WorldWideScience

Sample records for bus industry market

  1. BUS 438 Concepts of Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    BUS 438 Concepts of Emerging Markets Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-438-concepts-of-emerging-markets/   BUS438 BUS/438  MODULE 3 ASSIGNMENT 3 Concepts of Emerging Markets [ARGOSY

  2. Industrial relationship marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellinck, T.; Marriott, H. [Focal Research Consultants Ltd., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    A survey was conducted to establish a process for analyzing electrical utility/industrial customer relations. The information was used to help the utility companies in decision making and customer-oriented action. Data was collected by mail with two surveys. One hundred and thirteen companies were used in the development and analysis of key customer indicators. Factors which influence the relationship measures of customer satisfaction and customer commitment were identified. The report can be used as a basis on which utilities can build customer information for decision making in the development of marketing strategy. tabs., figs.

  3. 客车行业的本质及其技术创新与品牌传播%Nature and its Technology Innovation and Brand Communication of Bus/Coach Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新亚

    2012-01-01

    According to the perspectives of the product attribute,value delivery and marketing,the author analyzes the nature of bus /coach industry and elaborates the main contents of bus /coach enterprises technology innovation and brand communication based on the nature of bus /coach industry.%从产品属性、价值传递和市场营销的角度,分析客车行业的本质;基于客车行业的本质,阐述客车企业技术创新和品牌传播的主要内容。

  4. Marketing in Medical Imaging Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Aflaki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A few decades ago when Henry Ford told his customers "He would give them a car of any color as long as it is black" he did not think that competitive space in market reaches to a point in which business leaders monitor their customers all the time to be able to provide products and services proportionate to continuously changing costumer expectations. In today's competitive markets, customer satisfaction is a key secret which guarantees the business survival and progress. Marketing is a new field which shows us how to satisfy customers and hence increase the number of them."nMany people think of marketing only as selling and advertising. Although important, they are only two of the many marketing functions and are often not the most important ones."nIn this lecture, first, customer oriented culture is described. Marketing mix in radiology industry, a building block of the marketing plan, and marketing research, a vital tool to construct the marketing information system, are next discussed. Ultimately, service levels and triangle marketing in a radiology service provider institute are presented. "nThe aim of this lecture is to give the radiology service provider managers a new idea about how to maintain and develop their market.

  5. 49 CFR 1331.5 - Additional standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. 1331.5 Section 1331.5 Transportation Other Regulations... standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. (a) Rate bureaus must... tariff structure modifies in a relatively non-uniform fashion the relationship between most...

  6. Prediction of Bus/Coach Market Based on Second Exponential Smoothing Forecasting Method%基于二次指数平滑预测法的客车市场预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白瑶瑶

    2013-01-01

    More predictions are qualitative now in the bus/coach market. The author introduces the second exponen-tial smoothing forecasting method to make the quantitative prediction for the market demand of the bus/coach industry.%  客车行业的预测多停留在定性化。本文引入二次指数平滑预测法,对客车行业的市场需求量进行量化预测。

  7. Industrial process heat market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve.

  8. Marketing communication in Finnish industrial companies

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Marketing communication has a significant role for profitable businesses in industrial markets, and its role is only expected to rise in the future. Especially, integrated marketing communication (IMC) and customer-oriented approach are universally regarded fundamental developments in the field of marketing. Secondly, Finnish companies’ marketing competences are commonly considered insufficient in general. The purpose of this study was to describe how Finnish industrial companies execute t...

  9. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  10. Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Grilec Kaurić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing industry in Croatia. The research was conducted through personal interviews with marketing and company managers in Croatia. The research identified that marketing is insufficiently implemented in Croatian textile and clothing industry, despite growing brand management importance. However, because of lack in marketing knowledge and bad brand management, development of fashion brand is the most critical factor in successful business activity in textile and clothing industry.

  11. Unfolding Implementation in Industrial Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjgaard, John; Ellegaard, Chris

    2011-01-01

    of implementing industrial market segmentation is discussed and unfolded in this article. Extant literature has identified segmentation implementation as a core challenge for marketers, but also one, which has received limited empirical attention. Future research opportunities are formulated in this article......Market segmentation is an important method of strategic marketing and constitutes a cornerstone of the marketing literature. It has undergone extensive scientific inquiry during the past 50 years. Reporting on an extensive review of the market segmentation literature, the challenging task...... for marketing management. Three key elements and challenges connected to execution of market segmentation are identified — organization, motivation, and adaptation....

  12. MARKETING PLANNING IN HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobeica Ana Amaria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a perspective on what is important or critical to the discipline of healthcare marketing by analyzing the marketing plan from the institutional (or organizational perspective. This “salience issue” is complicated by the structural problems in healthcare such as new advertising programs, advances in medical technology, and the escalating costs of care in the recent economic situation of world economic crisis. Reviewing a case study, the paper examines how marketing managers face increasingly difficult management and it emphasizes one more time the importance of marketing in the internal organizational structure. Also it shows the direct connection between the marketing strategy, the Quality of Healthcare and marketing planning in the internal organization of Private Healthcare Practice in Romania. Also it concludes that marketing planning in healthcare has to be very precised in order to achieve some major objectives: customer care, financial stability, equilibrium between stakeholders and shareholders and future improvement in communication to customers. The marketing strategies and programs discussed in this paper follow the analysis of the 4Ps of Healthcare Marketing Services and propose call to action plans and possibilities that might result in a more particular case study analysis of the Romanian Healthcare Market.

  13. 客车品牌整合营销传播中的项目管理应用研究%Application Research of Project Management to Integration Marketing Communication for Bus / Coach Brand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何树昌

    2012-01-01

    将项目管理的思想引入到客车行业的品牌整合营销传播之中,重点分析研究客车品牌整合传播中的进度控制和成本管理,以提高客车品牌营销的管理水平和传播效果。%The author introduces the ideas of project management to the brand integration marketing commumication in the bus / coach industry, mainly analyse the progress control and cost management of the bus / coach brand integration of communication in building bus brand dissemination mode of project management, it promotes the level of project management and communication effect.

  14. Marketing Communication Strategies of the Industrial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Wodyński

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial market, created by companies, which buy and sell goods which are not directly for consumption, but are used in production process, communicates with the environment in a specific way. Many industrial companies supply only the customers of non consumption goods market and hence they do not enter into direct contact with a final consumer. In such cases recognizing the customers needs is even more difficult. Such environment requires efficiently functioning and planned communication of the company with the market. This study presents methods and strategies of marketing communication really used in industrial companies. While analysing marketing strategies of industrial companies, the author draws the attention to the fact that even though there was system transformation, the state still has significant impact on functioning and development of industry and that in a way directs and created barriers in companies functioning. Such conditions force even more active marketing communication as well as searching new solutions. As there are more and more sophisticated marketing techniques related to digital media, there is also a growing demand for strategic solutions in marketing communication. Digital media, first of all the Internet, provide so far unavailable possibilities of researching consumers behaviours and ways of using media. They also give a chance to follow the behaviour of smaller, unique and often social groups of consumers.

  15. Marketing: Events as marketing tools in Thai hospitality industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wenzhuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thailand is a developing country in Southeast Asia. It is one of the top tourist destinations in the world. The tourism industry has a big impact on this country’s economy, largely from foreign tourism. Tourism Authority Thailand as a marketing tool promotes Tai tourism industry and as a new concept to develop policy and marketing plan in tourism market in Thailand. However, the most of previous studies just have focused on foreigner travel in Thailand but only a few studies ment...

  16. Market orientation in the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuian, S N; Abdul-Gader, A

    1997-01-01

    Using the more recent methodological developments in the assessment of the unidemensionality, reliability, and validity, the authors developed and examined a scale of market orientation for the hospital industry. The scale is based on a clear definition of the content of the construct of market orientation in the hospital industry. To this end, a national random sample of 237 hospital administrators was used. In addition to the support for the reliability and validity, the scale promises parsimony, pragmatism, and wide-ranging applicability.

  17. THEORETICAL-METHODICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF INDUSTRIAL MARKETING RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    N. Butenko

    2009-01-01

    The article proves the necessity to research theoretical and methodical fundamentals of industrial marketing and defines main key aspects of relationship management with the customers on industrial market.

  18. Marketing Strategies in the Clothing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷丽娜

    2011-01-01

    Chinese clothing industry has stepped into a new era when the fierce competition,the internationalization and the pluralism coexist.If the clothing enterprises want to catch the market opportunities,and stand out in the clothing industry,they should chang

  19. Marketing Strategies in Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Čmielová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to define the fashion industry and identify the key developments that the segment has undertaken over the last two to three decades including the drivers behind these changes. Specifically, the thesis will provide insights into the financial indicators of the industry and review some of the most recent trends such as globalisation of supply chains and internationalisation of fashion retailers. The second section of the theoretical part will try to identify what are ...

  20. Market trends in the projection display industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sweta

    2001-03-01

    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection TV segment. Rear LCD (liquid crystal display), MEMS/DLP (or Digital Light Processing TM) and LCOS (Liquid-crystal-on-silicon) TVs are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are also facing challenges from LCD and DLP technology for the home theater market while the business market is completely dominated by front LCD and DLP technology. Three-chip DLP projectors have replaced liquid crystal light valves in large venue applications where projectors have higher light output requirements. In recent years front LCD and LCOS projectors have been increasingly competing with 3-chip DLP projectors especially at the low end of the large venue application market. Within the next five years the projection market will experience very fast growth. Sales and presentation applications, which are the fastest growing applications in the business market, will continue to be the major driving force for the growth for front projectors, and the shift in the consumer market to digital and HDTV products will drive the rear projection market.

  1. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The chapter tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...... significant economies of scale benefits at the firm level to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  2. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The chapter tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... significant economies of scale benefits at the firm level to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....... for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...

  3. Industrial Distribution Remapping the Market Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ Major industrial distributors in China are experiencing significant structural changes, as big multinationals corporations (MNCs)seek more diversified distribution options and customers become more accepting of new, more efficient distribution channels, according to Matthew Fish, head of Synovate Business Consulting. These changes are taking place at a time when an increasing number of international players are being allowed to operate in the China distribution market. With their financial clout and management expertise, they are quickly changing the landscape of the industry.

  4. MARKETING EXPENDITURES IN THE INDONESIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, a “new” marketing concept known as "four Ps marketing mix" appeared and shifted the focus from the product to the customer. The objective of the new concept was not only profit, and the means of achieving the objective expanded to include the entire “marketing mix”: product, price, promotion, and place (channels and distribution. Expenditures of marketing in a company should be explored from these mixes, because each mix would have an impact on the total marketing expenditures. These four mixes are the main aspects of marketing and thus, should represent almost all expenditures in marketing in a company. From this research it is discovered that the responding contractors have only average efforts to improve or innovate their service, mostly using the latest construction methods and management approach. Correlated to their policy in the fourth mix (Place, they are still national oriented and not international oriented in marketing their services, this may lead to the big question of their survival; their motivation to innovate is only average while their target market is only national market. Their attitude to use more intensive “fees” policy rather than both product innovation and promotion is also interesting. Big percentage of the responding contractors assumes these “fees” are regular marketing practices. This attitude may better be stopped to make the construction industry practices healthier. Attitude to use more product innovation and true promotion approach in marketing in construction must be encouraged systematically in the future, to improve competitiveness in the long term.

  5. Market Concentration Rate and Market Performance of China’s Swine Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia ZHANG; Yucheng HE

    2016-01-01

    Empirical study on market concentration rate and market performance of China’s Swine Industry indicates that higher market concentration rate brings higher overall performance of swine industry. There exists no obvious causal relation between market concentration rate and market performance,but market performance is highly correlated with market concentration rate. The improvement in performance of swine industry is dependent on further optimization of market concentration rate and other factors.

  6. Eco-marketing in industrial enterprise activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Chupryna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is determination of the areas of industrial enterprise’s development and detection of the specificity of their activity in terms of environmental priorities. The results of the analysis. The analysis of the research and publications of the leading scholars on the eco-marketing’s problem was conducted. The main factors of eco-marketing’s mechanism use were considered. Eco-marketing was determined as an important tool of the enterprises’ modern production behavior correcting. Nowadays enterprises in Ukraine have to act according to modern production requirements, provide ecological safety and implement eco-marketing. The infrastructure of eco-marketing was built. The components of ecomarketing were distinguished. They are: eco-technologies, eco-product, eco-services, eco-consumers. The definition of «eco-consumer» was improved. The four areas of ecomarketing were identified: I – eco-services – eco-consumer; II – eco-Products – eco-consumer; III – eco-technologies – eco-product; IV – eco-technologies – eco-service. It was supposed that while analysing of the enterprise’s activities the influence of eco-marketing as a complex of influencing factors must be taken into consideration. Also it was determined that it is possibile to take into account the effect of «decoupling» in four areas of eco-marketing. The effect of «decoupling» was considered as an indicator of the region (the enterprise transition to a green economy. It is proposed to calculate the effect of «decoupling» by means of an integral index. The main points of the mathematical set theory application for the analysis of the eco-marketing’s infrastructure components was allocated. It was supposed that the number of eco-consumers is set A, number of eco-products on the market is set B, the overall volume of eco-services in the area is set C and D is set that defines consumers which buy and consume not only

  7. Marketing potential of industrial companies of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Oliynyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the essence of the marketing potential of the company as a part of improving the efficiency of the company’s activity forming a united mechanism along with industrial and financial subsystems. The components of the total potential of the company, the factors forming structure of the marketing potential of the company and the approaches to the evaluation of such a potential of the company are considered. It is determined that the marketing potential of the company integrates all the marketing resources, reserves and the possibility of their use, and the functioning as well as development of the system are subjected to the achievement of the main company’s goals. The differences in the interpretation of economic, market and marketing potential of the company are identified, although they are related to the subject of entrepreneurship, but they differ in their essence. The substantiation of the essence of marketing potential of the company, the development of an effective mechanism of its management with the possibility of evaluation will contribute to the maximum satisfaction of interests of information consumers’ groups, the formation of strategic directions of the activity, making management decisions at the micro level, the effective functioning in the internal and external markets.

  8. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  9. Promotion on the industrial products market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Dania TODOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature abounds with articles and books on marketing and especially promoting consumer products. As consumers for these goods we are exposed each day to promotional messages of major product brands in order to attract or retain us when we are already buyers. Fewer things have been written about how to do promotion of industrial goods, which are a special category of goods, but have a very high quota in trade of goods, both nationally and internationally. This article will analy

  10. The role of digital channels in industrial marketing communications

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to investigate industrial marketing communications tools and the role of digital channels. The research draws from the literature on industrial marketing communications to examine its goals and intended utilization in industrial firms. Design/methodology/approach – An empirical multiple case study conducted among six industrial firms examines the current state of digital marketing communications (DMC). Findings – The study gleans thre...

  11. Strategic Marketing Problems in the Uganda Maize Seed Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Larson,Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu

    2004-01-01

    Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...

  12. An Inter-industry comparison of market orientation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    The study makes two contributions to the existing knowledge on market orientation. First it extends the insight obtained from previous research on the antecedents of market orientation into the developing country context. Second, it undertakes an inter-industry comparison with the view to determine...... whether the implicit assumption of weak (or non) inter-industry differences in market orientation is tenable...

  13. The role of Internet marketing in finnish tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    The aim for this thesis was to find out, what is the role of Internet marketing in the tourism Industry in Finland. Internet marketing as a global phenomenon is growing constantly and it is affecting the way of marketing in several industries such as the tourism industry. The goal for this research was to get deeper in the Internet marketing concept and to see, how it is in practice having an impact on companies within the tourism industry. In addition it was a goal for this thesis to fin...

  14. Energy Industry in China: Marketization and National Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DanShi

    2005-01-01

    Opening up the market, breaking the monopoly, and allowing the market to decide prices these are the major items on the agenda for the marketization of China's energy industry, and have a direct bearing on national energy security. Research into China's energy security has so far focused on such fields as strategic energy reserves, stability of energy imports, and diversification of import channels. Little has been done in the study of national energy security from the perspective of marketization of the energy industry. However, opening up the energy market and marketizing the energy industry are not only major commitments to China's accession to WTO, they serve the nation's energy security needs as well. This paper takes a look at the actual results of opening up the energy market, the structure of that market, and the nation's energy pricing mechanisms, and on the basis of the findings, raises suggestions on how to tackle the energy security issue.

  15. Market-oriented search in differentiated industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Stieglitz, Nils

    2009-01-01

      How is the success of a firm's market-oriented activities influenced by the marketing mix? This paper contributes to existing marketing research by advancing our understanding of the process by which market orientation transforms into superior performance. This process is investigated...

  16. Efficiency and productivity analysis of the interstate bus transportation industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G.N. Novaes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Productivity analysis is an important policy making and managerial control tool for assessing the degree to which inputs are utilized in the process of obtaining desired outputs. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is a non-parametric method based on piecewise linear frontiers estimated with the aid of mathematical programming techniques and used, in this paper, to investigate technical, scale and managerial efficiencies associated with interstate bus companies in Brazil (ISBT. Data has been obtained from the web-site of the Brazilian National Agency of Land Transportation (ANTT. Since production factors in the application are constrained by technical and operational reasons, weight restrictions were introduced into the DEA models. The analysis has shown three groups of non-efficient bus firms, with clear differences in productivity. The relative managerial efficiencies of the firms in the non-efficient groups were also computed and analyzed. Finally, an example of benchmarking a non-efficient firm with DEA is presented.A análise de produtividade é ferramenta importante para a tomada de decisão e para a gestão de organizações, possibilitando avaliar os efeitos dos inputs na obtenção de níveis desejados de outputs. A Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA é um método não paramétrico baseado em fronteiras lineares por partes ajustadas através de programação matemática e utilizada para analisar as eficiências técnica, de escala e de gestão de empresas de ônibus que operam nas ligações interestaduais no Brasil (ISBT. Os dados foram obtidos no web-site da Agência Nacional de Transportes Terrestres (ANTT. Como os fatores de produção são restritos por razões técnicas e operacionais, restrições de pesos foram introduzidas nos modelos. A análise mostrou três grupos de empresas não eficientes, com claras diferenças de produtividade. Também são calculadas as eficiências de gestão relativas a esses três grupos. Finalmente

  17. Market orientation at industry and value chain levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard; Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2002-01-01

    The term market orientation, defined as sets of activities dealing with the generation and dissemination of, and response to, market intelligence , is extended from the organisational level to the industry and value chain levels. By drawing on theories from industrial economics, neo......-institutional theory, transaction cost economics, network theory and the political-economic approach to the analysis of marketing channels, we try to find potential determinants of market orientation at the industry and value chain levels. We summarise these determinants and their possible interaction in two...

  18. Market Analysis, Opportunity Recognition and Strategy Diagnosis in Toy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2017-01-01

    According to many market researches and industrial reports Iran is one of the biggest toy markets in the Middle East and North Africa region. The Iranian toy market has been identified as a niche market with lots of unexploited opportunities. Nonetheless, the Iranian toy industry has shown...... inefficiency in exploiting those opportunities and to meet market demands. This exploratory research aims at understanding the reasons of such poor performance. The research made use of two phases of survey with samples from customers, influencers and in-depth interview with industry practitioners. The survey...... identified and prioritized existing opportunities that satisfy the purchasers’ demands. The interview analysis revealed the key point that the firms are highly focused on manufacturing, whereas the industry has a substantial competitive advantage in design and marketing. The major reasons...

  19. The marketing of innovation activity results commercialization in industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Kalynychenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the theoretical and methodological principles of marketing commercialize innovations. Scientific and practical recommendations about use of marketing approach for commercialization of innovative activity results in the industry are developed. They consist of stages of commercialization marketing project management process observance and application of design, scenaring and network planning.

  20. Identifying Lead Markets in the European Automotive Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Thomas; Grimpe, Christoph; Rammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    of excellence in technology and interaction among users and producers, the lead market approach focuses on the role of demand characteristics. Based on the concept of innovation design, a lead market is defined as a country where customers prefer that design which subsequently becomes the globally dominant......This paper presents an indicator-based methodology to identify lead markets in the European automotive industry. The lead market approach tries to explain why certain countries are better positioned than others for developing and launching new products. While much research stresses the role...... design. We use an indicator-based approach which has been successfully employed for individual products as well as for various industries in order to identify lead markets in the European automotive industry. Employing five lead market factors, our results show that the EU is by far no homogeneous market...

  1. Marketing innovation in rural small food industries in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani, S.; Azadi, H.; Hosseini, S.J.F.; Witlox, F.; Van Passel, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Marketing innovation is essential for small industries to transform products into profit; therefore, understanding its nature and determinants is of utmost importance. This study aimed at understanding marketing innovation and its determinants in the 60 small food industries in the rural areas of Tehran province, Iran. Using a census sampling method, 111 managers of these firms were interviewed. Results showed that the firms’ performance in marketing innovation is generally weak, and a higher...

  2. Grouping characteristics of industry sectors in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gabjin

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the grouping coefficients of industrial sectors in the stock network based on stock data for the U.S. and Korean stock markets. These complex networks were modeled using the minimal spanning tree (MST) method. We propose a novel approach based on the shortest path length (SPL) between stocks to quantify the grouping characteristics of the industrial sectors. We find that the grouping coefficients for the industrial sector in the U.S. are larger than those of the Korean stock market. In particular, for the Korean stock market the conglomerates, comprised of a diverse of industrial companies, have a significant grouping coefficient.

  3. Market Report for the Industrial Sector, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, Bhima [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); de los Reyes, Pamela [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Jamison, Keith [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Justiniano, Mauricio [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Margolis, Nancy [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Monfort, Joe [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Raghunathan, Anand [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Sabouni, Ridah [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an overview of trends in industrial-sector energy use. It focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors and several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry.

  4. Marketing Industrial Project-Related Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cova, Bernard; Skaates, Maria Anne

    2002-01-01

    Services are a growing part of projects in the context of the international trend toward solution buying and selling on B2B markets. Services are also often a key source of competitive advantage in project business. Therefore the aim of this paper is to critically scrutinise the intuitive...... hypothesis that the marketing of project-related services lies somewhere at the crossroads between services marketing and project marketing....

  5. Model of marketing management in management system of industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Raiko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to create an open conceptual model of marketing management in management system of industrial enterprise that has certain theoretical and practical significance. The results of the analysis. Nowadays there is an objective need to improve the principles of marketing management both within the marketing department, and within all industrial enterprises, as it brings marketing understanding of customer needs and creative thinking that enables the company to be customer-oriented. That is why particular research topic is burning. In the process of marketing a set of goods and services are developed and produced while ensuring a certain society level. Therefore, an important point for the proper organization of marketing activity at the industrial enterprise is the marketing management. First of all, the theoretical and methodological analysis for marketing management importance understanding was conducted. It allowed to make certain conclusions concerning this concept statements, determine its place and role in the enterprise management. Thus, it is proposed to consider marketing management not only as one of the functional tasks and part of enterprise’s overall plan but also as the management of all activities which is based on the marketing principles (when all business units plan and evaluate their work from the marketing standpoint. The result of the proposed model is that the enterprise should be considered as an open system and the part of «consumer-enterprise-partner» system, which is based on marketing that covers all units and links of the enterprise. Marketing partnerships appear as the result of the interaction of system elements. Marketing partnerships’ main objective is to profit from the results of the products and services production and distribution, and to satisfy consumers demand that occurs during the activation of the consumers needs. Marketing management and marketing

  6. 节能与新能源客车市场分析%Market analysis on energy-saving and new energy bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艾丹; 王发福

    2014-01-01

    This article illustrates the detailed market analysis about saving-energy and new energy bus including degree of market open, market potential, and market segment.In addition, this article points out development recommendations to encourage new energy bus to develop in the future, including the market access of different cities, the establishment of policy, battery charging infrastructure construction,product quality and after-sale service.%从全国主要城市市场开放度、市场潜力以及细分市场三个方面对节能与新能源客车市场进行了详尽的分析。提出了从各城市的准入难度、相关政策制定、充电设施规划建设和客车产品质量及售后保障等四个方面加大力度,拓展节能与新能源客车市场。

  7. 基于CAN总线技术的工业现场故障报警装置的设计%Design of Fault Alarm Device of Industry Field based on CAN Bus Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌

    2015-01-01

    随着工业生产的高度自动化和信息化,现场总线越来越多地应用于工业控制的各个领域。本文通过设计基于CAN总线通信协议的现场故障报警装置,实现了工业现场的故障检测系统与工业数字化信息平台的数据共享,软件上采用抗干扰的设计方法,保证了系统的稳定性与安全性,具有良好的市场前景。%With the development of super automation and information in the industrial production,more and more Field Bus are used in the control realm nowadays. In the paper, a field fault alarm device is designed based on CAN bus communication protocol to realize the field of industrial fault detection and data sharing, and an anti-interferance software design method is using for stability and security of system, so we believe that this system wil have good market potential.

  8. 2008 Industrial Technologies Market Report, May 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energetics; DOE

    2009-07-01

    The industrial sector is a critical component of the U.S. economy, providing an array of consumer, transportation, and national defense-related goods we rely on every day. Unlike many other economic sectors, however, the industrial sector must compete globally for raw materials, production, and sales. Though our homes, stores, hospitals, and vehicles are located within our borders, elements of our goods-producing industries could potentially be moved offshore. Keeping U.S. industry competitive is essential to maintaining and growing the U.S. economy. This report begins with an overview of trends in industrial sector energy use. The next section of the report focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors. The report also highlights several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry. Finally, the report presents policies, incentives, and drivers that can influence the competitiveness of U.S. industrial firms.

  9. Intransparent Markets and Intra-Industry Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    Buyers are typically unaware of the full set of offers when making a purchase. This paper examines how international trade interacts with this problem of market intransparency. Sellers must communicate their offers through costly advertising, but cannot reach all buyers. Consequently, no market...

  10. Wishbone bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mohandeep; 10.5121/vlsic.2012.3210

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC). This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Micro controller Bus Architecture (AMBA) by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle). Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  11. THE BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORY OF INDUSTRY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Ignatyuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the stages of the birth and development of the industry markets theory were defined in order to have a full picture of its current goals, objectives and areas of study.

  12. Selection Factors for Market Subjects of Agricultural Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The paper firstly analyzes selection factors for market subjects of agricultural industrial development in China. From the political aspect, it is required to take account of features of subjects of agricultural industrial development at current stage. From economic aspects, we should adheres to the two-tier management system that integrates unified with separate management on the basis of household contract management in the countryside, and cultivate and foster subject enterprises according to features of most important market subjects in market economy. From natural aspects, it is proposed to consider features of agricultural industry and inherent advantages of agricultural resources in China. From social aspects, it is essential to draw on successful experience of developed countries in developing market subjects of agricultural industry.

  13. FUTURE MARKETING DRIVERS FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Dasmohapatra

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The forest products industry in North America is increasingly losing its share in its domestic markets. The pressure of low cost manufacturing combined with a slowing economy has painfully caused many mills to close and many workers to lose their jobs in recent years. We ask ourselves whether the forest products industry will be able to survive these gloomy times and what, if any are the factors that would drive the future of the forest products industry. Opening our minds to global markets beyond domestic consumption, targeting products towards changing demographic structure and resulting change in consumer tastes, developing and marketing products with the environmental conscious consumer in mind, product innovations, efficient management of the supply chain, and trade practices and policies will be some of the marketing drivers in the forest products industry in the new era.

  14. Importance of marketing management in the world pfarmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Kesič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The world pharmaceutical industry has changed tremendously in the last decade. Globalization processes reinforce a consolidation of the world pharmaceutical industry. Mergers and acquisitions prevail more and more as a strategic orientation of numerous world pharmaceutical companies. In our research we found out that marketing management has been playing an increasingly important or even a crucial role in day-today activities and strategic business operations of the world pharmaceutical companies. We may point out that a rapid consolidation of the world pharmaceutical industry is definitely a market-driven process, one conditioned by typical strategic marketing management issues, such as a lack of brand new products, intense competitiveness, globalization processes, increased global marketing and sales activities, changing structure of global competitors as well as a furious fight for global market shares and customers’ loyalty. We estimate that marketing management is to play an even more important and, especially, the top priority strategic role in the future globalization and concentration processes of the world pharmaceutical industry. Some experiences and lessons from the global perspective of the world pharmaceutical industry could also be useful to the management of pharmaceutical companies in the transition countries of the Central and Eastern European region. Taking into consideration the current market position of these companies, some marketing management guidelines for their marketing management policies and strategies could be suggested. We conclude that underestimating, or even complete neglect of the importance of marketing management issues may pose the greatest threat to the future strategic orientation and performance of the world pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Market surveillance for the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. We define market surveillance as the collection of information about variables which will allow inferences about the attractiveness of a company's present and future offerings. The attractiveness, in turn, will depend on the value customers perceive in a product relative...... to competing products and relative to its price. Such information on determinants of value perception and costs can be used in the strategy formulation of the company. 2. We define a market surveillance system as a set of methods/instruments to regularly select, collect, and process data about a market and its...... actors, with the aim of detecting changes in those long-term trends, which are expected to influence the attractiveness of a company's present an future offerings. 3. Different types of market surveillance systems can be distinguished based on the actors it covers (distributors/end users...

  16. Globalization, industrialization, and labor markets in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene; Tran, *Angie Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    . Using long-run statistical data, historical contexts and industrial policies, and fieldwork interviews (from 1980s to 2014), we focus on two important labor-intensive, export-based industries: the long-established textile/garment industry and the emerging electronics industry, which surpassed textile...... exports in 2013. Evidence shows that the ‘high road’ to industrialization model – with domestic linkages and skills upgrading – does not accompany growth in exports, as low-skilled assembly, mostly young female workers join the labor force with non-liveable wages and substandard working conditions....... These two case studies delve into different stages of industrial policy, which is more defined in the textile/garment case and underdeveloped in the electronics case....

  17. Market Environment of Wool Textile Industry and Ways to Breakthrough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文红; 周启澄

    2003-01-01

    Wool textile industry is now facing serious market environment. Ways to breakthrough may be: exerting special virtues of wool, e.g. degradable, ecological,comfortable etc.; inoculating of biological engineering, seeking for clean production, producing green commodities; creating new market through innovations.

  18. Determinants of Market Structure and the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raduchel, W.

    1972-01-01

    The general economic determinants of market structure are outlined with special reference to the airline industry. Included are the following facets: absolute size of firms; distributions of firms by size; concentration; entry barriers; product and service differentiation; diversification; degrees of competition; vertical integration; market boundaries; and economies of scale. Also examined are the static and dynamic properties of market structure in terms of mergers, government policies, and economic growth conditions.

  19. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  20. Product and market study for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Building resources for technology commercialization: The SciBus Analytical, Inc. paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The study project was undertaken to investigate how entrepreneurial small businesses with technology licenses can develop product and market strategies sufficiently persuasive to attract resources and exploit commercialization opportunities. The study attempts to answer two primary questions: (1) What key business development strategies are likely to make technology transfers successful, and (2) How should the plan best be presented in order to attract resources (e.g., personnel, funding, channels of distribution)? In the opinion of the investigator, Calidex Corporation, if the business strategies later prove to be successful, then the plan model has relevance for any technology licensee attempting to accumulate resources and bridge from technology resident in government laboratories to the commercial marketplace. The study utilized SciBus Analytical, Inc. (SciBus), a Los Alamos National Laboratory CRADA participant, as the paradigm small business technology licensee. The investigator concluded that the optimum value of the study lay in the preparation of an actual business development plan for SciBus that might then have, hopefully, broader relevance and merit for other private sector technology transfer licensees working with various Government agencies.

  1. Applications and market of PVC for piping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny De N. Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic materials by the piping industry accounts for a significant volume of polymers. In this segment PVC represents the largest worldwide market for plastics. PVC is often used in plastic pressure pipe systems for pipelines in the water and sewer industries because of its inexpensive nature and flexibility. Pipes and fittings constitute the largest volume application at 40% of the marketplace. This paper discusses the piping extrusion process and the worldwide PVC market, emphasizing the Brazilian market. It is also presented a case study including an overall cost calculation for making an extrusion line for PVC piping.

  2. Intransparent Markets and Intra-Industry Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    Buyers are typically unaware of the full set of offers when making a purchase. This paper examines how international trade interacts with this problem of market intransparency. Sellers must communicate their offers through costly advertising, but cannot reach all buyers. Consequently, no market...... clearing price exists, and sellers randomize over an equilibrium price distribution. Letting sellers advertise their offers abroad leads to international trade, which would not take place under complete information. Buyers then receive more offers, leading to lower prices and welfare gains. Sellers...

  3. The Russian airline industry: contestable market or…?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Kislyak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors, based on the complete survey of Russian airlines that was conducted in winter of 2006-2007, analyze essential entry-barriers in the industry, and econometrically estimate efficiency of methods for overcoming entry-barriers in the Russian PAI. They find that there are significant technological and behavioral entrybarriers in the industry. The paper doubts that this industry is contestable in contemporary Russia, although it is typically contestable in Europe and the USA. Econometric estimation of entry-barriers points that administrative barriers are the most significant restrictions of competition.

  4. Aspects of Market Differentiation in the Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Lin Teo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with different aspects of differentiation as a strategy to maintain growth and profitability in a rapidly changing environment. The specific aim of the study was to establish constraints in the use of product differentiation as a survivor technique in the building industry. The study shows that firms in the building industry perceive the structure and operation of different markets in the building industry as substantially different. If firms are to improve their market positions by differentiating their output, they need therefore to adjust the way they operate, their resources and their skills base.The survey result also showed that a substantial proportion of all firms are not prepared to be involved in diversification but elect to operate in one market only, despite the obvious advantages of diversification. It would therefore seem likely that the changes in the way a firm operates and the resources it employs when it moves into new markets are substantial.

  5. Tobacco industry direct marketing after the Master Settlement Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M Jane; Yulis, Spiro G; Delnevo, Cristine; Hrywna, Mary

    2004-07-01

    Although Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provisions have led to significant changes in tobacco marketing, expenditures and emphasis on marketing strategies and populations not bound by the MSA have increased significantly. This article discusses tobacco industry direct marketing practices, including direct mail, coupons, sweepstakes, brand loyalty programs, event sponsorship, and tobacco industry magazines, and the implications of such strategies. An analysis of a survey of New Jersey adult smokers provides context and documents notable rates of participation. In addition to bypassing marketing restrictions, many of these strategies operate out of sight of the public health community and most of the public and so go unchecked by either tobacco control advocates or public opinion. This article suggests that a first step in countering these practices is to increase awareness and understanding of them, followed by development of strategies to address them and to limit or eliminate their use in tobacco marketing.

  6. Space market model space industry input-output model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, Robert F.; Marchesini, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the Space Market Model (SMM) is to develop an information resource for the space industry. The SMM is intended to contain information appropriate for decision making in the space industry. The objectives of the SMM are to: (1) assemble information related to the development of the space business; (2) construct an adequate description of the emerging space market; (3) disseminate the information on the space market to forecasts and planners in government agencies and private corporations; and (4) provide timely analyses and forecasts of critical elements of the space market. An Input-Output model of market activity is proposed which are capable of transforming raw data into useful information for decision makers and policy makers dealing with the space sector.

  7. Market Effects of Patent Reform in the US Semiconductor Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Thurk

    2013-01-01

    I study the US semiconductor industry in the context of 1980s legal reform which strengthened intellectual property rights. Prior to the reform, the industry was highly concentrated in a few vertically integrated firms. Post reform, the entry of small design firms led to a fragmented industry composed of both specialty design firms and traditional production firms. I ask how much of this change in market structure can be attributed to patent reform and how much was the result of positive dema...

  8. The Reality and prospect of China bus and Coach industry%中国巴士与客车制造业的现实与前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Consumers can only see a vogue sight of China bus & coach industry.Although it has became the largest manufacturing center in theworld,most main indicators of automotive type are still kept at the level of the last century and its commercial value remains low.As Automobiles are invented more than 100 years ago in Europe and used in public transportation.They became main ways of transportation in human life because of large production in flow line in America.The advantages of private cars lie in its freedom and convenience as well as traveling comfort;traveling by bus&coach is increasingly attractive as the rapid development of road

  9. Intransparent Markets and Intra-Industry Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    Buyers are typically unaware of the full set of offers when making a purchase. This paper examines how international trade interacts with this problem of market intransparency. Sellers must communicate their offers through costly advertising, but cannot reach all buyers. Consequently, no market...... clearing price exists, and sellers randomize over an equilibrium price distribution. Letting sellers advertise their offers abroad leads to international trade, which would not take place under complete information. Buyers then receive more offers, leading to lower prices and welfare gains. Sellers...... in the model are identical, but appear heterogeneous due to their price randomization. In larger and more open economies, prices and markups will be lower, and exports are primarily realized by sellers who charge low prices. These predictions are similar to those of trade models where firm heterogeneity...

  10. Geothermal energy market potential in industrial processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.J.; Hanny, J.A.; Knuth, W.H.

    1978-11-01

    Geothermal energy is currently being used for a number of industrial processes in countries throughout the world. Its application in the United States is mainly limited to space heating even though the temperature of the geothermal fluid is sufficient for process uses, and could be sold at attractive prices while maintaining a high return on investment. The temperature span for industrial use ranges from 40 to 275/sup 0/C, thus encompassing both the abundant low temperature and the less available high temperature resources. Hydrothermal fluids can be used either directly or indirectly dependent upon fluid quality and process needs. The barriers facing hydrothermal industrial process development are (a) the development infrastructure does not exist, (b) energy users are not aware of hydrothermal energy and its advantages, (c) federal incentives are limited, (d) resources are not fully defined.

  11. The struggle for market power: industrial relations in the British coal industry, 1800-1840

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Alan Jaffe

    2003-07-01

    During the Industrial Revolution, class relations were defined largely through the struggle to control the terms of exchange in the market. Integrating aspects of economic and social history as well as industrial sociology, this book examines the sources of the perception of the market on the part of both capital and labour and the elaboration of their alternative market ideologies. Of particular import is the argument that working-class culture expressed a fundamental acceptance of the utility of the market, a point that is supported by a detailed analysis of the labour process, workplace bargaining, and early-nineteenth-century trade unionism. Nonetheless, the working class's definition of 'proper' market relations differed substantially from that of capitalists. Contents: Introduction; 1. Capital and credit; 2. The perception of the market and industrial policy; 3. Managerial capitalism; 4. Family, community, and the labor market; 5. Work and the ideology of the market; 6. Religion, ideology, and trade unions; 7. The transformation of market relations: Tommy Hepburn's union, 1831; 8. Epilogue: class struggle and market power; Conclusion: the labor process and the market; Appendix; Select bibliography; Index.

  12. Liberalising Gambling Markets : Lessons from Network Industries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper, based on my concluding remarks at the “Colloquium on the Economic Aspects of Gambling Regulation: EU and US Perspectives” held at Tilburg in November 2006, discusses the question why, in Europe, some service sectors (such as network industries) are liberalised, while others (like the gam

  13. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  14. ANALYSIS AND UNDERSTANDING OF KEY MARKETING CONCEPTS MARKETING ACTIVITIES ORGANIZED WITHIN THE FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Adina Pastiu

    2011-01-01

    Marketing in its hypostasis: optical and economic design, practice science andart, it appears and develops in the context of a competitive economy, as a necessity ofbusiness success. These considerations and not only determined us researching its directsteps: business to business, and to identify characteristics of marketing activities undertakenby companies in competitive markets. In this paper we follow, based on research carried outon a sample of 160 statistical units (footwear industry co...

  15. Market Opportunities for Automotive Components Used in Non-automotive Applications Manufacturing : Estonian Industrial Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kalajärv, Jaana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the opportunities available for automotive components in the Esto-nian non-automotive industrial market. The literature review part is mainly covers the theory of marketing research, because of the approach chosen for this paper. Only small part of marketing research process is re-searched closer in literature review section, because of the scope of the research. Three most relevant steps for the thesis are chosen from research process for further more in-vestigation,...

  16. Market Motivations for Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha

    2016-07-01

    Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.

  17. Analysis of Alcohol Industry Submissions against Marketing Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Florentine Petronella; Miller, Peter Graeme; Coomber, Kerri; Hancock, Linda; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of literature points to the role of vested interests as a barrier to the implementation of effective public health policies. Corporate political activity by the alcohol industry is commonly used to influence policy and regulation. It is important for policy makers to be able to critique alcohol industry claims opposed to improved alcohol marketing regulation. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency reviewed alcohol marketing regulations in 2012 and stakeholders were invited to comment on them. In this study we used thematic analysis to examine submissions from the Australian alcohol industry, based on a system previously developed in relation to tobacco industry corporate political activity. The results show that submissions were a direct lobbying tactic, making claims to government that were contrary to the evidence-base. Five main frames were identified, in which the alcohol industry claimed that increased regulation: (1) is unnecessary; (2) is not backed up by sufficient evidence; (3) will lead to unintended negative consequences; and (4) faces legal barriers to implementation; underpinned by the view (5) that the industry consists of socially responsible companies working toward reducing harmful drinking. In contrast with tobacco industry submissions on public policy, which often focused on legal and economic barriers, the Australian alcohol industry placed a heavier emphasis on notions of regulatory redundancy and insufficient evidence. This may reflect differences in where these industries sit on the 'regulatory pyramid', alcohol being less regulated than tobacco.

  18. Analysis of Alcohol Industry Submissions against Marketing Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Florentine Petronella; Miller, Peter Graeme; Coomber, Kerri; Hancock, Linda; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of literature points to the role of vested interests as a barrier to the implementation of effective public health policies. Corporate political activity by the alcohol industry is commonly used to influence policy and regulation. It is important for policy makers to be able to critique alcohol industry claims opposed to improved alcohol marketing regulation. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency reviewed alcohol marketing regulations in 2012 and stakeholders were invited to comment on them. In this study we used thematic analysis to examine submissions from the Australian alcohol industry, based on a system previously developed in relation to tobacco industry corporate political activity. The results show that submissions were a direct lobbying tactic, making claims to government that were contrary to the evidence-base. Five main frames were identified, in which the alcohol industry claimed that increased regulation: (1) is unnecessary; (2) is not backed up by sufficient evidence; (3) will lead to unintended negative consequences; and (4) faces legal barriers to implementation; underpinned by the view (5) that the industry consists of socially responsible companies working toward reducing harmful drinking. In contrast with tobacco industry submissions on public policy, which often focused on legal and economic barriers, the Australian alcohol industry placed a heavier emphasis on notions of regulatory redundancy and insufficient evidence. This may reflect differences in where these industries sit on the ‘regulatory pyramid’, alcohol being less regulated than tobacco. PMID:28118411

  19. Critical success factors in industrial marketing supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of better marketing strategies in industry plays an important role in increasing sales and profitability of industrial part suppliers. Understanding the weakness in each part of supply chain helps reduce different cost component and increases profitability. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find important factors influencing marketing strategies based on factor analysis. The study designs and distributes a questionnaire consists of 64 questions. The proposed study uses Skewness analysis to reduce the factors into 44 items and reports 8 important factors including business environment, communication chain technology, good organizational relationship, leadership cost strategy, performance risk, ecommerce strategy, encouraging strategy and consistency in organizational performance.

  20. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  1. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  2. Overview of worldwide MEMS industry and market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zheng

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction It has been a long history for the MEMS industry to develop to today's scale. MEMS (micro electromechanical system) began in 1960s after the researchers in Westinghouse Laboratories created the "resonant gate" transistor by etching away material to release a metal beam which can freely movable. The concept of making movable structures by releasing process was slowly taken up in 1970s when commercial pressure sensors appeared, based on bulk etched silicon wafers, and first silicon accelerometer was demonstrated. In 1980s, silicon surface micromachining process was devueloped, again based on sacrificial layer technique to release and to make microstructures movable. It was from 1980s silicon and polysilicon were truly recognised as remarkable materials for micromechnical structures. The term "MEMS" was coined following the creation of micro comb actuators and electrostatic side drive micromotors. In 1990s, the booming era for MEMS development came. There were explosions of new technologies and new applications. Dedicated MEMS companies sprang up world wide and MEMS became a fast growing industry.

  3. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study presented in this article is to examine whether the cconcepts developed in the area of industrial buying behavior can add to the understanding of commodity markets. The industrial market for vegetable oil was chosen as the outset of the study, because it is characterized...... by the appearance of changing demands and technological opportunities, which potentially can lead to differentiation possibilities. The article describes a framework for the study of industrial buying of food commodities and the results of a conjoint study based on interviews with oil purchasers in the margarine...... and mayonnaise industries in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. The main result of the study is that the price is an omnipotent decision criterion, when vegetable fats and mayonnaise producers buy vegetable oil, but also that product and supplier criteria can be used to segment...

  4. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Brock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646 were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%, content on tobacco company websites (39.1%, and tobacco coupons (15.7%. Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52–2.37. Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.

  5. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Betsy; Carlson, Samantha C; Moilanen, Molly; Schillo, Barbara A

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646) were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%), content on tobacco company websites (39.1%), and tobacco coupons (15.7%). Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52-2.37). Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.

  6. The television industry as a market of attention

    OpenAIRE

    Nilssen, Tore

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I view the TV industry as a two-sided market, with advertisers on one side benefiting from the presence of TV viewers and on the other side TV viewers having a dislike for advertising on TV. I use this framework to discuss the likely future development of pay TV, in particular how a future increase in competition in the TV industry will affect the prevalence of pay TV over advertising-financed TV.

  7. Digital wine marketing: Social media marketing for the wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viana Natália Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry recognizes the increasingly relevant role of digital marketing as a valuable and appropriate tool to reach (adult consumers. This paper intends to trace a brief analysis about Digital Wine Marketing and Social Media Marketing contribution for the Wine Industry to increase brand awareness and sales and develop a short guidance to digital marketing as well. When consumers search for wine and wineries on internet they are bombarded with an massive volume of brand messages, meaning that delivering creative, polished content is key if a brand wants to capture people's attention. So, make a good wine is a important part of the work, but after this is necessary to give it the presentation it deserves, communicating accurately to consumers and have in mind that digital marketing activities are in a state of evolutionary development, where new trends are likely to occur rapidly and wineries have to adapt.

  8. The Third Industrial Revolution and Bus/Coach Technological Innovation%第三次工业革命和客车技术创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁薇; 裴志浩

    2014-01-01

    The authors expound the main features and important foundations of the third industrial revolution, anal-yse the influences of the third industrial revolution on the human society, and mainly introduce the effect of the third industrial revolution on the bus/coach iudustry technology innovation about the new energy, active safety and vehi-cle networking.%阐述第三次工业革命的主要特点及其重要基础,分析第三次工业革命对人类社会的影响,重点介绍第三次工业革命对客车行业新能源、主动安全、车联网等技术创新的影响。

  9. Thin Film Photovoltaics: Markets and Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Jäger-Waldau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, total PV production increased almost by two orders of magnitude, with a compound annual growth rate of over 52%. The most rapid growth in annual cell and module production over the last five years could be observed in Asia, where China and Taiwan together now account for about 60% of worldwide production. Between 2005 and 2009, thin film production capacity and volume increased more than the overall industry but did not keep up in 2010 and 2011 due to the rapid price decline for solar modules. Prices for photovoltaic electricity generation systems have more than halved over the last five years making the technology affordable to an ever-increasing number of customers worldwide. With worldwide over 60 GW cumulative installed photovoltaic electricity generation capacity installed in November 2011, photovoltaics still is a small contributor to the electricity supply, and another 10 to 15 years of sustained and aggressive growth will be required for photovoltaic solar electricity to become one of the main providers of electricity. To achieve this, a continuous improvement of the current solar cell technologies will be necessary.

  10. Relationship Marketing Stage of Development in Romanian Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Filip

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the relationship marketing stage of development within the banking industry in Romania, by identifying the extent to which business objectives and marketing strategies of companies are customer oriented. In order to achieve this aim a qualitative marketing research was conducted, by applying in-depth semi-structured interviews. The target group of the research consisted of nine banking companies, selected according to the market share, while the research participants were employees responsible for marketing, sales and customer relationship management activities. Due to respondents’ expertise, during the interviews could be applied mixed research methods in the process of data collection and subsequently, in data analysis. According to research objectives and results, although there is an increase in the importance of customer orientation within banking policies, the integration of relationship marketing optics at the institutional management level is facing a number of deficiencies, especially with regard to the concerns about employees’ satisfaction and loyalty or to the development of relationships with other stakeholders. The degree of satisfaction with the adoption of customer relationship management technology is relatively high among banks, being appreciated mainly those banking performance achieved in terms of retention rate, cross-selling and customer satisfaction. Most banks use the gross customer retention index as the main indicator of customer portfolio stability, although retention objectives tend to be set differently depending on customer value. Internal marketing strategies are developed around staff training processes, while performance evaluation criteria are rather specific to a transactional marketing approach. Results of the research provide clues on the relationship marketing processes and activities that need to be improved, in order to strengthen the current customer base and the competitive

  11. Labour Market Segmentation: An Investigation into the Dutch Hospitality Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bispo

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAlmost 42,000 establishments, over 310,000 employees and approximately 13 billion Euro annual turnover (including VAT). This, in a nutshell, captures the Dutch hospitality industry in 2005. The aim of this study is to examine the functioning of the labour market in the Dutch hospitality

  12. Physicians under the influence: social psychology and industry marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sunita; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and medical device companies apply social psychology to influence physicians' prescribing behavior and decision making. Physicians fail to recognize their vulnerability to commercial influences due to self-serving bias, rationalization, and cognitive dissonance. Professionalism offers little protection; even the most conscious and genuine commitment to ethical behavior cannot eliminate unintentional, subconscious bias. Six principles of influence - reciprocation, commitment, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity - are key to the industry's routine marketing strategies, which rely on the illusion that the industry is a generous avuncular partner to physicians. In order to resist industry influence, physicians must accept that they are vulnerable to subconscious bias and have both the motivation and means to resist industry influence. A culture in which accepting industry gifts engenders shame rather than gratitude will reduce conflicts of interest. If greater academic prestige accrues to distant rather than close relationships with industry, then a new social norm may emerge that promotes patient care and scientific integrity. In addition to educating faculty and students about the social psychology underlying sophisticated but potentially manipulative marketing and about how to resist it, academic medical institutions should develop strong organizational policies to counteract the medical profession's improper dependence on industry.

  13. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  14. YUTONG BUS: Grateful To The Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shenyin&Wanguo Securities issued an announcement on Jan 9 rating Yutong Bus(600066)as"buying",on the basis that the bus maker's gross profits went better in the last quarter of 2008 and to be further improved in the first quarter of 2009,with an increased market share. The report drew attention inside the in- dustry when the entire bus segment was suffering a tough time.

  15. Energy and environmental market in industrial enterprises in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses markets related with energy conservation and environment preservation in industrial enterprises in Thailand. The present Thailand is not in a situation that investments are made into environmental businesses or energy saving businesses. However, the attitude of the government toward environment is that emphasis is placed on solving the environmental pollution problems. Laws and regulations are defined for assistance in environment preservation to corporations making efforts to increase export, resource protection and energy conservation. These measures lead to expectation on bright future in developing technologies and markets related to environment preservation and energy conservation. Control of wastes by using clean technologies and enhancement in productivity are very important issues for the export of Thailand partly because European countries and America set these requirements as a condition for transaction. The markets related to energy conservation and environment preservation are anticipated of participation from such businesses as consultants, device manufacturers, and inspection and analysis of environmental effects. (NEDO)

  16. Strategic marketing types: Evidence from the European meat processing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Strandskov, Jesper; Hundahl, Lone; Laursen, Christina

    1999-01-01

    Executive summary 1. The discovery of a small number of generic strategies or competitive positions that would work equally well across product-markets, businesses and industries, would be an extremely important finding for business practicians. In particular the question of whether or why performance might differ between firms pursuing any strategy type has a strong academic and practical business interest. There is still a need to explore the basic question of whether generic types of marke...

  17. Strategic marketing types: Evidence from the European meat processing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Strandskov, Jesper; Hundahl, Lone; Laursen, Christina

    1999-01-01

    Executive summary 1. The discovery of a small number of generic strategies or competitive positions that would work equally well across product-markets, businesses and industries, would be an extremely important finding for business practicians. In particular the question of whether or why performance might differ between firms pursuing any strategy type has a strong academic and practical business interest. There is still a need to explore the basic question of whether generic types of mark ...

  18. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Habib Hussain; Ahmad, Rubi Binit; Gee, Chan Sok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995-2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies.

  19. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Habib Hussain; Ahmad, Rubi Binit; Gee, Chan Sok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995–2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies. PMID:27490847

  20. The internationalisation of the Spanish food industry: the home market effect and European market integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R.; García-Casarejos, N.; Gil-Pareja, S.; Llorca-Vivero, R.; Pinilla, V.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse, from a long-term perspective, the factors determining the process of the internationalisation of the Spanish agrifood industry. The paper concentrates on the empirical verification of the existence of a home market effect in the food and drink industries in Spain and on the effects on trade flows of integration into the European Union. With this aim in mind, we took into account the latest contributions to the estimation of the gravity equation for a sample of export flows from 13 agrifood subsectors between 1970 and 2012, with a destination of 175 markets. From the results of the study the existence of the “home market effect” stands out as the determining factor of the increasing process of internationalisation in the majority of the subsectors of the food industry. On this point, the presence of this effect is remarkable in the most dynamic industries, where the process of restructuring caused by the development of the internal market was more intense. Furthermore, the influence of the process of European integration has been shown by the literature to be a very important factor. Our results qualify in part the results of previous studies, since the positive effect appeared later than expected. The positive effects did not appear until the completion of the process of transition by the dismantling of the barriers established in the treaty of accession to the European Union. (Author)

  1. Characteristics of marketing of industrial innovations in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabarna Eleonora Mykolayivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article explores the concept of the essence and specificity of formation of the marketing system of scientific and technical products in the region. The author analyses the current state of market of innovations in the regions. The article defines factors affecting the area of activity of the research organization in the region. It offers methodical approaches to the estimation of the factors considered in the economic analysis of new products. The results of the analysis. The analysis shows that together with consumers it is advisable to carry out the following activities: - medium and long term forecasting of emerging trends and technological progress; - definition of main technical characteristics of future products and their components (setting minimum and maximum costs associated with the development and release of products, terms of manufacturing and supplying of components indicating their technical and operational characteristics; - analysis of possible changes of the costs, effectiveness and terms of creating innovations, alternative courses of action and possible risk; - preparation of the detailed lists of requirements in materials and semi-finished products from aside; - creation of joint teams of specialists. Thus, the author has proved that in the process of innovation changes enterprise from a fairly closed transformed into an open system which is ready to accept external changes and rapid contact with other similar systems and subsystems that must be provided in the state industrial policy. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Оn the whole, the implementation of investigation of target marketing for industrial innovations requires researches and practical operations which effect market formation. The logic of development of modern enterprise leads to transferring the center of gravity from new model of management with is actively used among main marketing elements. Further researches

  2. The Impact of Relationship Marketing Strategy in Indonesia Retail Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Pandapotan Simbolon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the impact of relationship marketing strategy on customer loyalty in Indonesia’s retail industries. A questionnaire derived from previous studies and the relevant literature was completed by 182 retail customers in Jakarta. Multiple regression analysis assessed the impact on customer loyalty of four key constructs of relationship marketing (trust, commitment, communication, and conflict handling. The two variables (trust and commitment had a significant effect and predicted a good proportion of the variance in customer loyalty. Moreover, they were significantly related to one another. The relationships investigated in this study deserved further research. Since the data analyzed were collected from one sector of the service industry in one region, more studies were required before general conclusions can be drawn. It is reasonable to conclude, on this evidence, that customer loyalty can be created, reinforced, and retained by marketing plans aimed at building trust, demonstrating a commitment to service, communicating with customers in a timely, reliable and proactive fashion, and handling conflict efficiently, reinforces and refines the body of knowledge relating to customer loyalty in service industries.

  3. LABOUR MARKET AMID THE CHANGES IN LIGHT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemboiu George-Nicolae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian economy has undergone a number of changes after 1989, their effects being present all over the areas and causing chain reactions. An eloquent example is light industry, whose internal supply market has known a significant decrease due to the reducing activity in agriculture, animal husbandry, etc., while internal outlets had to face imports, usually of a low quality. In this respect, light industry has turned to international trade, given the cheap labour force, over time has been developed the lohn production system. The gross labour was among the most required in this area, the design and sales activities were often external customer's responsibility. The old factories were not able to adapt to the new conditions, so many of them reduced the activity. In the end it led to a major layoff of labour force both in light industry, as well as in associated areas. Only a part of it has managed to reintegrate in the new enterprises which were more adapted to current market conditions. Solving the problem of excess labour force, given its presence especially in rural areas and in mono-industrial towns, representative areas and the developing Region South-West Oltenia, also involves the relaunching of light industry. There is need to support the internal sources of supply of raw materials, as well as a new view related to the selling of products, based on creative activities and exploration of markets. These marks can lead to occupational integration of the excess labour force and to ensure the social balance in the areas affected by the restructuring of national economy.

  4. Efficient industry configurations in downstream gas markets. An empirical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarin, Ariel A. [IAE Escuela de Direccion y Negocios, Universidad Austral, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-03-15

    This paper examines the production technology of the downstream gas industry in order to provide some useful insights into its efficient structure by looking at the optimal size of firms and the productive efficiency reasons for and against their vertical integration. The analysis is based on a restricted cost function model estimated using firm level data for Argentina and Great Britain. The findings provide evidence for the presence of vertical diseconomies between stages. Results indicate that a single transmitter is able to produce the industry's output at lower costs for large market sizes and that several regional firms are able to operate without sacrificing scale economies if gas distribution is integrated with supply. The findings also indicate that a gas retailer experiences constant returns to scale when it supplies a large customer base. Liberalisation could thus result in oligopolistic industry configurations. (Author)

  5. MARKETING CHANNELS AND DISTRIBUTION DECISIONS IN THE SPORT BUSINESS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sport business must determine how to get its products from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer. Additionally, in this industry, there are products produced at a point where the consumer must be present at its production to consume the product. These products are sports events, such as a professional basketball game, a football match, or a super cross race. In these types of products, the event - the product - is staged at a facility where fans will gather to watch. The sport business will have made decisions regarding the facility in relation to location and other factors that will make the facility attractive to the consumer as a place in which to consume these types of products. This paper presents a brief overview about distribution in the sport business industry, the role of distribution in marketing strategy, the selection of a distribution network, and the types of distribution intermediaries available for moving and / or offering sport business industry products.

  6. Studying the Effects of Managers Attitudes on Marketing Strategies and their Relationship to the Marketing Performance Metrics in Industrial Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Shafei

    2013-01-01

    The research goals are survey of the industrial manager’s attitudes and procedures, therelationship between marketing strategies and markets metrics models. The method wasdescriptive and the questionnaires were distributed among 85 Tehran food companies’mangers as well as sales and marketing directors. The findings showed that the managerswho use the customer-centric marketing metrics, they applied the metrics that focus toconsumers and promotion programs. Also the managers with the market-ce...

  7. Market power in the United States red meatpacking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Stephen R

    2003-07-01

    The basic question asked in the beginning of this article was whether the evidence from research is persuasive enough to conclude that competition in the meatpacking industry is deficient. The literature review led to the conclusion that the answer is no. Research varies widely in terms of data and methodologic approaches. The research, however, clearly finds evidence of market power. Many SCP studies indicated the existence and exercise of market power, but the failure of the paradigm makes definitive conclusions dangerous. The NEIO studies showed a persistent gap between the price of livestock and marginal costs but the studies did not incorporate sufficient detail to prove specific behavior. Azzam and Anderson [4] conducted an extensive review of competition in meatpacking. In their summary, they offered criticisms of the SCP approach and the conduct parameter approach. These investigators concluded that the body of empiric evidence was insufficient to persuasively argue that the meatpacking industry was not competitive. Sexton [69] discussed more recent critiques of the conduct parameter appraoch. Despite its weaknesses, he concluded that market power estimates in meatpacking are modest but that structural changes on balance are beneficial, from an efficiency viewpoint. Examining the evidence either by data aggregation, methodology, or time period results in little difference in the qualitative interpretation. The research community has done what Nicholls [2] said was needed. The need remains relevant. The research leaves us with a clear picture and nagging questions. Azzam and Anderson [4] recommended that further research focus on the process of competition or the rivalrous interaction between competitors, and on competitors' strategies for responding to technologic and market forces, as the business history of the industry suggests. Specifically, they recommended two approaches. First, to develop empiric pricing models for short-term monitoring. Such models

  8. The role of market orientation on market chaos: A case study fast food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hosseinzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of market orientation on small businesses active in fast food industry. Using a simple random method, the study selects a sample 278 fast food units out of approximately 1000 existing restaurants in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among regular fast food consumers. Using structural equation modeling, the study has detected that there were positive and meaningful relationships between continuous changes on consumer preferences on products and services on one side and market orientation on the other side.

  9. Evaluating viral marketing: isolating the key criteria in insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gooyandeh Hagh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine the key criteria that viral marketing practitioners believe should be implemented to measure about the success of viral marketing campaigns in insurance industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale where the effects of four independent variables, personal, message, media and tools characteristics are measured on an Iranian insurance firm’s reputation as well as service expansion. Cronbach alphas were measured for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. Using regression analysis, the study has determined positive and meaningful relationships between insurance firm’s reputation as well as service expansion and four independent variables.

  10. Cement Industry Overview and Market Price Forecasting In Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latafat Gardashova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Global economic situation and energy resources’ prices influence local economic trends, investment of capital, status of financial institutions and cement industry in Azerbaijan in whole. These trends influence demand and activities of cement business communities which start to optimize expenses and find new priority decisions in business. Moreover some independent economic analysts refer to forecasts that since 2016 yearly demand will increase 4-5% in Azerbaijan. Objectives are to forecast cement price in the market using Fuzzy c-means (together with Fuzzy Inference System and ANFIS which are entered MATLAB mathematical packet and to compare the results of these methods.Taking into consideration the results of research and applied forecast models the cement price can show the stable slow increasing in the market even there is probability of some periodic fluctuations and regulating actions by the state authorities. Therefore it is high probability that the cement price will increase next 1-2 years.

  11. Analysis of Website and Marketing Promotion To Facilitate Online Marketing in Printing Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Patankar, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    In today’s era of internet with evolution of Web 2.0, all the organisations dealing in retail are going online. In fact online presence has been mandatory requirement today and does no longer hold any competitive advantage by far. In country like India, printing retail industry has been found to be in a state of growth. There is wide array of literature available that analyzes critical success factors for online marketing in general as well as precisely for retail industry. This management pr...

  12. Industrial diversification and performance in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Emel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between industrial diversification and firm performance using a market-based performance measure and an accounting measure. We used the data of the firms listed on Borsa Istanbul during the period between 2006 and 2012. The results of the panel data indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between diversification and performance. We found that diversified firms outperformed the single firms. As is compatible with a resource-based approach, it was found that diversified firms tended to use their resources more efficiently compared to single firms.

  13. A Successful Seminar on China Auto industry and International Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Since January 2004, the sales of autos are slowing down. it is mature for the fast developing Chinese auto industry to go out to the international market. Meanwhile, the "early harvest" scheme is implemented in China and ASEAN Free Trade Area and the exchange visits of high-ranking officials are more frequently. After the ASEAN Business Meeting held in Malaysia this April, China-ASEAN Summit on Investment and Trade is to be held in Laos in November.In order to promote Chinese autos to go out cooperating...

  14. The role of market orientation on market chaos: A case study fast food industry

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of market orientation on small businesses active in fast food industry. Using a simple random method, the study selects a sample 278 fast food units out of approximately 1000 existing restaurants in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among regular fast food consumers. Using structural equation modeling, the study has detected that there were positive and meaningful relationships between continu...

  15. An exploratory study of services marketing in global markets: major areas of inquiry for the health care services industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S; Erdem, S A

    1996-01-01

    It has been stated that one of the major challenges for the international marketer is the design of an efficient strategy for marketing services to international markets. This paper reviews some of the issues associated with services marketing in global markets along with the basic variables of service industries. An exploratory assessment of the health care services industry results in a list composed of several inquiry areas which should be examined by multinational companies. It is hoped that the review of the issues raised in this paper provides a basis for decision making and further research.

  16. Marketing support for customer appeal of industrial goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Raiko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to establish marketing support for ensuring customer appeal of industrial goods. We consider the essence and improve the notion of customer appeal of goods. Customer appeal is understood as the perception by the potential customer of the totality of parameters that satisfy his or her most important needs and marketing factors. The parameters of goods are implemented as basic constructive, technological, environmental, ergonomic characteristics of goods that contribute to comprehensive quality assessment and marketing factors manifest as price, methods of distribution and stimulation. In the proposed definition, in contrast to previous ones, more comprehensive treatment is given to the totality of all possible parameters of goods that satisfy customers’ needs, which must be used in the production and promotion in accordance with the general economic tendency for consumerization. The results of the analysis. We propose a rationale for the sequence of steps in marketing support for the assessment of customer appeal of goods. The proposed steps are: at the first stage we define the goal and purpose, aе the second stage – the task, the third stage consists of several sub-stages and the fourth stage is practical use. The goal of these activities is analysis and assessment of customer appeal. The tasks are investigation of target markets for goods, factors that characterize their appeal, selection of assessment criteria. The assessment per se includes the analysis of target markets, definition of significant factors that characterize customer appeal, selection of their criteria and making decision to buy. We identified approaches to making of the decision to buy: approaches based on the identification of factors that influence the decision-making and approaches that are differentiated by the manner the decisions are formed. Consumer goods are mostly influenced by the manner of decision

  17. THE IMPACT OF KASONGAN CREATIVE INDUSTRIES MARKETING FOR LOCAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihatno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kasongan Creative Industries Marketing (KCIM has a potential attraction for domestic and international tourists. This writing is based on an exploration study using a questioning method to obtain information from respondents relating to the multiple effects of its existence. The respondents’ replies that KCIM has a positive impact on job, business opportunities and the improvement of the local income (economic income. The social aspect (social impact is the ability to change the consumptive pattern and social behaviour of the traditional culture of Yogyakarta into individualistic and consumptive foreign culture. KCIM supports tourism to find what they need. The business opportunity based on the tourist’ satisfaction that makes KCIM indicator to measure quality aspects, like number of visitors, length of stay and the tourusts’ expenditure. The results of the research shows that local community’s expectation towards their quality of life improvement as the impact of KCIM is very high. They consider that KCIM can improve their local economic growth and it will not give negative impacts toward the quality of social aspects. Therefore, the building of KCIM based on tourism is one of the effort to improve the role of local community to build their life, and enlarging the the local the local industry and support the social and economic preservation. The approach used in development which based on attraction is market driven.

  18. An Empirical Study on Marketing Effectiveness Evaluation of Green Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Xiong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the marketing effectiveness of green food industry in Hubei Province via fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Based on the cost basis of analysis of present situation, an evaluation system of marketing effectiveness evaluation on green food industry is established from three aspects, including the industry factor, policy factor and marketing performance factor. And fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to make the quantitative research, analyze the major obstacle to promotion of green marketing. Finally some countermeasures are proposed to promote the marketing effectiveness of green food industry in Hubei Province.

  19. Technology for Price Management in Industrial Differential Product Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Orlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies price behavior of oligopolies in industrial market where price competition is replaced by non-price competition. There is a developed technology for pricing management of the products of industrial enterprises, which, unlike the existing ones, takes into account the dynamics of changes in consumer preferences and changes in the pricing policy of the enterprise competitor and is based on usage of system dynamics models to simulate the financial and economic performance of enterprises and the fuzzy model for situational analysis and decisionmaking on changes in prices for the products. A pricing simulation model is offered. It is based on system-dynamic modeling method, which takes into account the complex cause-to-effect concatenation of factors on price such as product quality, cost, price competition, price elasticity of economic demand, competitors’ quantity of output and estimates the impact of changing factors of internal and external enterprise environment on the effectiveness of its activities.The simulation model allows us to conduct diverse experiments and analyze the impact of management decisions on the efficiency of the enterprise. Based on the fuzzy approach a price decision-making model is developed. It operates not only precise (numeric values, but also qualitative assessments of variables and provides an adequate use of logical relationships and the laws of the mutual influence of market and production and economic factors. Qualitative dependences, which establish the influence of external and internal factors on the price change, are identified as a result of the study of economic laws and legal conformity that are in the context of rapid economic change and market turbulence may not be strictly formalized and take the form of linguistic statements, which express the conditional relationship between the qualitative assessments of initial factors and changes in the relative price.

  20. Wishbone Bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandeep Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC. This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle. Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  1. Study the Effect of Managers Attitudes on Marketing Strategies and their Related to the Marketing Performance Metrics in Industrial Companies

    OpenAIRE

    reza shafei

    2013-01-01

    The research goals are survey of the industrial manager’s attitudes and procedures, the relationship between marketing strategies and markets metrics models. The method was descriptive and the questionnaires were distributed among 85 Tehran food companies’ mangers as well as sales and marketing directors. The findings showed that the managers who use the customer-centric marketing metrics, they applied the metrics that focus to consumers and promotion programs. Also the managers with the mark...

  2. Studying the Effects of Managers Attitudes on Marketing Strategies and their Relationship to the Marketing Performance Metrics in Industrial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shafei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goals are survey of the industrial manager’s attitudes and procedures, therelationship between marketing strategies and markets metrics models. The method wasdescriptive and the questionnaires were distributed among 85 Tehran food companies’mangers as well as sales and marketing directors. The findings showed that the managerswho use the customer-centric marketing metrics, they applied the metrics that focus toconsumers and promotion programs. Also the managers with the market-centric strategieshave focused on financial metrics and the competitive-centric strategic managers usedinnovation related factors. The other results showed that there are significant relationshipsamong the marketing metrics, strategies, and the manager’s views.

  3. Aids to School Bus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  4. Industry perspectives on market access of innovative drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim ePauwels

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents industry perspectives on the challenges related to market access of innovative drugs in general and oncology drugs in specific. Fifteen interviews were conducted with representatives of pharmaceutical companies and industry associations. Interviewees call for a broader recognition of value within the assessment and appraisal of drugs. According to interviewees, focus on value is jeopardized by the lack of a common value definition across Europe, poor availability and validity of value measures and cost-saving measures such as external reference price setting and cost-effectiveness analysis at the side of the payers. Centralized assessment of relative-effectiveness at European level would provide a common value estimate across member states, independent of financial drivers. Empirical evidence on patient reported outcomes and societal preferences is however essential in the development of a value definition. Furthermore, value-based pricing would imply a dynamic approach where the price is differentiated across indications and across the lifecycle of the drug, especially in fields such as oncology. Financial drivers however also threat the application of value-based pricing at the side of the industry, making value-based profitability a more appropriate term.

  5. Mechanism of the industrial enterprises marketing communication synthesized effect formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.O. Tymokhina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The main purpose of the article is to propose mechanism of the industrial enterprises marketing communication (MC synthesized effect formation. An indispensable component of MC mechanism synthesized effect of industrial enterprise is the legislation that governs use of synthesized marketing communications and obtaines synthesized effect from using them. It can be divided into three groups: legislation that regulates entrepreneurial activities, legislation governing communication activities, legislation governing innovation activities. Legislation of Ukraine regulating communication activities needs to be clarified in regulation of using the latest MC tools, features of their combination, rules of their using and order of action in violation case of applicable law. The results of the analysis. Any economic activity of enterprises governed by principles that are divided into general and specific by the level of coverage. The proposed set of formation principles of synthesized effect are principles of systematic using that focus on the result and periodicity which refer to general. Within the principle of periodicity it should consider principles that characterize each level of management that are such principles as using synthesis, using synergy and complexity. Functions of synthesized effect that are subject to general principles of economic analysis are: searching, score, analysis and accounting. Essence of specific features of MC synthesized effect consists the following positions: planning function, integration function, communicative function, synthesis implementation function. Mechanism formation MC synthesized effect of industrial enterprise is a set of systems that are used in process of its creation by management levels that reflects subject-object relationship between these systems. Input elements system form factors of external and internal environment, information about which enterprise collects through market

  6. Integration of multi-level marketing management systems geographically industry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Lavrov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors attempt to develop a multi-level management system territorially industry development in market conditions, built in the widespread use of various types of marketing and their horizontal and vertical integration.

  7. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Betsy Brock; Samantha C. Carlson; Molly Moilanen; Barbara A. Schillo

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the st...

  8. Vertical integration and product market competition: Evidence from the Spanish local TV industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Ricard

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relation between product market competition and vertical integration in the Spanish local TV industry. For this reason, I use a data set of Spanish local TV stations that provides station level information on vertical integration and product market competition, as well as other station and market characteristics, for the years 1996, 1999 and 2002. During this period, changes in regulation in this industry had a strong impact on the level of market competiti...

  9. APPROACH METHOD OF CURRENT COMPETITIVE MARKET - AGILE INDUSTRIAL CORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHERGHEL Sabina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “agility” - agile enterprise - was introduced by a group of American researchers led by R.Dove as a result of some studies in a program sponsored by the US government, a program that primarily aimed at exploring the possibilities of making up production systems which could compete with the efficient production system "lean", introduced in most Japanese companies. Researchers involved in this program have formed Agility Forum, which aims to develop the concepts introduced. In 2001 appears the first paper, by R. Dove, entitled “Response Ability - Understanding the Agile Enterprise”, John Wiley and Sons Editors, in which was synthesized the phase of research field. Agility can be defined as “the ability with which an organization manages to develop successfully in a business environment whose changes are unpredictable.” Being agile means to control change, to notice market opportunities and by being continuously innovating, to succed on the market. The purpose of this paper is to support the idea that agility is a feature derived from the design and also to show that by applying the principles of RRS, which characterize agile systems, it is confirmed the fact that any industrial production system which wishes to be agile it should be designed.

  10. Research of factors of marketing pricing at domestic industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Bozhkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is research and systematization of factors of marketing pricing, which affect on realization of products of industrial enterprises.Works of domestic and foreign scientists on this issue were analysed. Traditionally pricing factors are classified into two groups: internal (controlled and external (uncontrolled. Such division of factors is the first stage of pricing system analysis. On the second stage of analysis each of these groups is divided by certain criterion.The results of the analysis. There are such basic internal factors of pricing: the current condition of the enterprise, production factors, pricing principles, image of enterprise and personnel, marketing strategy of enterprise, product policy, sale policy, communication policy, etc. We can distinguish such basic external factors of pricing: supply factors, government policy, competition factors, impact of participants goods of movement, influence of contact audiences, macroenvironment factors, etc.Some authors suggest selecting factors of direct and mediated influence among the external factors of pricing. We propose to divide them into factors which are partially controlled by enterprises and factors which are uncontrolled by enterprises. In our opinion, factors of direct influence include influence of participants of goods movement and influence of contact audiences. Factors of proposal and demand, market state of affairs are uncontrolled by enterprises.Generally price policy has determined character and it is affected by the influence of competitive factors which are called competitive environment. We suggest to examine factors of mediated influence and uncontrolled factors. Those factors can be divided into five groups economic, socio-cultural, geographical, technological, political and legal aspects of environment.Conclusions and directions of further researches. We propose such reccomendations for price policy improvement at

  11. Power Industry Reliability Coordination in Asia in a Market Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai I. Voropai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems of power supply reliability in a market environment. The specific features of economic interrelations between the power supply organization and consumers in terms of reliability assurance are examined and the principles of providing power supply reliability are formulated. The economic mechanisms of coordinating the interests of power supply organization and consumers to provide power supply reliability are discussed. Reliability of restructuring China's power industry is introduced. Some reliability data is provided. The data shows that the reliability level has increased significantly in the past two decades. More and more measures are being applied to guarantee reliability of the restructured power systems. The reliability issues and challenges that are facing the Chinese power industry are considered The paper, then examines the evolution of power grids in India, the establishment of a regulatory framework, and operational philosophy in reliability aspects of long-, mid- as well as short-term (operational / outage planning. Grid security, restoration, and mock trial for black start, etc. from the reliability angle are considered. Related issues for islanding operation to improve service reliability for Thailand's Electric Power System are then analyzed.

  12. Theoretical background for market emergence framework. Case: Electricity distribution industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immonen, M.; Laaksonen, P.; Vilko, J.; Tahvanainen, K.; Viljainen, S.; Partanen, J.

    2009-07-01

    Both the competitive environment and the internal structure of an industrial organization are typically included in the processes which describe the strategic management processes of the firm, but less attention has been paid to the interdependence between these views. Therefore, this research focuses on explaining the particular conditions of an industry change, which lead managers to realign the firm in respect of its environment for generating competitive advantage. The research question that directs the development of the theoretical framework is: Why do firms outsource some of their functions? The three general stages of the analysis are related to the following research topics: (i) understanding forces that shape the industry, (ii) estimating the impacts of transforming customer preferences, rivalry, and changing capability bases on the relevance of existing assets and activities, and emergence of new business models, and (iii) developing optional structures for future value chains and understanding general boundaries for market emergence. The defined research setting contributes to the managerial research questions 'Why do firms reorganize their value chains?', 'Why and how are decisions made?' Combining Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) and Resource-Based View (RBV) within an integrated framework makes it possible to evaluate the two dimensions of a company's resources, namely the strategic value and transferability. The final decision of restructuring will be made based on an analysis of the actual business potential of the outsourcing, where benefits and risks are evaluated. The firm focuses on the risk of opportunism, hold-up problems, pricing, and opportunities to reach a complete contract, and finally on the direct benefits and risks for financial performance. The supplier analyzes the business potential of an activity outside the specific customer, the amount of customer-specific investments, the service provider

  13. The Impact of Internal Marketing on the Employee’s Retention in Sialkot Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar Ali; Mirza Ashfaq Ahmed; Muhammad Shaharyar; Muhammad Haseeb; Rashid Zahoor

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the effect of internal marketing on the employee retention in manufacturing industry of District Sialkot, Pakistan. Marketing can be divided into two broad categories, internal marketing and external marketing. According to internal marketing concept, employees are considered as internal customers of organization and jobs are considered as internal products that satisfy needs and wants of internal customers while addressing the objectives of the firm. Internal marke...

  14. Marketing to the consumer: perspectives from the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C

    2001-01-01

    Individualized health management is one of the most exciting challenges facing health care marketing today. Greater access to health information has empowered consumers to take more control of their health needs, creating a whole new landscape for marketers, manufacturers, and service providers. Customization is the key to creating marketing campaigns that successfully target today's health-conscious consumers. Drawing on individualized market intelligence and available genetic information, pharmaceutical companies are learning to tailor products to meet the needs of this growing market.

  15. Development of territorial marketing complex for industrial cities of old industrial regions social and economic potential increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Dubnitsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Role of territorial marketing in the innovation development process and in the improving of important components of social and economic potential possibilities efficiency of industrial cities regional economic complex is discovered in this article.

  16. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  17. Market dynamics, innovation, and transition in China's solar photovoltaic (PV) industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Hongyang; Du, Huibin; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    China’s photovoltaic (PV) industry has undergone dramatic development in recent years and is now the global market leader in terms of newly added capacity. However, market diffusion and adoption in China is not ideal. This paper examines the blocking and inducement mechanisms of China’s PV industry...

  18. Market dynamics, innovation, and transition in China's solar photovoltaic (PV) industry: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Hongyang; Du, Huibin; Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    China’s photovoltaic (PV) industry has undergone dramatic development in recent years and is now the global market leader in terms of newly added capacity. However, market diffusion and adoption in China is not ideal. This paper examines the blocking and inducement mechanisms of China’s PV industry...

  19. Investigating Food and Beverage Industry Market Structure and Market Power Based on Leo and Bresnahan’s Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nabishahikitash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food processing industries are one of the major industrial groups in developing countries which play an important role in the economic development of these countries. With the Developed and Developing Food Industry on the other hand, food security and providing food are very important in each country. In an overview, markets are divided into two groups: The first group is a market with perfect competition. And second group is markets with monopoly structure.One of the important features of markets that determine its type is the ability of the firms in the pricing and determiningof the amount of production. If the firms do not have any effect on these two factors, themarket has perfect competition.If the firms have the ability to influence price of productions, this market is non-competitive and a concept called market power emerges.In general, not only market power is the ability of firm in determination of price above the competitive situation, but also it does not let its share of sale to decrease. The existence of collusion in markets can makethem distantfrom perfect competition and make them incomplete. In economics and particularly in industrial organization, market power is the ability of a firm to profitably raise the market price of a good or service over marginal cost. In perfect competitive markets, market participants have no market power. A firm with total market power can raise prices without losing any customers to competitors. Firms that have power to set price are referred to as "price makers" or "price setters", while those without itare sometimes called "price-takers". Significant market power occurs when prices exceed marginal cost and the long run average cost, so the firm makes economic profits. A firm with market power has the ability to individually affect either the total quantity or the prevailing price in the market. Price makers face a downward slopingdemand curve, such that increases in price leads to a

  20. The long-term memory analysis of industrial indices of the Chinese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, L.

    2008-02-01

    The main work of this paper is to apply the fractional market theory and time series analysis for analyzing various industrial indices of the Chinese stock market by rescaling range analysis. Hurst index and the long-term memory of price change in Chinese stock market are studied.

  1. The long-term memory analysis of industrial indices of the Chinese stock market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, L [Renmin University of China, Information School (China); Department of Mathematics, Beijing 100872 (China)], E-mail: linyong01@ruc.edu.cn

    2008-02-15

    The main work of this paper is to apply the fractional market theory and time series analysis for analyzing various industrial indices of the Chinese stock market by rescaling range analysis. Hurst index and the long-term memory of price change in Chinese stock market are studied.

  2. Resource Communication Technology and Marketing of Textile Products: A U.S. Textile Industry Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative positivistic case study was to explore whether resource communication technology has helped or would help the marketing of textile products in the U.S. textile industry. The contributions of human capital in the marketing department, the marketing-demand information system function, and the product supply chain…

  3. Influence of China’s Grain Industrial Market Structure over Grain Pricing Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the point of view of industrial market structure,we analyze the influence of market structure on grain production,circulation,and processing,and on the grain pricing power of entities along China’s grain industrial chain.Through analysis,it is indicated that different features of market structure play a significant role in pricing power of such microeconomic entities as farmers and grain enterprises in grain production and transaction.And the market structure determines welfare distribution model of consumers’ surplus and producers’ surplus at the market.

  4. The future of business and industrial marketing and needed research

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Wesley J.

    2014-01-01

    There are usually no shortages of predictions of what the future will be like. In fact life would be impossible without them. We predict that tomorrow will be similar to today and that our students or customers will still need what we have to offer. That our car will start or the bus will be there at the usual time. The building we work in will still be standing and the visual recognition software will open our office door. It is only when we start to look further into the future that our pre...

  5. An industry analysis of the MBA market and the competitive positioning of the GSBPP

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, Garrett W.; King, Thomas T.

    2007-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The purpose of this Master of Business Administration (MBA) project is to perform an industry analysis of the MBA market utilizing the principles of industry analysis noted in Michael Porter's "Five Force Analysis" model. The intent of this project is to create an awareness of how these competitive forces shape the MBA market, define the relationships between stakeholders within the marlet, and affect its overall attractiveness of the MBA market. The goal is to pr...

  6. Substantial Effects of Word of Mouth Marketing in Telecommunications Industry

    OpenAIRE

    KIRISCIOGLU, HAZAR KUTAY

    2013-01-01

    One of the biggest responsibilities of today’s marketing managers is to use their financial and labour resources in the most efficient way. However, any kind of traditional marketing method which is designed and spread by the seller is both costly and less influential on customer’s buying behaviour. Word of Mouth, which can simply be explained as any marketing action that leads to earn customer recommendation, (Word of Mouth Marketing Association) helps organizations to burst their sales reve...

  7. B2B Marketing in the Flexographic Machinery Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Soma Engineering, Czech engineering company, designed its new marketing strategy in order to succeed amongst its competitors in the flexographic machinery market. Goal of the thesis is to verify if the new marketing strategy of SOMA engineering leads to desired positioning of the company and its products in selected markets. In case, the research indicates that the strategy does not work, identify the areas/attributes where the company lacks behind the desired positioning. Desired positioning...

  8. U.S. HAZELNUT MARKET TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR A MICHIGAN HAZELNUT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Cely, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to provide potential Michigan growers with information on major trends and markets of the U.S. hazelnut industry. Another objective was to explore certain important factors. apparent challenges and possible opportunities for a potential Michigan hazelnut industry. In respect to the first goal, this paper analyzed major production and market trends for the Oregon hazelnut industry, which constitutes almost all of the U.S. hazelnut crop, and explored some i...

  9. Strategic marketing types: Evidence from the European meat processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Hundahl, Lone; Laursen, Christina

    of specialisation, vertical integration, international orientation, relationship with the retail sector etc. 4. Based on related literature, two main hypotheses1 are formulated regarding the relationship between strategic marketing types on the one hand and performance and corporate attitudes on the other hand....... Integrating previous definitions and findings on key strategy dimensions, three main marketing strategy components are used in the analysis: Strategic focus/objective marketing targeting and marketing positioning. The variables are split up in the following main groups: Marketing strategy variables, Corporate...

  10. Major advances in milk marketing: government and industry consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenberg, D; Blayney, D; Miller, J

    2006-04-01

    Federal dairy programs have been instituted to assist dairy farmers in marketing their milk. Milk marketing licenses were issued for city markets in 1933 during the depression. Federal Milk Orders replaced licenses in 1937 with enactment of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act. Low prices returned in the late 1940s and Congress passed the Agricultural Act of 1949 creating the support program for milk. Congressional involvement in milk marketing was minimal until passage of the 1977 Farm Bill. A support price adjustment to seek favorable political responses from farmers resulted in higher prices and ultimately higher production. Large expenditures and burdensome supplies caused Congress to make major changes to both programs. Other milk marketing programs have evolved from Congressional actions, including export and promotion programs. The exiting and consolidation of the dairy processors and producers has lead to a reduction in the number of marketing orders.

  11. Study the Effect of Managers Attitudes on Marketing Strategies and their Related to the Marketing Performance Metrics in Industrial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza shafei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goals are survey of the industrial manager’s attitudes and procedures, the relationship between marketing strategies and markets metrics models. The method was descriptive and the questionnaires were distributed among 85 Tehran food companies’ mangers as well as sales and marketing directors. The findings showed that the managers who use the customer-centric marketing metrics, they applied the metrics that focus to consumers and promotion programs. Also the managers with the market-centric strategies have focused on financial metrics and the competitive-centric strategic managers used innovation related factors. The other results showed that there are significant relationships among the marketing metrics, strategies, and the manager’s views.

  12. 78 FR 16479 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a... annual list of product categories for which the Federal Prison Industries' share of the DoD Market is... Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI) by requiring DoD to publish an annual list of product categories for...

  13. Relationship marketing: Trust as a strategy for service industry

    OpenAIRE

    Parawansa, Dian Anggraece Sigit; AbdulTalib, Asmat Nizam; AbuBakar, Abdul Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Relationship marketing comprise of relationships, networks and interactions. Commitment and trust however may lead directly to cooperative behaviors that are conducive to the success of relationship marketing. This paper is based on a study that overall customer satisfaction is a better predictor of intentions to repurchase than inferred service quality. The customer???s propensity to switch service providers can cost a firm future revenue and decrease the market share and profitability of a...

  14. Developing Strategic Marketing Plan for International Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingmo

    2013-01-01

    International travel agency is the case company where I did my practical training. This thesis focuses on analyzing the case company’s current situation, market environment and competition situation in the tourism market. The main objective is to analyze the complex situation of the case company to develop a strategic marketing plan for the case company to gain competitive advantage. In order to reach the objective, the thesis finds answers to the questions of what the current strategic marke...

  15. Market orientation of the Hungarian SMEs working in the meat processing and dairy industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polereczki Zs.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We are looking for the answer as to what tendencies were indicative of the future development of required marketing activity of the SMEs in the article dealing with the marketing activity of the SMEs working in the food industry. The article is based on a nationwide survey among 200 SMEs working in the food processing industry. In this article, we focus on the SMEs working in the dairy and meat processing industries. The results of the nationwide research and some domestic references refer to that there is a latent demand of effective marketing activity among small and medium-sized enterprises. It manifests itself in specifying marketing-related fields to be improved in the future. The marketing itself is believed not to be an important field at the same time. This apparent opposition is the small enterprise marketing paradox in the background of which is the lack of knowledge about the marketing instruments. It can be stated that these small businesses collect mainly general market information and have no information about particular products. Therefore, the presence of marketing planning is really rare and where there is some kind of planning it is not connected to available funds and follow-up control. The marketing strategy can be characterized by products processed mainly at low or medium level. Therefore, market position is deffned by “lower price-good quality”. They mainly use the traditional distribution channels and their communication is accidental and has a low level.

  16. PARTICULARITIES OF MARKETING DECISIONS FOR INNOVATIVE COMPANIES FROM HIGH-TECH INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia DOVLEAC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the specific way for companies in high tech industry to develop their marketing activity. The companies in this industry are struggling to create and then sell a range of innovative products. High technology products are complex and they enhance a certain level of uncertainty regarding their utility. Due to their novelty (absolute or incremental the products are accepted by consumers harder than the ordinary consumer products. This paper presents the main results of a qualitative marketing research based on the opinions of managers from high technology industry on specific marketing strategies and tools used to create and launch new products.

  17. Potential industrial market for process heat from nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    A specific segment of industrial process heat use has been examined in detail to identify individual plant locations throughout the United states where nuclear generated steam may be a viable alternative. Five major industries have been studied: paper, chemicals, petroleum, rubber, and primary metals. For these industries, representing 75 percent of the total industrial steam consumption, the individual plant locations within the U.S. using steam in large quantities have been located and characterized as to fuel requirements.

  18. Essential dimensions of a marketing strategy in the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwain, T F; McCracken, M J

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews existing literature and defines essential dimensions of a hospital's marketing strategy for each of two business strategies; using the results of a national survey, this study confirms that hospitals make different marketing decisions based on the type of business strategy adopted by the hospital.

  19. International expansion, market maintenance strategy used by French Winemaking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the theoretical concepts that define the maintenance strategies for the international market, this paper presents the results of a quantitative research survey conducted among Romanian consumers of wine. What is aimed at is to know their attitudes and opinions referring to wine imports in order to identify a strategy for the entrance on the Romanian market of the French wine producer Louis Latour, which is imposed by the need to maintain sales in the context of demand shrinking on the home market. The conclusion of the quantitative research conducted on a sample of 402 people from all country regions reveals the opportunity of entering the Romanian market by using indirect export as a way of entering the market.

  20. Analysis of Marketing Strategies in Dairy Processing Industries in Hamedan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Eftekhari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As the conditions in the market and in the world of work and commerce gets more complicated, this requires correction, improvement and also updating marketing attitude among manufacturers and marketers. It is an urgent requirement to choose and determine strategies in order to achieve the objectives. Strategy means the comprehensive and main plan in manufacturing unit revealing the way it achieves the goals. On the other hand, as processing inducts toward market, the rate of wastage (losses reduces. This Study concerns processing industries and finding suitable important strategies. Toward this end, present study seeks to investigate the market and the strategies of marketing in processing industries. The society under study in this investigation consists of producers, retailers and the consumers of dairy processing industries in Hamedan province. The data required for this study are connected using three groups of questionnaire. Mreover, factor analysis and structural equation modelling have been used as the statistical method of the investigation. The output of Lisrel and Amos softwares are used to study the variables. The common marketing strategies are defined in results section and each one is compared with prefent conditions of dairy processing industry market in Hamedan province, and acceptable and unacceptable marketing strategies are assigned separately. In the end, several recommandations are presented for using strategies and conducting future investigations

  1. Effects of online marketing on Iranian ecotourism industry: Economic, sociological, and cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Riasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to evaluate the impacts of implementing online marketing strategies on Iranian ecotourism industry. The study had eight hypotheses which were designed based on economic, sociological, and cultural aspects of Iranian ecotourism industry. The results indicate that the expansion of online marketing increased the number of foreign tourists who visited Iran’s natural tourist attractions, while it had no significant impact on the number of domestic tourists who visited these tourist attractions. The results also indicated that online marketing did not increase the amount of investment in Iranian ecotourism industry. Additionally, online ecotourism marketing did not have a significant influence on the total number of travels to Iran’s historical tourist attractions. Respondents believe implementing online marketing strategies in Iranian ecotourism industry helps Iran expand its cultural tourism in rural areas and it expands its hospitality industry; they also believe that online marketing helps to create more jobs in Iranian ecotourism industry and to improve working conditions in this industry.

  2. Energy intensive industry for Alaska. Volume I: Alaskan cost factors; market factors; survey of energy-intensive industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, W.H.; Clement, M.; Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Jacobsen, J.J.; Powers, T.B.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The Alaskan and product market factors influencing industry locations in the state are discussed and a survey of the most energy intensive industries was made. Factors external to Alaska that would influence development and the cost of energy and labor in Alaska are analyzed. Industries that are likely to be drawn to Alaska because of its energy resources are analyzed in terms of: the cost of using Alaska energy resources in Alaska as opposed to the Lower 48; skill-adjusted wage and salary differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48; and basic plant and equipment and other operating cost differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48. Screening and evaluation of the aluminum metal industry, cement industry, chlor-alkali industry, lime industry, production of methanol from coal, petroleum refining, and production of petrochemicals and agrichemicals from North Slope natural gas for development are made.

  3. Hopes in the Crisis——Chinese Automobile Market in the World Auto manufacturing Industry Shuffle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shurong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global automobile markets shuffle against the economic crisis The economic crisis spread rapidly around the world,making automobile industry one of the victims who are shocked hardest,leading to an industrial shuffle in global automobile industry.USA,EU and Japan,the traditional top three leading countries in global automobile industry,could not have their lucks to escape from the crisis.The weak global automobile market forces these transnational auto companies to be more cautious about the future than ever.As reflected in the latest performance reports,though governments took measures to maintain the market,the sharp decline in global automobile sales volume continued in the first quarter.Automobile market bottomed out in the second quarter.US auto industrywas affected the most,with two out of the top three manufacturers getting bankrupt and regrouped.

  4. Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Kujala, Jouni

    2005-01-01

    Kujala J, Kristensen NH, (2005): Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry. Article in "Organic farming for a new millennium - status and future challenges". Published by Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists (NJF). Swedish University...

  5. Introduction procedure of marketing testing innovative products in practical activity of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Nagornyy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the relevance of implementing marketing testing procedures in practical activities of industrial enterprises that develop, manufacture and sales of new or innovative products.

  6. Enacting representations of markets in exchange practies in the Danish potato industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    various actors have constructed of the Danish market for potatoes and the different market actors share many common features, but also that there are important differences in representations between members along the marketing channel that explain why actors in the Danish potato industry have difficulties...... finding common ground and why retailers are dominant. Main contribution: The paper shows that most activities performed by actors in the industry sustain codified representations of the market, but some activities contest and challenge prevalent representations of the market for potatoes. Not all......Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The paper explores the potential of John Shotter’s (2008) relationally-responsive version of social constructionism for studying and analysing representations of markets and how these are enacted in actual exchanges practices. Research method...

  7. MARKETING RESPONSES TO CHANGING CONSUMER PREFERENCES IN THE FRESH BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Procopio, Mary Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The fresh meat industry is changing the way it markets its products. The decline in red meat consumption that has resulted from greater consumer concerns about the "healthfulness" of red meat, coupled with changes in consumer lifestyles emphasizing a need for convenience is contributing to the diminishment of "commodity selling" in favor of a true "marketing" approach (Pierson and Allen, 1986). In a traditional industry such as meats, the shift from a commodity-selling perspective (i.e., sell...

  8. The Effects of Online and Offline Marketing on Consumer Behavior in the UAE Telecommunication Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Makovská, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The master thesis is concerned with the impact of online and offline marketing. These effects are researched in the conditions of United Arab Emirates and its telecommunication industry. The goal of the thesis is to identify the effects of offline and online marketing tools on consumer behavior in the UAE telecommunication industry. The main added value of the thesis is brought through primary research that was conducted on the sample of 100 respondents living in the UAE. The results show the...

  9. Assessment of Marketing Orientation Concept in Jordanian Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this study was to explore the extent to which the concept of marketing orientation was clear and adopted by Jordanian service firms, focusing on the financial sector. Approach: Based on an empirical fieldwork. Results: The study concluded that the majority of Jordanian financial service firms had a misconception of marketing orientation concept. They believed that they exercise marketing orientation concept, while their actual practice of selling orientation. Conclusions: The study also concluded that the majority of these firms kept strategic planning at the top management level. Statistical testing showed that the length of experience in business was an important factor in the firm's clarity of the concept of marketing orientation. Several implications of the findings and recommendations were finally presented.

  10. Legal considerations for social media marketing by pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Social media marketing is the next frontier for direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceutical products, but represents an unchartered territory for regulatory action. With explosive growth in the use of social media, along with pharmaceutical companies' increasing adeptness at taking advantage of opportunities for social media marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) faces an urgent need to develop its own capacities to monitor and engage with social media marketing. In response to potential FDA action, pharmaceutical companies' marketing, regulatory compliance and legal staffs must work closely to design initiatives that are sensitive to FDA concerns. This article will address the current status of FDA regulations on social media advertising, their historical origins, challenges to implementation, and their likely future direction.

  11. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  12. Understanding Market Segments and Competition in the Private Military Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Kotler , 2008, p . 249). Item 2 and Items 8-10 of the questionnaire attempted to capture the market niche/s that the respondents’ reportedly...Institute Press. Kotler , P ., & Keller, K.L. (2009). Marketing management (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Kruse, K. (2009...Likert scale, and importance scale) and “open-end” (unstructured) questions ( Kotler , 2009, p .137). We applied parts of the Tailored Design Method

  13. Labeling in Food Industries – a Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Neacºu Nicoleta Andreea

    2012-01-01

    The objective of foodstuff labeling is to guarantee that consumers have access to complete information on the content and composition of products, in order to protect their health and their interests. Other information may provide details on a particular aspect of the product, such as its origin or production method. Marketers use food labeling as a strategy to attract customers and promote products. In this paper we present role of food labeling for consumers, but also in marketing.

  14. Intensity of Competition and Market Structure in the Italian Banking Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannetti, C.

    2008-01-01

    This work tests the predictions of Sutton’s model of independent submarkets for the Italian retail banking industry. In the first part of this paper, I develop a model of endogenous mergers to evidence the relationship between firms’ conduct, market entry and market structure. In the second part, I

  15. Digital Dividend Aware Business Models for the Creative Industries: Challenges and Opportunities in EU Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossiavelou, Vassiliki

    EU counties have a historically unique opportunity to enable their creative industries to promote the knowledge societies, applying new business models to their media content and networks markets, that are digital dividend (DD) aware. This new extra-media gatekeeping factor could shape new alliances and co operations among the member states and the global media markets, as well.

  16. The marketing of tourism services in Ireland as represented by the hotel and catering industries

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Malcolm

    1993-01-01

    The vulnerability of Irish business stems from their tendency to rely on single products or market characteristics for success, instead of developing a comprehensive marketing strategy Desk research was undertaken in order to develop a better understanding of services marketing and create a background of the tourism industry. The nature of services was identified,as well as the processof the development of Irish services,along with the increasing dependence on services for employment. ...

  17. Circadian Rhythms: The Effects of Global Market Integration in the Currency Trading Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Srilata Zaheer

    1995-01-01

    This essay assesses the impact of global market integration in the currency trading industry as the market interfaces with states, with firms and with individuals, and raises questions for research from a variety of disciplines. Issues discussed include the question of state control in global markets, the impact of globalization on firm structures and processes, how firms can derive competitive advantage from global circadian rhythms, and the influences of the circadian rhythms of the global ...

  18. The role of industry in bringing foods for particular nutritional uses (PARNUTS) to the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwood, P; MacLean, W; Uauy, R

    1999-12-01

    The process of bringing new food products from innovation to implementation requires a high level of interaction between researchers, marketers, and consumers. Researchers from industry and academia have the task of developing products that are not only efficacious, but also have a high probability of consumer acceptance. For most foods, industry must provide the most leadership in finding new product concepts, determining which products will have the widest markets, and in funding research and development. To accomplish these tasks, industry has forged partnerships with academic centers and scientists who excel in research and development, and continues to search for the best ways to communicate with consumers. For some FSMPs, other considerations, such as medical and nutritional needs (e.g., products for inborn errors of metabolism), might change the pattern of industry leadership. The following article explores the ways in which industry can facilitate the development and acceptance of beneficial and marketable food products.

  19. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  20. Effectiveness and efficiency assessment of industrial enterprises` marketing in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Chukhray

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Marketing role in the process of creation of industrial enterprise value is analyzed in the article. The purpose of it is to define basic directions, criteria and indexes of evaluation of industrial enterprises` marketing in the supply chain. Methodical positions are worked out. They are structured in accordance with the criteria of evaluation of industrial enterprises` marketing in the supply chain. The categories of efficiency and effectiveness are considered.The results of the analysis. Peculiarities of purpose marketing decisions` orientation on the strategic level of management are found. Conception of three fundamental aspects of modern business combination was investigated as part of a strategic approach. A concept client is exposed in the triune measuring. Two types of cost chain (traditional and modern are considered. Tasks that determine the effective functioning of enterprise in the supply chain are distinguished. The criteria of industrial enterprises` marketing evaluation are grouped. The system of indexes of effectiveness and efficiency evaluation of industrial enterprises` marketing in the process of delivery is worked out. Authors divide these indexes from position of marketing: value for a final consumer, value for partners in supplying and value for an enterprise. This approach fundamentally differs from earlier well-known ones.The use of these methodical positions will give an opportunity to estimate effectiveness and efficiency of marketing activity of industrial enterprise taking into account the multi-vectors of interests of target groups: consumers, partners and stockholders of enterprise.Conclusions and directions of further researches. The methodological approaches described in this article concerning the evaluation of marketing charges can be the base of analysis of charges according to their origin and functional measurement. It will allow making complex estimation of the marketing programs of

  1. Blowers in bus systems; Einsatz von Ventilatoren in BUS-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneeweiss, H. [ebm - Werke GmbH und Co., Mulfingen (Germany). R und D

    2000-07-01

    Modern industrial blowers are compact and have good control characteristics. Centralized or decentralized monitoring has become a state-of-the-art technology. Bus systems make it possible to monitor and analyze component status at any time. Electronically commutated external rotor motors with bus interfaces offer a wide spectrum of applications. [German] Beim Einsatz von Ventilatoren und Geblaesen in der Industrie ist es heute Standard, dass die Geraete einen kompakten Aufbau und gute Regel- bzw. Steuereigenschaften aufweisen. Immer mehr setzt sich auch die zentrale und dezentrale Ueberwachung von Geraeten durch. Mit einem BUS-System kann der aktuelle Status jeder Komponente jederzeit abgefragt und der Zustand analysiert werden. Durch spezielle Einsatzbedingungen werden heute elektronisch kommutierte Aussenlaeufermotoren mit BUS-Schnittstellen versehen. Damit steht ein breites Anwendungsspektrum zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  2. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  3. 77 FR 8843 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a... Prison Industries' share of the DoD market is greater than five percent. DATES: Effective Date:...

  4. Design and Analysis of Bus Front Panel Usin G FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Advance composite materials have taken the significant share with other engineering materials due to its mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Advance composite like E-glass, S-glass, Carbon fiber, Kevlar are not yet confined at the aerospace industry but gradually these are taking over the position of other industries as well. Because of its attaining high intricacy in designing factors and as well as cheaper mould design and also less cost in production of few numbers. The applications of FRPs are spirally increasing. The aim of this project is to develop a BUS FRONT PANEL with a help of FRPs in order to sustain all the mechanical properties which are equivalent to the metals with the help of advanced computer aided software designs like ANSYS. In computer aided engineering to make the product proven in the realistic market.

  5. Relationship Marketing Tactics and Customer Loyalty-A Case of the Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfred Yaw Koi-Akrofi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at assessing the impact of relationship marketing tactics on customer loyalty in the Ghanaian mobile industry where deregulation has led to intense competition and scramble for market share. Marketers in the industry are employing variety of relationship marketing tactics to attract and retain customers. This research study adopted four relationship marketing tactics (service quality, price perception, brand image and value offered typical of a service industry and examined their impact on customer loyalty in the Ghanaian mobile industry. A self-completion questionnaire with a total of 40 closed questions was developed to gather field data. All of the items were measured by using a five-point Likert-type response scales, defined with 5 as strongly agree and 1 as strongly disagrees. Reliability test and some parametric and non-parametric tests were conducted and the results showed that there exist a positive significant relationship between each of the four relationship marketing tactics (namely service quality, price, value offered and brand image and customer loyalty. The results are consistent with evidence in the extant literature. The study provides insight and significant feedback from mobile phone users to the telecommunication operators. As the competitive environment increasingly becomes fierce, the voice and preferences of the customers are also becoming the priority. This finding is expected to serve as a guide and help to telecommunication managers in making informed judgment about the relationship marketing mix relevant to the present customer’s need that yields increase in revenue and profit.

  6. An information flow among industry sectors in the Korean stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gabjin; Oh, Tamina; Kim, Hoyong; Kwon, Okyu

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the information flow among 22 industry sectors in the Korean stock market by using the symbolic transfer entropy (STE) method. We consider the daily index of 22 industry sectors in the Korean Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI) from January 3, 2000 to March 30, 2012. We measure the degree of asymmetry in the information flow and the amount of information flow among the industry sectors before, during, and after the subprime crisis in order to analyze how to relate them to the market crisis. We find that the amount of information flow and the number of connectedness during the financial crisis in the Korean stock market are higher than those before and after the market crisis. In addition, we find the role of the insurance sector, which is related to risk management, increases as information source after the crisis.

  7. Development trends and market analysis of China's plastics industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zheng-Pin

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's plastics industry has witnessed the leap-forward development with the stable and sound growth of national economy,having increased its economic and technical indicators stably and greatly for consecutive ten years.

  8. Implementing Brand Valuation in Marketing Management: Estonian Food Industry Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Lele Aak; Alan Brokaw; Mait Miljan

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic global business environment creates brand strategy challenges for companies, including those in fast-adjusting Central and Eastern European countries. Some of the main topics that businesses have to face are brand building, brand equity and brand valuation. The importance of brands varies across and within industries. This paper focuses on analyzing the need for brand building, brand equity, and brand valuation in food industry, with a focus on Estonian businesses. Specifically, t...

  9. From the Plains to the plate : can the beef industry regain market share?

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Russell L.; Michelle Beshear

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the beef industry has seen a sharp drop in its share of the retail meat market. While per capita meat consumption has grown, per capita beef consumption has plunged. Explaining the drop in beef's market share has become a favorite pastime of industry analysts. In fact, a family feud of sorts has broken out in the industry between those who think the decline largely reflects increases in beef's price relative to competing meats and those who stress nonprice facto...

  10. Workplace change and the internal labour market: evidence from the NSW hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruyter, Alex

    2002-01-01

    After a decade of labour market reform and workplace change, increasing attention has focussed on public sector industries. In this paper, domestic and maintenance occupations in the hospital industry are examined, as previous work has focussed on nursing, with other occupations being largely ignored. Grimshaw and Rubery's (1998) model of internal labour markets is adopted as the preferred theoretical approach. This model, in acknowledging external factors, the role of workers, and custom and norms within the firm, provides a basis from which to examine labour use practices within the hospital industry.

  11. Theoretical foundations of ensuring the marketing activities’ effectiveness of industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Strupynska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The improved definition of “marketing activities of the enterprise” has been proposed, the difference of which is the integration of system and process approaches. The author’s hierarchy schema of marketing activities’ objectives of the industrial enterprise has been developed, the novelty of which is to bring together two groups of objectives – economic and social, which are discussed in terms of the elements of the marketing mix: economic (4P and social (5P. The definition of the marketing activities effectiveness of the enterprise has been improved and the constituents for the evaluation of its effectiveness have been generalized. The basic constituents of the marketing activities effectiveness of the industrial enterprise and their relationship based on the holistic concept have been outlined.

  12. Market orientation at industry and value chain levels: Concepts, determinants and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard; Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    The term market orientation, defined as sets of activities dealing with the generation and dissemination of market intelligence as well as with responding to it, is extended from the organisation level to the value chain level. By drawing on theories from industrial economics, neo......-institutional theory, transaction cost economics, network theory and the political-economic approach to the analysis of marketing channels, potential determinants of market orientation at value chain levels are identified. These determinants and their possible interaction may serve as guiding principles for empirical...

  13. How does the tobacco industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Savell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control makes a number of recommendations aimed at restricting the marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco industry political activity has been identified as an obstacle to Parties' development and implementation of these provisions. This study systematically reviews the existing literature on tobacco industry efforts to influence marketing regulations and develops taxonomies of 1 industry strategies and tactics and 2 industry frames and arguments. METHODS: Searches were conducted between April-July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Articles were included if they made reference to tobacco industry efforts to influence marketing regulations; supported claims with verifiable evidence; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990-2013. 48 articles met the review criteria. Narrative synthesis was used to combine the evidence. RESULTS: 56% of articles focused on activity in North America, Europe or Australasia, the rest focusing on Asia (17%, South America, Africa or transnational activity. Six main political strategies and four main frames were identified. The tobacco industry frequently claims that the proposed policy will have negative unintended consequences, that there are legal barriers to regulation, and that the regulation is unnecessary because, for example, industry does not market to youth or adheres to a voluntary code. The industry primarily conveys these arguments through direct and indirect lobbying, the promotion of voluntary codes and alternative policies, and the formation of alliances with other industrial sectors. The majority of tactics and arguments were used in multiple jurisdictions. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco industry political activity is far more diverse than suggested by existing taxonomies of corporate political activity. Tactics and arguments are repeated across jurisdictions, suggesting that the taxonomies of industry tactics and arguments developed in this paper are

  14. Obesity and industry self-regulation of food and beverage marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Karsten; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2014-01-01

    -regulation regarding food and beverage marketing and nutrition labelling. Design: Five databases were searched for combinations of the search terms: obesity, nutrition, food, beverages, industry, self-regulation, labelling, advertising and marketing, and papers were selected on the basis of paper titles......-regulation in relation to obesity prevention is an emerging field of research, and further research is needed in such schemes’ definitions of regulatory standards, their monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms, and their interactions with public regulation, if industry self-regulation of marketing behaviour is to become......Objective: Obesity is a growing concern at national and international levels, and it is increasingly recognized that the industry plays a role and needs to be involved to halt the obesity epidemic. The objective of this study is to describe, analyse and evaluate research on industry self...

  15. Youth Advocates’ Perceptions of Tobacco Industry Marketing Influences on Adolescent Smoking: Can They See the Signs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-sale (POS advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understanding of tobacco industry marketing influences and related advocacy activities. This mixed methods study examined Oklahoma’s tobacco control youth empowerment program members’ perceptions of tobacco industry marketing influences. Four focus groups were held with active program members from rural and urban areas. Overall, the focus group participants viewed the program as purposeful, as an avenue to help others, and as a way to make a difference. Specifically, the older participants (median age = 18 years identified tobacco industry marketing influences such as POS, movies, and magazine advertisements and reported participating in activities that counter POS tobacco advertisements at retail stores. Likewise younger participants (median age = 16 years, identified similar tobacco industry marketing influences, but also included tobacco use by friends and family as tobacco industry marketing influences. Moreover, the younger participants did not report engaging in activities that addressed POS tobacco advertisements. The study results suggest that the empowerment program should tailor its programming, training, materials, and activities with input from youth of various ages. Thoughtfully developed messages and specific activities can truly empower youth and maximize their contribution as change agents who address POS or other initiatives at the retail environments to prevent chronic diseases.

  16. Marketing communications in industrial B2b markets enhancing the value of the corporate brand relying on common added values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ignacio Monrabal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, industrial Business-to-Business (B2B markets are mainly characterized by a highly trained customer for making rational decisions in a highly competitive and global market, requiring more than ever organizations to approach their markets with a single and consistent message. Such demanding scenario requires to define a corporate brand transmitting in one message all the advantages that a Customer may appreciate in the long-term, based not only on what the company stands for in the market, but also the benefits of all its products throughout its portfolio. Such elements are referred as Common Added Values (CAVs, being some general examples the technology, quality, innovation and reliability; the capacity, infrastructure and distribution network; after-sales service policies, support and training; or the price and financial policies. This paper tries to explain the source of this need, describing the main differences between a brand communications model focused on the product or including the main B2B corporate values; and highlighting the main CAVs, to get an industry player either small or large, can succeed in generating brand equity through an integrated marketing communications strategy.

  17. Institutionalization of Markets and Issues of the Growth of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamazii Oksana V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article developes and proves a scientific hypothesis that strengthening the integration processes in the market space causes its institutionalization, and thus leads to the issues of proliferation of the free market players as a result of a division of spheres of influence between the major financial-industrial groups and corporations. It has been proved that a clear hierarchical structure, along with rigid subordination of free economic agents to the chief processor of resources within the growing corporations are those preconditions, which gradually form characteristics of an organization or an institution in terms of markets. An author's own definition of the notion of «institutional market» has been proposed, which is different from the classic formulation. It is emphasized that institutionalization of market space turns the latter into an another economic system, the main characteristics of which are: limited number of buyers and sellers; presence of conglomerates with rigid hierarchical relationships between buyers and sellers; etc. Enlargement and diversification of business as well as growth of its influence not only within its own industry sector, but also in the related sectors, leads to the fact that corporations are trying to control markets (supply and demand which meantime are turning into rigid management structures, acquiring characteristics of institutions (organizations. This hinders the market entry of new market players, increases risks of business and requires on the part of enterprises new marketing techniques for positioning the own ability to create customer value.

  18. A United Copper Industry Changes the International Market Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Although it is losing profit,business still con-tinues as usual.The reason is simple:if themoney-losing business stops,the existing pro-duction capacity would be lying idle leading togreater loss.The predicament is that the Chi-nese copper smelters meet a serious problem:as the supply of resource relied heavily on theinternational market.But this situation haschanged since the establishment of CSPT

  19. MARKETING COMMUNICATION TO INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS OF SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Loučanová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the growing attention is paid to the promotion and development of clusters, i.e. concentration of businesses and other cooperating institutions in a sector and region. Despite of the economy globalization and sophisticated global communications technologies, the factor of geographical concentration should be declined, however the experts highlight the importance of direct contact with local and tacit knowledge. The aim of this paper is analyzing of marketing communication tools in different clusters of Slovakia.

  20. Analysis of the physiotherapy industry: challenges for marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, L

    1996-01-01

    The physiotherapy industry can be analysed using Porter's (1979) five forces. Physiotherapy uses medical, geographic and funding segmentation. The power of the buyers in these segments is considerable. Substitutes are posing a threat to physiotherapy with few barriers to entry to operate in the health care environment. The suppliers, particularly doctors, have significant power in referring clients. Competitive rivalry for these clients can exist between individual physiotherapists and multi-disciplinary clinics. The difference in orientation of private and public physiotherapy can also be a basis for rivalry. Repositioning to view the client as both the supplier and recipients enables the physiotherapy industry to gain competitive advantage and ensures long term growth.

  1. The UK electricity market and the wind industry - a perspective of 1998 proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batley, S.L.; Twidell, J.W. [De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom); Gibbons, C. [East Midlands Electricity (United Kingdom)

    1997-06-01

    After April 1st 1998, the Public Electricity Supplier monopoly ( in England, Wales and Scotland) over their local franchise market will cease and all customers, regardless of size, will be able to choose their supplier. These changes will have a major impact on the UK wind energy industry. An increased number of Second Tier Suppliers will compete with existing market players for electricity purchase from generators and sale of electricity to consumers. Market changes should improve possibilities for wind generators to obtain a Second Tier Supplier licence and serve the domestic, small demand, market. There may also be market opportunities to sell to specialist `green` suppliers. The post 1998 changes are of importance to the European Union `Guarantee of Result` project, which aims to promote small scale wind systems through guaranteed quality and performance of systems. For the Guarantee of Results to be utilised in the UK, all markets for the generated electricity from a wind system must be considered and evaluated. (Author)

  2. Dual Focus upon Industrial Restructuring and Market Access Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立群

    2007-01-01

    The Central Economic Working Conference of the CPC sets out an important mission for China’s economic development in 2007:"tak- ing energy conservation and protection of the ecological environment as the starting point,actively promote optimization and upgrade of the industrial structure".

  3. Markets, Modernization, and Minority Movements in the Industrial West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John F.

    Internal colonialism, the domination of one region over another, provides a necessary but insufficient base for the development of ethnic nationalist movements. Only since World War II have the possibilities for economic expansion been so great as to permit the economic development of former reserve areas in the major industrialized, Western…

  4. Impact of petroleum industry horizontal divestiture on the coal market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, D.L.; Dymond, L.H.; Marris, R.L.

    1979-06-22

    Volume 2 contains appendices as follows: coal supply curves, coal supply model modifications, coal mine financing data, legislative proposals for horizontal divestiture, overview of oil companies in coal industry (including their coal reserves) and the major sources of data and bibliography. (LTN)

  5. Logistics Concepts at the Industrial Enterprise under Conditions of the Globalization of Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushkina Nataliia V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the dynamics of indicators of Ukraine’s foreign trade in goods and services; conduct a comparative analysis of logistics concepts used at industrial enterprises under conditions of the globalization of markets; determine the ways to improve the management of international production and distribution activities of industrial enterprises. The study analyzes the dynamics of volumes of exports–imports of goods and transport services in Ukraine; freight traffic by mode of transport; export, import and transit of goods; foreign direct investment from countries of the world in the Ukrainian economy. Modern information systems and logistics concepts used at industrial enterprises under conditions of the globalization of markets are considered. The ways to improve the management of international production and distribution activities of industrial enterprises are defined and systematized. Prospects for further research in this direction are the development of proposals for information support of providing services for customers of the industrial enterprise.

  6. On the Innovation of Marketing Channel Modes of China’s Seed Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bican; LUO; Yunhai; FU; Chunxia; LUO; Ya; Zhu

    2015-01-01

    In China,the seed industry has fierce competition. The situation of homogeneous management and homogeneous products is serious. A key problem is simple and outmoded marketing channel of seed. It threatens sustainable development of seed enterprises. At present,the two-level distribution channel of seed industry has problems of similarity,low access threshold,and unfair benefit distribution,and thus urgently needs innovation. The innovation of distribution channel is inevitable requirement for promoting reorganization of China’s seed industry and building of new order,is necessary weapon for dealing with trans-national seed industry competition,is essential measure for lifting the overall service level of seed industry,and is also essential means for conforming to stage development of China’s agriculture. The innovation of seed marketing channel should consider changes of future agricultural development,deep-level demand of industrial market and services,scitech development level,fair distribution of industrial profit,and differentiated competition. It is recommended that channel innovation should follow the flat principle,have new and unique conception,give full play connection advantage of marginal industry,realize complementary advantages and mutual promotion,strengthen service awareness,combine with agricultural development trend,and seek sci-tech innovation of channel carrier- variety.

  7. Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-30

    Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

  8. Marketing ergonomics. Industrial design and engineering. Comfort and appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, I

    1990-04-01

    A project is being carried out with the aim to develop an individual, engine-driven, covered vehicle for handicapped people. The prime object is that this vehicle should meet the requirements of the handicapped. Nevertheless, choices had to be made by the parties concerned that could have violated this goal. In particular, this was experienced when designing the interior to accommodate large persons on the one hand and meeting the aesthetic requirements of the exterior, which called for a smaller height, on the other. Marketing ergonomics was used to deal with this problem.

  9. Cement Industry Overview and Market Price Forecasting In Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Global economic situation and energy resources’ prices influence local economic trends, investment of capital, status of financial institutions and cement industry in Azerbaijan in whole. These trends influence demand and activities of cement business communities which start to optimize expenses and find new priority decisions in business. Moreover some independent economic analysts refer to forecasts that since 2016 yearly demand will increase 4-5% in Azerbaijan. Objectives are to forecast c...

  10. The relationship between market orientation and performance in the hospital industry: a structural equations modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P S; Lonial, S C; Gupta, Y P; Ziegler, C

    2000-06-01

    There is general consensus in the research literature that market orientation is related to organizational performance. This study examines this relationship in the hospital industry. One unique feature of this study is that both market orientation and performance are conceptualized as being multi-dimensional constructs. Hence the technique of Structural Equations Modeling (SEM) is used to examine the relationship. Analyses were based on market orientation and performance data obtained from 175 hospitals in a five-state region of the United States. The SEM results confirm the multi-dimensional nature of both market orientation and performance, and the strong relationship between the constructs. Interestingly, this relationship is found to be much stronger for smaller hospitals than for larger hospitals. Implications for the hospital industry are discussed.

  11. An exploration study to find important factors in market entrance: A case study of truck industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheir Khodamoradi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing market penetration in truck industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 51 questions, distributes it among 300 people who worked for different truck industry related units and collects 262 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.89. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.845 and 3067.443, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were eight factors influencing entering truck making industry including adaptation strategies, new ideas, cost competitiveness, product capabilities, market characteristics, competition threats from external market environment and export accelerators.

  12. An exploration study on factors influencing on market orientation: A case study of tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Bagheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, tourism industry has become popular among many researchers in developing countries. Tourism is able to attract substantial amount of investment to some areas where many investors are normally unwilling to invest in. This paper, presents important factors influencing market orientation in tourism industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 267 experts who are involved in tourism industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.873, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of market oriented, limiting rules and regulations, strategic competition, marketing planning culture, financial figures and top management.

  13. Gaining access to agency and structure in industrial marketing theory : a critical pluralist approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, John; Brennan, Ross; Midgley, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with gaining greater insight into the interplay between agency and structure in industrial marketing (IM) scholarship. The article’s intent is to embed Midgley’s notion of critical pluralism within this endeavour. The article commends the movement towards increased deployment of critical realism, but cautions against the dangers of creating further atomism in marketing theory by generating another paradigm of thought with strongly defended boundaries, impervious to o...

  14. Innovation of the dairy industry as a means of increasing competitiveness in the market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.V. Bozhydarnik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The publication reveals the problem of increasing the competitiveness of dairy products, through innovative activities of enterprises that can provide development, development of new products, ensure high quality and cost benefits, to form necessary conditions for promotion to foreign markets. Therefore the problem of innovation is extremely relevant for the considered industry. A condition of the milk market, the problem of the milk business and suggested the main directions of development.

  15. Industrial application trends and market perspectives for virtual reality and visual simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valerio Netto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide an overview of current market trends in industrial applications of VR (Virtual Reality and VisSim (visual simulation for the next few years. Several market studies recently undertaken are presented and commented. A profile of some companies that are starting to work with these technologies is provided, in an attempt to motivate Brazilian companies into the use of these new technologies by describing successful example applications undertaken by foreign companies.

  16. From the hybrid bus to the fully electrical bus; Vom Hybridbus zum vollelektrischen Bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffel, Christian [VCDB VerkehrsConsult Dresden-Berlin GmbH, Dresden (Germany). Team Elektromobilitaet

    2013-05-15

    To an increasing extent, hybrid buses have become omnipresent in conurbations as far as public transport is concerned. However, they are only an intermediate stage on the path to the fully electrical bus. The development path has been marked out and depends on the progress made in energy storage technology and automobile industry. From an economic point of view, practicable and adequate funding measures are required for the time being for precisely arranging electromobility in public transport and thus before an audience of millions. (orig.)

  17. Deregulation of Electricity Market and Drivers of Demand for Electrical Energy in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojnec Štefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates deregulation of electricity market focusing on electricity prices and drivers of demand for electrical energy in industry in Slovenia. The patterns in evolution of real electricity price developments and the three main components of the electricity price are calculated: liberalized market share for purchased electricity price, regulated infrastructure share for use of electricity network grids and mandatory state charges in the sale of electricity (duty, excise duty and value-added tax. To calculate the real value of electricity prices, producer price index of industrial commodities for electricity prices in industry is used as deflator and implicit deflator of gross domestic product for the size of the economy. In the empirical econometric part is used regression analysis for the amount electricity consumption in the industry depending on the real gross domestic product, direct and cross-price elasticity for natural gas prices in the industry. The results confirmed volatility in real electricity price developments with their increasing tendency and the increasing share of different taxes and state charges in the electricity prices for industry. Demand for electrical energy in industry is positively associated with gross domestic product and price of natural gas as substitute for electrical energy in industry use, and negatively associated with prices of electrical energy for industry.

  18. Italian Textile Industry: Throw an Embroidered Ball in the Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Throwing an embroidered ball is an act of seeking marriage practiced by noble family maidens in ancient China.March 2009,the early spring of Beijing saw Italian textile industry's passion for a close relationship with the Chinese market after a global shiver in the freezing economic winter.It is a ball of elegance,quality and sincere cooperation,which is to become larger and more attractive with the stable development of Chinese textile industry and the ever expansion of Chinese consumption market.

  19. The development of the infrastructure of the environmentally-friendly goods market of industrial region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.V. Bieliakova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. In this article the author analyses the processes of formation of the environmentally-friendly goods market infrastructure in Ukraines industrially developed regions with the definition of the key factors of influence on these processes.The results of the analysis. It is established, that in the conditions of development of the environmentally-friendly goods market infrastructure important role is played by the process of ecologically clean products marketing organization and management. In connection with the dynamics of consumers needs management of enterprises activities in the market of environmentally friendly products should be cycled for efficient tracking of the changes in the market situation and make appropriate adjustments to the strategy and tactics of enterprises activity.System development of industrial developed regions market infrastructure of ecologically pure products presents how the system of relationships between the state institutions, business structures and public sector of the economy in the format of subjects and objects interaction.Found that the methodological approach to the study of the green infrastructure of the consumer market provides a comprehensive subjects characterization: the analysis of the commodity market at the first stage, a detailed analysis and evaluation of the structure of commodity markets of different types the II stage of the concentrations assessment processes; competition for the quantitative parameters and qualitative indicators at the third stage.While designing the interventions of competition policy characteristic of the markets openness is traditionally taken into account when the level of domestic producers competitiveness on the domestic and foreign markets determines. After all, the ability of sellers from other regions or other countries to logon to the commodity market significantly reduces market concentration and the threat of monopoly behavior. Study of the

  20. Profile of the worldwide semiconductor industry market prospects to 1997

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, A

    1995-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. The prolongation of global recession continues to have a significant impact on this core sector of the electronics industry, compelling many manufacturers to review their operations and business strategies. Fierce competition and the need to reduce costs have resulted in many companies cutting back on commercial sales to concentrate on vertically integrated manufacturing or in new alliances being forged to strengthen product portfolios whilst minimising R & D costs. This updated sixth edition of the report charts indust

  1. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  2. Identifying and assessing the factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing in communication industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ghotbifar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications industry to identify most important skill gaps in digital marketing and factors affecting them; also, managers and specialists of these companies were investigated to determine the role of identified factors in reducing skills gaps. Using localized questionnaire and interviewing with ten experts who were selected by Delphi snowball method, the skill gaps in marketing and factors affecting them were identified. Also, a researcher made questionnaire with 32 questions was distributed among 226 employees to investigate the identified factors role in reducing skills gap in digital marketing. The results showed that from four identified factors, the components including operational strategic factors and environmental factors had direct and positive impact on creating skill gap in digital marketing of studied companies. The environmental factors such as social and cultural conditions, religion, technology, and economy had more proactive impact on skills gap in digital marketing. Also, the results showed that among skills gaps in digital marketing of studied companies, the skills (Principles of Communication and (Predicting Future had the highest and lowest gaps, respectively.

  3. BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

      BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-100-introduction-to-business-entire-course/   BUS 100 Assignment 1 Fundamentals of Effective Communication in the Workplace BUS 100 Assignment 2 Ethical and Socially Responsive Business BUS 100 Introduction To Business Week 1-11 Discussions BUS 100 week 1 discussions BUS 100 week 2 Discussions BUS 100 week 3 Discussions BUS 100 week 4 Discussions ...

  4. ICT ADOPTION IN EMERGING CONTEMPORARY MARKETING PRACTICES: THE CASE OF THE NIGERIAN PAINTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oluwaseun OLOMU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of firms about the deployment of information and communications technology continued to stimulate competitive advantage for them in the marketplace. This study investigated the numerous information and communications technologies deployed for products marketing in the Nigerian paints industry and also examined the degree of capacity in which ICTs were deployed in relations to contemporary marketing practices. This study considerably administered 240 questionnaire on paints manufacturing and marketing firms in Nigeria which resulted to 84.5% response rate in year 2014. The outcomes of the analysis revealed that the telephone and e-mail were widely embraced for marketing in the Nigerian paints industry. It was also discovered that paints companies adopted ICT more in a reinforcing capability as against enhancing and transforming purposes. The study suggested that paints producing and marketing firms in Nigeria need to incorporate more of ICT facilities and utilize the various offers of electronic marketing for their daily operations and automations thereby improving firm’s profitability and performance. More importantly, attention should be shifted on companies’ capability to innovate and consequently introducing new ICT products and services in the market.

  5. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing internet marketing: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadan Vahabzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet marketing plays an important role on profitability of organizations, it can build a bridge between customers and business owners and anyone could purchase products and services through internet. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing internet marketing on Iranian food industry, named Shahrvand. The proposed study selects 280 out of 1040 managers who were involved in this industry during the year of 2012. Structural equation modeling has been performed to detect important factors including internal/external factors, ease of use and electronic marketing. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for these four items were mostly above 0.80, which validated the overall questionnaire of the survey. The results indicate that among internal factors, knowledge management, organizational culture and resources influence on acceptance of internet marketing, while these factors do not show any meaningful impact on ease of use. In addition, external factors including trend on market growth, competition and infrastructure influence on ease of use and acceptance of internet marketing but infrastructure and competition do not impact on ease of internet marketing.

  6. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism ec...

  7. Actual question of marketing procurement, planning needs material resources for industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Rozumnaya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available From the marketing effectiveness of procurement depends not only on obtaining and maximizing profits, but the main thing - the competitiveness of products, opportunities for the development of an industrial enterprise in the long term. The article analyzes the current trends of development of procurement logistics, practical recommendations on selection of the planning system needs physical resources, optimizing the cost of your order and support the size of the stocks of industrial companies.

  8. Misaligned Market: The Importance of Industry Context in Technology-Mediated exchanges

    OpenAIRE

    Ruey-Lin Hsiao

    2007-01-01

    This article examines e-marketplace adoption difficulties from a contextualist perspective. The analysis of industrial characteristics will unearth the adopter’s supply chain practices and the contextual features which are unfavorable for e-marketplace deployment. To gain a deeper understanding, this research examines an unsuccessful e-marketplace adoption for agricultural industry in China. The tension created by the these two incongruent contexts results in a misaligned market, as a free-...

  9. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., ``Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  10. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  11. Managing the interface with marketing to improve delivery of pharmacovigilance within the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under pressure to improve the scientific quality of its decisions concerning the benefit and risks of its products while ensuring compliance with acceptable standards of marketing. All those in a pharmaceutical company who currently work within pharmacovigilance should be encouraged to lead from the front to examine ongoing marketing activities to see how they can be adapted more towards pharmacovigilance and risk management. The current irony is that the personnel who have the greatest influence on benefit-risk decisions of a product are not necessarily those who acknowledge that they are performing pharmacovigilance. Indeed, for all concerned, whether their orientation is scientific and commercial, effective communication with prescribers and consumers usually underpins product success. Also, a substantial 'marketing' budget is culturally acceptable for the pharmaceutical industry so it is logical to assume that resource for postmarketing activity is often made available. Given these realities, I suggest we should strive for an integrated marketing and risk-management plan based on the best available evidence and that being fully aware and in control of the safety issues for your products is the best way to commercialise them successfully. This approach can still be consistent with other corporate responsibilities such as trying to reduce the financial burden of product development. If this article stimulates further debate about how the pharmaceutical industry can more effectively organise resources and operations to support pharmacovigilance, risk management, and marketing, then it will have achieved its purpose.

  12. Strategy of innovative service industry management on the basis of marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.L. Piliushenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Necessity of development and implementation of the strategy of innovative development in the service industry has been proved. The structure of control mechanism improvement of service industry on the principals of marketing has been proposed and the prime factor limiting possibilities of marketing technologies development in the service industry have been specified. A role and significance of marketing instruments for innovative development of service industry as well as the prime factors of the marketing system influence on development of this branch have been determined. The proposed recommendations are base ones in formation of optimal managerial solutions as for the following development of enterprises in service industry. The results of the analysis. Progress of market attitudes in our country in many respects depends on formation of service economy within the limits of which a major factor defining effect, capacity at the most is to satisfy the requirement of the consumer. Today the role of area of services increases owing to creation of the certain social and economic conditions. They have resulted from scientific and technical progress, significant growth of labor productivity in manufacture of material benefits, as well as variations of value and a degree of urgency of satisfaction of various demands of a modern society. In this connection questions of influence of area of services on progress of a national economy or region, as well as methods of an assessment and increase of social and economic potential of service economy are very actual. Service industry development is impossible without development of such unified strategy of the development of service industry and its branches, which would provide the most effective solving of the existent problems. The unified strategy of development can be described as the strategy consisting of private development strategies of separate directions of service industry

  13. Markets during world oil supply crises: an analysis of industry, consumer, and governmental response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfle, Stephen; Pound, John; Kalt, Joseph

    1981-04-01

    An analysis of the response of American markets to supply crises in world oil markets is presented. It addresses four main issues: the efficiency of the operation of American oil markets during oil supply crises; the problems of both economic efficiency and social equity which arise during the American adaptation process; the propriety of the Federal government's past policy responses to these problems; and the relationship between perceptions of the problems caused by world oil crises and the real economic natures of these problems. Specifically, Chapter 1 presents a theoretical discussion of the effects of a world supply disruption on the price level and supply availability of the world market oil to any consuming country including the US Chapter 2 provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the efficiency of the adaptations of US oil product markets to higher world oil prices. Chapter 3 examines the responses of various groups of US oil firms to the alterations observed in world markets, while Chapter 4 presents a theoretical explanation for the price-lagging behavior exhibited by firms in the US oil industry. Chapter 5 addresses the nature of both real and imagined oil market problems in the US during periods of world oil market transition. (MCW)

  14. ELABORATION OF MARKETING STRATEGY OF RECOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF FISH INDUSTRY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushko N. A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of the fishery efficiency to the number of factors is determined. Dynamics of industry’s profitability is prognosticated. The strategy of development of fishery is fixed. Marketing strategy of reconstruction and development of the fish industry is worked out

  15. Patent and market research level and value of novelty products developed by industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Nagorniy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the basic approaches of scientists to identify and calculate the level of importance and novelty of new products, these major shortcomings you might encounter during its calculation. Propose their own methodology to determine the level of novelty and significance of the contemplated industrial products based on patent and market research.

  16. A Hierarchy Fuzzy MCDM Method for Studying Electronic Marketing Strategies in the Information Service Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Michael T.; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    In this paper, the impacts of Electronic Commerce (EC) on the international marketing strategies of information service industries are studied. In seeking to blend humanistic concerns in this research with technological development by addressing challenges for deterministic attitudes, the paper examines critical environmental factors relevant to…

  17. The effect of social influence on market inequalities in the motion picture industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, S.A.; Broekhuizen, T.L.J.; Jager, W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the degree to which two social influences, namely imitation and coordinated consumption, effectuate inequalities in the motion picture industry. We develop an agent-based model based on micro movie visitors' decision-making that generates the observed macro market outcom

  18. University-Industry Collaboration from a Relationship Marketing Perspective: An Empirical Analysis in a Spanish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasquet, Marta; Calderon, Haydee; Cervera, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    Building relationships between universities and industry bodies is of prime importance for creating value for universities' stakeholders. This paper focuses on relationships in relation to undergraduate internship programmes in the Social Sciences. Using the relationship marketing approach, we analyze this type of collaboration of firms with a…

  19. The United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Key results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of the US Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. The Market Assessment was sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The project's principal objectives were to create a detailed portrait of the inventory of motor systems currently in use in US industrial facilities, estimate motor system energy use and potential for energy savings. The research and analysis to support these objectives consisted primarily of on-site motor system inventories of a probability sample of 354 manufacturing facilities nationwide. In addition to characterizing the motor systems in use, the research effort also gathered detailed information on motor system management and purchasing practices. This paper presents key findings from the Market Assessment in regard to patterns of motor energy use, saturation of energy efficiency measures such as efficient motors and adjustable speed drives, and motor system purchase and maintenance practices.

  20. Industrial customer response to wholesale prices in the restructured Texas electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnikau, J. [Frontier Associates, Austin, TX (United States); The University of Texas at Austin, (United States). LBJ School of Public Affairs; Landreth, G.; Hallett, I. [The University of Texas at Austin, (United States). LBJ School of Public Affairs; Kumbhakar, S.C. [State University of New York at Binghamton, (United States)

    2007-09-15

    This paper estimates the demand responsiveness of the 20 largest industrial energy consumers in the Houston area to wholesale price signals in the restructured Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market. Statistical analysis of their load patterns employing a Symmetric Generalized McFadden cost function model suggests that ERCOT achieved limited success in establishing a market that facilitates demand response from the largest industrial energy consumers in the Houston area to wholesale price signals in its second year of retail competition. The muted price response is at least partially because energy consumers who opt to offer their ''interruptibility'' to the market as an ancillary service are constrained in their ability to respond to wholesale energy prices. (author)

  1. Growth of the Asian health-care market: global implications for the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard J

    2007-10-01

    The global economy is being transformed by an explosion of information unleashed by the internet, the digital revolution, communications and increased international mobility. This transformation is manifesting in many ways, including rapid development of countries such as China, commoditization of public services, mobilization of workforces, shifting of market control from suppliers to consumers, interlinked rises in product demand and customer expectations, and problems regulating international business competition. As Asia is home to half of the world's population, and offers both a large relatively low-cost workforce in some countries and a potentially huge retail market, this region could be central to the future of the global economy. Like other industries, the pharmaceutical industry faces a new array of Asia-specific opportunities and challenges. Success in meeting these challenges will go to those pharmaceutical companies that best understand the unique strengths and constraints of Asia's diverse cultures, talents and markets.

  2. An Analysis of Colombian Power Market Price Behavior from an Industrial Organization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Duarte Venslauskas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the behavior of spot prices in the Colombian wholesale power market, using a series of models derived from industrial organization theory.  We first create a Cournot-based model that simulates the strategic behavior of the market-leader power generators, which we use to estimate two industrial organization variables, the Index of Residual Demand and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI.  We use these variables to create VAR models that estimate spot prices and power market impulse-response relationships.  The results from these models show that hydroelectric generators can use their water storage capability strategically to affect off-peak prices primarily, while the thermal generators can manage their capacity strategically to affect on-peak prices.  In addition, shocks to the Index of Residual Capacity and to the HHI cause spot price fluctuations, which can be interpreted as the generators´ strategic response to these shocks.

  3. Linking Technology Capabilities to Marketing Requirements: Case of Indonesian Aircraft Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianto Suharto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The relationship between strategic technology planning and the overall business strategy has been one of the growing fields that attract much interest both from academics and industrials point of view. The increasingly important role that technology plays in today’s business success is well established.Strategic technology planning activities--within a corporate level--are often implemented by applying integrated planning instrument, which allow firms to consider both technology-oriented and product-oriented aspects. This paper is an attempt to explore the role of strategic planning in the high tech industry using a specific case of aerospace industry in Indonesia.  In order to compete effectively inthe open global marketplace, the company must learn to integrate technology managementwith strategic planning. In other words, all top managers have to linktheir technology capabilities to marketing requirements.Keywords:  technology planning; business strategy; technology capability; marketing requirement; strategic mix 

  4. Industrial Use of Distributed Generation in Real-Time Energy and Ancillary Service Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R.

    2001-10-24

    Industrial consumers of energy now have the opportunity to participate directly in electricity generation. This report seeks to give the reader (1) insights into the various types of generation services that distributed generation (DG) units could provide, (2) a mechanism to evaluate the economics of using DG, (3) an overview of the status of DG deployment in selected states, and (4) a summary of the communication technologies involved with DG and what testing activities are needed to encourage industrial application of DG. Section 1 provides details on electricity markets and the types of services that can be offered. Subsequent sections in the report address the technical requirements for participating in such markets, the economic decision process that an industrial energy user should go through in evaluating distributed generation, the status of current deployment efforts, and the requirements for test-bed or field demonstration projects.

  5. U.S. Energy Service Company (ESCO) Industry: Recent Market Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gilligan, Donald [National Association of Energy Service Companies, Washington DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study presents an analysis of the market size, growth projections and industry trends of the U.S. Energy Service Company (ESCO) industry, drawing on information provided by ESCO executives in late 2015. We define ESCOs as energy service companies for whom performance-based contracting is a core business offering. We identified forty-seven firms that met our definition of an ESCO.1 Forty-three of these companies responded to our requests for information, representing a 91% response rate.2 We also report 2014 ESCO industry revenues by market segment, region and business activity type, and for new versus existing customers. Finally, we report on use of tax incentives and financing tools, and incorporation of non-energy benefits into performance-based project economics. We summarize key findings below.

  6. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaqing Wu; Rui Song; Youan Wang; Feng Chen; Shubin Li

    2015-01-01

    The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT) and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the ...

  7. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  8. Interdependence and contagion among industry-level US credit markets: An application of wavelet and VMD based copula approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Nor, Safwan Mohd; Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Mensi, Walid

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the interdependence and contagion among US industry-level credit markets. We use daily data of 11 industries from 17 December 2007 to 31 December 2014 for the time-frequency, namely, wavelet squared coherence analysis. The empirical analysis reveals that Basic Materials (Utilities) industry credit market has the highest (lowest) interdependence with other industries. Basic Materials credit market passes cyclical effect to all other industries. The little "shift-contagion" as defined by Forbes and Rigobon (2002) is examined using elliptical and Archimedean copulas on the short-run decomposed series obtained through Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD). The contagion effects between US industry-level credit markets mainly occurred during the global financial crisis of 2007-08.

  9. Market Structure Differences Impacting Australian Iron Ore and Metallurgical Coal Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Steelmaking relies on iron ore and metallurgical coal as main ingredients, the trade of which is hypothesized to theoretically change in tandem. However, strong correlation is not evident in historical trade prices of steelmaking inputs. To determine causes to this occurrence, the market factors that influence the Australian iron ore and metallurgical coal industries were studied. Data was collected over the past decade for worldwide resource production and trade quantities of crude steel, iron ore, and metallurgical coal. The data was analysed to reveal trends, allowing examination of the macroeconomic trade of metallurgical coal and iron ore with relation to worldwide and country specific steel production. It was determined that the influential growth of China’s steel production has spurred the growth of worldwide iron ore demand, which was met with increased production and supply, from Australia. The increased metallurgical coal demand has been met with increased production within China locally. Measures of supply elasticity were created for worldwide iron ore and metallurgical coal trade, where comparisons between Australia’s industries to the relevant greatest competitor were examined. The results, along with respective resource production data, highlighted the elevated competitive position that Australian iron ore producers enjoy compared to metallurgical coal producers. Trade characteristics revealed the different market structures that iron ore and metallurgical coal industries operate in, prompting a discussion of the effects these markets have on the two Australian industries.

  10. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  11. Analysis of industrial design role in marketing of innovations and perfection of approaches to its monetary estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Makhnusha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the nature and characteristics of such object of intellectual property as an industrial design, discloses its role and place in the process of marketing of innovations, generalizes functions of the industrial design, improves classification of industrial designs and evaluation methodology of the industrial design by introducing the coefficient of importance of its aesthetic perception by consumers. Also the author presents review of statistics on the registration of industrial designs in Ukraine.

  12. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  13. The Dynamic Effects of Foreign Direct Investment to Food Processing Industry in Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we use the real exchange rate volatility to refer to the instability of financial markets; with the food processing companies’ output value fluctuation refers to the instability of macroeconomic. We construct a panel data model which including 80 companies’ for quantitative analysis, the model analysis the influence of output value growth in food processing industry that open FDI caused. We also have estimate and test to explain the real contact between the FDI opening and economic instability. The result shows that: Open FDI has significant influence to fluctuation of output value in food processing industry, the coefficient is 31.88. However, FDI does not have a stable effect on industrial output value. Instead, the fluctuations of FDI will deepen fluctuation of the country, cause industrial output value instability and may cause economic crisis.

  14. The impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty: A case study of mobile phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Pourdehghan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In today's highly competitive markets, keeping customers and retaining their loyalty is considered crucial in maintaining business. Companies and retailers also need to look for various marketing strategies in order to improve their customers’ loyalty. Having knowledge and skills about marketing is one of the capabilities which is required for success in the competition. In consumable markets, brands are the main points of differentiation between the competitive presentations, thus, they are crucial for the success of the companies. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty. The present study is applicable in terms of objective and descriptive survey in terms of data collection. To evaluate the model and hypotheses, data collection was carried out through surveying 384 mobile phone users. For data analysis and verification of the model, structural equation modeling approach (SEM and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used and based on the results of the path analysis, the relationship between the variables in the model is investigated. Results indicated the positive impact of products elements, distribution channels, and promotional activities on brand loyalty. Also, the findings showed that indexes of satisfaction and trust which are considered as mediating variables between marketing mix and brand loyalty had positive and significant impact on brand loyalty in the mobile phone industry.

  15. The effect of market orientation on performance efficiency of the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kheiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research assesses how the value of the customer perspective, market orientation and competitive advantages will affect organizational efficiency in hotel industry. All the two to five stars hotel of Tehran, Hamedan, Mashhad and Mazandaran province were selected as the population of this research via census method, which is a total of 206 hotels. Structural equation modeling was used to test eleven hypotheses. Research findings show that if hoteliers to understand the value of their customer's perspective properly, they will take both customer-oriented and competitor-oriented policies due to their situation. When customers are price sensitive, hotel managers tend to develop competitor- orientation. In addition the higher level of customer orientation and competitor orientation of a hotel can develop competitive advantages based on differentiation and innovation in the market and finally the advantages of market differentiation and innovation in the market, leading to greater market efficiency (Greater customer satisfaction and market share this would lead to financial returns (profits of the hotels.

  16. Development in Conducting Bus of RE-Al Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德富; 胡捷; 章萍芝; 石瑛; 李彦利

    2001-01-01

    Four kinds of deformed aluminum alloys were tested. One kind of RE-A1-Mg-Si alloy, which possessed high conductivity and strength, was the first priority by contrast test, The large specification bus of conducting aluminum all oys was made by thermomechanical process during the industrial experiment. The properties of the bus are as follows:the tensile strength σb is 238 MPa, the conductivity (v.s. IACS) is 54.3%, and the current-carrying capacity is beyond 3.1kA during working process. This kind of RE-Al alloy bus has been applied to several electrical transmitting and transforming work.

  17. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  18. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  19. Industrial Photovoltaic Systems: An Economic Analysis in Non-Subsidized Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems are becoming a relevant electricity source, characterised by a growing trend in the last years. This paper analyses the economic feasibility of investments in industrial PV systems of different sizes (200 kW, 400 kW, 1 MW, and 5 MW, in the absence of subsidies, and in a mature market (Italy. The selected indicators for this kind of assessment are net present value (NPV and discounted payback time (DPBT. Furthermore, the environmental advantage in comparison to fossil sources of energy is evaluated through the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions (ERcd. Finally, a sensitivity analysis on critical variables (percentage of self-consumed energy, average annual insolation rate, annual electricity purchase price, annual electricity sale price, unitary investment cost and opportunity cost is conducted. Results highlight the strategic role of self-consumption in a market characterised by an absence of public policy incentives and the presence of interesting economic opportunities for industrial applications.

  20. Liberalisation of the European Electricity Industry: Internal Market or National Champions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanico, F.

    2007-07-01

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector. Considering the complexity of this industry, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration of incumbents in the sector as a result of the liberalisation process. The new trend toward the creation of ''national champions'' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raised serious concerns about abuses of market power and risks of future collusion. Taking account of investment in interconnection as well as other international and regional experiences, the internal market issue is investigated as the solution to the''risks'' from liberalisation. (auth)

  1. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, Kasper; Hofherr, Johann;

    2016-01-01

    reared fish species were targeted. A total of 31 respondents contributed to the survey, representing 75 % of European breeding organizations. Family-based breeding schemes were predominant, but individual selection was more frequently applied in marine species. Artificial fertilization is the preferred...... of molecular tools is now common in all programs, mainly for pedigree traceability. An increasing number of programs use either genomic or marker-assisted selection. Results related to the seed production market confirmed that for Atlantic salmon there are a few dominant players at the European level, with 30......–50 % market share. Only part of the European fish aquaculture industry today fully exploits selective breeding to the best advantage. A larger impact assessment still needs to be made by the remainder, particularly on the market share of fish seed (eggs, larvae or juveniles) and its consequences for hatchery...

  2. Concurrent Engineering with IT-Tools for successful industrial products in a global market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses research results concerning Concurrent Engineering with IT-Tools for Successful Industrial Products on a Global Market. Concurrent Engineering, often is called just ¿CE¿, that is a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and related...... on the world market and the increasing global public demands, requirements and regulations for protection of the environment are both driving forces and challenges for improving the development of control and engineering design. There has always been an ongoing desire to develop and design systems to improve...... performance of products, productivity and efficiency of process operations. Smart use of simulation and modelling IT tools can improve many enterprises ability to compete and survive on the market. European Enterprises developing, designing and manufacturing hydraulic components and hydraulic systems...

  3. Oversight of marketing relationships between physicians and the drug and device industry: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Timothy Stoltzfus

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, complex mutually-dependent relationships exist between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device companies. This article focuses on one particular aspect of these relationships-payments made by drug and device companies to physicians and their organizations and institutions to market drugs and devices. It is widely believed that drug and device company marketing to physicians creates conflicts of interest that corrupt physician judgment and increase the cost of medical care. This article examines first the economic basis of physician/industry relationships that causes conflicts to arise. It next considers the measures that a number of developed countries have taken to respond to these relationships. Finally, it proposes an approach that would comprehensively address the problems caused by drug and device company marketing to physicians.

  4. Credibility engineering in the food industry: linking science, regulation, and marketing in a corporate context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Nelis, Annemiek P

    2011-12-01

    We expand upon the notion of the "credibility cycle" through a study of credibility engineering by the food industry. Research and development (R&D) as well as marketing contribute to the credibility of the food company Unilever and its claims. Innovation encompasses the development, marketing, and sales of products. These are directed towards three distinct audiences: scientific peers, regulators, and consumers. R&D uses scientific articles to create credit for itself amongst peers and regulators. These articles are used to support health claims on products. However, R&D, regulation, and marketing are not separate realms. A single strategy of credibility engineering connects health claims to a specific public through linking that public to a health issue and a food product.

  5. Industrial Marketing in Sport: Understanding Season Ticket Renewal Across Account Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton J. Warren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first to extend industrial (or business-to-business marketing principles to the market for traditional season tickets. In doing so, a three-dimensional characterization of the season ticket holder (STH is developed and provides a new foundation upon which market segmentation and ticket sales initiatives can be built. This study then uses this new framework to segment and examine the key renewal factor differences across STH account types. Specifically, group differences on perceived venue related and non-venue related barriers to renewal, overall product quality, and account representative relationship quality are analyzed. This study finds business-to-consumer (B2C accounts are more concerned with product quality and typical barriers to purchase as they consider renewing their account for the following season than business-to-business (B2B accounts. Additionally, this study finds B2C accounts report higher levels of intention to renew than B2B accounts.

  6. [Industry regulation and its relationship to the rapid marketing of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    In the market of medical devices, non-Japanese products hold a large part even in Japan. To overcome this situation, the Japanese government has been announcing policies to encourage the medical devices industry, such as the 5-year strategy for medical innovation (June 6, 2012). The Division of Medical Devices has been contributing to rapid marketing of medical devices by working out the standards for approval review and accreditation of medical devices, guidances on evaluation of medical devices with emerging technology, and test methods for biological safety evaluation of medical devices, as a part of practice in the field of regulatory science. The recent outcomes are 822 standards of accreditation for Class II medical devices, 14 guidances on safety evaluation of medical devices with emerging technology, and the revised test methods for biological safety evaluation (MHLW Notification by Director, OMDE, Yakushokuki-hatsu 0301 No. 20 "Basic Principles of Biological Safety Evaluation Required for Application for Approval to Market Medical Devices").

  7. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed.

  8. Consolidation in the Dialysis Industry, Patient Choice, and Local Market Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kevin F; Zheng, Yuanchao; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Ho, Vivian; Bhattacharya, Jay; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-11-09

    The Medicare program insures >80% of patients with ESRD in the United States. An emphasis on reducing outpatient dialysis costs has motivated consolidation among dialysis providers, with two for-profit corporations now providing dialysis for >70% of patients. It is unknown whether industry consolidation has affected patients' ability to choose among competing dialysis providers. We identified patients receiving in-center hemodialysis at the start of 2001 and 2011 from the national ESRD registry and ascertained dialysis facility ownership. For each hospital service area, we determined the maximum distance within which 90% of patients traveled to receive dialysis in 2001. We compared the numbers of competing dialysis providers within that same distance between 2001 and 2011. Additionally, we examined the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, a metric of market concentration ranging from near zero (perfect competition) to one (monopoly) for each hospital service area. Between 2001 and 2011, the number of different uniquely owned competing providers decreased 8%. However, increased facility entry into markets to meet rising demand for care offset the effect of provider consolidation on the number of choices available to patients. The number of dialysis facilities in the United States increased by 54%, and patients experienced an average 10% increase in the number of competing proximate facilities from which they could choose to receive dialysis (Pmarkets were highly concentrated in both 2001 and 2011 (mean Herfindahl-Hirschman Index =0.46; SD=0.2 for both years), but overall market concentration did not materially change. In summary, a decade of consolidation in the United States dialysis industry did not (on average) limit patient choice or result in more concentrated local markets. However, because dialysis markets remained highly concentrated, it will be important to understand whether market competition affects prices paid by private insurers, access to dialysis care

  9. Marketed marine natural products in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries: tips for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana; Vieira, Helena; Gaspar, Helena; Santos, Susana

    2014-02-17

    The marine environment harbors a number of macro and micro organisms that have developed unique metabolic abilities to ensure their survival in diverse and hostile habitats, resulting in the biosynthesis of an array of secondary metabolites with specific activities. Several of these metabolites are high-value commercial products for the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. The aim of this review is to outline the paths of marine natural products discovery and development, with a special focus on the compounds that successfully reached the market and particularly looking at the approaches tackled by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies that succeeded in marketing those products. The main challenges faced during marine bioactives discovery and development programs were analyzed and grouped in three categories: biodiversity (accessibility to marine resources and efficient screening), supply and technical (sustainable production of the bioactives and knowledge of the mechanism of action) and market (processes, costs, partnerships and marketing). Tips to surpass these challenges are given in order to improve the market entry success rates of highly promising marine bioactives in the current pipelines, highlighting what can be learned from the successful and unsuccessful stories that can be applied to novel and/or ongoing marine natural products discovery and development programs.

  10. Marketed Marine Natural Products in the Pharmaceutical and Cosmeceutical Industries: Tips for Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Martins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment harbors a number of macro and micro organisms that have developed unique metabolic abilities to ensure their survival in diverse and hostile habitats, resulting in the biosynthesis of an array of secondary metabolites with specific activities. Several of these metabolites are high-value commercial products for the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. The aim of this review is to outline the paths of marine natural products discovery and development, with a special focus on the compounds that successfully reached the market and particularly looking at the approaches tackled by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies that succeeded in marketing those products. The main challenges faced during marine bioactives discovery and development programs were analyzed and grouped in three categories: biodiversity (accessibility to marine resources and efficient screening, supply and technical (sustainable production of the bioactives and knowledge of the mechanism of action and market (processes, costs, partnerships and marketing. Tips to surpass these challenges are given in order to improve the market entry success rates of highly promising marine bioactives in the current pipelines, highlighting what can be learned from the successful and unsuccessful stories that can be applied to novel and/or ongoing marine natural products discovery and development programs.

  11. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism economy after its democratic transition. Historically, the South African hotel industry became dominated by one- and two-star budget accommodation as a result of the country’s liquor legislation. With the reconfiguration of the hotel industry after 1990 to target the growing international tourism market, the role of budget hotels changed. This analysis examines the diminished role of budget hotels in South Africa’s hotel economy, the shifting nature of the budget hotel and location patterns of budget hotels from 1990 to the present. It shows that post-1990 budget hotels are mainly concentrated in large cities and secondary centres of South Africa, and that in small towns the former liquor-focused budget hotel has been replaced by other forms of accommodation.

  12. A Dynamic Model of the Tragedy of the Commons in Marketing-Intensive Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a dynamic model and analyzes its process that may plunge the business ecosystem into ToC (the Tragedy of the Commons. When developing the model, we have in mind some industries where the marketing competition to secure a large installed base is intense. The social commerce industry is a representative example of this type of industries, but the scope of this study is not limited to the industry. We first introduce a previous study focusing on the static Nash equilibrium, and then present an extended version of the basic model in a dynamic perspective. According to our analyses on the dynamic equilibria together with their stability, there may be a unique interior equilibrium, but it is highly likely unstable. In addition, possible (near boundary equilibria are also unstable for a wide range of parameter values. We also conduct some numerical experiments and discover cycles as solutions to some particular instances. Since those cycles contain the ToC traps, a policy measure or regulation may need to be employed. Our approach and results will help to figure out a clue to escape from the ToC trap, thereby shedding new light on the sustainable growth of the business ecosystem, which is prone to excessive marketing competition.

  13. U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Satchwell, Andrew

    2012-08-21

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a ?top-down? approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a ?bottom-up? analysis of a database of ~;;3,250 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of a severe economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7percent per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues were about $4.1 billion in 2008 and ESCOs anticipate accelerated growth through 2011 (25percent per year). We found that 2,484 ESCO projects in our database generated ~;;$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20percent of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990-2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated ~;;$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. There is empirical evidence confirming that the industry is evolving by installing more comprehensive and complex measures?including onsite generation and measures to address deferred maintenance?but this evolution has significant implications for customer project

  14. Exploration of Factors Influencing the Customers’ Motivation in Buyer-supplier Relationships on Industrial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Markus Zunk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To gain a competitive advantage on industrial markets, suppliers need to understand what motivates their customers to collaborate in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper presents (i a literature-based model of a 12-part industrial customers’ motivation profile, and (ii empirical findings from an explorative survey of 118 decision makers in the purchasing departments of firms in the technology sector. The results indicate that, “the optimum value for money”, “the holistic problem-solving capability of the suppliers and their high degree of performance” and “the good assistance in economically hard times in the past, which has led to a feeling of gratefulness” are all of great importance to industrial customers for building and maintaining relationships.

  15. Review of U.S. ESCO industry market trends: An empirical analysis of project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Hopper, Nicole C.; Osborn, Julie G.; Singer, Terry E.

    2003-03-01

    This article summarizes a comprehensive empirical analysis of U.S. Energy Service Company (ESCO) industry trends and performance. We employ two parallel analytical approaches: a comprehensive survey of firms to estimate total industry size and a database of {approx}1500 ESCO projects, from which we report target markets and typical project characteristics, energy savings and customer economics. We estimate that industry investment for energy-efficiency related services reached US $2 billion in 2000 following a decade of strong growth. ESCO activity is concentrated in states with high economic activity and strong policy support. Typical projects save 150-200 MJ/m2/year and are cost-effective with median benefit/cost ratios of 1.6 and 2.1 for institutional and private sector projects. The median simple payback time is 7 years among institutional customers; 3 years is typical in the private sector. Reliance on DSM incentives has decreased since 1995. Preliminary evidence suggests that state enabling policies have boosted the industry in medium-sized states. ESCOs have proven resilient in the face of restructuring and will probably shift toward selling ''energy solutions,'' with energy efficiency part of a package. We conclude that a private sector energy-efficiency services industry that targets large commercial and industrial customers is viable and self-sustaining with appropriate policy support both financial and non-financial.

  16. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  17. Equal tariffs in the new market model of the gas industry; Die Gleichpreisigkeit im neuen Marktmodell der Gaswirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peper, F.; Huegging, T.; Fest, C. [viavera GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The new Energy Industry Act (Energiewirtschaftsgesetz - EnWG) will have consequences for the German gas industry, i.e. unbundling requirements and enforced cooperation and restructuring of grid operators. There is a controversial discussion going on between the gas industry, the grid users and the regulation authority, the focus of which is on the development and definition of a new network access model for the gas industry, especially the formation of new market zones and the resulting consequences for the processes of the market partners concerned. The contribution discusses the system of equal tariffs within a market zone, which is one aspect of the market model under discussion. Selected example are to illustrate the underlying systematics. (orig.)

  18. Urban Water Supply Industry Marketization of China in View of Public Water Service and Water Resource Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yining

    2010-01-01

    Started with the discussions on the value orientation of urban water supply industry marketization,the article points out that the current urban water supply industry marketization reform is inconsistent with the goal of public water service equalization to some extent.The article also analyzes the problems emerged in urban water supply industry marketization reform and various reasons in view of efficiency and fairness.An efficiency and fairness oriented management model is built in this article to illustrate how the government should conciliate interests of various communities involved in the process of marketization reform of the urban water supply industry so as to actualize the coordination of efficiency and fairness.At the end,an assumption on urban water price is put forward to help achieve the public water service equalization.

  19. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities: A conjoint study of purchase of vegetable oils in the mayonnaise and margarine industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Skytte, Hans

    Executive summary The purpose of this working paper is to study whether current market and technological developments in the vegetable oil industry can be used as the outset for a price and/or quality based segmentation of the major industrial markets for this product. More specifically we want......, then follows current developments in the demand and technology conditions on the market for vegetable oil. Later we discuss how concepts from industrial buying behaviour can add to the understanding of commodity buying and segmentati Following this a conjoint model of vegetable oil procurement in the vegetable....../S, and the MAPP Centre. The majority of theoretically-founded segmentation studies in industrial buying behaviour has dealt with large investments or technologically complex products, whereas research in commodities is almost non-existent. Based on the results of a preliminary study, this paper argues...

  20. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  1. ٍEffect of Market Structure on Intra Industry Trade in Iran and its Main Trading Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aminolah ْghaedan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From the late 1970s there were attempts to remove the restrictive assumptions of conventional theories, especially assuming perfect competition market, according to a new hypothesis. New model, the previous forecast in the area of international trade was substantially changed. Specifically because of comparative advantage in international trade went beyond mere given the market structure, imperfect competition, and compatibility with new models, the market was also important. Although considerable theoretical debate about the role of market structure in international trade taken, empirical studies in this field, particularly for developing countries has been limited. Study as an effort in this regard, importance and impact of market structure in IIT and IIT is final. For this purpose, the value added of industry market structure considered for and the calculation of IIT in the six digit level of aggregation is the business hierarchy. The model based on panel data for the period 1997-2006 and the importance of market structure in the inter-industry trade MIIT has been reviewed and finalized. The results of the present study are consistent with the patterns of competition within the industry trade monopoly. To be more precise, despite the low degree of market concentration that changing the market structure is monopolistic competition, significant impact on the business structure of industry and commerce within the industry, it is Iran's major trading partners. Given that economic growth and development in the context of new patterns of international trade Reduce the share of total trade between industries are trade, the results can be economic policy, especially in the industrial sector business development strategy is important.

  2. Tobacco industry marketing, population-based tobacco control, and smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P

    2007-12-01

    Two of the major influences of cigarette smoking behavior are tobacco industry marketing and public health tobacco-control activities. These vie with each other to influence the proportion of each generation who initiate smoking, the intensity level reached by smokers, and the time before smokers are able to quit successfully. This article provides a brief summary of the evidence associating tobacco marketing practices (organized under the four "Ps" of marketing), with smoking behavior. The evidence for causality in this association is considered convincing. Publicly funded, comprehensive, statewide tobacco-control programs were introduced into the United States in the late 1980s, with money either from tobacco taxes or from legal settlements of states with the tobacco industry. These programs use organized statewide approaches to implement current recommendations on "best practices" to discourage tobacco use, recommendations that have changed over time. During the 1990s, "best practices" evolved to include protection against secondhand smoke, sale of cigarettes to minors, and restrictions on tobacco advertising. Evaluations have been published on four statewide tobacco-control programs (Sydney/Melbourne, California, Massachusetts, and Florida) and a national program aimed at youth (American Legacy Program). For each program, there was a positive association with reduced smoking. The evidence supporting the conclusion that tobacco-control programs reduce smoking behavior is evaluated as strong.

  3. Marketing alcohol to young people: implications for industry regulation and research policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M C; Hastings, G; Wheeler, C; Eadie, D; Mackintosh, A M

    2000-12-01

    This paper focuses on the marketing of alcohol to young people in the United Kingdom, but the lessons that emerge have international significance. Alcohol is a global enterprise and recent consolidation means that it is controlled by a decreasing number of expanding multi-nationals. Alcohol companies are able to allocate significant resources to researching consumer preferences, developing new products and promoting them on an international level. Recent years have seen a growth in the value that youth culture attaches to brand labels and symbols and a move away from the healthy-living ethos. The alcohol industry's response to these trends has been to design alcoholic beverages that appeal to young people, using well-informed and precisely targeted marketing strategies. This has led to growing concerns about the implications for public health and a demand for tighter controls to regulate alcohol marketing practices. In the United Kingdom, controls on alcohol are piecemeal and reactive and the current system of voluntary regulation appears ineffective. This paper argues for more research to establish current industry practice and inform the development of a comprehensive regulatory structure and system of monitoring.

  4. From commodity to customer value : the transition from a production-oriented to a market-oriented European dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everwand, W.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2007-01-01

    The European food industry has been regulated for a long time. Since the 1960s, the European market has been protected from imports by relatively high taxes. Companies in Europe therefore never had to fear real competition from outside the Union in their domestic markets. This changed, when, due to

  5. Theoretical and Practical Aspects of the Competitiveness’ assessment of dairy industry at the Ukraine’s dairy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy Shkarlet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents theoretical foundation of the assessment urgency of the competitiveness in the current market conditions. Put the competitive assessment of three enterprises of Ukraine’s dairy industry. Enterprise must clearly understand the extent in which it is competitive at the market and can compared with the competitors. The high competitiveness standard is a guarantee of high performance obtaining and ensuring of survival at the strict conditions of a market economy. The competitiveness is an abstract but not exact quantity, which greatly complicates the assessment process. Dairy is one of the leading in food industry. Dairy products are vitally important for everyone; therefore it’s necessary to pay special attention to the development of industry. The assessment of competitiveness will facilitate to the development of dairy industry in general. In the article compute the integral competitiveness index for three enterprises of dairy industry, and put the SWOT-analysis of leading company and least competitive enterprise

  6. 2014 U.S. Offshore Wind Market Report: Industry Trends, Technology Advancement, and Cost Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Aaron; Stehly, Tyler; Walter Musial

    2015-09-29

    2015 has been an exciting year for the U.S. offshore wind market. After more than 15 years of development work, the U.S. has finally hit a crucial milestone; Deepwater Wind began construction on the 30 MW Block Island Wind Farm (BIWF) in April. A number of other promising projects, however, have run into economic, legal, and political headwinds, generating much speculation about the future of the industry. This slow, and somewhat painful, start to the industry is not without precedent; each country in northern Europe began with pilot-scale, proof-of-concept projects before eventually moving to larger commercial scale installations. Now, after more than a decade of commercial experience, the European industry is set to achieve a new deployment record, with more than 4 GW expected to be commissioned in 2015, with demonstrable progress towards industry-wide cost reduction goals. DWW is leveraging 25 years of European deployment experience; the BIWF combines state-of-the-art technologies such as the Alstom 6 MW turbine with U.S. fabrication and installation competencies. The successful deployment of the BIWF will provide a concrete showcase that will illustrate the potential of offshore wind to contribute to state, regional, and federal goals for clean, reliable power and lasting economic development. It is expected that this initial project will launch the U.S. industry into a phase of commercial development that will position offshore wind to contribute significantly to the electric systems in coastal states by 2030.

  7. Entrepreneurial developments and small scale industry contribution to Nigerian national development- A marketing interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available : In both developed and developing countries, the government is turning to small and medium scale industries and entrepreneurs, as a means of economic development and a veritable means of solving problems. It is a seedbed of innovations, inventions and employment. Entrepreneurship is as old as Nigeria and had contributed to the growth of the economy. Presently in Nigeria, SMEs assist in promoting the growth of the country’s economy, hence all the levels of government at different times havepolicies which promote the growth and sustenance of SMEs. This paper identifies the orientation of SME’s and entrepreneurial trends in Nigeria, tackles the operational definition and scopes, and describes the role of the Nigerian government as a participant, regulator and facilitator, both legally and politically in the growth of SMEs and entrepreneurship. It identifies the marketing problems of SMEs and entrepreneurships in Nigeria, the provision and enactment of beneficial and supportive laws, the provision of infrastructural facilities, constant man-power and development, direct financial assistance to SMEs and the establishment of finance institutions to support SMEs. It identifies the roles of SMEs in Nigeria’s development and growth. It discusses the entrepreneurial thoughts, problems and advance practical marketing solution. It concludes by clearly specifying the role of marketing to the survival of SMEsand entrepreneurship in Nigeria, and relevant recommendations. For SMEs to survive marketing practice and principles must be given prominence.

  8. An investigation on marketing mix efforts on brand equity: An empirical investigation in mobile phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safaei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical study to investigate the effects of different marketing efforts on brand equity in mobile industry. The proposed study of this paper distributes a questionnaire consists of 26 questions including loyalty, quality perception, awareness, exclusiveness, word of mouth advertisement, brand name image, advertisement, price, distribution and guarantee. A sample 428 people are selected in a city of Tehran/Iran and they are asked to reply questions on Likert based. The results show that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between marketing mix efforts and brand equity. In other words, more advertisements could help better market exposure, which means customers will have more awareness on market characteristics. Among all mixed efforts, guarantee influences more on brand equity, which means consumers care more on product services than other features. Finally, among different characteristics of brand equity, product exclusiveness plays an important role. In other words, people are interested in having exclusive product, which is different from others.

  9. The Role of Using Social Media in the Performance of Manufacturers in Industrial Marketing (Case Study: Industries in western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Tajzadeh Namin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media are always considered as an important source for industrial marketing research. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of social media on the manufacturers’ performance in western Iran. For this purpose, the impact of using social media on variables, includingmanufacturers’ personal goals ( Bulletin et al., 2011, The benefits of research media (Homburg et al., 2010; Schultz, 2012, support of producers from each (Schultz et al., 2012, manufacturers’ characteristics (Kotler and Keller, 2012 and manufacturers’ perceptions (McShane and Von, 2005. The questionnaire containing 37 indicators confirmed by experts was used to measure the variables. The present study was a descriptive-correlational research in terms of the method. The sample was randomly selected. The population of this study consisted of all manufacturers in the provinces of Kurdistan, Kermanshah, and Ilam. The statistical sample included 90 manufactures. The results showed that the use of social media in order to align personal goals with industrial purposes with an emphasis on the characteristics and perceptions of manufacturers has a considerable impact on increasing their performance.

  10. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  11. Estimating Demand Response Market Potential Among Large Commercialand Industrial Customers:A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Cappers, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Demand response is increasingly recognized as an essentialingredient to well functioning electricity markets. This growingconsensus was formalized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT), whichestablished demand response as an official policy of the U.S. government,and directed states (and their electric utilities) to considerimplementing demand response, with a particular focus on "price-based"mechanisms. The resulting deliberations, along with a variety of stateand regional demand response initiatives, are raising important policyquestions: for example, How much demand response is enough? How much isavailable? From what sources? At what cost? The purpose of this scopingstudy is to examine analytical techniques and data sources to supportdemand response market assessments that can, in turn, answer the secondand third of these questions. We focus on demand response for large(>350 kW), commercial and industrial (C&I) customers, althoughmany of the concepts could equally be applied to similar programs andtariffs for small commercial and residential customers.

  12. [Aiming for the adolescent market: internet and video games, the new strategies of the tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to tobacco advertisement is associated with smoking initiation among the youth, its elimination is a key objective to effectively curb the tobacco epidemic. Historically, the tobacco industry has pioneered the use of new communication technologies to keep and expand their market. Nowadays, Internet and video games have transcended the entertainment sphere, becoming significant media for massive communication and providing new opportunities for advertisement. The present essay reviews the existing literature on tobacco presence in the Internet and video games to define research and policy tasks required to develop effective means for tobacco advertisement regulation and control.

  13. Marketing Situation of Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited (ICBC) Anhui Anqing Branch

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Ltd. (ICBC) is the largest bank of the four state-owned commercial banks in China. The bank has many provincial branches and one of them is the Commercial Bank of China Ltd (ICBC) Anhui Anqing Branch situated in the City of Anqing. The objective of this thesis was to study the market situation of ICBC Anhui Anqing Branch in Anqing city and to find out the main problems in the operation of the bank. Both a quantitative questionnaire survey and qualit...

  14. Globalised Markets and Localised Needs. Relocating Design Competence in a New Industrial Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Globalisation implies several phenomena, such as the expansion of markets and the relocation of production. However the success of global production is linked to business companies’ capability to generate local and individualized solutions. In order to put together global production and local...... solutions, industries have to develop a new capability to mobilize local networks of actors and enable final customers to play an active role in the production of the final solution. This implies a radical change in the social role of business companies and, from the designer’s perspective, a genetic change...

  15. 77 FR 48592 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... authorized by 49 U.S.C. 5309(b), as amended by Section 3011 of the Safe, Affordable, Flexible, Efficient... Livability Initiatives (77 FR 6178). The NOFA explained the requirements and procedures for eligible... facilities, bus-related equipment, and transit asset management systems. The FY 2012 Bus...

  16. Strategi Pemasaran Mebel Kayu Sentra Industri Kecil Pondok Bambu, Jakarta Timur (Wood Furniture Marketing Strategy on Pondok Bambu Small Industry Centre, East Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Hero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Furniture is one of wood products to fulfill the household needs, especially for household furnishing. Wood product which is used for furniture tends to decrease because of the substitution products, i.e.: plastic, rattan, bamboo, glass, and metal. To continue their effort, small industries in Indonesia face hard problems and challanges. To solve the hard problems and challenges, then a new marketing strategy through the study on marketing strategy of small wood-furniture industry is needed. This research objectives are to know several factors which have relation toward marketing of woodfurniture and compile alternative small industrial marketing strategy of wood-furniture. Research conducts in Small Industry Centre, Pondok Bambu, East Jakarta from June to July 2008. Some tools are used in this research, such as: questionaire, calculator, camera, and stationery. The method of data collection is purposive sampling with total amount of responden is 30 people-small industry owners. Data analysis uses regression and SWOT method (Strength, Weaknesses. Opportunities, Threath. Result of the research for the regression equation of wood-furniture marketing Y= 9,001 - 0,6798 X1 - 1,4834 X2 - 1,4834 X3 + 0,4818 X4 with value R2 is equal to 51.3%. Linearity test model indicates that F Calculated is 6.57 in significat level α = 1%. Factors that influence wood-furniture marketing of sale volume are variation of product, wood-furniture price, distribution system and promotion. The relation between sale volume with variable of product variation, wood-furniture price, and distribution system is significant with negative direction. It means that smaller product variation, lower wood-furniture price, and more efficient distribution system; will effect to higher sale volume. Whereas the relation between sale volume with variable of promotion is not significant with positive direction. It

  17. Plunkett's E-Commerce & Internet Business Almanac 2012 E-Commerce & Internet Business Industry Market Research, Statistics, Trends & Leading Companies

    CERN Document Server

    Plunkett, Jack W

    2012-01-01

    Market research guide to the e-commerce and Internet business-a tool for strategic planning, competitive intelligence, employment searches or financial research. Contains trends analysis, globalization, trade, statistical tables and an industry glossary. Includes our profiles of nearly 450 top e-commerce and internet industry firms, featuring addresses, phone numbers and executive names.

  18. Business management practices in the power industry: Decision making in a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.H. [Fieldstone Private Capital Group, New York, NY (United States); Rosel, V. [Fieldstone Private Capital Group, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Management of a free market power industry, or managing the transition from a planned economy to a free market one, is driven by a fundamental economic premise - it is unrealistic (and economically unsound) to try to shelter end users (manufacturers or otherwise) from the true cost of energy: (i) energy prices are a function of fuel inputs (ii) fuel inputs are world priced (iii) end users must pay prices based on true costs Trying to counter any of these dictates will cause economic inefficiencies and misallocations. Managers of energy production in a free market economy must therefore learn to acquire data, and learn to extrapolate. As information is never complete, or perfect, managers must learn to consider contingencies, alternatives and options. In a free market economy, the decision to build a power facility is not controlled simply by the recognition of a perceived need for more power in an area. Because survival in a free market economy requires making a profit, as part for the decision process managers must: (i) talk to their customers to determine power needs into the future (ii) talk to their input suppliers, and arrange contracts (iii) make sure that there is a spread between cost and revenue As stated this is a simple recipe, but is difficult in practice. To perform any forecasting, managers must acquire control over cost, so as to have a base from which to judge the continued profitability or potential profitability, of any current activity or future ventures. It should be noted that planning for the future is difficult at any time but even more so when moving through an era where in the entire economy is undergoing systemic changes. Historic customer base, and historic supply arrangements, may not mean much. Therefore, managers must keep acquiring information, and updating forecasts.

  19. Exhibition activity as effective tool of industrial products promoting into new sales markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Bozhkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article presents comparative analysis of exhibition and fair activities, reviews essence of such definitions as «exhibition» and «fair», generalizes and systematizes classification of different kinds of exhibitions, grounds expediency of application of this marketing communication tool when outputting industrial products into new sales markets. The results of the analysis. The article analyzes the exhibition activities as one of the current and future marketing communication tools of domestic enterprises. Examples of the largest exhibition centers in Ukraine in general, and in the Sumy region in particular are shown. The essence of the concept of «exhibition» and definition of «fair» are analysed. It is noted that the main difference between these measures is in their form (product demonstration, explanation of the features and operation of its production or sale of goods. It is indicated the appearance synthesized measures («sales exhibitions», «fairs» that share features of both types of events. An exhibition benefits for businesses as measures that outline the prospects of certain activities and is a kind of «window into the future». It is indicated that costs about a third of the budget for the communication exhibitions is economically feasible and effective. It is considered mission, goals and objectives of exhibitions. The comparative analysis of exhibition and fair activities, which have different and common features associated with unique capabilities informing different target audiences about competitive advantagesof certain producers, which allowed the application of the noted features exhibitions to domestic producers. It is proved that the task of removing domestic products to new markets (especially international, weak enterprises survive the economic crisis, a successful competition in the various markets, the increase in sales is impossible to realize without this tool of marketing

  20. PERFORMANCE OF BUS LANES IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin KIM

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance impacts of reserved bus lanes in Seoul were evaluated and several suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the bus preferential treatment are proposed. The impacts of reserved bus lanes on both bus and auto performance were primarily measured by the relative speed changes of buses and autos and the average circulation rate of bus trips. Empirical results showed that the bus lanes were successful in improving average bus performance compared with other adjacent traffic. It was confirmed that right turning movement of the buses would cause the deterioration of bus speed in the curbside bus lanes. The average circulation rate of daily bus trips during the bus operation periods was somewhat increased by the bus lane introduction. A current warrant for reserved bus lanes in Korea was reviewed, and average bus speed during peak periods was proposed as a new warrant. In order to improve the effectiveness of the reserved bus lane, the type of lane markings in reserved bus lane, enforcement strategies for illegal parking in the bus lane and FIFO service at bus stops are discussed.

  1. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  2. OVERVIEW OF THE INDUSTRIAL MARKET IN ROMANIA. IMPLICATIONS FROM THE ORGANIZATIONAL CONSUMER PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays research in consumer behaviour has become really useful in understanding consumer needs regarding the use of products or services. Despite the tremendous work carried out in the field of consumer behaviour, few studies have concentrated on the organizational consumers as main buyers in the market. In this regard, considering the economic sectors of Romania, the main purpose of the article consists in characterizing the national industrial buyers taking into consideration the organizational consumer approach. Using an empirical study based on the macroeconomic indicators published by the Romanian National Institute of Statistics, we aimed to identify the components of the organizational market in Romania. In this regard, we selected several statistical indicators specific for the agriculture sector which can help us understand the behaviour of the organizations from this area considering the buying perspective. The results obtained demonstrate that although there are many macroeconomic indicators in the agriculture sector (43 few of them (19 provide significant information regarding the industrial buying behaviour among Romanian firms from this area.

  3. Does tobacco industry marketing of 'light' cigarettes give smokers a rationale for postponing quitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Emery, Sherry; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine further whether tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is perceived by smokers as a health claim. Smokers might view low tar/nicotine brands of cigarettes as a means to reduce the harm to their health from smoking and postpone quitting. Data were from smokers responding to a large, population-based survey of Californians' smoking behavior, conducted in 1996 (8,582 current smokers). Sixty percent of smokers thought the labels light and ultra-light referred to low tar/nicotine cigarettes, or otherwise implied a health claim. This percentage was higher for smokers of low tar/nicotine brands. Among smokers of regular brands, the more highly addicted, those who were trying unsuccessfully to quit, those who had cut consumption or thought about it, and those with health concerns were more likely to have considered switching. While some of these characteristics also were associated with smokers of low tar/nicotine brands, the associations were not as numerous or as strong. We conclude that some smokers appear to view low tar/nicotine brands as one short-term strategy to reduce the harm to their health from smoking without quitting. By implying reduced tar or nicotine exposure, tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is misleading smokers. The use of such labels should be regulated.

  4. 竞合行为对装备制造业市场拓展的影响%The Effects of Competition from Market Expansion of Equipment Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭升; 王雅洁

    2013-01-01

    Though the sample of China's equipment manufacturing industry, it contained 20 listed companies market bus-iness data. The paper invests on competing for market expansion effects. From the Angle of Market efficiency Market share product difference. The study found that the different competing different competing organizational have different effect on market development market developed depend on competing which diverse organization. Competition does not necessarily lead to market monopoly degree of increase. From the analysis of the data to see the correlation union forms more competition can lead to the change of enterprise relative market efficiency. Based on scale league form of competition is more advantageous to the product differentiation. In market entry, the two types of competition did not differ significantly. Obviously, the equipment manufacturing industry how to rational dark look competition behavior and implement strategy to participate in international competition become a problem to be solved.%以我国装备制造业20家上市公司的市场经营数据为样本,从市场效率、市场份额、产品差异等角度考察竞合对市场拓展产生的影响。研究发现,竞合行为的模式不同对装备制造业市场拓展产生的影响也不同,竞合行为并不会必然使双方都获得收益。从分析数据看,以关联联盟形式进行的竞合更能导致企业相对市场效率的改变,以规模联盟形式进行的竞合更有利于产品差异化,而在市场进入方面两种形式的竞合没有显著差异。显然,装备制造业如何理性选择竞合行为和实施策略以参与国际竞争成为亟待解决的问题。

  5. Internal Market Orientation Framework as a Source of Improving Service Quality within the Malaysian Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahap J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is developed as a means to discover the importance of improving service quality within the Malaysian Hotel Industry. To support that contention it was found that there are a number of methodologies or approaches that can be used to improve service delivery. Recent publications show that there is an emerging methodology sought to improve employee performance and one of the approaches are known as Internal Market Orientation. The Internal Market Orientation model consists of three dimensions and they are: i Internal Market Intelligence Generation (IMIG, ii Internal Communication (IC, and iii Response to Intelligence (RTI. Despite of that this study will only highlight the third dimensions of the framework that is Response to Intelligence. A number of conclusive findings were found and it can be used to enhance employee performance and it is as well has the ability to improving the quality of service towards hotel guests. Notwithstanding, the findings of this study can be used to improve the competitive advantage of Malaysian Hotels and therefore, assisting the country to achieve competitiveness and leads to the creation of premier tourist destination in the world.

  6. Industry Perspectives on Market Access of Innovative Drugs: The Relevance for Oncology Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Kim; Huys, Isabelle; Casteels, Minne; Simoens, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Key Points - Representatives of the pharmaceutical industry call for a broader recognition of value within the assessment and appraisal of innovative drugs- Focus on value within the assessment and appraisal of drugs is jeopardized by financial drives as the side of industry and at the side of the payers- A well-considered value-framework, with attention for patient reported outcomes, societal preferences and dynamic approach on the drug life cycle, needs to be incorporated in assessment and appraisal at national and European level in order to coordinate the views of different stakeholders and allow efficient resource allocation This study presents industry perspectives on the challenges related to market access of innovative drugs in general and oncology drugs in specific. Fifteen interviews were conducted with representatives of pharmaceutical companies and industry associations. Interviewees call for a broader recognition of value within the assessment and appraisal of drugs. According to interviewees, focus on value is jeopardized by the lack of a common value definition across Europe, poor availability and validity of value measures and cost-saving measures such as external reference price setting and cost-effectiveness analysis at the side of the payers. Centralized assessment of relative-effectiveness at European level would provide a common value estimate across member states, independent of financial drivers. Empirical evidence on PRO and societal preferences is however essential in the development of a value definition. Furthermore, value-based pricing would imply a dynamic approach where the price is differentiated across indications and across the lifecycle of the drug, especially in fields such as oncology. Financial drivers however also threat the application of value-based pricing at the side of the industry, making value-based profitability a more appropriate term.

  7. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 2. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  8. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  9. Nash equilibrium strategy in the deregulated power industry and comparing its lost welfare with Iran wholesale electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of different types of auctions in market designing, modeling of participants' behaviors to evaluate the market structure is one of the main discussions in the studies related to the deregulated power industries. In this article, we apply an approach of the optimal bidding behavior to the Iran wholesale electricity market as a restructured electric power industry and model how the participants of the market bid in the spot electricity market. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept composed of large numbers of players having discrete and very large strategy spaces. Then, we compute and draw supply curve of the competitive market in which all generators' proposed prices are equal to their marginal costs and supply curve of the real market in which the pricing mechanism is pay-as-bid. We finally calculate the lost welfare or inefficiency of the Nash equilibrium and the real market by comparing their supply curves with the competitive curve. We examine 3 cases on November 24 (2 cases) and July 24 (1 case), 2012. It is observed that in the Nash equilibrium on November 24 and demand of 23,487 MW, there are 212 allowed plants for the first case (plants are allowed to choose any quantity of generation except one of them that should be equal to maximum Power) and the economic efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 2.77 times as much as the real market. In addition, there are 184 allowed plants for the second case (plants should offer their maximum power with different prices) and the efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 3.6 times as much as the real market. On July 24 and demand of 42,421 MW, all 370 plants should generate maximum energy due to the high electricity demand that the economic efficiency or social welfare of the Nash equilibrium is about 2 times as much as the real market.

  10. The Myth of the "Ideal Bus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Does as an ideal bus technology exist? Many companies have and will promote a single technology as the ideal bus that will meet all application needs, but in actuality, each bus technology has its own strengths and weaknesses and thus is appropriate for different applications. History has shown the folly of claiming an ideal bus for every application.

  11. High-Speed Ring Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  12. Industry Upgrading-Aiming at the Targeted Market Demand of New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According to the projections from relevant sources, in the next 50 years, the world fiber consumption will continue to grow at the rate of 2% annually, and the fiber growth will rely largely on the increased production of chemical fiber and other new fibers. And also from international sources, about a quarter of the existing yarn-spinning capacity is excessive, and 13% of the weaving capacity is also overloaded on a global basis. Therefore, it can be affirmed that in the early days of the new century, the market of China’s textile machinery rests largely with the renovation and technical upgrading programs in the existing capacities in our textile industry, apart from a few capacity-in-creasing proiects

  13. A data mining method for service marketing: A case study of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Taghva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important objectives of any modern organization is to gain competitive advantage of customers' data. In order to find hidden patterns or models from data, application of modern and steady methodologies is a necessity. Banking industry is not exceptional from this trend and they may often wish to make more profit by providing appropriate services to potential customers. Analyzing databases to manage customer behaviors seems difficult since databases are multi-dimensional, comprised of monthly account records and daily transactional records. Therefore, to analyze databases, we propose a methodology by considering human factors and building an integrated data utilization system. Moreover, self-organizing neural network map is used to identify groups of customers based on repayment behavior, recency, frequency, and monetary behavioral scoring predicators. We also perform more analysis using Apriori association rule to make marketing strategies for services used by banks.

  14. 钾肥产业市场与消费%Potassic Fertilizer Industry: Market and Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏成广

    2013-01-01

    据不同学者的研究,我国年钾肥需求量分别为8 690 kt和8406 kt;由于生物钾肥补充量增多,减少了作物钾肥用量,估计7 500 kt/a钾肥即可满足我国农业生产需求.分析了中国和国际钾肥市场情况及未来发展趋势,重点概述了目前国内、外在建和已建成的重点钾肥项目.由于国际钾肥价格上涨,各国都开始发展钾肥产业,全球钾肥产能将过剩.对未来钾肥产业的发展给出了建议,即需要协调的发展机制以及需要建立和谐的钾肥市场体系.%According to study by various scholars, the annual domestic demand for potassic fertilizers amounts to 8 690 kt or 8 406 kt; with an increase in the supply of bio-potassic fertilizers, the consumption of potassic fertilizers on crops decreases, and it is estimated that 7 500 kt/a of potassic fertilizers are sufficient for domestic agricultural production. An analysis is made of the domestic and international potassic fertilizer market and future development trend, with emphasis on the summary of the present key domestic and overseas potassic fertilizer projects commercialized and under construction. As the international price of potassic fertilizers rises, every country starts to develop the potassic fertilizer industry, so the global capacity will be in surplus. Suggestions are given on the future growth of the industry, I. E., need for a harmonious development mechanism and establishment of a coordinating potassic fertilizer market system.

  15. Factors of leadership in the world market of mechanical industry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Gerasymchuk

    2015-09-01

    necessary to envisage the presence of several blocks in the structure of strategy of engineer development: basic problems of engineer development; pre-conditions for forming of effective industrial politics; analysis of reasons of problem origin and ground of necessity of its decision by a programmatic method; the aim of the strategy; determination of optimal variant of problem decision; ways and methods for problem decision, terms for implementation of all strategy measures; organizational mechanism of the development, acceptance and realization of strategy; expected results of strategy implementation, determination of its efficiency; estimation of financial, material, technical, and labor resources which are necessary for strategy implementation; control after strategy realization. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The state of the country in such primary objectives must be realized in a maximal degree and can be highly developed considering the increase of people welfare and defense of their interests. Factors of success are the presence of leader and programs of strategic and tactical changes. Decisions are influenced by the next constituents: historical traditions – classical learning – front-rank science – powerful industry – developed economy – high quality of life – sustainable development. Powerful industry is innovative productions, foremost, in industries of engineer, with the high stake of value added in the produced products for providing of necessities of both internal and external market. The increasing necessities of citizens of the state can be satisfied only in the conditions of high-performance and rich in content labor in all spheres of vital functions. Theory, methodology and practical experience of successes and failures in the development, acceptance and realization of the programs of industrial complex development on the whole and engineers, in particular, are known. There is a need in perfection of the system of

  16. Regulation and market power in the Spanish liquefied petroleum gas industry: Progress or failure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Alejandro; Huerta, Emilio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering. (author)

  17. EU-MOLDOVA TRADE RELATIONS: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF MOLDOVAN INDUSTRIES ON THE SINGLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana SANDU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Engaging on the long road of implementing the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the EU in 2010, Moldova is now closer than ever to being included in the most privileged category of the Eastern neighbouring countries - those who have chosen to deepen the European economic integration. The Vilnius Summit in November 2013 has reinforced the ‘more for more’ principle for both Moldova and Georgia by emphasizing, at the same time, the role of reactive measures and financial aid in counterbalancing aggressive trade barriers from non-EU states. Not only has Moldova proved to efficiently capitalize the provisions of the ATP agreement since 2008, but it has also consequently received more support from the EU in boosting exports to the single market. The wine industry was the first to benefit from the free-trade regime, as for the EU decision of eliminating quotas from the beginning of 2014. Nonetheless, the progressive liberalisation of trade flows between Moldova and the EU would finally oppose two asymmetric partners. Consequently, Moldova is facing the challenge of asserting its value on the EU market, by yet not undermining the relevance of other important trading partners nearby.

  18. Tracing the transition path between optimal strategies combinations within a competitive market of innovative industrial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In several cases, a competitive market can be simulated by a game, where each company/opponent is referred to as a player. In order to accommodate the fact that each player (alone or with alliances) is working against some others' interest, the rather conservative maximin criterion is frequently used for selecting the strategy or the combination of strategies that yield the best of the worst possible outcomes for each one of the players. Under this criterion, an optimal solution is obtained when neither player finds it beneficial to alter his strategy, which means that an equilibrium has been achieved, giving also the value of the game. If conditions change as regards a player, e.g., because of either achieving an unexpected successful result in developing an innovative industrial product or obtaining higher liquidity permitting him to increase advertisement in order to acquire a larger market share, then a new equilibrium is reached. The identification of the path between the old and the new equilibrium points may prove to be valuable for investigating the robustness of the solution by means of sensitivity analysis, since uncertainty plays a critical role in this situation, where evaluation of the payoff matrix is usually based on experts' estimates. In this work, the development of a standard methodology (including 16 activity stages and 7 decision nodes) for tracing this path is presented while a numerical implementation follows to prove its functionality.

  19. The Competitiveness of Exports from Manufacturing Industries in Croatia and Slovenia to the EU-15 Market: A Dynamic Panel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Stojčić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is often stated that the growth prospects of nations are closely related to patterns of competitiveness exercised by their firms and industries in the international market. Building on foundations of endogenous growth and new trade theories academics and policy-makers postulate that quality-driven competitiveness bears higher growth potential than the ability to compete in terms of prices. The transition of Central and Eastern European Countries has been characterised by movement from the latter towards the former pattern of competitiveness. This process was facilitated by the transfer of knowledge and skills through the outsourcing of production from their most important trading partners, the West European members of the European Union (EU-15 countries, which paved the way for the development of intra-industry trade. This paper explores the competitiveness of manufacturing industries from Croatia and Slovenia in the EU-15 market. Using dynamic panel analysis we find that between 2002 and 2007 producers from the two countries followed different patterns of competitiveness. While in Slovenia the quality of exports is the main determinant of EU-15 market share, the competitiveness of Croatian producers still depends on their labour costs. We also find a strong impact of intra-industry trade on the competiveness of industries from the two countries in the EU-15 market.

  20. ASSESSING CHANGES IN THE U.S. HARDWOOD SAWMILL INDUSTRY WITH A FOCUS ON MARKETS AND DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Espinoza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening lead times, requiring a more customized product, and buying smaller lumber quantities to cut costs and increase operational flexibility. A survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers was conducted in the fall of 2009 to assess changes and adaptations within the industry. Among respondents, average hardwood lumber sales decreased by 13.2 percent during the study's focus period from 2004 to 2008. Respondents also identified a change in customer demand with smaller, more frequent orders becoming more common. Moreover, the species mix shifted, with red oak losing considerable market share. Intermediaries, such as hardwood lumber distributors, were able to capture more of the industry's business. Respondents identified the slowing housing market and high energy costs as major factors affecting their businesses. While the survey's responses reflected the extremely challenging economic conditions, industry participants are aggressively adapting their businesses and pursuing new opportunities with the understanding that markets will eventually recover.

  1. USING INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION TO CREATE LONGTERM VALUE FOR A SUSTAINABLE ORGANIZATION. CASE STUDY: THE BAKERY INDUSTRY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANCEA OLIMPIA ELENA MIHAELA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated marketing communication is considered to be a major development domain during the last decennium of the 20th century. Today, consumers use as many information sources as possible, and the value of integrated marketing communication has grown considerably. Very well targeted, integrated marketing communication campaigns rely on the strengths of the existing communicational tools, to favorably influence the behavior of the target public. The concept of integrated marketing communication was viewed for a long time as being an important management aspect, since by the efficacy of the integrated marketing communication tools, such as advertising, public relations, direct marketing, sales promotion, sales personnel, one can optimize the impact of communication on the target public. Integrated marketing communication has the role of building and consolidating profitable relations with the actual and potential clients and of generating synergy through the coordination of all the communicational mix tools into a coherent programme that can have a maximum effect. Integrated marketing communication can offer a real sustainable competitive advantage to any organization that profitably uses the potential of this communication. For this reason, the aim of the present paper consisted, on the one hand, in the evaluation of the extent to which the baking industry producers in Romania use integrated marketing communication tools, and, on the other hand, in the identification of the ways of measuring the efficacy of each communicational tool used by them.

  2. Scaling Laws in Chennai Bus Network

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the structural properties of the complex bus network of Chennai. We formulate this extensive network structure by identifying each bus stop as a node, and a bus which stops at any two adjacent bus stops as an edge connecting the nodes. Rigorous statistical analysis of this data shows that the Chennai bus network displays small-world properties and a scale-free degree distribution with the power-law exponent, $\\gamma > 3$.

  3. SCHOOL BUS GARAGES, 1966 REVISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, HERBERT F.

    STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL BUS GARAGES INCLUDING BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF--(1) SITE DEVELOPMENT, (2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND (3) MECHANICAL (HEATING, PLUMBING, AND VENTILATION) AND ELECTRICAL FACTORS. (JT)

  4. Formation of intangible assets and their impact on the market value of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Melnyk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to generalize conceptual approaches to the peculiarities of formation of intangible assets of the company in the context of strategic management, aimed at their effective involvement into economic circulation, in turn, will promote the growth of the capitalization of the ompany, having regard to the fundamental factors of the development of knowledge economy.The results of the analysis. In the context of deliberate influence formation (target management and strategic positioning and development we suggest classifying IA on the basis of their structurization according to the criterion of distinguishing basic sources of their formation, namely, intellect, provisions of law, economic activity, business processes and value chain formation. Thus. we distinguish between IA of marketing type, technical and technological type and cognitive type, which, in turn, enables a systematic approach to the development of a model of strategic-oriented management of the IA company. This classification also makes it possible to focus on the role of intangible assets in the process of establishing the market value of the company.Marketing type IA for industries with a long term production cycle, characterized by the variable impact, do not create a key factor of the industry success. But, on the other side of the coin, marketing intangible assets have stable and direct effect on the food industry enterprises that show continuing update of their product portfolio and have short production cycle (product has been developed, advertised, loyalty system has been created and implemented with its supporting measures and finally the cost of the company has increased. The Mars, which was founded in 1911 can be served as an example of the IA sustainable impact. The key point here is that the main part of the firm's value consists of the range of seventeen brands. Technical and technological types of the IA require a long time

  5. Empirical Study on Social Media Marketing of Bus Industry%客车行业社会化媒体营销实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震

    2011-01-01

    随着社会化媒体的快速发展,社会化媒体营销目前已经成为企业网络营销的重要营销策略.分析了社会化媒体的概念和作用,在此基础上,调查分析了国内客车企业的社会化媒体营销发展现状,总结出目前客车企业社会化媒体营销存在的不足,为客车企业发展新的营销模式提供参考.

  6. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for industry from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and training (VET) and…

  7. Horizontal integration in markets for complementary components and vertical product differentiation: A case-based analysis in the semiconductor industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westbrock, B.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of recent mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the semiconductor and computer industry indicate that activities concentrate on the technology leaders in this market. The author examines the influence of players’ heterogeneous product technologies on their involvement in M&A. He provides a

  8. Overview of Marketing and Distribution. The Wisconsin Guide to Local Curriculum Improvement in Industrial Education, K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, John M.

    The intent of this field tested instructional package is to familiarize the student with the marketing and distribution element of industry and its function in the production of goods and services. Defining behavioral objectives, the course description offers a media guide, suggested classroom activities, and sample student evaluation forms as…

  9. The Influence of Information Market on the Development of Information Service Industry in China%信息市场对我国信息服务业发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关晓红

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the influence d information market on information service industry.The analysis is made from 2 aspects: the present market condition d information service industry and the circulating mechanism d informa-tion market. In this way, the author wants to point out that it is important for information service industry to lxfild a perfect market mechanism.

  10. Development of market strategies of metallurgical enterrprises after restructuring of steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Before metallurgical enterprises started implementation of marketing activities they had to go through restructuring processes which included all areas of their market activities. Privatised metallurgical enterprises after economic transformation gradually implemented marketing to their business activities. The article presents notions connected with development of marketing strategies from the period of last 20 years. The range of analysis includes categories corresponding with instruments of mix marketing (4P − product, price, place, promotion.

  11. An analysis of the hospital-patient marketing relationship in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D P; Honeycutt, E D

    1995-01-01

    For many years hospitals have viewed patients paternalistically and failed to address many customers' needs and wants in the health care market. Early attempts at marketing by hospitals were haphazard and focused primarily upon advertising and public relations. Through a review and discussion of documented hospital marketing practices, the hospital-patient marketing relationship is examined. Conclusions about hospital marketing practices and suggestions for future research are also provided.

  12. Relationship Marketing: Spoke of a Wheel Reference to Industrial Customers Expectations and contentment towards Identification Products

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Roopal; Shrivastava, Dr. Sangya

    2012-01-01

    The future of business is social" -- Barry Libert,Author of Social Nation,CEO MzingaOrganizations, big or small, tries for customers satisfaction, delight and loyalty. The term relationship marketing was popularised in the 1980s when the focus of marketers started to switch from customer acquisition to customer retention. The tool kit for the marketers on which they can compete and survive are 4 pillars of marketing but the countries like India did not possess the knowledge of marketing till ...

  13. Credence goods and market power: an econometric study on the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P. S. Fiuza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the market failures pointed out by the economic literature and following the international empirical evidence, and based on original micro data of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry in the late 1990s, this article attempts to relate empirically drug prices in Brazil to some explaining variables. We find that, similarly to previous U.S. estimations, leading branded drugs accommodated share growth of the followers, turning towards a more inelastic market segment and raising their prices. On followers, in turn, a fall of the concentration index in a market had ambiguous effects: if due to reduced leader power, followers raised their relative prices; if due to a tougher competition within the fringe, their relative prices tended to go down.No presente artigo procuramos, tendo em mente as imperfeições de mercado apontadas pela literatura e pela experiência internacional, e com base em dados originais da indústria farmacêutica, relacionar empiricamente o preço de medicamentos no Brasil com algumas variáveis explicativas. Encontramos que, consoante com estimações anteriores da experiência norte-americana, os medicamentos líderes no Brasil, antes da lei que instituiu o medicamento genérico, acomodavam o avanço de produtos similares (do mesmo princípio ativo, porém sem o teste de bioequivalência e se recolhiam a segmentos inelásticos do mercado, elevando seus preços. Os similares, ao contrário, ao perderem mercado, reduziam seus preços em relação ao líder, de modo que uma redução no índice de concentração do mercado total de um princípio ativo tem efeitos ambíguos sobre seus preços, dependendo se a causa é uma queda da participação do líder ou um rearranjo dentre os seguidores.

  14. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  15. Effects of financial crisis on the industry sector of Chinese stock market — from a perspective of complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yanhua; Hao, Weiwei; Shen, Ying; Tang, Minxuan; Niu, Lei

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we use mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between 23 industry sectors of Shanghai stock market and construct corresponding correlation network to analyze the shock of 2008 financial crisis on industry sectors. The obtained meaningful facts are as follows. First, such crisis has only a limited impact on leading industries such as Manufacturing, Commercial trade and Machinery & Equipment, which still play an important role in Chinese economy. Second, the crisis badly attacks China's export industries like Electronics, Wood & Furniture and Textile & Clothing. The damage further hurts other industries, and then export industries' influence becomes larger. Third, the crisis adversely impacts the import industries like Petrochemical, Metal & Nonmetal and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. While due to the stimulation of macroeconomic policies, the influence of crisis on import industries is limited. Similarly, due to relatively strict capital control and the macroeconomic policies stimulating the domestic demand, those industries like Construction, Real Estate and Financial Services are slightly wounded. All these findings suggest that Chinese government should transform from the external demand to the domestic consumption to sustain economic growth.

  16. Rapid industrialization and market for energy and minerals:China in the East Asian context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ross GARNAUT; SONG Ligang

    2006-01-01

    The mainland of China's rapid pace of industrialization and trade expansion have led many to ask whether its ever-increasing demand for resources can be met without disruption to economic stability and growth in the country and the world as a whole.The article examines the experience of growth in resource demand and the associated pressure on global markets from Japan,Taiwan Province of China and Korea during their periods of sustained,rapid economic growth for periods in the second half of the twentieth century.It seeks to draw lessons for the twenty-first century.The article points out that because of its size the mainland of China may cause the resources boom,associated with the later decades of its period of sustained rapid growth,to raise the prices of resource-intensive products by a large amount,not for a few years,but for several decades.This will have important implications for economic development and the distribution of incomes within and between all countries,and on power relations between states in the Asia-Pacific and throughout the global community.

  17. Economic Analysis in Restructured Electricity Supply Industry (ESI for Malaysian Market Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Before 1980s, the generation, transmission and distribution vertically related sectors have typically been tied together within a utility. It has been either, investor owned and state-regulated or owned by the local municipality. Each sector was thought of as a natural monopoly. During that era, there were two main reasons accelerated for restructuring needs. The first one was to widen up the choices of electricity for customers. And the second one was due to rapid expansion capacity needs in generation, transmission and distribution. In Malaysia, the Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry (MESI has aimed to restructure its current model to become a wholesale market model. In 1992, by introducing the Independent Power Producers (IPPs in the loop, MESI applies Single Buyer model. Single Buyer model is one of the existing models available under the restructuring apart from Pool and Bilateral. This paper evaluates the economic benefits for Malaysia with the current structure from the side of electricity provider. A case study with load variation for three different maximum demands is considered in this paper. The mathematical equation developed by zero Loss of Load Probability is applied to evaluate the economic benefits.

  18. Traineeships industrial and professional practice as effective mechanism of marketing of the scientific and research institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szafran Krzysztof

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The following paper presents executed at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw student internship program and a program of industrial internships for young researchers technical universities of the country and from abroad. Many years of experience staff and a modern database of certified, modern laboratories can convey knowledge, the level of which is highly esteemed in the world. Conducted new projects and specialized training organizations in the design and maintenance of the Institute of Aviation enable trainees to familiarize themselves with modern technologies in the wider area around the aviation. The author presented the work program proposed the possibility of potential trainees in the laboratories of aerodynamics, strength, testing equipment and installation of air, environmental and motor. Posted framework programs, which are carried out by students and trainees. At the end of the shows achievements, and plans for the future. Run this way MARKETING Aviation Institute allows popularize unit in the country and abroad. Measurable benefits include contacts with similar companies in the world, as well as gaining a new perspective valuable employees.

  19. A critical assessment of the key success factors of social media as a marketing tool in the South African tourism industry / Clarise Letitia Mostert

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, Clarise Letitia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to critically assess the key success factors of social media as a marketing tool in the South African tourism industry. Numerous studies have been done on social media, but none of them were focused on optimising the success of social media in the South African tourism industry. Relationship marketing and social media is interrelated, where relationships form the foundation of social media. Social media has become the world’s latest marketing marvel, dissemina...

  20. [The Korean Pharmaceutical Industry and the Expansion of the General Pharmaceuticals Market in the 1950-1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    After the Liberation, the Korean economy was dependent on relief supplies and aid after the ruin of the colonial regime and war. The pharmaceutical business also searched for their share in the delivery of military supplies and the distribution of relief supplies. The supply-side pharmaceutical policy made the pharmaceutical market a wholesale business. The gravity of the situation led to an increased importation of medical supplies, and wholesalers took the lead in establishing the distribution structure, whereas consumers and pharmaceutical business were relatively intimidated. The aid provided by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) marked a turning point in the Korean pharmaceutical industry after the middle of the 1950s. ICA supplied raw materials and equipment funds, while the pharmaceutical business imported advanced technology and capital. The government invited the local production of medical substances, whereas pharmaceutical businesses replaced imported medical substances with locally produced antibiotics. After the 1960s, the production of antibiotics reached saturation. Pharmaceutical businesses needed new markets to break through the stalemate, so they turned their attention to vitamins and health tonics as general pharmaceuticals, as these were suitable for mass production and mass consumption. The modernized patent medicine market after the Opening of Korea was transformed into the contemporized general pharmaceuticals market equipped with the up-to-date facilities and technology in 1960s. Pharmaceutical businesses had to advertise these new products extensively and reform the distribution structure to achieve high profits. With the introduction of TV broadcasting, these businesses invested in TV advertising and generated sizable sales figures. They also established retail pharmacy and chain stores to reform the distribution structure. The end result was a dramatic expansion of the general pharmaceuticals market. The market for

  1. On the road : non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investi...

  2. United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-01

    The Market Assessment is designed to be of value to manufacturers, distributors, engineers, and others in the supply channels for motor systems. It provides a detailed and highly differentiated portrait of their end-use markets.

  3. Marketing Industrial Project-Related Services: A Literature Review and Theoretical Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Cova, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Services are a growing part of projects in the context of the international trend towards solution buying and selling on business-to-business markets. Furthermore services are often a key source of competitive advantage in project business. However companies selling project-related services often...... feel uneasy in developing a coherent marketing approach. Therefore the first aim of this paper is to critically scrutinise the intuitive hypothesis that the marketing of project-related services lies somewhere at the crossroads between services marketing and project marketing. In order to address...... this issue, project marketing and concepts key to the project marketing literature are briefly defined in Section 1 of this paper. Therefore, project-related services are delineated, and key service marketing contributions are presented in Section 2. Subsequently, in Section 3, the contributions...

  4. Features of marketing communications of fashion industry in the field of fashion design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Hardabkhadze

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the possibilities of enhancing the efficiency of design and promotion the modern clothing on the fashion market by using innovative tools of marketing communications.

  5. Market structure, price rigidity, and performance in the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: industrial concentration, price rigidity, technical efficiency, price-cost margin, Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP), new empirical industrial organization (NEIO), Indonesian food and beverages industry, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), system of equations The Indonesia

  6. An exploratory study looking at the relationship marketing techniques used in the music festival industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, A.; May, D.

    2011-01-01

    There are current issues and trends in the music festival market, which may affect the success of an event, and market saturation is at the forefront of these issues. Previous literature, maintaining the need for a marketing approach to festivals, identifi es the need for maintaining strong stakeholder relationships in order to succeed in a business environment; attention has been focused to the theory of relationship marketing (RM) because of the recognition that this pr...

  7. Understanding Market Concentration: Internet-Based Applications from the Banking Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Fred H.; Ward, Sidne Gail

    2011-01-01

    Market structure is an essential topic in economics and finance courses, including bank management as well as many other business school courses, for example marketing, human resources and strategic management. Instructors explain the virtues of perfect competition and the evils of monopoly along with alternative market models. Often conversations…

  8. School bus and children's traffic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan

    2007-01-01

    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  9. Overview of the developments in the domestic airline industry in South Africa since market deregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation or liberalisation of air transport has had major global impacts on the domestic air transport markets, with effects ranging from stimulation to changes in the structure and functioning of these markets. In South Africa, deregulation has had wide-reaching effects on the domestic market. The purpose of this article was to investigate the current domestic air transport market. A literature review was performed to examine the effects of deregulation in other domestic air transport markets around the world. This was followed by a review of the South African domestic air transport market prior to deregulation in order to determine the changes that were made following deregulation. The ten-year period immediately following deregulation was also examined; this period was characterised by relatively large numbers of market entries and exits. A database was obtained from the Airports Company South Africa; air traffic movements, passenger numbers and load factors were evaluated. The study showed that the market is still characterised by regular market entries and exits. Also that the entry of the low-cost carriers has stimulated the market, resulting in increased air traffic movements, higher passenger numbers, higher load factors in general and the opening of a secondary airport in Gauteng, Lanseria International. Deregulation and, more specifically, the entry of the low-cost carriers has resulted in structural changes in the market and more choice for passengers.

  10. On the Transformation from Industrial Marketing to General Consumer Marketing%论工业品营销向一般消费品营销的转变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛跃平; 李荣娜

    2012-01-01

    通过对工业品企业和一般消费品企业的在营销理念、营销结构、沟通体系、生产和存运中心区别对比,分析其中产生的矛盾,通过对矛盾的分析,结合一般消费品企业和市场特点,建立合理的营销结构,构建有效的沟通体系,充分利用现代化信息技术和新的销售渠道,最终实现企业转变的良性转变.%Through the comparison between industrial enterprises and general consumer goods enterprises in aspects of marketing concept, marketing structure, communication system, production and save shipping center, this paper analyzes the generating contradictions, based on that, combined with the general consumer product companies and the market characteristics, establishes reasonable marketing structure, builds effective communication system, makes full use of modern information technology and new sales channels, ultimately achieves benign transformation for enterprises.

  11. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF INTERNET MARKETING IN MODERN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and rapid development of Internet technology and marketing opportunities provided by modern digital technology, enabled the radical change in traditional marketing activities and opened the space for the development of Internet marketing. Internet marketing has become an inevitable trend in the business, and its benefits are recognized by many businesses, regardless of their economic activity, with the aim of achieving better business results. Representatives of the hospitality and tourism demand (potential users of services and products are more frequently and increasingly getting their information on offers through the Internet, and the marketing presentation of the overall offer via the Internet is becoming an increasingly important success factor of each hotel as a business system. This paper analyzes the basic determinants of Internet marketing and the role and importance of Internet marketing in modern hotel business.

  12. Study of integration issues to realize the market potential of OTEC energy in the aluminum industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Jr., M. S.; Thiagarajan, V.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Markel, A. L.; Snyder, III, J. E.; Sprouse, A. M.; Leshaw, D.

    1980-09-01

    The various integration issues are studied which must be considered to realize the market potential for the use of OTEC by the aluminum industry. The chloride reduction process has been identified as an attractive candidate for use with OTEC systems, and drained-cathode Hall cells and two alternative chloride reduction processes are considered. OTEC power system and plantships for the different processes are described. Aluminum industry characteristics important for OTEC considerations are given, including economic models and case history analyses. Appended are supporting cost estimates and energy bridge concepts for getting OTEC energy to shore. (LEW)

  13. The devil is in the details: the pharmaceutical industry's use of gifts to physicians as marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, David W; Calvario, Elizabeth; Graves, Cynthia

    2007-06-01

    Marketing costs exceed 30% of revenues for the pharmaceutical industry, with over 90% of the effort aimed at physicians. Although there are currently unprecedented numbers of regulatory activities focusing on relationships between the pharmaceutical industry and the medical profession, such legislation is often unrecognized or flouted. The potential influence, although minimized by both parties, must not be ignored. Physicians and drug companies will need to re-evaluate their responsibilities to their patients and their shareholders, and both groups should assume proactive and guidance roles in the transformation.

  14. Examining the link between cash flow, market value, and research and development investment spending in the medical device industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Bryan P; Santerre, Rexford E

    2013-02-01

    Unlike the pharmaceutical industry, no empirical research has focused on the factors influencing research and development (R&D) spending in the medical device industry. To fill that gap, this study examines how R&D spending is influenced by prior year cash flow and corporate market value using multiple regression analysis and a panel data set of medical device companies over the period 1962-2008. The empirical findings suggest that the elasticities of R&D spending with respect to cash flow and corporate market value equal 0.58 and 0.31, respectively. Moreover, based upon these estimates, simulations show that the recently enacted excise tax on medical devices, taken alone, will reduce R&D spending by approximately $4 billion and thereby lead to a minimum loss of $20 billion worth of human life years over the first 10 years of its enactment.

  15. How long the singular value decomposed entropy predicts the stock market? - Evidence from the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Rongbao; Shao, Yanmin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new concept of multi-scales singular value decomposition entropy based on DCCA cross correlation analysis is proposed and its predictive power for the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index is studied. Using Granger causality analysis with different time scales, it is found that, the singular value decomposition entropy has predictive power for the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index for period less than one month, but not for more than one month. This shows how long the singular value decomposition entropy predicts the stock market that extends Caraiani's result obtained in Caraiani (2014). On the other hand, the result also shows an essential characteristic of stock market as a chaotic dynamic system.

  16. Does External Knowledge Sourcing Enhance Market Performance? Evidence from the Korean Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibaek; Yoo, Jaeheung; Choi, Munkee; Zo, Hangjung; Ciganek, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Firms continuously search for external knowledge that can contribute to product innovation, which may ultimately increase market performance. The relationship between external knowledge sourcing and market performance is not well-documented. The extant literature primarily examines the causal relationship between external knowledge sources and product innovation performance or to identify factors which moderates the relationship between external knowledge sourcing and product innovation. Non-technological innovations, such as organization and marketing innovations, intervene in the process of external knowledge sourcing to product innovation to market performance but has not been extensively examined. This study addresses two research questions: does external knowledge sourcing lead to market performance and how does external knowledge sourcing interact with a firm's different innovation activities to enhance market performance. This study proposes a comprehensive model to capture the causal mechanism from external knowledge sourcing to market performance. The research model was tested using survey data from manufacturing firms in South Korea and the results demonstrate a strong statistical relationship in the path of external knowledge sourcing (EKS) to product innovation performance (PIP) to market performance (MP). Organizational innovation is an antecedent to EKS while marketing innovation is a consequence of EKS, which significantly influences PIP and MP. The results imply that any potential EKS effort should also consider organizational innovations which may ultimately enhance market performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed as well as concluding remarks.

  17. Energy efficiency business options for industrial end users in Latin American competitive energy markets: The case of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Energy markets today in Latin America and worldwide are being restructured from monopolies, either state-owned or privately-owned, to be more openly competitive and incorporate more participation from the private sector. Thus, the schemes that were formerly developed to foster end use energy efficiency are no longer applicable because they were based on mandatory regulations made with political decisions, without sufficiently considering economic feasibility. A consensus exists that the only way energy efficiency could survive in this new paradigm is by being market oriented, giving better services, and additional options to users. However; there is very little information on what end users prefer, and which options would most satisfy customers. Using Colombia as a case study, this research determines and categorizes the energy efficiency business options for large energy end users that can freely participate in the competitive energy market. The energy efficiency market is understood as a market of services aiming to increase efficiency in energy use. These services can be grouped into seven business options. A survey, following the descriptive method, was sent to energy end users in order to determine their preferences for specific energy efficiency business options, as well as the decision-making criteria taken into account for such options. This data was categorized in ten industry groups. As a conclusion, energy efficiency providers should adapt not only to the economic activity or processes of each customer, but also to the potential business options. It was also found that not all industries consider performance contracting as their most preferred option, as a matter of fact, some industries show much higher preference for conventional business options. Among end users, the divergence in option preferences contrasted with the convergence in decision-making criteria. The decision-making criteria "cost-benefit ratio" overwhelmed all other criterion. End users

  18. Low-inductance bus lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernick, A.

    1977-01-01

    Laminated bus strips and bifilar litz cable connectors for high-power rectifiers, thrisistors, and transistors provide low inductance and eliminate electromagnetic interference in high-power circuits. These techniques offer significant cost advantages because of ease of assembly and consistent high quality of product. Effectiveness makes general usage in static power conversion likely.

  19. The Month-of-the-year Effect in the Australian Stock Market: A Short Technical Note on the Market, Industry and Firm Size Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marrett

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This short note examines the month-of-the-year effect in Australian daily returns using a regression-basedapproach. The results indicate that marketwide returns are significantly higher in April, July and Decembercombined with evidence of a small cap effect with systematically higher returns in January, August, andDecember. The analysis of the sub-market returns is also supportive of disparate month-of-the-year effects.However, only in the case of small cap firms and the telecoms industry do these coincide with the higherreturns associated with the January effect as typified in work elsewhere.This

  20. Regionalism, end markets and ownership matter: Shifting dynamics in the apparel export industry in Sub Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Mike; Staritz, Cornelia; Plank, Leonhard

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the importance of ownership, end markets and regionalism within the global value chain (GVC) conceptual framework. This is done through unpacking the development trajectories of the major Sub Saharan African (SSA) apparel export industries (Mauritius, Madagascar, Kenya, Lesotho, Swaziland) against the backdrop of global and regional trade regime changes and the manner in which different supplier firms react to these opportunities and/or constraints. These trajectories demonst...

  1. Marketing Strategy and Financial Performance: The Case of Chocolate Industry in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Davcev, Ljupco; Boeva, Bogdanka

    2016-01-01

    Different business performance of the companies for many researchers is understood through the influence of marketing. This can be explained through the theory of strategy, since this theory is answering why different companies have different financial performances. The basic purpose of market research is that it allows the determination of a strategy for operation of the enterprise on the market, and establishes the needed specific actions which are to be taken for the strategy implementatio...

  2. A Study into the Impact of Entrepreneurial Marketing in the UK Design Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaya Alvarez, Omar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how Entrepreneurial Marketing can help design consultancies add value, remain competitive and ultimately survive and thrive in challenging times. This study is approached using an adapted version of the fifteen dimensions EMICO framework of Entrepreneurial Marketing suggested by Jones & Rowley (2009) as the research methodology, looking for trends, attitudes and behaviours in marketing and entrepreneurial activities of design consultancies. As an ap...

  3. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE MARKETING CHANNELS IN CITRUS INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA CRISTINA DORR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyse the marketing channels adopted and the contractual relations present among certified and uncertified producers of citrus production chain in the region of Vale do Cai, RS, Brazil. 49 producers of this region were selected randomly and semi-structured forms were applied to them. The producers had the biggest success in this market with certified fruits starting from the moment when they became members of a cooperative or an association, preserving a higher governing structure through certification. Although uncertified producers are not marginalized in the chain, they are more vulnerable to market fluctuations and access less sophisticated marketing channels.

  4. EU Emission Allowances and the Stock Market: Evidence from the Electricity Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich (Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany))

    2008-07-01

    This paper constitutes the first econometric analysis on stock market effects of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. Our results suggest that EU Emissions Allowance (EUA) price changes and stock returns from electricity corporations covered by the ETS are positively related. Stock markets do not react differently to EUA appreciations in comparison to depreciations, and the EUA effect is modest compared to oil market effects. EUA price volatility affects electricity stock return volatility. Given this, volatility shocks from the EUA market may create economic risk to the ETS corporations and deteriorate the performance of the scheme compared to a tax regime

  5. Implementation and management of e-marketing in the Croatian publishing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dukić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available E-marketing started to develop as a result of an extensive advancement of information and communication technology, i.e., changes prompted by that process in the field of electronic media in particular over the last decade. As a contemporary concept, e-marketing offered answers to questions organisations were dealing with in seeking to bring their products and services closer to as many customers as possible in the new circumstances. Taking the importance that e-marketing already has as a starting point, the authors conducted an investigation with an aim to establish to what extent Croatian publishers use e-marketing in their operations and how they manage its implementation. As part of the research, the perception that marketing staff employed by Croatian publishing companies have of e-marketing was also investigated. In spite of its importance, this issue has not been adequately studied until now, which was an additional motive to carry out the research.The research was conducted among a sample of 61 publishing companies in the Republic of Croatia. It was precisely the unwillingness of some publishers to cooperate combined with insufficient number of scientific papers in the field of use of e-marketing in the publishing trade that can be underlined as the most significant problem in this research. In addition to descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyse the data.The results have shown that last year almost one third of interviewed companies did not earmark funds for e-marketing. On the other hand, there were few publishers who spent more than half of the total funds, allocated for marketing activities, for that purpose. Along those lines is also the fact that respondents are not particularly satisfied with effects of e-marketing. Significantly more favourable results were obtained when it comes to publishing company web sites, i.e., the use of such a form of promotion. Namely, a large proportion of

  6. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  7. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  8. Hierarchical Training Mode for Market Demand Oriented Outstanding Seed Industry Talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuechun; WANG; Hongni; WANG; Shishun; TAO

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed the trend of seed industry development in-depth and studied changes in quantity and quality of demands for seed industry talents. To adapt to " breeding,propagating and selling" integration and internationalized trend of seed industry,it stated that hierarchical training mode is an ideal mode for training outstanding seed industry talents. Finally,it elaborated specific objectives and requirements of the hierarchical training mode,i. e. undergraduate- master- doctor.

  9. Developing Financial Industry Must Depend on Support of the Capital Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    @@ The first issue-the importance and urgency of developing financial industry at present. Through 28 years of reform and opening up, China's industrial capital and economy aggregate have stood in the front row, ranking the fourth in the world. In comparison with industry, financial capital is much less developed. It might even be said that the country is a giant in industry and a dwarf in financial capital.

  10. Global Market Access in the Internet Era: South Africa's Wood Furniture Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Sagren

    2002-01-01

    Explores the link between Internet connectivity and access to global markets, and uses the South African wood furniture producers as they are integrated into global value chains and exposed to the demands of more sophisticated markets. Articulates policy recommendations to promote greater diffusion of e-commerce technologies in the wood furniture…

  11. Telecommunications Industry Marketing Strategy%电信行业市场营销策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯

    2014-01-01

    院市场营销战略对市场营销的成败具有关键的作用。本研究在回顾相关市场营销战略文献研究的基础上,结合黑龙江联通公司的具体实际,研究了电信公司市场营销战略。文章通过实证研究的方法,重点考察了消费者的心理和行为等因素在市场营销战略制定中的作用,进而给出了具有充分客观依据的电信行业具体营销策略。本研究对科学合理的制定电信企业的市场营销战略具有一定的指导意义。%Marketing strategies are very important for the success of marketing. Based on an review of related literature on marketing strategy and combined with the specific conditions of Heilongjiang Unicom, this article studies marketing strategy for telecommunications company. By empirical research, this article focuses on the role of consumers' psychology and behavior in the formation of marketing strategy. Then a specific marketing strategy for telecommunication industry is given with sufficient objective basis. This article has certain guiding significance for making scientific and rational marketing strategy for telecom enterprises.

  12. 77 FR 6549 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a... notification to set forth an up-to-date list of product categories for which the Federal Prison Industries...'s competition requirements for acquisition of products from Federal Prison Industries (FPI)....

  13. The environmental industry in transitional China: barriers and opportunities between state and market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Yi,; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The environmental industry has been cited as a crucial industrial sector that developed parallel to the increasing focus on ecological and environmental issues in the modernisation process. Notwithstanding its rapid growth in recent years, China's environmental industry is still immature in comparis

  14. Evolution of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-08

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a “top-down” approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a “bottom-up” analysis of a database of -3,265 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of an economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7% per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues are relatively small compared to total U.S. energy expenditures (about $4.1 billion in 2008), but ESCOs anticipated accelerated growth through 2011 (25% per year). We found that 2,484 ESCO projects in our database generated -$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20% of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990-2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated -$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. We found that nearly 85% of all public and institutional projects met or exceeded the guaranteed level of savings. We estimated that a typical ESCO project generated $1.5 dollars of direct benefits for every dollar of customer

  15. The Impact of e-Customer Relationship Marketing in Hotel Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Irene

    The present research investigates the extent to which Greek hotels had developed the electronic customer relationship marketing (E-CRM). The study verifies the practices that frequently appear in relationship marketing process within online operations or whether their Internet presence mainly depends on the basic actions of "supplying information" and "reservations". Also, it investigates the effects of e-CRM system on customer loyalty and satisfaction as well as the impact of relationship marketing practices to customer retention and acquisition. They have understood the importance of using electronic channels instead of traditional ones to implement their marketing strategies. Thus, e-crm system has assisted hotel business to manage more effectively their reservations and serve their customers as fast and as effective as possible. They did not seem to apply many of the relationship marketing strategies to emphasize customer retention and continual satisfaction because of difficulties in staff training.

  16. EU Emission Allowances and the stock market Evidence from the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) P.O. Box 103443 68034 Mannheim (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    This paper constitutes - to our best knowledge - the first econometric analysis on stock market effects of the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Our results suggest that EU Emission Allowance (EUA) price developments matter to the stock performance of electricity firms: EUA price changes and stock returns of the most important European electricity corporations are shown to be positively related. This effect does not work asymmetrically, so that stock markets do not seem to react differently to EUA appreciations in comparison to depreciations. The carbon market effect is shown to be both time- and country-specific: It is particularly strong for the period of EUA market shock in early 2006, and differs with respect to the countries where the electricity corporations analysed are headquartered. Stock market reactions to EUA volatility could not be shown. (author)

  17. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  18. MEASURING CUSTOMER’S SATISFACTION ON BUS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rabiul Islam; Mohammed S. Chowdhury; Mohammad Sumann Sarker; Salauddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the factors measuring customers’ satisfaction, especially the impact of service quality on customers’ satisfaction in public transportation industry in the university town of Sintok located in Kedah province of Malaysia. In order to assess the relationships between service quality and customer satisfaction survey http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1003.htmdata were collected from 300 Bus commuters. All hypotheses were tes...

  19. The Designing Bus for Nuclear Safety Class Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa [PONUTech Co,. Ltd., Research Institute, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Kwangki [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is based on the IEEE 802.3 standard as one of the communication which is the I/O (Input/Output), sensors and communication function of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in industry and factory environment use is increasing. The Nuclear Safety Class Controller implemented by the EtherCAT applied bus can be shown the improving performance of data transmission in the controller.

  20. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing.

  1. Two essays on electricity markets: Entry into hydroelectric generation industry and the political cycle of regulated prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Rodrigo Menon Simoes

    This dissertation is about the electricity industry and the problems that arise with the liberalization and de-regulation of the industry. Characteristics intrinsic to the electricity market create problems that can compromise an efficient functioning of this market. Each of the two chapters of this dissertation focus on a specific aspect of this industry. The first chapter analyzes entry in the hydroelectric generation industry. The operation of a generator upstream regularizes the river flow for generators located downstream on the same river, increasing the production capacity of the latter. This positive externality increases the attractiveness of the locations downstream whenever a generator decides to enter upstream. Therefore, the entry decision of a generator in a given location may affect all entry decisions in potential locations for plants located downstream. I first model the problem of generators located in cascade on the same river and show the positive effect of the externality. Second, I use a panel of data on investment decisions of hydro-generation firms to estimate an entry model that takes into account the effect of the externality generated by entry upriver. The results show a positive incentive to locate downstream from existing plants and from locations where entry is likely to occur. Location characteristics also play an important role on the entrants' decisions. The model provides estimates of the average expected market price across the different years covered by the sample and shows that it rose one year before the energy crisis of 2001, evidencing that the market anticipated the crisis. This result has important implications on the evaluation of the Brazilian market design. It shows that entry responded to a rise in expectations about excess demand in the future, contradicting the argument that the crisis was a consequence of mis-designed market institutions. The second chapter deals with the problem of the political cycle in regulated

  2. The Survey of Proactive Marketing Strategies Impacts on Business Performance during Recession; Study of Active Iranian Companies in Abbasabad Industrial Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kheiry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of businesses and organizations and even their survival can be severely affected by recessions. However, all firms are not equally affected by a recession. In fact, some firms even experience better conditions in markets during recessions. Past studies and investigations about marketing in economic turbulent times and especially in proactive marketing suggest that some firms view a recession as an opportunity and develop an aggressive marketing reaction, while others cut back, waiting for the recession to pass. We use the term proactive marketing, to represent the strategic reaction of companies to a recession, or more generally, to a turbulent environment. We show that proactive marketing is an important factor for a company to view and react to recessions. Specifically, we develop and test a model of the antecedents and consequences of proactive marketing during a recession. The results of a survey of 45 senior marketing executives in Abbasabad Industrial Park in Iran reveal that some companies do accept and execute proactive marketing during recessions. Our results indicate that if companies have a strategic emphasis on marketing, embody an entrepreneurial culture, possess slack resources, they will more likely to have a proactive marketing reaction during turbulent times especially recessions. Also, results show that proactive marketing plays a significant role in improving both market and business performance during the recession. The implications of our results can be discussed for both marketing theory and managerial practice.

  3. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  4. The importance of business relations in the fish supply chain and export market distribution channels : the case of the Eritrean fish industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsegai Habtom, Mesfin

    2006-01-01

    Dit proefschrift onderzoekt de visserij-sector in Eritrea. De belangrijkste vraagstukken die op dit moment in deze industrie spelen hebben betrekking op het functioneren van de supply chain en het export marketing channel. Zie: Samenvatting

  5. Marketing Analysis and Strategy for a Small Business in the Beekeeping Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-18

    segment has opportunities associated with it that may be profitably 2Philip Kotler , " Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, and Control," Prentice...the product through all phase of 3G.L. Urban and J.R. Hauser, "Design and Marketing New Products," Prentice-Hall, Inc., p . 73. 75 its life cycle and...I I I162 I I BIBLIOGRAPHY IB Abel, Derek and John Hammond. Strategic Market Planning. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1979. Kotler

  6. Market structure and the role of consumer information in the physician services industry: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H S

    1996-04-01

    This paper applies Panzar and Rosse's (1987) econometric test of market structure to examine two long-debated issues: What is the market structure for physician services? Do more physicians in a market area raise the search cost of obtaining consumer information and increase prices (Satterthwaite, 1979, 1985)? For primary care and general and family practice physicians, the monopolistically competitive model prevailed over the competing hypotheses--monopoly, perfect competition, and monopolistic competition characterized by consumer informational confusion. Although less conclisive, there is some evidence to support the monopolistically competitive model for surgeons and the consumer informational confusion model for internal medicine physicians.

  7. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  8. A Survey of the U.S. ESCO Industry: Market Growth and Development from 2008 to 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchwell, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Larsen, Peter; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2010-06-08

    In this study, LBNL analyzes the current size of the Energy Service Company (ESCO) industry, industry growth projections to 2011, and market trends in order to provide policymakers with a more indepth understanding of energy efficiency activity among private sector firms. We draw heavily on information from interviews with ESCOs conducted from October 2009 to February 2010 and from our review of publicly available financial information regarding individual ESCOs. A significant ramp-up in energy efficiency activities is occurring at the local, state, and federal level. These activities include the establishment in {approx}18 states of statewide energy savings goals to be obtained from adoption of an Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS), legislative or state regulatory directives to obtain all cost-effective demand-side resources (Barbose et al 2009), and a significant increase in federal funding for energy efficiency programs as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). As part of this increased focus on energy efficiency, policymakers are evaluating the role of private sector companies, including ESCOs, in delivering cost-effective energy savings to end-users. The U.S. ESCO industry has long been recognized for its role in successfully delivering comprehensive energy projects in the public sector. This study analyzes the current size of the ESCO industry, industry growth projections, and market trends in order to provide policymakers with a more in-depth understanding of energy efficiency activity among private sector firms. This study may also be of interest to policymakers abroad who are exploring options to encourage development of a private-sector energy services industry in their own countries. This study draws heavily on information from interviews with ESCOs conducted from October 2009 to February 2010 and is part of a series of ESCO industry reports prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in collaboration with the

  9. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  10. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  11. A Marketing Approach to Commodity Futures Exchanges : A Case Study of the Dutch Hog Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a marketing strategic approach to commodity futures exchanges to optimise the (hedging) services offered. First, the environment of commodity futures exchanges is examined. Second, the threats and opportunities of commodity futures exchanges are analysed. Our analysis demonstrate

  12. Marketing strategy adjustments in the ambulatory care center industry: implications for community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J H

    1989-01-01

    Each stage of a product's life cycle requires marketing strategy modifications in response to changing demand levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in ambulatory care center (ACC) operational characteristics indicative of product, market, and distribution channel adjustments that could have a competitive impact upon community pharmacy practice. A questionnaire was mailed to a national sample of 325 ACC managers. Evidence of new product feature additions includes increased emphasis on continued care and increased prevalence of prescription drug dispensing. Expansion into new market segments and distribution channels was demonstrated by increased participation in HMO and employer relationships. The observed adjustments in ACC marketing strategies present obvious challenges as well as less obvious opportunities for community pharmacy practice.

  13. Social Media, Traditional Media and Marketing Communication of Public Relations:A Study of Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Khajeheian, Datis; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Public relations are undertaking more important role in the marketing communication and advertising. The present paper reports a survey conducted in three Iranian banks’ public relations departments to understand how they use different media in their marketing communications and other related functions. A classification of public relations functions including fourteen functions in three categories has taken as research framework and by using a questionnaire, eight media have been asked to ran...

  14. Effects of Story Marketing and Travel Involvement on Tourist Behavioral Intention in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Min Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Story marketing has been widely applied to modern societies. As a matter of fact, attraction is a critical part of tourism for any visitor attractions throughout the world. A visitor attraction requires sufficient attraction to appeal to customers’ interests. Story marketing is currently the most popular marketing strategy. The success of using stories in visitor attractions as a marketing tactic for tourism attraction lies in the fact that story-telling is able to best attract people. Both adults and children love listening to stories, which can lead a way to people’s hearts and stories are also the best strategy for communication with others. Aimed at visitors to the Wushe Township as the research participants, a total of 500 copies of questionnaires were distributed, and 287 valid ones retrieved, with a retrieval rate of 57%. The research results show: (1 a significantly positive effect of story marketing on travel involvement; (2 a notably positive effect of travel involvement on behavioral intention; (3 remarkably positive effect of story marketing on behavioral intention.

  15. Domestic PVC Market Analysis and Industrial Development Strategy%国内PVC市场分析及产业发展应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹

    2016-01-01

    分析了2015年国内聚氯乙烯(PVC)市场的现状,并对2016年PVC市场进行了预测,提出了PVC行业应对市场形势的策略。%This paper analyzes the current situation of domestic PVC market and forecasts the PVC market in future. It also puts forward the strategy for PVC industry to cope with the market situation.

  16. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs.

  17. Integrated Development of China’s Agricultural Labor Market from the Perspective of Convergence of Planting Industry Marginal Labor Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Longhua; YUE; Shiyuan; YANG; Rongtai; SHEN

    2013-01-01

    Using Compilation of National Cost Benefit Data of Agricultural Products in 1990-2009 and based on the convergence of planting industry marginal labor productivity,this paper studies the integration of agricultural labor market in China. Firstly,it calculates labor output elasticity of each province for wheat,japonica rice and corn. Secondly,it builds indicators reflecting change level of marginal labor productivity. Researches show that in 1990-2000,the difference level of marginal labor productivity expands. From 2000,it starts to fall and becomes more and more stable. However,due to difference of crops and farming custom,the turning point of marginal labor productivity is not consistent with each other. Even so,it is still possible to reach the conclusion that agricultural labor market is gradually integrated from 2000.

  18. THE IMPACT OF CONCENTRATION OF PRODUCTION ON MARKET POSITION OF SELECTED BRANCHES OF FOOD INDUSTRY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szwacka-Mokrzycka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present differences in concentration of production and their impact on the market position of the companies active in the fat and dairy sectors. The analysis covered the period from 2008 to 2012, including the global crisis and post-crisis situation in Poland, which accompanied it. The conducted research shows that the processes of adjustment of supply to market demand include: changes in the profi le of manufacturing enterprises, rationalisation of behaviour in the sphere of production and resource management. For the research two branches: fat and dairy products, which are diverse in terms of supply and demand and concentration of production. This paper focuses on the production and revenue concentration in the branches of the food industry selected for the study. The study used a rich empirical material based on both the author’s own research and secondary sources.

  19. Reactivity of competitor knowledge from marketing information system Case Study: Companies based in the industrial town of Sanandaj city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Rashidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although managers are doing things by the special called knowledge-based tools to help organizations to manage their affairs. Decision maker in the organization is an information processor. Today, a manager is well aware that the ability of the acquisition, storage, processing and display of accurate information in making the right decisions is crucial. Thus, the importance of knowledge and information is clearly evident. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing information systems on knowledge rival. The sample of 235 employees of companies based in the industrial town of Sanandaj city. Random sampling is also available. Hypothesis of the study was analyzed by Pearson correlation and linear regression that showed a significant positive relationship between marketing and information systems knowledge competitor. Finally, hypothesis and conclusions made on the basis of proposals presented to the population.

  20. Identifying and Ranking of Performance Indicators of Entering Foreign Markets With a Case Study in Iran Khodro Industrial Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Malekakhlagh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As trade is being more competitive and complicated at international level, necessity of managers’ attention to the strategies for entering the global markets has become a competitive advantage for companies; meanwhile, performance evaluation plays a critical role in organizations’ success. One of the performance evaluation models is Balanced Score Card (BSC which has many advantages compared to similar approaches. In this study, different techniques have been used to determine the degree of parameters' priority to each other including Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, Eigenvector technique and SMART method and the strategies performance of Iran Khodro Industrial Group for entering foreign markets during 2009 and 2010 has been evaluated using BSC. Findings imply that the BSC aspects with order of success degree include innovation and development (61%, customer (52%, business processes (47% and financial (24%, respectively.

  1. Breakfast cereal industry pledges to self-regulate advertising to youth: will they improve the marketing landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Ross, Craig; Harris, Jennifer L; Jernigan, David H; Siegel, Michael; Ostroff, Joshua; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-04-01

    In 2007, the Council of Better Business Bureaus created the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative to improve the nutritional profile of products marketed to children in the United States. We provide quantitative baseline data describing (a) the amount of child-directed breakfast cereal advertising in 2007; (b) an assessment of the nutritional value for all cereals advertised on television; and (c) the relationship between nutrition quality and child exposure to television advertising for major cereal brands. In 2007, the average American child viewed 757 cereal ads, and 98 per cent of these ads promoted unhealthy cereals that would be prohibited from advertising to children in the United Kingdom. Healthy cereals were advertised in 2007 in the United States, but adults, not children, were predominantly exposed to these ads. These quantitative methods can be used in the future to evaluate the impact of industry self-regulation efforts to improve the marketing landscape.

  2. Identifying and Ranking of Performance Indicators of Entering Foreign Markets With a Case Study in Iran Khodro Industrial Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail malekakhlagh

    2011-09-01

    As trade is being more competitive and complicated at international level, necessity of managers’ attention to the strategies for entering the global markets has become a competitive advantage for companies meanwhile, performance evaluation plays a critical role in organizations’ success. One of the performance evaluation models is Balanced Score Card (BSC which has many advantages compared to similar approaches. In this study, different techniques have been used to determine the degree of parameters' priority to each other including Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, Eigenvector technique and SMART method and the strategies performance of Iran Khodro Industrial Group for entering foreign markets during 2009 and 2010 has been evaluated using BSC. Findings imply that the BSC aspects with order of success degree include innovation and development (61%, customer (52%, business processes (47% and financial (24%, respectively.

  3. Information management in retail market design in the electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Elizabeth Florence

    The retail electricity market is no different from any other market in the need to know how much of a good is bought and by whom and when. However what sets the electricity market apart is the time definition of the "when" and therein lies the problem. It is not enough to know how much a customer uses; it is when that use takes place that is important. In an ideal world all customers would have their consumption measured accurately and in real time. Costs however are a problem in the real world and other less costly approaches are needed. Market designers then have to decide which measurement approach to apply to which group of customers. Affordability has been the main criterion used. If the costs of measurement are a small percentage annual outlay on electricity (usually based on a fixed rate) then that measurement approach is deemed appropriate. This dissertation presents a method for determining a solution that is optimal for customer and retailer. Retailers are assumed to maximize profit in providing a fixed rate and a market-based pricing option. The latter has a measurement cost attached. Customers choose the pricing option that minimizes their costs and reflects their ability to respond to market prices. The threshold level determined from this optimization depends not only on the cost of measurement but also on the level and variability of electricity prices, but most importantly it depends on the ability of an individual customer to change the pattern of electricity use across the day. The optimization method does more than replace affordability in the determination of appropriate threshold levels between measurement options. The method: (1) underscores the need to look at threshold levels not on a consumption basis but on an individual customer's ability to modify usage patterns in response to market prices, in other words ability to substitute across time periods; (2) highlights the need for a flexible approach to measurement; there must be a choice of

  4. The University-Industry Interface: From the Lab to the Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrierty, Vincent

    1993-01-01

    Higher education has responded positively and in a variety of ways to changing business and industrial needs, using imagination to establish cooperative relationships. In Ireland, identifying industry's workforce needs was central to successful cooperation. Bridging the two very different cultures has also required creation of an appropriate…

  5. Labour Market Theories and Distance Education I: Industrialization and Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Greville

    1995-01-01

    Addresses industrialization and distance education and how they relate to the modernist and postmodernist models of work, Fordism, neo-Fordism and post-Fordism. Concludes that not all distance education is industrialized; traditional education is not always a craft; and Fordism does not adequately explain the development of distance education.…

  6. Competitive Patterns in the Danish Organic Industry & its Usefulness in Predicting Development in other EU Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    2003-01-01

    . During the period 1987-2002 the development in the organic industry has undergone dramatic changes. In the beginning many small new businesses dominated the area. Presently, there is a remarkable concentration of cooperative monopolies and oligopolies from the conventional industry dominating...

  7. Bus Routes, Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  8. MARKETING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY: STATE OF KNOWLEDGE AND CURRENT TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNA NARANJO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas del sector de la construcción son conscientes de la importancia de vincular la comercialización (o marketing a las funciones primordiales de la empresa, como respuesta ante la necesidad de adaptarse a los continuos cambios del sector, satisfacer las demandas de sus clientes, ser competitivos y mejorar su estrategia de negocio. El presente artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos del análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo del estado actual de conocimiento del marketing en el sector de la construcción. El estudio se realizó mediante una búsqueda bibliométrica y el posterior procesamiento y análisis de los artículos encontrados. A pesar de los esfuerzos realizados en la última década, es difícil generalizar cómo aplicar el marketing en las empresas del sector de la construcción debido a las particularidades del sector. Sin embargo, existe un abanico de posibles estrategias que pueden ser usadas; una vez las empresas conozcan las necesidades de los clientes serán capaces de escoger las estrategias que deben aplicar. Se proponen futuras líneas de investigación como la implementación del marketing, diferenciación del marketing de acuerdo con el tipo de cliente, y aplicación de las tecnologías y sistemas de información.

  9. The mechanism of opening the markets of the EU and agro-industrial complex of Ukraine: trend and variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Gubenko

    2016-12-01

    for effective participation of the national economy in the European process, Ukraine needs a reference system that provides for adjustments to economic proportions that can provide a device structure of the national economy to the needs of the world and European markets and create conditions for achieving a new level of development of priority sectors in BC connection. It is proposed that, based on the theory of negative growth, developing countries, focused on expanding commodity exports negatively affect the state of their economy. But because of the instability of commodity prices and their downward trend, the conditions for agriculture of Ukraine as for developing countries, deteriorate, and therefore to increase the proportion of products deep processing, Ukraine should restrict the import goods industry, replacing them with produced goods. Therefore, for achieving synchronization process of opening the markets of the EU and Ukraine it should changed the formula of calculating the G. Trabela’s index of foreign trade to reflect real trade volumes, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative indicators of foreign economic activity. It is proved that formed on the basis of customs and tariff policy of openness of the EU and Ukraine reflects the level of economic activity, its branching and capacity, result in the development of integration processes, which gives reason to build the mechanism of opening markets of the EU and Ukraine, to bring together the level of domestic prices products of the agricultural sector, eliminate trade barriers and create a common EU rules for trade with third cranes. It is determined that the opening of Ukraine’s domestic market to imports from EU countries is advisable to perform a mode that the level of import prices with duty exceeded the prices formed on the consumer internal market of Ukraine, but their level without fee should not exceed world market prices. Regarding the opening of the EU internal market for goods imported

  10. Knowing Customers Better: An Experimentation of Twit Marketing in the e-Commerce Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Al Turki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet gives incredible opportunities for companies to learn about their consumers and provides different channels for marketing. Otlobli.com website (an e-commerce company established in Saudi Arabia, uses different channels, such as: Google AdWords, newspaper website banners, official thread on a famous online forum and, Twitter. A marketing tool has been developed to enhance the effectiveness of marketing on Twitter. This research investigates the impact of the developed system. Website access from these various channels was examined, in addition to the number of visitors who have completed an order. Results showed that the tool caused around 49% increase in the number of visits from Twitter, and comparatively, a good percentage of them completed an order.

  11. A study on how CRM influences marketing planning in telecommunication industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Customer relationship management (CRM plays an important role on marketing planning. In this paper, we re-examine the effect of having efficient CRM on efficiency of a telecommunication company. The proposed study considers three hypotheses. The first hypothesis examines whether implementation of CRM could improve customer’s perception in terms of customer retention, satisfaction, loyalty and awareness. The second hypothesis examines whether implementation of CRM influences on market performance in terms of reduction on customer complaints, quality improvement, improving customer perception, access to services and increase in market share. Finally, the third hypothesis considers the effect of CRM on financial figures in terms of sales growth, profit growth, earnings per share and productivity. The results of our survey have confirmed the first hypothesis and rejected the third hypothesis. In other words, while CRM improves customer perception it does not influence financial figures in most cases (P<0.01.

  12. Technical and economic aspects of ancillary services markets in the electric power industry: an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raineri, R. [Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistema e Ingenieria Electrica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rraineri@ing.puc.cl; Rios, S. [Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistema e Ingenieria Electrica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile); Schiele, D. [Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistema e Ingenieria Electrica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile)

    2006-09-15

    We present a comparative analysis of technical and economic aspects of ancillary services on the markets of England and Wales, Nordic Countries, California, Argentina, Australia and Spain, comparing the services of voltage control, frequency regulation and system restoration. All the analyzed markets rely on the existence of an administrator of ancillary services, function that leads to the figure of the system operator. Among the services analyzed, the mandatory nature of voltage control and primary frequency regulation stands out, being both the ancillary services with the higher market price and the shortest period of time requirements. In general, the recognized costs of the services correspond to investments operation, maintenance, and opportunity costs. In the provision of these ancillary services, there are no clear preferences for a particular resource allocation mechanism, where mandatory provision, auctions, competitive offers and different time length bilateral contracts are combined.

  13. Performance analysis of time triggered communication bus based on network calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiandong; Ma, Lianchuan; Cao, Yuan; Mu, Jiancheng

    2017-03-01

    The time triggered mechanism is the activity of incentive system in the scheduled time. Each node of the time-triggered communication bus knows when the data information can be transmitted, so the behavior of communication nodes is determined and predictable. This feature is very suitable for appling in the industry field of high safety requirement. According to EN50159 standard for railway signal system security related communication, this paper analyzes the reliability of the physical layer of communication bus, and uses the network calculus method to establish the arrival curve model and service curve model which quantitatively calculate the time delay characteristic of time trigger bus to determine the number of retransmissions of data communications. The time-triggered communication bus is proved that it can meet the security requirements of the railway signal transmission system.

  14. Market Rower; Banking and Financial Mediation: an Approach from the Industrial Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Jopen Sánchez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an exploratory analysis of the process for determining intermediation margins in the Peruvian banking system. In the period between 2001 and 2010, this process was influenced primarily by two occurrences: the international financial crises towards the end of the 1990s, and the application of the Financial System Consolidation Program (Programa de Consolidación del Sistema Financiero in Peru. The analysis delivers some evidence that in the case of Peruvian banking, market power and, specifically, the existence of market power-related inequalities between banks may be relevant factors in the process of determining financial intermediation margins.

  15. 基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制方案%Air-conditioner Control Project for Electric Bus Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桥生

    2012-01-01

    The author simply introduces two kinds of present control modes for air-conditioner of electric bus in domestic market,puts forward a new kind of its control mode based on CAN bus,and design the CAN's messages reports.%简述国内电动客车空调的两种控制模式;提出一种基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制模式,并设计CAN通讯报文。

  16. CONNECTING INDUSTRY TO THE MARKET the future of cotton in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHIAS; KNAPPE

    2010-01-01

    Africa has traditionally been an important cotton production base.Before the textiles and clothing quota phase-out,cotton markets were mainly in Europe.In 2000,the 27 countries currently members of the European Union imported 1,077 million tons of

  17. A Marketing-Finance Approach towards Industrial Channel Contract Relationships: A Model and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Channel contract relations are dynamic. In this paper, it is argued that one of the drivers for this dynamism is a firm's strive for shareholder value. Using channel contract relationships as market-based assets, firms are managing a portfolio of spot and forward contract relationships. By exclusive

  18. Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, Jouni; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2005-01-01

    Some of the determining factors for organic marketing initiatives (OMIs) success are supply policy, logistic and processing policy. Many OMIs are afraid of being dependent on one sales channel. Even though most of sales volume goes through supermarket sales, especially in Nordic countries and UK, many still want to develop their direct sales and regional sales.

  19. Carnations and the Floriculture Industry: Documenting the Cultivation and Marketing of Flowers in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Meyer, Linda M.

    2008-01-01

    The Records of the Colorado Flower Growers Association (CFGA) is an archival collection documenting the association prior to its 1979 name change. The CFGA was founded in 1928 to support the production and marketing of greenhouse flowers grown commercially in the state. In 1979, the organization changed its name to the Colorado Greenhouse Growers…

  20. Providing Appropriate Technology for Emerging Markets: Case Study on China’s Solar Thermal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on a case study of five Chinese solar thermal companies and one association, our study aims to understand how the innovator’s choices regarding the use of technology and organizational practices for new product development enable companies to design and diffuse appropriate technology in emerging markets. The study uncovers two critical factors that enhance the appropriateness of technology: redefining the identity of technology and building a local supply system. Our analysis shows that synergic innovation in both architecture and component leads to the appropriate functionalities desired by emerging markets. Moreover, modular design and the building of a local supply system enhance the process appropriateness of technology. Our study provides an empirical basis for advocating going beyond minor adaptations of existing products to creating appropriate technology for emerging markets, and extends our understandings of the upstream process of designing appropriate technology. Moreover, the emphasis on the local supply system reflects a holistic framework for shaping and delivering appropriate technology, expanding the existing research focus on the perspective of the technology itself. Our research also has managerial implications that may help firms tap into emerging markets.

  1. Marketing Activities to Support ‘Moderately Novel’ Product Innovation: Insights from the Chemical Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.A.J.; Vissers, G.A.N.; Dankbaar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars often follow a contingency approach to study which marketing activities are suitable for a particular type of product innovation project, thereby making a distinction between incremental and radical innovation only. ‘Moderately novel’ projects, which have intermediate levels of newness, hav

  2. Perception of Business Related Graduate Degrees by Market Research Managers within the Health Care Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jan Hirsch; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A survey of market research managers' perceptions of the outcomes of a pharmacy administration master's program as compared to those of two popular master's-level business administration programs found a lack of awareness and understanding of the pharmacy administration degree program and a resulting perception of lower skill levels among its…

  3. Factors Influencing Industry Uptake of Marketing & Supply Chain Innovations within the Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; English, F.

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies factors influencing the Australian seafood industry’s adoption of marketing and supply chain innovations created from public-private funded research and development (R&D). A grounded theory approach was followed by comparing and contrasting the evidence from 35 projects fun

  4. Supply Network Planning for New Product Market Entry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2011-01-01

    products have to be scrapped. We have developed an MILP supply network planning model, which sets time phased market entries and finds inventory levels and production volumes to balance fluctuating demand with fixed periodic production of the API. Our model is recourse-based and considers demand...

  5. Does Industry-Driven Alcohol Marketing Influence Adolescent Drinking Behaviour? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephanie; Muirhead, Colin; Shucksmith, Janet; Tyrrell, Rachel; Kaner, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    Aim To systematically review evidence on the influence of specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) on key drinking outcomes (initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity) in young people aged 9–17. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest were searched from inception to July 2015, supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers. Results Forty-eight papers covering 35 unique studies met inclusion criteria. Authors tended to report that greater exposure to alcohol marketing impacted on drinking initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity during adolescence. Nevertheless, 23 (66%) studies reported null results or negative associations, often in combination with positive associations, resulting in mixed findings within and across studies. Heterogeneity in study design, content and outcomes prevented estimation of effect sizes or exploration of variation between countries or age subgroups. The strength of the evidence base differed according to type of marketing exposure and drinking outcome studied, with support for an association between alcohol promotion (mainly advertising) and drinking outcomes in adolescence, whilst only two studies examined the relationship between alcohol price and the drinking behaviour of those under the age of 18. Conclusion Despite the volume of work, evidence is inconclusive in all four areas of marketing but strongest for promotional activity. Future research with standardized measures is needed to build on this work and better inform interventions and policy responses. PMID:27864186

  6. 健康产业的营销模式创新研究%Innovation study of marketing mode on health industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周辉; 王建伟

    2011-01-01

    This article takes health industry marketing mode as the research object,by analyzing current marketing mode of health industry and its limitations,and discusses the necessary and urgency of innovation to the health industry. Combined with the resources of its industry, following a clue of general innovation, the author puts forward an overall innovative marketing mode.%以我国健康产业的营销模式为研究对象,通过分析当前健康产业内企业的营销模式及其局限性,论述了健康产业营销模式创新的紧迫性和必要性。从一般创新思路出发,结合产业自身资源状况提出营销模式创新的总体思路和创新模式。

  7. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  8. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  9. Measuring the Effects of Technology Change in Multiple Markets : Application to the Greek Cotton Yarn Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, David S.; Dadakas, Dimitrios; Katranidis, Stelios D.

    2009-01-01

    Complications arise in the estimation of welfare changes in vertically and horizontally linked markets when technology affects production. Past research has dealt with these complications using single-equation models and dual approaches. We briefly discuss some of the limitations of these approaches, which include the single-equation approach’s poor statistical reliability, and the dual approach’s difficulties in incorporating expectations, dynamics, and expert advice. We propose a method ...

  10. The Relationship between Knowledge Intensity and Market Concentration in European Industries: An inverted U-Shape

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the European Union strategy to secure competitiveness for Europe in the globalising world by focussing on technological supremacy (the Lisbon - agenda). Parallel to that, the EU Commission is trying to take a more economic approach to competition policy in general and anti-trust policy in particular. Our analysis tries to establish the relationship between increasing knowledge intensity and the resulting market concentration: if the European Union economy is gradual...

  11. Large-screen display industry: market and technology trends for direct view and projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph A.; Mentley, David E.

    1996-03-01

    Large screen information displays are defined as dynamic electronic displays that can be viewed by more than one person and are at least 2-feet wide. These large area displays for public viewing provide convenience, entertainment, security, and efficiency to the viewers. There are numerous uses for large screen information displays including those in advertising, transportation, traffic control, conference room presentations, computer aided design, banking, and military command/control. A noticeable characteristic of the large screen display market is the interchangeability of display types. For any given application, the user can usually choose from at least three alternative technologies, and sometimes from many more. Some display types have features that make them suitable for specific applications due to temperature, brightness, power consumption, or other such characteristic. The overall worldwide unit consumption of large screen information displays of all types and for all applications (excluding consumer TV) will increase from 401,109 units in 1995 to 655,797 units in 2002. On a unit consumption basis, applications in business and education represent the largest share of unit consumption over this time period; in 1995, this application represented 69.7% of the total. The market (value of shipments) will grow from DOL3.1 billion in 1995 to DOL3.9 billion in 2002. The market will be dominated by front LCD projectors and LCD overhead projector plates.

  12. Section 1603 Treasury Grant Expiration: Industry Insight on Financing and Market Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Harper, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the wake of the 2008-2009 financial crises, tax equity investors largely withdrew from the market, resulting in stagnation of project development. In response, Congress established the Treasury grant program pursuant to Section 1603 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (..Section..1603 Program) to offer a cash payment in lieu of a production and investment tax credit. This study addresses the likely project financing and market impacts from the expiration of the ..Section..1603 Program. The authors assembled an array of insights offered by financial executives active in the renewable energy (RE) market during conference panel discussions and in presentations, direct interviews, and email correspondences. This analysis found that the ..Section..1603 Program alleviated the need to monetize the tax credit incentives through specialized investors, helped lower the transaction and financing costs associated with renewable electricity projects, and generally supported an extensive build-out of renewable power generation capacity. With the expiration of the ..Section..1603 Program, smaller or less-established renewable power developers will have more difficulty attracting needed financial capital and completing their projects, development of projects relying on newer or 'innovative' technologies will likely slow as traditional tax equity investors are known to be highly averse to technology risk in the projects they fund, and, finally, projects relying on tax equity may be more expensive to develop due to higher transaction costs and potentially higher yields required to attract tax equity.

  13. Section 1603 Treasury Grant Expiration. Industry Insight on Financing and Market Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harper, John [Birch Tree Capital, LLC, Framingham, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In the wake of the 2008-2009 financial crises, tax equity investors largely withdrew from the market, resulting in stagnation of project development. In response, Congress established the Treasury grant program pursuant to Section 1603 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Section 1603 Program) to offer a cash payment in lieu of a production and investment tax credit. This study addresses the likely project financing and market impacts from the expiration of the Section 1603 Program. The authors assembled an array of insights offered by financial executives active in the renewable energy (RE) market during conference panel discussions and in presentations, direct interviews, and email correspondences. This analysis found that the Section 1603 Program alleviated the need to monetize the tax credit incentives through specialized investors, helped lower the transaction and financing costs associated with renewable electricity projects, and generally supported an extensive build-out of renewable power generation capacity. With the expiration of the Section 1603 Program, smaller or less-established renewable power developers will have more difficulty attracting needed financial capital and completing their projects, development of projects relying on newer or 'innovative' technologies will likely slow as traditional tax equity investors are known to be highly averse to technology risk in the projects they fund, and, finally, projects relying on tax equity may be more expensive to develop due to higher transaction costs and potentially higher yields required to attract tax equity.

  14. Learning to Learn: A Case for the Heterogeneous Expectations Hypothesis in Industrialized Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond W. Ng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A cobweb model is developed where the heterogeneous expectation hypothesis is examined. An agent’s heterogeneous expectation involves the development of a “higher ordered learning” process in which agents over time develop expectations that are consistent with rational expectations. In addition, as cob web models are production based systems, an agents’ heterogeneous expectations are influenced by a specialization of activities. The case of the industrialization of the U.S. hog-pork industry is used to illustrate the influence of these features on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of a modified cob-web model.

  15. Design of intelligent bus stop based on GPRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思远

    2013-01-01

    To provide people waiting on the bus stop the information about the number of passengers on the bus traffic and distance between the site and the running bus. Design a set of intelligent bus stop system. This system counts up the number of the people gets on the bus and the people getting out of the bus to add up the people on the bus by infrared sensor and uses the hall sensor to measure the distance of having driven. Then, send data via GPRS. Finally display on the corresponding bus stop.

  16. Hiding Solar-Array Bus Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    End terminals mounted under cells, maximizing usable illuminated area. Reconfigured solar panel bus bars placed under cells, reducing portion of module area not occupied by active silicon. Underside of last cell in string of cells serves as contact for positive bus. Negative tab of last cell in string is wrapped around from top of cell. Tabs are connected to output boards mounted under cells.

  17. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  18. Stepping stones to significant market shares for renewables. The European forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This invitation to a two-day European Forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy business lists the presentations made at the conference in 2007. The programme included contributions in the following areas: Policies and market deployment initiatives, market trends and experience - from support schemes to market experience, opportunities in a changing framework in Switzerland, instruments and infrastructure requirements - how to make the market work and supply and demand aspects of a growing market. The conference examined how renewable forms of energy can gain significant market shares and reach a quota of 50% renewables in 50 years. The first session examined policies and market deployment initiatives, the second market trends and experiences, the third opportunities for Switzerland in a changing framework. The second day featured sessions on instruments and infrastructure requirements as well as on supply and demand aspects in a growing market. The conference was complemented with four workshops.

  19. Transparency, market operation and trust in the Dutch construction industry: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Nijhof, André

    2007-01-01

    After the discovery of illegal price agreements in the Dutch construction industry, the government and major players in the sector have initiated a transition process towards more professional commercial relations. In the transition process transparency plays an important part, as it is a preconditi

  20. Analysis of the global production location dynamics in the industrial wood pellet market : an MCDA approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, T. Pieter; Junginger, H. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Industrial wood pellet demand and international trade have been growing rapidly, requiring producers to build new production facilities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the trade-offs of different wood pellet production locations across the world within the next ten years and to improve t

  1. Prices and network effects in two-sided markets: the Belgian newspaper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Cayseele, P.; Vanormelingen, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the two-sided nature of the newspaper industry. We explicitly take into account cross network effects that exist between advertisers and newspaper readers. On one side, advertisers' demand for publicity space depends on the number of newspaper readers and their characteristic

  2. New industrial uses, new markets for US crops: Status of technology and commercial adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harsch, J.

    1993-08-01

    ;Contents: Foreword: Agriculture at the Crossroads; Transforming the Vision Into Reality: How To Make It Happen; Castor and Lesquerella; Corn; Crambe and Industrial Rapeseed; Dairy Products; Diesel from Crops; Ethanol from Crops; Forest Byproducts; Guayule; Jojoba; Kenaf; Livestock Byproducts; Milkweed; Polymers from Crops; Soybeans; Taxol and Other Pharmaceuticals from Plants; Wheat; Afterword: The Opportunity is Now.

  3. Education and the Transformation of Markets and Technology in the Textile Industry. Technical Paper No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Thomas

    This report on the textile industry focuses on the training and education of production-level textile workers--from unskilled factory hands to first-level supervisors. It is part of a larger study of the educational implications of broad economic changes, particularly the spread of microelectronic technologies, growing national and international…

  4. Food industry firms' economic incentives to provide nutritional information to the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ronit, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Information asymmetries between producers and consumers exist with respect to nutritional characteristics of foods and beverages. This paper aims to analyze firms’ methods to supply nutritional information, focusing on three specific food industries: breakfast cereals, snacks and soft drinks...... have important implications for the design of regulations to increase efficiency in the supply of nutritional information to consumers....

  5. Strategies of diversification in regulated energy markets: the natural gas and electric power industries in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Gonzalez, Gerado; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto; Eibenschutz Hartman, Juan

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to show a structured and systematic approach to analyze the strategies of diversification undertaken by the State-owned companies Petroleos Mexicanos and Comision Federal de Electricidad, during the period 1938-2006, in the Mexican energy market that has been strongly dominated by the State control. Furthermore, we explore the future of these strategies by using a Strengthens, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) matrix. This analyze also include changes in regulation that should happen in order to consolidated the proposed strategies. (auth)

  6. Market entry mode and competency building of Western oil companies in the Russian up stream oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Paul M.

    This dissertation investigated the market entry and competency building strategies within the context of the Russian oil and gas industry. The study was designed to be of interest to business practitioners and academics given the growing importance of fossil fuel in the energy balance of the global economy and the importance of Russia as a supplier and purchaser in the international market. The study's mixed methodology provides an understanding on the environmental factors that are postulated to impact foreign direct investment flow into Russia and the oil and gas sector. A case study of a fictitiously named Western-Russo oil company was conducted to provide a deep understanding of how capability is viewed by Russian and Western employees and the factors that influences the implementation of a successful competency development program. The case was centered on the development of a Well-Site supervisor group within a Western-Russian oil company. Findings of the study showed that there was no correlation between corruption and foreign direct investment inflow into the Russian economy. The findings also showed that both Russian and Western employees in the oil and gas industry are less focused on nontechnical competency development issues, that Western employees are more orientated towards the bottom-line than Russian employees, and that both groups see operational management as a core competency. In the area of financial management and technology application, there were significant differences in the viewpoint of both groups. Western employees saw a stronger need for financial management and less need for technology application when compared to their Russian counterparts. The results have implications for Western business contemplating entering the Russian oil and gas industry. Western firms need to understand the key drivers that will help them overcome the social and cultural barriers between Western and Russian employees. The role of the company leader is very

  7. Is there a Market for Micro-Lending in Industrialized Countries? - Evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kritikos, Alexander S.; Christoph Kneiding; Claas Christian Germelmann

    2006-01-01

    In less developed and transition economies, microlending has become an efficient instrument for providing small and micro-businesses with the necessary financial resources to launch operations. In the industrialized countries, with their highly developed banking systems, however, there has been ongoing debate on the question of whether an uncovered demand for microlending services exists - and if so, how large this demand actually is. The present study explores customer preferences for microl...

  8. New Connect Market Companies Growth and Development Efficiency in the Branch of Industry Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szczepankowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is an empirical research of growth and development efficiency of stock companies quoted on NewConnect Warsaw Stock Exchange alternative trading system. The analysis was made in the industry branch approach. The main tool of research was the special coefficient called NCGI (NewConnect Growth Indicator. The article shows sector differences of the companies growth and presents economic factors which could influence on these differences.

  9. Linking Technology Capabilities to Marketing Requirements: Case of Indonesian Aircraft Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yulianto Suharto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The relationship between strategic technology planning and the overall business strategy has been one of the growing fields that attract much interest both from academics and industrials point of view. The increasingly important role that technology plays in today’s business success is well established.Strategic technology planning activities--within a corporate level--are often implemented by applying integrated planning instrument, which allow firms to consider both technology-ori...

  10. Board Monitoring, Regulation and Performance in the Banking Industry: Evidence from the Market for Corporate Control

    OpenAIRE

    Hagendorff, Jens; Collins, Michael; Keasey, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: The specific monitoring effect of boards of directors versus industry regulation is unclear. In this paper, we examine how the interaction between bank-level monitoring and regulatory regimes influences the announcement period returns of acquiring banks in the US and twelve European economies. Research Findings: We study three board monitoring mechanisms (independence, CEO-chair duality and diversity) and analyze t...

  11. An analysis of tobacco industry marketing to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations: strategies for mainstream tobacco control and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Perry; Carlson, Lisa M; Hinman, Johanna M

    2004-07-01

    Research on adult tobacco use consistently shows a higher prevalence among lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) populations than among the general population-reasons why are largely unknown, and counterstrategies are critical. Tobacco industry marketing, uncovered when the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) forced companies to share its internal documents, provided insight. The American Legacy Foundation uncovered the industry campaign Project SCUM (Sub-Culture Urban Marketing) aimed at gays and the homeless. The formerly secret documents revealed specific marketing toward LGBT, whose rates increased when the MSA banned youth (but not other population) advertising. The industry reaches out to LGBT persons through direct and indirect advertising, community outreach, and sponsorships. Messages to LGBT have been relatively absent from advertising until recently, creating receptivity to such overtures. Reducing LGBT smoking rates is a public health challenge that will require exceeding the sense of validation tobacco advertising has created in LGBT communities.

  12. CAN and FPGA communication engineering implementation of a CAN bus based measurement system on an FPGA development kit

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung The Controller Area Network (CAN), invented by Bosch in 1983, is a serial field bus protocol which was originally used in road vehicles and now is widely applied in other industrial fields. Since its birth automotive electronic engineers have been use Microcontrollers (MCU) to control the CAN bus. Today, as the Field-programmable Gate Array (FPGA) has become very advance, this book introduces a new method which uses an FPGA and a MCU jointly instead of a single MCU is to design a CAN bus measurement system. Furthermore the designed system should be able to work at the fastest

  13. THE SPORT MARKETING MANAGEMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important function...

  14. Milk marketing policy options for the dairy industry in New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, M; Criner, G; Bragg, L A

    2008-03-01

    New England dairy farmers are under intense price pressure resulting from important growth in milk production from lower cost of production Southwest states as well as by retailers' market power. Agricultural officials and legislative bodies in New England and in other Northeast US states are aware of these pressures and have been reacting with emergency dairy farm aid, following a very low 2006 milk price, and with state legislations in an attempt to address perceived excess retailing margins for fluid milk. In this paper, we suggest that a sigmoid demand relationship exists for fluid milk. This demand relationship would explain fluid milk asymmetric price transmission, high-low pricing, and the creation of a large retailing margin (chain surplus) often observed for fluid milk. It is also argued that a sigmoid demand relationship offers an opportunity for state legislators to help Northeast dairy farmers capturing a larger share of the dollar of the consumers through various policy options. Therefore, 5 milk market channel regulatory mechanisms (status quo, price gouging, supply control, fair share policy, and chain surplus return) are discussed and compared. The supply control mechanism was found the most effective at redistributing the chain surplus, associated with the sigmoid demand relationship for fluid milk, to dairy farmers. However, this option is unlikely to be politically acceptable in the United States. Second-best options for increasing dairy farmers' share of the consumers' dollar are the fair price policy and the chain surplus return. The former mechanism would distribute the chain surplus between retailers, processors, and farmers, whereas the latter would distribute it between consumers, retailers, and farmers. Remaining mechanisms would either transfer the chain surplus to retailers (status quo) or to consumers (price gouging).

  15. Capital market of China daily chemical industry%纵览中国日化资本市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙克

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the capital market of China daily chemical industry from washing,cosmetics,oral care products and daily chemical raw material four aspects,and analyzed the development of representative enterprise in each aspect.Finally,it pointed out that listing and financing were not necessary for their long term development.Daily chemical enterprises should pay more attention to the change of whole market competitive environment.%从洗涤、化妆品、口腔护理以及日化原材料4个板块介绍了中国日化资本市场。分析了各个板块中具有代表性的企业发展状况。指出了日化企业上市融资并不是企业长远发展的必经之路,企业应当更加注重整个日化市场大的竞争环境的改变。

  16. Inventory trends in emerging market supply chains: Evidence from the Indian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Saranga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper, using a sample data of 58 firms consisting of automakers and auto component suppliers across a 14-year period, we study the factors contributing to efficient inventory management in the Indian automotive Industry. We use fixed effects regression models to document trends in inventory holdings over time and how this varies across inventory types and across tiers in the supply chain. Our results show that inventory holdings have declined differentially across tiers and across different types of inventories. We find tier-1 suppliers reduced all components of their inventories with the help of TQM and lean efforts.

  17. The industry of copies – obstacle for the economic recovery. Examples from the markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BELINGHER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the world economy is seriously hit, we realize there is a need for solutions, either new or old, which should support the economic re-launch and recovery. In this paper we will not focus on solutions, but on the obstacles which arise in the way of economic recovery, due to the industry of copies (counterfeit products, that had a tremendous growth during the last years, jeopardizing thus both the economic security and the consumer security, according to the examples provided hereinafter.

  18. An Empirical Analysis of Market Concentration in Steel Industry%论中国钢铁业产业集中度影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯毅男; 纪成君

    2009-01-01

    集中度是衡量市场结构最普遍的指标,又是构成市场结构的主要因素,通过影响市场行为,进而影响市场绩效.产业集中度水平及其变化的决定因素一直是产业经济学研究的重要内容.钢铁产业集中度是当前以及将来钢铁产业所要重点研究的问题之一.本文将产业组织理论与现代计量经济方法相结合,对影响我国钢铁产业市场集中度的因素进行了实证分析.确立自变量与因变量产业集中度的数量关系.%Concentration is the most common measure of market structure indicators, but also constitute a major factor in the market structure, by influencing market behavior, thereby affecting market performance. The level of industrial concentration and the determinants of changes in indus-trial economics has been an important aspect of the study. Concentration of iron and steel industry is the current and future focus of the steel indus-try to be one of the issues. In this paper, the modern industrial organization theory and econometric methods of combining the impact of China. I-ron and steel industry market concentration factors of the empirical analysis. The establishment of the independent variables and the dependent var-iable the number of industrial concentration relationship.

  19. FAST BUS Test Box (LAIKA) (Engineering Materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The assembly drawing AD 135-518-00-RO, and the drawings referenced thereon, provide the data and specifications for constructing the LAIKA Test Box. Some drawings are not available, although they are listed on the material lists included. The assembly is a manual tester for FAST BUS modules, both masters and slaves. FAST BUS signals are generated by means of switches or push buttons and provide the state of the bus lines by lighting LED's. The box acts as either a master or slave - depending upon the module under test. It also acts as an ATC to test the arbitration logic of a master or ATC device.

  20. Drivetrain system of an ultracapacitor electric bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Zhigu; Zhu Chunbo; Yang Shiyan; Cheng Shukang

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a design of the drivetrain system of an electric bus with ultracapacitor (UC) as the only on-board power source. The system includes three main parts, namely, UC bank, motor and the converter, vehicle management unit (VMU). Analyses results in detail on the functional design and experiments on work bench of each part were also presented, which validated the reliability of the system. Furthermore, driving results in field of the bus verified the feasibility of the design of the drivetrain system. The bus has very good dynamic performances and shows a promising applications prospect in the short and medium route buses system.

  1. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  2. The impact of public R&D on Marketing and Supply Chains on Small Farms' Marketing-Sensing Capability: Evidence from the Australian Seafood Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; English, F.; Schwartz, D.

    2014-01-01

    Agri-food organizations that are capable of “sensing the market” – that is, capable of searching, processing and using market information, are usually also market oriented, innovative, entrepreneurial and successful. But how can a small farm with limited resources develop market sensing capabilities

  3. Distributed Data Acquisition and Control by Software Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecil Bruce-Boye; Dmitry A. Kazakov

    2004-01-01

    Increasing global competition forces manufacturers of products from all technical fields to guarantee a high product quality for a long period of time. At the same time it is necessary to minimize production costs. In order to meet all these requirements, on-line data acquisition and processing are of increasing importance in distributed automation systems. A software bus operating on industrial Ethernet has an ability to minimize operating costs by offering easy installation, scalability,high degree of reliability and remote monitoring and control.

  4. BUS 1000母线保护的应用%Application of BUS 1000 Bus-Bar Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓光; 张贵金; 冷雪玉

    2001-01-01

    发电厂的母线是电厂中的一个重要组成元件,当母线上发生故障时,将使连接在故障母线上的所有元件在修复故障母线期间,或转换到另一组母线上运行以前遭到停电。同时还可能破坏系统稳定,造成严重后果。因此,母线保护装置是正确迅速切除母线故障的重要装置,它的拒动或误动将给电力系统带来严重危害。详细介绍了华能丹东发电厂350 MW发电机组采用的BUS 1000型母线保护的原理,并对其正常运行及区内、外故障、断路器失灵保护、母联断路器过流保护等几个方面作了详细分析。%Bus bar is an important component in e lectric power plant.When bus bar fault occurs,all components connected on the fa ulty bus bar will be in outage until power restores by repairing the faulty bus bar or switching them over to another bus bar.Furthermore,it may cause the destr uction of system stability resulting in serious consequence.Bus bar protection d evice is the very device to quickly remove bus bar faults,and its malfunctioning will bring serious harm to power system. The principle of BUS 1000 bus bar prot ection used for 350 MW unit of dandong power plant is introduced.Its normal oper ation and several aspects,such as in-and out-area faults,out-of-order breake r protection,bus bar breaker over-current protection,are analyzed in detail.

  5. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  6. Sustaining Competitiveness: Moving Towards Upstream Manufacturing in Specialized-Market-Based Clusters in the Chinese Toy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasheng Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Western industrial cluster literature pays little attention to specialized markets (SMs and the geographical agglomeration of distributors or sale agencies (SAs. This paper takes Linyin, Shandong, a famous commodity city in Northeastern China, as an example, to discuss the determinants that make SAs in SMs of the toy industry move towards upstream manufacturing. A structured questionnaire survey and subsequent interviews were carried out during 2011 and 2012 to collect data, and a Binary Logistic Regression Model was used to process the data. This paper looks from the perspective of global production networks theory, establishes an analytical framework that combines individual motivations of intra-firm coordination, local inter-firm relationships and dynamic cross-regional level relationships. The findings indicate that the expansion of SAs towards manufacturing allows them to sustain competitiveness under changing circumstances. The local inter-firm relationships within SM-based clusters not only makes it easy to obtain material and human resources with lower manufacturing costs, but also facilitates the access to production knowledge and technologies for an expansion of production scale. Cross-regional relationships with suppliers provide an informal channel for SAs to obtain skills, which is fundamental for an expansion into manufacturing. In addition, it is a preference for strengthening competitiveness rather than the simple pursuit of economic profit that encourages SAs to invest in manufacturing.

  7. The Baleen Whales’ Saving Grace: The Introduction of Petroleum Based Products in the Market and Its Impact on the Whaling Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Henry F. Check; John McCollough

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence which indicates that the introduction of petroleum based products on the American markets was a significant factor in reducing the demand for whale oil. As a result, the whaling industry, America’s 5th largest industry at the time, soon collapsed. A counterfactual study is then presented which suggests that if the introduction of petroleum based products had been delayed, then the increase in demand as a result of rising GDP per capita, as well as rapid ...

  8. Effect of periodic inflow on speed-controlled shuttle bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus controlled the speed when passengers come periodically at the origin. We propose the nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of the speed-controlled bus with the periodic inflow. The bus schedule is closely connected to the motion. The motion of the speed-controlled bus is affected by the periodic inflow. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on both speed control and periodic inflow. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions by varying both periodic inflow and speed control. We clarify the dependence of the bus motion on both speed control and periodic inflow.

  9. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  10. Producing, controlling, and stabilizing Pasteur's anthrax vaccine: creating a new industry and a health market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassier, Maurice

    2008-06-01

    When Pasteur and Chamberland hastily set up their small biological industry to meet the agricultural demand for the anthrax vaccine, their methods for preparation and production had not yet been stabilized. The process of learning how to standardize biological products was accelerated in 1882 when vaccination accidents required the revision of production norms as the first hypotheses on fixity, inalterability, and transportability of vaccines were invalidated and replaced by procedures for continuous monitoring of the calibration of vaccines and the renewal of vaccine strains. Initially, the incompleteness and ongoing development of production standards justified Pasteur's monopoly on the production of the anthrax vaccine under his immediate supervision. Later on, the Pasteur Institute maintained control of these standards in the framework of a commercial monopoly that it established on the veterinary vaccines first sent and then cultivated abroad by the Société de Vulgarisation du Vaccin Charbonneux Pasteur, founded in 1886.

  11. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  12. Is industry self-regulation of marketing conduct an effective tool to promote public health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    The rise of obesity and overweight is a global health challenge. Obesity is a complex phenomenon that can be attributed to multiple factors. One of these factors is the food environment, and particularly the food retailers. This study is part of a big project that aims to evaluate cost-effectiven......The rise of obesity and overweight is a global health challenge. Obesity is a complex phenomenon that can be attributed to multiple factors. One of these factors is the food environment, and particularly the food retailers. This study is part of a big project that aims to evaluate cost...... stores. However, this is achieved at the expense of somewhat lowered revenue from sales. There are several implications of this study. First, supermarkets may not have an incentive to change current marketing practices as their top priority is their own welfare. Secondly, while the reduction in revenues......-effectiveness of current shelf space management intervention strategy must be compared to other possible alternative strategies....

  13. Industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the best available conditions, in terms of market volumes and prices, for the products from a mild gasification facility. A process feasibility study will then have to determine the cost of building and operating a facility to make those products. The study is presented as a summary of the options available to a coal producer for creating added product value. For this reason, three specific coal mines owned by AMAX Inc. were chosen, and the options were analyzed from the viewpoint of increasing the total revenue derived from those coals. No specific mild gasification, or mild devolatilization technology was assumed during the assessment. The analysis considers only product prices, volumes, and specifications. It does not assign any intangible value or national benefit to substituting coal for oil or to producing a cleaner fuel. Although it would be desirable to conceive of a product slate which would be immune from energy price fluctuations, such a goal is probably unattainable and no particular emphasis was placed on it. 76 figs., 75 tabs.

  14. A new vehicle data bus architecture and IVIS evaluation platform for ITS modulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelt, P.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kirson, A.M. [Motorola, Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States); Scott, S. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    An increasing number of ITS-related after-market systems present a set of in-vehicle installation and use problems relatively unique in the history of automobile use. Many automobile manufacturers would like to offer these new state of the art devices to customers, but are hampered by the current design cycle of new cars. While auto manufacturers are indeed using multiplex buses (the automotive equivalent of a computer local area network), problems remain because manufacturers are not converging on a single bus standard. This paper presents a new dual-bus architecture to address these problems, with an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) research platform on which the principles embodied in the ITS Data Bus architecture can be evaluated. The dual-bus architecture has been embodied in a proposed SAE standard, with a ratification vote in December, 1996. The architecture and a reference model for the interfaces and protocols of the new bus are presented and described. The goals of the ITS Data Bus are to be inexpensive and easy to install, and to provide for safe and secure functioning. These high-level goals are embodied in the proposed standard. The IVIS Development Platform comprises a number of personal computers linked via ethernet LAN, with a high-end PC serving as the IVIS computer. In this LAN, actual devices can be inserted in place of the original PC which emulated them. This platform will serve as the development and test bed for an ITS Data Bus Conformity Test, the SAE standard for which has also been developed.

  15. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    This dissertation presents an equilibrium framework for analyzing the impact of cap-and-trade regulation on transmission-constrained electricity market. The cap-and-trade regulation of greenhouse gas emissions has gained momentum in the past decade. The impact of the regulation and its efficacy in the electric power industry depend on interactions of demand elasticity, transmission network, market structure, and strategic behavior of firms. I develop an equilibrium model of an oligopoly electricity market in conjunction with a market for tradable emissions permits to study the implications of such interactions. My goal is to identify inefficiencies that may arise from policy design elements and to avoid any unintended adverse consequences on the electric power sector. I demonstrate this modeling framework with three case studies examining the impact of carbon cap-and-trade regulation. In the first case study, I study equilibrium results under various scenarios of resource ownership and emission targets using a 24-bus IEEE electric transmission system. The second and third case studies apply the equilibrium model to a realistic electricity market, Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) 225-bus system with a detailed representation of the California market. In the first and second case studies, I examine oligopoly in electricity with perfect competition in the permit market. I find that under a stringent emission cap and a high degree of concentration of non-polluting firms, the electricity market is subject to potential abuses of market power. Also, market power can occur in the procurement of non-polluting energy through the permit market when non-polluting resources are geographically concentrated in a transmission-constrained market. In the third case study, I relax the competitive market structure assumption of the permit market by allowing oligopolistic competition in the market through a conjectural variation approach. A short-term equilibrium

  16. DESIGN AND EXPERIMENT OF ELECTRIC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Performance and reliability experiments on BJD-6100EV electric buses, jointly developed by Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Public Transport Company, are introduced. Output power model of battery pack is established and maximum output power is analyzed. A permanent magnetic direct current (PMDC) motor with enhanced windings is developed for the bus. Torque-speed characteristics of the motor are modeled and performance of electric bus is analyzed. Computational method of the range of electric bus is proposed and discussed. Experiments show that electric bus can realize design requirements. Computational methods are verified with the help of field test. It is expected that design and computation method will provide helpful reference to development of electric vehicles.

  17. A Study of Small Business Owners’ Personal Characteristics and the Use of Marketing Information in the Food and Drink Industry: A Resource-Based Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cacciolatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Market orientation (MO – which is the propensity of a firm to collect and utilise information from the market – is an important leverage of competitive advantage. This paper helps to better understand why some owner-managers engage with market intelligence why others simply do not. The relationship among the owner-manager’s personal characteristics, entrepreneurial orientation (EO and MO are explored, despite existing literature neglected testing these simple but important relationships. We adopt a resource-based view (RBV of the firm perspective. This study aims to establish whether the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur impact the use of marketing information. More specifically, this study tests entrepreneurial attitude orientation, marketing expertise and demographic variables for an effect on the use of different types and sources of marketing information as well as the frequency of information usage. Data were collected through a regional survey of 296 small business owners and senior managers in SMEs in the Scottish food and drink industry. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA and regression analysis was used to test hypothesised relationships. Personal characteristics such as age (p<.05, gender (p<.002, previous experience (p<.05, and marketing expertise (p<.05 are critical factors affecting information use other than EO (p>.05. Implications for policy makers and practitioners involving small business subsidies and entrepreneurs’ marketing training are discussed.

  18. Environmental Disclosure of Chemical Industry:Evidence from Chinese A-Share Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jiufang; Lin Xiaohua; Tang Jiuhong

    2009-01-01

    Environmental pollution and environmental reporting have increasingly drawn the attention of the countries around the world.The paper selects A-share listed companies of chemical industry in China.Using logistic model,we research the impact of financial performance of listed companies upon environmental reporting.The conclusion of the study shows that the total number of enterprises which disclosed environmental information (EI) has increased year by year,and El content and volume disclosed by heavy pollution corporations have increased annually.And the more profitability the listed companies attain,the more EI they are inclined to disclose.Moreover,companies will have an ability to disclose EI so as to reduce the agency costs arising from information asymmetry.Furthermore,the development capability of companies is of negative correlation to environmental reporting,and the liabilities degree of listed companies is of negative correlation to environmental reporting,but it is not significant.This paper also offers policy recommendations that enhance EI transparency and regulate EI reporting of listed companies.

  19. Industrial Market Research Report: Feasibility of commercialization of the advanced antifouling coating of Copperlok, Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    The Copperlok antifouling process was designed to prevent marine growth on surfaces exposed to sea water. It is a method of bonding thermally sprayed Cu and Cu alloys onto an epoxy material containing microballoons (hollow spheres). After the epoxy cures, the surface is abraded so that the microballoons are fractured, exposing microscopic concave porosity. The sprayed material is directed to the surface, where it impregnates the pores, bridges and then welds across the surface, creating a very thin laminate of the metal materials security bonded to the bond coat and to the substrate. The Copperlok process laminates an approximate layer of Cu-Ni alloy 8 mils thick with an expected active life of 15--20 y. This report addresses the perceived acceptability of the process in several different marketplaces with the hope of directing the invention to the most receptive consumer group. The opinion surveys of the recreational marine industry were limited to the three coastal areas of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific.

  20. Industrial Market Research Report: Feasibility of commercialization of the advanced antifouling coating of Copperlok, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    The Copperlok antifouling process was designed to prevent marine growth on surfaces exposed to sea water. It is a method of bonding thermally sprayed Cu and Cu alloys onto an epoxy material containing microballoons (hollow spheres). After the epoxy cures, the surface is abraded so that the microballoons are fractured, exposing microscopic concave porosity. The sprayed material is directed to the surface, where it impregnates the pores, bridges and then welds across the surface, creating a very thin laminate of the metal materials security bonded to the bond coat and to the substrate. The Copperlok process laminates an approximate layer of Cu-Ni alloy 8 mils thick with an expected active life of 15--20 y. This report addresses the perceived acceptability of the process in several different marketplaces with the hope of directing the invention to the most receptive consumer group. The opinion surveys of the recreational marine industry were limited to the three coastal areas of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific.

  1. Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: A Six-Month Follow-Up Review of Industry Practices in the Motion Picture, Music Recording & Electronic Game Industries. A Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC.

    In September 2000, the Federal Trade Commission issued a report on marketing violent entertainment to children. The Commission found that all three segments of the entertainment industry intentionally promoted products to children that warranted parental cautions. This report provides a look at the advertising practices to see if the industries…

  2. Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: A Twenty-One Month Follow-Up Review of Industry Practices in the Motion Picture, Music Recording and Electronic Game Industries. A Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC.

    In a report issued in September 2000, the Federal Trade Commission contended that the motion picture, music recording, and electronic game industries had engaged in widespread marketing of violent movies, music, and games to children inconsistent with their own parental advisories and undermining parents attempts to make informed decisions about…

  3. Competitiveness of CO2 capture from an industrial solid oxide fuel cell combined heat and power system in the early stage of market introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, it was investigated whether potentially low-cost CO2 capture from SOFC systems could enhance the penetration of SOFC in the energy market in a highly carbon-constrained society in the mid-term future (up to year 2025). The application of 5 MWe SOFC systems for industrial combined he

  4. Marketing marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede branding en onderscheidende zichtbaarheid juist van belang. Met de groei van big data en het belang van onbewust gedrag, zullen vooral die marketeers in de toekomst succesvol zijn die de consument het b...

  5. Research on the Market Expending Strategy of Cassava Industry in China%中国木薯产业市场拓展策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海清; 刘恩平; 李海亮

    2012-01-01

    介绍了世界木薯生产、贸易及消费现状,分析了中国木薯产业市场拓展面临的机遇与挑战;提出了加大产品研发力度、提高市场开拓能力、提升产品竞争力、调整产业发展政策、强化政府监管职能等拓展国际市场的主要策略.%The world's cassava production, trade and consumption conditions were introduced, and opportunities and challenges of China's cassava industry in expanding market were analyzed. Countermeasures of expanding market were put forward such as intensifying R&D efforts on products, intensifying efforts on market exploitation, increasing competitiveness of cassava products, adjusting industry development policy and strengthening the supervision and management function of government.

  6. Transaction Efficiency, Marketization and Circulation Industry Growth%交易效率、市场化与流通产业发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳江; 程锐

    2015-01-01

    Transaction efficiency, marketization and circulation industry are three concepts that have close connection. Using the panel data between 1997 and 2009 and analysis in different periods and different areas, this paper finds a posi-tive impact of the relationship between the evaluation of transaction efficiency, the level of marketization and circulation industry growth.The difference of transaction efficiency and marketization level in different areas has different impacts on the circulation industry growth in different areas.The level of transaction efficiency and marketization is higher, then the effect on circulation industry growth is bigger.So it is very important to increase the level of transaction efficiency and marketization to develop circulation industry.%交易效率、市场化与流通产业是紧密相连的三个概念,本文利用1997-2009年省级数据,分时段、分地区地进行面板数据回归研究,实证分析发现交易效率的改进与市场化程度的提高对流通产业的发展起着正向促进作用,地区间交易效率与市场化程度的差异对流通产业发展的促进作用存在差异,交易效率水平与市场化程度越高对流通产业的促进作用就越大。因此,提高交易效率与市场化程度是促进我国流通产业发展的重要举措。

  7. Labour market and turnover in the industrial employment in the Brazilian Northeast region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Abel da Silva Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available E l crecimiento económico reciente ha configurado ajustes acentuados en las relaciones laborales, especialmente en escenarios de capitalismo tardío. La ruptura en el mercado de trabajo brasileño fue el resultado de la ofensiva del capital sobre el trabajo, en un contexto de crecimiento económico con tasas de desempleo y de alta rotación. Por lo tanto, este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el volumen de negocios en el mercado de trabajo industrial del noreste. Este escenario está fuertemente caracterizado por el proceso de reestructuración nacional, especialmente como un receptor de la actividad económica/trabajo intensivo. Metodológicamente, se recurre a una revisión de la lite - ratura y se añaden métodos empíricos para la construcción de indicadores de volumen de negocios. El marco de tiempo abarca los años 2001 y 2010, con la fuente de datos de la Información Anual Social y el Registro General de Empleados y Desempleados del Ministerio de Trabajo y Empleo. Los principales resultados muestran que hay un alto índice de despido injustificado, y una alta proporción de trabajadores que dejan sus puestos de trabajo en menos de un año. Además, la rotación es más pronunciada en la construcción y la agricultura. Sin embargo, cuando se realiza la selección de los sectores de la industria manufacturera, la industria mecánica y la de calzado y alimentos tienen altas tasas de rotación en comparación con las demás. En cuanto a la tasa de rotación, de acuerdo a las características demográficas y socioeconómicas, es más pronunciada para la fuerza de trabajo masculina, los muy jóvenes y los jóvenes, menos educados y en puestos de trabajo con ingresos de hasta un salario mínimo.

  8. 10. International energy forum: dynamics on the energy markets - chances for economy and industry. Proceedings; 10. Internationales Energie-Forum: Dynamik im Energiemarkt - Chancen fuer Wirtschaft und Industrie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The three sessions of the international meeting of experts from relevant branches of industry, politics and science were devoted to the subjects: 1. Trends in energy policy and the energy industry. 2. Building-blocs of innovative market development. 3. Demand-centered market development. Special attention was given to assessing the progress that can be expected in the near future in further development of emerging technologies and enhanced, energy-efficient application of existing technologies. (orig./CB) [German] Die Thematik der drei Sitzungsgruppen der internationalen Konferenz von Experten aus relevanten Zweigen der Industrie, Politik und Wissenschaft zeigt, dass es bei dieser Konferenz um einen Blick in die Zukunft ging und um eine Abschaetzung der in naher Zukunft realisierbaren Fortschritte bei Entwicklung, Anwendung und Ausbau alternativer oder fortschrittlicher Technologien zur Energieerzeugung oder Verbesserung der Energieeffizienz. Die drei Hauptthemen lauten: 1. Trends der Energiepolitik und Energiewirtschaft. 2. Bausteine innovativer Marktentwicklung. 3. Nachfrageorientierte Marktentwicklung. (orig./CB)

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF THE EFFECTS OF BREWING INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION AMONG LARGE AND SMALL COMPANIES OPERATING ON THE POLISH MARKET IN 2004-2011 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Łobos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polish beer market is characterised by a high degree of concentration. The market share of Kompania Piwowarska, Grupa Żywiec and Carlsberg Polska is 90%. Many authors stress concentration as an important factor when explaining why various industries are more or less effective or more or less profitable. Firms from concentrated industries report, on average, higher profitability than those in non-concentrated industries. The aim of this paper is to analyse the differences of economic efficiency of large (group I and small (group II entities involved in the production of beer. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the test group of companies was based on selected financial ratios (return on assets, return on sales, inventory turnover, total debt ratio.

  10. Monitoring of industrial products, in the key market of security in modern times; La vigilancia de los productos industriales en el mercado clave de la seguridad en los tiempos actuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Valcarcel, M.; Rodriguez Herrerias, J.

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the European Union methodology for keeping a high level of safety standards of industrial products in the general market, while fostering the dynamics of such market. It includes the explanation of how this methodology is applied in Spain particularly through the campaigns of the Ministry of Industry with the assistance of Foundation F2I2. (Author)

  11. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede brand

  12. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  13. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  14. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  15. Industrial and institutional cleaners market%工业和公共设施用清洁剂市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江

    2009-01-01

    The environmentally-friendly products have become a major issue with their customers. Better custom-training, unique new products and better dilution all help reduce costs. Companies that are successful in the I&I market are those that can deliver innovative, environmentally-friendly solutions at an attractive price. The broad needs of the industrial and institutional (I&I) cleaning industry have remained consistent over time: to fred affordable ways to clean faster and more effectively, while expending less energy. But the need to address changing regulations as well as productivity, public health, sustainability, and consumer preference for natural products is also influencing trends.%产品是否对环境友好已成为消费者购买产品时考虑的首要问题.良好消费习惯的引导以及新产品的开发都能消化和降低成本.那些在工业和公共设施中使用清洗剂并取得成功的企业都是基于产品创新、开发环境友好型产品以及具有竞争价格的产品开发.文章指出,未来工业和公共设施用清洗剂的趋势是那些清洁快速有效,而且耗能低的产品.而完善法规以及提高生产率有益于公众健康、可持续发展,消费者对天然产品的需求也会对未来工业和公共设施用清洗剂的发展趋势产生一定的影响.

  16. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS in Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS. Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BRT is the best way to overcome it. If a country gets richer the development will be seen in different aspects like education, industry, science and technology etc., except transport which will get worse. There are many ways to get rid of these traffic issues and transport problems. What attracted the countries to install BRT is the bus way concept as that it can cover whole city and is cheaper than the rail. BRT is a high speed rapid transit system using high capacity vehicles, physically separated bus ways, modern station with electronic fare collection, rapid boarding and high service frequency which result more passengers and less congestion. This paper presents an overview of BRTS and corridor selection & assessment for it in Hyderabad through surveys etc.

  17. Geometric-Process-Based Battery Management Optimizing Policy for the Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry and promotive policies worldwide, the electric bus (E-bus has been adopted in many major cities around the world. One of the most important factors that restrain the widespread application of the E-bus is the high operating cost due to the deficient battery management. This paper proposes a geometric-process-based (GP-based battery management optimizing policy which aims to minimize the average cost of the operation on the premise of meeting the required sufficient battery availability. Considering the deterioration of the battery after repeated charging and discharging, this paper constructs the model of the operation of the E-bus battery as a geometric process, and the premaintenance time has been considered with the failure repairment time to enhance the GP-based battery operation model considering the battery cannot be as good as new after the two processes. The computer simulation is carried out by adopting the proposed optimizing policy, and the result verifies the effectiveness of the policy, denoting its significant performance on the application of the E-bus battery management.

  18. Competition and coordination in the U.S. airline hub-to-hub markets: An industry pre-merger case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper investigates the nature of conduct that existed in the U.S. airline hub-to-hub markets prior to the recent merger wave of the legacy carriers. We explore the strategic importance of network carrier hubs in form of “spheres of influence” on airline market conduct. We also simultaneously recognize the overgrowing role played by Low Cost Carriers (LCC over the years by estimating two conduct parameters - one in markets where LCCs directly compete head-to-head with legacy carriers and the other for markets which LCCs do not serve but has presence in the hub airports or adjacent airports comprising the market endpoints. Thus our supply side framework also sheds some light on the issue of perfect contestability in airline industry. Design/methodology/approach: We estimate a structural oligopoly model for differentiated products with competitive interactions using DB1B data for first quarter of 2004. Findings: Our results imply that the nature of competition is more aggressive relative to Bertrand behavior in hub-to-hub markets and that these markets are less than perfectly contestable. Originality/value: This paper adds to the empirical literature of airline competition by enabling estimation of the actual conduct parameter assuming firm price setting behavior in presence of product differentiation. Contrary to existing literature on airline competition, a structural model enables us to systematically separate out effects of demand, cost and strategic factors on observed airline prices.

  19. 中国煤炭产业集中度影响因素分析%An empirical analysis of market concentration in coal industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐静; 冯套柱; 杜丽娟

    2011-01-01

    Based on the classical SCP (structure-conduct-performance) paradigm in industry organization theory, market structure has an effect on market performance by influencing market conduct. Adjusting market structure is an important way to improve market performance. Concentration is the firstline measure of market structure indicators, the level of industrial concentration and the determinants of changes in industrial economics has been an important aspect of the study. The paper links the theory of industry organization with the econometrics method, analyzes the factors affecting concentration in our coal industry with the aid of methods of statistics and the statistical software, and establishes the quanti tative relations between concentration and the forepart concentration, barrier to entry, capacity of themarket and the expansion power factors in the end, offers reference to set industrial policy for the sound and fast development of our coal industry.%在产业组织理论经典的SCP(结构-行为-绩效)分析范式中,市场结构通过影响市场行为,进而可以影响市场绩效.调整和改善不合理的市场结构是提高目标市场绩效的重要手段.产业集中度是重要的市场结构指标,它的变化的影响因素一直是产业经济学研究的重要内容.文章将产业组织理论和计量经济方法相结合,运用统计学相关方法及统计软件,对我国煤炭产业集中度的主要影响因素进行定量的实证分析,最终确立期初集中度、进入壁垒、市场容量、扩张能力等指标与煤炭产业集中度之间的数量关系,为制定我国煤炭产业又好又快发展的产业政策提供参考.

  20. Extent and content of data for regulatory submissions: First-in-human and marketing authorization--Viewpoint of US industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ian Ross

    2015-09-01

    The amount and type of data in regulatory submissions increases dramatically from the first-in-human clinical trials application through to the extensive dossier that is required for marketing authorization. The Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology industries are very familiar with the requirements and expectations of Health Authorities for small molecule and biologics, but have limited experience for cell-based therapies. Fortunately, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines agency (EMA) Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) have considerable experience in regulating cell therapies and have provided extensive Guidance documents for developers. The Agencies offers advice to Sponsors through a variety of meetings. However, it is incumbent on the Sponsor to understand the regulations, interpret the Guidance documents and formulate clear company positions to enable the Agency to provide clear feedback. It is important for Sponsors to understand the factors that are critical for the safety and efficacy of their product and to demonstrate to the Health Authorities that they have a control strategy that ensures safety and efficacy during all stages of development. The focus of this paper is to describe some of the challenges for the chemistry manufacturing and controls (CMC) for cell therapies being development internationally.