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Sample records for bus fourth evaluation

  1. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  2. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  3. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  4. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  5. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  6. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB, which was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) National Fuel Cell Bus Program, was delivered to SunLine in November 2011 and was put in revenue service in mid-December 2011. Two new AFCBs with an upgraded design were delivered in June/July of 2014 and a third new AFCB was delivered in February 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report covers the performance of the AFCBs from July 2015 through December 2016.

  7. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  8. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  9. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  10. Stress prevention in bus drivers: Evaluation of 13 natural experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Aust, B.; Berg, A.M. van den; Siegrist, J.

    2000-01-01

    The research aim was to select, compare, and analyze interventions and preventive actions from international bus companies to decrease bus drivers' occupational stress and sickness absenteeism. Through networking, international surveys, and literature study, 13 "natural experiments" were identified

  11. Cellular Automata Based Modeling for Evaluating Different Bus Stop Designs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate mixed traffic flow composed of motor vehicles and bicycles near bus stops. Three typical types of bus stops which are common in China are considered in the model, including two types of curbside bus stops and one type of bus bay stops. Passenger transport capacity of three types of bus stops, which is applied to evaluate the bus stop design, is calculated based on the corresponding traffic flow rate. According to the simulation results, the flow rates of both motor vehicles and bicycles exhibit phase transition from free flow to the saturation one at the critical point. The results also show that the larger the interaction between motor vehicle and bicycle flow is near curbside bus stops, the more the value of saturated flows drops. Curbside bus stops are more suitable when the conflicts between two flows are small and the inflow rate of motor vehicles is low. On the contrary, bus bay stops should be applied due to their ability to reduce traffic conflicts. Findings of this study can provide useful suggestions on bus stop selection considering different inflow rate of motor vehicles and bicycles simultaneously.

  12. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  13. Development and Evaluation of Bus Operation Control System Based on Cooperative Speed Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Teng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buses often have strong bunching or large interval tendency when traveling further along the route. To restrain this further deterioration of operation service, this paper developed a bus operation control system to dynamically adjust bus speed, bus dwell time, and traffic signal timings along the running path. In addition, a simulation platform was developed to evaluate the proposed control system with the actual data collected from bus route number 210 in Shanghai. The simulation results show that the proposed control system can mitigate the amplification trend of the headway deviation along the route to produce headways within a given tolerance.

  14. Field-Based Concerns about Fourth-Generation Evaluation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Morris K.

    Some aspects of fourth generation evaluation procedures that have been advocated by E. G. Guba and Y. S. Lincoln were examined empirically, with emphasis on areas where there have been discrepancies between theory and field-based experience. In fourth generation evaluation, the product of an evaluation is not a set of conclusions, recommendations,…

  15. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in consultation with concerned department/agencies. Field surveys were also conducted to get input from passengers and local people. Initial investigation informed that out of four operational bus routes, only two routes are profitable. The overall bus operation is running in loss (only 0.3% net profit. It has barely any profit for the bus operator against its investment thereby making the urban bus operation financially non-viable. The whole revenue flow is dependent on passenger ticketing revenue only. Around 35% of the buses are in poor condition with major issues of quality of tyres, no speedometer, worse condition of seats, floor and ceiling, and display of route. Illegal operation of Qingqis/Rickshaws (as para-transit mode along the bus routes is also decreasing the revenue by capturing the passenger volume. According to passenger opinion analysis, around 55% of the passenger are not satisfied with the service quality and prefer other modes of transport. Their major concerns are absence of facilities for disables and bus stops, bus seating and standing capacity, poor bus condition and pick pocketing. Collectively, these factors are contributing

  16. Teaching Fourth Generation Evaluation through Monologue Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Eric; Sparks, Cheryl

    1992-01-01

    This article illustrates the use of monologue interpretation, in which an interpreter illuminates issues in a speaker's monologue to translate theoretical pedagogical material into usable classroom applications. The example shows how the tenets of Guba and Lincoln's (1989) Responsive Constructivist Fourth Generation Model were presented via…

  17. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  18. Glacier Going to the Sun Road Rehabilitation Mitigation Shuttle Bus Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-31

    As a mitigation measure during reconstruction of the Going to the Sun Road, Glacier National Park operated a shuttle bus system along three routes during the 2007 season. This report presents a multi-dimensional evaluation of the transportation servi...

  19. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  20. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Portela S; Marcos, Queiroga R; Amanda, Constantini; Paulo, Zannin H T

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A.), a little annoyed (L.A.) and highly annoyed (H.A.)). The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus

  1. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela S Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A., a little annoyed (L.A. and highly annoyed (H.A.. The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality

  2. Biobjective Optimization and Evaluation for Transit Signal Priority Strategies at Bus Stop-to-Stop Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new optimization framework for the transit signal priority strategies in terms of green extension, red truncation, and phase insertion at the stop-to-stop segment of bus lines. The optimization objective is to minimize both passenger delay and the deviation from bus schedule simultaneously. The objective functions are defined with respect to the segment between bus stops, which can include the adjacent signalized intersections and downstream bus stops. The transit priority signal timing is optimized by using a biobjective optimization framework considering both the total delay at a segment and the delay deviation from the arrival schedules at bus stops. The proposed framework is evaluated using a VISSIM model calibrated with field traffic volume and traffic signal data of Caochangmen Boulevard in Nanjing, China. The optimized TSP-based phasing plans result in the reduced delay and improved reliability, compared with the non-TSP scenario under the different traffic flow conditions in the morning peak hour. The evaluation results indicate the promising performance of the proposed optimization framework in reducing the passenger delay and improving the bus schedule adherence for the urban transit system.

  3. Implementation Frailties of Guba and Lincoln's "Fourth Generation" Evaluation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Tom

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of a science education project for teachers in Durban (South Africa) illustrates some problems inherent in the application of the fourth-generation evaluation approach of Guba and Lincoln. One of the strongest concerns is that full participation by stakeholders may be an unrealistic assumption. (SLD)

  4. [Evaluation of Abbott Fourth Generation HIV Antigen and Antibody Assays.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Jung; Yoo, Kyeong Ha; Kim, Han Sung; Cho, Hyoun Chan

    2006-02-01

    In order to reduce the diagnostic window period between the time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and serological diagnosis, new fourth generation screening assays which detect HIV p24 antigen and specific antibody simultaneously have been developed. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a new fourth generation assay. We compared a new fourth generation assay, Architect HIV Ag/Ab combo, with another fourth generation assay AxSYM HIV Ag/Ab combo and a third generation assay, AxSYM HIV 1/2 gO for their performance. The assays were evaluated using 3 HIV seroconversion panels, 305 sera of healthy subjects and 100 sera of patients with HBsAg or anti-HCV antibodies. Within-run and total coefficient variations of the three screening assays were analyzed for the evaluation of precision. Architect HIV Ag/Ab combo shortened the window period by 8.7+/-2.1 days relative to AxSYM HIV 1/2 gO and 2.0+/-2.0 days relative to AxSYM HIV Ag/Ab combo in seroconversion panels. Architect HIV Ag/Ab combo presented the best performance in precision among the three reagents; total CV for positive control was 3.6%, 9.6% and 4.6% for Architect HIV Ag/Ab combo, AxSYM HIV Ag/Ab combo and AxSYM HIV 1/2 gO, respectively. Specificities of three assays were not different in this study. HIV Ag/Ab combined assays reduced the diagnostic window as compared to the third generation screening assays, enabling an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection. A new fourth generation assay, Architect HIV Ag/Ab combo presents a better performance than AxSYM HIV Ag/Ab combo, showing improved seroconversion sensitivity and precision.

  5. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The evaluation period in this report (January 2008 through February 2009) has been chosen to coincide with a UTC Power propulsion system changeout that occurred on January 15, 2008.

  6. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  7. Evaluation of the Determine™ fourth generation HIV rapid assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Marieke; De Villiers, Johanna C; Mayaphi, Simnikiwe H

    2013-04-01

    Assays that detect p24 antigen reduce the diagnostic window period of HIV testing. Most point-of-care HIV assays have poor sensitivity to diagnose acute HIV infection as they only detect antibodies against HIV-1 and HIV-2 (HIV-1/2). This was a cross-sectional laboratory-based study that evaluated the performance of the Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo fourth generation rapid strip - currently the only rapid assay that detects both HIV-1/2 antibodies and p24 antigen. A total of 79 serum specimens (29 positive for HIV antibodies only, 14 positive for HIV antibodies and p24 antigen, 20 HIV-negative, and 16 positive for p24 antigen only) were used for the evaluation. Results were compared with those from validated fourth generation HIV ELISAs. The Determine™ Combo rapid strips had a sensitivity of 90.7% and a specificity of 100% for the detection of HIV-1/2 antibodies. Its sensitivity for the detection of p24 antigen was only 10% (3 out of 30 p24 antigen positive specimens). This implies that most acute HIV infections will be missed with this assay. The need for a point-of-care assay which can detect acute HIV infection reliably still remains, particularly for use in a high prevalence setting such as South Africa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fourth Generation Educational Evaluation: The Impact of a Post-Modern Paradigm on School Based Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Neil; Willinsky, John

    1997-01-01

    Postmodern approaches to school-level evaluation by building on the fourth-generation evaluation model developed by E. Guba and Y. Lincoln are suggested. It is argued that this conceptualization of evaluation has particular relevance for development of alternative evaluation practices among stakeholders that can improve the use of evaluation…

  9. Electric bus systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Pure electric buses (EBs) offer an alternative fuel for the nations transit bus systems. To : evaluate EBs in a transit setting, this project investigated the five electric bus fleet of the : StarMetro transit system of the city of Tallahassee, FL...

  10. Evaluation of fatal school bus related crashes and near-term crash mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Donoughe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available School bus crashes are rare in comparison to other crash types, but considering all crashes that occur in and around school buses, they begin to become a noticeable problem and one that tends to attract national attention. As defined by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS, a school bus related crash is a crash that either involves a school bus or a crash where the presence of a school bus is considered as a major contributing factor. Ten years of data indicate that the number of fatal school bus related crashes has remained nearly stagnant despite an increase in the number vehicle safety systems available on the market. The findings also highlight the importance of protecting the non-bus occupants since they are the most likely to incur a serious or fatal injury in the event of a crash. As the most vulnerable user group, pedestrians (typically school-aged children are especially at risk when crossing the road while boarding or exiting a school bus. Until new technologies for reducing school bus related crashes are designed and implemented, school transportation safety can be improved by increasing awareness of school bus stop laws and by implementing existing transportation safety initiatives at school bus stop locations.

  11. Successfulness of bus rapid transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as “a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility”. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is p

  12. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report #2, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-06-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006, comparing similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. It covers November 2007 through February 2010. Results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and road calls), and a summary of achievements and challenges encountered during the demonstration.

  13. Evaluation of Effective Factors on Travel Time in Optimization of Bus Stops Placement Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargegol, Iraj; Ghorbanzadeh, Mahyar; Ghasedi, Meisam; Rastbod, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    In congested cities, locating and proper designing of bus stops according to the unequal distribution of passengers is crucial issue economically and functionally, since this subject plays an important role in the use of bus system by passengers. Location of bus stops is a complicated subject; by reducing distances between stops, walking time decreases, but the total travel time may increase. In this paper, a specified corridor in the city of Rasht in north of Iran is studied. Firstly, a new formula is presented to calculate the travel time, by which the number of stops and consequently, the travel time can be optimized. An intended corridor with specified number of stops and distances between them is addressed, the related formulas to travel time are created, and its travel time is calculated. Then the corridor is modelled using a meta-heuristic method in order that the placement and the optimal distances of bus stops for that are determined. It was found that alighting and boarding time along with bus capacity are the most effective factors affecting travel time. Consequently, it is better to have more concentration on indicated factors for improving the efficiency of bus system.

  14. FARMING EVALUATION OF FINGERLINGS OF FOURTH GENERATION OF SCALELESS COMMON CARP

    OpenAIRE

    I. Hrytsyniak; М. Оsipenko; V. Bekh; О. Оleksiyenko; Т. Tretyakova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Complex analysis of farming indexes of fingerlings of fourth generation of scaleless common carp carry out. Methodology. Fisheries evaluation one year fingerlings of Scaleless common carp of fourth selection generation was performed in Experimental Fish Stanton “Nyvka”. Research activity has been carried out with using of generally accepted methods in fish-farming and selection breeding. Findings. One-summer fingerlings of Scaleless common carp have high rate of viability and...

  15. Fourth Generation Evaluation, Program Review and the Institutional Researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Bob

    Program evaluation can be understood as the process of looking at how all aspects of a program or department have been functioning as the basis for informed planning and decision making. Although the objective dimensions used in evaluations can vary, methodologies can be categorized according to the four category framework (i.e., describing…

  16. Thinking beyond Measurement, Description and Judgment: Fourth Generation Evaluation in Family-Centered Pediatric Healthcare Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Katherine Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although pediatric healthcare organizations have widely implemented the philosophy of family-centered care (FCC), evaluators and health professionals have not explored how to preserve the philosophy of FCC in evaluation processes. Purpose: To illustrate how fourth generation evaluation, in theory, could facilitate collaboration between…

  17. Evaluating Operational Effects of Bus Lane with Intermittent Priority under Connected Vehicle Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingxin Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus lane with intermittent priority (BLIP is an innovative method to improve the reliability of bus services while promoting efficient usage of road resources. Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication is an advanced technology that can greatly enhance the vehicle mobility, improve traffic safety, and alleviate traffic jams. To explore the benefits of BLIP operation under a connected environment, this study proposed a three-lane cellular automata (CA model under opening boundary condition. In particular, a mandatory BLIP lane-changing rule is developed to analyze special asymmetric lane-changing behaviors. To improve the simulation accuracy, a smaller cell size is used in the CA model. Through massive numerical simulations, the benefits and influences of BLIP are explored in this paper. They include impacts on neighborhood lanes such as traffic density increasing and average speed decreasing, lane-changing behaviors, lane usage, and the impacts of bus departure interval and clear distance on the road capacity of BLIP. Analysis of traffic flow characteristics of BLIP reveals that there is a strong relationship among bus departure interval, clear distance, and road capacity. Furthermore, setting conditions for deployment of BLIP under the V2V environment such as reasonable departure interval, clear distance, and traffic density are obtained.

  18. Health impacts of free bus travel for young people: evaluation of a natural experiment in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Phil; Steinbach, Rebecca; Green, Judith; Petticrew, Mark; Goodman, Anna; Jones, Alasdair; Roberts, Helen; Kelly, Charlotte; Nellthorp, John; Wilkinson, Paul

    2013-08-01

    We used the introduction of free bus travel for young people in London in 2005 as a natural experiment with which to assess its effects on active travel, car use, road traffic injuries, assaults, and on one measure of social inclusion, total number of trips made. A controlled before-after analysis was conducted. We estimated trips by mode and distances travelled in the preintroduction and postintroduction periods using data from London Travel Demand Surveys. We estimated rates of road traffic injury and assault in each period using STATS19 data and Hospital Episode Statistics, respectively. We estimated the ratio of change in the target age group (12-17 years) to the change in adults (ages 25-59 years), with 95% CIs. The proportion of short trips travelled by bus by young people increased postintroduction. There was no evidence for an increase in the total number of bus trips or distance travelled by bus by young people attributable to the intervention. The proportion of short trips by walking decreased, but there was no evidence for any change to total distance walked. Car trips declined in both age groups, although distance travelled by car decreased more in young people. Road casualty rates declined, but the pre-post ratio of change was greater in young people than adults (ratio of ratios 0.84; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.87). Assaults increased and the ratio of change was greater in young people (1.20; 1.13 to 1.27). The frequency of all trips by young people was unchanged, both in absolute terms and relative to adults. The introduction of free bus travel for young people had little impact on active travel overall and shifted some travel from car to buses that could help broader environmental objectives.

  19. An Evaluation of Close Reading with At-Risk Fourth-Grade Students in Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux-Johnson, Marcy; Mooney, Paul; Lastrapes, Renée E.

    2017-01-01

    The study's primary purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of a widely promoted close reading instructional routine for elementary grades students at risk for reading failure. Close reading is designed to help students read complex text independently and proficiently. Participants were six fourth-grade students receiving supplemental…

  20. Revisiting the AAUP Recommendation: The Viability of Collegiality as a Fourth Criterion for University Faculty Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pattie C.; Schimmel, Tammy; O'Hara, Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Legal rulings have called for the inclusion of collegiality as a fourth evaluation category for university faculty. Collegiality is considered to be any extra-role behavior that represents individuals' behavior that is discretionary, not recognized by the formal reward system and that, in the aggregate, promotes the effective functioning of the…

  1. Three-Phase Fault Currents Evaluation for Nigerian 28-Bus 330kv Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, Gafari A.; Tijani, Muhammed A.; Sanusi, Mufutau A.; Olatunji, Dauda O.

    2012-03-01

    Fault studies are important power system analysis for stable and economical operations of power systems. Faults are categorised as symmetrical and unsymmetrical. In this paper, three-phase symmetrical fault is simulated using the Nigerian 28-Bus, 330kV Transmission Grid. Two different MatLab based programmes were developed; one program was for Load Flow Studies which determines prefault conditions for the power system based on Newton-Raphson method. The other program determines fault current magnitudes for threephase short-circuit on the power system. The information gained from the fault studies can be used for proper relay selections, settings, performances and coordination.

  2. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  3. Field Evaluation of Red-Coloured Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements for Bus Rapid Transit Lanes in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfan Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coloured pavements have been implemented by metropolitan areas to denote dedicated lanes for bus rapid transit to maintain a high level of safety. Transit benefits of these installations are well documented. However, field performance of various types of coloured pavement has not been investigated systematically, with questions not being answered. In collaboration with the Regional Municipality of York (ON, Canada where red pavement sections have been in operation for years for its bus rapid transit lanes, the Centre for Pavement and Transportation Technology at the University of Waterloo (Waterloo, ON, Canada assessed the performance of various types of red pavements including epoxy paint and red asphalt mixes. It was found that, with significant lower texture depth, epoxy paint surface has disadvantages to red asphalt pavement from a pavement texture and safety perspective. The red asphalt sections in this study were observed as lower yet compatible frictional levels to conventional black pavement. Various types of contamination onto the red pavement were observed during field survey. In addition, the ultraviolet radiation degraded the colour of red asphalt pavement over time and may make it less effective for lane designation. Long-term monitoring is recommended to evaluate the functional and structural performance of red asphalt pavement.

  4. Evaluating a GPS-Based Transportation Device to Support Independent Bus Travel by People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; Holloway, Shane; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the utility of a PDA-based software system with integrated GPS technology for providing location-aware visual and auditory prompts to enable people with intellectual disability to successfully navigate a downtown bus route. Participants using the system were significantly more successful at completing a bus route than were people in a…

  5. [Evaluation of an immunochromatographic fourth generation test for the rapid diagnosis of acute HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Takuya; Nagashima, Mami; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kojima, Yoko; Mori, Haruyo

    2013-07-01

    The early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is important to provide effective antiviral treatment and to prevent transmission of HIV. One of the key issues to achieve this goal is to shorten the so-called "diagnostic window period" when the humoral immune response toward the virus is not fully developed during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. In 2008, the Espline HIV Ag/Ab test kit (E4G, Fujirebio Inc. Japan) was marketed in Japan belonging to the fourth generation of HIV test kits characterized by its ability to detect both viral antigens (Ag) and anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies (Ab). E4G is the first and only fourth generation immunochromatographic HIV test kit approved in Japan at present. To evaluate its performance to diagnose acute HIV infection (AHI), E4G was compared with fourth generation Ag/Ab ELISA test kits, a third generation PA test kit, WB and real-time PCR for the testing of 25 AHI clinical specimens. E4G detected HIV infection in 18/25 specimens (sensitivity : 72.0%), of which the viral Ag was detected in only 2 specimens (8.0%) bearing a viral load > 10 million copies/mL. No spesimens were simultaneously reactive to both Ag and Ab against HIV. The third generation PA achieved a positive score of 17/ 25 specimens (68.0%), which was almost the same as the E4G figure. In contrast the fourth generation Ag/ Ab ELISA scored all the 25 AHI specimens positive (sensitivity : 100%). Overall, although having the merit of offering a rapid diagnostic test for HIV infection, E4G does not provide a sensitivity in AHI diagnosis superior to test kits currently available.

  6. FARMING EVALUATION OF FINGERLINGS OF FOURTH GENERATION OF SCALELESS COMMON CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Complex analysis of farming indexes of fingerlings of fourth generation of scaleless common carp carry out. Methodology. Fisheries evaluation one year fingerlings of Scaleless common carp of fourth selection generation was performed in Experimental Fish Stanton “Nyvka”. Research activity has been carried out with using of generally accepted methods in fish-farming and selection breeding. Findings. One-summer fingerlings of Scaleless common carp have high rate of viability and exceed established standards significantly. Their surviving rate ranged from 33.6 to 55.4 % and average weight - from 25.2 to 33.8 g. Index reproductive evaluation of breeders of third selection generation has been carried out. Females exceed initial parent form by working and relative fecundity significantly, in particular, a level of positive reaction on hormonal stimulation was 89,6%, average mass of ovulation eggs were at the level 1,42-1,50 mg, working fecundity of females was 668 – 952 thousands of eggs. Further incubation of the fertilized eggs was conducted in incubation jars «Amur» and lasted 75 hours. The temperature of water in this period ranged within the limits of 19,5 - 22,8 ºC. The process of incubation of eggs lasted 1356 -1438 hour-degrees. A fertilization of eggs was 94,1%, development - 81,4 – 88,5 %. Average fecundity of females by three-day larvae was 423 thousands of specimens. One-summer fingerlings of plant-breeding of fourth generation of Scaleless common carp keep as the previous generations of selection a high-dorsal build, that testifies to the meat form of their exterior. In particular, the index of high-dorsal build (l/H was 2.43±0.02, and the coefficient of condition factor - 2.84±0.08. Originality. For the first time the characteristics of valuable indexes of one-summer fingerlings of fourth selective generation of Scaleless Intrabreed Type of Ukrainian Frame Breed are presented. Practical Value. Cultivation of one

  7. Evaluation of estrogenic potential of flavonoids using a recombinant yeast strain and MCF7/BUS cell proliferation assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia A Resende

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are of interest because of their reported beneficial effects on many human maladies including cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Furthermore, there is a search for compounds with estrogenic activity that can replace estrogen in hormone replacement therapy during menopause, without the undesirable effects of estrogen, such as the elevation of breast cancer occurrence. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to assess the estrogenic activity of flavonoids with different hydroxylation patterns: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, fisetin, chrysin, galangin, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone via two different in vitro assays, the recombinant yeast assay (RYA and the MCF-7 proliferation assay (E-screen, since the most potent phytoestrogens are members of the flavonoid family. In these assays, kaempferol was the only compound that showed ERα-dependent transcriptional activation activity by RYA, showing 6.74±1.7 nM EEQ, besides acting as a full agonist for the stimulation of proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells. The other compounds did not show detectable levels of interaction with ER under the conditions used in the RYA. However, in the E-screen assay, compounds such as galangin, luteolin and fisetin also stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells, acting as partial agonists. In the evaluation of antiestrogenicity, the compounds quercetin, chrysin and 3-hydroxyflavone significantly inhibited the cell proliferation induced by 17-β-estradiol in the E-screen assay, indicating that these compounds may act as estrogen receptor antagonists. Overall, it became clear in the assay results that the estrogenic activity of flavonoids was affected by small structural differences such as the number of hydroxyl groups, especially those on the B ring of the flavonoid.

  8. [Using the Fourth Generation Evaluation in a Center of Psychosocial Attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jacó Fernando; Camatta, Marcio Wagner; Nasd, Cíntia; Kantorski, Luciane Prado; Wetzel, Christine

    2009-03-01

    The study reports the use of the Evaluation of Fourth Generation in a Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS). A qualitative evaluation was carried through with the purpose of learning the service dynamics, the ways the actors interact and how the senses are built by those people in relation to their practice. The data collection was made in a CAPS in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the period between October and November of 2006. The applied methods were: observation, which made possible to experience the service context, interviews with 13 service users, 13 relatives and 13 mental health care professionals. The fieldwork experience allowed us to accomplish the joint of different methods of data collection in the search of service evaluation through a constructivist perspective. The evaluation allowed a problematization of mental care health in Centers of Psychosocial Attention and contributed to the emancipatory process of the involved subjects.

  9. Mechanical evaluation of large-size fourth-generation composite femur and tibia models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Matthew P; Chong, Alexander C M; Pollock, Anthony G; Wooley, Paul H

    2010-03-01

    Composite analogue bone models provide consistent geometric and structural properties that represent a valuable asset in a range of biomechanical analyses and testing procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diaphyseal structural properties of the large-size Fourth-Generation composite analogue femur and tibia models concentrated on mechanical behaviors under axial compression, bending and torsion. Thirty of each large-size composite analogue models (femora and tibiae) were tested under medial-lateral four-point bending, anterior-posterior four-point bending, axial compression and external rotational torque to evaluate flexural rigidity, axial stiffness, torsional rigidity and ultimate failure strength. The composite femur was tested under torsion at both the femoral neck and the mid-diaphyseal areas. Large-size Fourth-Generation composite replicate bones exhibited intra-specimen variations under 10% for all cases and was also found to perform within the biological range of healthy adult bones (age: evaluated and advanced our overall understanding of the capacity of composite analogue bone models mimic the structural properties of average healthy adult human bones.

  10. Electrical Design and Evaluation of Asynchronous Serial Bus Communication Network of 48 Sensor Platform LSIs with Single-Ended I/O for Integrated MEMS-LSI Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhong Shao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For installing many sensors in a limited space with a limited computing resource, the digitization of the sensor output at the site of sensation has advantages such as a small amount of wiring, low signal interference and high scalability. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS Large-Scale Integration (LSI (referred to as “sensor platform LSI” for bus-networked Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS-LSI integrated sensors. In this LSI, collision avoidance, adaptation and event-driven functions are simply implemented to relieve data collision and congestion in asynchronous serial bus communication. In this study, we developed a network system with 48 sensor platform LSIs based on Printed Circuit Board (PCB in a backbone bus topology with the bus length being 2.4 m. We evaluated the serial communication performance when 48 LSIs operated simultaneously with the adaptation function. The number of data packets received from each LSI was almost identical, and the average sampling frequency of 384 capacitance channels (eight for each LSI was 73.66 Hz.

  11. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chung-Won; Lee, Ho-Seong; Won, Jong-Phil; Lee, Moo-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volum...

  12. GO Bus impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    NJ TRANSIT launched two relatively new enhanced bus services: GO 25 serving the : Springfield Avenue corridor in 2008 and GO 28 serving the Bloomfield Avenue corridor in 2009. : As an enhanced but not full Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) service, GO Bus feat...

  13. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  14. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  15. Evaluating the influence of modernization of the urban bus fleet in Krakow in the years 2010–2015 on the amount of pollutants emitted into the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bździuch Paulina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and environmentally friendly public transport is a requirement of a modern city. For many years, Krakow has been building a modern multimodal transportation system, with the bus services playing a significant role. The article presents the results of the studies carried out on the fleet of urban buses operating within the Krakow agglomeration in the years 2010-2015. The influence of modernization of the urban bus fleet in the specified period on emissions of the most significant air pollutants into the air was evaluated. The studies have confirmed a total reduction in emissions from buses during the study period at levels of approximately 28 % for NOx, approximately 35 % for PM10, approximately 39 % for PM2.5 and approximately 43 % for NMVOC.

  16. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  17. Metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial drug gatifloxacin: Synthesis, structure and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-08-01

    Three metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial agent gatifloxacin (GFLX) with Y(ΙΙΙ), Zr(ΙV) and U(VΙ) have been prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In these complexes, gatifloxacin acts as a bidentate deprotonated ligand bound to the metal through the ketone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The complexes are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry. The kinetic parameters for gatifloxacin and the three prepared complexes have been evaluated from TGA curves by using Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzeger (HM) methods. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(U dbnd O), for the UO 2 bond in uranyl complex are 1.7522 Å and 639.46 N m -1. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested against microorganisms, three bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and two fungi species, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.), showing that they exhibit higher activity than free ligand.

  18. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  19. Developing the Fourth Evaluation Dimension: A Protocol for Evaluation of Video From the Patient's Perspective During Major Incident Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkort, J J Mark; Leenen, Luke P H

    2017-10-01

    Presently used evaluation techniques rely on 3 traditional dimensions: reports from observers, registration system data, and observational cameras. Some of these techniques are observer-dependent and are not reproducible for a second review. This proof-of-concept study aimed to test the feasibility of extending evaluation to a fourth dimension, the patient's perspective. Footage was obtained during a large, full-scale hospital trauma drill. Two mock victims were equipped with point-of-view cameras filming from the patient's head. Based on the Major Incident Hospital's first experience during the drill, a protocol was developed for a prospective, standardized method to evaluate a hospital's major incident response from the patient's perspective. The protocol was then tested in a second drill for its feasibility. New insights were gained after review of the footage. The traditional observer missed some of the evaluation points, which were seen on the point-of-view cameras. The information gained from the patient's perspective proved to be implementable into the designed protocol. Use of point-of-view camera recordings from a mock patient's perspective is a valuable addition to traditional evaluation of trauma drills and trauma care. Protocols should be designed to optimize and objectify judgement of such footage. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:594-599).

  20. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  1. Evaluation of a fourth-generation latex agglutination test for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriesse, G I; Elberts, S; Vrolijk, A; Verhulst, C; Kluytmans, J A J W

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated a fourth-generation agglutination assay (Staph Plus; DiaMondiaL[DML]) for the rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus. First, comparison with three third-generation assays (Slidex Staph Plus, bioMérieux; Staphaurex Plus, Murex Diagnostics; Pastorex Staph-Plus, Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur) was performed on a predefined strain collection: 265 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), 266 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 262 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains ("strain study"). Second, patient material-derived strains (883 CNS, 847 MSSA and 135 MRSA) were tested concurrently with both the DML and Slidex assays ("daily practice study"). In the strain study, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the DML, Slidex, Staphaurex and Pastorex assays were 99.2% and 100%, 98.1% and 100%, 95.2% and 100%, and 98.2% and 98.8%, respectively. Using the respective tests, the result was indeterminate in 0.0%, 0.6%, 0.4% and 1.5% of the strains. Overall, the sensitivity of the DML and Slidex assays were comparable in both sub-studies. However, in MRSA strains, the sensitivity of the DML assay was significantly lower than the Slidex assay. The specificity of the Slidex assay was significantly higher than the DML assay. However, the percentage of indeterminate results was much higher for the Slidex than the DML assay. In conclusion, the presumptive identification of S. aureus by the DML assay proved to be equal to third-generation latex agglutination assays.

  2. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  3. Differences in Self-expression Reflect Formal Evaluation in a Fourth-year Emergency Medicine Clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical schools have begun to incorporate self-reflection exercises into their curricula, with the belief that these exercises help students master the material more deeply and perform better. Reflection may be a potential learning tool for emergency medicine (EM, but there are few data supporting this hypothesis. The authors evaluated the relationship between a linguistic marker of the degree of reflection after a student’s shift in an emergency department and that student’s clerkship performance. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective case series by analyzing the performance and reflective statements of 116 students from a single medical school who participated in a required EM clerkship at one or two of four clinical sites from 2013-14. After each shift, an attending emergency physician evaluated the student according to the RIME (Reporter-Interpreter-Manager- Educator scheme. The authors developed software to extract the text from those comments, remove uninformative words and standardize the remaining words. The authors determined the most common words and two-word phrases that students used to describe their shift. The correlation between students’ final clerkship grades and the fraction of student comments with at least one content word was analyzed. Results: Of the 145 possible students, 116 were included for analysis. The other 29 were excluded as they were visiting students who did not receive a fi nal numeric grade. The correlation between final grade and the number of completed self-reflections was 0.32. The correlation between final grade and the average number of words in each self -reflection was 0.21. The first correlation is significantly greater than 0 (p=0.03, t-test, but the second correlation is not (p=0.16, t-test. The median final grade of those who wrote reflections on more tha n half of their shifts was significantly greater than those who wrote reflections half of the time, 83.675 versus 79

  4. Differences in Self-expression Reflect Formal Evaluation in a Fourth-year Emergency Medicine Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Michael; Leuthauser, Amy; Hu, Kevin; Hexom, Braden

    2017-01-01

    Medical schools have begun to incorporate self-reflection exercises into their curricula, with the belief that these exercises help students master the material more deeply and perform better. Reflection may be a potential learning tool for emergency medicine (EM), but there are few data supporting this hypothesis. The authors evaluated the relationship between a linguistic marker of the degree of reflection after a student's shift in an emergency department and that student's clerkship performance. The authors conducted a retrospective case series by analyzing the performance and reflective statements of 116 students from a single medical school who participated in a required EM clerkship at one or two of four clinical sites from 2013-14. After each shift, an attending emergency physician evaluated the student according to the RIME (Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator) scheme. The authors developed software to extract the text from those comments, remove uninformative words and standardize the remaining words. The authors determined the most common words and two-word phrases that students used to describe their shift. The correlation between students' final clerkship grades and the fraction of student comments with at least one content word was analyzed. Of the 145 possible students, 116 were included for analysis. The other 29 were excluded as they were visiting students who did not receive a final numeric grade. The correlation between final grade and the number of completed self-reflections was 0.32. The correlation between final grade and the average number of words in each self-reflection was 0.21. The first correlation is significantly greater than 0 (p=0.03, t-test), but the second correlation is not (p=0.16, t-test). The median final grade of those who wrote reflections on more than half of their shifts was significantly greater than those who wrote reflections half of the time, 83.675 versus 79.23 (p=0.05, 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). Students who

  5. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volume flow rate of the coolant water of the electrical devices. Heating capacity, compressor work, and heating COP were measured; their behaviors with regard to the parameters were observed. Experimental results showed that heating COP increased with decrease of outdoor temperature, from 20.0 °C to 0 °C, and it observed to be 3.0 in the case of 0 °C outdoor temperature. The observed characteristics of the heating COP suggest that the heat pump is applicable as the cabin heater of an electric vehicle, which is limited by short driving range.

  6. Performance evaluation of channel estimation techniques for a mobile fourth generation wide area OFDM system

    OpenAIRE

    Dowler, ASH; Doufexi, A; Nix, AR

    2002-01-01

    In this paper channel estimation techniques for a mobile fourth generation coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system are proposed. Coherent detection dictates that a per-subband estimate of the frequency response of the channel is generated for each OFDM symbol. This is achieved by inserting pilot symbols amongst the data symbols in the OFDM modulation grid. With suitable interpolation, the channel estimate at all intermediate symbols can be generated. A number of chan...

  7. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  8. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  9. Mechanical evaluation of fourth-generation composite femur hybrid locking plate constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Tarun; Patel, Vinit; Dalstrom, David J; Prayson, Michael J

    2011-09-01

    Locking compression plates are routinely used for open reduction and internal fixation of fractures. Such plates allow for locking or non-locking screw placement in each hole. A combined use of both types of screw application for stabilization of a fracture is commonly applied and referred to as hybrid internal fixation. Locking screws improve the stability of the fixation construct but at the expense of significant additional cost. This study experimentally analyzes various combinations of locking and non-locking screws under simultaneous axial and torsional loading to determine the optimal hybrid locking plate-screw construct in a fourth generation composite femur. Clinically it is necessary to ensure adequate fixation stability in a worse case fracture-bone quality scenario. A locking screw near the fracture gap increased the axial and torsional strength of the locked plate system. Greater removal torque remained in non-locked screws adjacent to locked screws compared to an all non-locking screws control group.

  10. Evaluation of the Fourth Millennium Development Goal Realisation using Robust and Nonparametric Tools offered by a Data Depth Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiorowska Ewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We briefly communicate the results of nonparametric and robust evaluation of the effects of the Fourth Millennium Development Goal of the United Nations. The main aim of the goal was reducing by two thirds, from 1990-2015, under five month’s child mortality. Our novel analysis was conducted by means of very powerful and user friendly tools offered by the Data Depth Concept being a collection of multivariate techniques basing on multivariate generalizations of quintiles, ranges and order statistics. The results of our analysis are more convincing than the results obtained using classical statistical tools.

  11. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Fourth interim report (August 1980): assessment of optimum distribution configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This interim report provides documentation on the fourth task, Assessment of Optimum Distribution Configuration, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes the development of a computer model for assessment of life cycle costs for the distribution and utilization systems, the development of an optimization algorithm to enable distribution system configuration optimization and a net energy analysis to determine potential net energy savings. Input data for this task derive from Task 3. The major output of this task is a documented computer code.

  12. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a follow......-up study was also conducted. All hospital discharges with a peptic ulcer diagnosis among the bus drivers were registered from the Danish National Patient Register. All Danish men were used as reference group. On the basis of the 1978-questionnaire association between occupational and psychosocial factors...... and subsequent hospital discharge with a peptic ulcer diagnosis was studied. The prevalence of abdominal pain alleviated by food intake was 12% among bus drivers and 6% in the reference group. The incidence of hospital discharge with duodenal ulcer among younger bus drivers was twice the incidence among Danish...

  13. Two-year clinical evaluation of a posterior resin composite using a fourth- and fifth-generation bonding agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, John R; Burgess, John O; Ripps, Alan H; Walker, Richard S; Winkler, Mark M; Mercante, Donald E; Davidson, Jessica M

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical performance of a posterior resin composite used with a fourth- and fifth-generation bonding agent. Sixty-two Class I and II restorations were placed with half the restorations restored with Gluma Solid Bond (a fourth-generation bonding system, or total etch two-step system) and the other half restored with Gluma Comfort Bond and Desensitizer (a fifth-generation bonding system, or total etch one-step system). Solitaire 2 was used as the restorative material for all restorations. The bonding systems and resin composite were used according to the manufacturer's instructions and all procedures were performed with rubber dam isolation. All restorations were evaluated at baseline, six months and one and two years. A modified USPHS scale was used to evaluate the restorations for marginal discoloration, recurrent caries, anatomic form, marginal adaptation and proximal contact. Statistical analysis revealed that at two years no significant differences were found between the two bonding agents. Overall, Solitaire 2 performed well clinically whether Gluma Solid Bond or Gluma Comfort Bond and Desensitizer was used. It was thus concluded that Solitaire 2 functions successfully when used as a posterior restorative material for at least two years.

  14. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Jiankun; Fan, Hao; He, Hongwen; Pan, Deng

    2015-01-01

    .... To evaluate the controller area network (CAN) bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built...

  15. Performance evaluation of a new fourth-generation HIV combination antigen-antibody assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, A; Schennach, H; van Helden, J; Hebell, T; Pantaleo, G; Bürgisser, P; Cellerai, C; Permpikul, P; Rodriguez, M I; Eiras, A; Alborino, F; Cunningham, P; Axelsson, M; Andersson, S; Wetlitzky, O; Kaiser, C; Möller, P; de Sousa, G

    2013-02-01

    Education and diagnostic tests capable of early detection represent our most effective means of preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The importance of early detection is underlined by studies demonstrating increased life expectancy following early initiation of antiviral treatment. The Elecsys(®) HIV combi PT assay is a fourth-generation antigen-antibody combination assay developed to allow earlier detection of seroconversion, and to have increased sensitivity and improved specificity. We aimed to determine how early the assay could detect infection compared with existing assays; whether all HIV variants could be detected; and the assay's specificity using samples from blood donors, routine specimens, and patients with potential cross-reacting factors. Samples were identified as positive by the Elecsys(®) assay 4.9 days after a positive polymerase chain reaction result (as determined by the panel supplier), which was earlier than the 5.3-7.1 days observed with comparators. The analytical sensitivity of the Elecsys(®) HIV combi PT assay for the HIV-1 p24 antigen was 1.05 IU/mL, which compares favorably with the comparator assays. In addition, the Elecsys(®) assay identified all screened HIV subtypes and displayed greater sensitivity to HIV-2 homologous antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 E and O and HIV-2 than the other assays. Overall, the specificity of the Elecsys(®) assay was 99.88 % using samples from blood donors and 99.81 % when analyzing unselected samples. Potential cross-reacting factors did not interfere with assay performance. The Elecsys(®) HIV combi PT assay is a sensitive and specific assay that has been granted the CE mark according to Directive 2009/886/EC.

  16. Accuracy of a fourth generation apex locator-an in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Abdullah

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The new fourth generation electronic apex locator (EAL, Elements (SybronEndo, USA has been introduced recently in the market. This study aims to investigate the accuracy of this EAL and to compare the result with a well-known apex locator, Root ZX and the radiographic technique using an in vitro model. Thirty anterior teeth with straight canals stored in 10% formalin were used. Access cavities were prepared followed by coronal flaring of the canals. Water was used as an irrigant. After the actual lengths (AL were measured, the teeth were then embedded in an alginate model. Periapical radiograph of each tooth was taken using a digital sensor and the radiographic lengths (RL were measured 0.5 mm short of the radiographic apex. Electronic tooth length measurements (EL were carried out using both EAL. Canals were then irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl and EL was taken again. Results showed that both EALs were highly accurate to within + 0.5 mm of the apical foramen, with mean differences between the AL and EL of Elements 0.23mm (SE = 0.04 and Root ZX was 0.31mm (SE = 0.05. RL was significantly less accurate compared to the readings from both EAL. No significant difference was found in the reading between both apex locators when measurements were taken in NaOCl solution. Both Elements and Propex proved to be as reliable as Root ZX. Presence of sodium hypochlorite solution did not affect the accuracy of the measurements.

  17. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Manohar, Manju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future.

  19. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  20. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  1. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  2. Women in engineering program advocates network (WEPAN): Evaluation of the fourth annual conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, S.G.

    1994-08-01

    The 1994 WEPAN conference highlighted the establishment of the three Regional Centers for Women in Engineering, which are located at the University of Washington, Purdue University, and Stevens Insitute of Technology. An overall evaluation was conducted on the effectiveness of the conference, including the quality of plenary sessions, workshops, registration, accommodations and reception.

  3. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  4. [Screening of HIV in blood banks. Evaluation of fourth generation kits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canna, Fernando; Treviño, Elena; Domínguez, Claudia; Gastaldello, Rene; Barbas, Gabriela; Cudola, Analia; Irizar, Marta; Bepre, Hector; Gallego, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Use of detection tests for p24 HIV antigen (p24Ag) in blood banks in Argentina is recommended by the Argentinean Society of Hemotherapy and Immunohematology. In the blood bank of the National University of Cordoba (Argentina), the recent implementation of the p24Ag screening test has considerably increased the cost of the battery of screening tests and its use in all blood donations has not produced the benefits expected. A 4th generation EIA was evaluated for the screening of HIV in comparison with the currently used assays in the blood bank of National University of Cordoba (3rd generation EIA + p24Ag assay). For this comparison, 11 serum samples from subjects with early HIV infection (early seroconversion period) were tested, as well as 27 serum samples from asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects and other 39 from non-HIV infected subjects. The 3rd generation EIA and the 4th generation EIA showed the same sensitivity value (100%) but the specificity of the 3rd generation EIA was higher (97.5%) comparing with 4th generation (95.1%). Besides, the p24Ag test failed to detect 2 samples from subjects with early HIV infection. These results indicate a good performance of both 3rd and 4th generation assays for screening of HIV. However, due to the lowest cost of 4th generation EIA kit, it could replace the currently used assays for HIV screening in regional blood banks. This screening assay will lead to gain in effectiveness and reduced costs until the detection of HIV RNA can be implemented in blood banks.

  5. [Evaluation of new fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus antigen and antibody detection assay with enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Takako; Sudo, Koji; Kondo, Makiko; Kurai, Hanako; Sagara, Hiroko; Imai, Mitsunobu

    2007-09-01

    We evaluated the fourth-generation HIV screening assay VIDAS HIV DUOII (DUOII) based on ELFA for simultaneous detection of anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-1 p24 antigen through comparison with other HIV antigen-antibody detection assays. Materials were 1228 HIV-negative specimens, 95 HIV-antibody-positive specimens, and HIV commercial panels. The specificity of DUOII was 99.8% and sensitivity 100%, detecting all of HIV-1 group M subtype A, B, B', C, D, A/E, F, G, B/D, HIV-1 group O, and HIV-2. The sensitivity test to HIV-1 p24 antigen was 5pg/ mL, higher than other assays. DUOII was equivalent to or superior in detecting results earlier than other assays in an evaluation using 10 commercial HIV-1 seroconversion panels of primary infection. DUOII detects anti-HIV IgM antibody, so no negative sample was found in the second window between p24 antigen disappearance and raised anti-HIV IgG antibody. DUOII has sufficient specificity and sensitivity for HIV screening, and detects primary infection sooner than other assays. These results indicate that DUOII is useful and reliable in HIV screening.

  6. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  7. Analysis of movable bus stop boarding and alighting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using movable and reusable boarding and alighting (B&A) pads at bus stops. : Potential design alternatives in terms of materials and structural support for these pads were evaluated. The review : focused on the ...

  8. Bus lane efficiency analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tovornik, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The upper Celovška road has been dealing with traffic jams for quite some time now. Traffic jams are concentrated in time of morning (in direction towards towns center) and afternoon (in direction towards Gorenjska) peak hour , whereas jams in between times are not excluded. There are many solutions to solve the problem and are variable. In this assigment I am focusing on one of potencial solutions, with special bus lanes. It is a measure that can be, if used in right way, very effective and ...

  9. Natural gas powered bus; Erdgasbusprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted.

  10. An Experimental Platform for Autonomous Bus Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Montes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with highly developed instrumentation, sensing and actuation technologies, it is possible to foresee an important advance in the field of autonomous and/or semi-autonomous transportation systems. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS have been subjected to very active research for many years, and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT is one area of major interest. Among the most promising transport infrastructures, the articulated bus is an interesting, low cost, high occupancy capacity and friendly option. In this paper, an experimental platform for research on the automatic control of an articulated bus is presented. The aim of the platform is to allow full experimentation in real conditions for testing technological developments and control algorithms. The experimental platform consists of a mobile component (a commercial articulated bus fully instrumented and a ground test area composed of asphalt roads inside the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC premises. This paper focuses also on the development of a human machine interface to ease progress in control system evaluation. Some experimental results are presented in order to show the potential of the proposed platform.

  11. Comparative evaluation of TRI-DOT Rapid HIV test with fourth-generation ELISA for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, T; Teja, V D; Gopal, M; Rajesh, M; Lakshmi, V

    2005-10-01

    This study evaluated the TRI-DOT Rapid HIV test for the early detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in comparison with a fourth-generation ELISA (Vironostika HIV Uniform II). Of 23,609 sera, seven (0.03%) gave discordant results. Six of these were reactive only by the fourth-generation assay and were p24 antigen-positive by VIDAS DUO, Western blot and qualitative RT-PCR tests. The remaining discordant serum was considered to be false-positive by the TRI-DOT assay, as it was negative by repeat ELISA and Western blot tests. The sensitivity and specificity of the TRI-DOT test were 99.48% and 99.99%, respectively, compared with the fourth-generation ELISA.

  12. Testing and Treating Women after Unsuccessful Conservative Treatments for Overactive Bladder or Mixed Urinary Incontinence: A Model-Based Economic Evaluation Based on the BUS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Goranitis

    Full Text Available To compare the cost-effectiveness of bladder ultrasonography, clinical history, and urodynamic testing in guiding treatment decisions in a secondary care setting for women failing first line conservative treatment for overactive bladder or urgency-predominant mixed urinary incontinence.Model-based economic evaluation from a UK National Health Service (NHS perspective using data from the Bladder Ultrasound Study (BUS and secondary sources.Cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision tree and a 5-year time horizon based on the outcomes of cost per woman successfully treated and cost per Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and a value of information analysis are also undertaken.Bladder ultrasonography is more costly and less effective test-treat strategy than clinical history and urodynamics. Treatment on the basis of clinical history alone has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of £491,100 per woman successfully treated and an ICER of £60,200 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women on the basis of urodynamics. Restricting the use of urodynamics to women with a clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only is the optimal test-treat strategy on cost-effectiveness grounds with ICERs of £19,500 per woman successfully treated and £12,700 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women based upon urodynamics. Conclusions remained robust to sensitivity analyses, but subject to large uncertainties.Treatment based upon urodynamics can be seen as a cost-effective strategy, and particularly when targeted at women with clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only. Further research is needed to resolve current decision uncertainty.

  13. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  14. Public transport policy, social engagement and mental health in older age: a quasi-experimental evaluation of free bus passes in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Erica; Courtin, Emilie; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio

    2018-01-19

    Social engagement and social isolation are key determinants of mental health in older age, yet there is limited evidence on how public policies may contribute to reducing isolation, promoting social engagement and improving mental health among older people. This study examines the impact of the introduction of an age-friendly transportation policy, free bus passes, on the mental health of older people in England. We use an instrumental variable (IV) approach that exploits eligibility criteria for free bus passes to estimate the impact of increased public transportation use on depressive symptoms, loneliness, social isolation and social engagement. Eligibility for the free bus travel pass was associated with an 8% (95% CI 6.4% to 9.6%) increase in the use of public transportation among older people. The IV model suggests that using public transport reduces depressive symptoms by 0.952 points (95% CI -1.712 to -0.192) on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. IV models also suggest that using public transport reduces feelings of loneliness (β -0.794, 95% CI -1.528 to -0.061), increases volunteering at least monthly (β 0.237, 95% CI 0.059 to 0.414) and increases having regular contact with children (β 0.480, 95% CI 0.208 to 0.752) and friends (β 0.311, 95% CI 0.109 to 0.513). Free bus travel is associated with reductions in depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness among older people. Transportation policies may increase older people's social engagement and consequently deliver significant benefits to mental health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Public transit: Bus, paratransit, and ridesharing. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Contents: part 1--bus operations--service reliability program of the southern california rapid transit district: a test of the short-term impacts on line 26-51; bus route o-d matrix generation: relationship between biproportional and recursive methods; transportation systems management options to improve urban bus route performance using computer simulation; development and application of performance measures for rural public transportation operators; rural public transportation in alaska: present and future options; particulate trap installation in a man articulated transit bus; part 2--paratransit--methodology for conducting a transportation survey of persons with disabilities; marketing rural transit among senior populations; evolution of functional eligibility and certification for paratransit service: the chicago experience; part 3--ridesharing--the state of the commute in southern california; hispanic market research in the southern california market; evaluation of second-year effectiveness of guaranteed ride home service at warner center transportation management organization; effectiveness of a statewide ridesharing promotion: california rideshare week.

  16. Terminals for Suburb Bus Transport in Bratislava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Tibor; Schlosser, Peter; Cápayová, Silvia; Hodáková, Dominika

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe the strategy for development of the public transport terminals in the city of Bratislava, Capital of Slovak Republic. The reason goes from the private operator Slovak Lines, who operates the suburb bus transport in the agglomeration of the city. For this operator was created a transport model, while placing emphasis on optimizing the compliance of suburban public transport with urban public transport in the city of Bratislava and evaluating the significance of the new Bus Station to be constructed at Mlynské Nivy – in a new down town centre of the city. The main issue is to ensure the best available offer of public transport (PT) to passengers in the Bratislava agglomeration. The subject of the study was oriented to specify and propose changes in the transport infrastructure and integrated public transport organisation on the area of the city in terms of the significant position of the new Mlynské Nivy Bus Station (MN BS), which is under preparation with realization in the year 2017.

  17. Performance evaluation of a new fourth-generation HIV Ag/Ab combination electrochemiluminescence immunoassay - evaluation of a new HIV assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Li, Dongdong; Yan, Kening; Yuan, Yu; Yang, Tingfu; Du, Xiaoqing; Yan, Xuedan; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2014-03-01

    A new fourth-generation HIV Ag/Ab electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for screening of HIV infection, the Elecsys HIV Combi PT (Roche Diagnostics, Penzberg, Germany) assay, is going to be commercially available in clinical laboratories in China. This assay was evaluated and compared with two commonly used assays: Elecsys HIV Combi assay and the Livzon anti-HIV-1/2 ELISA. Commercially available panels and 30 established HIV infection samples were tested to evaluate the sensitivity. In addition, a total of 675 routine clinical samples were collected and tested in West China Hospital to compare the specificity. Any reactive result from a screening test was retested and all reactive retested samples were confirmed with Western blot assay, Elecsys HIV Ag test, Elecsys HIV Ag confirmatory test or HIV-1 RNA NAT testing. According to the results of the HIV seroconversion panels, the Elecsys HIV Combi PT could detect seroconversion at the same bleed or at least one bleed earlier compared to the other two assays. Among the 675 clinical samples, most results were consistent except for one specimen with a false-negative result using Elecsys HIV Combi assay. In conclusion, the Elecsys HIV Combi PT has shown satisfactory sensitivity and specificity to be a screening test for HIV infection.

  18. The effect of an active steering system on city bus drivers muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Christer; Gink Lövgren, Maria; Nilsson, Mats; Willstrand, Tania; Anund, Anna

    2018-02-26

    City bus drivers spend hours driving under time pressure, in congested traffic and in a monotonous sitting position. This leads to unhealthy working conditions, especially in terms of physical and psychological stress. The aim of this study is to investigate if an active steering system can alleviate the musculoskeletal stress involved in manoeuvring a bus. Twenty bus drivers drove a city bus equipped with the Volvo dynamic steering (VDS) support system in real traffic. Steering effort was evaluated with fyography and with a questionnaire. Compared to baseline, VDS significantly reduced the required muscle activity by on average 15 - 25 % while turning, and with up to 68 % in the part of the manoeuvre requiring maximum effort. The bus drivers believed that VDS will help reduce neck and shoulder problems, and they expressed a desire to have VDS installed in their own bus.

  19. [Enzymatic resistance to beta lactam antibiotics within the genus Proteus and evaluation of Proteus mirabilis phenotypes and genotypes for resistance to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cynthia; Radice, Marcela; Perazzi, Beatriz; Castro, Silvia; Juárez, Josefina; Santini, Pilar; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Angela; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate betalactam resistance within the genus Proteus and characterize the betalactamases responsible for this resistance. We analyzed 99 strains (87, P. mirabilis; 10 P. vulgaris, and 2, P. penneri) isolated from patients at one University Hospital. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed according to NCCLS recommendations. Presence of extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBL) was inferred by both double disk diffusion tests and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of third and fourth generation cephalosporins alone and in the presence of clavulanic acid. Isoelectric points (pI) of the enzymes were estimated by isoelectrofocusing and the presence of the encoding genes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A broad spectrum betalactamase could be detected in those isolates (28%) resistant to penicillin and first generation cephalosporins while CTX-M-2 enzyme could be detected in P. mirabilis isolates resistant to third and fourth generation cephalosporins (18%). One of the P. vulgaris displayed reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime due to an enzyme of pI 7.4, while resistance to cefotaxime in one P. penneri was related to an enzyme of pI 6.8. Both enzymes were active on cefotaxime (1,000 mg/l) in the iodometric assay. The broad extended spectrum betalactamase within genus Proteus was TEM-1, while CTX-M-2 was the ESBL responsible for the third and fourth generation cephalosporins in P. mirabilis. In P. vulgaris and P. penneri this resistance was associated with the hyperproduction of the chromosomal encoded betalactamase.

  20. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  1. 75 FR 52054 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... 8, 2009. The Livability Bus program makes funds available to public transit providers to finance... 2-New York, Administrator, Region 7-Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust... Metropolitan Office, Region 2-New York, One Bowling Green, Room 428, New York, NY 10004-1415, Tel. 212-668-2202...

  2. 75 FR 23843 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public transportation, or... bus-related projects for assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies... projects for assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public...

  3. Clinical application evaluation of two fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening assays in West China Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongming; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Yan, Kening; Zhu, Siyuan; Yang, Tingfu; Luo, Lan; Tao, Chuanmin

    2015-03-01

    Fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening assays have been used in many laboratories. The Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay is a new kind of fourth-generation HIV screening assay developed to allow earlier detection of seroconversion. A total of 271,845 routine specimens were detected using the Elecsys® HIV combi assay and Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay from September 2010 to December 2012 in a large university hospital. Repeatedly, reactive screening samples were confirmed according to recommended confirmatory algorithms. The false-positive rate and positive predictive value (PPV) of two assays are 0.08 and 78.35%, respectively, for the Elecsys® HIV combi assay and 0.07 and 82.21% for the Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay. Ninety-four percent cases with cutoff index ratio false-positive. When we set the specificity as 95.0 and 99.0%, PPV could increase to 98.7, 99.6, 98.8, and 99.7%, and sensitivity reduced to 99.2, 98.4, 98.5, and 96.8% for the Elecsys® HIV combi assay and the Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay, respectively. The Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay shows a better performance in specificity than the Elecsys® HIV combi assay. Most weakly reactive results were false-positive, this means it still need to be improved and it will need laboratory personnel to communicate with the clinical doctor and patients more properly about the result of the assay. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Fergyanto E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  5. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  6. Evaluation of seismic design spectrum based on UHS implementing fourth-generation seismic hazard maps of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ali; Hasan, Rafiq; Pekau, Oscar A.

    2016-12-01

    Two recent developments have come into the forefront with reference to updating the seismic design provisions for codes: (1) publication of new seismic hazard maps for Canada by the Geological Survey of Canada, and (2) emergence of the concept of new spectral format outdating the conventional standardized spectral format. The fourth -generation seismic hazard maps are based on enriched seismic data, enhanced knowledge of regional seismicity and improved seismic hazard modeling techniques. Therefore, the new maps are more accurate and need to incorporate into the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC) for its next edition similar to its building counterpart National Building Code of Canada (NBCC). In fact, the code writers expressed similar intentions with comments in the commentary of CHBCD 2006. During the process of updating codes, NBCC, and AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington (2009) lowered the probability level from 10 to 2% and 10 to 5%, respectively. This study has brought five sets of hazard maps corresponding to 2%, 5% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years developed by the GSC under investigation. To have a sound statistical inference, 389 Canadian cities are selected. This study shows the implications of the changes of new hazard maps on the design process (i.e., extent of magnification or reduction of the design forces).

  7. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  8. Computation on Bus Delay at Stops in Beijing through Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delays at bus stops have seriously affected the efficiency of bus operation and the improvement of level of services of public transportation and greatly influenced the preferences of passengers to choose bus services. In this paper, the analysis on arriving, dwell and leaving process of buses and the method to calculate bus delays at stops are proposed according to survey data from three bus routes in Beijing. Statistical analysis is then adopted respectively to evaluate average times that buses are docking at curbside and bay-style stops. Moreover, it is noted that different load factors of passengers in buses have significantly influenced the average boarding and alighting time per person. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed methods is illustrated through case studies. This study is crucial and helpful for the planners and operators to evaluate the efficiency and level of service of urban public transportation.

  9. A hierarchical process for optimizing bus stop distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit stop spacing is an important indicator in deploying public transit services. This paper presents a hierarchical process for optimizing distribution of bus stops in the context of multi-modal transit development in large cities. Firstly, connection stops are generated manually to connect with other transit facilities. Secondly, key stops are identified based on a coverage model that minimizing total distance, using node centrality value as weight. Thirdly, ordinary bus stops are optimized with coverage model that maximizing potential transit demand. The analytical process is based on a combination of raster and vector data models in Geographical information system, which allows for flexible computing and effective evaluation.

  10. Evaluation of a new fourth-generation microwell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of HIV-1 subtype B and E antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanbancherd, P; Limpairojn, N; de Souza, M S; Jugsudee, A; Julananto, P; Tienamporn, P; Leucha, W; Tasaniyananda, C; Brown, A E

    2001-03-01

    The recent fourth-generation enzyme-immunoassays have been used to increase the sensitivity for detecting HIV-1 antibodies and reduce the window period of HIV infection. The HIV antigens utilized in those assays were prepared from HIV-1 clade B which is different from HIV-1 subtypes circulating in Thailand. We evaluated 323 HIV-1 seropositives either B or E subtype to determine whether they were detected with the new combined anti-HIV and the p24 Ag assay. Under evaluation we found that this enzyme immunoassay manufactured by Organon Teknika showed the high sensitivity and specificity with a greater delta (delta) value with B than E subtypes samples (+15.29 vs +5.73).

  11. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  12. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  13. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  14. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  15. Cephalometric Assessment of the Fourth Ventricles Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cephalometric Assessment of the Fourth Ventricles Using Computerized Tomography: ... ventricular disorders. Therefore, accurate measurement of the fourth ventricle will go a long way in evaluating brain disorders and decision making prior to neurosurgical procedures. This .... Films were viewed on the computer monitor.

  16. 76 FR 78732 - FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Administration's priority of supporting America's veterans and military families, as well as the objectives of... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Veterans Transportation and Community Living Initiative AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...

  17. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  18. The fourth dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Rucker, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    ""This is an invigorating book, a short but spirited slalom for the mind."" - Timothy Ferris, The New York Times Book Review ""Highly readable. One is reminded of the breadth and depth of Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach."" - Science""Anyone with even a minimal interest in mathematics and fantasy will find The Fourth Dimension informative and mind-dazzling... [Rucker] plunges into spaces above three with a zest and energy that is breathtaking."" - Martin Gardner ""Those who think the fourth dimension is nothing but time should be encouraged to read The Fourth Dimension, along with anyone else

  19. Achieving social change on gender-based violence: a report on the impact evaluation of Soul City's fourth series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usdin, S; Scheepers, E; Goldstein, Susan; Japhet, Garth

    2005-12-01

    The Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication--a South African multi-media health promotion project--together with the National Network on Violence Against Women, formulated an intervention to address domestic violence. Recognising that behavioural change interventions aimed solely at individuals have limited impact, the intervention was designed to impact at multiple mutually reinforcing levels; individual, community and socio-political environment. The intervention and its evaluation results are presented. Soul City successfully reached 86%, 25% and 65% of audiences through television, print booklets and radio, respectively. On an individual level there was a shift in knowledge around domestic violence including 41% of respondents hearing about the helpline. Attitude shifts were also associated with the intervention, with a 10% increase in respondents disagreeing that domestic violence was a private affair. There was also a 22% shift in perceptions of social norms on this issue. Qualitative data analysis suggests the intervention played a role in enhancing women's and communities' sense of efficacy, enabling women to make more effective decisions around their health and facilitating community action. The evaluation concluded that implementation of the Domestic Violence Act can largely be attributed to the intervention. While demonstrating actual reductions in levels of domestic violence was not possible, the evaluation shows a strong association between exposure to intervention components and a range of intermediary factors indicative of, and necessary to bring about social change. This paper reports on the evaluation, discusses its limitations and challenges as well as lessons learned regarding multi-level interventions on domestic violence.

  20. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    is that ‘organisation matters’ and that the reforms may have changed significantly the institutional conditions for the implementation of sustainable transport policies and easures. We have focused the research on public transport in larger cities and how their organisation has changed due to the reforms. At the NECTAR......, and will be elaborated by the time of the NECTAR workshop in May: • Deregulation and privatisation have not changed negative trends in modal split in Greater Manchester, but likely made it worse at least compared to London. • Deregulation and privatisation have worsened conditions for a greening of the bus fleets...

  1. Fourth update on CT angiography of coronary stents: in vitro evaluation of 24 novel stent types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickethier, Tilman; Wenning, Justus; Doerner, Jonas; Maintz, David; Michels, Guido; Bunck, Alexander C

    2017-01-01

    Background Non-invasive evaluation of coronary stent patency by coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) remains challenging. Multiple studies showed that CT technology but also individual stent design strongly influence the assessability of coronary stents by cCTA. Purpose To expand the available data on cCTA characteristics of coronary stents by 24 novel types to help interpreting examinations of patients after stent placement and selecting which stents are suitable for assessment by cCTA. Material and Methods Twenty-four novel coronary stents (17 cobalt-chromium, six stainless-steel, one platinum-chromium) were examined in a coronary phantom. Standard cCTA parameters with stent-specific algorithms were used. Image quality was quantified for each stent using established parameters (in-stent attenuation alteration and visible lumen diameter). Results Most stents (n = 14) showed lumen visibilities of 45-55%. No severe restriction of lumen visibility (>60%) was found. The majority of stents (n = 13) caused only small intraluminal attenuation deviations and no severe alterations (>20%) were found. When grouped by manufacturing material, no significant differences were found between cobalt-chromium and stainless-steel with identical mean visible diameters (1.52 ± 0.17 mm vs. 1.52 ± 0.13 mm) and comparable attenuation alterations (35.04 ± 16.56 HU vs. 21.25 ± 14.60 HU). The only platinum-chromium stent showed a smaller visible diameter (1.23 mm) and higher attenuation alteration (41.70 HU), but was also deemed to be assessable by cCTA. Conclusion All 24 novel evaluated stents are eligible for non-invasive evaluation by cCTA without significant differences between cobalt-chromium and stainless-steel stents. This updated catalogue of CT appearances of current coronary stents may serve as reference when taking care of patients with stents in need of coronary imaging.

  2. The emerging fourth sector

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Sector is a new phenomenon related to dual social and financial value creation, until now not clearly defined with crisp sectoral boundaries and an operationalized definition. The phenomenon is getting increased attention in media, conferences, business schools and by organizations all over the world, and this study intends to explain the macroenvironmental changes that led to the rise of the fourth sector, describe new trends of social value creation in the private ...

  3. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  4. Evaluation of the true self-etching potential of a fourth generation self-adhesive methacrylate resin-based sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Sui; Kim, Young Kyung; Hiraishi, Noriko; Ling, Junqi; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2009-06-01

    The limited diffusion of self-adhesive resin cements into crown dentin raises doubts on whether self-adhesive root canal sealers are capable of creating micromechanical retention in instrumented canal walls in the absence of adjunctive use of calcium chelating irrigants. This study evaluated the true self-etching potential of MetaSEAL, a self-adhesive sealer. Mixed MetaSEAL sealer was applied to (1) fractured radicular dentin that was devoid of smear layers, (2) instrumented canal wall radicular dentin that was irrigated with water as the final rinse to preserve the smear layer, and (3) instrumented canal wall radicular dentin that was irrigated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the final rinse to remove the smear layer. Cryofractured tooth halves without sealer application were examined by scanning electron microscopy to identify the characteristics of the bonding substrates. The other tooth-halves were filled with sealer and processed for transmission electron microscopy. MetaSEAL did not demineralize fractured radicular dentin that was devoid of smear layer and smear plugs. The self-adhesive sealer was incapable of etching beyond the 1- to 2-mum-thick smear layer retained on water-irrigated instrumented dentin to demineralize the underlying radicular dentin. Smear layer and smear plugs were absent in EDTA-irrigated radicular dentin. The EDTA also partially demineralized the intact dentin, creating a thin bed of collagen for infiltration of the self-adhesive sealer. The limited self-etching potential of MetaSEAL is a clinically legitimate concern. Incomplete smear layer removal from instrumented canal wall regions that are not reached by calcium chelating agents might jeopardize its bonding and sealing performance.

  5. Randomized clinical study for comparative evaluation of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones with the combination of fortified antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vinit Mahendra; Tandon, Radhika; Satpathy, Gita; Nayak, Niranjan; Chawla, Bhavna; Agarwal, Tushar; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2010-07-01

    Comparative evaluation of efficacy of monotherapy with moxifloxacin (0.5%) or gatifloxacin (0.3%) with combination therapy of cefazolin (5%) and tobramycin (1.3%) in treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Patients diagnosed with bacterial keratitis (ulcer diameter 2-8 mm) were randomized to 1 of the 3 treatment groups (tobramycin 1.3% and cefazolin 5%, gatifloxacin 0.3%, or moxifloxacin 0.5%). After obtaining corneal scrapings, assigned study medication was instilled hourly for 48 hours and tapered as per clinical response. Healing of ulcer, duration to cure, adverse reactions, antibiogram profile, treatment failures, final visual acuity, and corneal opacity size were evaluated. A total of 61 patients were enrolled [cefazolin and tobramycin (n = 20), gatifloxacin (n = 21), and moxifloxacin (n = 20)]. Overall, 57 patients (93%) healed on treatment. On comparison of the mean time taken to heal, no statistically significant difference was found among all the 3 treatment groups (P = 0.98). Positive bacterial culture was obtained in only 38 patients (62%). There was no significant difference in the bacterial isolates in each treatment group. There were 4 (7%) treatment failures (perforation or nonhealing ulcer): 1 (5%) each in moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin group and 2 (10%) in fortified antibiotics group. All regimens were well tolerated. The study failed to find a difference in the efficacy of monotherapy with fourth-generation fluoroquinolones in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers of 2-8 mm size when compared with combination therapy of fortified antibiotics.

  6. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  7. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  8. Bus stops and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, D Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D; Johnston, Brian D; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J Jaime; Ebel, Beth E

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. This was a matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossings in Lima, Peru. We performed a random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February 2011 to September 2011. A total of 97 intersection cases representing 1134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October 2010 and January 2011, and their matched controls, were included. The main exposures assessed were presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. The main outcome measure was occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision. Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53 to 7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Formal and informal bus stops were associated with higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76 to 22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37 to 6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high-income countries. In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a threefold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices, such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Getting on the Right Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Jacalyn

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's forty-fourth Amy Morris Homans commemorative lecture. In the lecture, the author offers her thoughts about the future of physical education profession and the role that this organization plays in moving educators from good to great. The conference theme draws from a book called "Good to Great" that examined why…

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Modified Fourth-Generation Human Immunodeficiency Virus Enzyme Immunoassay for Cross-Sectional Incidence Estimation in Clade B Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Patel, Eshan U; Celum, Connie L; Moore, Richard D; Blankson, Joel N; Mehta, Shruti H; Kirk, Gregory D; Margolick, Joseph B; Quinn, Thomas C; Eshleman, Susan H; Laeyendecker, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Accurate methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation are needed for HIV surveillance and prevention research. We developed an avidity assay based on the fourth-generation Genetic Systems HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA (Bio-Rad Combo assay) and evaluated its performance. The Bio-Rad Combo assay was modified incubating samples with and without 0.025 M diethylamine (DEA). The avidity index (AI) was calculated as the ratio of the DEA-treated to untreated result for a specific sample. We analyzed 2,140 samples from 808 individuals from the United States with known duration of HIV infection. The mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) and the false-recent rate (FRR, fraction of samples from individuals known to be infected >2 years misclassified as recent) were calculated for AI cutoffs of 20%-90% for the avidity assay alone and in combination with a viral load assay (VL, limit of detection 400 copies/ml). Factors associated with misclassification of samples collected ≥2 years after infections were also evaluated. The MDRI for the Bio-Rad Combo Avidity assay ranged from 50 days using an AI cutoff of 20% to 276 days using an AI cutoff of 90%; the FRR ranged from 0% to 9%. When samples with a VL 80%. In adjusted analysis, viral suppression and low CD4 cell count were significantly associated with misclassification among individuals infected >2 years. This modified Bio-Rad Combo Avidity assay may be a useful tool for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation. Further research is needed to evaluate use of this assay in combination with other assays to accurately estimate population-level HIV incidence.

  11. In vitro evaluation of broad-spectrum beta-lactams tested in medical centers in Korea: role of fourth-generation cephalosporins. The Korean Antimicrobial Resistance Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M T; Biedenbach, D J; Jones, R N

    1999-12-01

    Levels of resistance to the "third-generation" cephalosporins among isolates of clinical bacteria in Korea have been increasing at a rapid rate. This study evaluated the activity of cefepime, a "fourth-generation" cephalosporin, and six other broad-spectrum beta-lactam antimicrobials (cefpirome, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam 4 micrograms/mL fixed concentration[, oxacillin) against 404 isolates of clinical bacteria from Korea. Susceptibility profiles of each isolate were established using the Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) method of susceptibility testing. Only the carbapenem imipenem was > 90% effective in inhibiting each of the species tested (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, spp., Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., indole-positive Proteae, Serratia spp., Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and oxacillin-susceptible staphylococci). Imipenem was followed by cefepime > cefpirome > piperacillin/tazobactam > ceftazidime > ceftriaxone in overall rank order of usable spectrum against the isolates tested. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing phenotypes were much more prevalent among the Klebsiella spp. (48.8%) than the E. coli (5.0%) isolates. Cefepime was much more active than cefpirome, 95.1% susceptible as compared with 70.7% susceptible, against the 41 isolates of Klebsiella spp. The results of this study corroborates findings from earlier studies with levels of resistance to the broad-spectrum beta-lactams in Korea continuing to rise indicating the need for intervention strategies.

  12. Implementation of Bus Rapid Transit in Copenhagen: A Mesoscopic Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Kornerup Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    upgrades (busways and enhanced stations) ensure a reduction to traveltime whereas no improvements to reliability occur. Upgrades to technology and serviceplanning (pre-paid fare collection, boarding and alighting from all doors, special BRT vehicles, ITS, and active bus control) ensure an increase...... for large scale corridors due to the vast amount of data and resources required.Hence, it is relevant to investigate how to model and evaluate BRT efficiently.In this paper the effects of implementing BRT in Copenhagen is discussed including how to evaluate and model bus operations.For this purpose......-simulation models.The developed model is capable of modelling bus operations in terms of travel time and reliability including important mode-specific issues such as bus bunching.The model is applied to a BRT project proposal with different combinations of BRTelements. The model results show that infrastructure...

  13. Multicenter Evaluation of a New Automated Fourth-Generation Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening Assay with a Sensitive Antigen Detection Module and High Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Bernard; Gürtler, Lutz; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Michl, Ulrike; Mühlbacher, Annelies; Bürgisser, Philippe; Villaescusa, Roberto; Eiras, Adolfo; Gabriel, Christian; Stekel, Herbert; Tanprasert, Srivilai; Oota, Sinenaart; Silvestre, Maria-Jose; Marques, Cristina; Ladeira, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Fourth-generation assays for the simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen and antibody that were available on the international market until now have antigen detection modules with relatively poor sensitivity and produce a higher rate of false-positive results than third-generation enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The new Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA with an improved sensitivity for HIV p24 antigen was compared to alternative fourth- and third-generation assays, the p24 ant...

  14. Effects of Self Stretching on Pain and Musculoskeletal Symptom of Bus Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed ...

  15. Bus and Tag Terminators for IBM system/360

    CERN Multimedia

    Control units were connected to the channels with "Bus and Tag" cable pairs. The bus cables carried the address and data information and the tag cables identified what data was on the bus. There were three general types of bus-and-tag cables produced by IBM.

  16. Analysis of Journey to Work Travel Behavior by Car and Bus in the Sydney Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthanaya P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Car dependence is a fundamental problem in the sustainability of cities with low-density suburban sprawl. Increasing the use of public transport is one of the policy objectives commonly adopted to overcome this problem. It is essential to study journey to work travel behavior by car and bus. This paper applied preference function to analyze travel behavior and Moran’s I spatial statistic to evaluate the spatial association. The results indicated that the commuting preferences of residents have moved towards distance maximization. In general, bus was preferred for shorter distance trips whilst car was preferred for longer distance trips. Unlike car, by increasing distances from the Central Business District, residents tended to use bus for shorter distance trip. A significant positive spatial association was identified for both the slope preferences by car and bus where zones with a preference towards longer or shorter trips tended to travel to zones with similar preferences.

  17. A comparative evaluation of different teaching aids among fourth term medical students to improve the knowledge, attitude and perceptions about pharmacovigilance: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish G. Bagewadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Study was designed to assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s and to evaluate the effectiveness of different teaching aids.Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based pre- and post-test on (KAP Knowledge, Attitude, Perception about pharmacovigilance. Students were given handouts regarding pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting one week before the educational interventions. Fourth term medical students (n=72 participated in the study. They were randomly allocated into group A (n=24, group B (n=24 and group C (n=24. A pre-validated 20-point questionnaire on Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s reporting was distributed to each group of students before the educational intervention to know their awareness. The interactive educational interventions on Pharmacovigilance were given using Overhead projector (OHP and transparencies to group A students, Black board (BB method to group B students, Power point presentation (PPT method to group C students respectively. Theoretical content was the same in all the educational interventions. The chi-square test and one way ANOVA was used for statistical calculation.Results: The overall response rates were expressed as percentages, Mean±SD. The Mean Pre-KAP scores on knowledge was (7.7±0.48 but the total post- KAP scores after (OHP, (BB, and (PPT were (12.1±0.39, (17.4±0.3, (19.4±0.21 respectively. The correct response rates were found to be statistically significant (P<0.001.The feedback from the students was encouraging; handouts before the class were greatly welcomed.Conclusion: The study greatly imparted knowledge about pharmacovigilance and ADR’s reporting and students preferred power point presentations the most.

  18. Bus operator perceptions of safety risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of TriMet bus operators addressing safety risks in their assigned work. Surveyed risk factors : were organized into five categories: vehicle design and condition; route layout; operating conditions; fatigue...

  19. Health effect of a bus ride in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, T.

    1983-07-01

    Health effects on subjects during a bus drive on an urban road were investigated in a real situation. Leukocyte count, adrenalin level in blood and urine, noradrenalin and dopamine in urine, diastolic blood pressure, and index of vascular resistance increased significantly on the drive day compared with the control day. A bus drive on an urban road induced enhanced sympathetic-adreno-medullary activity in real life as a result of the comprehensive effect of various factors. The concentrations of air pollutants were excessively high on the road, and correlated with traffic volume. It was concluded that the interactions between psychogenic, physical nonspecific and physical specific effects should be taken into consideration when evaluating human health effects of air pollution in the urban environment.

  20. Avaliação do Desempenho de Linhas RodoviáriasPerformance evaluation of bus routesEvaluación del desempeño de las Líneas Viarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA-BROCHADO, Ana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOUm grande número de abordagens divulgadas na literatura tem incidido sobre a análise de empresas de transportes e de sistemas de transportes. No entanto, é importante para os agentes de decisão a disponibilidade de medidas de desempenho desagregadas. Este trabalho pretende apresentar uma metodologia para a avaliação do desempenho entre corredores (linhas. Dado que o desempenho de uma linha deve ser comparado com o de linhas operando em ambientes semelhantes, é proposta uma classificação de 78 linhas que integram a rede de transporte público urbano da cidade do Porto. Esta classificação é realizada tendo por base variáveis físicas, de procura e de oferta, e com recurso a técnicas de análise classificatória. Concluí-se que os grupos obtidos podem ser organizados e associados a diferentes níveis de desempenho financeiro. Antecipa-se que esta avaliação de desempenho desagregado possa fornecer aos agentes de decisão informação operacional para a melhoria da rede de transportes.ABSTRACTExisting approaches in the literature have mainly measured performance of transit agencies or whole transit systems. Nevertheless, the challenge for decision-makers remains on how to focus on disaggregated performance measurement. This works intends to present a methodology designed to evaluate the performance within corridors (bus routes. As the performance of a route should be compared with operating routes in similar environments, we first propose a classification of 78 lines which integrate the public transport system in OPORTO city. Such classification is conducted based on physical features, demand characteristics, and supply indicators as well as making the use of cluster analysis techniques. We have concluded that the obtained groups could be ranked and are associated with different levels of financial performance measures. It is also anticipated that this disaggregate performance evaluation could provide decision-makers with

  1. MPBUS: Modular Power bus for Space Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ricardo; Remírez Eduardo; Alonso Javier; Priel Eran; Carapelle Alain; Actis Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cost reduction in the access to space is leading the space race in the launchers market. Launcher’s companies are looking for a more efficient and economical way to place satellites in orbit. MPBUS project proposes a decentralized power bus distribution with jettisonable smart batteries combined with the use of PLC technology, data over DC, achieving overall weight reduction and harness simplification, both goals in line with Next Generation Launchers (NGL) targets. Two different bus in...

  2. ISET ORS Bus Standards and Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhoo, Gurpartap; Johnson, Mark; Raynor, William; Hurley, Michael; Stadter, Patrick; Marley, Michael; Apland, Clint; Lee, Robert; Bruzzi, Jonathan; Williams, Bruce; SCHAEFER, EDWARD, JAY; Vernon, Steven; Schwartz, Paul; Moretti, George; Doyne, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Advancing sound and accepted spacecraft bus standards is the objective of the Office of the Secretary of Defense’s (OSD) Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Bus Standards Initiative. This effort involves multiple government, industry, and academia participants assembled into an Integrated System Engineering Team (ISET). The core ISET industry team members include AeroAstro, Boeing, Design Net Engineering, General Dynamics Spectrum Astro, Loral, Microcosm, MicroSat, Orbital, Raytheon, and Swa...

  3. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopan; Kong, Yunfeng; Dang, Lanxue; Hou, Yane; Ye, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Chen

    Full Text Available As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  5. Research development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, S.; Wimmer, R.

    1993-02-01

    During 1992, the design of the three test bed buses evolved. Georgetown participated in all the working meetings and the preliminary design review of the Test Bed Bus (TBB). Throughout the Year, Georgetown provided input on system design and integration issues, transit industry requirements, and bus performance. GU also attended technical seminars, presenting papers at two. The computer simulation 'HYBRID', developed by Georgetown, was used to assess performance of different bus designs and system control algorithms. GU also modified the simulation to be more flexible and allow easier evaluation of designs. Georgetown had Exhibitgroup design and construct, to our specifications, a fuel cell bus display with a 1/10 scale model of the TBB for use at trade shows and exhibits. Energy Partners of West Palm Beach, Florida completed their subcontract for the engineering design study of a hydrogen fueled, fuel-cell-powered multi-passenger vehicle. Georgetown performed a study to determine the size of the US bus fleet and expected new bus deliveries over the next 10 years. Trojan Battery Company of Santa Fe Springs, California conducted a study to determine the specific design characteristics required of a lead acid battery to meet the special requirements posed by hybrid vehicle operation. Finally, GU assisted the prime contractor with the design of the system controller and its control algorithms.

  6. HEV Test Bench Based on CAN Bus Sensor Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng ZHAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HEV test bench based on Controller Area Network bus was studied and developed. Control system of HEV power test bench used the CAN bus technology. The application of CAN bus technology on control system development has opened up a new research direction for domestic automobile experimental platform. The HEV power control system development work was completed, including power master controller, electric throttle controller, driving simulation platform, CAN2.0 B communication protocol procedures for formulation, CAN communication monitoring system, the simulation model based on MATLAB code automatic generation technology research, etc. Maximum absorption power of the test bench is 90 kW, the test bench top speed is 6000 r/min, the CAN communication data baud rate is 10~500 k, the conventional electric measurement parameter part precision satisfies the requirement of development of HEV. On the HEV test bench the result of regenerative braking experiment shows that the result got by the test bench was closer to the results got by outdoor road test. And the fuel consumption experiment test results show that the HEV fuel consumption and the charge-discharge character are in linear relationship. The establishment of the test platform for the evaluation of the development of hybrid electric vehicle and power provides physical simulation and test platform.

  7. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents 16 case studies of attacks planned or carried out against Israeli bus targets, along with statistical data on the number, frequency, and lethality of attacks against bus targets that have taken place in Israel since 1970 and duri...

  8. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  9. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  10. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  11. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.

  12. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  13. Request-Centric Wireless Bus Information Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This invention relates to a wireless bus information management system, which includes bus stop and vehicle management subsystems. The management signals are transmittable between bus stops and the vehicle. Based on vehicle management signals, the bus stop management subsystem can obtain information about the bus route identification, the number of unoccupied seats, the intention to stop or not, etc. Similarly, with the bus stop management signals, the vehicle management subsystem can make the decision of stopping. Accordingly, when a passenger wants to get off the vehicle or there are unoccupied seats, the vehicle management subsystem will inform the bus stop management subsystem such that the passengers waiting at the bus stop may flexibly schedule their travel plan. The proposed distributed wireless system is detailed by a prototype implementation and a simulation analysis, which is shown to be feasible and scalable.

  14. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  15. Low back pain among professional bus drivers: ergonomic and occupational-psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Santo, Yoav; Masharawi, Youssef; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Ushvaev, Diana; Kalichman, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    Professional drivers have been found to be at high risk for developing low back pain. However, the exact reasons are poorly understood. To assess the prevalence of LBP among Israeli professional urban bus drivers, and evaluate the association between LBP in drivers and work-related psychosocial and ergonomic risk factors. A total of 384 male full-time urban bus drivers were consecutively enrolled to this cross-sectional study. Information on regular physical activity and work-related ergonomic and psychosocial stressing factors was collected during face-to-face interviews. The prevalence of LBP was assessed using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire. From the total cohort, 164 bus drivers (45.4%) reported experiencing LBP in the previous 12 months. Ergonomic factors associated with LBP were uncomfortable seat (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4-5.0) and an uncomfortable back support (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.5). In the group of drivers with LBP, 48.5% reported participation in regular physical activities vs. 67.3% in the group without LBP (Prelated ergonomic and psychosocial factors showed a significant association with LBP in Israeli professional urban bus drivers. Prevention of work-related stress, organizational changes targeted to reduce stressful situations, improvement in seat comfort, and encouraging regular sports activity need to be evaluated as prevention strategies for LBP in professional bus drivers.

  16. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.17 Driver and bus monitor... performance; and (2) before bus monitors assigned to vehicles used to provide such services begin their duties...

  17. 77 FR 43646 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities and Section 5312...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Administration's priority of supporting America's veterans and military families, as well as the objectives of... Federal Transit Administration FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus... AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA Veterans Transportation and Community...

  18. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Government regulators and transportation operators of public bus systems are concerned about terrorist attacks. Bus attacks in Israel between late September 2000 and the end of 2006, a period known as the Second Intifada, are particularly well known....

  19. Evaluation of a new fourth generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the LG HIV Ag-Ab Plus, with a combined HIV p24 antigen and anti-HIV-1/2/O screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Joon-Sup; Jun, Gyo; Chang, Young; Sohn, Mi-Jin; Yoo, Seungbum; Kim, Eunkyung; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Kang, Hee-Jung; Kim, Young-A; Ahn, Sun-Young; Cha, Je-Eun; Youn, Sung-Tae; Park, Jae-Won

    2006-11-01

    The LG HIV Ag-Ab Plus, a new fourth generation diagnostic assay for HIV infection, was evaluated in comparison to the Enzygnost HIV Integral, an established fourth generation HIV assay. The LG assay showed 100% sensitivity with 109 samples with anti-HIV-1, anti-HIV-2 or anti-HIV-1 group O reactivity. It also detected correctly all 51 positives on three BBI performance panels, slightly outperforming the Enzygnost HIV Integral, which detected 50. The specificity of the LG HIV Ag-Ab Plus was 99.9% with 999 sera from healthy blood donors, which was slightly inferior to the performance of the Enzygnost HIV Integral, which had 100% specificity. The LG assay showed 100% specificity with 81 specimens with underlying diseases including hepatitis B, demonstrating a low risk of cross-reactivity with other infections. The reduction of the diagnostic window by the LG HIV Ag-Ab Plus, compared to a third generation HIV assay, was 6.3 days. The LG assay also showed sufficiently high intra-person and inter-person reproducibility. The overall performance of this new fourth generation HIV assay was adequate for screening and diagnosis of HIV infection.

  20. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  1. Rolling horizon predictions of bus trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshyani, M.F.; Cats, O.

    2014-01-01

    Bus travel times are subject to inherent and recurrent uncertainties. A real-time prediction scheme regarding how the transit system evolves will potentially facilitate more adaptive operations as well as more adaptive passengers’ decisions. This scheme should be tractable, sufficiently fast and

  2. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model untuk Optimalisasi Jumlah Bus Transjakarta Koridor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road user causing traffic jam finds out a way, busway. However, in its implementation, the number of fleet available does not enough to take the passengers. It results in the an amassed of passengers at several bus stops. This leads to passenger dissatisfaction satisfaction which eventually causes Transjakarta users to reuse private cars. Definitely this situation may builds up traffic jams. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model is used to simulate public transportation that operates regularly. 

  3. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  4. Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The eGov-Bus project provides citizens and businesses with improved access to virtual public services, which are based on existing national eGovernment Web services and which support cross-border life events. Requirements and specific rules of these life events are considered, and personalization of user preferences is supported. eGov-Bus is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national eGovernment services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The eGov-Bus process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as eGovernment Web services. Further, eGov-Bus relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. The eGov-Bus architecture is business oriented, it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services and providing a Service Bus.

  5. Multicenter evaluation of a new automated fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus screening assay with a sensitive antigen detection module and high specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bernard; Gürtler, Lutz; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Michl, Ulrike; Mühlbacher, Annelies; Bürgisser, Philippe; Villaescusa, Roberto; Eiras, Adolfo; Gabriel, Christian; Stekel, Herbert; Tanprasert, Srivilai; Oota, Sinenaart; Silvestre, Maria-Jose; Marques, Cristina; Ladeira, Maria; Rabenau, Holger; Berger, Annemarie; Schmitt, Urban; Melchior, Walter

    2002-06-01

    Fourth-generation assays for the simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen and antibody that were available on the international market until now have antigen detection modules with relatively poor sensitivity and produce a higher rate of false-positive results than third-generation enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The new Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA with an improved sensitivity for HIV p24 antigen was compared to alternative fourth- and third-generation assays, the p24 antigen test, and HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). A total of 94 seroconversion panels (n = 709 sera), samples from the acute phase of infection after seroconversion (n = 32), anti-HIV-1-positive specimens (n = 730) from patients in different stages of the disease, 462 subtyped samples from different geographical locations, anti-HIV-2-positive sera (n = 302), dilutions of cell culture supernatants (n = 62) from cells infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, selected performance panels from Boston Biomedica Inc., 7,579 unselected samples from blood donors, 303 unselected daily routine samples, 997 specimens from hospitalized patients, and potentially interfering samples (n = 1,222) were tested with Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA. The new assay showed a sensitivity comparable to that of the Abbott HIV-1 AG Monoclonal A for early detection of HIV infection in seroconversion panels. The mean time delay of Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA (last negative sample plus 1 day) in comparison to that for HIV-1 RT-PCR for 87 panels tested with both methods was 2.75 days. The diagnostic window was reduced with Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA by between 3.6 and 5.7 days from that for third-generation assays. The specificities of Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA in blood donors were 99.84 and 99.85% (after repeated testing). Overall, 30 repeatedly reactive false-positive results out of 10,031 HIV-negative samples were obtained with Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA. Our results show that a fourth

  6. Shuttle bus services quality assessment Tangerang Selatan toward smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassa, Ferdinand; Sitorus, Fredy Jhon Philip; Adikesuma, Tri Nugraha

    2017-11-01

    Around the world, shuttle bus operation played the significant role to accommodate transportation for commuting bus passengers. Shuttle Bus services in cities are provided by various bus agencies with kinds of own specific purposes. For instance, at Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia, it was said that shuttle bus In Trans Bintaro is run and operated by private bus companies hire by Bintaro developer. The aim of this research is to identify factors of satisfaction of shuttle bus service in Kota Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia. Several factors are used to analyze sums of 20 parameters performance indicators of Shuttle Bus. A face to face interview using a questionnaire (N=200) was used to collect data on October and March 2017. Likert and diagram Cartesian were used to model the all the parameters. This research succeeded in finding some categories of Shuttle bus service attributes such as accessibility, comfort, and safety. Users agreed that eight indicators in shuttle bus have the excellent achievement, while three indicators on performance remain low and should receive more attention especially punctuality of the bus.

  7. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  8. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...... light. Occurrence of injury to bus passengers is positively related to (i) the involvement of heavy vehicles, (ii) crossing intersections in yellow or red light, (iii) open areas, (iv) high speed limits, and (v) slippery road surface. Conclusions The findings of the current study provide a comprehensive......Purpose Bus safety is a concern not only in developing countries, but also in the U.S. and Europe. In Denmark, disentangling risk factors that are positively or negatively related to bus accident severity and injury occurrence to bus passengers can contribute to promote safety as an essential...

  9. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  10. PERFORMANCE OF A NEW BUS ASSIGNMENT ALGORITHM FOR AN ATM SWITCH FABRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the performance evaluation, through analytical and simulation models, of a HighSpeed Packet Switch with a New Bus Assignment Algorithm, designed and developed at the Research andAdvanced Studies Center of National Polytechnic Institute in Guadalajara, México (CINVESTAV-GDL. The analyticalmodel is tested under two different arrival processes: Binomial and Poisson distributions. The simulation model istested with two bus assignment algorithms: Fixed Start and Rotated Start . The performance parameters consideredare: Cell Loss Rate, Delay and Throughput.

  11. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  12. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  13. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  14. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  15. Operational efficiency of the lighting system of bus salons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brytkovskyi V.M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of safety of people is studied primarily in aspects of natural and man-made disasters, fire, health and safety in the workplace. A problem connected with the way of life of the people, in particular with the use of bus transport remains almost out of sight. In addition to the foregoing, there is another side to the issue: modern development of industry and transport is characterized by large-scale introduction of technical measures aimed at saving energy In the specified aspect theoretical dependences for evaluation of technological economic efficiency of light sources in indoor lighting system buses are grounded. This theoretical dependency will make analytical framework justification applying the respective sources of light, taking into account the hygiene requirements to illumination. The methodology of calculation of economic efficiency of lighting of bus salons is offered. Estimating parameter is justified relative objective function value costs per unit of time or distance. The greatest costs are typical for lamps with incandescent bulbs. The least is common to lamps with fluorescent lamps. Led bulbs have no significant advantage even over incandescent lamps. The reason for this is the relatively high color temperature radiation of LED lamps that requires more light levels and, consequently, the high cost of energy, as well as relatively large initial cost of these lamps.

  16. Wisconsin's fourth forest inventory: area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1986-01-01

    In 1983, the fourth Wisconsin forest inventory found 14.8 million acres of commercial forest land, an increase of nearly 2% since 1968. This bulletin analyzes findings from the inventory and presents detailed tables of forest area.

  17. Design of Mine Locomotive System Based on CAN Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuanhong; Zhang Quanzhu; Zhang Wenshan

    2017-01-01

    Based on CAN bus, this paper studies the system control and management system of locomotive in mine, analyzes the working principle of locomotive system, gives the CAN bus scheme, hardware circuit design and CAN communication protocol, and implements long-distance, high-reliability communication function and remote monitoring function. Experiments show that the auxiliary system based on CAN bus control easier, operation more secure, as well as improving the control performance and service lif...

  18. Design of Mine Locomotive System Based on CAN Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on CAN bus, this paper studies the system control and management system of locomotive in mine, analyzes the working principle of locomotive system, gives the CAN bus scheme, hardware circuit design and CAN communication protocol, and implements long-distance, high-reliability communication function and remote monitoring function. Experiments show that the auxiliary system based on CAN bus control easier, operation more secure, as well as improving the control performance and service life of the electric locomotive.

  19. An Optimal Control Strategy for DC Bus Voltage Regulation in Photovoltaic System with Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage (BES). The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). For the grid side VSC (G-VSC), two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods. PMID:24883374

  20. An optimal control strategy for DC bus voltage regulation in photovoltaic system with battery energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage (BES). The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). For the grid side VSC (G-VSC), two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods.

  1. An Optimal Control Strategy for DC Bus Voltage Regulation in Photovoltaic System with Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Zalani Daud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system with battery energy storage (BES. The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC. For the grid side VSC (G-VSC, two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods.

  2. MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF THE BUS PRIORITY IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Hidayati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bus is expected to play an important role in providing a reliable travel in congested conditions. Therefore, it has been widely studied to minimize the travel time and the delay of the bus by proposing bus priority scheme to increase the attractiveness of public transport against private vehicles. Signal timing optimization combined with the bus priority scheme are discussed in this research as the alternatives to improve the intersection performances. Further, identifying the effects of these alternatives towards the general vehicles and public transport system performances were the aims of this research as well. As the result of this research, bus advance area with pre-signal method is able to reduce the travel time and delay of the bus for routes 2A and 3A by 11%, 23% and 14% , 0% respectively and able to reduce travel time, delay, and queue of vehicles by 25%, 26%, 7% consecutively. Thus bus advance area with pre-signal method is proposed as the best alternative due to its impact to reduce the bus travel times and delay without degrading the other vehicles performance. Keywords: bus priority, optimizing signal timing, Aimsun simulation, travel time-delay-queue.

  3. Model Passengers’ Travel Time for Conventional Bus Stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited number of berths can result in a subsequent bus stopping at the upstream of a bus stop when all berths are occupied. When this traffic phenomenon occurs, passengers waiting on the platform usually prefer walking to the stopped bus, which leads to additional walking time before boarding the bus. Therefore, passengers’ travel time consumed at a bus stop is divided into waiting time, additional walking time, and boarding time. This paper proposed a mathematical model for analyzing passengers’ travel time at conventional bus stop based on theory of stochastic service system. Field-measured and simulated data were designated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. By analyzing the results, conclusion was conducted that short headway can reduce passengers’ waiting time at bus stop. Meanwhile, the theoretical analysis explained the inefficiency of bus stops with more than three berths from the perspective of passengers’ additional walking time. Additional walking time will increase in a large scale when the number of berths at a bus stop exceedsthe threshold of three.

  4. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... transportation, environmental protection, and housing investments. Bus Livability will invest in projects that... characteristics of all communities by investing in healthy, safe and walkable neighborhoods--rural, urban or... guidelines. The project improves energy efficiency or reduces energy consumption/green house gas emissions...

  5. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...--New York, Administrator, Region 7--Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust Street... transportation bus fleet, infrastructure, and equipment in a state of good repair. Project Implementation..., Region 6--Ft. Kendall Square, 55 Broadway, Suite Worth, 819 Taylor Street, Room 920, Cambridge, MA 02142...

  6. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  7. Managing Student Behavior on the School Bus: A Key to Bus Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    School buses are the safest form of mass transit in America. Every day, school buses travel through congested city traffic and on isolated country roads in all types of weather, safely transporting millions of children to and from school and school-related activities. Federal and state standards for school bus construction and maintenance and…

  8. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  9. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  10. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  11. Diquarks from a fourth family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdom, Bob, E-mail: bob.holdom@utoronto.ca [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, M5S1A7 (Canada)

    2011-09-26

    If fourth family condensates are responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking then they may also break approximate global symmetries. Among the resulting pseudo-Goldstone bosons are those that can have diquark quantum numbers. We describe the variety of diquarks and their decay modes, and we find aspects that are particular to the fourth family framework. Spectacular signatures at the LHC appear and are explored for color sextet diquarks with 600 GeV mass. We consider a simple search strategy which avoids diquark reconstruction. We also consider 350 GeV mass diquarks that are accessible at the Tevatron.

  12. Study on the calculation models of bus delay at bays using queueing theory and Markov chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-Wei; Wang, Dian-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  13. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  14. Effects of self stretching on pain and musculoskeletal symptom of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed on a scale of numeric rating scale (NRS) which is divided by 10. Ergonomic posture assessment was conducted using the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA). Self-stretching exercise was performed for 4 weeks by the bus drivers who suffered from neck and shoulder pain. [Results] Musculoskeletal symptoms were present in the order of shoulder, neck, lower back and lower extremities. Compared with other jobs, the final score, and the action level of bus drivers were very high, showing 57.6% of action levels 3 and 4. A statistically significant decrease of pain was shown after the self-stretching intervention. There was also a significant decrease of musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulders after the self-stretching exercise. [Conclusion] Performing stretching for musculoskeletal symptoms had a positive influence on the symptoms and reduced pain.

  15. The Effect of Working Conditions to the Health Status in Taxi and Bus Drivers in Canakkale, Turkey; Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Uludag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growing taxi and bus driver workforce is at risk for poor health status, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the relationship between working conditions and health status in taxi and bus drivers. Material and Method: This study is a descriptive study. The population of the study was taxi and bus drivers in central of Canakkale. There were total 250 taxi and bus drivers who registered in The Chamber of Canakkale Drivers and Vehicle. We reached the 70 taxi drivers and 93 bus drivers. The participants were visited at their workplace. We performed the questionnaire that include the socio-demografic features, habits, the working conditions. We evaluated the blood pressure, waist-hip measurements and capillary blood glucose at any time. Results: Total of the 163 men drivers were enrolled the study. Nine (12.9% taxi drivers and 6 (6.5% bus drivers were hipertensive, and 1 taxi driver and 2 bus drivers with random capillary blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg. The prevalence of hypertension was 9.2%, diabetes mellitus was 1.8, obesity was 49.4%. Discussion: Drivers have many risk factors for CVD like stress and immobility. In our study, the socio-demografic and working conditions are limited for explaining the risk for hipertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity in drivers in Canakkale. These study have to be done in metropolitan cities. In this aspect, the drivers can be evaluated in their own living spaces and working conditions.

  16. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  17. Towards formal verification of ToolBus scripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkink, W.; Klint, P.; Lisser, B.; Usenko, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    ToolBus allows one to connect tools via a software bus. Programming is done using the scripting language Tscript, which is based on the process algebra ACP. Tscript was originally designed to enable formal verification, but this option has so far not been explored in any detail. We present a method

  18. Solar Telescope Control with the CAN-Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettauer, T. V.

    The real time behavior, error handling and its simplicity makes CAN a preferable bus protocol to interconnect the various modules of a tower telescope. A schematic description of the control bus for the Kanzelhöhe Vakuum Telescope is given.

  19. Application of CAN-bus Network in Intelligent parking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianjun, WU; Juan, Hu

    Convenient life makes intelligent parking every- where. This paper describes how to connect the various separate modern terminal of intelligent parking with CAN-bus network, and the competitive advantage of the system by using the CAN-bus network. From a technical point of view, this paper describes the development trend of intelligent parking in next few years.

  20. Connecticut nutmeg fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administra-tion (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP). A team led by the Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium a...

  1. Bus-based best-practice and urban transport emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Marcus Paul

    In Britain over recent years, transport has risen to the very top of the political agenda, partly because it is the fastest growing source of urban emissions. One politically attractive solution to this rapidly worsening problem, is 'improving public transport'. This thesis examines how the bus-the most widespread form of public transport-could be improved, and at how much these improvements would contribute to solving the emissions problem. The project was studied in two inter-related parts. The first part aimed to determine the factors necessary in forming the 'best possible' bus-based transport system by identifying and analysing a number of 'best-practice' bus systems in Europe and North America, using a case study approach. The second part then sought to quantify the effect on travel patterns and emissions that implementing this best possible bus-based transport system would have. This was done by modelling a series of possible scenarios with the START strategic transport model, and a modified version of the JET emissions inventory model. The City of Leicester was used as a modelling base. The study found that bus systems contributed most to reducing urban emissions where the needs of the bus passenger were made paramount, and where bus operators worked together with local government, local businesses etc. Even where these factors existed however, the effect of bus-based transport policies on levels of pollutants was found to be significant only when applied together with strong car restraint measures.

  2. Bus Lifecycle Cost Model for Federal Land Management Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The Bus Lifecycle Cost Model is a spreadsheet-based planning tool that estimates capital, operating, and maintenance costs for various bus types over the full lifecycle of the vehicle. The model is based on a number of operating characteristics, incl...

  3. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  4. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of 256-row multidetector CT coronary angiography with prospective ECG-gating combined with fourth-generation iterative reconstruction algorithm in the assessment of coronary artery bypass: evaluation of dose reduction and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Davide; Fior, Davide; Franzesi, Cammillo Talei; Riva, Luca; Casiraghi, Alessandra; Sironi, Sandro

    2017-08-28

    Effective radiation dose in coronary CT angiography (CTCA) for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) evaluation is remarkably high because of long scan lengths. Prospective electrocardiographic gating with iterative reconstruction can reduce effective radiation dose. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of low-kV CT angiography protocol with prospective ecg-gating technique and iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm in follow-up of CABG patients compared with standard retrospective protocol. Seventy-four non-obese patients with known coronary disease treated with artery bypass grafting were prospectively enrolled. All the patients underwent 256 MDCT (Brilliance iCT, Philips) CTCA using low-dose protocol (100 kV; 800 mAs; rotation time: 0.275 s) combined with prospective ECG-triggering acquisition and fourth-generation IR technique (iDose(4); Philips); all the lengths of the bypass graft were included in the evaluation. A control group of 42 similar patients was evaluated with a standard retrospective ECG-gated CTCA (100 kV; 800 mAs).On both CT examinations, ROIs were placed to calculate standard deviation of pixel values and intra-vessel density. Diagnostic quality was also evaluated using a 4-point quality scale. Despite the statistically significant reduction of radiation dose evaluated with DLP (study group mean DLP: 274 mGy cm; control group mean DLP: 1224 mGy cm; P value evaluated by two radiologists in "double blind", did not reveal any significant difference in diagnostic quality of the two groups. The development of high-speed MDCT scans combined with modern IR allows an accurate evaluation of CABG with prospective ECG-gating protocols in a single breath hold, obtaining a significant reduction in radiation dose.

  6. Fandom and the fourth wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Kathryn Ballinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the Teen Wolf fandom as an example to examine the ways social media has created a more complicated, nuanced relationship with fans. The collapse of the fourth wall between fans and The Powers That Be can have both positive and negative impacts, depending on the willingness of participants to maintain mutual respect and engage in meaningful dialogue.

  7. Michigan's Fourth Forest Inventory: Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer

    1983-01-01

    The fourth inventory of Michigan's forest resources found 17.5 million acres of commercial forest, down 7% from the 18.9 million found in 1966. This bulletin analyzes findings from the inventory and presents detailed tables of forest area.

  8. Wisconsin's fourth forest inventory, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; W. Brad Smith; Jerold T. Hahn; Gerhard K. Raile

    1988-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Wisconsin shows that growing-stock volume increased from 11.2 to 15.5 billion cubic feet between 1968 and 1983, and area of timberland increased from 14.5 to 14.8 million acres. Presented are analysis and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, removals, and projections.

  9. Contribution of the working group 2 to the fourth evaluation report of the inter government expert group on the climatic change. Evaluation 2007 of the climatic changes: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; Contribution du Groupe de travail 2 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'expert intergouvernemental sur l'evolution du climat. Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: impacts, adaptation et vulnerabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document exposes the results of the fourth evaluation report of the working group II of the inter government experts group on the climatic change. This evaluation presents the today scientific understanding of the climatic change impacts on the humans and their adaptation ability and vulnerability. It is based on the GIEC evaluations and new knowledge added since the third evaluation report. (A.L.B.)

  10. A series of small scientific satellite with flexible standard bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hirobumi; Sawai, Syujiro; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Fukuda, Seisuke; Kitade, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has a plan to develop the small satellite standard bus for various scientific missions and disaster monitoring missions. The satellite bus is a class of 250-400 kg mass with three-axis control capability of 0.02∘ accuracy. The science missions include X-ray astronomy missions, planetary telescope missions, and magnetosphere atmosphere missions. In order to adapt the wide range of mission requirements, the satellite bus has to be provided with flexibility. The concepts of modularization, reusability, and product line are applied to the standard bus system. This paper describes the characteristics of the small satellite standard bus which will be firstly launched in 2011.

  11. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  12. Genetic Algorithm for Multiple Bus Line Coordination on Urban Arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority.

  13. Deadhead Trip Minimization in City Bus Transportation: A Real Life Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efendi Nasibov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of public transportation services is one of the most important performance indicators of modern urban policies for both planning and implementation aspects. Therefore, along with the size of the city, the significance of appropriate cost evaluation and optimization of all related transportation activities increases as well. One of the most important cost factors for the public transport agencies is naturally the fuel consumption of the vehicles. In this study, the attention is focused on the metropolitan bus transport service. The specific aim is to minimize a significant portion of total fuel utilization that occurs due to the so called deadhead trip or dead mileage, which is defined as the idle distance covered by the vehicle between the garage and the route terminal stops without carrying any passengers. In this study, the results of four mathematical models for minimizing the total deadhead trip distance covered in city bus services of Izmir are presented. The models vary due to the inclusion of garage capacity restrictions or operator distinction for supporting both operational and strategical decisions. All models are applied to the recent bus schedule data, which consist of 293 routes, 1,424 buses and 10 garages, for obtaining the optimal route bus-garage allocations and garage capacities. The results of the Decentralized-Capacitated model, which is appropriate for quick implementation, promise a 7.8% reduction in total dead mileage. While on the other hand, if all garage capacities can be expanded and the bus service is maintained only by one operator as modelled in the Centralized-Uncapacitated case, even a 31.4% improvement is possible in the long term. The environmental gains as well as the financial benefits to be achieved when the solutions are actually implemented, justify the practical contribution of the study.

  14. Recommendations for yield-to-bus traffic control devices and bus pullout bays design characteristics : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Bus pullout bays are being installed increasingly : on Floridas roads as a safety factor and so that : stopped buses do not impede traffic. In Florida, : state law requires car drivers to yield to buses : when a bus needs to reenter the roadway af...

  15. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  16. How to Find a Comfortable Bus Route - Towards Personalized Information Recommendation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danhuai Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the generation of massive data from bus IC cards, how to effectively and efficiently recommend comfortable bus routes to bus passengers is a challenging and complex task. In this paper, waiting time, crowded time, and driving time between different bus stations on different bus routes at different times of the day are calculated from bus IC cards data history. Then, a multi-objective program with various constraints is suggested to recommend comfortable bus routes for bus passengers, and a genetic algorithm is developed to search for expected solutions. The proposed method is implemented using bus IC cards data from Chongqing, China and will be a promising tool for bus passengers when choosing comfortable bus routes.

  17. A Self-Adjusting Method to Resist Bus Bunching Based on Boarding Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus bunching is one of the most serious problems of urban bus systems. Bus bunching increases waiting and travel time of passengers. Many bus systems use schedules to reach equal headways. Compared to the idea of schedules and the target headway introduced later, we propose a new method to improve the efficiency of a bus system and avoid bus bunching by boarding limits. Our solution can be effectively implemented when buses cannot travel as planned because of bad road conditions and dynamic demands at bus stops. Besides, using our method, bus headways reach the state with equal headways dynamically and spontaneously without drivers’ explicit intervention. Moreover, the method can improve the level of the bus service and reduce total travel time of passengers. We verify our method using an ideal bus route and a real bus route, both showing the success of the proposed method.

  18. Bus industry market study. Report -- Task 3.2: Fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1992-06-02

    In support of the commercialization of fuel cells for transportation, Georgetown University, as a part of the DOE/DOT Fuel Cell Transit Bus Program, conducted a market study to determine the inventory of passenger buses in service as of December, 1991, the number of buses delivered in 1991 and an estimate of the number of buses to be delivered in 1992. Short term and long term market projections of deliveries were also made. Data was collected according to type of bus and the field was divided into the following categories which are defined in the report: transit buses, school buses, commercial non-transit buses, and intercity buses. The findings of this study presented with various tables of data collected from identified sources as well as narrative analysis based upon interviews conducted during the survey.

  19. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in Wetland Areas. Fourth quarterly report, [October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.

    1992-12-31

    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. During the.reporting period, a report that contained the results of each of the five subtasks that comprise Task 1, Environmental Considerations, was prepared and submitted to DOE. The subtasks were an overview of oil and gas activities in wetlands; a review of present wetland access practices; identification of past environmental impacts experienced; definition of marsh habitat considerations and discussion of forested wetland considerations. In Task 2, Transport Requirements, a report on the acquisition of data on the transport requirements to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in Wetland Areas was prepared and submitted to DOE. Task 3, Parametric Analysis, was completed during the reporting period. The analysis showed that a cyclocraft, having a payload capacity of 45 tons, was the most economic and would be able to transport all of the required equipment and materials. The final report on the parametric analysis was to be submitted in January, 1993.

  20. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in wetland areas. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, Second quarter, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.

    1993-09-01

    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft that utilizes aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. This type of aircraft has considerable payload capacity, VTOL capability, high controllability, low operating cost, low downwash and high safety. The benefits of using a cyclocraft to transport drill rigs and materials over environmentally-sensitive surfaces would be significant. The cyclocraft has considerable cost and operational advantages over the helicopter. The major activity during the second quarter of 1993 was focussed on completion of Task 4, Preliminary Design. The selected design has been designated H.1 Cyclocraft by MRC. Also during the report period, Task 6, Ground Support, was completed and a report containing the results was submitted to DOE. This task addressed the complete H.1 Cyclocraft system, i.e. it included the need personnel, facilities and equipment to support cyclocraft operations in wetland areas.

  1. Organizing a bus depot – selected aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy PAWLICKI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban transportation problems are particularly noticeable within cities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. In these cities buses are a primary means of transport, but lack of low-floor and poor interior design does not encourage passengers to use them. However, the qualities that give the most negative feedback on the public transpiration are the technical condition of buses, excessive noise and exhaust emission. Technical backsides of the bus depots that constantly maintain the technical readiness of the required number of vehicles play an important role to ensure high quality standards. New European Union legislation is very helpful in such. New laws and regulations deal with the safety issues and environmental protection matters, to which the urban transportation depots must be strictly adjusted. This article refers to these documents and presents depot technical stations, which equipment needs to be upgraded in the first place.

  2. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  3. Fourth-generation storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, J. N.

    1999-11-16

    It seems clear that a linac-driven free-electron laser is the accepted prototype of a fourth-generation facility. This raises two questions: can a storage ring-based light source join the fourth generation? Has the storage ring evolved to its highest level of performance as a synchrotrons light source? The answer to the second question is clearly no. The author thinks the answer to the first question is unimportant. While the concept of generations has been useful in motivating thought and effort towards new light source concepts, the variety of light sources and their performance characteristics can no longer be usefully summed up by assignment of a ''generation'' number.

  4. The fourth generation in supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Zwirner, F.

    1985-12-01

    We consider model-independent constraints on the fourth-generation fermion masses and the magnitude of the D-term contribution to the scalar masses. We find that the ratio of vacuum expectation values is limited to the range 1/5 ~ 150 GeV. A general feature of the four-generation models is thus a heavy spectrum of sparticles. On leave from International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua, Italy.

  5. THE FOURTH STATE OF WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Savich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The fourth state of water is aqueous vapor which, under power action of magnetic-field strength at Curie point at the moment of magnetic phase transition, acquires properties of ferroelectric plasma. The latter is the basis of origination of such natural phenomena as a thunderstorm cloud and a ball lightning capable of releasing, under certain conditions, lightning strokes and, during explosion, plenty of thermal energy, which is typical of a low-temperature reactor.

  6. The Fourth Way in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Iitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the general history of the Fourth Way in Finland. The Fourth Way, or simply ‘the Work’, began as a Greco-Armenian man named Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866?–1949 gathered groups of pupils in St Petersburg and Moscow in 1912. To these groups, Gurdjieff started to teach what he had learned and synthesized between ca 1896 and 1912 during his travels on spiritual search of Egypt, Crete, Sumeria, Assyria, the Holy Land, Mecca, Ethiopia, Sudan, India, Afghanistan, the northern valleys of Siberia, and Tibet. Neither Gurdjieff nor any of his disciples called themselves a church, a sect, or anything alike, but referred to themselves simply as ‘the Work’, or as ‘the Fourth Way’. The name ‘the Fourth Way’ originates in a Gurdjieffian view that there are essentially three traditional ways of spiritual work: those of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi. These ways do not literally refer to the activities of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi, but to similar types of spiritual work emphasizing exercise of emotion, body, or mind. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. It is a unique combination of cosmology, psychology, theory of evolution, and overall theory and practise aiming to help individ­uals in their efforts towards what is called ‘self-remembering’.

  7. Research of WLAN CAN Bus Data Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weibin; Zhu, Yuqing; Hong, Tiansheng; Ye, Cheng; Ye, Zhijie; He, Guangbin; Li, Haobiao

    Both controller area network (CAN) and wireless local area network (WLAN) bus technologies are developing rapidly nowadays. But the study on WLAN technology with CAN bus data is relative to be less researched. So a WLAN CAN bus data test system was present in this paper. The system hardware consists of two control modules, each of which consistently allows link test to the CAN bus network. Each hardware of the module is composed by a microcontroller STC12C5410AD, a CAN bus control unit MCP2515, a CAN bus transceiver MCP2551 and a RF wireless module RF903. During the test process, the CAN bus analyzer, Kvaser USBCAN II, receives and dispatches the CAN messages. Test results showed that the system's error score was approximately zero when messages are transmitted and the system can message transmission from one side of CAN panel point to the other side. The communication of the system is suitable for the CAN treaty standard and it can allow wireless message transmission to other suitable networks meeting the CAN treaty standard as well. Finally the system has been applied to the project for hill citrus leaf area index (LAI) acquisition.

  8. Estimating Bus Loads and OD Flows Using Location-Stamped Farebox and Wi-Fi Signal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiong Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic fareboxes integrated with Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL systems can provide location-stamped records to infer passenger boarding at individual stops. However, bus loads and Origin-Destination (OD flows, which are useful for route planning, design, and real-time controls, cannot be derived directly from farebox data. Recently, Wi-Fi sensors have been used to collect passenger OD flow information. But the data are insufficient to capture the variation of passenger demand across bus trips. In this study, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate trip-level OD flow matrices and a period-level OD flow matrix using sampled OD flow data collected by Wi-Fi sensors and boarding data provided by fareboxes. Bus loads on each bus trip are derived directly from the estimated trip-level OD flow matrices. The proposed method is evaluated empirically on an operational bus route and the results demonstrate that it provides good and detailed transit route-level passenger demand information by combining farebox and Wi-Fi signal data.

  9. Comparison of whole-body vibration exposures in buses: effects and interactions of bus and seat design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Per M G; Rynell, Patrik W; Hagberg, Mats; Johnson, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Bus and seat design may be important for the drivers' whole-body vibration (WBV). WBV exposures in buses during actual operation were assessed. WBV attenuation performance between an air-suspension seat and a static pedestal seat in low-floor buses was compared; there were no differences in WBV attenuation between the seats. Air-suspension seat performance in a high-floor and low-floor bus was compared. Relative to the pedestal seat with its relatively static, limited travel seat suspension, the air-suspension seat with its dynamic, longer travel suspension provided little additional benefit. Relative to the measurement collected at the bus floor, the air-suspension seat amplified the WBV exposures in the high-floor bus. All WBV exposures were below European Union (EU) daily exposure action values. The EU Vibration Directive only allows the predominant axis of vibration exposure to be evaluated but a tri-axial vector sum exposure may be more representative of the actual health risks. Low back pain is common in bus drivers and studies have shown a relationship with whole body vibration. Relative to a pedestal seat with its limited travel seat suspension, the air-suspension seat with its longer travel suspension provided little additional benefit. Exposures were below European Union daily exposure action values.

  10. Learning through policy tourism: circulating bus rapid transit from South America to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Wood

    2014-01-01

    Study tours, a form of ‘policy tourism’ in which local actors travel elsewhere to see best practice and meet with those in the exporting locality who implemented it, have become a basic tenet for policy exchange. In the pursuit of these lessons, hundreds of South African public transport enthusiasts visited South America, particularly Bogota, to learn of its thriving bus rapid transit (BRT) network. This paper evaluates the influence of these exchanges on BRT circulation and adoption—what tak...

  11. Using microcomputers for lighting appliance control using a DALI bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article concerns the DALI bus theoretical and practical aspects. The DALI bus is a modern technology developed especially for illumination systems control. Authors are outlining communication basic principles related to the physical layer and going up to more complex data transactions among particular devices. The article main topic is aimed at two device models development based on microcontroller and exploiting that technology. The first of those two devices is a DALI slave unit enabling the light source or multi switch with light indication components control via DALI bus. The second device measures the ambient illumination intensity and it also detects errors in the load.

  12. Design and Research on Automotive Controller Area Network Bus Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei CUI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection method of automotive controller area network bus is researched in this paper. Failure identifying of CAN bus under different working conditions has been realized. In order to realizing intelligent failure diagnosis, data fusion means has been put forward in this paper. The composition of analysis and detection system is introduced. By analyzing and processing the data of CAN bus and sensors, work condition of automotive is achieved. Multi-pattern data fusion model and algorithm for failure diagnosis are researched. The analyzer and detection system designed in this paper can be applied to automotive fault analysis, troubleshooting and maintenance.

  13. Solving of school bus routing problem by ant colony optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Rojas, Juan S.; Jiménez-Gordillo, J. F. (José Fernando); Montoya-Torres, J. R. (Jairo Rafael)

    2011-01-01

    The school bus routing problem (SBRP) seeks to plan an efficient schedule of a fleet of school buses that must pick up students from various bus stops and deliver them by satisfying various constraints: maximum capacity of the bus, maximum riding time of students, time window to arrive to school. In this paper, we consider a case study of SBRP for a school in Bogotá, Colombia. The problem is solved using ant colony optimization (ACO). Computational experiments are performed using real data. R...

  14. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Choong-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, uninterruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS is discussed and elaborated.

  15. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  16. Research on Optimization for Motion Control Bus Based on Ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field bus system has been successfully introduced into industrial automation. Nowadays, most of the motion control bus is based on the Ethernet physical layer, and all of the new standards are based on the Ethernet physical layer. This paper introduces a new optimized technology based on motion control bus of the Ethernet physical layer, which includes the prediction mechanism in the arrival of the frames, the retransmission mechanism in advance, and a new mechanism of independent verification of data segment. Tests show that using the mechanisms in this paper can enhance efficiency and reliability in communication process.

  17. Overweight as hypertension risk prediction in bus drivers - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i2.9084

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Camargo Smolarek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP has been currently associated with several risk markers in cardiovascular diseases and excess body weight although there is only slight evidence on the association of Body Mass Index (BMI with BP in bus drivers. Current analysis verified the association of BMI with BP in bus drivers and the risk of individuals with excess weight within the context of high blood pressure. The sample consisted of 75 bus drivers who had their BMI and BP evaluated. Statistical analysis was descriptive and Pearson correlation and odds-ratio were p < 0.05. A significant relationship between BMI and blood pressure, namely, r = 0.438 (p < 0.05 was evident. Individuals with weight excess weight were 4.04 times more likely to have high blood pressure (p < 0.05. Results showed individuals with excess weight were more likely to develop high blood pressure conditions.

  18. Common Airborne Instrumentation System: CAIS Bus Interface Standard, A00.00-C001. Revision A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sidney

    1997-01-01

    .... This interface control document (ICD) was written to provide a single document that designers of CAIS bus controllers and data acquisition units could reference to ensure interoperability on the CAIS bus. This ICD establishes the requirements for digital command/response, time division multiplexing techniques for a single CAIS bus. It encompasses the physical, electrical, and protocol aspects of the CAIS bus.

  19. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  20. Fixed Route Accessible Bus Service in Connecticut : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    U.S. Department of Transportation regulations implementing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, require transit agencies to provide wheelchair accessibility on fixed-route bus service. The study is part of the series which included studies ...

  1. A research framework for studying transit bus driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The increase in transit bus ridership nationally during the past ten years, along with the : proliferation of personal electronic control and communication gadgets is causing more : distractions for the drivers. Earlier research studies have found dr...

  2. Multi-Gigabit Rate Radiation Hard Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High speed robust very low power radiation hardened bus interconnects are required to accelerate on-board computations, further improve reconfigurability and upgrade...

  3. FTA fuel cell bus program : research accomplishments through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Prepared by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Office of Research, Demonstration, and Innovation (TRI), this report summarizes the accomplishments of fuel-cell-transit-bus-related research and demonstrations projects supported by FTA through 20...

  4. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  5. Analysis of feeder bus network design and scheduling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Koting, Suhana; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews.

  6. The fourth dimension simply explained

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Henry P

    2005-01-01

    To remove the contents of an egg without puncturing its shell or to drink the liquor in a bottle without removing the cork is clearly unthinkable - or is it? Understanding the world of Einstein and curved space requires a logical conception of the fourth dimension.This readable, informative volume provides an excellent introduction to that world, with 22 essays that employ a minimum of mathematics. Originally written for a contest sponsored by Scientific American, these essays are so well reasoned and lucidly written that they were judged to merit publication in book form. Their easily unders

  7. Application Layer Definition and Analyses of Controller Area Network Bus for Wire Harness Assembly Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hui; Jiang, Ying

    2006-01-01

    With the feature of multi-master bus access, nondestructive contention-based arbitration and flexible configuration, Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is applied into the control system of Wire Harness Assembly Machine (WHAM). To accomplish desired goal, the specific features of the CAN bus is analyzed by compared with other field buses and the functional performances in the CAN bus system of WHAM is discussed. Then the application layer planning of CAN bus for dynamic priority is presented. ...

  8. Accessibility analysis to public services by bus transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Košir, Uroš

    2009-01-01

    Graduation thesis focuses on ESRI GIS tools, Model Builder and Network analyst. It is shown how automated process with geoprocesing models simplify procedures, with prepared data, for further analyses. Data, established with analyses, were used for accessability analysis to public services by bus transportation. Analyses were made for territory of Slovenia and their statistical regions. For better understanding of choice between a car and a bus accessibility to public services, thesis was sup...

  9. VHDL resolved function based inner communication bus for FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses a method of building an internal, universal and parametric bus. The solution was designed for a variety of FPGA families and popular VHDL compilers. The algorithm of automatic configuration of address space and methods of receiving and sending addressed data are discussed. The basic solution realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form and chosen examples of practical use of the internal bus are presented in detail.

  10. Bus-stop Based Real Time Passenger Information System – Case Study Maribor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čelan, Marko; Klemenčič, Mitja; Mrgole, Anamarija L.; Lep, Marjan

    2017-10-01

    Real time passenger information system is one of the key element of promoting public transport. For the successful implementation of real time passenger information systems, various components should be considered, such as: passenger needs and requirements, stakeholder involvement, technological solution for tracking, data transfer, etc. This article carrying out designing and evaluation of real time passenger information (RTPI) in the city of Maribor. The design phase included development of methodology for selection of appropriate macro and micro location of the real-time panel, development of a real-time passenger algorithm, definition of a technical specification, financial issues and time frame. The evaluation shows that different people have different requirements; therefore, the system should be adaptable to be used by various types of people, according to the age, the purpose of journey, experience of using public transport, etc. The average difference between perceived waiting time for a bus is 35% higher than the actual waiting time and grow with the headway increase. Experiences from Maribor have shown that the reliability of real time passenger system (from technical point of view) must be close to 100%, otherwise the system may have negative impact on passengers and may discourage the use of public transport. Among considered events of arrivals during the test period, 92% of all prediction were accurate. The cost benefit analysis has focused only on potential benefits from reduced perceived users waiting time and foreseen costs of real time information system in Maribor for 10 years’ period. Analysis shows that the optimal number for implementing real time passenger information system at the bus stops in Maribor is set on 83 bus stops (approx. 20 %) with the highest number of passenger. If we consider all entries at the chosen bus stops, the total perceived waiting time on yearly level could be decreased by about 60,000 hours.

  11. School bus crash rates on routine and nonroutine routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Marizen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy; Stahlhut, Mary; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-09-01

    Although prior research has established that school buses are a safe form of transportation, crashes can produce catastrophic consequences. School buses have 2 types of routes: predictable, routine routes that take children to and from school and less predictable, nonroutine routes for school events. No studies have examined school bus crash incidence and characteristics by these route types. School bus crashes were identified from the Iowa Department of Transportation Crash Database from mid-2005 through mid-2010. Crash reports did not identify whether the bus was on a routine or nonroutine route, so a protocol to assign these based on day and time was developed. Bus mileage was provided by the Iowa Department of Education. The school bus crash rate was 2.1 times higher on nonroutine routes than on routine routes (95% CI = 1.8-2.3). Most crashes involved an improper action by the driver of another vehicle. In crashes attributed to improper actions of school buses, failure to yield the right-of-way and disregarding traffic signs were more common on routine routes, while losing control, speeding, reckless, or aggressive driving were more common on nonroutine routes. School bus crashes are more likely to occur on nonroutine routes. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  12. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours among bus operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoto, K H; French, S A

    2012-03-01

    Urban bus operators are an occupational group with high rates of overweight and obesity. Understanding methods bus operators use for weight control may be important; there may be increased risk for these workers to engage in less healthy weight management behaviours due to stressful working conditions. To examine the prevalence of unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours used by bus operators and examine associations between use of unhealthy weight control behaviours and work-related and sociodemographic variables. Bus operators from four different transit garages were invited to complete a self-administered survey; height and weight were measured by research staff. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours, work hours, work schedule and social support were measured with self-report items on the employee survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate associations. Nearly 60% of bus operators endorsed at least one unhealthy method; over 50% reported skipping meals, 30% fasted and 10% reported taking diet pills in the past year. Bus operator gender, race, body mass index status and hours worked per week showed significant associations with using at least one unhealthy weight control behaviour. Worksite interventions should emphasize the benefit of healthy eating and physical activity but should also address the use of less healthy methods for weight control for individuals employed in transportation occupations.

  13. Evaluation of four simple/rapid assays and two fourth-generation ELISAs for the identification of HIV infection on a serum panel representing the HIV-1 group M genetic diversity in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghokeng, Avelin Fobang; Ewane, Léonard; Awazi, Bih; Nanfack, Aubin; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Zekeng, Léopold

    2004-12-15

    The performance of 4 rapid and simple assays: Camstix-HIV 1+2 (Camdiagnostix, Yaounde, Cameroon); Determine HIV 1+2+0 (Abbott Laboratories, Tokyo, Japan); Genie II HIV-1/HIV-2 (Bio-Rad, Marnes la Coquette, France); ImmunoComb II HIV 1 & 2 BiSpot (Orgenics, Yavne, Israel); and 2 fourth-generation ELISAs: Enzygnost HIV Integral (Dade Behring, Marburg, Germany) and Genscreen plus HIV Ag-Ab (Bio-Rad, Marnes la Coquette, France) currently used in Cameroon to detect HIV infections were evaluated on a local serum panel. A total of 503 samples were collected, using the Camstix-HIV 1+2 assay. Overall, 280 samples were confirmed HIV positive, 181 were negative, and 42 were indeterminate. All positive samples belonged to group M: CRF02_AG (73.5%), A1 (7.1%), A2 (1.2%), G (4.7%), F2 (5.1%), D (1.6%), CRF11 (1.6%), CRF06 (1.2%), and CRF01_AE (1.6%). Sensitivity, specificity, test efficiency, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated both including and excluding indeterminate samples. Except for Genie II and ImmunoComb II (98.9 and 99.3%, respectively), sensitivities were 100% for the remaining 4 tests. Specificities, efficiencies, and positive predictive values of all assays were negatively affected by the addition of HIV-indeterminate samples in the calculations. These data show the importance of prior test evaluations on local serum panels and in field conditions before a national policy for HIV screening is decided on and stress also the need to use tests and algorithms that can reduce the high number of HIV-indeterminate results in Africa.

  14. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  15. An Improved Model for Headway-Based Bus Service Unreliability Prevention with Vehicle Load Capacity Constraint at Bus Stops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved model for improving headway-based bus route service reliability at bus stops using real-time preventive operation control, taking into account dynamic interaction among random passenger demand, stochastic driving conditions of route segments, and vehicle load capacity constraint. In this model, the real-time information of passenger demand and vehicle operation is involved to predict the imminent unacceptable headway deviation, in the case of which some in-time preventive control strategies are deployed according to the given control rules. As a case study, a single fixed bus route with high-frequency services was simulated and different scenarios of real-time preventive operation control were performed. Headway adherence and average passenger wait time were used to measure bus service reliability. The results show that the improved model is closer to the real bus route service, and using real-time information to predict potential service unreliability and trigger in-time preventive control can reduce bus bunching and avoid big gap.

  16. ANALISIS SARANA ANGKUTAN UMUM BUS DAMRI DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhan Rizal Amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the availability and use of public transportation by taking a case study of the Damri bus which has Ngaliyan-Pucanggading route. The availability of public transport is not comparable to the demand for public transportation services so that the problems of transportation emerge. Additionally, the use of public transport becomes an important factor to develop the transportation. The study is conducted by surveying the Damri passengers of B.04 lane and logistic regression is used for the analysis. The method of determining the needs of transportation is issued by Departemen Perhubungan. It is used to calculate and determine whether the public transportation should be added or reduced. Then, the factors used as the independent variables in the analysis are the Damri’s safety, effectiveness, efficiency, service and reliability. The results show that Perum Damri does not need to add more Damri bus for B.04 because the results’ calculation is 0.6. and the factors that significantly influence the use Damri bus is the variable of safety, effectiveness and efficiency. However, the variables of service and reliability do not significantly influence the use of B.04 Damri bus.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ketersediaan dan penggunaan angkutan sarana angkutan umum penumpang dengan mengambil studi kasus pada bus Damri jalur dengan trayek Ngaliyan-Pucanggading. Ketersediaan sarana angkutan umum yang tersedia tidak sebanding dengan besarnya permintaan akan jasa angkutan umum oleh masyarakat umum sehingga muncul permasalahan transportasi. Di samping itu, penggunaan angkutan umum yang beroperasi menjadi faktor penting dalam upaya pengembangan sarana transportasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode survey terhadap para penumpang bus Damri jalur B.04 dan dianalisis dengan Regresi Logistik. Metode penentuan kebutuhan armada dikeluarkan oleh Departemen Perhubungan yang digunakan untuk menghitung apakah suatu

  17. Phase-contrast cerebrospinal fluid flow magnetic resonance imaging in qualitative evaluation of patency of CSF flow pathways prior to infusion of chemotherapeutic and other agents into the fourth ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajan P; Sitton, Clark W; Ketonen, Leena M; Hou, Ping; Johnson, Jason M; Romo, Seferino; Fletcher, Stephen; Shah, Manish N; Kerr, Marcia; Zaky, Wafik; Rytting, Michael E; Khatua, Soumen; Sandberg, David I

    2017-11-23

    Nuclear medicine studies have previously been utilized to assess for blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow prior to intraventricular chemotherapy infusions. To assess CSF flow without nuclear medicine studies, we obtained cine phase-contrast MRI sequences that assess CSF flow from the fourth ventricle down to the sacrum. In three clinical trials, 18 patients with recurrent malignant posterior fossa tumors underwent implantation of a ventricular access device (VAD) into the fourth ventricle, either with or without simultaneous tumor resection. Prior to infusing therapeutic agents into the VAD, cine MRI phase-contrast CSF flow sequences of the brain and total spine were performed. Velocity encoding (VENC) of 5 and 10 cm/s was used to confirm CSF flow from the fourth ventricular outlets to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. Qualitative CSF flow was characterized by neuroradiologists as present or absent. All 18 patients demonstrated CSF flow from the outlets of the fourth ventricle down to the sacrum with no evidence of obstruction. One of these patients, after disease progression, subsequently showed obstruction of CSF flow. No patient required a nuclear medicine study to assess CSF flow prior to initiation of infusions. Fourteen patients have received infusions to date, and none has had neurological toxicity. CSF flow including the fourth ventricle and the total spine can be assessed noninvasively with phase-contrast MRI sequences. Advantages over nuclear medicine studies include avoiding both an invasive procedure and radiation exposure.

  18. Iterated Local Search Algorithm with Strategic Oscillation for School Bus Routing Problem with Bus Stop Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saied Fallah Niasar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available he school bus routing problem (SBRP represents a variant of the well-known vehicle routing problem. The main goal of this study is to pick up students allocated to some bus stops and generate routes, including the selected stops, in order to carry students to school. In this paper, we have proposed a simple but effective metaheuristic approach that employs two features: first, it utilizes large neighborhood structures for a deeper exploration of the search space; second, the proposed heuristic executes an efficient transition between the feasible and infeasible portions of the search space. Exploration of the infeasible area is controlled by a dynamic penalty function to convert the unfeasible solution into a feasible one. Two metaheuristics, called N-ILS (a variant of the Nearest Neighbourhood with Iterated Local Search algorithm and I-ILS (a variant of Insertion with Iterated Local Search algorithm are proposed to solve SBRP. Our experimental procedure is based on the two data sets. The results show that N-ILS is able to obtain better solutions in shorter computing times. Additionally, N-ILS appears to be very competitive in comparison with the best existing metaheuristics suggested for SBRP

  19. Bias of averages in life-cycle footprinting of infrastructure: truck and bus case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-11-18

    The life-cycle output (e.g., level of service) of infrastructure systems heavily influences their normalized environmental footprint. Many studies and tools calculate emission factors based on average productivity; however, the performance of these systems varies over time and space. We evaluate the appropriate use of emission factors based on average levels of service by comparing them to those reflecting a distribution of system outputs. For the provision of truck and bus services where fuel economy is assumed constant over levels of service, emission factor estimation biases, described by Jensen's inequality, always result in larger-than-expected environmental impacts (3%-400%) and depend strongly on the variability and skew of truck payloads and bus ridership. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emission factors for diesel trucks in California range from 87 to 1,500 g of CO2 equivalents per ton-km, depending on the size and type of trucks and the services performed. Along a bus route in San Francisco, well-to-wheel emission factors ranged between 53 and 940 g of CO2 equivalents per passenger-km. The use of biased emission factors can have profound effects on various policy decisions. If average emission rates must be used, reflecting a distribution of productivity can reduce emission factor biases.

  20. Particles exposure while sitting at bus stops of hot and humid Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Erik; Tan, Sok Huang

    2016-10-01

    Transport microenvironments represent hotspots of personal exposure to airborne toxics, particularly of ultrafine particles. Thus, a large exposure may be experienced during daily commuting trips. Amongst these microenvironments, bus stops are critical because of the commuters' close proximity to fresh fumes rich in particles emitted by passing, idling and accelerating buses and motor vehicles, in general. Standing at a bus stop may represent a period of disproportionately high exposure and it is, therefore, essential to know the number, chemical composition and physical characteristics of such particles for a proper public health assessment and design of mobility strategies. On this account, a set of portable and battery operated sensors were used to evaluate a number of properties of the traffic particles to which thousands of citizens are daily exposed at bus stops of Singapore. In terms of fine particles, the exposure concentration was on average 1.5-3 times higher than the mean concentration at ambient level reported by the local authorities. On average 60% of those particles corresponded to black carbon. An important presence of particle-bound polycyclic aromatics was observed. The particle number concentration and active surface area were effective metrics to quantify ultrafine particles, as expected both showed strong correlations. The number of particles at bus stops was on average 3.5 times higher than at ambient level. The most alarming issue was probably the size of the particles. Assuming spherical particles, a median of 27 nm was estimated based on the active surface area and particle number data. Particles of this size form the nucleation mode, which is related to harmful health effects.

  1. Evaluation of a rapid and simple fourth-generation HIV screening assay for qualitative detection of HIV p24 antigen and/or antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelaert, G; Fransen, K

    2010-09-01

    The performance was assessed of a new, rapid, visual and qualitative immunoassay for the detection of HIV p24 antigen (Ag) and antibodies (Ab) to HIV-1 and HIV-2. Characterised serum or plasma specimens from patients diagnosed with HIV infection were tested: 179 samples of known Ab-positive patients harbouring different subtypes of HIV-1 (n=154) and HIV-2 (n=25) and 200 samples from individuals not infected with HIV. The assay's Ag sensitivity was assessed by testing HIV seroconversion panels (n=10) and primary HIV infection specimens (n=57). In addition, the influence of the genetic variability of HIV-1 on Ag detection was evaluated using dilutions of culture supernatants infected with different subtypes (n=50). The performance of the rapid test was compared to a "gold standard" testing algorithm with the use of a single Ag ELISA and with the Vironostika((R)) HIV Uni-Form II Ag/Ab test, a fourth-generation ELISA. The new assay, the Determine HIV-1/2 Combo demonstrated 100% (98.2-100.0) Ab specificity (200/200) and 100% (98.0-100.0) Ab sensitivity (179/179). In these samples, the observed Ag sensitivity was 86.6% (58/67) with the Determine HIV-1/2 Combo test and 92.5% (62/67) with the Vironostika compared to the reference single Ag ELISA. The assay could not detect Ag in one group O, one subtype F and two subtype H cell supernatant isolates. None of the HIV-2 Ag could be detected. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Graz, city bus fleet running on 100% biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablasser, G. [City of Graz (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    Graz collects used cooking oil on a large scale. This used cooking oil is converted into biodiesel and along with biodiesel produced from rape seed provides the whole bus fleet (135 buses) with fuel. The bus fleet also got an optimized high quality interior design (information screens, air conditioning, a better acoustic and visual information and ramps for mobility-impaired persons). Attractiveness of the city will increase due to lower pollution levels by the biodiesel driven buses. Public transport became more user-friendly, especially for the disabled and other specific groups. The local public transport company, GBV, carries out a series of technical, ecological and economic trials of 100% biodiesel operation in the meantime also during wintertime. Within the framework of CIVITAS trendsetter, the whole bus fleet was either converted to biodiesel operation or new buses were bought already equipped for biodiesel operations. The 100% switch to alternative fuel for the entire bus fleet of the City of Graz is new; Graz is the only city in the world operating the whole bus fleet on 100% biodiesel.

  3. Shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Shiu, Li-Jie; Li, Yu-Ling; Tung, Kuan-Yeng; Chan, Kwan-Yu; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Chen, Shiuan-Chih; Wong, Ruey-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Professional bus drivers are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the underlying causes are unclear. Professional bus drivers often follow shift schedules. Especially, an association between shift work and early manifestations of cardiovascular disease has not been elucidated. Thus we investigated the links between shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers. Questionnaires were administered to 184 bus drivers on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and occupational history from 5 transportation companies in Taiwan. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured using a volume-plethysmographic apparatus. Body mass index, waist circumference, biochemical variables, and blood pressure were also measured. Arteriosclerotic risk factors (age, weekly driving hours, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin level) differed in part among different groups of drivers. Long-term shift drivers had higher baPWV compared to regular drivers and short-term shift drivers (1594 cm/s vs. 1497 and 1432, pshift driving. Long-term shift work could increase the risk of arteriosclerosis in professional bus drivers. Larger studies would be necessary to provide further evidence regarding this finding.

  4. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  5. Bus network redesign for inner southeast suburbs of Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandangwati, S. T.; Milyanab, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Public transport is the most effective mode of transport in the era of climate change and oil depletion. It can address climate change issues by reducing urban greenhouse gas emission and oil consumption while at the same time improving mobility. However, many public transport networks are not effective and instead create high operating costs with low frequencies and occupancy. Melbourne is one example of a metropolitan area that faces this problem. Even though the city has well-integrated train and tram networks, Melbourne’s bus network still needs to be improved. This study used network planning approach to redesign the bus network in the City of Glen Eira, a Local Government Area (LGA) in the southeastern part of Metropolitan Melbourne. The study area is the area between Gardenvale North and Oakleigh Station, as well as between Caulfield and Patterson Stations. This area needs network improvement mainly because of the meandering bus routes that run within it. This study aims to provide recommendations for improving the performance of bus services by reducing meandering routes, improving transfer point design and implementing coordinated timetables. The recommendations were formulated based on a ‘ready-made’ concept to increase bus occupancy. This approach can be implemented in other cities with similar problems and characteristics including those in Indonesia.

  6. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  7. Integration of a platform based in field bus (profibus), for the development of process control systems; Integracion de una plataforma basada en bus de campo PROFIBUS, para el desarrollo de sistemas de control de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas Perez, Eduardo; Arroyo Figueroa, Gustavo; Villavicencio Ramirez, Alejandro [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-03-01

    The integration of a computer platform for the process sequential control system development and validation of some processes of thermoelectric generation, which are constituted by operations of the logic-sequential type. The platform is composed of a process simulator, a sequence tester, a logic programmable controller, and an operational computer. All these elements are interconnected through a field bus type PROFIBUS (Process Field Bus) (Standard DIN 19245). This platform has been used for the elaboration and evaluation of the operational sequence and control of demineralization, reverse osmosis, and condensate polishing water treatment plants, which are simulated in a personal computer. [Espanol] Se presenta la integracion de una plataforma de computo para el desarrollo y validacion de sistemas de control secuencial de algunos procesos de generacion termoelectrica, los cuales estan constituidos por operaciones de tipo logico-secuencial. La plataforma esta compuesta por un simulador del proceso, un probador de secuencias, un controlador logico programable y una computadora de operacion. Todos estos elementos estan interconectados a traves de un bus de campo tipo PROFIBUS (Process Field Bus), (Estandar DIN 19245). Esta plataforma se ha utilizado para elaborar y validar la programacion de las secuencias de operacion y control de plantas de tratamiento de agua por desmineralizacion, osmosis inversa y pulidores de condensados, las cuales se tienen simuladas en una computadora personal

  8. Benefit-cost analysis framework for evaluating inter-city transit investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development and application of a benefit/cost analysis (BCA) model to support the evaluation of investment decisions for intercity bus services. The model recognizes two principle types of intercity bus benefits: benefits th...

  9. Optical Pipelined Multi-bus Interconnection Network Intrinsic Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Joseph d'Auriol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital all-optical parallel computing is an important research direction and spans conventional devices and convergent nano-optics deployments. Optical bus-based interconnects provide interesting aspects such as relative information communication speed-up or slow-down between optical signals. This aspect is harnessed in the newly proposed All-Optical Linear Array with a Reconfigurable Pipelined Bus System (OLARPBS model. However, the physical realization of such communication interconnects needs to be considered. This paper considers spatial layouts of processing elements along with the optical bus light paths that are necessary to realize the corresponding interconnection requirements. A metric in terms of the degree of required physical constraint is developed to characterize the variety of possible solutions. Simple algorithms that determine spatial layouts are given. It is shown that certain communication interconnection structures have associated intrinsic topologies.

  10. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  11. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The presence of numerous local spatial constraints makes the process and extent of epidemic spreading extremely difficult to predict. Also, majority of the studies have focused on the contagion processes on scale-free network topologies whereas, spatially-constrained real-world networks such as, bus networks exhibit a wide-spectrum of network topology. Therefore, we aim in this study to understand this complex dynamical process of epidemic outbreak and information diffusion on the bus networks for six different Indian cities usin...

  12. Optimizing Performance of at-grade Intersection with Bus Rapid Transit Corridor and Heterogeneous Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has emerged as a preferred mode of public transport in various countries all over the world for its cost effectiveness in construction as well as in operation and maintenance. The rapid transit feature of BRT is seen as a solution to many traffic problems in these countries. However, in developing countries like India, the right -of-way for most of the roads is restricted and traffic is heterogeneous in nature. Provision of BRT in existing right -of-way reduces the capacity available for other motorized traffic. As the buses travel with a certain frequency on dedicated bus- ways, the dedicated corridor remains unused for most of the period when other traffic on motorized vehicle (MV lanes suffers from congestion. The problem gets severe at intersections. However, if buses are operated in mixed traffic it is no more rapid transit. Hence, a solution is required to address this problem and optimize the performance of traffic as a whole. This paper presents the effect if dedicated bus-ways end at a reasonable distance before the stop line at a busy signalized at-grade intersection, and bus lanes (beyond that are made available to all the motorized vehicular traffic (heterogeneous traffic at intersection. The performance evaluation is done in terms of average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle, vehicle throughput, average speed in network and emission of Carbon monoxide CO, mono-nitrogen oxides NOx and Volatile organic compounds (VOC. It is observed that availability of bus lanes to other motorized traffic for a reasonable distance before intersection considerably reduces the average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle and emission per vehicle, while there is an increase in vehicle throughput and average speed of all the vehicles in the network. Thus it results in reduction of congestion and performance enhancement of at-grade intersections and network. Results of

  13. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...... could provide a continuative power supply to the loads. An overview of Multi-DC-Bus solutions is presented in this paper. The performances are compared on the basis of possible DC microgrid configurations, redundancy, different DC voltage levels....

  14. Design of temperature monitoring system based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2017-10-01

    The remote temperature monitoring system based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is designed to collect the multi-node remote temperature. By using the STM32F103 as main controller and multiple DS18B20s as temperature sensors, the system achieves a master-slave node data acquisition and transmission based on the CAN bus protocol. And making use of the serial port communication technology to communicate with the host computer, the system achieves the function of remote temperature storage, historical data show and the temperature waveform display.

  15. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  16. Fourth Global Health Systems Research Symposium features ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-13

    Fourth Global Health Systems Research Symposium features innovative research on improving maternal and child health in Africa. January 13, 2017. Image. Sue Szabo and Karina Gould at HSR2016 Conference. IDRC / Louise Guenette. Sue Szabo and Karina Gould at the Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems ...

  17. Osteoblastic meningioma of the fourth ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M D; Tulipan, N; Whetsell, W O

    1989-04-01

    Meningiomas of the fourth ventricle are rare neoplasms. Only meningothelial and fibroblastic subtypes, purportedly arising from the tela choroidea, have been described. In this report we describe clinical, neuroradiological and pathological findings in a 52-year-old man with mild hydrocephalus produced by a large, calcified, osteoblastic meningioma of the fourth ventricle.

  18. Fourth Power Diophantine Equations in Gaussian Integers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    25

    Fourth Power Diophantine Equations in Gaussian. Integers. Farzali Izadi · Rasool Naghdali. Forooshani · Amaneh Amiryousefi. Varnousfaderani . Received: date / Accepted: date. Abstract In this paper we examine a class of fourth power Diophantine equa- tions of the form x4 + kx2y2 + y4 = z2 and ax4 + by4 = cz2, in the ...

  19. United States housing, fourth quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning of 2013, the U.S. housing construction market indicated increases in all sectors; yet, by the fourth quarter’s end, only housing under construction improved. Moderation and declines are to be expected in the fourth quarter, as winter is setting in. Permits, starts, housing under construction, completions, and new and existing house sales all exceeded...

  20. Kajian Keamanan Pengoperasian Public Transport Tinjauan Terhadap Kekuatan Rangka Body Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiro, B. M

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the safety and security of the public transportation, design specification of construction body bus or bus frame structures should have an appropriate structural strength and comply with standard design including the safety factor and selection of material besides static and dynamic testing of the part of body bus. It is also realized that a bus carrying passengers have to give secure to the passengers also driver.The fact that a technology concerning with metal works indus...

  1. Sector Analysis: An Approach to Teaching Fourth Grade Students Certain Aspects of English Sentence Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Joseph Anthony

    In this study, fourth-grade materials based on a linguistic approach to grammar known as sector analysis were devised, field-tested, and evaluated. Two socioeconomically similar fourth grades--experimental and control groups--were pre- and post-tested to find possible changes in the complexity of their sentence structure after the experimental…

  2. 49 CFR 571.220 - Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... result from failure of the school bus body structure to withstand forces encountered in rollover crashes... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.220 Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection...

  3. Bus Operations for Pupil Transportation. "Chrome-Yellow and Red Lights."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannels, Morris W.

    This paper is based on a committee report of the last National School Bus Conference on "Minimum Standards for School Buses." Standards for school bus operations are included for (1) administrators, (2) supervisors, (3) school bus drivers, (4) student passengers, and (5) maintenance and service personnel. The report deals also with procedures for…

  4. DETERMINATION OF THE DELAY DEPARTURE TIME OF THE BUS FROM STOPPING POINT INTO THE CAR FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for estimation of the bus departure delax from the bus stopping point after passenger loading is presented. The model allows to take into account the traffic density on a particular road section of the transport network, as well as the bus parameters.

  5. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smoke and tuft visualizations were also performed on an urban bus at 40 km/h. Numerical simulations were performed at the actual Reynolds number. Even though there were Reynolds number differences, the broad features were similar. Air enters the bus from the rear windows, moves to the front (relative to the bus) and ...

  6. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, J.; Langer, M; Gill, E.K.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a

  7. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  8. Work-related stress and role of personality in a sample of Italian bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergomi, Margherita; Modenese, Alberto; Ferretti, Enrica; Ferrari, Angela; Licitra, Giuseppe; Vivoli, Roberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that professional drivers are at risk of developing work-related stress. Stress may be responsible for a variety of adverse effects and may also be associated with an increased number of accidents. Perform an integrated, objective and subjective evaluation of work-related stress in bus drivers, that also considered the role of personality traits. Salivary α-amylase and cortisol were measured in 42 bus drivers. Subjective stress evaluation was performed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Driver Stress Inventory (DSI). To evaluate personality traits, we administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) and the Impulsivity Inventory (IVE). Salivary biomarkers showed no associations with PSS-10 and personality traits. Cortisol levels were positively correlated with fatigue (r = 0.44) at the middle of the work-shift and with aggression (r = 0.51) at the end of a day off. At the end of the work-shift, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with hazard monitoring (r = -0.37) and salivary α-amylase was positively correlated with thrill-seeking (r = 0.36). Neuroticism (β= 0.44) and impulsiveness (β= 0.38) were predictors of perceived stress by multiple regression. An integrated method, considering both objective and subjective indicators, seems adequate to evaluate work-related stress in professional drivers. Personality traits are relevant in determining perception of stress.

  9. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking among Commercial Bus Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking among Commercial Bus Drivers and University Students in Nigeria. ... Thus, this article gathered comprehensive primary qualitative, quantitative and secondary data on smoking behaviors of two distinct groups in Nigeria for reliable comprehension of smoking trajectories in Nigeria with ...

  10. A Quantitative Economics Of Seasonality In Bus Patronage In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study thus set out to empirically investigate the myth or reality of the thesis that trip generation and trip attraction can be significantly season- determined. Collecting time series data over a ... Apposite recommendations were then made, sequel to highlighting of policy implications of findings. Key words: seasonality, bus ...

  11. Eliminating the empty bus syndrome by understanding dynamic travel behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This chapter interrogates some empirical data to examine some of the contributory causes of EBS in South Africa, and uses the City of Johannesburg as a case study. The daily travel patterns of car users are analysed within the context of how bus...

  12. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  13. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    4.1.4 Kenworth Truck Company (PACCAR Inc.) ................................................................... 72 4.1.5 Mack Trucks Inc. ( Volvo ...76 4.1.7 Nova Bus ( Volvo Group...74 4.1.5 Mack Trucks Inc. ( Volvo Group) Mack Trucks does not yet have any diesel-electric hybrid truck models in series production, although its

  14. Cascaded Amplifying Quantum Optical Taps: A Robust Noiseless Optical Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencheikh, K.; Simonneau, C.; Levenson, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Two identical amplifying quantum optical taps, based on noiseless optical parametric amplification and twin beam quantum correlation, have been implemented in a series configuration and experimentally investigated. The result is an optical bus which we have shown to be robust with respect to downstream losses.

  15. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  16. Distributed cooperative synchronization strategy for multi-bus microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Zhong, Chaolu; Hou, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    synchronization methods based on centralized communication are very costly and not suitable for multi-bus microgrids that have a large number of distributed generators (DGs). To address this concern, this study presents an active synchronization control strategy based on distributed cooperation technology...

  17. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  18. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  19. Fairness in optimizing bus-crew scheduling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jihui; Song, Cuiying; Ceder, Avishai Avi; Liu, Tao; Guan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a model considering fairness in the problem of crew scheduling for bus drivers (CSP-BD) using a hybrid ant-colony optimization (HACO) algorithm to solve it. The main contributions of this work are the following: (a) a valid approach for cases with a special cost structure and constraints considering the fairness of working time and idle time; (b) an improved algorithm incorporating Gamma heuristic function and selecting rules. The relationships of each cost are examined with ten bus lines collected from the Beijing Public Transport Holdings (Group) Co., Ltd., one of the largest bus transit companies in the world. It shows that unfair cost is indirectly related to common cost, fixed cost and extra cost and also the unfair cost approaches to common and fixed cost when its coefficient is twice of common cost coefficient. Furthermore, the longest time for the tested bus line with 1108 pieces, 74 blocks is less than 30 minutes. The results indicate that the HACO-based algorithm can be a feasible and efficient optimization technique for CSP-BD, especially with large scale problems.

  20. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  1. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    herniation was 137 compared to all Danish men. These differences were statistically significant. Of psychosocial factors only "the feeling of being mentally unbalanced" was found to be statistically significantly related to subsequent hospital discharge with a LBT-diagnosis. Long seniority as bus driver...

  2. Aerodynamic study of state transport bus using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Siddhesh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop the aerodynamic study of a Maharashtra state road transport bus. The rising fuel price and strict government regulations makes the road transport uneconomical now days. With the objective of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing the emission of harmful exhaust gases. It has been proven experimentally that vehicle consumes almost 40% of the available useful engine power to overcome the drag resistance. This provides us a huge scope to study the influence of aerodynamic drag. The initial of the project was to identify the drag coefficient of the existing ordinary type model called “Parivartan” from ANSYS fluent. After preliminary analysis of the existing model corresponding changes are made in such a way that their implementation should be possible at workshop level. The simulation of the air flow over the bus was performed in two steps: design on SolidWorks CAD and ANSYS (FLUENT) is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus. We have used the turbulence models k-ε Realizable having a better approximation of the actual result. Around 28% improvement in the drag coefficient is achieved by CFD driven changes in the bus design. Coefficient of drag is improved by 28% and fuel efficiency increased by 20% by CFD driven changes.

  3. Scheduling with Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Doboli, Alex; Pop, Paul

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we concentrate on aspects related to the synthesis of distributed embedded systems consisting of programmable processors and application-specific hardware components. The approach is based on an abstract graph representation that captures, at process level, both dataflow and the flow......, generates an efficient bus access scheme as well as the schedule tables for activation of processes and communications....

  4. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  5. The Taking Ways of an Old School Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joan Thompson; Watkins, J. Foster

    1969-01-01

    The conversion of an "old school bus" in the late 1960s into a mobile library is discussed. The conversion was an element of educational service developed cooperatively between a regional educational laboratory and a rural school system. The project endeavored to improve the early experiences of future students, many of whom would have…

  6. ADlll:S ABABA BUS TERMINAL DESIGN COMPETITION.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Association of Engineers and Architects. Today at the opening of the First National. Conference of the ... of the Architectural Competition for the New Bus. Terminal of Addis Ababa. Unfortunately, due to another ... A competition enables the client, the future owner of the project, to choose from various solutions.

  7. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  8. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODE-CHOICE SIMULATOR WITH THE LOG DATA ACCUMULATED IN ON-DEMAND BUS SERVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Kota; Yamato, Hiroyuki; Hiekata, Kazuo

    The new simulator which can estimate the mode-choi ce in the area was developed and evaluated in the field test. The characteristic of the developed simulato r is to be able to estimate the number of demand and demand pattern in high-accuracy with the real operation log data of the On-demand Bus. The simulator is devided into micro-simulator whose passenger agents choose their transpor t mode by the sacrifice model. The developed simulator is evaluated in the real fi eld test in Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture. The new transportation like LRT (Light Rail Transit) and On-demand Bus is eval uated by the simulator and the result of simulation is confirmed to be reliable by the local government officers.

  10. Bus Stops Location and Bus Route Planning Using Mean Shift Clustering and Ant Colony in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supangat, Kenny; Eko Soelistio, Yustinus

    2017-03-01

    Traffic Jam has been a daily problem for people in Jakarta which is one of the busiest city in Indonesia up until now. Even though the official government has tried to reduce the impact of traffic issues by developing a new public transportation which takes up a lot of resources and time, it failed to diminish the problem. The actual concern to this problem actually lies in how people move between places in Jakarta where they always using their own vehicle like cars, and motorcycles that fill most of the street in Jakarta. Among much other public transportations that roams the street of Jakarta, Buses is believed to be an efficient transportation that can move many people at once. However, the location of the bus stop is now have moved to the middle of the main road, and its too far for the nearby residence to access to it. This paper proposes an optimal location of optimal bus stops in West Jakarta that is experimentally proven to have a maximal distance of 350 m. The optimal location is estimated by means of mean shift clustering method while the optimal routes are calculated using Ant Colony algorithm. The bus stops locations rate of error is 0.07% with overall route area of 32 km. Based on our experiments, we believe our proposed bus stop plan can be an interesting alternative to reduce traffic congestion in West Jakarta.

  11. The fourth Minnesota forest inventory: area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 the fourth Minnesota Forest Inventory found 13.7 million acres of commercial forest land, down 11% from that reported in 1962. This bulletin analyzes finding from the inventory and presents detailed tables of forest area.

  12. SELF-ADJOINT FOURTH ORDER DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Click on the link to view the abstract. Keywords: Fourth order differential equation, eigenvalue dependent boundary conditions, quadratic operator pencil, self-adjoint operator. Quaestiones Mathematicae 34(2011), 393–406 ...

  13. The Fourth Communication Skill: Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Mamie, Ed.; Blossom, Grace, Ed.

    1969-01-01

    The teacher of bilingual students can avoid many pitfalls by evaluating the student's ability to understand, speak, and read, as well as his ability to write, and by giving written assignments that are realistic in terms of ultimate writing objectives. The basic goal of learning English--for self-expression--can be achieved only by proceeding…

  14. Comparative evaluation of self-etching primers with fourth and fifth generation dentin-bonding systems on carious and normal dentin substrates: An in vitro shear bond strength analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriyappa, Ramesh H; Chandra, B Suresh

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that bonding to caries-affected dentin would yield strengths that are lower than bond strengths achievable when bonded to normal dentin. Dentin-bonding systems used in this study were fourth and fifth generation as well as self-etching primers. Forty-eight freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary molars were selected of which 24 were caries-affected teeth and the remaining were noncarious teeth. Random sampling was done with eight teeth in each group based on the bonding system used. In caries-affected teeth, the soft, stainable, caries-infected dentin was excavated using a caries detector dye whereas the hard, caries-affected, nonstainable dentin was retained. All the teeth were subsequently mounted in a suitable acrylic mould. Prepared teeth were restored with a single composite resin, using three different dentin bonding systems. These prepared specimens were transferred to a Hounsfield tensometer to measure the shear bond strength. The results obtained were analyzed using Anova, Student's unpaired t-test, and Student Neuman Keulis test. The results showed that the self-etching primer required the highest mean shear load compared to the fifth and fourth generation dentin-bonding systems in both normal dentin and caries-affected dentin. Bond strength to dentin depends on whether the dentinal tubule is open or occluded. Within the limitations of this study, it was observed that bond strength to caries-affected dentin was low compared to normal dentin.

  15. ORADEA URBAN BUS SYSTEM ENERGY EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIBOR L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brief description of Public Transport Company and network in Oradea, passenger statistics, analysis of energy consumption, passenger/kilometer parameter evaluation, compare liquid fuel and electricity consumption, cost reduction, optimization.

  16. Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Li Du

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies.

  17. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  18. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  19. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    “Sustainable transport” has become a headline for transport planning and policy making around the world. While there are many different definitions of what Sustainable Transport means, it commonly includes efforts to improve the environmental performance of transport systems, and to promote...... depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes......: Public bus transport in England, exemplified by Greater Manchester. England represents a situation where - compared to continental Europe including Denmark - the NPM reforms have been particularly radical. In no other European country the market forces has achieved a role as dominant as in England...

  20. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  1. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    1.2 Master Control Node The master control node was implemented with a USB to universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) bridge chip produced...indicate fragment manipulation via calls to public methods. The black arrows in the main activity indicate the fragments requesting action from the...Unplug the universal serial bus (USB) cable from the tablet. 2. Go to Android back stack via button on bottom right and swipe off STSLEDCntrl. 3

  2. Evaluasi Tingkat Kelelahan Pada Pengemudi Bus Di Kota Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Febrianti, Asterina; Yassierli, Yassierli; Mahachandra, Manik

    2016-01-01

    Kota Bandung saat ini mengalami pertumbuhan penduduk mencapai 3% setiap tahunnya, sehingga kebutuhan akan transportasi umum sangat tinggi serta tingkat kemacetan yang timbul semakin tinggi pula. Kemacetan yang panjang berdampak pada penurunan kewaspadaan dan timbulnya risiko kecelakaan karena waktu berkendara yang relatif lebih beragam. Menyadari akan risiko kecelakaan yang diakibatkan oleh kelelahan maka diperlukan pengukuran kelelahan pada pengemudi bus di kota Bandung yang belum pernah dik...

  3. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  4. Bi-Directional Multi-Station Command/Information Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    signals are presented. The model of the signal flow requirements is presented both schematically and in tabular form From this model, a possible...is presented both in schematic and tabular forms. Finally, a conceptual data bus configura- tion meeting the signal flow requirements has been...A Converter LRI Central Air Dato Computer ’LLI Demultiplexer D/A Converter 0>AI OfA2 Type R Modem Type T Modem A/D Cowerfcr

  5. Optimalisasi Kelembagaan Dan Manajemen Dalam Bus Rapid Transit Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoni, Ahmad; Yuniar, Haptiwi Tri; Riyanto, Bambang; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Bus Rapid Transit Trans Semarang is a means of mass transportation to the transit system that began operating since 2009 as a solution to reduce congestion in the city of Semarang. This research focuses on the optimization and management of institutional BRT Trans Semarang to improve it's performance. The purpose of this study is to optimize the performance of the organization and management of BRT Trans Semarang with variable types of institutional cooperation BRT operations, and leadership...

  6. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity...

  7. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Kegl, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions,...

  8. Should bus commuting be subsidized for providing quality transport ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: geetamt@gmail.com. Abstract. Urban transport has ... (ii) Should bus prices be subsidized in order to provide a quality public transport system? (iii) How large is the modal shift in favour ..... been derived through a speed-flow relationship function, with a car free flow speed of 45 km/h, peak traffic speed of 24 km/h and ...

  9. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Wang

    Full Text Available To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China.We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicted bus driver violations.The incidence of illegal stopping at bus stations was 20.2%. Illegal stopping was less frequent on weekends, sunny days, and at stations with cameras, with adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs of 0.81, 0.65 and 0.89, respectively. The incidence of violating traffic light signals was 2.2%, and was lower on cloudy than sunny days (adjusted IRR: 0.60. The incidence of distracted driving was 3.3%. The incidence of distracted driving was less common on cloudy days, rainy or snowy days, and foggy/windy/dusty days compared to sunny days, with adjusted IRRs of 0.54, 0.55 and 0.07, respectively.Traffic violations are common in bus drivers in urban China and they are associated with the date, weather, and presence of traffic cameras at bus station. Further studies are recommended to understand the behavioral mechanisms that may explain bus driver violations and to develop feasible prevention measures.

  10. Replacement model of city bus: A dynamic programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Dadang; Yusuf, Edhi

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims to develop a replacement model of city bus vehicles operated in Bandung City. This study is driven from real cases encountered by the Damri Company in the efforts to improve services to the public. The replacement model propounds two policy alternatives: First, to maintain or keep the vehicles, and second is to replace them with new ones taking into account operating costs, revenue, salvage value, and acquisition cost of a new vehicle. A deterministic dynamic programming approach is used to solve the model. The optimization process was heuristically executed using empirical data of Perum Damri. The output of the model is to determine the replacement schedule and the best policy if the vehicle has passed the economic life. Based on the results, the technical life of the bus is approximately 20 years old, while the economic life is an average of 9 (nine) years. It means that after the bus is operated for 9 (nine) years, managers should consider the policy of rejuvenation.

  11. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  12. A Dimensional Bus model for integrating clinical and research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ted D; Hum, Richard C; Murphy, James R

    2011-12-01

    Many clinical research data integration platforms rely on the Entity-Attribute-Value model because of its flexibility, even though it presents problems in query formulation and execution time. The authors sought more balance in these traits. Borrowing concepts from Entity-Attribute-Value and from enterprise data warehousing, the authors designed an alternative called the Dimensional Bus model and used it to integrate electronic medical record, sponsored study, and biorepository data. Each type of observational collection has its own table, and the structure of these tables varies to suit the source data. The observational tables are linked to the Bus, which holds provenance information and links to various classificatory dimensions that amplify the meaning of the data or facilitate its query and exposure management. The authors implemented a Bus-based clinical research data repository with a query system that flexibly manages data access and confidentiality, facilitates catalog search, and readily formulates and compiles complex queries. The design provides a workable way to manage and query mixed schemas in a data warehouse.

  13. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  14. Pricing and Availability Intervention in Vending Machines at Four Bus Garages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peter J; Harnack, Lisa J; Mitchell, Nathan R; Toomey, Traci L; Gerlach, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of lowering prices and increasing availability on sales of healthy foods and beverages from 33 vending machines in four bus garages as part of a multi-component worksite obesity prevention intervention. Methods Availability of healthy items was increased to 50% and prices were lowered at least 10% in the vending machines in two metropolitan bus garages for an 18-month period. Two control garages offered vending choices at usual availability and prices. Sales data were collected monthly from each of the vending machines at the four garages. Results Increases in availability to 50% and price reductions of an average of 31% resulted in 10-42% higher sales of the healthy items. Employees were most price-responsive for snack purchases. Conclusions Greater availability and lower prices on targeted food and beverage items from vending machines was associated with greater purchases of these items over an eighteen-month period. Efforts to promote healthful food purchases in worksite settings should incorporate these two strategies. PMID:20061884

  15. [Fourth ventricule epidermoid cyst: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Saqui, Abderrazzak; Aggouri, Mohamed; Benzagmout, Mohamed; Chakour, Khalid; Chaoui, Mohamed El Faiz

    2017-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are rare benign tumors developed by ectodermic inclusions. They are usually located at the level of the pontocerebellar angle, the parasellar region and the temporal fossa. They exceptionally develop at the level of the fourth ventricle We report the case of a 47-year old woman admitted for intracranial hypertension syndrome associated with walking disorders. The diagnosis of fourth ventricle epidermoid cyst was evoked based on diffusion MRI data then confirmed intraoperatively and by histologic examination. Subtotal surgical excision was performed due to capsule adhesion to the upper part of the V4 floor. After a 36-month follow-up, the patient showed no signs of tumor recurrence.

  16. Fourth Lepton Family is Natural in Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    structure with and without mixing with the Standard Model families. We also analyze the LHC potential to observe the fourth lepton family in tandem with the new composite Higgs dynamics. We finally introduce a model uniting the fourth lepton family and the technifermion sector at higher energies....... the big hierarchy problem of the Standard Model. A natural way to accomplish such a scenario is to have the Higgs itself be composite of these new fermions. This is the setup we are going to investigate in this paper using as a template Minimal Walking Technicolor. We analyze a general heavy neutrino mass...

  17. The Influence of Weight Distribution on the Handling Characteristics of Intercity Bus under Steady State Vehicle Cornering Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prompakdee Ekalak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle cornering behavior is an important performance in handling stability especially for the intercity bus. Accordingly, one of the significant parameters concerns the weight distribution which is affected by the center of gravity (CG. In this paper, the effect of weight distribution while varying the turning radius is compared and it should be expressed, and interpreted by understeer gradient which is influenced by the location of CG. The characteristic of intercity bus was modeled and evaluated using the multi-body dynamic analysis software. The analysis has been conducted under steady state cornering based on a total of three configurations, with front/rear axle weight in percent, as 40/60, 45/55, and 50/50.The results stated that the magnitude of weight distribution on front axle of bus in a range of 40% to 50% caused the incremental value of understeer gradient and it was also increased as three times in each turning radius since the difference lateral slip angles between front and rear are expanded.

  18. Performance of the Priority Control Strategies for Bus Rapid Transit: Comparative Study from Scenario Microsimulation Using VISSIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit (BRT has a great potential to improve the service level of transit system and has been implemented in many Chinese cities. However, the priority it can provide to buses has not been explored fully. Therefore, this study mainly investigated two advanced control strategies (signal priority using advanced detection and transit speed control. Signal priority using advanced detection is a strategy which detects one cycle ahead of buses’ arrival in order to adapt a more flexible control algorithm to provide signal priority for buses. Another is transit speed control, which provides priority at intersections for buses by controlling the speed of them and predicting their arrival at certain intersection. These two advanced strategies were modeled and evaluated using simulation software VISSIM and presented better performance than other three scenarios (base case, exclusive bus lane, and conventional transit signal priority. Only the eastbound direction would be researched as its traffic flow and bus volume are much larger than those of the other direction. Data used in this model was collected in Yingtan City. It is also shown that both the operation of BRT and the efficiency of private traffic can be much improved by applying the two strategies proposed above.

  19. Minimizing the health and climate impacts of emissions from heavy-duty public transportation bus fleets through operational optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouge, Brian; Dowlatabadi, Hadi; Ries, Francis J

    2013-04-16

    In contrast to capital control strategies (i.e., investments in new technology), the potential of operational control strategies (e.g., vehicle scheduling optimization) to reduce the health and climate impacts of the emissions from public transportation bus fleets has not been widely considered. This case study demonstrates that heterogeneity in the emission levels of different bus technologies and the exposure potential of bus routes can be exploited though optimization (e.g., how vehicles are assigned to routes) to minimize these impacts as well as operating costs. The magnitude of the benefits of the optimization depend on the specific transit system and region. Health impacts were found to be particularly sensitive to different vehicle assignments and ranged from worst to best case assignment by more than a factor of 2, suggesting there is significant potential to reduce health impacts. Trade-offs between climate, health, and cost objectives were also found. Transit agencies that do not consider these objectives in an integrated framework and, for example, optimize for costs and/or climate impacts alone, risk inadvertently increasing health impacts by as much as 49%. Cost-benefit analysis was used to evaluate trade-offs between objectives, but large uncertainties make identifying an optimal solution challenging.

  20. Identification of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durlav Hazarika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several online methods were proposed for investigating the voltage stability condition of an interconnected power system using the measurements of voltage and current phasors at a bus. For this purpose, phasor measurement units (PMUs are used. A PMU is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electrical network, using a common time source (reference bus for synchronisation. This study proposes a method for online monitoring of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables namely – (i real power, (ii reactive power and (iii bus voltage magnitude at a bus. The measurements of real power, reactive power and bus voltage magnitude could be extracted/captured from a smart energy meter. The financial involvement for implementation of the proposed method would significantly lower compared with the PMU-based method.

  1. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS, which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus, coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introducing novel functions: asynchronous meter trigger, adaptive slot scheduling, and bitmap-wise retransmission request. Through experiments, we demonstrate that BWM-Bus guarantees higher data success ratio with lower data aggregation time, as well as longer lifetime than WM-Bus standard.

  2. Bunching transition in a time-headway model of a bus route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, T

    2001-03-01

    A time-headway model is presented to mimic bus behavior on the bus route. The motion of a bus is described in terms of the time headway between its bus and the bus in front. We study the bunching behavior of buses induced by interacting with other buses and passengers. It is shown that the dynamical phase transitions among the inhomogeneous bunching phase, the homogeneous free phase, the coexisting phase, and the homogeneous congested phase occur with varying the initial time headway. We study the effect of not stopping at bus stops on the time-headway profile. It is found that the bunching transition lines are consistent with the neutral stability curves obtained by the linear stability analysis.

  3. The Fourth R: A School-Based Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Wolfe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.

  4. Conservative fourth-order time integration of non-linear dynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating...... is a direct fourth-order accurate representation of the original differential equations. This fourth-order form is energy conserving for systems with force potential in the form of a quartic polynomial in the displacement components. Energy conservation for a force potential of general form is obtained...

  5. Optimizing Bus Frequencies under Uncertain Demand: Case Study of the Transit Network in a Developing City

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhengfeng; Ren, Gang; Liu, Haixu

    2013-01-01

    Various factors can make predicting bus passenger demand uncertain. In this study, a bilevel programming model for optimizing bus frequencies based on uncertain bus passenger demand is formulated. There are two terms constituting the upper-level objective. The first is transit network cost, consisting of the passengers’ expected travel time and operating costs, and the second is transit network robustness performance, indicated by the variance in passenger travel time. The second term reflect...

  6. Sealing the fate of a fourth generation of fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Djouadi, Abdelhak

    2012-01-01

    The search for the effects of heavy fermions in the extension of the Standard Model with a fourth generation is part of the experimental program of the Tevatron and LHC experiments. Besides being directly produced, these states affect drastically the production and decay properties of the Higgs boson. In this note, we first reemphasize the known fact that in the case of a light and long-lived fourth neutrino, the present collider searches do not permit to exclude a Higgs boson with a mass below the WW threshold. In a second step, we show that the recent results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations which observe an excess in the $\\gamma \\gamma$ and $4\\ell^\\pm$ search channels corresponding to a Higgs boson with a mass $M_H \\approx 125$ GeV, cannot rule out the fourth generation possibility if the $H \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ decay rate is evaluated when naively implementing the leading ${\\cal O}(G_F m_{f'}^2)$ electroweak corrections. Including the exact next-to-leading order electroweak corrections leads to a stron...

  7. An Interactive Wireless Communication System for Visually Impaired People Using City Bus Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  8. A Prediction System Using a P2P Overlay Network for a Bus Arrival System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Hsuan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of times and the surge of metropolitan populations, government agencies often promote the construction of public transport. Unlike rail transportation or rapid transit systems, it is often difficult to estimate the vehicle arrival times at each station in a bus transportation system due to metropolitan transportation congestion. Traffic status is often monitored using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, WSNs are always separated from one another spatially. Recent studies have considered the connection of multiple sensor networks. This study considers a combination view of peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks and WSN architecture to predict bus arrival times. Each bus station, which is also a P2P overlay peer, is connected in a P2P overlay network. A sensor installed in each bus can receive data via peers to obtain the moving speed of a bus. Then, each peer can exchange its data to predict bus arrival times at bus stations. This method can considerably increase the accuracy with which bus arrival times can be predicted and can provide traffic status with high precision. Furthermore, these data can also be used to plan new bus routes according to the information gathered.

  9. An interactive wireless communication system for visually impaired people using city bus transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-04-25

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  10. Fourth Dutch Process Security Control Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Zielstra, A.

    2010-01-01

    On December 1st, 2009, the fourth Dutch Process Control Security Event took place in Baarn, The Netherlands. The security event with the title ‘Manage IT!’ was organised by the Dutch National Infrastructure against Cybercrime (NICC). Mid of November, a group of over thirty people participated in the

  11. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  12. Fourth annual student sustainability challenge slideshow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Brenna C [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gurule, Angelica V [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, Miranda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2011-11-07

    Organized by the Environmental Protection Division, the Fourth Annual Student Sustainability Challenge was developed to encourage students to take an active role in contributing to LANL's environmental responsibility, raise awareness of critical environmental issues, and to inspire innovation and ingenuity for better and more sustainable science and technology.

  13. Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH, an international expert in diet and nutrition, with posts as a Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition and Chairman of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health and as Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, presented "Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm".

  14. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  15. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Joseph M; MacPherson, Peter; Adams, Emily R.; Ochodo, Eleanor; Sands, Anita; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Methods: Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Results: Four studies with 17?381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. ...

  16. Physics Bus: An Innovative Model for Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire

    The Physics Bus is about doing science for fun. It is an innovative model for science outreach whose mission is to awaken joy and excitement in physics for all ages and walks of life - especially those underserved by science enrichment. It is a mobile exhibition of upcycled appliances-reimagined by kids-that showcase captivating physics phenomena. Inside our spaceship-themed school bus, visitors will find: a microwave ionized-gas disco-party, fog rings that shoot from a wheelbarrow tire, a tv whose electron beam is controlled by a toy keyboard, and over 20 other themed exhibits. The Physics Bus serves a wide range of public in diverse locations from local neighborhoods, urban parks and rural schools, to cross-country destinations. Its approachable, friendly and relaxed environment allows for self-paced and self-directed interactions, providing a positive and engaging experience with science. We believe that this environment enriches lives and inspires people. In this presentation we will talk about the nuts and bolts that make this model work, how the project got started, and the resources that keep it going. We will talk about the advantages of being a grassroots and community-based organization, and how programs like this can best interface with universities. We will explain the benefits of focusing on direct interactions and why our model avoids ``teaching'' physics content with words. Situating our approach within a body of research on the value of informal science we will discuss our success in capturing and engaging our audience. By the end of this presentation we hope to broaden your perception of what makes a successful outreach program and encourage you to value and support alternative outreach models such as this one. In Collaboration with: Eva Luna, Cornell University; Erik Herman, Cornell University; Christopher Bell, Ithaca City School District.

  17. Implementation of PMSM speed control software based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenlun; Chen, Bei; He, Yuyao

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the driver's hardware structure based on TMS320F28335 is introduced, the control software flow of host computer based on CAN bus is designed, the rule of CAN communication protocol is fulfilled and accordingly the hybrid programming is realized in the background of low speed and large sinusoid operation. This system can realize the CAN communication setting, download the PID parameters to DSP, operate at constant rotate speed and at given large sinusoid rotate speed. Meanwhile the dynamical monitoring and alarm are implemented. Finally the real-time display and storage of measured current, voltage and rotate speed are completed well.

  18. Relationship between Quality of Building Maintenance Management Services for Indoor Environmental Quality and Occupant Satisfaction: Case Study of Bus Terminal Buildings in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Full Chong Choon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance is often defined as the series of activities undertaken to take care of the building structure and services to ensure the intended functions and optimal performance of a building life cycle. The management department of a building is usually responsible for the enhancement of the indoor environment quality by service delivery and for boosting occupant productivity and satisfaction. Thus, a salient point of this study is to determine the current level of the building’s maintenance management service for indoor environmental quality in Penang bus terminals, along with its occupant satisfaction with regards to the services provided in the building. The assessment of the indoor environmental quality includes the evaluation of thermal comfort, lighting condition, air quality and cleanliness. Apart from that, qualitative and quantitative methodologies were applied during the process of data collection and analysis. A questionnaire survey was distributed to 500 of the targeted population for each bus terminal, including passengers and the staff. In this study, the conclusion was drawn in which the maintenance management service level of the bus terminal was directly proportional to occupant satisfaction. However, the current quality of maintenance management services in the bus terminals are still not up to the level of the occupants’ satisfaction.

  19. Performance of a Fourth-Generation HIV Screening Assay and an Alternative HIV Diagnostic Testing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Wesolowski, Laura G.; Meyer, William A.; Owen, S. Michele; Masciotra, Silvina; Vorwald, Craig; Becker, William J.; Branson, Bernard M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the performance of the GS fourth-generation antigen/antibody assay and compared CDC’s proposed alternative algorithm (repeatedly reactive [RR] fourth-generation immunoassay [IA] followed by an HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation IA and, if needed, nucleic acid testing [NAT]) with the current algorithm (RR third-generation IA followed by HIV-1 Western blot [WB]). Design A convenience sample of the following four specimen sets was acquired: 10,014 from insurance applicants, 493 known WB-positive, 20 known WB-indeterminate specimens, and 230 specimens from 26 HIV-1 seroconverters. Methods Specimens were tested with the GS third- and fourth-generation IAs, the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation IA, NAT, and WB. We applied the two algorithms using these results. Results Among insurance specimens, 13 (0.13%) specimens were IA RR: 2 were HIV-positive (RR by third- and fourth-generation IAs, and WB and Multispot positive); 2 third-generation RR and 9 fourth-generation RR specimens were false-positive. Third- and fourth-generation specificities were 99.98% (95%CI: 99.93%–100%) and 99.91% (95%CI: 99.84%–99.96%) respectively. All HIV-1 WB-positive specimens were RR by third- and fourth-generation IAs. By Multispot, 491 (99.6%) were HIV-1 positive and 2 (0.4%) were HIV-2 positive. Only eight (40%) WB-indeterminate specimens were fourth-generation RR: 6 were Multispot and NAT negative and 2 were Multispot HIV-1 positive but NAT negative. The alternative algorithm correctly classified as positive 102 seroconverter specimens with the third-generation IA and 130 with the fourth-generation IA compared with 56 using the WB with either IA. Conclusions The alternative testing algorithm improved early infection sensitivity and identified HIV-2 infections. Two potential false-positive algorithm results occurred with WB-indeterminate specimens. PMID:23135170

  20. Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J. [ENTECH, Inc., Dallas-Fort Worth Airport, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new module were developed at the same time under a complementary PVMaT contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Two 100-kW power plants were deployed in 1995 in Texas using the newly developed fourth-generation concentrator technology, one at the CSW Solar Park near Ft. Davis and one at TUE Energy Park in Dallas. Technology developed under the Sandia contracts has made a successful transition from the laboratory to the production line to the field.

  1. Horizon thermodynamics in fourth-order gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Sen Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of horizon thermodynamics, the field equations of Einstein gravity and some other second-order gravities can be rewritten as the thermodynamic identity: dE=TdS−PdV. However, in order to construct the horizon thermodynamics in higher-order gravity, we have to simplify the field equations firstly. In this paper, we study the fourth-order gravity and convert it to second-order gravity via a so-called “Legendre transformation” at the cost of introducing two other fields besides the metric field. With this simplified theory, we implement the conventional procedure in the construction of the horizon thermodynamics in 3 and 4 dimensional spacetime. We find that the field equations in the fourth-order gravity can also be written as the thermodynamic identity. Moreover, we can use this approach to derive the same black hole mass as that by other methods.

  2. Impact of Efficient Driving in Professional Bus Fleets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Garcia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines of the vehicles in the transport sector are responsible for most of the CO2 emissions into the environment. An alternative to reduce fuel consumption is to promote efficient driving techniques. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of efficient driving on fuel consumption in professional fleets. Data captured from the engine control unit (ECU of the vehicles are complemented with external information from weather stations and context data from the transport companies. The paper proposes linear and quadratic models in order to quantify the impact of all the terms influencing energy consumption. The analysis was made from the traces captured from a passenger transport company in Spain with more than 50 bus routes. 20 vehicles of five different models were monitored and 58 drivers participated in the study. The results indicate that efficient driving has significant influence on fuel consumption, which confirms efficient driving as a valid and economical option for reducing consumption and therefore emissions of harmful particles into the atmosphere. According to the proposed model, in average external conditions, a driver that increases efficiency from 25% to 75% can reach savings in fuel consumption of up to 16 L/100 km in the analysed bus fleet, which is a significant improvement considering the long distances covered by professionals of the transport sector.

  3. The school bus routing and scheduling problem with transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögl, Michael; Doerner, Karl F; Parragh, Sophie N

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we study the school bus routing and scheduling problem with transfers arising in the field of nonperiodic public transportation systems. It deals with the transportation of pupils from home to their school in the morning taking the possibility that pupils may change buses into account. Allowing transfers has several consequences. On the one hand, it allows more flexibility in the bus network structure and can, therefore, help to reduce operating costs. On the other hand, transfers have an impact on the service level: the perceived service quality is lower due to the existence of transfers; however, at the same time, user ride times may be reduced and, thus, transfers may also have a positive impact on service quality. The main objective is the minimization of the total operating costs. We develop a heuristic solution framework to solve this problem and compare it with two solution concepts that do not consider transfers. The impact of transfers on the service level in terms of time loss (or user ride time) and the number of transfers is analyzed. Our results show that allowing transfers reduces total operating costs significantly while average and maximum user ride times are comparable to solutions without transfers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. NETWORKS, Vol. 65(2), 180-203 2015.

  4. CERPEN FARUK “BUS KOTA” DALAM SEMIOTIK ROLAND BARTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Widyatwati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature called beautiful if it contains the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful for the readers. Short story “Bus Kota” (City Bus containing the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful to the reader. The mandate will be revealed by Roland Barthes' semiotic theory in the book S/Z. Literature has its own allure and text have accrued but not due to independence because of the difference in quality. Texts merge into a unity, or restore any text not as an individual but as a form of plurality. Literature as part of a social system is an expression of the author's sense of the outpouring of public life. Literary works can express themselves in the author's view the social and cultural changes in society because of the development of information technology and rapid. Technological developments and socio-cultural information can change in society so as to affect the psychology of the people. Society must have a thickness of faith not only for themselves, but to be able to maintain equanimity in the life of a pluralistic society

  5. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  6. Studying customer loyalty at Daewoo express bus service, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables. However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.

  7. Efficiency and robustness of different bus network designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, John Zhen Fu; Bin Othman, Nasri; Ng, Keng Meng; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    We compare the efficiencies and robustness of four transport networks that can be possibly formed as a result of deliberate city planning. The networks are constructed based on their spatial resemblance to the cities of Manhattan (lattice), Sudan (random), Beijing (single-blob) and Greater Cairo (dual-blob). For a given type, a genetic algorithm is employed to obtain an optimized set of the bus routes. We then simulate how commuter travels using Yen's algorithms for k shortest paths on an adjacency matrix. The cost of traveling such as walking between stations is captured by varying the weighted sums of matrices. We also consider the number of transfers a posteriori by looking at the computed shortest paths. With consideration to distances via radius of gyration, redundancies of travel and number of bus transfers, our simulations indicate that random and dual-blob are more efficient than single-blob and lattice networks. Moreover, dual-blob type is least robust when node removals are targeted but is most resilient when node failures are random. The work hopes to guide and provide technical perspectives on how geospatial distribution of a city limits the optimality of transport designs.

  8. On a fourth order superlinear elliptic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of a nonzero solution for the fourth order elliptic equation $$Delta^2u= mu u +a(xg(u$$ with boundary conditions $u=Delta u=0$. Here, $mu$ is a real parameter, $g$ is superlinear both at zero and infinity and $a(x$ changes sign in $Omega$. The proof uses a variational argument based on the argument by Bahri-Lions cite{BL}.

  9. Fourth international conference on Networks & Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Meghanathan, Natarajan; Nagamalai, Dhinaharan; Computer Networks & Communications (NetCom)

    2013-01-01

    Computer Networks & Communications (NetCom) is the proceedings from the Fourth International Conference on Networks & Communications. This book covers theory, methodology and applications of computer networks, network protocols and wireless networks, data communication technologies, and network security. The proceedings will feature peer-reviewed papers that illustrate research results, projects, surveys and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the diverse areas of computer networks & communications.

  10. Art meets mathematics in the fourth dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Lipscomb, Stephen Leon

    2014-01-01

    To see objects that live in the fourth dimension we humans would need to add a fourth dimension to our three-dimensional vision. An example of such an object that lives in the fourth dimension is a hyper-sphere or “3-sphere”. The quest to imagine the elusive 3-sphere has deep historical roots: medieval poet Dante Alighieri, in his circa 1300 AD Divine Comedy, used a 3-sphere to convey his allegorical vision of the Christian afterlife. In 1917, Albert Einstein visualized the universe, at each instant in time, as a 3-sphere. He described his representation as “…the place where the reader’s imagination boggles. Nobody can imagine this thing.” Over time, however, our understanding of the concept of dimension evolved. By 2003, a researcher had successfully rendered into human vision the structure of a 4-web (think of an every increasingly-dense spider’s web). In this text Stephen Lipscomb takes his innovative dimension theory research a step further, using the 4-web to reveal a new partial image of a...

  11. Telling time in the Fourth Gospel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H. Neyrey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available When we begin the task of telling time in the Fourth Gospel, we bring something not found in any previous study, namely, a model of time articulated by cross- ultural anthropologists (Bordieu, in Pitt-Rivers 1963:55-72, Ayoade, in Wright 1984:71-89. As much as we admire Davies’ study, she has no notes to her chapter on time nor any citations in her bibliography to indicate that she has any conversation partners, much less cultural experts, a deficit to be filled in this study. Learning to tell time entails three theoretical considerations: a definition of time, key classifications of it, and special attention to what the ancients meant by past, present and future. With these lenses we are prepared to do as thorough a study as we can on telling time in the Fourth Gospel. As we consider each classification, we will suggest a brief meaning of it from the experts on time, then present a body of Greco-Roman materials illustrative of the classification, and finally use it to gather and interpret data in John. Proving the native existence of these classifications for telling time in antiquity is essential for readers to have a background against which to compare their usage with that of the Fourth Gospel.

  12. MANAJEMEN RISIKO DAN KINERJA LABA : STUDI KASUS PADA BANK UMUM SYARIAH (BUS)

    OpenAIRE

    -, RAHMAT NURUL PRIMA. N

    2016-01-01

    2016 Manajemen Risiko dan Kinerja Laba : Studi Kasus Pada Bank Umum Syariah (BUS) Rahmat Nurul Prima Muhammad Sobarsyah Nur Alamsyah Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh implementasi manajemen risiko terhadap kinerja laba pada bank umum syariah (BUS) yang diproksikan dengan ROE. Spektrum implementasi manajemen risiko yang dijadikan objek penelitian adalah risiko kredit yang diproksikan dengan NPF, risiko likuiditas yang diproksikan dengan F...

  13. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  14. Split, Send, Reassemble: A Formal Specification of a CAN Bus Protocol Stack

    OpenAIRE

    van Glabbeek, Rob; Höfner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We present a formal model for a fragmentation and a reassembly protocol running on top of the standardised CAN bus, which is widely used in automotive and aerospace applications. Although the CAN bus comes with an in-built mechanism for prioritisation, we argue that this is not sufficient and provide another protocol to overcome this shortcoming.

  15. Desain Dan Implementasi Sistem Komunikasi Prosesor Parallel Pada Aplikasi Robotik Berbasis Bus Serial I2C

    OpenAIRE

    Mubarak, Tito; Sumaryo, Sony; Abdurohman, Maman

    2008-01-01

    Dewasa ini desain sistem embedded tidak cukup lagi hanya dengan menerapkan satu buahmicroprocessor atau microcontroller saja. Karena sistem yang dikontrol mempunyai peralatan dan tugas yangsemakin banyak. Sehingga perlu menerapkan desentralisasi dan paralelisme pada sistem berbasismicroprocessor.Pada Penelitian ini, dirancang suatu sistem komunikasi antar microcontroller sebagai implementasi darimicroprocessor. Yaitu berupa suatu sistem bus yang berbasis pada I2C serial bus yang dikeluarkan o...

  16. Operating Time Division for a Bus Route Based on the Recovery of GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time is an important source of data for time of day partition of the bus route. However, in practice, a bus driver may deliberately speed up or slow down on route so as to follow the predetermined timetable. The raw GPS data collected by the GPS device equipped on the bus, as a result, cannot reflect its real operating conditions. To address this concern, this study first develops a method to identify whether there is deliberate speed-up or slow-down movement of a bus. Building upon the relationships between the intersection delay, link travel time, and traffic flow, a recovery method is established for calculating the real bus travel time. Using the dwell time at each stop and the recovered travel time between each of them as the division indexes, a sequential clustering-based time of day partition method is proposed. The effectiveness of the developed method is demonstrated using the data of bus route 63 in Harbin, China. Results show that the partition method can help bus enterprises to design reasonable time of day intervals and significantly improve their level of service.

  17. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Jasper; Langer, Martin; Gill, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a questionnaire representing 60 launched CubeSats and 44 to be launched CubeSats. It is found that the bus interfaces are not the main driver for mission failures. However, it is concluded that the Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) data bus, as implemented in a great majority of the CubeSats, caused some catastrophic satellite failures and a vast amount of bus lockups. The power distribution may lead to catastrophic failures if the power lines are not protected against overcurrent. A connector and wiring standard widely implemented in CubeSats is based on the PC/104 standard. Most participants find the 104 pin connector of this standard too large. For a future CubeSat bus interface standard, it is recommended to implement a reliable data bus, a power distribution with overcurrent protection and a wiring harness with smaller connectors compared with PC/104.

  18. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 8. Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    generated for the resulting formatted word or an additional bit appended to the bus/group identification label as described in Paragraph 8.2.3. 8.2.3...shall be identical to that described in Paragraph 8.2. (5) The frame length shall be fixed and shall be the same for each track used for a given bus

  19. 75 FR 71792 - National Express Corporation-Control Exemption-Vogel Bus Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... passenger carrier (MC-274520). NEC indirectly owns and controls one interstate motor passenger carrier... Surface Transportation Board National Express Corporation--Control Exemption--Vogel Bus Company, Inc... approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 14303(a)(5) and 49 CFR 1182 to acquire control of Vogel Bus Company, Inc...

  20. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  1. Development of bus-stop time models in dense urban areas : a case study in Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Bus transit reliability depends on several factors including the route of travel, traffic conditions, time of day, and conditions at : the bus stops along the route. The number of passengers alighting or boarding, fare payment method, dwell time (DT)...

  2. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  3. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  4. Bus driving assistance system for town area by using ATmega328P microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Fauzi; Soon, Tan Jiah; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-09-01

    Recently, several bus accidents happened because of bus driver's behavior. In fact, there is no dedicated tool for assisting them to drive safely. This project gives solutions to this by assisting the driver, according to the speed and acceleration of the bus. These data are collected by using a motion processing unit (MPU-6050) and a global positioning system (GPS) and then indicate the driving mode status on the LEDs. All data and status are recorded in a secure digital (SD) card for the authority or the bus company to analyze the driving behavior of a bus driver. This system has been successfully developed and tested in two different areas which includes the UTHM main campus and the road from Parit Raja to Batu Pahat.

  5. Metabolic syndrome among professional bus and truck drivers in Kashan, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Saberi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature data and our own studies show that in drivers of transport vehicles, work-related risk factors for arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and metabolic syndrome are largely intensified. These involve occupational risk factors as well as classic ones, such as obesity, limited physical activity, shift work, or tobacco smoking. However, studies published over the past two decades on the health of bus and truck drivers have received relatively less attention in developing countries. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 429 Kashan City male bus and truck drivers that enter the occupational health service for health examination were enrolled. The study focused on the presence of the metabolic syndrome, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP ATP III and statistical tests such as t-test, chi-square test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to ATP-III was 35.9% mostly at age range 30-39 years. The prevalence of overweight was 41% Obesity, 23.1% hypertension, 42.9% Diabetes, 7% hypertriglyceridemia, 53.4% and low HDL cholesterol, 48.7%. In addition, between diabetes and hypertension and between hypertension and smoking meaningful relation was seen (p=0.006. Conclusion: We observed a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in these groups to be significantly higher than other groups in Iran. So, Occupation must be considered as a risk factor for impaired health status, leading to temporary or permanent disability to work.

  6. A comparison between two fourth generation apex locators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin Chiaramonti, L; Menini, M; Cavalleri, G

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate ex vivo the accuracy of two fourth generation apex locators and compare the measurements obtained. Forty single and multiroots of permanent teeth (i.e., sixty-two canals) without caries or restorations were selected. After determining the real canal length using a stereomicroscope and a digital calliper, we evaluated the accuracy of two fourth generation electronic apex locators (the Bingo 1020 and the Propex) by means of an experimental study model and an endodontic simulator. The experimental model uses a digital comparator to determine the root canal length to a precision of 0.001 mm, while the endodontic simulator replicates the normal clinical condition. The difference between the real length of each canal and that obtained with the two study models was calculated. In both experiments, the Bingo 1020 expressed a 94.35% and the Propex expressed a mean accuracy of 90.31% in positioning the file at ± 0.5 mm. The Bingo 1020 and the Propex apex locators are equally accurate and provide reliable measurements in calculating root canal length.

  7. Novel low cost standardized Nano-Satellite structure bus for LEO missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anubhav, T.; Sarwesh, P.; Narayan, V.; Varma, P. A.; Prasad, R. A.; Loganathan, M.; Rao, D. N.; Sriram, S.; Venkatesh, M.

    This paper focuses on SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS which is a standardized Nano-Satellite structure bus. It provides a standard platform for a wide variety of missions in LEO and can be realized in a very short developmental period. The bus was designed and developed for SRMSAT, the SRM University (Sri Ramaswamy Memorial University) student Nano-Satellite, by the undergraduate students and faculty of SRM University in collaboration with Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The bus can support payloads up to a mass of 20kg. SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS has a mass of around 6 kg and dimensions 280mm × 280mm × 280mm with an available volume of 11000 cc. Vibration Testing of the bus has been performed upto 6.7 gRMS. This makes the satellite capable of being launched by any launch vehicle in the world. An innovative PCB mounting design has been introduced in this structure bus which facilitates mounting of a maximum 7 PCB trays independently, each tray capable of holding a 250 mm2 PCB. Structural analysis of SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS was done using NX Nastran. The boundary conditions for each analysis were defined based on the loading conditions as specified by the launcher, PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle). Optimization of each individual component was performed by maintaining a minimum threshold between the local frequencies of the component and global frequencies of the entire satellite. Static, Modal, Harmonic and Random Vibration analysis of the structure bus was performed. This paper also describes the methodology followed in the static and dynamic analysis of the structure bus to finalize the design. The results have been tested and validated at ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore with around 90% accuracy and the structure has been certified as a standard structure bus for Nano-satellite missions. In terms of expandability, this structure bus is capable of accommodating deployable solar panels. Also, the payload mounting is not only restricted to th- bottom deck but can

  8. Anorexia: an early sign of fourth ventricle astrocytoma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Henri-Arthur; Baroncini, Marc; Delestret, Isabelle; Florent, Vincent; Vinchon, Matthieu

    2014-12-01

    Paediatric low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle are rare tumours, generally revealed by hydrocephalus. However, some patients present with a history of severe anorexia. It might be a harbinger, which if recognized, could lead to earlier diagnosis. We decided to examine our database in order to evaluate the incidence and signification of anorexia in this context. Retrospective monocentric study of cases of low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle operated between 1991 and 2012 in our paediatric neurosurgery department. We particularly observed the clinical presentation and long-term clinical, oncological and radiological evolution. Non-parametrical tests were used (Mann-Whitney, Fisher). We reviewed 34 cases, 31 pilocytic astrocytomas and 3 diffuse astrocytomas, 16 boys and 18 girls, (M/F ratio 0.89). Mean age at diagnosis was 8 years old. Seven presented with notable anorexia, the average BMI in this group was ≤2 standard deviation (SD); with clinical signs evolving for 11.5 months. Twenty-seven children had no anorexia; average BMI in this group was +1 SD, with clinical evolution for 6 months on an average of p anorexia, body mass index improved markedly in the postoperative follow-up, which lasted, on average, for 6 years. Anorexia with stunted body weight curve is a non-exceptional presentation in children with low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle. Unexplained or atypical anorexia with negative etiologic assessment should prompt cerebral imaging. Clinical improvement after surgical resection, could suggest a possible interaction between tumour tissue and appetite-suppressing peptide secretion.

  9. Envelope instability and the fourth order resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The well-known envelope instability or the second order even collective mode [I. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. E 57, 4 (1998] and the fourth order resonance 4σ=360° due to the nonlinear space charge effect in high intensity beams have been studied previously. A wide stop band around 15° is found in a pure periodic focusing channel. In addition, it is illustrated that the fourth order resonance dominates over the envelope instability and practically replaces it in the stop band [D. Jeon et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 054204 (2009]. In this paper, for a continuous beam with remarkable space charge, our 2D self-consistent particle-in-cell simulation work with the code topopic shows these two kinds of effects respectively in a periodic focusing defocusing (FD channel. For a fixed tune depression η=0.8, a stop band with a width of almost 15° is also demonstrated. Moreover, it is confirmed that analytical results of the rms envelope instability diagram are a valid tool to interpret the width of the stop band. Emittance growth rates in stop band are also well explained. It is found that, for a nearly rms matched beam, the emittance growth in the stop band is almost proportional to the saturation time of the nonlinear instability of the envelope, which happens in a quick manner and takes only a few FD cells. In contrast, the fourth order resonance is independent of rms matching and will be accompanied by beam evolution as “a long term effect” once the related mechanism is excited.

  10. Fourth-generation leptons at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, G; Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Choudhury, Debajyoti

    1996-01-01

    From non-observation at LEP1, a lower mass limit of 45 GeV has been established on any additional sequential fermion beyond the three generations. Precision measurements have further constrained the number of such additional generations, either degenerate or nearly so, to be at most one. LEP2, an energy-upgraded version of LEP1, would provide greater mass-reach in the search for such particles. We study the pair-production of fourth-generation leptons for various LEP2 energy options. We find that in most cases such particles could be discovered/ruled out up to the kinematic limit.

  11. Geometry, relativity and the fourth dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Rucker, Rudolf

    1977-01-01

    This is a highly readable, popular exposition of the fourth dimension and the structure of the universe. A remarkable pictorial discussion of the curved space-time we call home, it achieves even greater impact through the use of 141 excellent illustrations. This is the first sustained visual account of many important topics in relativity theory that up till now have only been treated separately.Finding a perfect analogy in the situation of the geometrical characters in Flatland, Professor Rucker continues the adventures of the two-dimensional world visited by a three-dimensional being to expl

  12. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  13. FAKTOR PENYEBAB KERUSAKAN SISTEM MESIN PADA BUS APTB PPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Chairani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Comfort and safety of public transportation, particularly APTB PPD buses, becomes high expectations for its customers. Those expectations must be supported by the application of a good engine maintenance system. By using the method of Reliability Centered Maintenance may be determined appropriate actions to mitigate damage. From the analysis known the failures of the APTB PPD bus are malfunctions of the fuel engine, power transfer systems, difficulty to move the gear lever, and lubricating system for the rough engine noise. The cause of engine malfunction is dirty diesel filter, vehicle acceleration malfunction is due to the clutch plate wear out. Difficulty to move the gear lever indicates that the clutch slips. Rough engine noise caused by the flow of oil to the engine stalled as the result of dirty oil filter. The results of the logic tree analysis show that for each failure requires scheduling of time directed task.

  14. Application of gravity model on the Korean urban bus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Inho; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2016-11-01

    Mobility models have been studied to describe the underlying mechanism of human mobility. The mobility patterns in various transportation systems were understood with the gravity model by estimating the traffic as a simple function of population and distance. Compared to most studies on large-scale systems, we focused on the validity and characteristics of gravity model for intraurban mobility. Several variations of gravity model are applied on the urban bus systems of five medium-sized cities in Korea. The gravity model successfully estimates the intraurban traffic without universal exponents for cities. From the change of exponents by predictor types, we figure out the effect by a non-trivial relation between traffic and population in the urban areas.

  15. Using a Control System Ethernet Network as a Field Bus

    CERN Document Server

    De Van, William R; Lawson, Gregory S; Wagner, William H; Wantland, David M; Williams, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    A major component of a typical accelerator distributed control system (DCS) is a dedicated, large-scale local area communications network (LAN). The SNS EPICS-based control system uses a LAN based on the popular IEEE-802.3 set of standards (Ethernet). Since the control system network infrastructure is available throughout the facility, and since Ethernet-based controllers are readily available, it is tempting to use the control system LAN for "fieldbus" communications to low-level control devices (e.g. vacuum controllers; remote I/O). These devices may or may not be compatible with the high-level DCS protocols. This paper presents some of the benefits and risks of combining high-level DCS communications with low-level "field bus" communications on the same network, and describes measures taken at SNS to promote compatibility between devices connected to the control system network.

  16. [Bus drivers' biomechanical risk assessment in two different contexts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracco, A; Coggiola, M; Perrelli, F; Banchio, M; Martignone, S; Gullino, A; Romano, C

    2012-01-01

    The application of standardize methods for the biomechanical risk assessment in non-industrial cycled activity is not always possible. A typical case is the public transport sector, where workers complain of suffering for shoulder more than elbow and wrist pains. The Authors present the results of two studies involving two public transport companies and the risk of biomechanical overload of upper limbs for bus and tram drivers. The analysis has been made using three different approaches: focus groups; static analysis by using anthropometric manikins; work sampling technique by monitoring worker's activity and posture at each minute, for two hours and for each binomial vehicle-route, considering P5F e P95M drivers and assessing the perceived efforts thorough the Borg's CR10 Scale. The conclusive results show that the ergonomic analysis managed by multiple non-standardized techniques may reach consistent and repeatable results according to the epidemiological evidences.

  17. Evaluation of public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Kahr, Kjeld; Petersen, Peter Bo

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a method to evaluate sceduled, fixed-route public transport. One major evaluation criterion in the method is total travel time, subdivided into walking time, waiting time, time on vehicle, transfer time, and concealed waiting time. The other major criterion is cost incurred...... results suitable to open planning, for instance with citizen participation. Five examples of application of the method are given: (1) evaluation of changes in suburban bus services; (2) evaluation of geographical localities as regards public transport; (3) evaluation of circular bus routes; (4) evaluation...... of flexible work hours versus fixed work hours and, finally; (5) production of user information on transport service....

  18. Medical Evaluation of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children. Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, 2d Session. Committee Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    This paper reports a medical evaluation of a federal program providing funds for special nutritious food supplements to low income pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children up to four years of age who are nutritional risks. Growth, dietary intake, and biochemical measures were obtained for study infants at the time of enrollment in the…

  19. Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.

  20. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, D. B., E-mail: rmt.bowo@gmail.com; Haryanto, I., E-mail: ismoyo2001@yahoo.de; Laksono, N. P., E-mail: priyolaksono89@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  1. Real-time bus location monitoring using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Y. M.; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of objects, such as a vehicles, mobile devices, and buildings that have electronic components, software, and network connectivity that enable them to collect data, run commands, and be controlled through the Internet. Controlling physical items from the Internet will increase efficiency and save time. The growing number of devices used by people increases the practicality of having IoT devices on the market. The IoT is also an opportunity to develop products that can save money and time and increase work efficiency. Initially, they need more efficiency for real-time bus location systems, especially in university campuses. This system can easily find the accurate locations of and distances between each bus stop and the estimated time to reach a new location. This system has been separated into two parts, which are the hardware and the software. The hardware parts are the Arduino Uno and the Global Positioning System (GPS), while Google Earth and GpsGate are the software parts. The GPS continuously takes input data from the satellite and stores the latitude and longitude values in the Arduino Uno. If we want to track the vehicle, we need to send the longitude and latitude as a message to the Google Earth software to convert these into maps for navigation. Once the Arduino Uno is activated, it takes the last received latitude and longitude positions' values from GpsGate and sends a message to Google Earth. Once the message has been sent to Google Earth, the current location will be shown, and navigation will be activated automatically. Then it will be broadcast using ManyCam, Google+ Hangouts, and YouTube, as well as Facebook, and appear to users. The additional features use Google Forms for determining problems faced by students, who can also take immediate action against the responsible department. Then after several successful simulations, the results will be shown in real time on a map.

  2. Implementation of a Cooking Bus intervention to support cooking in schools in Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrott, Jeremy; Holliday, Jo; Murphy, Simon; Macdonald, Sarah; Roberts, Joan; Moore, Laurence; Phillips, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    The teaching of cooking is an important aspect of school-based efforts to promote healthy diets among children, and is frequently done by external agencies. Within a limited evidence base relating to cooking interventions in schools, there are important questions about how interventions are integrated within school settings. The purpose of this paper is to examine how a mobile classroom (Cooking Bus) sought to strengthen connections between schools and cooking, and drawing on the concept of the sociotechnical network, theorise the interactions between the Bus and school contexts. Methods comprised a postal questionnaire to 76 schools which had received a Bus visit, and case studies of the Bus' work in five schools, including a range of school sizes and urban/rural locations. Case studies comprised observation of Cooking Bus sessions, and interviews with school staff. The Cooking Bus forged connections with schools through aligning intervention and schools' goals, focussing on pupils' cooking skills, training teachers and contributing to schools' existing cooking-related activities. The Bus expanded its sociotechnical network through post-visit integration of cooking activities within schools, particularly teachers' use of intervention cooking kits. The paper highlights the need for research on the long-term impacts of school cooking interventions, and better understanding of the interaction between interventions and school contexts. This paper adds to the limited evidence base on school-based cooking interventions by theorising how cooking interventions relate to school settings, and how they may achieve integration.

  3. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state.

  4. Single Axis Attitude Control and DC Bus Regulation with Two Flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Peter E.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Kenny, Barbara; Dever, Timothy P.

    2002-01-01

    A computer simulation of a flywheel energy storage single axis attitude control system is described. The simulation models hardware which will be experimentally tested in the future. This hardware consists of two counter rotating flywheels mounted to an air table. The air table allows one axis of rotational motion. An inertia DC bus coordinator is set forth that allows the two control problems, bus regulation and attitude control, to be separated. Simulation results are presented with a previously derived flywheel bus regulator and a simple PID attitude controller.

  5. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the ATR Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwtiz

    2011-05-01

    Near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project, subject of this determination, will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3) and associated switchgear. More specifically, INL proposes transitioning ATR to 100% commercial power with appropriate emergency backup to include: • Provide commercial power as the normal source of power to the ATR loads currently supplied by diesel-electric power. • Provide backup power to the critical ATR loads in the event of a loss of commercial power. • Replace obsolescent critical ATR power distribution equipment, e.g., switchgear, transformers, motor control centers, distribution panels. Completion of this and two other age-related projects (primary coolant pump and motor replacement and emergency firewater injection system replacement) will resolve major age related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues make the project a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #2 (Footprint change). The addition of a new PC-4 structure to the ATR Facility to house safety-related SSCs requires careful attention to maintaining adherence to applicable engineering and nuclear safety design criteria (e.g., structural qualification, fire suppression) to ensure no adverse impacts to the safety-related functions of the housed equipment. 2. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The change to the strategy for providing continuous reliable power to the safety-related emergency coolant pumps requires careful attention and analysis to ensure it meets a project primary object

  6. Public transport subsidies. The impacts of regional bus cards on the travel demand and energy use in Finish urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Pekkarinen, S. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This study is a part of a larger Finnish project financed by the Ministry of Transport and Communications concerned with evaluating the impacts of new integrated fare and ticket policies. The objective of the policy is to encourage a modal shift from cars to public transport, thereby reducing energy use and the harmful environmental effects of transport. The regional bus card systems (RBC) provide the opportunity to purchase a monthly ticket, at a substantial discount of normal fares, which is valid on all buses in an area covering a city centre and the smaller independent communities surrounding. RBC systems are subsidized by both Local Authorities and the state government and are currently operating in over ten urban areas in Finland. The objectives of this research project are: (1) to estimate the fare elasticities of the demand of bus services and the price elasticities of RBC demand, (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of the adopted subsidizing policy and (3) to assess the consequences of the fares policy on energy use in transport. This paper deals specifically with the latter two issues. (EG)

  7. Fourth Thematic CERN School of Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    Alberto Pace, CSC Director

    2016-01-01

    The Fourth Thematic School of Computing (tCSC2016) takes place this year in Split, Croatia, from 22 to 28 May 2016.   The theme is "Efficient and Parallel Processing of Scientific Data", looking at: The challenge of scientific data processing: commonalities, analogies and the main differences between different sciences. Size of scientific software projects. Parallelism and asynchronism: computation and I/O. The School is open to postgraduate students and research workers with a few years' experience in elementary particle physics, computing, engineering or related fields.  All applicants are welcome, including former and future participants in the main CSC summer school. Registration will close on 15 February and participation is limited to 24 students. To register, please go here. About: The Thematic Schools are part of the annual series of CERN Schools of Computing, to promote advanced learning and knowledge exchange on the subject of scientific compu...

  8. Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems IV

    2008-01-01

    In June of 2002, over 500 professors, students and researchers met in Boston, Massachusetts for the Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems. The attendees represented a remarkably diverse collection of fields: biology, ecology, physics, engineering, computer science, economics, psychology and sociology, The goal of the conference was to encourage cross-fertilization between the many disciplines represented and to deepen understanding of the properties common to all complex systems. This volume contains 43 papers selected from the more than 200 presented at the conference. Topics include: cellular automata, neurology, evolution, computer science, network dynamics, and urban planning. About NECSI: For over 10 years, The New England Complex Systems Institute (NECSI) has been instrumental in the development of complex systems science and its applications. NECSI conducts research, education, knowledge dissemination, and community development around the world for the promotion of the study of complex sys...

  9. Fourth World Theory: The Evolution of . . .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olon F. Dotson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fourth World theory is a methodology for examining and developing greater understanding of the extent of the distress and abandonment commonly found in the cores of American cities resulting from de-industrialization, historic segregation and discrimination patterns, suburban sprawl, erosion of a viable tax base, racism, inability to embrace the concept of desegregation and civil rights legislation, fear, despair, crumbling infrastructure systems, disinvestment in urban school systems, and environmental justice issues. This article uses the analytical lens of Fourth World theory to examine how such structural and cultural forces contributed to the severely distressed conditions now found in the city of Gary, Indiana. Tracking its one-hundred-year history, from its founding as an industrial town through its post-industrial decline occurring during the city’s first African-American mayor’s five terms in office, the methodology clearly demonstrates how the social construction of race has systematically undermined every aspect of Gary’s overall quality of life. To illustrate that this city is not an anomaly but rather reflects a typical pattern of disparity and uneven development arising from racist practices, Gary is compared to other cities of similar size and also to the much larger Detroit. The article triangulates academic literature, news media archives, and an oral history provided by the mayor to show how Gary evolved from being a model industrial city to a cauldron of racial disparity. The paper concludes by arguing that continued absence of reflection on the nation’s historical racialization of place threatens not just impoverished communities of color, but also the sustainability of the entire nation.

  10. State and Federal project development procedures for bus rapid transit : managing differences and reducing implementation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents an investigation into the transportation project development process in the : context of the implementation of bus rapid transit systems on the State Highway System as well as such : systems being part of the Federal New Starts ...

  11. Toward Real-time Multi-criteria Decision Making for Bus Service Reliability Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vu The; Eklund, Peter; Cook, Chris

    2015-01-01

    -objective evolutionary algorithm using a dynamic Bayesian network, applies preventive strategies to forestall bus unreliability and, where unreliability is evident, restore reliability using corrective strategies. 'Holding', 'expressing', 'short-turning' and 'deadheading' are the corrective strategies considered...

  12. Exploring public bus service quality in South Africa: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanda M. Vilakazi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, which is a deviation from the usual practice of using SERVQUAL or an adaptedversion thereof, uses McKnight, Pagano and Paaswell’s (1986 service quality dimensions,namely reliability; extent of service; comfort; safety; and affordability (RECSA and structuralequation modelling to determine commuters’ perception of public bus service quality in amajor city in South Africa. The RECSA model was adapted and fitted to the data collectedfrom a convenience sample of bus commuters in Johannesburg, using structural equationmodelling. It was ascertained that reliability, service, comfort and safety influenced thepublic bus commuters’ perception of the overall service quality. The implications of theaforementioned findings for providers of public bus services are explained.

  13. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  14. Professional, ethical, and legal duties in the case of the diabetic bus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , or one year of imprisonment, or both.[1]. The situation at hand, in which the bus driver's practitioner diagnoses the patient's condition outside a fitness-to-drive examination, is more problematic and forms the subject matter of this article.

  15. Optimizing a desirable fare structure for a bus-subway corridor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bing-Zheng Liu; Ying-En Ge; Kai Cao; Xi Jiang; Lingyun Meng; Ding Liu; Yunfeng Gao

    This paper aims to optimize a desirable fare structure for the public transit service along a bus-subway corridor with the consideration of those factors related to equity in trip, including travel...

  16. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: a generalized ordered logit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005-2009. Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because of inattentive and risky driving. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Hierarchical Approach to Optimizing Bus Stop Distribution in Large and Fast Developing Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Public transit plays a key role in shaping the transportation structure of large and fast growing cities. To cope with high population and employment density, such cities usually resort to multi-modal transit services, such as rail, BRT and bus. These modes are strategically connected to form an effective transit network. Among the transit modes, bus stops need to be properly deployed to maintain an acceptable walking accessibility. This paper presents a hierarchical process for optimizing bus stop locations in the context of fast growing multi-modal transit services. Three types of bus stops are identified hierarchically, which includes connection stops, key stops and ordinary stops. Connection stops are generated manually to connect with other transit facilities. Key stops and ordinary stops are optimized with coverage models that are respectively weighted by network centrality measure and potential demand. A case study in a Chinese city suggests the hierarchical approach may generate more effective stop distribution.

  18. Performance analysis of time triggered communication bus based on network calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiandong; Ma, Lianchuan; Cao, Yuan; Mu, Jiancheng

    2017-03-01

    The time triggered mechanism is the activity of incentive system in the scheduled time. Each node of the time-triggered communication bus knows when the data information can be transmitted, so the behavior of communication nodes is determined and predictable. This feature is very suitable for appling in the industry field of high safety requirement. According to EN50159 standard for railway signal system security related communication, this paper analyzes the reliability of the physical layer of communication bus, and uses the network calculus method to establish the arrival curve model and service curve model which quantitatively calculate the time delay characteristic of time trigger bus to determine the number of retransmissions of data communications. The time-triggered communication bus is proved that it can meet the security requirements of the railway signal transmission system.

  19. Optimizing Frequency of Bus Services in Mixed-Traffic Urban Streets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KOV, Monyrath; FUKUDA, Daisuke; YAI, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new analytical model is proposed to determine optimal frequency for urban bus transit under variable demand by explicitly considering the interaction between different vehicles in urban mixed traffic...

  20. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act...... of 2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005–2009. Results: Results show...... that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because...

  1. Long term application of bus monitoring system to short and medium span bridges and damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Lúcio, Válter J. G.; Emoto, Hisao; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2015-07-01

    In this study, as one solution to the problem for condition assessment of existing short and medium span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges, a new monitoring method using a public bus as part of a public transit system (bus monitoring system) is proposed, along with safety indices, namely, characteristic deflection, which is relatively free from the influence of dynamic disturbances due to such factors as the roughness of the road surface, and a structural anomaly parameter. A basic study was conducted by using the results of technical verification experiments and numerical analysis simulation. This paper describes the details of not only how to assess the bridge condition by public bus vibration measured in operating on Ube City bus network as a specific example for verify the system but also what kind of consideration we need to apply the system to existing bridges in overseas country.

  2. Psychosocial Work Factors, Blood Pressure and Psychological Strain in Male Bus Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENDALES, Boris; USECHE, Sergio; GÓMEZ, Viviola

    2014-01-01

    The research aim was to predict the bus operators’ blood pressure (BP) and psychological strain using a combination of the Job-Demand Control (JDC) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. The study was conducted with a sample of 139 bus operators in the city of Bogotá (Colombia), who answered a questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the ERI Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Four consecutive BP readings taken in the workplace were averaged to calculate an estimation of the bus operators’ BP. By conducting multiple linear regressions it was found that, taken together, JDC and ERI models explain 10% (F(11,139)=2,502; p=0.00) of systolic BP variance, and 34% (F(6,139)=8,638; p=0.00) of psychological strain variance. These results suggest that the JDC and ERI predictors provide complementary information which increases the probability of accurately model the bus operators’ health. PMID:24869893

  3. Measuring technology in the Autarkic Hybrid of the TUM based on the CAN-BUS; Messtechnik im Autarken Hybrid der TUM auf Basis des CAN-BUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freimann, R.; Rhenius, K.T. [VDI, Garching (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In the frame of the partial project B8, equipment of the test vehicle in terms of measuring technology, the SFB 365 (Environmentally friendly drive technology for vehicles) tests have been carried out to show the suitability of serial digital data transfer for the acquisition of measuring data and the Controller Area Network (CAN) was selected as appropriate transfer medium in order to realise communication in a decentral control and to realise the control of all drive system functions based upon distributed control devices. All measuring and control data necessary for the control are transferred to the ''Control-BUS'' (BUS = Binary Unit System). Parallel to the control process the necessary high frequency measuring data are transferred on a second CAN and are recorded together with the data on the Control-BUS. The necessary sensors for the data acquisition were designed and tested within the partial project B8 as far as they were not a direct component of the control system of a partial component in the drive system. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Teilprojektes B8, messtechnische Ausruestung des Versuchsfahrzeuges, des SFB 365 (Umweltfreundliche Antriebstechnik fuer Fahrzeuge) wurden Untersuchungen zur Eignung einer seriell digitalen Datenuebertragung fuer die Messdatenerfassung durchgefuehrt und das Controller Area Network (CAN) als geeignetes Uebertragungsmedium zur Realisierung der Kommunikation in einer dezentralen Steuerung / Regelung aller Antriebsstrangfunktionen auf Basis verteilter Steuergeraete ausgewaehlt. Alle zur Regelung benoetigten Mess- und Statusdaten werden auf dem 'Regel-BUS' (BUS = Binary Unit System) uebertragen. Parallel zur Regelung werden die erforderlichen hochfrequenten Messdaten auf einem zweiten CAN Uebertragen und gemeinsam mit den Daten auf dem Regel-BUS aufgezeichnet. Die erforderliche Sensorik der Datenerfassung wurde, soweit sie nicht direkter Bestandteil der Regelung einer Teilkomponente im

  4. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Jerman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from different bus transport companies in Slovenia. Selected data were analyzed with chi-square test and multiple regression analysis. Results: We determined that there is a relationship between the state of health of professional bus drivers and participation in sport activity and that there is a statistically significant impact of lifestyle on the absenteeism of professional bus drivers. Organization: The study points to the necessity of management’s awareness to improve the conditions for the health status of employees and, consequently, absenteeism. Managers need to be more vigilant in ensuring conditions and social security that will allow employees a higher quality lifestyle. Society: The poor quality lifestyle of professional bus drivers, which includes different addictions, inadequate physical activity, and poor working conditions, is a significant factor causing absenteeism. All these factors influence the onset of negative consequences, such as the direct cost of compensation payments, costs of replacing the absent person, a reduction in productivity, which in turn affect economic growth and the high cost of health care. Originality: This is the first focus group study of professional bus drivers that targets lifestyle and its connection to absenteeism. Limitations/Future Research: The main limitation of the study is the number of respondents. The reason for this is that professional drivers are less responsive in the survey and that the study was conducted only in Slovenia, country of two

  5. Two-Stage Vibration Isolation for Flexible Satellite Bus and Optic Payload Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-27

    and damper model and with neglectable mass . Subscripts denote degree of freedoms corresponding to actuators ( R ), actuator isolators’ locations on... damper inserted inside the elastic element. Comparing with liquid damper and viscoelastic material damper , this damper has such merits as simple...satellite bus and the optic payload are rigid body. This study indicates that a large mass ratio between the satellite bus and the optical payload can

  6. Bavarian liquid hydrogen bus demonstration project - safety, licensing and acceptability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R.; Knorr, H.; Pruemm, W.

    1999-07-01

    A regular 12 m city bus of the MAN SL 202 type with an internal combustion engine adapted to hydrogen operation and auxiliary gasoline operation was demonstrated in the Bavarian cities of Erlangen and Munich between April 1996 and August 1998. Three bus operators, Erlanger Stadtwerke, Stadtwerke Muenchen and Autobus Oberbayern were testing the bus in three different operating schemes. In order to be able to perform this worldwide first public demonstration of a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) city bus in regular service, several requirements with respect to safety, licensing, training and acceptability had to be fulfilled. These activities were focusing mainly on the hydrogen specific issues such as (a) integration of onboard LH{sub 2} storage vessels, piping and instrumentation, (b) implementation of storage and refueling infrastructure in the operators' yards, (c) adaptation of the maintenance garages, (d) training of operating and maintenance personnel. During phase II of the demonstration activity a poll was performed on passengers traveling onboard the hydrogen-powered city bus in order to determined the level of acceptance among the users of the bus. The bus was designed and manufactured by MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktiengesellschaft. The cryogenic fuel storage and the refueling equipment were designed and manufactured by Linde AG. The realization of the hardware was financially supported by the European Commission (EC) within the Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project. The demonstration phase was financially supported by EC and the Bavarian State Government. Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik performed project monitoring for both funding organizations. The presentation will summarize the most important results of this demonstration phase and will address the measures undertaken in order to get the bus, the refueling infrastructure and the maintenance and operating procedures approved by the relevant authorities.

  7. Mechanical analysis of the main bus bars in the DFBA shuffling modules

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, D

    2012-01-01

    The main bus bars (13 kA) inside the shuffling modules of the distribution feed boxes powering the LHC arcs (DFBA) are subjected to high Lorentz forces. The structural behaviour of the bus bars under such forces is here analysed. The results are discussed with respect to a risk of structural failure due to excessive deformation or degradation of the electrical insulation by repeated contact with other surfaces.

  8. Design of Bus Protocol Intelligent Initiation System Based On RS485

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to design an effective and reliable RS485 bus protocol based on RS485 bus, this paper introduces the structure and transmission mode of the command frame and the response frame, and also introduce four control measures and the communication in order to process quality of this system. The communication protocol is open, tolerant, reliable and fast, and can realize ignition more reliable and accurate in the intelligent initiation system.

  9. Stochastic Bus Traffic Modelling and Validation Using Smart Card Fare Collection Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanchev, Jordan;Aydt, Heiko;Knoll, Alois

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines some of the most important contributions regarding bus transit control and optimisation from a modelling perspective. It provides guidelines for designing simulations of this type and points to the need of a qualitatively and quantitatively correct model that is validated and can serve as a benchmark testing platform for the numerous optimisation strategies that researchers present. It examines a case study about a bus line in Singapore and uses smart card data to extract ...

  10. Perceptual priming and reading speed among fourth grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Maria José; Dasí, Carmen; Bellver, Vicente; Ruiz, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the perceptual priming in fourth grade primary school children using a word-fragment completion task. The children were classified into two categories according to their reading speed: high and low. Using several sub-scales of the WISC-IV, their working memory was measured, and their total IQ was estimated, in order to control for their effects on priming. The statistical analyses showed that children with high reading speed were significantly better at word-fragment completion and showed greater priming (p reading speed based on the following variables: perceptual priming, working memory and percentage of completed fragments belonging to words not previously processed (adjusted R 2 = 0.64).

  11. Minutes of the fourth SALE program participants meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This report is a documentation of the presentations made to the Fourth Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (S.A.L.E.) Program Participants Meeting at Argonne, Illinois, July 8-9, 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and was coordinated by the S.A.L.E. Program of the New Brunswick Laboratory. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum through which administration of the Program and methods appropriate to the analysis of S.A.L.E. Program samples could be discussed. The Minutes of the Meeting is a collection of presentations by the speakers at the meeting and of the discussions following the presentations. The presentations are included as submitted by the speakers. The discussion sections were transcribed from tape recordings of the meeting and were edited to clarify and emphasize important comments. Seventeen papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  12. Development of a fourth generation predictive capability maturity model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Richard Guy; Witkowski, Walter R.; Urbina, Angel; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2013-09-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated for an intended application. The primary application of this tool at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been for physics-based computational simulations in support of nuclear weapons applications. The two main goals of a PCMM evaluation are 1) the communication of computational simulation capability, accurately and transparently, and 2) the development of input for effective planning. As a result of the increasing importance of computational simulation to SNLs mission, the PCMM has evolved through multiple generations with the goal to provide more clarity, rigor, and completeness in its application. This report describes the approach used to develop the fourth generation of the PCMM.

  13. An analytical algorithm to determine allowable ampacities of horizontally installed rectangular bus bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenta Dardan O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to propose an algorithm for the determination of the allowable ampacities of single rectangular-section bus bars without the occurrence of correction factors. Without correction factors, the ampacity computation of the copper and aluminium bus bars is fully automatized. The analytical algorithm has been implemented in a computer program code that along with the allowable ampacity can compute the bus bar temperature and the individual heat transfer coefficient for each side of the bus bar, as well as their corresponding power losses. Natural and forced convection correlations for rectangular bus bars are applied. Effects of the solar radiation and radiation heat losses from the bus bar surface are taken into consideration as well. The finite element method (FEM has been used for the linear/non-linear steady-state thermal analysis, i.e. for validation of the analytical algorithm. All FEM-based numerical computations were carried out using the COMSOL Heat Transfer Module. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33046

  14. Optimal Design of the Feeder-Bus Network Based on the Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the classic feeder-bus network design problem (FBNDP, which can be described as follows: for the passenger travel demand between rail stations and bus stops on a given urban transit network, it designs the optimal feeder bus routes and frequencies so as to minimize the passengers’ travel expense and the operator’s cost. We extended the demand pattern of M-to-1 in most existing researches to M-to-M. We comprehensively considered the passenger travel cost, which includes the waiting and riding cost on the bus, riding cost on rail, and transfer cost between these two transportation modes, and presented a new genetic algorithm that determines the optimal feeder-bus operating frequencies under strict constraint conditions. The numerical examples under different demand patterns have been experienced and analysed, which showed the robustness and efficiency of the presented algorithm. We also found that the distribution pattern of the travel demand has a significant influence on the feeder-bus network construction.

  15. The bus rapid transit system: A service quality dimension of commuter uptake in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince D. Ugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated commuter uptake of the bus rapid transit (BRT system in Cape Town,South Africa. As a stated preference survey was not carried out prior to the launch of the new BRT system in the City of Cape Town, it became difficult to assess commuters’ preferences,which would have provided City policymakers and planners with an understanding of customer satisfaction of the proposed bus service. The commuting trend of the BRT system in the City indicates that tickets sales and utilisation by commuters is gradually picking up, but one would have expected high commuter engagement in terms of the modernity profile of the BRT system. This study investigated commuters’ (n = 260 satisfaction levels with 30 service quality variables on a self-rated questionnaire, using quantitative research methodology.The study result showed that passengers were not satisfied with the transport fare and the availability or accessibility of ticket sales outlets. In the context of this study, this result implies that the ‘responsiveness and affordability’ variable of the service quality dimensions should be an area of interest and review to City of Cape Town policymakers and planners. Service quality trends in public transport were also highlighted.

  16. Bus Based Synchronization Method for CHIPPER Based NoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muralidharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network on Chip (NoC reduces the communication delay of System on Chip (SoC. The main limitation of NoC is power consumption and area overhead. Bufferless NoC reduces the area complexity and power consumption by eliminating buffers in the traditional routers. The bufferless NoC design should include live lock freeness since they use hot potato routing. This increases the complexity of bufferless NoC design. Among the available propositions to reduce this complexity, CHIPPER based bufferless NoC is considered as one of the best options. Live lock freeness is provided in CHIPPER through golden epoch and golden packet. All routers follow some synchronization method to identify a golden packet. Clock based method is intuitively followed for synchronization in CHIPPER based NoCs. It is shown in this work that the worst-case latency of packets is unbearably high when the above synchronization is followed. To alleviate this problem, broadcast bus NoC (BBus NoC approach is proposed in this work. The proposed method decreases the worst-case latency of packets by increasing the golden epoch rate of CHIPPER.

  17. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegl Breda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions, with special emphasis on the influence of low temperature on fueling. Furthermore, for each tested fuel the optimal injection pump timing is determined. The obtained optimal injection pump timings for individual fuels are then used to determine and discuss the most important injection and combustion characteristics, engine performance, as well as the emission, economy, and tribology characteristics of the engine at all modes of emission test cycles test. The results show that for each tested fuel it is possible to find the optimized injection pump timing, which enables acceptable engine characteristics at all modes of the emission test cycles test.

  18. Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

  19. Evolution of weighted complex bus transit networks with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ailing; Xiong, Jie; Shen, Jinsheng; Guan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Study on the intrinsic properties and evolutional mechanism of urban public transit networks (PTNs) has great significance for transit planning and control, particularly considering passengers’ dynamic behaviors. This paper presents an empirical analysis for exploring the complex properties of Beijing’s weighted bus transit network (BTN) based on passenger flow in L-space, and proposes a bi-level evolution model to simulate the development of transit routes from the view of complex network. The model is an iterative process that is driven by passengers’ travel demands and dual-controlled interest mechanism, which is composed of passengers’ spatio-temporal requirements and cost constraint of transit agencies. Also, the flow’s dynamic behaviors, including the evolutions of travel demand, sectional flow attracted by a new link and flow perturbation triggered in nearby routes, are taken into consideration in the evolutional process. We present the numerical experiment to validate the model, where the main parameters are estimated by using distribution functions that are deduced from real-world data. The results obtained have proven that our model can generate a BTN with complex properties, such as the scale-free behavior or small-world phenomenon, which shows an agreement with our empirical results. Our study’s results can be exploited to optimize the real BTN’s structure and improve the network’s robustness.

  20. Modified network simulation model with token method of bus access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Stribulevich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the characteristics of the local network with the marker method of access to the bus its modified simulation model was developed. Methodology. Defining characteristics of the network is carried out on the developed simulation model, which is based on the state diagram-layer network station with the mechanism of processing priorities, both in steady state and in the performance of control procedures: the initiation of a logical ring, the entrance and exit of the station network with a logical ring. Findings. A simulation model, on the basis of which can be obtained the dependencies of the application the maximum waiting time in the queue for different classes of access, and the reaction time usable bandwidth on the data rate, the number of network stations, the generation rate applications, the number of frames transmitted per token holding time, frame length was developed. Originality. The technique of network simulation reflecting its work in the steady condition and during the control procedures, the mechanism of priority ranking and handling was proposed. Practical value. Defining network characteristics in the real-time systems on railway transport based on the developed simulation model.

  1. Composite Bus Structure for the SMEX/WIRE Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanova, Giulio G.

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the weight and optimize the structural design of the Small Explorer (SMEX) Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) spacecraft, it has become desirable to change the material and construction from mechanically fastened aluminum structure to a fully bonded fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) structure. GSFC has developed the WIRE spacecraft structural bus design concept, including the instrument and launch vehicle requirements. The WIRE Satellite is the fifth of a series of SMEX satellites to be launched once per year. GSFC has chosen Composite Optics Inc. (COI) as the prime contractor for the development and procurement of the WIRE composite structure. The detailed design of the fully bonded FRC structure is based on COI's Short Notice Accelerated Production SATellite ("SNAPSAT") approach. SNAPSAT is a state of the art design and manufacturing technology for advanced composite materials which utilizes flat-stock detail parts bonded together to produce a final structural assembly. The structural design approach adopted for the WIRE structure provides a very viable alternative to both traditional aluminum construction as well as high tech. molded type composite structures. This approach to composite structure design is much less costly than molded or honeycomb sandwich type composite construction, but may cost slightly more than conventional aluminum construction on the subsystem level. However on the overall program level the weight saving achieved is very cost effective, since the primary objective is to allocate more mass for science payloads.

  2. Research on a Novel Hydraulic/Electric Synergy Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegang Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing concerns regarding environmental pollution and requirements for lower fossil fuel consumption have increased interest in alternative hybrid powertrains. As a result, this paper presents a novel hydraulic/electric synergy powertrain with multiple working modes. The three energy sources (i.e., engine, battery, and hydraulic accumulator in this configuration are regulated by a dual planetary gear set to achieve optimal performances. This paper selects the component sizes of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV, a hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV, and a hydraulic/electric synergy vehicle (HESV, based on the dynamic performance of a target vehicle (TV. In addition, this paper develops the forward simulation models of the four aforementioned vehicles in the MATLAB/Simulink/Driveline platform, in which the fuel economy simulations are carried out in relation to the Chinese urban bus cycle. The simulation results show that the fuel consumption of the three hybrid vehicles is similar, but much better than, that of the TV. Finally, based on the operating cost calculations over a five-year working period, the lowest cost ranges of the three hybrid vehicles are determined, which provides a method for choosing the optimal hybrid scheme.

  3. A synchronous serial bus for multidimensional array acoustic logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Baiyong; Ju, Xiaodong; Lu, Junqiang; Qiao, Wenxiao

    2016-12-01

    In high-temperature and spatial borehole applications, a distributed structure is employed in a multidimensional array acoustic logging tool (MDALT) based on a phased array technique for electronic systems. However, new challenges, such as synchronous multichannel data acquisition, multinode real-time control and bulk data transmission in a limited interval, have emerged. To address these challenges, we developed a synchronous serial bus (SSB) in this study. SSB works in a half-duplex mode via a master-slave architecture. It also consists of a single master, several slaves, a differential clock line and a differential data line. The clock line is simplex, whereas the data line is half-duplex and synchronous to the clock line. A reliable communication between the master and the slaves with real-time adjustment of synchronisation is achieved by rationally designing the frame format and protocol of communication and by introducing a scramble code and a Hamming error-correcting code. The control logic of the master and the slaves is realized in field programmable gate array (FPGA) or complex programmable logic device (CPLD). The clock speed of SSB is 10 MHz, the effective data rate of the bulk data transmission is over 99%, and the synchronous errors amongst the slaves are less than 10 ns. Room-temperature test, high-temperature test (175 °C) and field test demonstrate that the proposed SSB is qualified for MDALT.

  4. Fourth and Fifth Grade Students Learn about Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy through Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Sarah K.

    2009-01-01

    A classroom of eighteen fourth and fifth graders in the Columbus, Ohio Public School system successfully evaluated how people obtain fossil fuels, how they are limited in nature, and how they can develop renewable energy solutions. Students modeled oil-drilling using: chocolate syrup, rice cereal, a baster, and a clear container. Chocolate oil…

  5. Measures of Writing Ability of Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, George Franklin

    The purpose of this canonical and multiple correlation study of measures of writing ability was to develop a valid weighted index of writing ability to replace the single measures now being used to evaluate elementary English programs. The subjects, 134 pupils from each fourth, fifth, and sixth grade level of Broadway and Dunham schools in Maple…

  6. Three New Optimal Fourth-Order Iterative Methods to Solve Nonlinear Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernández-Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new modifications to Newton's method for solving nonlinear equations. The analysis of convergence shows that these methods have fourth-order convergence. Each of the three methods uses three functional evaluations. Thus, according to Kung-Traub's conjecture, these are optimal methods. With the previous ideas, we extend the analysis to functions with multiple roots. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate that the presented methods have better performance compared with Newton's classical method and other methods of fourth-order convergence recently published.

  7. Attitudes and performance of third- vs fourth-year neurology clerkship students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Richard B; Agostini, Mark

    2010-05-01

    To compare student performance, attitudes, and career plans based on whether the neurology clerkship was taken in the third or fourth year. During the 1-year transition when the neurology clerkship was officially moved from the fourth to the third year at our institution, students took the identical clinical clerkship and were mixed together at each clinical site where faculty were blinded to student's year. University of Texas Southwestern Medical School. Third- and fourth-year medical students. Performance, enthusiasm, and match results were analyzed by year of medical school for differences. There was a statistical trend toward better performance of third-year students as measured by the clinical evaluation grade (88.4 vs 87.4; P = .051) but this represented only a 1% difference. No difference was noted on the National Board of Medical Examiners neurology shelf examination score (73.8 vs 74.9; P = .20). Students' enthusiasm for neurologic learning was significantly higher in third- as compared with fourth-year students (P = .004). The probability that students would choose a career in neurology was higher for third- than fourth-year students (P placement results in superior achievement.

  8. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joseph M; Macpherson, Peter; Adams, Emily R; Ochodo, Eleanor; Sands, Anita; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-11-28

    Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Four studies with 17 381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. All reported 0% sensitivity of the HIV-1 p24 component for acute HIV-1 diagnosis; 26 acute infections were missed. Specificity ranged from 98.3 to 99.9%. Fourth-generation RDTs are currently unsuitable for the detection of acute HIV-1.

  9. Fourth Ventricular Schwannoma: Identical Clinicopathologic Features as Schwann Cell-Derived Schwannoma with Unique Etiopathologic Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany R. Hodges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the literature of fourth ventricular schwannoma. The etiology and natural history of intraventricular schwannomas is not well understood. A thorough review of potential etiopathogenic mechanisms is provided in this case report. Case Description. A 69-year-old man presented with an incidentally found fourth ventricular tumor during an evaluation for generalized weakness, gait instability, and memory disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a heterogeneously enhancing lesion in the fourth ventricle. A suboccipital craniotomy was performed to resect the lesion. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma (WHO grade I. Conclusions. Schwannomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraventricular tumors. Although the embryologic origins may be different from nerve sheath-derived schwannomas, the histologic, clinical, and natural history appear identical and thus should be managed similarly.

  10. Arctic fourth world nations in a geopolitical dance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruce, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    .... Deeply affected by this increased northern exposure are Arctic Fourth World nations - politically and culturally distinct nations encapsulated by states - that have lived in the Arctic for millennia...

  11. KARAKTERISTIK, MOTIVASI, DAN PERSEPSI WISATAWAN MANCANEGARA TERHADAP JASA PELAYANAN SHUTTLE BUS DI DAERAH UBUD, GIANYAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Putrawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini sektor pariwisata di Ubud mengalami perkembangan dengan meningkatnya jumlah wisatawan (384.835 orang yang menggunakan jasa pelayanan shuttle bus dari tahun 2011 sampai tahun 2015 pada perusahaan transportasi di Ubud. Shuttle bus merupakan transportasi publik yang melayani wisatawan dengan sistem sharing pick up dalam melakukan perjalanan ke tempat tujuan. Kemacetan di daerah pariwisata Ubud membuat wisatawan lebih cenderung memilih menggunakan pelayanan shuttle bus ke tempat tujuan wisata, maka ingin diketahui bagaimana karakteristik, motivasi dan persepsi wisatawan mancanegara terhadap jasa pelayanan shuttle bus di Ubud yang hasilnya diharapkan dapat menjadi masukan bagi perusahaan transportasi di Ubud khususnya dalam hal pelayanan kepada wisatawan mancanegara. Metode yang digunakan yaitu deskriptif dengan data kualitatif dan data kuantitaif, menggunakan data primer dan data sekunder, penentuan informan digunakan teknik purposive sampling untuk teknik pengambilan sampel secara accidental sampling melalui penyebaran 100 kuesioner kepada wisatawan mancanegara yang menggunakan pelayanan shuttle bus dan teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah deskriptif kualitatif dan skala likert. Berdasarkan hasil penyebaran kuesioner diketahui bahwa karakteristik wisatawan mancanegara terhadap jasa pelayanan shuttle bus pada perusahaan shuttle bus di Ubud : bertujuan rekreasi berjumlah 87 orang (87%, jenis kelamin perempuan berjumlah 55 orang (55%, berusia 16 - - 30 tahun berjumlah 68 orang (68%, belum menikah berjumlah 63 orang (63%, pendidikan Universitas berjumlah 58 orang (58%, berprofesi pegawai swasta berjumlah 43 orang (43%, berasal dari negara Jerman berjumlah 28 orang (28%, pendapatan rata-rata ? $500 berjumlah 64 orang (64% dan sumber informasi agen berjumlah 55 orang (55%. Mempunyai motivasi terhadap harga murah daripull factor motivasi berjumlah 55 orang (55% dan persepsi wisatawan mancanegara terhadap jasa pelayanan shuttle bus adalah

  12. Neonatal hemifacial spasm and fourth ventricle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchio, Nicola; Trivisano, Marina; Bernardi, Bruno; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Faggioli, Raffaella; Fiumana, Elisa; Cappelletti, Simona; Delalande, Olivier; Vigevano, Federico; Fusco, Lucia

    2012-08-01

    Congential hemifacial spasm is a rare condition that is characterized by the occurrence of paroxysmal hemifacial contractions in neonates. We review the clinical, neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and histopathological findings, as well as the differential diagnosis, therapeutic approach, and outcome of all the described cases. Moreover, we report two new cases including the ictal video-electroencephalography recordings. Hemifacial spasm starts early in life, and is characterized by unilateral, involuntary, irregular tonic or clonic contractions of muscles innervated by the seventh cranial nerve. Hemifacial spasm is associated with eyelid blinking, and sometimes with breathing irregularities, hyperventilation, and/or other neurological manifestations (dystonic movements, nystagmus). Interictal and ictal video-electroencephalography did not reveal epileptiform abnormalities. In all cases, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass involving the cerebellar peduncle, the cerebellar hemisphere, or the floor of the fourth ventricle. The semiology of the paroxysmal attacks is probably due to the activation of cranial nerve nuclei through intralesional hypersynchronous discharges, as shown by the intraoperative recordings and functional brain imaging described in the literature. We point out the importance of identifying such seizures in order to make an early diagnosis of the underlying cerebral lesion. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Performance of a fourth-generation HIV screening assay and an alternative HIV diagnostic testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Wesolowski, Laura G; Meyer, William A; Owen, S Michele; Masciotra, Silvina; Vorwald, Craig; Becker, William J; Branson, Bernard M

    2013-03-13

    We evaluated the performance of the GS fourth-generation antigen/antibody assay and compared Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) proposed alternative algorithm [repeatedly reactive fourth-generation immunoassay followed by an HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation immunoassay and, if needed, nucleic acid test (NAT)] with the current algorithm (repeatedly reactive third-generation immunoassay followed by HIV-1 western blot). A convenience sample of the following four specimen sets was acquired: 10 014 from insurance applicants, 493 known western blot-positive, 20 known western blot-indeterminate specimens, and 230 specimens from 26 HIV-1 seroconverters. Specimens were tested with the GS third-generation and fourth-generation immunoassays, the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation immunoassay, NAT, and western blot. We applied the two algorithms using these results. Among insurance specimens, 13 (0.13%) specimens were immunoassay repeatedly reactive: two were HIV-positive (repeatedly reactive by third-generation and fourth-generation immunoassays, and western blot and Multispot positive); two third-generation repeatedly reactive and nine fourth-generation repeatedly reactive specimens were false-positive. Third-generation and fourth-generation specificities were 99.98% [95% confidence interval (CI) 99.93-100%] and 99.91% (95% CI 99.84-99.96%), respectively.All HIV-1 western blot-positive specimens were repeatedly reactive by third-generation and fourth-generation immunoassays. By Multispot, 491 (99.6%) were HIV-1-positive and two (0.4%) were HIV-2-positive.Only eight (40%) western blot-indeterminate specimens were fourth-generation repeatedly reactive: six were Multispot and NAT-negative and two were Multispot HIV-1-positive but NAT-negative.The alternative algorithm correctly classified as positive 102 seroconverter specimens with the third-generation immunoassay and 130 with the fourth-generation immunoassay compared with 56 using the western blot with

  14. Low second to fourth digit ratio in Dupuytren disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Takuya; Uemura, Takuya; Kazuki, Kenichi; Onode, Ema; Shintani, Kosuke; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) has been described as reflecting endogenous prenatal androgen exposure. In general, 2D:4D is lower in men than in women and has potential as a biomarker or predictor for various diseases, athletic ability, and academic performance. Dupuytren disease has digital flexion contractures and is known to predominate in men, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear. To clarify the relationships between Dupuytren disease and endogenous androgens, we performed a retrospective analysis of hand radiographs to investigate 2D:4D in Dupuytren disease. The study included male patients with Dupuytren disease (n = 22) and a control group (n = 18) of male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Only unaffected hands, without contractures or osteoarthritis, were evaluated for the purpose of radiographic assessment. The lengths of the phalanx and metacarpal bones in the second and fourth digits were measured by 2 independent observers who each performed 2 sets of measurements separated by a minimum 1-week interval. The 2D:4D was calculated separately for the phalanges and metacarpals, and a combined (phalanx + metacarpal) 2D:4D was also calculated. The reliability of the observer measurements was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient, and both the intra- and interobserver reliability showed excellent agreement. We found that compared with control group, the Dupuytren disease group had significantly lower phalanx and combined 2D:4D. These findings suggest that endogenous prenatal androgens could contribute to the development of Dupuytren disease, leading to its characteristic clinical presentation predominantly in men and affecting the ulnar rays.

  15. Single and double distributed optical amplifier fiber bus networks with wavelength-division multiplexing for photonic sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Abad Valtierra, Silvia; López Amo, Manuel; López Higuera, José Miguel; Benito Pertusa, David; Unanua, Amaya; Achaerandio, Elisa

    1999-01-01

    Two different optical fiber bus networks are compared and demonstrated experimentally as means of gathering information from four wavelength-division-multiplexed photonic sensors. Both topologies include distributed amplification, which allows one to overcome the limitation in the maximum number of sensors that can be multiplexed in a single structure. Results obtained with a dual-bus topology are compared with those achieved with a single-bus network.

  16. Metro orange line BRT project evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    In partnership with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the National Bus Rapid Transit Institute (NBRTI) conducted an evaluation of the Metro Orange Line BRT service, whic...

  17. Effects of the window openings on the micro-environmental condition in a school bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Lee, Eon S.; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Junjie; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-10-01

    School bus is an important micro-environment for children's health because the level of in-cabin air pollution can increase due to its own exhaust in addition to on-road traffic emissions. However, it has been challenging to understand the in-cabin air quality that is associated with complex airflow patterns inside and outside a school bus. This study conducted Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling analyses to determine the effects of window openings on the self-pollution for a school bus. Infiltration through the window gaps is modeled by applying variable numbers of active computational cells as a function of the effective area ratio of the opening. The experimental data on ventilation rates from the literature was used to validate the model. Ultrafine particles (UFPs) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were monitored in ;real world; field campaigns using school buses. This modeling study examined the airflow pattern inside the school bus under four different types of side-window openings at 20, 40, and 60 mph (i.e., a total of 12 cases). We found that opening the driver's window could allow the infiltration of exhaust through window/door gaps in the back of school bus; whereas, opening windows in the middle of the school bus could mitigate this phenomenon. We also found that an increased driving speed (from 20 mph to 60 mph) could result in a higher ventilation rate (up to 3.4 times) and lower mean age of air (down to 0.29 time) inside the bus.

  18. Magnitude and correlates of bird collisions at glass bus shelters in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christine M; Riding, Corey S; Loss, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife residing in urban landscapes face many human-related threats to their survival. For birds, collision with glass on manmade structures has been identified as a major hazard, causing hundreds of millions of avian fatalities in North America every year. Although research has investigated factors associated with bird-glass collision mortality at buildings, no prior studies have focused on bird fatalities at glass-walled bus shelters. Our objectives in this study were to describe the magnitude of bird-bus shelter collisions in the city of Stillwater, Oklahoma and assess potential predictors of collision risk, including characteristics of shelters (glass area) and surrounding land cover (e.g., vegetative features). We surveyed for bird carcasses and indirect collision evidence at 18 bus shelters over a five-month period. Linear regression and model selection results revealed that the amount of glass on shelters and the area of lawn within 50 m of shelters were both positively related to fatal bird collisions; glass area was also positively associated with observations of collision evidence on glass surfaces. After accounting for scavenger removal of carcasses, we estimate that a minimum of 34 birds are killed each year between May and September by collision with the 36 bus shelters in the city of Stillwater. While our study provides an initial look at bird fatalities at bus shelters, additional research is needed to generate a large-scale estimate of collision mortality and to assess species composition of fatalities at a national scale. Designing new bus shelters to include less glass and retrofitting existing shelters to increase visibility of glass to birds will likely reduce fatal bird collisions at bus shelters and thus reduce the cumulative magnitude of anthropogenic impacts to birds in cities.

  19. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM IN ASIAN DEVELOPING CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned SATIENNAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has increasingly become an attractive urban transit alternative in many Asian developing cities due to its cost-effective and flexible implementation. However, it still seems to be difficult to introduce BRT to these cities because almost all of their city structures have been developed under solely a road transport development city plan and weakness of land use control gives rise to many problems, such as urban sprawl, traffic congestion, and air pollution. The purpose of this study was to introduce several strategies to support BRT implementation in Asian developing cities, such as a strategy to appropriately integrate the paratransit system into BRT system as being a feeder along a BRT corridor to supply demand. These proposed strategies were evaluated by applying demand forecasting and emission models to the BRT project plan of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in Thailand. It was demonstrated that the proposed strategies could effectively improve the BRT ridership, traffic conditions, and air pollution emission of the entire system in Bangkok. This study could be further extended to include strategy recommendation if a BRT system were to be introduced to other Asian developing cities.

  20. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-08-17

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range.

  1. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-01-01

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range. PMID:26287229

  2. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto da Silva, Fernando E-mail: fneto@mec.ua.pt; Salgado Prata, Antonio; Rocha Teixeira, Jorge

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NO{sub X}) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NO{sub X} and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%.

  3. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernando Neto da [Universidade de Aveiro, Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Aveiro (Portugal); Prata, Antonio Salgado [Instituto Superior de Transportes e Communicacoes, Lisboa (Portugal); Teixeira, Jorge Rocha [Sociedade de Transportes Colectivos do Porto SA, Porto (Portugal)

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NO{sub x}) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NO{sub x} and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%. (Author)

  4. A study on the distribution of scatter ray in chest radiography of a health examination bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Ji Hwan [Dept. of Health Care Clinic, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Seong Jin [Gammaknife center, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byeong In [Dept. of of Nuclear Applied Engineering, Inje University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of spatial scatter ray on the chest radiographs of patients on health examination bus. In this paper, we propose a method for minimize unnecessary exposure by measuring the scattered dose after exposure the actual subject and comparing the body mass index (BMI) with the tube current amount mAs. The results of this study showed that the mean BMI of the subjects was 23.31±3.12. The mean mAs value was 2.92±1.19, which males was higher than females. The mean value of the scatter ray at position 1 in the radiography room was 771.81±151.15 μ/hr. The mean value of the scatter rays at the position 2 outside the entrance of the radiography room was measured as 53.86±25.66 μ/hr. As the BMI and mAs was increase the spatial scatter dose was increased at position 1 and position 2 in the photographing room. In order to minimize the exposure dose of scatter ray, radiation workers should shoot the radiation as low as possible within the range that does not impair the quality of the image. It will be necessary to make efforts to not wait for a waiting person near the entrance door of the photographing room.

  5. Sampling and analysis plan for the former Atomic Energy Commission bus lot property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities proposed in support of an initial investigation of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) bus lot property currently owned by Battelle Memorial Institute. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activity is to investigate the potential for contamination above established action levels. The SAP will provide defensible data of sufficient quality and quantity to support recommendations of whether any further action within the study area is warranted. To assist in preparing sampling plans and reports, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has published Guidance on Sampling and Data Analysis Methods. To specifically address sampling plans for petroleum-contaminated sites, Ecology has also published Guidance for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites. Both documents were used as guidance in preparing this plan. In 1992, a soil sample was taken within the current study area as part of a project to remove two underground storage tanks (USTs) at Battelle`s Sixth Street Warehouse Petroleum Dispensing Station (Section 1.3). The results showed that the sample contained elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the heavy distillate range. This current study was initiated in part as a result of that discovery. The following topics are considered: the historical background of the site, current site conditions, previous investigations performed at the site, an evaluation based on the available data, and the contaminants of potential concern (COPC).

  6. Company closure and mortality in a Greek bus company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivas, S; Rachiotis, G; Stamatopoulos, G; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Chatzis, C

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies strongly support an association between unemployment and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. To assess the impact of company closure on the mortality of redundant employees. The mortality of a cohort of male ex-employees of the Athens Bus Transportation Company Epixirisi Astikon Siginonion (EAS) was followed from September 1992 to October 1993. Information on causes of death was obtained from death certificates and classified according to the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases. The expected number of deaths was calculated based on 5 year age groups. Cause-specific mortality rates for the Greek population were obtained from the Greek National Statistics Service, and standardized mortality rates (SMRs) were calculated using population census data for 1991. The cohort consisted of 4400 subjects. Thirty deaths were recorded. Crude mortality was significantly elevated (SMR = 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.5; Table 1). A statistically significant excess in mortality from ischaemic heart disease was shown (18 deaths observed; SMR = 4.83; 95% CI 2.86-7.64). One year before the privatization and closure of EAS (1991), nine deaths were recorded among its 7400 employees (SMR = 0.34). Our study found a significant increase in all-cause mortality and death from ischaemic heart disease in male workers who were made redundant and suggested a significant negative impact of unemployment resulting from company closure on mortality. These results may signal future mortality patterns in Greece if the current climate of austerity and recession continues.

  7. Using fourth-year medical students' reflections to propose strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-13

    Dec 13, 2011 ... Original Research: Using fourth-year medical students' reflections to propose strategies for primary care physicians. 513 ... Setting and subjects: Fourth-year medical students at the University of Pretoria are required to work with a primary .... Students could easily identify the source of their happiness.

  8. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  9. Bilateral maxillary fourth and fifth molars: An unusual radiographic appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Khemchand Asrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distomolars are supernumerary teeth present distal to third molars. Although many cases of bilateral fourth molars are reported, very few cases having bilateral fifth molars are described in literature. Here, we present a case having bilateral impacted maxillary fourth and fifth molars with the fifth molar on the left side having an unusually small appearance.

  10. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  11. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BUTT END CONNECTIONS CONSTRUCTION OF SIDE BUS PACKAGES AND CURRENT FEEDERS OF GRAPHITIZATION FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Yarymbash

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods of the electrical parameter identification of the butt end bus connections of graphitization furnace current feeders with side bus packets basing on the conjugate three-dimensional mathematical models of electromagnetic and electro-thermal processes are presented. The finite element methods of solving partial derivatives vector equations systems in three-dimensional domain are used. The temperature dependences of the electro-physical properties and thermo-physical properties of the active materials and the external bus surface conditions of natural convection and radiation heat transfer are taken into account. The high accuracy and computational efficiency numerical calculations by using variations of the finite elements densities in the computational domain are produced. The finite elements densities in the domains of the magnetic field concentration are increased. The basic and new designs of butt end bus systems of AC graphitization furnace are considered. The calculations of geometric parameters of the bus conductors by using the equality criterion of active loss densities are presented. The currents, voltage drops, current density, electrical losses densities, active and inductive resistance of bus of side bus packages, butt end bus connections and graphite feeders are identified. The energy efficiency of butt end graphitization furnace electrical connections of different numbers of parallel buses is analyzed. The technical decisions to reduce weight, active and reactive power losses of bus butt end connections are substantiated.

  12. Proceedings: Fourth Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, C

    2001-07-24

    Commercial applications of data mining in areas such as e-commerce, market-basket analysis, text-mining, and web-mining have taken on a central focus in the JCDD community. However, there is a significant amount of innovative data mining work taking place in the context of scientific and engineering applications that is not well represented in the mainstream KDD conferences. For example, scientific data mining techniques are being developed and applied to diverse fields such as remote sensing, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, structural mechanics, computational fluid dynamics etc. In these areas, data mining frequently complements and enhances existing analysis methods based on statistics, exploratory data analysis, and domain-specific approaches. On the surface, it may appear that data from one scientific field, say genomics, is very different from another field, such as physics. However, despite their diversity, there is much that is common across the mining of scientific and engineering data. For example, techniques used to identify objects in images are very similar, regardless of whether the images came from a remote sensing application, a physics experiment, an astronomy observation, or a medical study. Further, with data mining being applied to new types of data, such as mesh data from scientific simulations, there is the opportunity to apply and extend data mining to new scientific domains. This one-day workshop brings together data miners analyzing science data and scientists from diverse fields to share their experiences, learn how techniques developed in one field can be applied in another, and better understand some of the newer techniques being developed in the KDD community. This is the fourth workshop on the topic of Mining Scientific Data sets; for information on earlier workshops, see http://www.ahpcrc.org/conferences/. This workshop continues the tradition of addressing challenging problems in a field where the diversity of applications is

  13. Syringomyelia regression after shunting of a trapped fourth ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukagjin Morina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of progressive syringomyelia following post-infectious trapped fourth ventricle (TFV, which resolved after shunting of the fourth ventricle. A 28-year-old female who had previously undergone treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage and meningitis developed a hydrocephalus with TFV. After 3 years she developed disturbance of walking and coordination. Cranial-CT revealed an enlargement of the shunted fourth ventricle as a result of shunt dysfunction. Furthermore a cervical syringomyelia developed. The patient underwent a revision of a failed fourth ventriculo- peritoneal shunt. Postoperatively, syringomyelia resolved within 6 months and the associated neurological deficits improved significantly. An insufficiency of cerebrospinal fluid draining among patients with TFV can be associated with communicating syringomyelia. An early detection and treatment seems important on resolving syringomyelia and avoiding permanent neurological deficits. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in trapped fourth ventricles can resolve a secondary syringomyelia.

  14. Fourth Ventricle Outlet Obstruction with Expanding Space on the Surface of Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Kensuke; Narita, Norio; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-04-01

    Hydrocephalus is classified as noncommunicating and communicating based on whether all ventricular and subarachnoid spaces are communicating. Although the diagnosis between the two different states is crucial, it is difficult in certain conditions. In particular, communicating hydrocephalus and noncommunicating hydrocephalus owing to fourth ventricle outlet obstruction are highly misdiagnosed. We describe a case of fourth ventricle outlet obstruction of unknown origin that was initially misdiagnosed as communicating hydrocephalus. A 66-year-old woman with gait disturbance and incontinence caused by hydrocephalus underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. After 9 months, her fourth ventricle became enlarged and could not be controlled by lowering the shunt pressure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated obstruction at the foramen of Magendie, foramina of Luschka, and the cerebral aqueduct. Endoscopic surgery for aqueduct plasty with third ventriculostomy was planned. Because the aqueduct was observed to open spontaneously, only the standard third ventriculostomy was performed. When MRI findings were reviewed retrospectively, an unnatural space was observed between the lower cranial nerves and cerebellar hemisphere that grew along with the fourth ventricular enlargement. This space was determined by MRI cisternography to be the cystic membrane ballooning out from the foramen of Luschka. The primary hydrocephalus likely resulted from fourth ventricle outlet obstruction. Enlargement of the whole ventricular system with an expanded space between the lower cranial nerves and cerebellar hemisphere can be caused by fourth ventricle outlet obstruction. In such cases, preoperative evaluation of anatomic architecture and cerebrospinal fluid obstruction using MRI cisternography is essential and leads to a successful endoscopic strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Timetable optimization for single bus line based on hybrid vehicle size model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel(Jian Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a flexible timetable optimization method based on hybrid vehicle size model to tackle the bus demand fluctuations in transit operation. Three different models for hybrid vehicle, large vehicle and small vehicle are built in this study, respectively. With the operation data of Shanghai Transit Route 55 at peak and off-peak hours, a heuristic algorithm was proposed to solve the problem. The results indicate that the hybrid vehicle size model excels the other two modes both in the total time and total cost. The study verifies the rationality of the strategy of hybrid vehicle size model and highlights the importance of the adaptive vehicle size in dealing with the bus demand fluctuation. The main innovation of the study is that unlike traditional timetables, the arrangement of the scheduling interval and the corresponding bus type or size are both involved in the timetable of hybrid vehicle size bus mode, which will be more effective to solve the problem of passenger demand fluctuation. Findings from this research would provide a new perspective to improve the level of regular bus service.

  16. Degenerative hairlets on the vestibular sensory cells in mutant bustling (BUS/Idr) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, K; Hashimoto, R; Hanai, A; Yoshizaki, N; Yonezawa, S; Otani, H

    1997-01-01

    The bustling mouse (BUS/Idr: bus) is a mutant mouse strain which exhibits deafness, bustling/hyperkinetic behaviour and functional disorders seemingly related to the vestibular system. This phenotype develops in homozygous (bus/bus) mice and has been shown from cross experiments to be genetically induced by a single autosomal recessive gene. We previously detected, with light and electron microscopy, post-natal degeneration of the inner ear sensory cells in homozygotes. In the present study, we examined, by electron microscopy, the development of pathological changes in the sensory epithelia of the macula acustica and crista ampullaris of homozygous mice of various ages, paying special attention to the detailed morphology of the sensory hairlets. The homozygous mice exhibited specific pathological changes: a decrease in the number of hairs; disarrangement of the kinocilium-stereocilia pattern; and, fused and/or very large stereocilia. Homozygotes also frequently exhibited apical cytoplasmic herniation, or bleb of hair cells, as well as a degenerated kinocilium in the sensory epithelium. Heterozygotes showed similar changes, but to a lesser degree and frequency. As for the vestibular organs, similar pathological changes had developed at day, 17 of gestation. These pathological findings and onset suggest that the BUS mouse may be a mutant mouse strain distinct from other reported strains which display similar behaviour, and may be a useful animal model for the study of human degenerative vestibular disorders.

  17. Design of bus-on-chip core for micro-satellite avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youjun; You, Zheng; Li, Bin; Zhang, Xiangqi; Meng, Ziyang

    2007-11-01

    This paper discusses a layout of bus-on-chip core referring to SoC thinking which is composed of six sections based on a physical chip of FPGA: multi-Processor cache coherence unit, external bus control module, TT&C module, Ethernet Mac interface, EDAC/DMA module, and AMBA bridges. Multi-processor cache coherence unit, as a key part of the bus core, is used to serve the rapid parallel computing by means of the breakthrough of write/read speed of EMS memory and enhances the reliability of OBC with the service of supporting the hot standby of redundancy and the reconfiguration of fault-tolerance. External bus control module is made to support the PnP of external components applying varieties of buses, which is designed by means of soft-core in order to adapt the variation of macro-design and improve the flexibility of external application. TT&C module is the interface of subsystems of telemetry, telecommand and communication, which involves the protocols of HDLC. Ethernet Mac interface based on TCP/IP acts as the access of ISL for formation flying, constellation, etc. EDAC/DMA module mainly manages the data exchange between AMBA bus and RAM, and assigns DMA for the payloads.

  18. Optimizing Bus Frequencies under Uncertain Demand: Case Study of the Transit Network in a Developing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various factors can make predicting bus passenger demand uncertain. In this study, a bilevel programming model for optimizing bus frequencies based on uncertain bus passenger demand is formulated. There are two terms constituting the upper-level objective. The first is transit network cost, consisting of the passengers’ expected travel time and operating costs, and the second is transit network robustness performance, indicated by the variance in passenger travel time. The second term reflects the risk aversion of decision maker, and it can make the most uncertain demand be met by the bus operation with the optimal transit frequency. With transit link’s proportional flow eigenvalues (mean and covariance obtained from the lower-level model, the upper-level objective is formulated by the analytical method. In the lower-level model, the above two eigenvalues are calculated by analyzing the propagation of mean transit trips and their variation in the optimal strategy transit assignment process. The genetic algorithm (GA used to solve the model is tested in an example network. Finally, the model is applied to determining optimal bus frequencies in the city of Liupanshui, China. The total cost of the transit system in Liupanshui can be reduced by about 6% via this method.

  19. A preliminary survey analysis of school shuttle bus system towards smart mobility solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wong Seng; Hoy, Cheong Wan; Chye, Koh Keng

    2017-10-01

    Mobility and accessibility are crucial indicators of urban development. Public transport in the urban areas came into existence to fulfil transportation needs as well as mobility and accessibility demands. Ridership can be affected by the quality and quantity of transit service. However, technical improvements are needed for such as real-time bus information, controlling run time and headway delay. Thus, this paper is aimed to carry out a preliminary survey to determine the problems of school shuttle bus that faced by the students in a selected educational institution, their perceptions of using shuttle bus tracking and information mobile application and impacts of real-time information of public transits on bus ridership and towards smart mobility solutions. Efficient public transportation system needs further investigation about the role of mobile application for the bus tracking system in supporting smart mobility actions and real-time information. The proposed application also provides a smart solution for the management of public infrastructures and urban facilities in Malaysia in future. Eventually, this study opens an opportunity to improve Malaysian quality of life on the public value that created for the city as a whole.

  20. Concentrations and risk assessment of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons in buses and bus stations of Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Chen, Shuguang; Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Xiasheng; Yao, Chaoying; Shen, Xueyou

    2009-03-01

    Air pollution surveys of ten selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHCs) were conducted in buses and bus stations in Hangzhou, China. The mean concentrations of MAHCs in the air of buses and bus stations were 95.9 and 36.5 microg/m(3), respectively, of which toluene was the highest in all the sampling sites. Mean concentrations of all MAHCs in buses were statistically higher than those nearby bus stations (pvehicle conditions (including vehicle type, fuel type, interior decoration, etc.) and traffic conditions (mainly traffic density). Among the investigated buses, microbuses had the highest MAHCs level, while electric buses had the lowest. Buses driven in downtown had the highest MAHCs level, followed by those in suburban areas and tourist areas. The mean concentration ratio of toluene to benzene was 2.1+/-0.9, indicating that vehicle emission was the dominant source of MAHCs. Interior decorations, such as painting and surface coating, could also contribute to the MAHCs in the buses. The mean lifetime carcinogenic risks for passengers and bus drivers were 1.11x10(-5) and 4.00x10(-5), respectively, which were way above the limit set by USEPA. The health risk caused by MAHCs in bus microenvironment should be cautioned.

  1. Signs of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers and fare collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malú de Oliveira Freire

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe the signs of musculoskeletal disorders (SMD in drivers and fare ollectors and to investigate their association with hours worked per day, nutritional status and level of physical activity (PA. A cross-sectional study undertaken with 40 bus drivers and 39 fare collectors working intercity routes. The “Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire” was used to identify SMD. The working day was defi ned according to median values ( ABSTRACT O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os sintomas de distúrbios osteomusculares (SDO em motoristas e cobradores de ônibus e investigar sua associação com jornada de trabalho, estado nutricional e nível de atividade física. Estudo transversal realizado com 40 motoristas e 39 cobradores de ônibus de viagens intermunicipais. Os SDO foram verificados, utilizando-se o Questionário Nórdico de Sintomas Osteomusculares. A jornada de trabalho foi categorizada a partir dos valores da mediana (< 8 horas e ≥ 8 horas. O índice de massa corporal (IMC foi usado para verificar o estado nutricional. O nível de atividade física foi avaliado, usando-se o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (versão curta. As associações foram verifi cadas por teste qui-quadrado. A freqüência de dor em alguma região do corpo (últimos 12 meses foi de 70,0% e 76,9% para motoristas e cobradores respectivamente; 30,0% dos motoristas e 33,3% dos cobradores referiram dor nos últimos 7 dias; 26,6% e 33,3% dos motoristas e cobradores, respectivamente, tiveram que evitar o trabalho devido às dores. As maiores prevalências (últimos 12 meses foram observadas nas seguintes regiões anatômicas: ombros (32,5%, para motoristas e; lombar (48,7%, para cobradores. Houve diferença significativa (p = 0,029 entre motoristas e cobradores quanto ao relato de dor na região “lombar”. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi maior nos motoristas (72,0% do que nos cobradores (33,3%, as diferenças foram signifi cativas (p = 0

  2. An experiment with the fourth Futamura projection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glück, Robert

    2010-01-01

    parser into a parser generator. These results strongly indicate that existing partial evaluation techniques can be put to work on several new applications. To date, all previous compiler generators based on partial evaluation were either generated by self-application or handwritten. None of these works...

  3. A nonparametric efficiency analysis of bus subsystem in Belgrade city, using DEA methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćiraković Lazar S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important principles in the company is the principle of efficiency which consists in achieving the highest possible economic effects with minimum economic investment. In this paper, we present a nonparametric efficiency analysis, bus subsystems of public transport passengers Belgrade City, a sample of five small, three medium and two large companies. It was shown that the overall bus transport system has a low level of overall efficiency, only 0.66%. It was found that the economies of scale has no significant impact on the level of efficiency when it comes to classification that was generated for this study. Small and medium companies are in a worse situation than large companies when it comes to economies of scale. These results should indicate the necessity of the transport system and bus companies organizational and technological redesign.

  4. Design of a control system for glass greenhouses based on the CAN-bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei-qing; Zhang, Li-bin; Xu, Fang; Chen, Jiao-liao

    2008-12-01

    Greenhouses can by their control systems provide a good environment for growing crops, raising crop yield and improving crop quality. According to the trait of glass greenhouse control and development trend, the paper introduces a five-level control system based on an embedded CAN-Bus. The field monitoring level using the ARM processor, is communicating with the device level via the CAN-Bus. The central monitoring level communicates with field monitoring level via TCP/IP. The paper introduced some key technologies about the software such as the CAN-Bus driver, an intelligent control strategy, a database technology and a remote control technology. The system had the characteristic of an amicable interface and a modular and open structure. It has been in use for two years in the greenhouse of the Zhejiang university of technology, which showed that the system was reliable and effective.

  5. An Extended IEEE 118-Bus Test System With High Renewable Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Ivonne; Martinez-Anido, Carlo Brancucci; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a new publicly available version of the IEEE 118-bus test system, named NREL-118. The database is based on the transmission representation (buses and lines) of the IEEE 118-bus test system, with a reconfigured generation representation using three regions of the US Western Interconnection from the latest Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) 2024 Common Case [1]. Time-synchronous hourly load, wind, and solar time series are provided for over one year (8784 hours). The public database presented and described in this manuscript will allow researchers to model a test power system using detailed transmission, generation, load, wind, and solar data. This database includes key additional features that add to the current IEEE 118-bus test model, such as: the inclusion of 10 generation technologies with different heat rate functions, minimum stable levels and ramping rates, GHG emissions rates, regulation and contingency reserves, and hourly time series data for one full year for load, wind and solar generation.

  6. Analysis of bus width and delay on a fully digital signum nonlinearity chaotic oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-07-29

    This paper introduces the first fully digital implementation of a 3rd order ODE-based chaotic oscillator with signum nonlinearity. A threshold bus width of 12-bits for reliable chaotic behavior is observed, below which the system output becomes periodic. Beyond this threshold, the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) is shown to improve up to a peak value at 16-bits and subsequently decrease with increasing bus width. The MLE is also shown to gradually increase with number of introduced internal delay cycles until a peak value at 14 cycles, after which the system loses chaotic properties. Introduced external delay cycles are shown to rotate the attractors in 3-D phase space. Bus width and delay elements can be independently modulated to optimize the system to suit specifications. The experimental results of the system show low area and high performance on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with throughput of 13.35 Gbits/s for a 32-bit implementation.

  7. The high current bus-bars of the LHC from conception to manufacture

    CERN Document Server

    Belova, L; Perinet-Marquet, J-L; Urpin, C

    2006-01-01

    The main magnets of the LHC are series-connected electrically in different excitation circuits by means of superconducting bus-bars, carrying a maximum current of 13 kA. These superconducting bus-bars consist of a superconducting cable thermally and electrically coupled to a copper section all along length. The function of the copper section is essentially to provide an alternative path for the magnet current in case the superconducting cable loses its superconductivity and returns to normal state because of a transient system disturbance or normal zone propagation coming from the neighboring magnets. When a superconducting bus-bar quenches to normal state its temperature must always stay below a safe values of about 100 ° C while the copper is conducting. With regard to that, a quench signal is initiated, which in turn triggers the ramping down of the current from 13000 A to 0....

  8. Research and implementation of intelligent gateway driver layer based on Linux bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently,in the field of smart home,there is no relevant organization that yet has proposed an unified protocol standard.It increases the complexity and limitations of heterogeneous gateway software framework design that different vendor′s devices have different communication mode and protocol standards.In this paper,a serial of interfaces are provided by Linux kernel,and a virtual bus is registered under Linux.The physical device drivers are able to connect to the virtual bus.The detailed designs of the communication protocol are placed in the underlying adapters,making the integration of heterogeneous networks more natural.At the same time,designing the intelligent gateway system driver layer based on Linux bus can let the application layer be more unified and clear logical.And it also let the hardware access network become more convenient and distinct.

  9. Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems Based on Schedulability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach to bus access optimization and schedulability analysis for the synthesis of hard real-time distribution embedded systems. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication delays proposing four different messa...... scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the bus access scheme are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments.......We present an approach to bus access optimization and schedulability analysis for the synthesis of hard real-time distribution embedded systems. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication delays proposing four different message...

  10. Increasing throughput of multiplexed electrical bus in pipe-lined architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameh; Brezzo, Bernard V; Kapur, Mohit

    2014-05-27

    Techniques are disclosed for increasing the throughput of a multiplexed electrical bus by exploiting available pipeline stages of a computer or other system. For example, a method for increasing a throughput of an electrical bus that connects at least two devices in a system comprises introducing at least one signal hold stage in a signal-receiving one of the two devices, such that a maximum frequency at which the two devices are operated is not limited by a number of cycles of an operating frequency of the electrical bus needed for a signal to propagate from a signal-transmitting one of the two devices to the signal-receiving one of the two devices. Preferably, the signal hold stage introduced in the signal-receiving one of the two devices is a pipeline stage re-allocated from the signal-transmitting one of the two devices.

  11. Model of Bus and Urban Rail Transfer Behavior Based on General Cost Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To design an efficient feeder bus route network and develop a better integrated intermodal system, it is necessary to study travelers' mode choice behavior. This paper focuses on the transfer behavior model between bus transit and urban rail. Based on the theory of Binary logit (BL model, a new generalized travel cost model (GTC which considers the influencing factors including travel distance, travel cost, and transfer time is established, and the choice model of bus and urban rail with the influence of transfer behavior is built. Then, a deeper analyzing process is conducted to get the significance of the model. In addition, the accuracy and feasibility of the model are verified through using the real survey data. Finally, according to the model results, some countermeasures consisting of improving the transfer condition and optimizing price charging pattern are given to promote a better public transportation system.

  12. Uncertainty in Bus Arrival Time Predictions: Treating Heteroscedasticity With a Metamodel Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Sullivan, Aidan; Pereira, Francisco Camara; Zhao, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Arrival time predictions for the next available bus or train are a key component of modern traveler information systems (TISs). A great deal of research has been conducted within the intelligent transportation system community in developing an assortment of different algorithms that seek...... to increase the accuracy of these predictions. However, the inherent stochastic and nonlinear nature of these systems, particularly in the case of bus transport, means that these predictions suffer from variable sources of error, stemming from variations in weather conditions, bus bunching, and numerous other...... of heteroscedasticity in the predictions is demonstrated and then a metamodel approach is deployed, which augments existing predictive systems using quantile regression to place bounds on the associated error. As a case study, this approach is applied to data from a real-world TIS in Boston. This method allows bounds...

  13. Research and design of intelligent distributed traffic signal light control system based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu

    2007-12-01

    Intelligent distributed traffic signal light control system was designed based on technologies of infrared, CAN bus, single chip microprocessor (SCM), etc. The traffic flow signal is processed with the core of SCM AT89C51. At the same time, the SCM controls the CAN bus controller SJA1000/transceiver PCA82C250 to build a CAN bus communication system to transmit data. Moreover, up PC realizes to connect and communicate with SCM through USBCAN chip PDIUSBD12. The distributed traffic signal light control system with three control styles of Vehicle flux, remote and PC is designed. This paper introduces the system composition method and parts of hardware/software design in detail.

  14. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  15. BUS TRIPS—A Self-Management Program for People with Cognitive Impairments after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Carlstedt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major cause of disability worldwide and different types of impairments can affect the individual’s ability to manage everyday activities such as travel that is essential for participation in society. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a new self-management intervention (BUS TRIPS focusing on travelling by bus, and potential contributions to an improved ability to travel by bus for people with cognitive impairments after stroke. This is a pilot study of five individuals, utilizing a multiple case study design with a mixed methods approach. Assessments (Stroke Impact Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale-11, Item 1 were performed before, two weeks after, and three months after the program. The data collection also comprised reflection notes from the group leaders (an occupational therapist and a physiotherapist, a semi-structured group interview and an individual phone survey. The feasibility of the intervention was presented in four sub-categories: (1 appreciated group format despite too short sessions; (2 the importance of skilled leaders and motivated participants; (3 session material adequate but needs minor revision to fit the target group; and (4 homework is valuable but reflective group discussions must be supported. The narratives of each case showed that all participants made some progress related to travelling by bus, but the overall positive results could not be verified by all of the quantitative assessments. We conclude that the BUS TRIPS intervention is feasible and can potentially contribute to an improved ability to travel by bus for the target group. Future studies is called for, and should focus on recruitment challenges, to clarify assessments that would be suitable to use in larger scale clinical trials and during subsequent implementation in clinical practice.

  16. Particulates and noise exposure during bicycle, bus and car commuting: A study in three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe O; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Taimisto, Pekka; Pennanen, Arto; Vouitsis, Ilias; Samaras, Zissis; Voogt, Marita; Keuken, Menno; Lanki, Timo

    2017-04-01

    In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices. We monitored commonly travelled routes in these cities. The total number of one-way trips yielding data on any of the measured parameters were 84, 72, 94 and 69 for bicycle, bus, closed-window car and open-window car modes, respectively. The highest mean PM 2.5 (85µg/m 3 ), PM 10 (131µg/m 3 ), black carbon (10.9µg/m 3 ) and noise (75dBA) levels were recorded on the bus, bus (again), open-window car and bicycle modes, respectively, all in Thessaloniki, PM and soot concentrations were generally higher during biking and taking a bus than during a drive in a a car with closed windows. Ratios of bike:car PM 10 ranged from 1.1 in Thessaloniki to 2.6 in Helsinki, while bus:car ratios ranged from in 1.0 in Rotterdam to 5.6 in Thessaloniki. Higher noise levels were mostly recorded during bicycle rides. Based on our study, active- and public-transport commuters are often at risk of higher air pollution and noise exposure than private car users. This should be taken into account in urban transportation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementation of a Cooking Bus intervention to support cooking in schools in Wales, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrott, Jeremy; Holliday, Jo; Murphy, Simon; Macdonald, Sarah; Roberts, Joan; Moore, Laurence; Phillips, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The teaching of cooking is an important aspect of school-based efforts to promote healthy diets among children, and is frequently done by external agencies. Within a limited evidence base relating to cooking interventions in schools, there are important questions about how interventions are integrated within school settings. The purpose of this paper is to examine how a mobile classroom (Cooking Bus) sought to strengthen connections between schools and cooking, and drawing on the concept of the sociotechnical network, theorise the interactions between the Bus and school contexts. Design/methodology/approach Methods comprised a postal questionnaire to 76 schools which had received a Bus visit, and case studies of the Bus’ work in five schools, including a range of school sizes and urban/rural locations. Case studies comprised observation of Cooking Bus sessions, and interviews with school staff. Findings The Cooking Bus forged connections with schools through aligning intervention and schools’ goals, focussing on pupils’ cooking skills, training teachers and contributing to schools’ existing cooking-related activities. The Bus expanded its sociotechnical network through post-visit integration of cooking activities within schools, particularly teachers’ use of intervention cooking kits. Research limitations/implications The paper highlights the need for research on the long-term impacts of school cooking interventions, and better understanding of the interaction between interventions and school contexts. Originality/value This paper adds to the limited evidence base on school-based cooking interventions by theorising how cooking interventions relate to school settings, and how they may achieve integration. PMID:28725120

  18. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails' operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems.

  19. An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Fors, Carina; Ihlström, Jonas; Kecklund, Göran

    2017-05-12

    Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers. The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ≥8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337s; split shift 0.347s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift-working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Experimental Measures of Bus Comfort Levels Using Kinematic Parameters Recorded by Smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, S. dell' ; Eboli, L.; Futia, G.; Mazzulla, G.; Pungillo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Comfort on board plays an essential role in the levels of satisfaction of a bus service perceived by passengers. The aim of this paper is to propose a measure of comfort based on two kinds of data: perceptions of passengers (subjective data) and accelerations of bus (objective data). For the collection of subjective data a questionnaire was addressed to a sample of university students, while a smartphone, equipped with GPS device and 3-axis accelerometer, was used to record the accelerations. Based on the recorded parameters, we determined the thresholds of the acceleration values beyond which the level of comfort cannot be considered as good.. (Author)