epidemic outbreak and information diffusion on the bus networks for six different Indian cities usin...

  11. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  12. High Performance BDR for the PCU of AlphaBus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrier, Laurent; Besdel, Patrick; Daubresse, Thierry; Trehet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Very high-power satellites for Telecom missions require 100V bus. Some Telecom payloads may be used in TDMA mode with a power modulation up to 30% of the Payload power. Full performance of the PCU is required in this case even in eclipse mode. It is clear that this requirement is very demanding especially for the BDR design.100V bus system leads making this requirement more difficult as Bus and Battery short-circuit protections have to operate under a voltage of 100V. This paper describes first the overall BDR design with a special focus on the innovative battery short-circuit protection that is not achieved by a "classical" series SSPC on the battery line.The constraints brought by the TDMA mode are detailed, especially on the input filter of the BDR in presence of large battery inductance. The solution developed to cope with large TDMA current is then presented with the associated TDMA performance.

  13. The Development and Verification of a Novel ECMS of Hybrid Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the system modeling, control strategy design, and hardware-in-the-loop test for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus. First, the powertrain mathematical models and the system architecture were proposed. Then an adaptive ECMS is developed for the real-time control of a hybrid electric bus, which is investigated and verified in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. The ECMS through driving cycle recognition results in updating the equivalent charge and discharge coefficients and extracting optimized rules for real-time control. This method not only solves the problems of mode transition frequently and improves the fuel economy, but also simplifies the complexity of control strategy design and provides new design ideas for the energy management strategy and gear-shifting rules designed. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed real-time A-ECMS can coordinate the overall hybrid electric powertrain to optimize fuel economy and sustain the battery SOC level.

  14. Development of a PEM Fuel Cell City Bus with a Hierarchical Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliang Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell system is considered to be an ideal alternative for the internal combustion engine, especially when used on a city bus. Hybrid buses with fuel cell systems and energy storage systems are now undergoing transit service demonstrations worldwide. A hybrid PEM fuel cell city bus with a hierarchical control system is studied in this paper. Firstly, the powertrain and hierarchical control structure is introduced. Secondly, the vehicle control strategy including start-stop strategy, energy management strategy, and fuel cell control strategy, including the hydrogen system and air system control strategies, are described in detail. Finally, the performance of the fuel cell was analyzed based on road test data. Results showed that the different subsystems were well-coordinated. Each component functioned in concert in order to ensure that both safety and speed requirements were satisfied. The output current of the fuel cell system changed slowly and the output voltage was limited to a certain range, thereby enhancing durability of the fuel cell. Furthermore, the economic performance was optimized by avoiding low load conditions.

  15. High Performance ZVT with Bus Clamping Modulation Technique for Single Phase Full Bridge Inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yinglai; Ayyanar, Raja

    2016-03-20

    This paper proposes a topology based on bus clamping modulation and zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) technique to realize zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) for all the main switches of the full bridge inverters, and inherent ZVS and/or ZCS for the auxiliary switches. The advantages of the strategy include significant reduction in the turn-on loss of the ZVT auxiliary switches which typically account for a major part of the total loss in other ZVT circuits, and reduction in the voltage ratings of auxiliary switches. The modulation scheme and the commutation stages are analyzed in detail. Finally, a 1kW, 500 kHz switching frequency inverter of the proposed topology using SiC MOSFETs has been built to validate the theoretical analysis. The ZVT with bus clamping modulation technique of fixed timing and adaptive timing schemes are implemented in DSP TMS320F28335 resulting in full ZVS for the main switches in the full bridge inverter. The proposed scheme can save up to 33 % of the switching loss compared with no ZVT case.

  16. Distributed cooperative synchronization strategy for multi-bus microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Zhong, Chaolu; Hou, Xiaochao;

    2017-01-01

    synchronization methods based on centralized communication are very costly and not suitable for multi-bus microgrids that have a large number of distributed generators (DGs). To address this concern, this study presents an active synchronization control strategy based on distributed cooperation technology...... for multi-bus microgrids. The proposed method can reconnect the microgrid in island to UG seamlessly with sparse communication channels. Synchronization correction signals are generated by a voltage controller, which are only transmitted to the leader DGs. Meanwhile, each DG exchanges information with its...

  17. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  18. Persecution as a Theme in Isaac Bashevis Singer's The Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Minzhi

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Bashevis Singer is very much concerned about the fate of Jewish people,so he often presents Jews'sufferings in his literary works.The Bus,by means of describing the narrator's experiences during a bus tour through Spain,in different dimensions reinforces the destructive impact of persecution that Jews have gone through.Moreover,he implies such persecution is not merely confined between Jews and the Gentile,but also spreads among the whole human beings who hold differet beliefs.

  19. Improving student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Putnam, Robert F; Handler, Marcie W; Ramirez-Platt, Christina M; Luiselli, James K

    2003-01-01

    We describe a multicomponent intervention to improve bus-riding behavior of students attending an urban public school. The intervention was developed with technical assistance consultation that emphasized collaboration among students, school personnel, and bus drivers. The primary intervention procedures were identifying appropriate behaviors during transportation ("bus rules"), training bus drivers to deliver positive reinforcement, and rewarding student performance through a weekly school-b...

  20. Bus Catcher: A Context Sensitive Prototype System for Public Transportation Users

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolotto, Michela; O'Hare, G.M.P.; Strahan, Robin; Brophy, Ailish; Martin, A.; McLoughlin, Eoin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the architectural and functional characteristics of Bus Catcher, a context sensitive prototype system for public transportation users. Bus Catcher assists mobile users in planning their bus rides by providing timely and accurate information about current bus locations and estimated arrival times. A complete report on the implementation together with a preliminary evaluation of the system is provided in this paper.

  1. Performance evaluation of UHF RFID technologies for real-time bus recognition in the Taipei Bus Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-06-18

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses.

  2. MSCT findings in a controlled bus bombing using a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nikolaj Friis

    2009-01-01

    pig's position in the bus at the time of detonation. 1 of the pigs was rigged as a suicide bomber while the others were individually placed as passengers and bus driver inside the bus alongside dummies. Measurements of the blast force and fast speed video recordings were made during the detonation...

  3. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means any part of the bus, of either a mechanical or electrical nature, which is explicitly identified... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint...

  4. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  5. How to Cut Costs by Saving School Bus Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiff, Hank

    A program started in Washington County, Maryland in 1980 has been successful in saving school bus fuel and bringing down transportation costs incurred by its fleet of 200 buses. Driver training and motivation, as well as a partial transfer to diesel buses, are at the heart of the program. The drivers are taught five fuel saving techniques: cut…

  6. Bullying on the School Bus: A Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of bullying on the school bus. Videotapes were used to identify occurrences of bullying on buses of elementary school students. Incidents were reviewed for forms of bullying, fullness, presence of friends, and severity of acts. Results indicated that approximately two incidents occurred per bus…

  7. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  8. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...

  9. What's Happening on the School Bus Performance Front?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Hanford L.

    The most urgent order of business in the national scene is to complete the development of a series of new performance tests for school bus bodies and chassis to establish a benchmark for safe construction that can be verified by independent testing agencies. Such performance tests should incorporate the new Federal Joint Strength Efficiency…

  10. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  11. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  12. Measurements on and simulations of a biogas-fuelled bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical models for torque/fuel consumption and emissions have been studied for a biogas-fuelled bus used in urban traffic in Linkoeping, Sweden. It is noted that the cycle ECE R-49 is not representative for city buses, but that the Braunschweig cycle gives rather good agreement. 2 refs, 37 figs

  13. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  14. Thermo-electric Analysis of the Interconnection of the LHC main Superconducting Bus Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Casali, M; Bottura, L; Siemko, A

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the question of the maximum allowable energy for the operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have progressed in the understanding of the thermo-electric behavior of the 13 kA superconducting bus bars interconnecting its main magnets. A deep insight of the underlying mechanisms is required to ensure the protection of the accelerator against undesired effects of resistive transitions. This is especially important in case of defective interconnections which can jeopardize the operation of the whole LHC. In this paper we present a numerical model of the interconnections between the main dipole and quadrupole magnets, validated against experimental tests of an interconnection sample with a purposely built-in defect. We consider defective interconnections featuring a lack of bonding among the superconducting cables and the copper stabilizer components, such as those that could be present in the machine. We evaluate the critical defect length limiting the maximum allowable current for powering th...

  15. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  16. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  17. Energy Performance Optimization of a Bus for Urban Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many people use public transports in urban centres. Consequently, every day a lot of buses move within cities, trying to ensure the best service to citizens. During the year buses becomecrowded places and using an air conditioning system in constant operation, it tries to ensure a certain condition of comfort for the passengers on board. The aim of this study is to analyse and optimize the energy performance of a bus shell, identifying practical solutions that have not yet been adopted in order to reduce the impact of air conditioning on bus consumption and, therefore, on air pollution. For this reason it was decided to conduct a thermal analysis of a bus for public transport, in order to understandthe behaviour of the bus shell and to deduce possible optimization measures that have not yet been made until now. The analysis was carried out considering the hottest day of July and the coldest day ofJanuary, considering the conditions of operation based on the most common graphics TGM able to define the concentration of traffic city during the 24 hours per day. The study was done using the dynamicsimulation software TRNSYS. With this software it was possible to recreate faithfully the structure of the bus and the external environmental conditions, assessing the impact of different technical solutions for an improvement of internal conditions and a reduction of the cooling capacity required. Because the presence of passengers in public transport is considered like a “benefit” during the winter, the analysis started with the identification of a summer solution and the subsequent evaluation of this solution for the wintertime. The aim of this study was to optimize the bus shell and select the most appropriate solutions. Regarding the transparent surfaces it has been given importance to factors such as the thermal transmittance and the solar gain factor (g-value. Aware of the influence given by the solar radiation on the energy loads, we

  18. Implementation of an AMBA Advanced High Performance Bus protocol IP block

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Vucha Sandeep Magarde; Miss. Shruti Bhargava; Rishabh Singh Kurmi

    2011-01-01

    The design of an AMBA advanced high performance bus (AHB) protocol IP block is presented in this paper. The AHB (Advanced High-performance Bus) is a high-performance bus in AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture) family. This AHB can be used in high clock frequency system modules. The AHB acts as the high-performance system backbone bus. AHB supports the efficient connection of processors, on-chip memories and off-chip external memory interfaces with low-power peripheral macro cell f...

  19. Two hot spots in China's bus market%中国客车市场呈现两大热点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to an analysis on statistics of production and sales of China's 70 bus enterprises in 2005, bus sales are expected to continue to grow this year, posing a better performance than that in the previous year, and the urban public bus transport, rural bus transport and export together will be a major motive power for pulling up growth of the industry.

  20. EXPLORATORY STUDY OF DISTRACTED BEHAVIORS OF TRANSIT OPERATORS

    OpenAIRE

    Arbie, Nurlayla

    2014-01-01

    Bus transit driving is an occupation that requires high concentration in driving and is demanding due to work overload, time pressure, and responsibility for lives. In 2006, there were 103 fatal crashes involving transit buses. As the number of distraction-related crashes increases, it is important to conduct a transit distraction study to reduce future crashes. This thesis focused on the analysis of the likelihood of the operator distraction behaviors and the analysis to find a predicti...

  1. HAT-P-57b: A Short-Period Giant Planet Transiting A Bright Rapidly Rotating A8V Star Confirmed Via Doppler Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, J D; Buchhave, L A; Torres, G; Latham, D W; Kovács, G; Bhatti, W; Csubry, Z; de Val-Borro, M; Penev, K; Huang, C X; Béky, B; Bieryla, A; Quinn, S N; Howard, A W; Marcy, G W; Johnson, J A; Isaacson, H; Fischer, D A; Noyes, R W; Falco, E; Esquerdo, G A; Knox, R P; Hinz, P; Lázár, J; Papp, I; Sári, P

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of HAT-P-57b, a P = 2.4653 day transiting planet around a V = 10.465 +- 0.029 mag, Teff = 7500 +- 250 K main sequence A8V star with a projected rotation velocity of v sin i = 102.1 +- 1.3 km s^-1. We measure the radius of the planet to be R = 1.413 +- 0.054 R_J and, based on RV observations, place a 95% confidence upper limit on its mass of M < 1.85 M_J . Based on theoretical stellar evolution models, the host star has a mass and radius of 1.47 +- 0.12 M_sun, and 1.500 +- 0.050 R_sun, respectively. Spectroscopic observations made with Keck-I/HIRES during a partial transit event show the Doppler shadow of HAT-P-57b moving across the average spectral line profile of HAT-P- 57, confirming the object as a planetary system. We use these observations, together with analytic formulae that we derive for the line profile distortions, to determine the projected angle between the spin axis of HAT-P-57 and the orbital axis of HAT-P-57b. The data permit two possible solutions, with -16.7 deg &l...

  2. StarBus+: Distributed Object Middleware Practice for Internet Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-Min Wang; Yu-Feng Wang; Yang-Bin Tang

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, the booming of Internet challenges the middleware in three aspects: quality of service,balance of changes and stabilization, and across-Internet integration. This paper presents our work on distributed object computing middleware technology for these challenges, as well as the research and development on StarBus+, which is a CORBA standard-compliant middleware suite with the features such as object request broker supporting multi-* quality of service, component model, and integration with Web Service. This paper comprehensively presents the design and characteristics of StarBns+, and demonstrates how StarBus+ is enhanced to address the challenges of Internet computing through three case studies: inter-enterprise integration over Internet, application evolution through dynamic reconfiguration,and great massive information system building. The paper also suggests some research directions which are important for Internet computing.

  3. Bus Encoder for Crosstalk Avoidance in RLC Modeled Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nagendra Babu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the encoding methods proposed in recent years have dealt with only RC modeled VLSI interconnects. For deep sub micron technologies (DSM, on-chip inductive effects have increased due to faster clock speeds, smaller signal rise times and longer length of on-chip interconnects. All these issues raise the concern for cross talk, propagation delay and power dissipation of overall. Therefore, this research work introduces an efficient Bus Encoder using Bus Inverting (BI method. The proposed design dramatically reduces both cross talk and power dissipation in RLC modeled interconnects which makes it suitable for current high-speed low-power VLSI interconnects. The proposed model demonstrates an overall reduction of power dissipation and cross talk induced delay by 55.43% and 45.87%, respectively.

  4. Implementation of I 2C Master Bus Protocol on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regu Archana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on I 2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit protocol interface between Master Bus protocol and slave. Here we are interfacing between micro-controller and DS1307. I 2C bus protocol sends 8 bit data from micro-controller to DS1307. This module was designed in VHDL and simulated and synthesized using Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.2. I 2C and optimized for area and power. This concept is widely applicable from any high speed device or low speed device to any low speed device or high speed device. This module acts as a slave for the DS1307 at the same time acts like a master for the micro-controller device which can be considered as a slave. . It can be used to interface low speed peripherals like motherboard, embedded system, mobile phones, set top boxes, DVD, PDA’s or other electronic devices.

  5. Hardware Engines for Bus Encryption: A Survey of Existing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Elbaz, R; Sassatelli, G; Guillemin, P; Anguille, C; Bardouillet, M; Buatois, C; Rigaud, J B

    2011-01-01

    The widening spectrum of applications and services provided by portable and embedded devices bring a new dimension of concerns in security. Most of those embedded systems (pay-TV, PDAs, mobile phones, etc...) make use of external memory. As a result, the main problem is that data and instructions are constantly exchanged between memory (RAM) and CPU in clear form on the bus. This memory may contain confidential data like commercial software or private contents, which either the end-user or the content provider is willing to protect. The goal of this paper is to clearly describe the problem of processor-memory bus communications in this regard and the existing techniques applied to secure the communication channel through encryption - Performance overheads implied by those solutions will be extensively discussed in this paper.

  6. Environmental assessment of 9 European public bus transportation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanaki, Eva; Koroneos, Christophis; Roset, Jaume;

    2017-01-01

    that affect the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as of air pollutants, in 9 major European cities, aiming to provide a comprehensive overview of the actual knowledge on the atmospheric pollution from public transportation systems. CO2 emissions as well as air pollutants, such as CO, HC, PM, NOx......The transportation sector is one of the largest sources of EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. In 2011, transportation represented approximately 25 percent of total EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. Urban mobility accounts for 40% of all CO2 emissions of road transport and up to 70% of other pollutants...... are calculated for the diesel and CNG bus fleets of the European cities under study. Finally the environmental benefits, in terms of CO2 and CO, HC, PM, NOx emissions reductions, from the penetration of different biodiesel blends (from B10 to B100) to the bus fleets are estimated....

  7. Health effect of a bus ride in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, T.

    1983-07-01

    Health effects on subjects during a bus drive on an urban road were investigated in a real situation. Leukocyte count, adrenalin level in blood and urine, noradrenalin and dopamine in urine, diastolic blood pressure, and index of vascular resistance increased significantly on the drive day compared with the control day. A bus drive on an urban road induced enhanced sympathetic-adreno-medullary activity in real life as a result of the comprehensive effect of various factors. The concentrations of air pollutants were excessively high on the road, and correlated with traffic volume. It was concluded that the interactions between psychogenic, physical nonspecific and physical specific effects should be taken into consideration when evaluating human health effects of air pollution in the urban environment.

  8. THE DESIGN OF VMEBUS BRIDGE CONTROLLER WITH SHARC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Wu Shunjun; Su Tao

    2005-01-01

    Targeting at the high expense and inflexibility to realize VMEbus bridge controller by professional Integrated Circuit (IC), this paper presents a scheme of adopting CPLD/FPGA (Complicated Programmable Logic Device/Field Programmable Gate Array) to design bridge controller between VMEbus and local bus. SHARC DSP (Digital Signal Processor) bus is an example. It has functions of nearly entire master/slave interface of VMEbus, and can act as DMA (Direct Memory Access) controller and perform block transfer in DMA or master processor initiative way without length limit. External circuit of the design is very simple. In comparison with special ICs, it has high performance to price ratio and can be easily applied to local buses of other processors with quite a little modification.

  9. Technology Update of a Control System Trough Corba Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Bertocchi, A; Buceti, G; Centioli, C; Muzio, D D; Iannone, F; Mazza, G; Panella, M; Vitale, V

    2001-01-01

    After more than 10 years of activity, FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) has to face the problem of taking advantage of the new hardware and software technology saving all the investments yet done. So, for example, the 20 years old Westinghouse PLCs (communicating only through a serial line) have to be leaved in operation while a web-based tool has to be released for plan monitoring purpose. CORBA bus has been demonstrated to be the answer to set up the communication between old and new hardware and software blocks. On FTU the control system is based on Basestar, a Digital/Compaq software suite. We will describe how the real time database of Basestar is now accessed by Java graphic tools, LabView and, in principle, any package accepting external routines. An account will be also done in the data acquisition area where a Camac serial highway driver has been integrated in the new architecture still through the CORBA bus

  10. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  11. Investigation on full distribution CNC system based on SERCOS bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A full distribution CNC system based on SERCOS bus is studied in accordance with the limitations of traditional PC-based motion card.The conventional PC-based motion control card is dispersed into several autonomous intelligent servo-control units with the function of servo driver.The autonomous intelligent servocontrol units realize the loop control of position,velocity and current.Interpolation computation is completed in PC and the computational results are transferred to every autonomous intelligent servo-control unit by high speed SERCOS bus.Software or hardware synchronization technology is used to ensure all servomotors are successive and synchronously running.The communication and synchronization technology of SERCOS are also researched and the autonomous intelligent servo-control card is developed byself.Finally,the experiment of circle contour process on a prototype system proves the feasibility.

  12. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    Full Text Available The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  13. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Wang

    Full Text Available To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China.We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicted bus driver violations.The incidence of illegal stopping at bus stations was 20.2%. Illegal stopping was less frequent on weekends, sunny days, and at stations with cameras, with adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs of 0.81, 0.65 and 0.89, respectively. The incidence of violating traffic light signals was 2.2%, and was lower on cloudy than sunny days (adjusted IRR: 0.60. The incidence of distracted driving was 3.3%. The incidence of distracted driving was less common on cloudy days, rainy or snowy days, and foggy/windy/dusty days compared to sunny days, with adjusted IRRs of 0.54, 0.55 and 0.07, respectively.Traffic violations are common in bus drivers in urban China and they are associated with the date, weather, and presence of traffic cameras at bus station. Further studies are recommended to understand the behavioral mechanisms that may explain bus driver violations and to develop feasible prevention measures.

  14. System investigation H2 bus fleet (technology, regulations, future development)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cooperation with Ansaldo Ricerche, ICIL have compiled a technical catalogue, providing the impartial descriptions, both of existing technology and regulations, and the likely future developments of these, as to remedy the first problem faced by a potential hydrogen bus fleet operator viz the absence of an impartial description of the available vehicle and fuels systems together with the absence of a description of regulatory and safety factors which need consideration. (orig.)

  15. Modelling urban bus transport emissions in Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, James; Avila, Jordi Mirabent

    2010-01-01

    This study described and focuses on the public transport bus system in Santiago de Cuba. Specifically we explore the fuel consumption of the various diesel buses over a three year period from 2007 to 2009 and with a forecast for the forthcoming years. The study considers the potential for fuel savings through a variety of methods which are each described and then modelled. Pollution is also calculated for a variety of scenarios and some suggestions are made in order to lower the overall...

  16. Virtual Instrument Based on GPIB Interface Bus1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao,Ying; Qi,Hanhong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the technique of GPIB businterface. Through the controlling of the GPIB interface board,the computer controlled the current source and the voltmeter, both of which have GPIB bus interface, and a virtual instrument testing system for I~V curve was composed. The virtual instrument front panel and the background graphical control program in Labview environment accomplish virtual instrument testing task along with the hardware system.

  17. Damping torque analysis for DC bus implemented damping control

    OpenAIRE

    W. Du; WANG, HAIFENG; Ju, P.; Dunn, R

    2010-01-01

    Damping torque analysis is a well-developed technique for understanding and studying power system oscillations. This paper presents the applications of damping torque analysis for DC bus implemented damping control in power transmission networks in two examples. The first example is the investigation of damping effect of shunt VSC (Voltage Source Converter) based FACTS voltage control, i.e., STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator) voltage control. It is shown in the paper that STATCOM voltag...

  18. An asynchronous controller for a daisychainable vme bus interrupter

    OpenAIRE

    Wollowski, Ralf; Beister, Jochen; Kuhn, Matthias

    1999-01-01

    An interrupter for use in a daisy-chained VME bus interrupt system has beendesigned and implemented as an asynchronous sequential circuit. The concur-rency of the processes posed a design problem that was solved by means of asystematic design procedure that uses Petri nets for specifying system and in-terrupter behaviour, and for deriving a primitive flow table. Classical designand additional measures to cope with non-fundamental mode operation yieldeda coded state-machine representation. Thi...

  19. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    OpenAIRE

    Jeongyong Kim; Inho Song; Woongchul Choi

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a bat...

  20. FAKTOR PENYEBAB KERUSAKAN SISTEM MESIN PADA BUS APTB PPD

    OpenAIRE

    Laela Chairani; Yulita Veranda Usman; Nur Yulianti Hidayah

    2015-01-01

    Comfort and safety of public transportation, particularly APTB PPD buses, becomes high expectations for its customers. Those expectations must be supported by the application of a good engine maintenance system. By using the method of Reliability Centered Maintenance may be determined appropriate actions to mitigate damage. From the analysis known the failures of the APTB PPD bus are malfunctions of the fuel engine, power transfer systems, difficulty to move the gear lever, and lubricating sy...

  1. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  2. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  3. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  4. Designing Parallel Bus Using Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyandra Sharad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper entitled “DESIGNING PARALLEL BUSUSING UNIVERSAL ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER TRANSMITTER” is designed to the core of a UART interface module, which includes both receive and transmit modules, and the command parser. This paper will be a viable solution to design parallel buses with the help of UART. In the test bench , there is a RFM(register file model to which we write/read back data from just to check our design .The txt file issues serial inputs to the core and the core outputs parallel data and address in the form of bus. This bus is connected to our RFM (register file model instantiated in the test bench along with the design. This makes easy to retrieve parallel data from serial input. The base of the paper is to use microcontroller along with other components to interface with the physical world. In contrast, most serial communication must first be converted back into parallel form by a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART before they may be directly connected to a data bus. Both Transmissions (Parallel and Serial are used to connect peripheral devices and enable us to communicate with these devices. The UART core described here is designed using VHDL and implemented on Xilinx Vertex FPGA.

  5. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  6. Ring Bus Architecture for a Solid-State Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. John; Kopf, Edward; Cox, Brian

    2008-01-01

    A document concisely describes a ring bus architecture for a proposed solid-state recorder (SSR) that would serve as buffer of data to be transmitted from a spacecraft to Earth. This architecture would afford fault tolerance needed for reliable operation in an anticipated high-radiation environment in which traditional SSRs cannot operate reliably. Features of the architecture include one or more controller boards and multiple memory boards interconnected in a ringlike topology. The interconnections would be high-speed serial links complying with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 1393 (which pertains to a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus). Accordingly, each controller and memory board would be equipped with an IEEE-1393-compliant ring-bus-interface unit. The ringlike topology and the multiplicity of memory boards (and, optionally, of controller boards) would afford the redundancy needed for fault tolerance. Each board would be a fault-containment region. The IEEE 1393 links could be routed so that the SSR would continue to function even in the event of multiple failures. This architecture would also support scalability over a wide range. In a fully redundant configuration, it could accommodate between 1 and 125 memory boards.

  7. The Data Acquisition System Based on PMC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Igarashi, Y; Higuchi, T; Ikeno, M; Inoue, E; Itoh, R; Kodama, H; Murakami, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakao, M; Nakayoshi, K; Saitoh, M; Shimazaki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tanaka, M; Tauchi, K; Varner, G; Yamauchi, M; Yasu, Y; Katayama, T; Watanabe, K; Ishizuka, M; Onozawa, S

    2003-01-01

    High energy physics experiments in KEK/Japan rush into over KHz trigger stage. Thus, we need a successor of the data acquisition(DAQ) system that replaces the CAMAC or FASTBUS systems. To meet these needs, we have developed a DAQ system which includes a crate, base-board modules, daughter cards for front-end A/D or T/D conversion, and back-end communication cards for data transfer and timing control. The size of the crate is for the 9U Euro-cards with the standard VME32 bus and extension connectors for power supply. The base-board comprises of a local bus with the sequencer connected to the front-end daughter cards via event buffering FIFOs, and the standard PMC (PCI mezzanine card) bus to be set a PMC processor unit to reduce data size from the front-end daughter cards. A data transfer module, which is connected to the event building system, and a trigger control unit, which communicates with the central timing controller are installed on the back-end communication card connected to the rear end of the base-...

  8. A rapid transition from ice covered CO2–rich waters to a biologically mediated CO2 sink in the eastern Weddell Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Geibert

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW, locally called Warm Deep Water (WDW, enters the Weddell Gyre in the southeast, roughly at 25° E to 30° E. In December 2002 and January 2003 we studied the effect of entrainment of WDW on the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in Weddell Sea surface waters. Ultimately the fCO2 difference across the sea surface drives air-sea fluxes of CO2. Deep CTD sections and surface transects of fCO2 were made along the Prime Meridian, a northwest-southeast section, and along 17° E to 23° E during cruise ANT XX/2 on FS Polarstern. Upward movement and entrainment of WDW into the winter mixed layer had significantly increased DIC and fCO2 below the sea ice along 0° W and 17° E to 23° E, notably in the southern Weddell Gyre. Nonetheless, the ice cover largely prevented outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere. During and upon melting of the ice, biological activity rapidly reduced surface water fCO2 by up to 100 μatm, thus creating a sink for atmospheric CO2. Despite the tendency of the surfacing WDW to cause CO2 supersaturation, the Weddell Gyre may well be a CO2 sink on an annual basis due to this effective mechanism involving ice cover and ensuing biological fCO2 reduction. Dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 in melting sea ice may play a minor role in this rapid reduction of surface water fCO2.

  9. A rapid transition from ice covered CO2-rich waters to a biologically mediated CO2 sink in the eastern Weddell Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Geibert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW, locally called Warm Deep Water (WDW, enters the Weddell Gyre in the southeast, roughly at 25° E to 30° E. In December~2002 and January 2003} we studied the effect of entrainment of WDW on the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in Weddell Sea surface waters. Ultimately the fCO2 difference across the sea surface drives CO2 air-sea fluxes. Deep CTD sections and surface transects of fCO2 were made along the Prime Meridian, a northwest-southeast section, and along 17° E to 23° E during cruise ANT XX/2 on FS Polarstern. Upward movement and entrainment of WDW into the winter mixed layer had significantly increased DIC and fCO2 below the sea ice along 0° W and 17° E to 23° E, notably in the southern Weddell Gyre. Nonetheless, the ice cover largely prevented outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere. During and upon melting of the ice, biological activity rapidly reduced surface water fCO2 by up to 100 μatm, thus creating a sink for atmospheric CO2. Despite the tendency of the surfacing WDW to cause CO2 supersaturation, the Weddell Gyre may well be a CO2 sink on an annual basis due to this effective mechanism involving ice cover and ensuing biological fCO2 reduction. Dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 in melting sea ice may also play a role in this rapid reduction of surface water fCO2. The CO2 source tendency deriving from the upward movement of "pre-industrial" CDW is declining, as atmospheric CO2 levels continue to increase, and thus the CO2 sink of the Weddell Gyre will continue to increase as well (provided the upward movement of WDW does not change significantly.

  10. Life cycle cost analysis of a car, a city bus and an intercity bus powertrain for year 2005 and 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international economy, in the beginning of the 20th century, is characterized by uncertainty about the supply and the price of oil. Together with the fast decrease of electrical propulsion component prices, it becomes more and more cost effective to develop vehicles with alternative powertrains. This paper focuses on two questions: Are alternative powertrains especially cost effective for specific applications?; How does an increased fossil fuel price influences the choose of powertrain? To assess these questions, a computer tool named THEPS, developed in a Ph.D. project, is used. Three applications and three scenarios are analysed. The applications, a car, a city bus and an intercity bus, are vehicles all assumed to operate in Sweden. One scenario represents year 2005, the other two year 2020. The two future scenarios are characterized by different fossil fuel prices. The study, presented in the paper, indicates that alternative powertrains can be competitive from a cost perspective, in some applications, already in year 2005. It is for example cost effective to equip a city bus, running in countries with a high fuel price, with a hybrid powertrain. The study also indicates that pure electric, hybrid and/or fuel cell cars will probably be a more cost effective choice than conventional cars in year 2020. Another indication is that it will not be clear which powertrain concept to choose. The reason is that many cost effective powertrain concepts will be offered. The best choice will depend on the application

  11. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS, which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus, coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introducing novel functions: asynchronous meter trigger, adaptive slot scheduling, and bitmap-wise retransmission request. Through experiments, we demonstrate that BWM-Bus guarantees higher data success ratio with lower data aggregation time, as well as longer lifetime than WM-Bus standard.

  12. Identification of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durlav Hazarika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several online methods were proposed for investigating the voltage stability condition of an interconnected power system using the measurements of voltage and current phasors at a bus. For this purpose, phasor measurement units (PMUs are used. A PMU is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electrical network, using a common time source (reference bus for synchronisation. This study proposes a method for online monitoring of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables namely – (i real power, (ii reactive power and (iii bus voltage magnitude at a bus. The measurements of real power, reactive power and bus voltage magnitude could be extracted/captured from a smart energy meter. The financial involvement for implementation of the proposed method would significantly lower compared with the PMU-based method.

  13. Design and VHDL simulation of a special high speed spaceborne bus controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The application of high speed data bus on the satellites having several remote sensors could not only satisfy the demand of high speed data transfer,but also could reuse the equipment at both the com-ponent and subsystem levels for other space missions,thus reducing the costs of on-board processing system integration.In this article,a special high speed data bus with simple interfaces is chosen for transferring the data produced by remote sensors and other instrumentations.First,the function and the structure of the data bus are discussed carefully.And then,the bus controller,which is a key mod-ule of the data bus,is designed.At last,the function and performance of the bus controller are verified by VHDL simulation.

  14. 纯电动客车在线诊断系统设计及应用%Design and Application of On-line Diagnosis System for Pure Electric Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈顺东; 尹剑

    2012-01-01

    At present, most pure electric bus production still relies on the artificial debugging of technicians. This can not adapt the mass production. The authors detail the on-line rapid diagnosis system for pure electric bus, which vails the mass production of the pure electric bus.%目前大部分纯电动客车生产时的整车性能调试依赖技术开发人员.非常不利于纯电动客车的批量生产。本文详述一种能够对纯电动客车进行快速调试和在线诊断的系统,有利于纯电动客车的批量生产。

  15. First results from the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System (MORIS) on the IRTF: a stellar occultation by Pluto and a transit by exoplanet XO-2b

    CERN Document Server

    Gulbis, A A S; Elliot, J L; Rayner, J T; Stahlberger, W E; Rojas, F E; Adams, E R; Person, M J; Chung, R; Tokunaga, A T; Zuluaga, C A

    2011-01-01

    We present a high-speed, visible-wavelength imaging instrument: MORIS (the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System). MORIS is mounted on the 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, HI. Its primary component is an Andor iXon camera, a nearly 60 arcsec square field of view with high quantum efficiency, low read noise, low dark current, and full-frame readout rates ranging from as slow as desired to a maximum of between 3.5 Hz and 35 Hz (depending on the mode; read noise of 6e-/pixel and 49 e-/pixel with electron-multiplying gain=1, respectively). User-selectable binning and subframing can increase the cadence to a few hundred Hz. An electron-multiplying mode can be employed for photon counting, effectively reducing the read noise to sub-electron levels at the expense of dynamic range. Data cubes, or individual frames, can be triggered to several nanosecond accuracy using the Global Positioning System. MORIS is mounted on the side-facing exit window of SpeX (Rayner et al. 2003), allowing simultaneous near-...

  16. Reducing carbon emissions by introducing electric vehicle enhanced dedicated bus lanes

    OpenAIRE

    Doolan, Ronan; Muntean, Gabriel-Miro

    2014-01-01

    Most cities have special lanes dedicated to buses, however these lanes are rarely used at full capacity. At the same time governments around the world are encouraging people to buy electric vehicles. This paper proposes the creation of electric vehicle enhanced dedicated bus lanes (E-DBL), by allowing electric vehicles access to bus lanes, in order to improve the use of road capacity. By opening bus lanes to electric vehicles, traffic congestion could be eased, the range ...

  17. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Jerman; Maja Meško

    2016-01-01

    Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from differ...

  18. The Bus Extension Module Design and Verification of POSAFE-Q Using LVDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the Bus Extension Module using Low Voltage Differential Signal (LVDS). A Bus Extension Module use Safety-Related PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), called POSAFE-Q (made by POSCO ICT), for handling many data (I/O) extension rack. A processor module of POSAFE-Q can control I/O Module installed another rack. This paper explains Bus Extension Module and Data transfer technology using LVDS. (author)

  19. The influence of bus stop on traffic flow with velocity-difference-separation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pengjun; Wang, Wei; Ge, Hongxia

    2016-06-01

    Based on velocity-difference-separation model, the mixed traffic flow on two-lane road is investigated. For a fixed road length, the influence of bus and bus stops on traffic flow is studied with the increasing traffic density. Compared with the result without bus stops given by Li et al., a new traffic state is found, which is valuable for studying the impacts of public transport on urban traffic flow.

  20. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang-il Hwang; Sung-wook Nam

    2014-01-01

    Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS), which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus), coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introdu...

  1. An interactive wireless communication system for visually impaired people using city bus transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-05-01

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  2. Tingkat Kelelahan Pengemudi Bus Rapid Tranport (BRT Jakarta Berdasarkan Swedish Occupational Fatigue Index (SOFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rida Zuraida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is a common situation experienced by everyone, but until now a simple measuring tools universally accepted is not exist. Fatigue measurement instrument most widely used is an instrument-based questionnaire. This study used the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Index (SOFI as one of the instrument to measure BRT drivers fatigue. The aim is to evaluate physical mental, and shift work fatigue and provide an overview of fatigue levels experienced by the driver BRT on two different shifts. Hopefully it can be used for driver fatigue management by a company. The study was conducted for two different shifts (morning and afternoon, with a total participants are 30 drivers. Results showed that motivation level of shift 2-driver is lower after they finish their work compared to shift1-driver. In shift 1, generally available time to rest, socializing and hanging out with family is longer than available time for shift 2-driver. Perception of loss of energy after work is also higher in shift 2 compared to shift 1, especially the perception of feeling exhausted. Similar results were obtained in the physical aspect and the physical exertion and physical discomfort. Therefore we can conclude the work shift has affected fatigue level experienced by the driver's BRT, and shift rotation is suggested to help the driver to recuperate.

  3. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Gikakis, C.

    2013-12-01

    This report is the seventh in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results from August 2012 through July 2013 for five FCEB demonstrations at four transit agencies.

  4. The Reality and prospect of China bus and Coach industry%中国巴士与客车制造业的现实与前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Consumers can only see a vogue sight of China bus & coach industry.Although it has became the largest manufacturing center in theworld,most main indicators of automotive type are still kept at the level of the last century and its commercial value remains low.As Automobiles are invented more than 100 years ago in Europe and used in public transportation.They became main ways of transportation in human life because of large production in flow line in America.The advantages of private cars lie in its freedom and convenience as well as traveling comfort;traveling by bus&coach is increasingly attractive as the rapid development of road

  5. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  6. Communication Architecture Synthesis for Multi-bus SoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Zitouni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the systems on chip (SoC design, the synthesis of communication architecture constitutes the bottleneck which can affect the performances of the system. Various schemes and protocols can be necessary, just as various topologies of interconnection. To reduce the complexity of the communications refinement, we present in this study a model and a synthesis approach for multi-bus communication architecture containing centralized bridge. The automation of the arbiter synthesis step profited from a detailed attention. This stage generates a hierarchical arbiter integrating various priority arbitration modules. The proposed approach was integrated in a toolbox based environment

  7. Energy model of network-on-chip and a bus

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkotte, Pascal T.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Kavaldjiev, Nikolay; Becker, Jens E.; Becker, Jurgen

    2005-01-01

    A Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient onchip communication architecture for Multi-Processor Systemon- Chip (MPSoC) architectures. In earlier papers we proposed two Network-on-Chip architectures based on packet-switching and circuit-switching. In this paper we derive an energy model for both NoC architectures to predict their energy consumption per transported bit. Both architectures are also compared with a traditional bus architecture. The energy model is primarily needed to find a ...

  8. Energy Model of Networks-on-Chip and a Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkotte, Pascal T.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Kavaldjiev, Nikolay; Becker, Jens E.; Becker, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    A Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient onchip communication architecture for Multi-Processor Systemon-Chip (MPSoC) architectures. In earlier papers we proposed two Network-on-Chip architectures based on packet-switching and circuit-switching. In this paper we derive an energy model for both NoC architectures to predict their energy consumption per transported bit. Both architectures are also compared with a traditional bus architecture. The energy model is primarily needed to find a n...

  9. DC Bus Regulation with a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the DC bus regulation control algorithm for the NASA flywheel energy storage system during charge, charge reduction and discharge modes of operation. The algorithm was experimentally verified with results given in a previous paper. This paper presents the necessary models for simulation with detailed block diagrams of the controller algorithm. It is shown that the flywheel system and the controller can be modeled in three levels of detail depending on the type of analysis required. The three models are explained and then compared using simulation results.

  10. Distributed Data Acquisition and Control by Software Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecil Bruce-Boye; Dmitry A. Kazakov

    2004-01-01

    Increasing global competition forces manufacturers of products from all technical fields to guarantee a high product quality for a long period of time. At the same time it is necessary to minimize production costs. In order to meet all these requirements, on-line data acquisition and processing are of increasing importance in distributed automation systems. A software bus operating on industrial Ethernet has an ability to minimize operating costs by offering easy installation, scalability,high degree of reliability and remote monitoring and control.

  11. UNIVERSALIZATION OF BUS BODY FACING DETAILS AND PRODUCTION TOOLING FOR THEIR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taranenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The directions concerning bus body production costs reduction based on large-size facing details stamping on electric-hydraulic presses are considered. The engineering of unified large-size facing detail blanks, manufacturing processes and variants of unified technological tooling for bus body facing details production, including simple- or multi-type details are described.

  12. 49 CFR 571.131 - Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices. S1. Scope. This standard establishes requirements for devices that can be installed on school... a stopped school bus and striking pedestrians in the vicinity of the bus. S3. Application. This standard applies to school buses other than multifunction school activity buses. S4. Definitions....

  13. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  14. Genetic algorithm for optimization in adaptive bus signal priority control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Vu TU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly proposes an improved genetic algorithm (GA for optimization in adaptive bus signal priority control at signalized intersections. Unlike conventional genetic algorithms with slow convergence speed, this algorithm can increase the convergence speed by utilizing the compensation rule between consecutive signal cycles to narrow new possible generated population spaces. Secondly, the paper would like to present a way to apply the algorithm to a simple adaptive bus signal priority control as well as compare how much the computation time is saved when applying the improved algorithm. Then the research thirdly investigates the efficiency of the proposed algorithm under various flow rate situations. The results show that the improved genetic algorithm can reduce the computation time considerably, by up to 48.39% for the studied case. With high saturation degrees on the cross street, the convergence rate performance of the improved genetic algorithm is significantly good. The figure can be up to 36.2% when compared with the convergence rate of the conventional GA.

  15. Development of an integrated cryogenic bus for spacecraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, David C.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Davis, Thomas M.; Tomlinson, Joe; Stoyanof, Marko; Crawford, Larry; Glaister, David S.

    1997-01-01

    To improve the efficiency and reduce the overdesign penalties associated with integrating cryogenic systems into spacecraft, the Integrated Cryogenic Bus (ICB) program was initiated in April 1996. The technical objectives of the program were to develop an integrated, lightweight means of thermally linking a cryogenic cooling source to a cooled satellite component, to commonize the interfaces to the cooling source and cooled component, and to commonize the integration of these systems into spacecraft. The technical plan involves several steps beginning with the definition of requirements, the identification and characterization of potential bus components, the development of new concepts and optimization methods, breadboard testing, and prototype development. Six months into the program, over 25 cryocooler, focal plane, and cryogenic hardware organizations have been interviewed or surveyed to identify requirements, numerous components have been identified and characterized, several preliminary concepts have been developed, an optimization plan has been outlined, and critical breadboard tests have begun. This paper summarizes the progress to date during Phase I of this Phillips Laboratory program funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO).

  16. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  17. Studying customer loyalty at Daewoo express bus service, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables. However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.

  18. Study on the optimum design of bus window pillar join40t; Bus window pillar ketsugo buzai no saiteki sekkei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomioka, N. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Lim, S.; Kim, M.; Lee, H.; Kang, S.; Bae, D.

    1997-10-01

    Automobile body structure is generally assembled using various spot welded box sectional members. Especially, in the case of the bus, the shape of window pillar joint is assembled m T-type. This T-type member has some problem such as high stress concentration, low fatigue strength and structural rigidity. Therefore, in this report, performed a study on the optimum design of the bus window pillar joint for such problem by FEM analysis and experiments. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  20. Safety models incorporating graph theory based transit indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Liliana; Sayed, Tarek; Wahba, Mohamed M

    2013-01-01

    There is a considerable need for tools to enable the evaluation of the safety of transit networks at the planning stage. One interesting approach for the planning of public transportation systems is the study of networks. Network techniques involve the analysis of systems by viewing them as a graph composed of a set of vertices (nodes) and edges (links). Once the transport system is visualized as a graph, various network properties can be evaluated based on the relationships between the network elements. Several indicators can be calculated including connectivity, coverage, directness and complexity, among others. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between network-based transit indicators and safety. The study develops macro-level collision prediction models that explicitly incorporate transit physical and operational elements and transit network indicators as explanatory variables. Several macro-level (zonal) collision prediction models were developed using a generalized linear regression technique, assuming a negative binomial error structure. The models were grouped into four main themes: transit infrastructure, transit network topology, transit route design, and transit performance and operations. The safety models showed that collisions were significantly associated with transit network properties such as: connectivity, coverage, overlapping degree and the Local Index of Transit Availability. As well, the models showed a significant relationship between collisions and some transit physical and operational attributes such as the number of routes, frequency of routes, bus density, length of bus and 3+ priority lanes.

  1. Resource Allocation for Sustainable Urban Transit from a Transport Diversity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Min Feng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Different transport stakeholders have different needs for transport infrastructure and services. Meeting the needs of all stakeholders implies a trade-off of benefits and costs between supply and demand and creates transport diversity issues. However, the literature has largely ignored these issues. Transport diversity can assess the level to which important needs are satisfied equitably, and monitor whether transportation systems are moving towards sustainability by confirming the targets and basic level of quality of life. Based on the concept of transport diversity, this study utilizes fuzzy multi-objective programming to solve non-linear multi-objective problems involving urban public transit systems to determine the impact of resource allocation on needs satisfaction in relation to stakeholder behaviors. The proposed approach avoids problems of inefficient and inequitable resource allocation. A real-life case is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed methodology. Furthermore, empirical outcomes show that recent investments allocated to public transit systems considered equitable stakeholder satisfaction for both mass rapid transit (MRT and bus, and also promoted transport diversity in the Taipei metropolitan area.

  2. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  3. Using connectivity for measuring equity in transit provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Popoks, Dmitrijs; Prato, Carlo Giacomo;

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes the assessment of equity in transit provision by using transit connectivity as a comprehensive impedance measure. Transit connectivity considers in-vehicle time, access/egress times, waiting time, service reliability, frequency, and ‘seamless’ transfers along multi-modal paths...... representation of the network (i.e., service lines, timetables, metro stations, train stations, and bus stops), and transit assignment results (i.e., level-of-service times, passenger flows). The assessment method proved effective in calculating location-based and potential-accessibility measures and Gini...

  4. 磁控溅射结合快速热处理制备相变氧化钒薄膜%Preparation of Phase Transition Vanadium Oxide Thin Films by Magnetron Sputtering with Rapid Thermal Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕志军; 胡明; 陈涛; 后顺保; 梁继然; 栗力

    2012-01-01

    采用直流对靶磁控溅射结合快速热处理工艺制备了具有金属-半导体相变特性的氧化钒(VOx)薄膜.利用XRD,XPS和SEM对薄膜结晶结构、薄膜中V的价态与组分及表面微观形貌进行分析,利用四探针测试法及太赫兹时域频谱系统对薄膜的电学和光学特性进行测量.结果表明:新制备VOx薄膜以非晶态V2O5为主;350℃,30 s快速热处理后,薄膜中V的整体价态降低,表面颗粒分布更加致密;500℃,30 s快速热处理后,薄膜中VO2 (002)向单斜结构的VO2 (011)转变,VO2 (011)占主要成分,薄膜显示出明显的金属-半导体相变特性,方块电阻下降达到3个数量级,太赫兹透过率下降接近70%,热致相变性能良好.%The VO, thin film with metal-semiconductor phase transition characteristic was prepared by reactive direct current facing targets magnetron sputtering with rapid thermal process. The film crystal structure, valence state and composition of vanadium and surface morphology were analyzed by XRD, XPS and SEM. The electrical and optical properties of the films were measured by the four-point probe method and terahertz time domain spectroscopy. The results show that the as-deposited VO* thin films are mainly composed of non-crystalline V2O5. After annealing 30 s at 350 °C , the overall valence of vanadium decreases and the surface particle distribution are more compact. After annealing 30 s at 500 "C, VO2 (002) changes to VO2 (011) which appears as monoclinic structure, and VO2 (011) is the main component. The VO* films show a good metal-semiconductor phase transition characteristic, the sheet resistance decreases 3 magnitude orders* and the THz transmittance reduces about 70%, the thermal phase transition characteristic is perfect.

  5. Projections of automobile, light truck, and bus stocks and sales, to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, R.; Millar, M.

    1979-11-01

    Future stocks and sales of automobiles, light trucks, and buses are projected in this document. Automobile projections are developed for fleet and non-fleet sectors. Total auto stock is projected as a function of the number of households and of personal income, with adjustment for present and anticipated shifts from automobiles to light trucks. Automobile stocks and sales are projected to increase steadily through the year 2000 with a slightly larger growth rate associated with fleet autos. Projections of light-truck stocks and sales are developed for personal, service/utility, agriculture, manufacturing, government, wholesale/retail, and other uses based on anticipated employment and output for each of the use sectors. Projections anticipate the largest growth area to be that of personal light trucks. Bus stocks and sales are projected as a function of user populations, existing fleet characteristics, and anticipated usage patterns. School, intercity, and transit buses are included in the study. School buses are projected to have the largest percentage of growth in this sector.

  6. Thermo-electric analysis of the interconnection of the LHC main superconducting bus bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, P. P.; Breschi, M.; Casali, M.; Bottura, L.; Siemko, A.

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the question of the maximum allowable energy for the operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have progressed in the understanding of the thermo-electric behavior of the 13 kA superconducting bus bars interconnecting its main magnets. A deep insight of the underlying mechanisms is required to ensure the protection of the accelerator against undesired effects of resistive transitions. This is especially important in case of defective interconnections which can jeopardize the operation of the whole LHC. In this paper we present a numerical model of the interconnections between the main dipole and quadrupole magnets, validated against experimental tests of an interconnection sample with a purposely built-in defect. We consider defective interconnections featuring a lack of bonding among the superconducting cables and the copper stabilizer components, such as those that could be present in the machine. We evaluate the critical defect length limiting the maximum allowable current for powering the magnets. We determine the dependence of the critical defect length on different parameters as the heat transfer towards the cooling helium bath, the quality of manufacturing, the operating conditions and the protection system parameters, and discuss the relevant mechanisms.

  7. Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The motivation for this technology comes from the Heliophysics Decadal Survey. The Heliophysics Decadal Survey, Section 10.5.2.7 states in part; “…...

  8. Combined Use of Residual Dipolar Couplings and Solution X-ray Scattering To Rapidly Probe Rigid-Body Conformational Transitions in a Non-phosphorylatable Active-Site Mutant of the 128 kDa Enzyme I Dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Yuki; Schwieters, Charles D.; Grishaev, Alexander; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Clore, G. Marius (NIH)

    2012-10-23

    The first component of the bacterial phosphotransferase system, enzyme I (EI), is a multidomain 128 kDa dimer that undergoes large rigid-body conformational transitions during the course of its catalytic cycle. Here we investigate the solution structure of a non-phosphorylatable active-site mutant in which the active-site histidine is substituted by glutamine. We show that perturbations in the relative orientations and positions of the domains and subdomains can be rapidly and reliably determined by conjoined rigid-body/torsion angle/Cartesian simulated annealing calculations driven by orientational restraints from residual dipolar couplings and shape and translation information afforded by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Although histidine and glutamine are isosteric, the conformational space available to a Gln side chain is larger than that for the imidazole ring of His. An additional hydrogen bond between the side chain of Gln189 located on the EIN{sup {alpha}/{beta}} subdomain and an aspartate (Asp129) on the EIN{sup {alpha}} subdomain results in a small ({approx}9{sup o}) reorientation of the EIN{sup {alpha}} and EIN{sup {alpha}/{beta}} subdomains that is in turn propagated to a larger reorientation ({approx}26{sup o}) of the EIN domain relative to the EIC dimerization domain, illustrating the positional sensitivity of the EIN domain and its constituent subdomains to small structural perturbations.

  9. Wind farm protection using an IEC 61850 process bus architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinn, D. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed wind farm protection using an IEC 61850 process bus architecture. Data is transmitted via IEC 61850 messages over a fiber optic communications network to a central relaying unit (CRU) that executes protection and control (P and C) functions for a whole wind farm. The presentation also discussed the need to further simplify P and C design. Challenges of wind farm protection include physical distance; relay location; and selectivity/isolation. P and C hardware evolution was illustrated and its advantages were presented. These included one relay to set, configure, test, and maintain; eliminate the need for transfer trips; free monitoring; free disturbance recording; and easy integration of data. The development of commercially available systems began around 1990 with the IPACS system developed by Hydro One, and the SIPSUR system developed in Spain. 7 figs.

  10. Design and Analysis of Bus Front Panel Usin G FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Advance composite materials have taken the significant share with other engineering materials due to its mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Advance composite like E-glass, S-glass, Carbon fiber, Kevlar are not yet confined at the aerospace industry but gradually these are taking over the position of other industries as well. Because of its attaining high intricacy in designing factors and as well as cheaper mould design and also less cost in production of few numbers. The applications of FRPs are spirally increasing. The aim of this project is to develop a BUS FRONT PANEL with a help of FRPs in order to sustain all the mechanical properties which are equivalent to the metals with the help of advanced computer aided software designs like ANSYS. In computer aided engineering to make the product proven in the realistic market.

  11. FAKTOR PENYEBAB KERUSAKAN SISTEM MESIN PADA BUS APTB PPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Chairani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Comfort and safety of public transportation, particularly APTB PPD buses, becomes high expectations for its customers. Those expectations must be supported by the application of a good engine maintenance system. By using the method of Reliability Centered Maintenance may be determined appropriate actions to mitigate damage. From the analysis known the failures of the APTB PPD bus are malfunctions of the fuel engine, power transfer systems, difficulty to move the gear lever, and lubricating system for the rough engine noise. The cause of engine malfunction is dirty diesel filter, vehicle acceleration malfunction is due to the clutch plate wear out. Difficulty to move the gear lever indicates that the clutch slips. Rough engine noise caused by the flow of oil to the engine stalled as the result of dirty oil filter. The results of the logic tree analysis show that for each failure requires scheduling of time directed task.

  12. Characterisation of vibration input to flywheel used on urban bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Kanarachos, S.; Christensen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Vibration induced from road surface has an impact on the durability and reliability of electrical and mechanical components attached on the vehicle. There is little research published relevant to the durability assessment of a flywheel energy recovery system installed on city and district buses. Relevant international standards and legislations were reviewed and large discrepancy was found among them, in addition, there are no standards exclusively developed for kinetic energy recovery systems on vehicles. This paper describes the experimentation of assessment of road surface vibration input to the flywheel on a bus as obtained at the MIRA Proving Ground. Power density spectra have been developed based on the raw data obtained during the experimentation. Validation of this model will be carried out using accelerated life time tests that will be carried out on a shaker rig using an accumulated profile based on the theory of fatigue damage equivalence in time and frequency domain aligned with the model predictions.

  13. Development of a universal serial bus interface circuit for ion beam current integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K; Panigrahi, B K; Nair, K G M

    2007-08-01

    A universal serial bus (USB) interface circuit has been developed to enable easy interfacing of commercial as well as custom-built ion beam current integrators to personal computer (PC) based automated experimental setups. Built using the popular PIC16F877A reduced instruction set computer and a USB-universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter/first in, first out controller, DLP2232, this USB interface circuit virtually emulates the ion beam current integrators on a host PC and uses USB 2.0 protocol to implement high speed bidirectional data transfer. Using this interface, many tedious and labor intensive ion beam irradiation and characterization experiments can be redesigned into PC based automated ones with advantages of improved accuracy, rapidity, and ease of use and control. This interface circuit was successfully used in carrying out online in situ resistivity measurement of 70 keV O(+) ion irradiated tin thin films using four probe method. In situ electrical resistance measurement showed the formation of SnO(2) phase during ion implantation.

  14. Implementation of an AMBA Advanced High Performance Bus protocol IP block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Vucha Sandeep Magarde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of an AMBA advanced high performance bus (AHB protocol IP block is presented in this paper. The AHB (Advanced High-performance Bus is a high-performance bus in AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture family. This AHB can be used in high clock frequency system modules. The AHB acts as the high-performance system backbone bus. AHB supports the efficient connection of processors, on-chip memories and off-chip external memory interfaces with low-power peripheral macro cell functions. In this work, the design of the Advanced High-Performance Bus Protocol is developed which has the basic blocks such as Master and Slave. The arbitration mechanism is used to ensure that only one master has access to the bus at any one time and the AHB decoder is used to decode the address of each transfer and provide a select signal for the slave that is involved in the transfer. This AMBA-AHB protocol can be adopted in all the application provided the design should be an AHB compliant.

  15. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Kale; S V Veeravalli; H D Punekar; M M Yelmule

    2007-08-01

    Open window buses without air-conditioning are a major mode of urban and inter-city transport in most countries. High occupancy combined with hot and humid conditions makes travel in these buses quite uncomfortable. In this study air flow through a bus has been studied that could be the basis for low cost and ecofriendly methods of increasing passenger comfort and possibly reduce drag. The aerodynamics of such a road vehicle has not been studied as previous investigations have been confined to vehicles with closed windows that present a smooth exterior to air flow. Using a 1:25 scaled Perspex model of an urban bus in Delhi, flow visualization was performed in a water channel. The Reynolds numbers were onetenth of a real bus moving at $10 m/s$. Smoke and tuft visualizations were also performed on an urban bus at 40 km/h. Numerical simulations were performed at the actual Reynolds number. Even though there were Reynolds number differences, the broad features were similar. Air enters the bus from the rear windows, moves to the front (relative to the bus) and exits from the front windows. Inside air velocity relative to the bus is about one-tenth of the free-stream velocity. The flow is highly three-dimensional and unsteady.

  16. Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.

  17. Entangling a Series of Trapped Ions by Moving Cavity Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Miao; JIA Huan-Yu; WEI Lian-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing. We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity. The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus. Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled. As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated. The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.%@@ Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing.We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity.The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus.Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled.As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated.The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  18. Transit Passenger Perceptions: Face‐to‐Face Versus Web‐Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Eboli, Laura; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, face-to-face and web-based survey methods of collecting transit passenger perception data are compared using two transit customer satisfaction survey tools. Multivariate statistical analyses are applied to determine the differences between the two surveys. Some differences in behavior and attitudes of web survey respondents compared with those from a face-to-face survey are found. The results can help transit agencies manage their bus services to improve passenger satisfaction ...

  19. On the road : non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investi...

  20. Design of the HEAO main bus shunt regulator. [High Energy Astronomical Observatory solar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, R. D.; Kimble, S. G.

    1976-01-01

    The High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) is being built for NASA by an American company. The general requirements concerning the HEAO main bus regulator are examined. The bus regulated voltage is 33 V, the maximum shunt current is 45 A, and the regulator output impedance is to be less than 0.5 Ohm from dc to 100 kHz. Loop gain design considerations for the main bus regulator are discussed and a description is given of the general device configuration. Attention is also given to regulator loop design and performance.

  1. A Communication-Less Distributed Voltage Control Strategy for a Multi-Bus AC Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Tan, Yongdong; Chen, Zhe;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a communication-less distributed voltage control strategy for a multi-bus AC islanded microgrid. First, a Kalman Filter-based network voltage estimator is proposed to obtain voltage responses without communication links in the presence of load disturbances. Then, a voltage...... (Distributed Generator) unit rather than relying on any communication facilities; (2) In contrast to the conventional PI-based voltage control method, the proposed voltage control strategy can implement not only offset-free control for single-bus, but also optimal control for multi-bus. Thus the flexibility...

  2. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  3. Central Okanagan smart transit plan : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, R.A. [IBI Group, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-04-15

    This report outlines the steps and financial aspects of implementing the smart transit plan for the Central Okanagan region, one of British Columbia's fastest growing regions. The plan, which is designed to enhance transit services, is affordable by all stakeholders and is adjustable, based on levels of ridership and availability of resources. The region is expected to grow from 160,000 to 225,000 people by 2021. Transit ridership has grown from just over 1 million passengers per year 10 years ago to almost 3 million passengers in 2003. This strong growth provides an opportunity to pursue a transit plan and land use plan that supports efficient modes of transportation such as transit, walking and cycling. This Smart Transit project involved collaboration with stakeholders to develop a vision for sustainable transit for the region; guidelines for promoting transit-supportive land use development and a business plan to direct transit investments to achieve the transit vision. The existing conditions of the transit system were described with reference to ridership performance by route, current transit ridership, recommended priorities, bus stop inventory, and comparison to other transit systems. Currently, the transit system in the Okanagan region has higher than average ridership compared to similar Canadian systems. It is also as cost-effective as similar sized transit systems. Areas of improvement include better on-time transit service reliability; reduction in the level of graffiti and vandalism and the need to expand off-peak services. Historical and projected future transit system performance was also discussed with reference to system growth, productivity and cost. tabs., figs.

  4. SHARD-PATH ROUTING TIMETABLE OPTIMISATION AND DESIGNING OF URBAN RAPID TRANSIT%城市轨道交通共线交路运行图的优化与编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓倩; 崔炳谋

    2016-01-01

    传统铺画城市轨道交通共线交路运行图中考虑的因素较简单,针对其不能满足不断壮大的城市轨道交通网络的问题,先运用顺序推点法计算出列车在各站的到发时刻,然后分析为满足一条线路上的客流特征组织列车开行两种或两种以上交路的必要性,并根据折返站的容车能力以及折返时间等现场因素,提出适合于实际问题的模型与算法。实例铺图结果表明,相对于传统的车底交路勾画模型与算法,该模型与算法可明显减少车底在各折返站的总停留时间,从而最大限度地减少车底的运用数量。%The factors considered in traditional shared path routing timetable of urban rapid transit are relatively simple,however it cannot meet the growing problem of urban rail transit networks.Aiming at this issue,we used the push order-point method to calculate trains’arrival and departure time at each station first,then analysed the necessity of opening the lines of two or more path routing to meet the characteristics of passengers on one line,and in accordance with the field factors such as car capacity and time of turn back station,we built a mathematical model and designed an algorithm which were suitable for practical problems.Results in picture showed that compared with traditional models and algorithms of vehicle routing,this model and algorithm could obviously reduce the total residence time of vehicles at each turn back station and thus minimised the amount of vehicles.

  5. Bus Stops, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2008. Data by this publisher are...

  6. Research on urban public traffic network with multi-weights based on single bus transfer junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xin-lei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jian-gang

    2015-10-01

    Regarding single bus transfer junction as a research object, this paper constructs the urban traffic network models with multi-weights taking different bus lines in bus transfer junction as the network nodes, that is, the urban traffic network with multi-weights is given different properties weights at every edge. According to the method of network split, the complex network with multi-weights is split into several different single weighted complex networks. Then, we study the global synchronization of the new network model by changing congestion degrees, transfers coefficient and passenger flow density between different bus lines. Finally, analytical and simulated results are given to show the impact of different properties weights to the public traffic network balance.

  7. Survival analysis of car travel time near a bus stop in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoBao; GAO ZiYou; GUO HongWei; HUAN Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an important investigation into car travel time affected by mixed traffic flow near a bus stop on the basis of survival analysis theory.Travel time data associated with mixed traffic characteristics near a bus stop were collected by video cameras.A hazard-based duration model was introduced to analyze the effects of mixed traffic flow on car travel time.The results indicate that mixed traffic flow impacts car travel time significantly.And the presence of bus berthing violation would delay car travel time.The proposed model can be used to forecast temporal shifts in car travel time due to changes in mixed traffic flow.The influential factors related to mixed traffic flow should be given full consideration in the planning and designing of bus stops in developing countries.

  8. Analysis of Journey to Work Travel Behavior by Car and Bus in the Sydney Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthanaya P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Car dependence is a fundamental problem in the sustainability of cities with low-density suburban sprawl. Increasing the use of public transport is one of the policy objectives commonly adopted to overcome this problem. It is essential to study journey to work travel behavior by car and bus. This paper applied preference function to analyze travel behavior and Moran’s I spatial statistic to evaluate the spatial association. The results indicated that the commuting preferences of residents have moved towards distance maximization. In general, bus was preferred for shorter distance trips whilst car was preferred for longer distance trips. Unlike car, by increasing distances from the Central Business District, residents tended to use bus for shorter distance trip. A significant positive spatial association was identified for both the slope preferences by car and bus where zones with a preference towards longer or shorter trips tended to travel to zones with similar preferences.

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Different Arbitration Protocols for Multiple—Bus Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄旗铭; 杨庆; 等

    1996-01-01

    Earlier performance studies of multiple-bus multiprocessor systems assume a random selection of competing requests for bus assignment and ignore the effects of realistic bus arbitraion schemes on the performance of such systems.In this paper,we present performance analysis of the multiple-bus systems with different arbitration protocols.The priority protocols considered are random selection,fixed priority,rotating priority,round-robin and FIFO.Analytical models are developed for each of these five different priority protocols.Each of our analyses models exactly the behavior of the corresponding priority protocol with little computation cost.The analytical models are validated through extensive simulations and are them used to carry out performance analysis and comparison of different priority protocols.Numerical results obtained from our models show that the round-robin protocol performs the best amont the five protocols in the system with a few buses.

  11. Bus Routes, Published in 2006, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Atlanta Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often...

  12. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela S Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A., a little annoyed (L.A. and highly annoyed (H.A.. The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality

  13. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  14. Microprocessor based dual bus structured data acquisition and processing system : DAPS-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microprocessor based dual bus structured data acquisition and processing system has been designed around Intel 8080 microprocessor. The system is described and operational results are given. (M.G.B.)

  15. Exploring public bus service quality in South Africa: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanda M. Vilakazi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, which is a deviation from the usual practice of using SERVQUAL or an adaptedversion thereof, uses McKnight, Pagano and Paaswell’s (1986 service quality dimensions,namely reliability; extent of service; comfort; safety; and affordability (RECSA and structuralequation modelling to determine commuters’ perception of public bus service quality in amajor city in South Africa. The RECSA model was adapted and fitted to the data collectedfrom a convenience sample of bus commuters in Johannesburg, using structural equationmodelling. It was ascertained that reliability, service, comfort and safety influenced thepublic bus commuters’ perception of the overall service quality. The implications of theaforementioned findings for providers of public bus services are explained.

  16. A perception system for accurate automatic control of an articulated bus

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Carlota; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the perception system for an automatic articulated bus where an accurate tracking trajectory is desired. Among the most promising transport infrastructures of the autonomous or semi-autonomous transportation systems, the articulated bus is an interesting low cost and friendly option. This platform involves a mobile vehicle and a private circuit inside CSIC premises. The perception system, presented in this work, based on 2D laser scanner as a prime sensor generates local ...

  17. Using FTT-CAN to the Flexible Control of Bus Redundancy and Bandwidth Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Valter; Fonseca, José; Ferreira, Joaquim

    2006-01-01

    Controller Area Network (CAN) is a popular and very well-known bus system, both in academia and in industry, initially targeted to automotive applications as a single digital bus to replace the wiring that were growing complexity, weight and cost with the advent of new automotive appliances. However, requirements have evolved and CAN’s dependability and bandwidth limitations led to the emergence of alternative networks such as FlexRay and TTP/C. Nevertheless, we believe that it...

  18. The Ruggedized STD Bus Microcomputer - A low cost computer suitable for Space Shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, T. J.; Stone, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Previous space flight computers have been costly in terms of both hardware and software. The Ruggedized STD Bus Microcomputer is based on the commercial Mostek/Pro-Log STD Bus. Ruggedized PC cards can be based on commercial cards from more than 60 manufacturers, reducing hardware cost and design time. Software costs are minimized by using standard 8-bit microprocessors and by debugging code using commercial versions of the ruggedized flight boards while the flight hardware is being fabricated.

  19. Loss of power of a 220 VAC safety bus bar at Embalse NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embalse nuclear power plant is located at the Cordoba Province, 5 kilometres Southern the town of Embalse. It is equipped with one 600 MWe CANDU reactor. At the time of the event, which occurred on 11 October 2004, the plant was operating normally at full power. The Embalse nuclear power plant electrical power system buses are classified, in reliability decreasing order, into the following four different levels: 1) Class I: uninterrupted direct current supplies for safety related and other essential loads; 2) Class II: uninterrupted alternating current supplies for safety related and other essential loads; 3) Class III: alternating current supplies to essential auxiliaries which can tolerate the short interruption required until to start up and load the on-site standby generators and 4) Class IV: normal alternating current supplies to auxiliaries which can tolerate long duration interruptions without affecting personnel or equipment safety (Class IV is the normal source of power to Class III system). In particular, the Class II 220 VAC uninterrupted monophasic safety bus bars are composed by three 220 VAC subsystems powered by the following two sources of power: Class I uninterrupted safety bus bars (5551 BUA, BUB and BUC bars) and Class III secondary distribution 5433-MCC5 and MCC6. The Class II 220 VAC bus bars are normally powered from Class I bus bars through static monophasic inverters. Beside, in a static monophasic out of service case, Class II bus bar affected could be powered from Class III bus bars via a transformer stabilizer. Class II bus bars supplies power to both control computers and the AC instrumentation and control devices. When 220 VAC (Class II) 5542-BUC-monophasic-inverter failure was coincident with a subsequent independent failure to transfer to the Class III through static commuter 5542-SVR-C, a loss of the 220 VAC uninterrupted monophasic safety bus bar (Class II) event was caused. (author)

  20. Congestion Management by TCPST In IEEE 9 Bus System Using Matlab Simulink.

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Sharma; Ram Avtar Jaswal

    2013-01-01

    Increased electric power consumption causes transmission lines to be driven close to or even beyond their transfer capacities resulting in overloaded lines and congestions. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) provide an opportunity to resolve congestions by controlling power flows and voltages. Main focus in this paper lies on the Thyristor Controlled Phase Shift Transformer (TCPST). IEEE 9 bus system is considered for congestion management. Parameters for bus system are predefined by IE...

  1. Central Thermal Bus for Micro and Small Satellites: Scalability and Adaptability

    OpenAIRE

    Wooldridge, John; Wrenn, Kim; Wolf, Dave; Bugby, Dave; Krein, Steve; Mark, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Swales Aerospace is engaged in the development of a Centralized Thermal Bus (CTB), which stands to significantly increase the capability, flexibility, and scalability of a small or micro-sat bus. The CTB is a multievaporator hybrid loop heat pipe (MEHLHP). It combines the best qualities of both capillary pumped loops and loop heat pipes while improving operational robustness, simplifying mission modes and system deployment/startup. Key benefits of the CTB are: multiple load heat transport, he...

  2. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN A BUS COMPANY: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Ribeiro de Araújo; Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine the application of a method for assessing the performance of the product development process (PDP) through the assessment of managerial skills in a bus body industry. A case study was carried out and a PDP method was applied through a questionnaire addressing the PDP management skills according to Dechamps and Nayak (1997) model and validated by Silva (2001) in a bus body company which showed all the features available in the literature on industria...

  3. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Jerman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from different bus transport companies in Slovenia. Selected data were analyzed with chi-square test and multiple regression analysis. Results: We determined that there is a relationship between the state of health of professional bus drivers and participation in sport activity and that there is a statistically significant impact of lifestyle on the absenteeism of professional bus drivers. Organization: The study points to the necessity of management’s awareness to improve the conditions for the health status of employees and, consequently, absenteeism. Managers need to be more vigilant in ensuring conditions and social security that will allow employees a higher quality lifestyle. Society: The poor quality lifestyle of professional bus drivers, which includes different addictions, inadequate physical activity, and poor working conditions, is a significant factor causing absenteeism. All these factors influence the onset of negative consequences, such as the direct cost of compensation payments, costs of replacing the absent person, a reduction in productivity, which in turn affect economic growth and the high cost of health care. Originality: This is the first focus group study of professional bus drivers that targets lifestyle and its connection to absenteeism. Limitations/Future Research: The main limitation of the study is the number of respondents. The reason for this is that professional drivers are less responsive in the survey and that the study was conducted only in Slovenia, country of two

  4. Calculation of Flexible Bus-Bars Electrodynamic Stability with Application of Implicit Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Y. G. Panamarenka

    2008-01-01

    A numerical method for calculation of open-air substations’ flexible bus-bars dynamic at short-circuit has been improved on equations of a flexible elastic string with application of an implicit scheme. On the basis of the numerical method a computer program FLEBUS for calculation of substations’ flexible bus-bars dynamic at short-circuit has been developed. An approbation and an estimation of calculation result reliability have been carried out in accordance with the program while using expe...

  5. The Metabolic Syndrome and its Association with Over Time Driving in Iranian Professional Bus Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin Blouri; Ali Saba; Amin Shirazi; Farnaz Nabizadeh; Maghsoud Matinkhah; Iraj Mohebbi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MeS) in professional bus drivers, and its association with overtime working hours among those drivers in Urmia, Iran. In this cross sectional study the studies population was 626 professional bus drivers, aged 20-69 yr. The MeS (according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III), Waist circumference, Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Fasting plasma glucose, Triglyceride...

  6. Mechanical analysis of the main bus bars in the DFBA shuffling modules

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, D

    2012-01-01

    The main bus bars (13 kA) inside the shuffling modules of the distribution feed boxes powering the LHC arcs (DFBA) are subjected to high Lorentz forces. The structural behaviour of the bus bars under such forces is here analysed. The results are discussed with respect to a risk of structural failure due to excessive deformation or degradation of the electrical insulation by repeated contact with other surfaces.

  7. External validation of psychological job demands in a bus driver sample

    OpenAIRE

    Gimeno, D; Benavides, F G; Mira, M.; Martinez, J. M.; Benach, J

    2004-01-01

    Psychosocial risk factors have been considered as characteristics of the work environment rather than an individual issue, but their presence in the workplace is usually measured by self-reported questionnaires, based on worker attitudes. The objective of the study was to compare a self-reported measure of psychological job demands in a bus driver sample with selected indicators of bus company activity, as external 'objective' indicators, in order to assess its external validity. The final sa...

  8. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    becomes catabolic due to the high priority of milk production and to current feeding practices. Indeed, feed is changed from a gestation to a lactation diet for most sows and the feed supply typically goes from a restricted supply to an ad libitum allowance. In addition, transition sows are often exposed...... the first few days of lactation, and milk yield increases throughout the transition period and becomes the most important determinant of nutrient requirements. Thus, nutrient requirements of transition sows are affected by many intrinsic factors and these requirements change rapidly, yet, sow feeding...... practices do not acknowledge these changes. Development of new feeding strategies specifically adapted for the transition sow is likely of importance to match the rapid changes in nutrient requirements....

  9. 基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制方案%Air-conditioner Control Project for Electric Bus Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桥生

    2012-01-01

    The author simply introduces two kinds of present control modes for air-conditioner of electric bus in domestic market,puts forward a new kind of its control mode based on CAN bus,and design the CAN's messages reports.%简述国内电动客车空调的两种控制模式;提出一种基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制模式,并设计CAN通讯报文。

  10. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48–100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20–30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals. (letter)

  11. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

  12. ETHERBONE - a network layer for the wishbone SoC bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was developed in the scope of the White-Rabbit Timing Project (WR) at CERN and GSI/FAIR, which employs GigaBit Ethernet technology to communicate with memory mapped slave devices. WR will make use of EB as means to issue commands to its timing nodes and control connected accelerator hardware. (authors)

  13. An analytical algorithm to determine allowable ampacities of horizontally installed rectangular bus bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenta Dardan O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to propose an algorithm for the determination of the allowable ampacities of single rectangular-section bus bars without the occurrence of correction factors. Without correction factors, the ampacity computation of the copper and aluminium bus bars is fully automatized. The analytical algorithm has been implemented in a computer program code that along with the allowable ampacity can compute the bus bar temperature and the individual heat transfer coefficient for each side of the bus bar, as well as their corresponding power losses. Natural and forced convection correlations for rectangular bus bars are applied. Effects of the solar radiation and radiation heat losses from the bus bar surface are taken into consideration as well. The finite element method (FEM has been used for the linear/non-linear steady-state thermal analysis, i.e. for validation of the analytical algorithm. All FEM-based numerical computations were carried out using the COMSOL Heat Transfer Module. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33046

  14. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopan; Kong, Yunfeng; Dang, Lanxue; Hou, Yane; Ye, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26176764

  15. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Chen

    Full Text Available As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Ihlström, Jonas; Fors, Carina; Kecklund, Göran; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2016-08-01

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes. PMID:27098307

  17. EtherBone - A Network Layer for the Wishbone SoC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Kreider, M; Lewis, J; Włostowski, T; Serrano, J

    2011-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was de...

  18. Multi Resolution AHB Bus Tracer with Real Time Compression for SOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jagadish Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller based Bus Architecture consists of AHB, APB, ASB and AXI. In this project we are Tracing AHB (Advanced High performance Bus signals with Real time Compression and Multi-resolution Techniques. A simple transaction on the AHB consists of an address phase and a subsequent data phase. Access to the target device is controlled through a MUX , thereby admitting bus-access to one bus-master at a time. In AHB Tracer we have to Trace Address signals, Data signals and Control signals, we have to compress them depending on AHB protocols. A multi-resolution AHB on-chip bus tracer is named as SYS_HMRBT (AHB Multi-resolution Bus Tracer and is used for monitoring. The goal is to provide better compression quality and multiple resolution traces to meet the complex SoC debugging needs. Compressing all signals at cycle-accurate-level does not always meet the debugging needs. As SOCs become more complex, the transaction level debugging becomes increasingly important, since it helps designers focus on the functional behaviors, instead of interpreting complex signals. By using this SYS_HMRBT, we can achieve 79%-96% of compression depending on selected resolution mode. Tools Used for this Project are Modelsim for Simulation, and Xilinx ISE II for Synthesis

  19. 基于CAN总线通信中多协议转换器设计%Design of Multiprotocol Switch in CAN Bus Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大力

    2011-01-01

    随着工业控制网络的快速发展,现场总线技术越来越受到重视,它是面向工厂底层自动化及信息集成的数字化网络技术,而CAN总线是现场总线中运用比较多的一种.为了解决多种不同设备接口连接CAN总线的协议转换问题,需要开发协议转换器.而当前协议转换器种类繁多,价格和质量参差不齐.该文提出了一种在现场总线领域中用于CAN总线通信中的多协议转换器的设计,该转换器结构简单,成本低廉,还可实现二次开发,支持CAN总线接口与RS-232接口、RS-485接口设备协议上进行相互转换实现有效通信,在工控仪表领域经过测试后,其性能稳定.%With the rapid development of the control in industrial network, the techonology of area bus has been more and more regarded. It is a digital network techonology that turn to the integration of automation and information in the factory workshop. Controller Area Network( CAN) bus has common use of area bus. To resolve the transformation in different implement interface that require designing protocol switch. Now the protocol switch has many category and different price in different quality. Proposed a good design of CAN bus communication adopting multiprotocol switch. It is ready for secondary development in different devices communication and it has simple frame and low cost. The switch can efficiently implement RS-232,RS-485 and CAN bus above interfaces on protocol layer with transform each other. It has stable performance by test in control in industrial meter.

  20. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegl, Breda

    2008-03-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity are determined experimentally and compared to those of D2. The obtained results are used to analyze the most important injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics. The injection characteristics are determined numerically under the operating regimes, corresponding to the 13 mode ESC test. The fuel spray is obtained experimentally under peak torque condition. Engine characteristics are determined experimentally under 13 mode ESC test conditions. The results indicate that, by using biodiesel, harmful emissions (NO(x), CO, smoke and HC) can be reduced to some extent by adjusting the injection pump timing properly. PMID:17350250

  1. MEASURING CUSTOMER’S SATISFACTION ON BUS TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the factors measuring customers’ satisfaction, especially the impact of service quality on customers’ satisfaction in public transportation industry in the university town of Sintok located in Kedah province of Malaysia. In order to assess the relationships between service quality and customer satisfaction survey http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1003.htmdata were collected from 300 Bus commuters. All hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlations, controlling for the background variables of gender, marital status, ethnicity and education. The results indicate that hypotheses 1 through 5 were supported. Using multiple regressions as a basis for causal paths, a model was developed that examined the influence of all five dimensions of service quality on customers’ satisfaction. The model explained 26.9% of the variance which indicates that 26.9% of the changes in the dependent variable are explained by the independent variables. Altogether, independent variables explained 26.9% of the variations.

  2. Bus Based Synchronization Method for CHIPPER Based NoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muralidharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network on Chip (NoC reduces the communication delay of System on Chip (SoC. The main limitation of NoC is power consumption and area overhead. Bufferless NoC reduces the area complexity and power consumption by eliminating buffers in the traditional routers. The bufferless NoC design should include live lock freeness since they use hot potato routing. This increases the complexity of bufferless NoC design. Among the available propositions to reduce this complexity, CHIPPER based bufferless NoC is considered as one of the best options. Live lock freeness is provided in CHIPPER through golden epoch and golden packet. All routers follow some synchronization method to identify a golden packet. Clock based method is intuitively followed for synchronization in CHIPPER based NoCs. It is shown in this work that the worst-case latency of packets is unbearably high when the above synchronization is followed. To alleviate this problem, broadcast bus NoC (BBus NoC approach is proposed in this work. The proposed method decreases the worst-case latency of packets by increasing the golden epoch rate of CHIPPER.

  3. System Interconnect Bus (SIB) compatible multi crate CAMAC Controller (CC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes design of SIB compatible crate controller with PC interface. SIB is a general-purpose parallel 1/O interface bus used for connecting multi crate system with single PC-interface. The crate controller comprises of a dedicated PC-AT add-on SIB interface card and two width CAMAC module designed to work at station 24 and station 25 of CAMAC crate. PC Interface card (SIBINT) is used for communication between PC/AT host computer and CAMAC Crates. The controller module incorporates a set of registers, logic to generate CAMAC data way timing. Transmission protocol used is RS485 standard. This controller is used for multiple CAMAC crates system, interfaced to PC, using a 60 core twisted pair flat ribbon cable. The crate controller is developed for use in process control, general-purpose data acquisition and control system and laboratory automation. Sustained data transfer rate achieved by controller is 115 Kword/sec each word being 32 bits in length. (author)

  4. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chandler, Kevin [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results over the last year.

  5. Discussion on Subscription Bus Services%定制公交服务初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐康明; 李佳玲; 冯浚; 孟自云

    2013-01-01

    Facing the increasing contradiction between the diversification of passenger travel demands and the homogeneity of public transit service modes, it is impera-tive to develop a diversified public transportation system. This paper discusses the definition of the Subscription Bus Services(SBS) system, its key service elements, ad-vantages and potential applications. The paper further elaborates the SBS’s characteristics, namely efficiency, convenience, flexibility, comfort and economy, and points out that the SBS is suitable to the passenger groups with relatively fixed travel times, similar origins and destinations, concentrated demand patterns, and me-dium trip lengths. The paper concludes that the SBS’s de-velopment can significantly improve and enhance a city’ s public transportation system.%在市民出行需求多元化和现状公交服务模式单一化的突出矛盾下,大力发展多元化公共交通已经成为城市交通发展的必然趋势。探讨了定制公交服务的定义、服务要素、优势和适用性。阐述定制公交具有高效、便捷、灵活、舒适、经济的特点,尤其适用于出行时间和起讫点相对固定、出行需求相对集中、出行距离适中的客流群体。最后指出,大力发展定制公交对于完善和提升公共交通服务具有较强的现实意义。

  6. 基于TSI578的Rapid IO互连技术%Rapid IO Interconnected Technology Based on TSI578

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼友伦; 纪小明; 王显跃

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problem existed in traditional bus, a scheme of serial Rapid IO used in the high-speed signal processing. The framework and advantage of Rapid IO are introduced. According to the protocol Rapid IO, Rapid IO interconnected project is given based on TSI578, which is inspected and implemented. Experimental results show the scheme is effective.%针对传统总线数据传输存在的问题,提出基于Rapid IO在高速信号处理的应用,介绍Rapid IO的体系结构及其性能优势,根据Rapid IO协议,给出了基于TSI578的Rapid IO互连方案,并在实际系统上进行验证与实现。实验结果表明,该方案是有效的。

  7. Effect of Educational Program to Decrease Substance Abuse among Suburban Bus Drivers Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Moeini, B.; S. Bashirian; A. Moghimbeigi; V. Kafami; A.A. Mousali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Driving under the influence of drugs is considered a social pathology that has adverse effects on a society. This study aimed to investigate the effect of substance abuse educational program among the bus drivers on the basis of the theory of planned be-havior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 80 suburban bus drivers working at Hamadan transportation terminal. The bus drivers were randomly divided in two equal groups (intervention a...

  8. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  9. Remote infrared signage evaluation for transit stations and intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, W; Brabyn, J; Bentzen, B L; Myers, L

    1999-10-01

    Opportunities for education and employment depend upon effective and independent travel. For mainstream society, this is accomplished to a large extent by printed signs. People who are print disabled, visually impaired, or totally blind are at a disadvantage because they do not have access to signage. Remote infrared signage, such as the Talking Signs (TS) system, provides a solution to this need by labeling the environment for distant viewing. The system uses a transmitting "sign" and a hand-held receiver to tell people about their surroundings. In a seamless infrared signage environment, a visually impaired traveler could: walk safely across an intersection to an ATM or fare machine, from fare machine to bus stop, from bus stop to bus; from bus to building, from building to elevator, from elevator to office, from office to restroom, and so forth. This paper focuses on two problems that are among the most challenging and dangerous faced by blind travelers: negotiating complex transit stations and controlled intersections. We report on human factors studies of TS in these critical tasks, examining such issues as how much training is needed to use the system, its impact on performance and safety, benefits for different population subgroups and user opinions of its value. Results indicate that blind people can quickly and easily learn to use remote infrared signage effectively, and that its use improves travel safety, efficiency, and independence.

  10. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%, both young people and adults (44%, just young people (6% and alone (5%. An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%–90%. Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  11. A new vehicle data bus architecture and IVIS evaluation platform for ITS modulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelt, P.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kirson, A.M. [Motorola, Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States); Scott, S. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    An increasing number of ITS-related after-market systems present a set of in-vehicle installation and use problems relatively unique in the history of automobile use. Many automobile manufacturers would like to offer these new state of the art devices to customers, but are hampered by the current design cycle of new cars. While auto manufacturers are indeed using multiplex buses (the automotive equivalent of a computer local area network), problems remain because manufacturers are not converging on a single bus standard. This paper presents a new dual-bus architecture to address these problems, with an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) research platform on which the principles embodied in the ITS Data Bus architecture can be evaluated. The dual-bus architecture has been embodied in a proposed SAE standard, with a ratification vote in December, 1996. The architecture and a reference model for the interfaces and protocols of the new bus are presented and described. The goals of the ITS Data Bus are to be inexpensive and easy to install, and to provide for safe and secure functioning. These high-level goals are embodied in the proposed standard. The IVIS Development Platform comprises a number of personal computers linked via ethernet LAN, with a high-end PC serving as the IVIS computer. In this LAN, actual devices can be inserted in place of the original PC which emulated them. This platform will serve as the development and test bed for an ITS Data Bus Conformity Test, the SAE standard for which has also been developed.

  12. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    One option under current study for the Terrestrial Planet Finder-Occulter (TPF-O) observatory shares some key features of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Both are space telescopes with a primary mirror aperture of around 2.4 meters and designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths, with the major difference in science capability being that TPF-O has an areal FOV on the order of 100 times larger than that of HST. This larger FOV, whose science camera is also expected to provide fine guidance, and other mission differences, mean that most TPF-O SC bus subsystems will have very different requirements than those of HST. Unlike HST in LEO, TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large FOV require much higher performance data processing and communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. TPF-O will have a specialized tracking system that allows the formation flying occulter to maintain its required position. However, despite these additional features, the velocity required for reaching SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require TPF-O to have a compact and low-mass design relative to HST. Finally, TPF-O may utilize a modular design to reduce development cost and, if it required, allow servicing using approaches different from those of HST.

  13. Real-time and reliability analysis of time-triggered CAN-bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Jiqiang; Zhang Chuansen; Bai Ronggang; Xue Liqiang

    2013-01-01

    Real-time performance and reliability are two most important issues in applications of time-triggered controller area network (CAN) bus systems at present.A scheduling matrix of time-triggered CAN-bus system is established using average-loading algorithm.Periodic messages are guaranteed to transmit without delay by distributing independent transmission windows within the system matrix.Considering the traditional CAN-bus transmission mechanism and the time-triggered feature,an algorithm is improved to calculate the worst-case delay of event-triggered messages in time-triggered CAN-bus systems.The failure probability is calculated for event-triggered messages whose worst-case delay exceeds their deadlines.Different levels of redundant structures of CAN-bus circuits are analyzed and the maintenance management is proposed to improve the system reliability.Finally,the reliabilities of different structures are calculated and the influences of maintenance on the system reliability are analyzed.

  14. Design and Analysis of Virtual Bus Transport Using Synchronous Digital Hierarchy/Synchronous Optical Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented a new data link layer design for the virtual bus architecture. The virtual bus is a hierarchical access network offered a broadcast capability for data and signaling. The proposed of the study is to support Quality of Service (QoS in network. During study, the most promising technology capable of delivering full service access at high data rates is Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH/Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET. For that reason, we develop SDH/SONET as a physical layer for the virtual bus network. The main goal of this investigation was to study the performance of transmission medium and the overall performance of the network. We exemplify a Multiple Access Protocol (MAP with Generic Frame Procedure (GFP for transmitting IP network protocol datagram over SDH/SONET. This is a novel method for transmitting MAP with GFP. The protocol adds multi-terminal access capability to an inherently point-to-point link. It enabled the design of seamless networking environments using SDH/SONET as the transmission medium for Metropolitan Area Network (MAN. The new frame mapping protocol is known as Virtual Bus Transport (VBT. The performance of multiple traffic generators in a virtual bus network is of major interest for mobile network provider. We used OMNeT simulation tool to evaluate the result. Through the simulation it proved that the VBT scheduling technique offers better treatment mainly to the higher Qos requirement traffic.

  15. Association between body weight, physical activity and food choices among metropolitan transit workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hannan Peter J; Toomey Traci L; Harnack Lisa J; French Simone A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Associations between body weight, physical activity and dietary intake among a population of metropolitan transit workers are described. Methods Data were collected during October through December, 2005, as part of the baseline measures for a worksite weight gain prevention intervention in four metro transit bus garages. All garage employees were invited to complete behavioral surveys that assessed food choices and physical activity, and weight and height were directly mea...

  16. Transition management: origin, evolution, critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rotmans (Jan); D.A. Loorbach (Derk); R. Kemp (René)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTransition management has rapidly emerged over the past few years as a new approach to dealing with complex societal problems and governance in the context of these problems. In the Netherland, UK and Belgium, serious efforts have been and are being undertaken to develop transition polic

  17. Bus Encoder for Crosstalk Avoidance in RLC Modeled Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.Verma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance factors such as propagation delay, power dissipation and cross talk in RC modelled interconnects are major design issues for the System on-chip (SoC designs in current Deep Sub micron (DSM era. The crosstalk effect is a consequence of coupling and switching activities that is encountered when there is a transition as compared to previous state of wire and or when there are transitions in adjacent wires. Therefore, minimization or elimination of switching and coupling activities is crucial in enhancing the performance of SoC designs. There are several methods for the reduction of power dissipation, crosstalk and delay. The encoding method is most effective and popular method for enhancing the behaviour of on-chip buses. This paper proposes encoding scheme to achieve overall reduction in transitions. The reduction in transition improves the performance in terms of reduced power dissipation, coupling activity and delay in on-chip buses. This encoding method is implemented using VHDL. The result evidently demonstrates reduction in transitions which consequently improves the overall performance of on-chip buses.

  18. Transition management: origin, evolution, critique

    OpenAIRE

    Rotmans, Jan; Loorbach, Derk; Kemp, René

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTransition management has rapidly emerged over the past few years as a new approach to dealing with complex societal problems and governance in the context of these problems. In the Netherland, UK and Belgium, serious efforts have been and are being undertaken to develop transition policies in areas such as energy, building, mobility and water management. This is the result of a much broader scientific development of transition research as an interdisciplinary field of study in wh...

  19. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  20. Increasing throughput of multiplexed electrical bus in pipe-lined architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameh; Brezzo, Bernard V; Kapur, Mohit

    2014-05-27

    Techniques are disclosed for increasing the throughput of a multiplexed electrical bus by exploiting available pipeline stages of a computer or other system. For example, a method for increasing a throughput of an electrical bus that connects at least two devices in a system comprises introducing at least one signal hold stage in a signal-receiving one of the two devices, such that a maximum frequency at which the two devices are operated is not limited by a number of cycles of an operating frequency of the electrical bus needed for a signal to propagate from a signal-transmitting one of the two devices to the signal-receiving one of the two devices. Preferably, the signal hold stage introduced in the signal-receiving one of the two devices is a pipeline stage re-allocated from the signal-transmitting one of the two devices.

  1. Analysis of bus width and delay on a fully digital signum nonlinearity chaotic oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-07-29

    This paper introduces the first fully digital implementation of a 3rd order ODE-based chaotic oscillator with signum nonlinearity. A threshold bus width of 12-bits for reliable chaotic behavior is observed, below which the system output becomes periodic. Beyond this threshold, the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) is shown to improve up to a peak value at 16-bits and subsequently decrease with increasing bus width. The MLE is also shown to gradually increase with number of introduced internal delay cycles until a peak value at 14 cycles, after which the system loses chaotic properties. Introduced external delay cycles are shown to rotate the attractors in 3-D phase space. Bus width and delay elements can be independently modulated to optimize the system to suit specifications. The experimental results of the system show low area and high performance on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with throughput of 13.35 Gbits/s for a 32-bit implementation.

  2. Calculation of Flexible Bus-Bars Electrodynamic Stability with Application of Implicit Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Panamarenka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method for calculation of open-air substations’ flexible bus-bars dynamic at short-circuit has been improved on equations of a flexible elastic string with application of an implicit scheme. On the basis of the numerical method a computer program FLEBUS for calculation of substations’ flexible bus-bars dynamic at short-circuit has been developed. An approbation and an estimation of calculation result reliability have been carried out in accordance with the program while using experimental data. On the basis of the obtained information it is possible to assert that the developed program is an independent tool for calculation of electrodynamic stability of substations’ flexible bus-bars.

  3. Fiber optic data bus space experiment on board the microlectronics and photonics test bed (MPTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Cheryl J.; Marshall, Paul W.; de la Chapelle, Michael; Fritz, Martin E.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    1995-05-01

    The Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed (MPTB) is a space experiment which will evaluate the performance of components and sybsystems of important new technologies is advance of their deployment of future spacecraft. Devices aboard MPTB will monitor the environment, and the radiation effects data obtained on components will be compared to ground tests and predictions. We present a description of the proposed high performance fiber optic data bus (FODB) experiment for MPTB which will feature the newly available 200 Mbps Boeing STAR-FODB hardware which is designed for space applications. This bus uses a passive star architecture and implements a Linear Token Passing Bus (LTPB) standard. The existence of extensive ground radiation test results for the STAR-FODB will enable high confidence predicition of its on-orbit performance to be made prior to launch.

  4. Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems Based on Schedulability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach to bus access optimization and schedulability analysis for the synthesis of hard real-time distribution embedded systems. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication delays proposing four different messa...... scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the bus access scheme are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments.......We present an approach to bus access optimization and schedulability analysis for the synthesis of hard real-time distribution embedded systems. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication delays proposing four different message...

  5. Steering Stability of a Bus Powered by Natural Gas While Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural gas as bus propellant presupposes the application of a driving unit adjusted to the use of natural gas in addition to the application of a corresponding gas facility. The first part of the paper describes the distinguishing features related to the storage of compressed natural gas tanks as the main carriers of additional mass due to the use of this energy substance for the propulsion of buses, as well as their effect on the structural features of vehicles. The second part of the paper covers the formulation and analysis of differential equations in terms of the steering system’s stability, and the equations depict the motion of the natural gas bus with its structural features, according to the defined models for instances of bus braking with locked front, rear and all wheels.

  6. Implemented Wavelet Packet Tree based Denoising Algorithm in Bus Signals of a Wearable Sensorarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmack, M.; Nguyen, S.; Mercorelli, P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a thermosensing embedded system with a sensor bus that uses wavelets for the purposes of noise location and denoising. From the principle of the filter bank the measured signal is separated in two bands, low and high frequency. The proposed algorithm identifies the defined noise in these two bands. With the Wavelet Packet Transform as a method of Discrete Wavelet Transform, it is able to decompose and reconstruct bus input signals of a sensor network. Using a seminorm, the noise of a sequence can be detected and located, so that the wavelet basis can be rearranged. This particularly allows for elimination of any incoherent parts that make up unavoidable measuring noise of bus signals. The proposed method was built based on wavelet algorithms from the WaveLab 850 library of the Stanford University (USA). This work gives an insight to the workings of Wavelet Transformation.

  7. Evacuated FM08 Fuses Carry a Sustained Arc in a Bus over 75 VDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidecker, Henning; Slonaker, J.

    1999-01-01

    The FM08 style fuse is specified to interrupt an overcurrent of up to 300 A in a bus of up to 125 VDC, but this applies only when its barrel is filled with air. When placed into a space-grade vacuum, the FM08 style fuse exhausts its air within a year. Then, the probability of an enduring arc is high for all ratings when the bus is above 75 VDC, and the overcurrent is large. The arc endures until something else interrupts the current. The fuse can violently eject metal vapor or other material during the sustained arcing. The evacuated FM08 does not develop a sustained arc when interrupted in a bus of 38 VDC or less, at least when there is little inductance in the circuit. This is consistent with its successful use in many spacecraft having buses in the range 24 to 36 volts.

  8. 微型计算机PCI总线浅析%On Microcomputer PCI Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝菊; 孙景瑞; 刘艳

    2001-01-01

    较系统地分析了PCI总线的定义、分类及特点,论述了PCI总线的读写时序及总线仲裁问题,并将PCI总线应用在图象处理等方面,解决了数据通量的瓶颈问题.%This article analyses the definition,classification andpeculiarity of PCI bus systematically. And it expounds the problem of reading and writing proc ession and arbiitration of PCI bus. Further more, the PCI bus has been used in the im age treatment and any other fields,solving the difficult problem of data flux.

  9. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  10. Research on Integration of Coal Mine Monitoring and Control System with Field Bus Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the construction of current coal mine monitoring and control systems in China, the paper proposes three kinds of applicable schemes of integrating PLC and DCS systems with field bus technology to digitize the system and to improve the flexibility and extent of the system. Essentially, the paper introduces the integration of FCS on I/O layers. Based on a real coal mine safety-monitoring and control system applied with a CAN field bus, the major technology of system relays and extensions is discussed. We believe that one of the most applicable methods is currently replacing the connection between function-stations and field-sensors with a CAN bus on I/O layers for system integration.

  11. Design of belt conveyor electric control device based on CC-link bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Goufen; Zhan, Minhua; Li, Jiehua

    2016-01-01

    In view of problem of the existing coal mine belt conveyor is no field bus communication function, two levels belt conveyor electric control system design is proposed based on field bus. Two-stage belt conveyor electric control system consists of operation platform, PLC control unit, various sensors, alarm device and the water spraying device. The error protection is realized by PLC programming, made use of CC-Link bus technology, the data share and the cooperative control came true between host station and slave station. The real-time monitor was achieved by the touch screen program. Practical application shows that the system can ensure the coalmine production, and improve the automatic level of the coalmine transport equipment.

  12. Risk Factors for Near Miss Incident among Long Distance Bus Drivers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nor Ronaidi NIK MAHDI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accident is a worldwide public health issue that has its highest impact on low and middle income countries including Malaysia. Many previous studies concerned on the causality of the actual accidents and little attention were given to near miss incidents. Hence, the current study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors for near miss incident among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 517 long distance bus drivers. Data were collected using interview-guided translated and validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Manchester Driver Behaviour questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the significant factors for near miss incident among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia.Results: The prevalence of near miss incident among long distance bus drivers was 37.5% (95% CI: 33.5, 41.8. The significant associated factors for near miss incident were younger age group (ORadj : 1.99; 95% CI: 1.32, 3.01, longer distance travelled per day (ORadj : 2.34; 95% CI: 1.52, 3.60, sleep disturbances (ORadj : 1.74; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.54 and errors in driving behaviour (ORadj : 1.31; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.39.Conclusion: Self-reported near miss incidents were relatively high among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia. This issue should be taken seriously and preventive action should consider the significant human factors such as younger age group, errors in driving behaviours, sleep disturbances as well as occupational factors like distance travelled per day. Keywords: Road traffic accident, Near miss, Bus drivers, Malaysia 

  13. Worksite environment physical activity and healthy food choices: measurement of the worksite food and physical activity environment at four metropolitan bus garages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Anne F

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present research describes a measure of the worksite environment for food, physical activity and weight management. The worksite environment measure (WEM instrument was developed for the Route H Study, a worksite environmental intervention for weight gain prevention in four metro transit bus garages in Minneapolis-St. Paul. Methods Two trained raters visited each of the four bus garages and independently completed the WEM. Food, physical activity and weight management-related items were observed and recorded on a structured form. Inter-rater reliability was computed at the item level using a simple percentage agreement. Results The WEM showed high inter-rater reliability for the number and presence of food-related items. All garages had vending machines, microwaves and refrigerators. Assessment of the physical activity environment yielded similar reliability for the number and presence/absence of fitness items. Each garage had a fitness room (average of 4.3 items of fitness equipment. All garages had at least one stationary bike and treadmill. Three garages had at least one weighing scale available. There were no designated walking areas inside or outside. There were on average Conclusion The WEM is a reliable measure of the worksite nutrition, physical activity, and weight management environment that can be used to assess changes in the work environment.

  14. Bus crash severity in the United-States: The role of driver behavior, service type, road factors and environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011.The cu...

  15. ABB i-bus EIB智能酒店灯光控制系统设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华卫智能设备

    2007-01-01

    @@ i-bus系统介绍 欧洲安装总线(EIB,European Instlallation Bus)在亚洲称为电气安装总线(Electrical Installation Bus),是电气布线领域使用范围最广的行业规范和产品标准.

  16. Evaluating a GPS-Based Transportation Device to Support Independent Bus Travel by People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; Holloway, Shane; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the utility of a PDA-based software system with integrated GPS technology for providing location-aware visual and auditory prompts to enable people with intellectual disability to successfully navigate a downtown bus route. Participants using the system were significantly more successful at completing a bus route than were people in a…

  17. Experiences with formal engineering: model-based specification, implementation and testing of a software bus at Neopost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtema, M.; Belinfante, A.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.; Marinelli, L.; Salaün, G.; Schätz, B.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the actual industrial use of formal methods during the development of a software bus. During an internship at Neopost Inc., of 14 weeks, we developed the server component of a software bus, called the XBus, using formal methods during the design, validation and testing phase: we modeled

  18. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because...... of 2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005–2009. Results: Results show...

  19. Research and design on a kind of CASE environment architectural style based on ToolBus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Bing; Shen Yan; Xie Jun; Wang Yong; Xiong Guangze

    2005-01-01

    Because CASE (computer aided software engineering) environment is a kind of complex system software, its software architecture is very important. From the viewpoint of software architecture, this paper first presents TBus architectural style, which is a kind of CASE environment architectural style based on ToolBus, then describes the architectural model and system's behavior in formal method, researches and analyzes the corresponding tool structural model. Last the paper implements a TBus architectural instance-LambdaBridge, which proves the validity of ToolBus and TBus architectural styles.

  20. Converter Power Density Increase using Low Inductive Integrated DC-link Capacitor/Bus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Franke, Toke; Rannested, Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    The power losses in switching devices have a direct effect on the maximum converter power. For a voltage source converter, the DC-link bus has a major influence on the power loss and safe operating area of the power devices. The Power Ring Film CapacitorTM integrated with an optimized bus structu...... has a measured inductance of around 5 nH. That allows the converter to switch with low turn-off losses, and allows the safe operation at higher dc-link voltages. This paper investigates the power transfer limits of a ShowerPower® cooled power stack....