WorldWideScience

Sample records for bus fourth evaluation

  1. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  2. Systems evaluation of thermal bus concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal bus concepts, to provide a centralized thermal utility for large, multihundred kilowatt space platforms, were studied and the results are summarized. Concepts were generated, defined, and screened for inclusion in system level thermal bus trades. Parametric trade studies were conducted in order to define the operational envelope, performance, and physical characteristics of each. Two concepts were selected as offering the most promise for thermal bus development. All of four concepts involved two phase flow in order to meet the required isothermal nature of the thermal bus. Two of the concepts employ a mechanical means to circulate the working fluid, a liquid pump in one case and a vapor compressor in another. Another concept utilizes direct osmosis as the driving force of the thermal bus. The fourth concept was a high capacity monogroove heat pipe. After preliminary sizing and screening, three of these concepts were selected to carry into the trade studies. The monogroove heat pipe concept was deemed unsuitable for further consideration because of its heat transport limitations. One additional concept utilizing capillary forces to drive the working fluid was added. Parametric system level trade studies were performed. Sizing and weight calculations were performed for thermal bus sizes ranging from 5 to 350 kW and operating temperatures in the range of 4 to 120 C. System level considerations such as heat rejection and electrical power penalties and interface temperature losses were included in the weight calculations.

  3. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  4. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  5. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  6. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  7. Bus Lanes with Intermittent Priority: Screening Formulae and an Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, Michael; Daganzo, Carlos F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates strategies for operating buses on signal-controlled arterials using special lanes that are made intermittently available to general traffic. The advantage of special bus lanes, intermittent or dedicated, is that they free buses from traffic interference; the disadvantage is that they disrupt traffic. We find that intermittent lanes, unlike dedicated ones, do not significantly reduce street capacity. Intermittence, however, increases the average traffic density at which th...

  8. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  9. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  10. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  11. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela S Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A., a little annoyed (L.A. and highly annoyed (H.A.. The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality

  12. Occupational Noise Exposure Evaluation in Drivers of Bus Transportation of Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ebrahimi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Noise in large cities is considered by the World Health Organization to be the third most hazardous type of pollution. Buses are an interesting object of study in the theme of noise pollution. They are at the same time a source of urban environmental (traffic noise and occupational noise exposure source for drivers. The object of this study is Occupational noise exposure evaluation in drivers of bus transportation of Tehran city."nMaterials and Methods: Noise levels in 90 buses were sampled in three separate sub-sample including (130 Ikaroos buses (230 Man buses (330 Shahab buses, which were selected by simple random sampling. Noise exposure level was normalized to a nominal 8-h working day (LEX, 8h. Simultaneous Octave Frequency Analysis were measured and sound intensity level (SIL for bus drivers were calculated. Results, which are obtained from separate buses were compared together and too with standard levels."nResults: the normalized noise exposure levels (LEX, 8h in Ikaroos bus drivers(82dB A were higher than that of in in Man bus drivers (77/6dB A and this Values were higher than that of in Shahab bus drivers(75dB A.SIL values for Ikaroos bus drivers were higher than other that of other bus drivers. Results obtained of Frequency Analysis showed that age of buses in mid frequencies ws a meaningful on noise increase."nConclusion: Results showed that type and age of buses were effective factors in drivers. noise exposure levels (LEX, 8h, which was consistent with previous studies in this field.

  13. Safety Evaluation for Fourth Core Loading of ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the safety evaluation for the fourth for loading of the ETRR-2 and verification of the core neutronic design criteria for fourth core load. the aims of this work are to assure that the core load satisfies all neutronic safety criteria and to evaluate all core neutronic parameters. the calculation line is a combination of cell calculation transport cod WIMSD-4 and core calculation diffusion code (CITVAP). Two set of macroscopic cross section libraries were generated (hot with xenon and cold without xenon) using the cell calculation code WIMSD4 and POS-WIMS program to be used in global reactor calculation . the core calculations are performed using CITVAP code, starting from first core load up to the end of fourth core. these calculations include burn up calculations and verification of the core neutronic safety criteria . the different cores calculations considered the actual load pattern as well as the detailed operation history. comparisons with experimental measurements of actual critical configurations were performed during the different reload history and the results are very closed by that for utility and all neutronic safety criteria are fulfilled , moreover the accuracy of the burnup calculation is very good. the different critical core configurations were correctly predicted with error less than 200 pcm

  14. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The evaluation period in this report (January 2008 through February 2009) has been chosen to coincide with a UTC Power propulsion system changeout that occurred on January 15, 2008.

  15. Pilot evaluation of a walking school bus program in a low-income, urban community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate the impact of a walking school bus (WSB) program on student transport in a low-income, urban neighborhood. The design was a controlled, quasi-experimental trial with consecutive cross-sectional assessments. The setting was three urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged, p...

  16. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  17. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  18. Evaluation of the urban public transportation carried out by bus: an exploratory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Policani Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the arise of new forms of transportation, businessmen and governments that operate urban buses have been more and more interested in assessing the quality of transportation according to the users’ satisfaction. Since the users have experienced aspects related to categories that concern the transportation services, such as vehicles, roads/bus stops, service, time and values, they are able to evaluate the quality of transportation according to these categories. In this context, this article purposes a methodological approach for evaluating the public urban transport carried out by bus according to the users’ perception. Supported on seven dimensions of service quality, the resultant model is composed by 33 criteria which were organized into a questionnaire. In spite of the exploratory context of the study, the results showed that the proposed approach and the resultant model constitute a simple and viable tool for the analysis of the problem. We hope this model is able to aid managers in decision making processes.

  19. Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration (Report and Appendix)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-11-01

    This document describes the fuel cell transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA). This document provides a description of the demonstration sites, funding sources, and data collection activities for fuel cell transit bus evaluations currently planned from FY10 through FY12.

  20. BUS 250 Tutorials / bus250dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    TaylorMillers

    2015-01-01

    BUS 250 Entire Course (Ash)   For more course tutorials visit www.bus250.com   BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 1 Business & Society BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 2 Business & Accountability BUS 250 Week 1 Case Study A Brawl in Mickey's Backyard 1 BUS 250 Week 2 Assignment Case Study Alcoa's Core Values in Practice BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 1 Ethical Leadership BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 2 Globalization BUS 250 Week 3 Assignment Case Study Government Regulation of To...

  1. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report #2, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-06-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006, comparing similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. It covers November 2007 through February 2010. Results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and road calls), and a summary of achievements and challenges encountered during the demonstration.

  2. BUS 650 UOP Material - bus650dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    lucky108

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus650.com BUS 650 Week 1 DQ 1 The Role of Financial Management in a Firm BUS 650 Week 1 DQ 2 Short Term or Long Term View BUS 650 Week 1 Financial Management Challenges BUS 650 Week 2 DQ 1 Initial Investment BUS 650 Week 2 DQ 2 Managing Earnings BUS 650 Week 2 Return on Investment Education Funding BUS 650 Week 3 DQ 1 GAAP vs. IFRS BUS 650 Week 3 DQ 2 Capital Rationing BUS 650 Week 3 Journal Capital Budgeting BUS 650 Week 3 Management of Working Capital Ca...

  3. BUS 644 Tutorials / bus644dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    sunshine384

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus644.com     BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethical Issues and Operations BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Processes BUS 644 Week 1 Midas Case Study BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 1 Productivity BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Design and Quality BUS 644 Week 2 Memorial Hospital Case Study BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 1 Suppliers BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 2 Forecasting Methods BUS 644 Week 3 Outsourcing BUS 644 Week 4 DQ 1 Process Selection Prod...

  4. BUS 644 Courses / bus644tutordotcom

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

     FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT www.bus644tutor.com BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethical Issues and Operations BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Processes BUS 644 Week 1 Midas Case Study BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 1 Productivity BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Design and Quality BUS 644 Week 2 Memorial Hospital Case Stud  BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 1 Suppliers BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 2 Forecasting Methods BUS 644 Week 3 Outsourcing BUS 644 Week 4 DQ 1 Process Selection Product Design and ...

  5. BUS 501 Str course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophel

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     BUS 501 Week 3 Assignment 1 The Independent Government Cost Estimate and the Statement of Work (Str Course) BUS 501 Week 4 Assignment 2 Types of Contracts and Performance-Based Acquisition (Str Course) BUS 501 Week 7 Assignment 3 Small Business Program and Source Selection Plans (Str Course) BUS 501 Assignment 4 Technical and Cost or Price Evaluations and Price Reasonableness (Str Course) BUS 501 Wee...

  6. Microstructure evaluation of fourth generation reactor materials using modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is a primary candidate material for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) for hydrogen production. RPV is a pressure boundary component of great importance because its integrity is directly related to overall safety of nuclear power plant. Alloy D9 (15 Ni - 14Cr - 2 Mo + Si + Ti) with 20% cold work has been chosen for clad and wrapper, stainless steel (SS) 316LN for hot leg. (>673K) components, SS 304 LN for cold leg components (<673K) and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for Steam Generators (SG) both Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) and Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). Forgings are needed in SS316 LN and modified 9Cr-1Mo in various shapes and sizes. The characterization of bulk materials for thermal properties is very essential in monitoring the alloy processes. This is because, a knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of materials and the relations among them is of interest in the selection of materials when they are used in the design and manufacturing of devices particularly for atomic reactors. Studies on the relations between mechanical and thermal properties are of interest to the steel and metal industries as these would give useful information on the relation between hardness and thermal diffusivity (α) of steel. Recently Pena-Rodriíguez et al have determined the thermal diffusivity of low carbon steel at room temperature using the photo acoustic (PA) technique in a heat transmission configuration. Sivabharathy et al reported that photoacoustic (PA) measurements were carried out on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel to find out thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Multiscale modeling approach is very useful for micro structure evaluation, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and radiation effects. (author)

  7. Teaching Fourth and Fifth Graders to Evaluate Information Sources during Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Rouet, Monica; Braasch, Jason L. G.; Britt, M. Anne; Rouet, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined fourth and fifth graders' comprehension of the source of information in texts presenting controversial issues. In Experiment 1, participants read short texts in which two people presented different arguments regarding an issue. Participants identified who said what and evaluated each source's knowledge of the issue.…

  8. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration (Report and Appendix)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2008-05-01

    This document describes the hydrogen transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA).

  9. BUS 372 ASH Material - bus372dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    lucky108

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus372.com       BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 1 The Role of Unionization (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 2 Meeting Member Needs (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 1 Profit Interest and Employee Interest (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 2 Union Requirements (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Assignment Changing Landscape of Unions (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 3 DQ 1 Strikes (Ash Course) BUS ...

  10. BUS 372 Tutorials / bus372dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    sunshine3811

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus372.com       BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 1 The Role of Unionization (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 2 Meeting Member Needs (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 1 Profit Interest and Employee Interest (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 2 Union Requirements (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Assignment Changing Landscape of Unions (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 3 DQ 1 Strikes (Ash Course) BUS ...

  11. BUS 508 Tutorials / bus508dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    sunshine384

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus508.com       BUS 508 Week 1 Assignment Entrepreneurial Leadership " Five Guys Burgers and Fries: Ingredients for Success BUS 508 Assignment 2:  Competitive Strategies Bus 508 Assignment #3 Forensic Accounting in Practice BUS 508 Assignment 4 Internet Techolology, marketing, and Security  

  12. BUS 508 STR Material - bus508dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    lucky 101

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus508.com       BUS 508 Week 1 Assignment Entrepreneurial Leadership " Five Guys Burgers and Fries: Ingredients for Success BUS 508 Assignment 2:  Competitive Strategies Bus 508 Assignment #3 Forensic Accounting in Practice BUS 508 Assignment 4 Internet Techolology, marketing, and Security  

  13. EVALUATION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF IN EURO V IN BUS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL MARTINS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant emission caused by motor vehicles is a major concern for humanity. In Brazil, the National Council of Environment (CONAMA created the Program for Controlling Air Pollution caused by Motor Vehicles (PROCONVE, which aims at controlling the emission of polluting gases caused by vehicles. The program is already in its 7th phase, and aims at the development of chassis technology with Euro V. The introduction of this new type of chassis on the market can cause impacts on bus companies and in society in general. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze qualitatively how a large bus company went through the deployment phase of Euro V. As any new deployment has its problems and difficulties, the implementation in Brazil would be no different, but after this phase, the main objective of the standard was fulfilled with the reduction of toxic gases into the atmosphere, ensuring sustainability and tranquility to future generations.

  14. BUS 640 UOP Material - bus640dotcom BUS 644 ASH Material - bus644dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    lucky107

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus644.com     BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethical Issues and Operations BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Processes BUS 644 Week 1 Midas Case Study BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 1 Productivity BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Design and Quality BUS 644 Week 2 Memorial Hospital Case Study BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 1 Suppliers BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 2 Forecasting Methods BUS 644 Week 3 Outsourcing BUS 644 Week 4 DQ 1 Process Selection Prod...

  15. Evaluation of IEEE 57 Bus System for Optimal Power Flow Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Sharma; Navdeep Batish

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of load flow in a network under steady state operation is challenging task especially subjected to inequality constraints in which the system operates. No doubt, that the load flow system analysis is an important aspect for power system analysis and design. The basic analysis technique for power flow is to find different parameters including magnitude and phase angle of voltage at each bus with active and reactive power flows in each transmission lines. Thus, load flo...

  16. Health impacts of free bus travel for young people: evaluation of a natural experiment in London

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, P.; Steinbach, R; Green, J.; Petticrew, M.; Goodman, A.; Jones, A; Roberts, H; Kelly, C.; Nellthorp, J.; Wilkinson, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background We used the introduction of free bus travel for young people in London in 2005 as a natural experiment with which to assess its effects on active travel, car use, road traffic injuries, assaults, and on one measure of social inclusion, total number of trips made. Methods A controlled before–after analysis was conducted. We estimated trips by mode and distances travelled in the preintroduction and postintroduction periods using data from London Travel Demand Surveys. We estimat...

  17. A Simplified Model of a Reinforced Square Hollow Section (SHS) T-Joint for Stress Evaluation in Bus Superstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to create a simplified model of a reinforced square hollow section (SHS) T-joint found in bus superstructures. The approach is to use a combination of one- and two-dimensional finite element models to represent a reference three-dimensional finite element (solid) model of the joint and determine stress concentration factors (SCFs) as functions of the geometrical variables of the joint. This approach requires the stiffness of the simplified model to be equivalent to the stiffness of the reference solid model. Trial models, therefore, must be proposed and their stiffnesses must be evaluated against the stiffness of the reference solid model. The best trial model is then selected based on the stiffness error function defined to represent the deviation of the simplified model's stiffness from the reference model's stiffness. After a trial model with minimum stiffness error is selected, its SCFs, relating the maximum stress in the simplified model to the maximum stress in the reference solid model, are determined. Since the maximum stress is assumed to be at the weld toe where structural discontinuity exists, the maximum stresses on both simplified model and reference solid model are evaluated based on a hot spot stress (HSS) method. In this study, three trial models, namely Model A, Model B, and Model C, were investigated. Model B, consisting of beam and shell elements with particular constraints on the joint-reinforcement geometry, was found to provide the minimum stiffness errors of 8.09%, 6.87%, and 6.44% for three different joint dimensions. The SCFs were then determined as a function of the thickness-to-width ratio of the joint under static in-plane bending load. The resulting simplified model allows the stress evaluation on the bus superstructures to be done more quickly compared to a solid model while maintaining the accuracy of the solutions. Consequently, the designs of bus superstructures can be explored more thoroughly, leading to a better

  18. BUS 401 Courses / bus401tutorialdotcom

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

     FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT www.bus401tutorial.com BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 1 Corporate Income Tax and Real Interest Rates (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 2 Cash Flow and Ratio Analysis (Ash Course)  BUS 401 Week 1 Assignment Ratio Analysis (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 1 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 1 Annuity and Capital Asset Pricing (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 2 Bonds and Common Stock (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 Assignment Alternative Investments (Ash Co...

  19. BUS 401 COURSES / bus401tutordotcom

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT www.bus401tutor.com   BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 1 Corporate Income Tax and Real Interest Rates (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 2 Cash Flow and Ratio Analysis (Ash Course)  BUS 401 Week 1 Assignment Ratio Analysis (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 1 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 1 Annuity and Capital Asset Pricing (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 2 Bonds and Common Stock (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 Assignment Alternative Investments (Ash ...

  20. BUS 660 ASH Course Tutorial / bus660dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    vasanthi moola

    2015-01-01

    BUS 660 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.bus660.com   BUS 660 Week 1 Assignment Developing Leaders at UPS BUS 660 Week 2 Assignment Leadership Style BUS 660 Week 3 Assignment Leadership Traits BUS 660 Week 4 Assignment Leadership Skills BUS 660 Week 5 Assignment Big Changes for a Small Hospital BUS 660 Week 6 Assignment Research Paper BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 1 Leadership Defined BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 2 Education and Experience BUS 66...

  1. Hydrogen Bus Technology Validation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andy; McCaffrey, Zach; Miller, Marshall; Collier, Kirk; Mulligan, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Heavy duty engines are substantial contributors to NOX and PM emissions inventories in urban areas, and stringent emissions standards have been adopted as a consequence. CARB has passed very strict emissions standards for heavy duty engines beginning in 2007. Meeting these standards, especially for NOX emissions, may be difficult for conventional transit bus technologies. The purpose of the Hydrogen Bus Technology Evaluation Program was to develop and evaluate hydrogen enriched natural gas (H...

  2. Evaluating a GPS-Based Transportation Device to Support Independent Bus Travel by People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; Holloway, Shane; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the utility of a PDA-based software system with integrated GPS technology for providing location-aware visual and auditory prompts to enable people with intellectual disability to successfully navigate a downtown bus route. Participants using the system were significantly more successful at completing a bus route than were people in a…

  3. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  4. BUS 670 ASH Course Tutorial / bus670dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    vasanthi moola

    2015-01-01

    BUS 670 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.bus670.com       BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 1 Constitutional and Legal Underpinnings of Business Law BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 2 Ethics and Law BUS 670 Week 1 Individual Assignment Legal Underpinnings of Business Law BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 1 Crimes That Harm Business Versus Crimes Committed by Business BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Liability BUS 670 Week 2 Individual Assignment Negligent Tort BUS ...

  5. BUS 644 ASH Course Tutorial / bus644dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    vasanthi moola

    2015-01-01

    BUS 644 Entire Course (Ash Course) For more course tutorials visit www.bus644.com     BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethical Issues and Operations BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Processes BUS 644 Week 1 Midas Case Study BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 1 Productivity BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Design and Quality BUS 644 Week 2 Memorial Hospital Case Study BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 1 Suppliers BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 2 Forecasting Methods BUS 644 Week 3 Outsourcing BUS...

  6. Utility and Weight of Factors of Bus Transit’ s Service Quality Analysis in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrong Liu; Tangyi Guo

    2015-01-01

    Service quality is a major factor that affects how public transport users evaluate bus service. In order to evaluate how bus users make trade⁃offs across travel cost, time, reliability, etc., and to investigate the extent to which the components of service quality vary according to relevant trip characteristics, this paper analyzes service quality of bus transit with the conjoint analysis. Through data analysis, the levels ’ utility values of reliability, waiting time, walking time, etc.,on the commuter trip and the non⁃commuter trip are gotten, so it is the utility function of the transit system. Then the factors’ weights are obtained through the utility values. The results show that on the commuter trip, passengers value reliability the most, which is followed by waiting time and walking time, while in⁃bus environment, price and station environment’ s weights are small. While on the non⁃commuter trip, the weights in a higher order to lower order are the first for reliability, the second for in⁃bus environment, the third for walking time, the fourth for station environment and the last for ticket price.

  7. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  8. Metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial drug gatifloxacin: Synthesis, structure and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-08-01

    Three metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial agent gatifloxacin (GFLX) with Y(ΙΙΙ), Zr(ΙV) and U(VΙ) have been prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In these complexes, gatifloxacin acts as a bidentate deprotonated ligand bound to the metal through the ketone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The complexes are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry. The kinetic parameters for gatifloxacin and the three prepared complexes have been evaluated from TGA curves by using Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzeger (HM) methods. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(U dbnd O), for the UO 2 bond in uranyl complex are 1.7522 Å and 639.46 N m -1. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested against microorganisms, three bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and two fungi species, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.), showing that they exhibit higher activity than free ligand.

  9. BUS 250 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    SVD

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 1 Business & Society BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 2 Business & Accountability BUS 250 Week 1 Case Study A Brawl in Mickey's Backyard 1 BUS 250 Week 2 Assignment Case Study Alcoa's Core Values in Practice BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 1 Ethical Leadership BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 2 Globalization BUS 250 Week 3 Assignment Case Study Government Regulation of Tobacco Products BUS 250 Week 3 DQ 2 Economics...

  10. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Moo-Yeon Lee; Jong-Phil Won; Chung-Won Cho; Ho-Seong Lee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and vol...

  11. SmartBRT: A Set of Planning, Analysis and Evaluation Tools for Bus Rapid Transit: Final Report Year 1 of 2

    OpenAIRE

    Balvanyos, Tunde; Bethel, Wes; Gardes, Yonnel; Kourjanskaia, Natalia; Liu, Hongchao; Misener, Jim; Sousa, Joao; Vander Werf, Joel; Wei, Wenbin

    2003-01-01

    We report Year 1 results from a two-year project to develop a computer simulation, evaluation and visualization "toolbox", SmartBRT, to describe and evaluate operational aspects of bus rapid transit (BRT) concepts in order to aid decision-making. In conceiving and developing SmartBRT, we have maintained two objectives: 1. To provide FTA, Caltrans and local decision-makers with a rigorous and defensible, yet intuitive BRT operation evaluation method along with a general purpose BRT simulator/c...

  12. BUS 210 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    WVFD

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BUS 210 Week 1 DQ1 and DQ2 BUS 210 Week 1 Checkpoint Business Models and Systems (2 Sets) BUS 210 Week 1 Knowledge Check BUS 210 Week 2 CheckPoint Business Organization  (2 Sets) BUS 210 Week 2 Knowledge Check BUS 210 Week 2 Assignment Evolution of Business Presentation (2 Sets) BUS 210 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 BUS 210 Week 3 CheckPoint Code of Ethics (2 Sets) BUS 210 Week 3 Knowledge Check BUS 2...

  13. BUS 235 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    SFVD

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BUS 235 Week 1 DQ 1 Marketing Trends BUS 235 Week 1 DQ 2 Customer Needs and Wants BUS 235 Week 2 DQ 1 Market Research BUS 235 Week 2 DQ 2 Customer Loyalty BUS 235 Week 3 DQ 1 Branding Debate BUS 235 Week 3 DQ 2 New Product Development BUS 235 Week 3 Assignment Retail Store (Walmart) BUS 235 Week 4 DQ 1 Price and Ethics BUS 235 Week 4 DQ 2 Service Marketing BUS 235 Week 5 DQ 1 Super Bowl Advertisin...

  14. Evaluation of Candidate Measures for Home-Based Screening of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Taiwanese Bus Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Ting

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleepiness-at-the-wheel has been identified as a major cause of highway accidents. The aim of our study is identifying the candidate measures for home-based screening of sleep disordered breathing in Taiwanese bus drivers, instead of polysomnography. Methods: Overnight polysomnography accompanied with simultaneous measurements of alternative screening devices (pulse oximetry, ApneaLink, and Actigraphy, heart rate variability, wake-up systolic blood pressure and questionnaires were completed by 151 eligible participants who were long-haul bus drivers with a duty period of more than 12 h a day and duty shifting. Results: 63.6% of professional bus drivers were diagnosed as having sleep disordered breathing and had a higher body mass index, neck circumference, systolic blood pressure, arousal index and desaturation index than those professional bus drivers without evidence of sleep disordered breathing. Simple home-based candidate measures: (1 Pulse oximetry, oxygen-desaturation indices by ≥3% and 4% (r = 0.87~0.92; (2 Pulse oximetry, pulse-rising indices by ≥7% and 8% from a baseline (r = 0.61~0.89; and (3 ApneaLink airflow detection, apnea-hypopnea indices (r = 0.70~0.70, based on recording-time or Actigraphy-corrected total sleep time were all significantly correlated with, and had high agreement with, corresponding polysomnographic apnea-hypopnea indices [(1 94.5%~96.6%, (2 93.8%~97.2%, (3 91.1%~91.3%, respectively]. Conversely, no validities of SDB screening were found in the multi-variables apnea prediction questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, night-sleep heart rate variability, wake-up systolic blood pressure and anthropometric variables. Conclusions: The indices of pulse oximetry and apnea flow detection are eligible criteria for home-based screening of sleep disordered breathing, specifically for professional drivers.

  15. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  16. Natural gas powered bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted

  17. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  18. Parameterizable Wishbone Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Fawzi, Omar; Alagedi, Alfiqar

    2012-01-01

    In the industry of intellectual property products "IP-cores", a communication link is almost always needed. A semiconductor intellectual property IP core is a reusable unit of logic in electronic design. IP cores are used as building blocks for ASIC chip design or FPGA logic designs. A bus creates a communication link between the IP cores in a system. The company AnaCatum Design AB have many projects where a bus is needed. Creating a new bus structure for every project is time consuming. By h...

  19. The erigone bus study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of some factors determining the performance and cost-effectiveness of microcomputer bus systems implemented in Europa crates. An experimental system has been specified and a number of modules constructed in accordance with the specification, in order to test the validity of some of the ideas proposed. It has been demonstrated that the bus interfacing logic can be simple and inexpensive, while maintaining a high degree of processor independence and also a high degree of transparency in operation. The number of pins required by the bus is minimized by multiplexing address and data. A series termination for the drive of the multiplexed lines permits cross-talk to be reduced to insignificant levels: this technique is recommended for wider application. The experimental bus is proposed as a basis for the construction of simple microcomputer-based instrumentation systems. (orig.)

  20. Bus.py

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-07-21

    GridLAB-D is an agent? based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. GridLAB-D addresses the lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator.

  1. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  2. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  3. BUS 660 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

      www.uophelp.com         BUS 660 Week 1 Assignment Developing Leaders at UPS BUS 660 Week 2 Assignment Leadership Style BUS 660 Week 3 Assignment Leadership Traits BUS 660 Week 4 Assignment Leadership Skills BUS 660 Week 5 Assignment Big Changes for a Small Hospital BUS 660 Week 6 Assignment Research Paper BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 1 Leadership Defined BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 2 Education and Experience BUS 660 Week 2 DQ 1 Lea...

  4. Women in engineering program advocates network (WEPAN): Evaluation of the fourth annual conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, S.G.

    1994-08-01

    The 1994 WEPAN conference highlighted the establishment of the three Regional Centers for Women in Engineering, which are located at the University of Washington, Purdue University, and Stevens Insitute of Technology. An overall evaluation was conducted on the effectiveness of the conference, including the quality of plenary sessions, workshops, registration, accommodations and reception.

  5. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale. PMID:27220506

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PROTECTION FUNCTIONS FOr IEC 61850-9-2 PROCESS BUS USING REAL-TIME HARDWARE-IN-THE-loop simulation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib; Vanfretti, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    With the evolution of Process Bus (IEC 61850-9-2), there is a need to assess the performance of protection schemes using process bus against those where traditional copper wires are implemented. Differential protection is the fundamental and most commonly used protection for transformers, motors and generators. In this paper a power system is modelled in SimPowerSystems and is executed in real-time using Opal-RT’s eMEGAsim real-time simulator. Hardware-in-the loop validation of a process bus ...

  7. BusTechn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Introduced the characteristics of series communicat io n I 2C bus and basic communication protocol, and introduced the application of the bus I 2C according to the image sensor OV7610.The computer correspondence s tyle can be divided the parallel correspondence and the series correspondence. T he rate of series correspondence is rapid, and the property of real time is exce llent. Because the number of ports which it takes is great, it is not proper to miniaturize. Whereas the rate of series corresponden...

  8. Summary of the Fourth International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-4). Exercise Conduct and Evaluation Questionnaires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INEX-4 consequence management exercise, part of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's ongoing series of International Nuclear Emergency Exercises (INEX), was developed under the auspices of the NEA/CRPPH Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM) in response to members desire to better prepare for the longer-term response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. The INEX-4 exercise was designed to allow participants to investigate the national and, in some cases, international arrangements for responding to widespread radiological contamination of the urban environment from a radiological dispersal devise (or dirty bomb) and the consequence management issues likely to be raised in the medium to longer term after such an event. The experiences of participating countries were gathered through an evaluation questionnaire and are summarised in this report. The INEX-4 series was developed in 2008, and conducted throughout 2010 and 2011 with 17 participating countries using the INEX-4 scenario for an event involving a radiological dispersal device. An INEX-4 evaluation questionnaire was developed to document the process and results of the exercise, which was designed mainly to test emergency responses/actions related to consequence management and transition to recovery. The conclusions drawn from the INEX-4 experiences varied greatly, but this was to be expected given the nature of the scenario and the involvement of organisations outside of the nuclear community. The evaluation questionnaires completed by each participating country provided detailed information on the national approaches taken with respect to each of the exercise objectives and on issues relating to the international interfaces between countries. In collaboration with the NEA Secretariat, staff from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed each completed questionnaire to identify and summarise the essential information derived from the exercise for consideration by WPNEM members

  9. BUS 644 (New) Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    www.uophelp.com       BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethical Issues and Operations BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Processes BUS 644 Week 1 Midas Case Study BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 1 Productivity BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Design and Quality BUS 644 Week 2 Memorial Hospital Case Study BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 1 Suppliers BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 2 Forecasting Methods BUS 644 Week 3 Outsourcing BUS 644 Week 4 DQ 1 Process Selection Product Design and Capacity BUS 64...

  10. BUS 370 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

     For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 370 Week 1 DQ 1 TGIF BUS 370 Week 1 DQ 2 Corporate Culture BUS 370 Week 2 DQ 1 Managing Change BUS 370 Week 2 DQ 2 Diagnostic Models BUS 370 Week 3 DQ 1 The Farm Bank BUS 370 Week 3 DQ 2 Communication Processes BUS 370 Week 3 Real World Application of OD Principles BUS 370 Week 4 DQ 1 Goal Setting Model BUS 370 Week 4 DQ 2 Self-Managed Work Teams BUS 370 Week 5 DQ 1 Lafarge BUS...

  11. BUS 600 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 600 Week 1 Assignment Vision Statement BUS 600 Week 1 DQ 1 Importance of Communication BUS 600 Week 1 DQ 2 Ashford Learning Resources BUS 600 Week 2 Assignment Topic Thesis Statement for Research Paper BUS 600 Week 2 DQ 1 Reducing Communication Barriers BUS 600 Week 2 DQ 2 Intercultural Communication Competence BUS 600 Week 3 Assignment Communications Skill Assessment BUS 600 Week 3 DQ 1 Technol...

  12. BUS 600 ASH COURSE TUTORIAL/UOPHELP

    OpenAIRE

    MADHU

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit   www.uophelp.com   BUS 600 Week 1 Assignment Vision Statement BUS 600 Week 1 DQ 1 Importance of Communication BUS 600 Week 1 DQ 2 Ashford Learning Resources BUS 600 Week 2 Assignment Topic Thesis Statement for Research Paper BUS 600 Week 2 DQ 1 Reducing Communication Barriers BUS 600 Week 2 DQ 2 Intercultural Communication Competence BUS 600 Week 3 Assignment Communications Skill Assessment BUS 600 Week 3 D...

  13. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  15. Bus Catcher: A Context Sensitive Prototype System for Public Transportation Users

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolotto, Michela; O'Hare, G.M.P.; Strahan, Robin; Brophy, Ailish; Martin, A.; McLoughlin, Eoin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the architectural and functional characteristics of Bus Catcher, a context sensitive prototype system for public transportation users. Bus Catcher assists mobile users in planning their bus rides by providing timely and accurate information about current bus locations and estimated arrival times. A complete report on the implementation together with a preliminary evaluation of the system is provided in this paper.

  16. BUS 401 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 1 Corporate Income Tax and Real Interest Rates BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 2 Cash Flow and Ratio Analysis BUS 401 Week 1 Assignment Ratio Analysis BUS 401 Week 1 Quiz BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 1 Annuity and Capital Asset Pricing BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 2 Bonds and Common Stock BUS 401 Week 2 Assignment Alternative Investments BUS 401 Week 2 Quiz BUS 401 Week 3 DQ 1 NPV, PI, and IRR BUS 401 Week 3 ...

  17. BUS 435(ASH) UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 1 DQ 1 New or Established Venture?   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Opportunity   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 1 Business Research   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 2 DQ 1 Franchising   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 2 DQ 2 Legal Forms   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 2 Business Concept   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 3 DQ...

  18. BUS 437 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 1 Assignment Company Description ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 1 DQ 1 Writing the Business Plan ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 1 DQ 2 Using Outside Help to Write the Plan ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 2 Assignment Marketing Section ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 2 DQ 1 Customer Survey ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 2 DQ 2 Industry Analysis ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 3 Assignment Strategy...

  19. Bus rapid transit

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    Effective public transit is central to development. For the vast majority of developing city residents, public transit is the only practical means to access employment, education, and public services, especially when such services are beyond the viable distance of walking or cycling. Unfortunately, the current state of public transit services in developing cities often does little to serve the actual mobility needs of the population. Bus services are too often unreliable, inconvenient and ...

  20. Circuit breaker and bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two close-open operations are required each pulse cycle at approximately 3 MA with the breaker in series with the burn supply, both forming a leg in parallel with the E-coil and the homopolar. To conduct the 3-MA current, approximately 30 breaker units are connected in parallel. Each unit is equipped with a counterpulse capacitor bank, and the bus for the 30 units is provided with a common saturable reactor core made of strip steel wound around the bus. Oil breakers of a special design are chosen because of their high arc resistance facilitating the current transfer to the homopolar machine and for obtaining precision timing in opening and closing of the contacts. The precision timing is achieved by a shock wave method with the oil serving as hydraulic medium. Each of the parallel breaker units possesses two sets of contacts, a stationary and a transient one. A 1-mΩ resistor in series with the transient contacts of each breaker unit is to improve the current sharing. The bus consists of room temperature copper, stranded and transposed to help provide current equalization under transient conditions

  1. Aerodynamic and electrical evaluation of a VAWT farm control system with passive rectifiers and mutual DC-bus

    OpenAIRE

    Goude, Anders; Bülow, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    A wind farm with a simple electrical topology with passive rectifiers and a single inverter (mutual topology) is compared to a more complex topology where each turbine has a separate inverter (separate topology).In both cases, the turbines are controlled electrically by varying the extracted power with the rotational velocity as control signal.These two electrical topologies are evaluated with respect to absorbed power for a farm of four turbines placed either on a line or in a square formati...

  2. 城市轨道交通与地面公交换乘评价模型研究%Research on the city rail transit and ground bus transfer evaluation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛兆雨

    2015-01-01

    在分析轨道交通与地面公交基本属性的基础上,选取换乘距离、安全性、换乘环境、等候时长、换乘信息、换乘公交站点及公交线路总数等评价指标为参数,建立了轨道交通与地面公交换乘站点灰熵模型,其计算结果能够直观地对轨道交通站点换乘的便捷性进行评价,具有一定的应用价值。%This paper analyzed the basic attributes of the rail transit and ground bus,choosed indicators of distance,safety,environment,waiting time,information,number of transfer stations and lines as optimal parameters to evaluate the transfer of rail transit and ground bus site,and estab-lished the rail transit and ground bus transfer site model based on grey entropy. The result can intuitively to evaluate the rail transit site,what’s valuable of practical application.

  3. BUS 402 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp-

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     BUS 402 Week 1 DQ 1 Environmental Changes BUS 402 Week 1 DQ 2 Vision and Mission BUS 402 Week 2 DQ 1 Components of External Environment  BUS 402 Week 2 DQ 2 Components of Internal Analysis BUS 402 Week 2 Assignment Starbucks S.W.O.T. Analysis BUS 402 Week 3 DQ 1 Market Positioning Strategies BUS 402 Week 3 DQ 2 Vertical Integration BUS 402 Week 4 DQ 1 International Markets BUS 40...

  4. BUS 642 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    www.uophelp.com     BUS 642 Week 1 DQ 1 Scientific Thinking (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 1 DQ 2 Making Research Decisions (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 1 Exercises (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 2 DQ 1 Ethics in Business Research (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 2 DQ 2 Design of Research (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 2 Exercises (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 3 DQ 1 Measurement Scales (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 3 DQ 2 Clarifying the Research Questions (Ash Course) BUS...

  5. BUS 330 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 330 Week 1 DQ 1 Role of the Marketing Function BUS 330 Week 1 DQ 2 Products and Services BUS 330 Week 2 DQ 1 Product Life Cycle BUS 330 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Usage Categories BUS 330 Week 3 DQ 1 Customer Relationship Management BUS 330 Week 3 DQ 2 Demographics and Trends BUS 330 Week 3 Written Assignment (Dramatic Youth Population) BUS 330 Week 4 DQ 1 Functions of Marketing Management BUS 330 ...

  6. BUS 437 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 437 Week 1 Assignment Company Description BUS 437 Week 1 DQ 1 Writing the Business Plan BUS 437 Week 1 DQ 2 Using Outside Help to Write the Plan BUS 437 Week 2 Assignment Marketing Section BUS 437 Week 2 DQ 1 Customer Survey BUS 437 Week 2 DQ 2 Industry Analysis BUS 437 Week 3 Assignment Strategy, Implementation, & Management Sections BUS 437 Week 3 DQ 1 Implementation BUS 437 Week 3 DQ ...

  7. 75 FR 5847 - Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Livability Initiative and Urban Circulator Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ...The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announced on December 8, 2009, the availability of discretionary Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities grant and New Starts funds in support of the Department of Transportation's Livability Initiative (``Livability Bus Program''). The Livability Bus Program is funded using $150 million in unallocated Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program funds,......

  8. 燃料电池公共汽车在北京和上海载客示范评价%Evaluation on Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration in Beijing and Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菊; 尤可为; 于丹

    2013-01-01

    The fuel cell bus demonstration in Beijing and Shanghai is evaluated and analyzed in this paper, the life cycle assessment (LCA) for fuel cell bus demonstration in Beijing is conducted by the energy analysis method of GREET. The total energy consumption, fossil energy consumption, petroleum energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission and economy are calculated for the fuel cell bus using different hydrogen production way such as water electrolysis and natural gas reforming. The findings can provide reference for future demonstration project.%针对在北京、上海开展的燃料电池公共汽车载客示范运行情况进行了评价分析,并采用全生命周期GREET能量分析方法对北京燃料电池公共汽车示范项目进行了全生命周期综合评价。对于燃料电池汽车采用电解水制氢及天然气重整制氢等不同制氢方式的总能量消耗、化石能量消耗、石油能量消耗、温室气体排放和经济性等进行了综合分析,分析结果可为开展类似的示范项目提供参考。

  9. A comparative evaluation of different teaching aids among fourth term medical students to improve the knowledge, attitude and perceptions about pharmacovigilance: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Bagewadi, Harish G; Rekha M S; Sabari Anandh JV

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The Study was designed to assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s) and to evaluate the effectiveness of different teaching aids.Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based pre- and post-test on (KAP) Knowledge, Attitude, Perception about pharmacovigilance. Students were given handouts regarding pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting one week before the educational interventions. Fourth term medical students (n=72) participated in the stud...

  10. 75 FR 23843 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... initiative. The SGR Bus initiative will make funds available to public transit providers to finance capital... transportation, or private non-profit organizations. Projects eligible for funding under the SGR Bus initiative... Initiative Funds: Solicitation of Project Proposals. SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration...

  11. BUS 611 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 611 Week 1 Assignment Article Review (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 2 Assignment Project Risk (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 3 Assignment WBS (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 4 Assignment Integrated Project Management Tools (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 5 Assignment Monthly Status Reports (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 6 Final Research Paper (Ash Course)  

  12. BUS 508 STR course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 508 Assignment 1 Entrepreneurial Leadership BUS 508 Assignment 2 Diversification Strategies (Wallmart and Kmart) BUS 508 Week 3 Assignment Production and Operations Management Marathon Oil BUS 508 Assignment 3 Using Teams in Production and Operations Management Boeing Co BUS 508 Assignment 4 Internet Technology, Marketing, and Security (Sony Corp) BUS 508 Assignment 5 Financial Management (Pepsi and Coc...

  13. BUS 330 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

                      For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+     ASHFORD BUS 330 Week 1 DQ 1 Role of the Marketing Function ASHFORD BUS 330 Week 1 DQ 2 Products and Services ASHFORD BUS 330 Week 2 DQ 1 Product Life Cycle ASHFORD BUS 330 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Usage Categories ASHFORD BUS 330 Week 3 DQ 1 Customer Relationship Management ASHFORD BUS...

  14. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  15. BUS 620 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 1 What is Marketing (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 2 Marketing Strategies (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 1 The Future of the New York Times (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 1 Buyer Behavior (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 2 Customer Needs (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 2 Industry Forecasting (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 3 DQ 1 Braining Nordstrom (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 3 DQ 2 Marketing Segmentat...

  16. Contribution of the working group 2 to the fourth evaluation report of the inter government expert group on the climatic change. Evaluation 2007 of the climatic changes: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document exposes the results of the fourth evaluation report of the working group II of the inter government experts group on the climatic change. This evaluation presents the today scientific understanding of the climatic change impacts on the humans and their adaptation ability and vulnerability. It is based on the GIEC evaluations and new knowledge added since the third evaluation report. (A.L.B.)

  17. Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies. PMID:20380435

  18. Evaluation of Irinotecan as a Third- or Fourth-line Treatment for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Keener, James

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. There are two major types of lung cancer: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which comprises approximately 85% of all lung cancers, and small cell lung cancer. Currently, the most prevalent third- and fourth- line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer is cisplatin-based therapy. This form of therapy has been long established as the chief treatment for advanced NSCLC; however, cisplatin-based therapy also impai...

  19. Hybrid fuel cell bus demonstration: advanced technology moves bus forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Province of Manitoba has been actively pursuing hydrogen since 2001 as one part of a portfolio of renewable energy alternatives. Six priority hydrogen actions have been underway covering a variety of opportunities, including two recently completed major transit bus and refueling demonstrations. A brief overview of Manitoba's activities on hydrogen will be provided, emphasizing the lessons learned from recent projects such as the hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus demonstration, and in particular implications for the research community. (author)

  20. BUS 508 Str course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     BUS 508 Week 1 Assignment Entrepreneurial Leadership " Five Guys Burgers and Fries: Ingredients for Success BUS 508 Assignment 2:  Competitive Strategies Bus 508 Assignment #3 Forensic Accounting in Practice BUS 508 Assignment 4 Internet Techolology, marketing, and Security    

  1. The Myth of the "Ideal Bus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Does as an ideal bus technology exist? Many companies have and will promote a single technology as the ideal bus that will meet all application needs, but in actuality, each bus technology has its own strengths and weaknesses and thus is appropriate for different applications. History has shown the folly of claiming an ideal bus for every application.

  2. BUS 402 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    jonh

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 1 DQ 1 Environmental Changes ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 1 DQ 2 Vision and Mission ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 2 DQ 1 Components of External Environment ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 2 DQ 2 Components of Internal Analysis ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 2 Assignment Starbucks S.W.O.T. Analysis ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 3 DQ 1 Market Positioning Strategies ASHFORD BUS 402 W...

  3. BUS 670 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    huphelp

    2015-01-01

    www.uophelp.com     BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 1 Constitutional and Legal Underpinnings of Business Law  BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 2 Ethics and Law  BUS 670 Week 1 Individual Assignment Legal Underpinnings of Business Law  BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 1 Crimes That Harm Business Versus Crimes Committed by Business  BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Liability  BUS 670 Week 2 Individual Assignment Negligent Tort  BUS 670 Week 3 DQ 1 Regulation and the G...

  4. BUS 250 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

                     For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 1 Business & Society ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 2 Business & Accountability ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 1 Case Study A Brawl in Mickey's Backyard 1 ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 2 Assignment Case Study Alcoa's Core Values in Practice ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 1 Ethical Leadersh...

  5. BUS 599 Str course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 599 Week 1 Assignment Crafting and Executing Strategy Case JetBlue Airways BUS 599 Assignment #2 Competitive Forces and SWOT Analysis # Case Whole Foods Market BUS 599 Week 3 Assignment Foreign Market Entry and Diversification Case Corona Beer BUS 599 Week 4 Assignment HRM Issues Diversification Strategies Case Nucor Corporation BUS 599 Week 5 Assignment Corporate Culture Leadership Actions for Strategy Imp...

  6. Development and validation of a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Lisa; Stephen, Lucy; af Wåhlberg, Anders; Gandolfi, Julie

    2010-12-01

    There are likely to be individual differences in bus driver behaviour when adhering to strict schedules under time pressure. A reliable and valid assessment of these individual differences would be useful for bus companies keen to mitigate risk of crash involvement. This paper reports on three studies to develop and validate a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour. For study 1, two principal components analyses of a pilot questionnaire revealed six components describing bus driver behaviour and four bus driver coping components. In study 2, test-retest reliability of the components were tested in a sub-sample and found to be adequate. Further, the 10 components were used to predict bus crash involvement at three levels of culpability with consistently significant associations found for two components. For study 3, avoidance coping was consistently associated with celeration variables in a bus simulator, especially for a time-pressured drive. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The instrument can be used by bus companies for driver stress and fatigue management training to identify at-risk bus driver behaviour. Training to reduce the tendency to engage in avoidance coping strategies, improve evaluative coping strategies and hazard monitoring when under stress may improve bus driver safety. PMID:21108079

  7. Bus Stop - Environment Connection: Do Characteristics of the Built Environment Correlate with Bus Stop Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Robin S Liggett; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Can we understand why some bus stops are safe and others are crime-ridden? Can we predict which features of the bus stop environment are likely to encourage or discourage crime? Can we design safer bus stops? These questions are addressed by exploring the relationship between environmental variables and bus stop crime. An earlier study used crime data, along with environmental indicators, for a sample of 60 bus stops in downtown Los Angeles. Crime rates were higher for bus stops near alleys, ...

  8. BUS BAY PERFORMANCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CAPACITY OF ROAD NETWORK IN DAR ES SALAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin K. Mushule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of major problems facing motorists in Dar es Salaam city today is congestion. Bus bays have a significant influence on the capacity of a roadway because they interfere with passing vehicles primarily when buses maneuver to pull into and out of bus bays. Bus bay stops will also interfere with vehicles movement if bus demand exceeds the bus bay capacity resulting in some buses waiting in the travel lane until the buses occupying the bay exit the bay. This paper presents the results of a study which was carried out to evaluate the bus bay performance and its influence on the capacity of the roadway network in the city of Dar es Salaam. The case study area covered 11 bus stops along Morogoro road from Ubungo to Magomeni Mapipa. Capacity of bus bays was studied using procedure outlined in the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual of 2003. This enabled the researcher to determine parameters such as dwell times and clearance times which are major determinants of bus stop capacity. The results indicate that only 18% of the bus bay stops studied did not have adequate capacity to cater for the available demand. 9% did not have adequate capacity during peak hours but the capacity was adequate during off-peak hours. The remaining 73% of bus bay stops possess adequate capacity all the time. Although most bus bay stops studied possess adequate capacity, severe congestion was observed at these locations. This is due to erratic behavior of bus drivers who do not utilize the provided space for them to drop off and pick up passengers. Clearly, this is an area that requires more strict enforcement in order to ease the congestion problem in the city by operating the existing capacity more efficiently."

  9. Wishbone bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mohandeep; 10.5121/vlsic.2012.3210

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC). This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Micro controller Bus Architecture (AMBA) by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle). Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  10. BUS 210 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

                      For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 6 Times, Rating: A+   BUS 210 Week 1 DQ1 and DQ2 (UOP Course) BUS 210 Week 1 Checkpoint Business Models and Systems (UOP Course) BUS 210 Week 2 CheckPoint Business Organization (UOP Course) BUS 210 Week 2 Assignment Evolution of Business Presentation (UOP Course) BUS 210 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 (UOP Course) BUS 210 W...

  11. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  12. School bus and children's traffic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan

    2007-01-01

    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  13. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  14. Pybus - A Python Software Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the concept of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user

  15. Pybus -- A Python Software Bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.

    2004-10-14

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the concept of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user.

  16. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  17. The fourth dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Rucker, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    ""This is an invigorating book, a short but spirited slalom for the mind."" - Timothy Ferris, The New York Times Book Review ""Highly readable. One is reminded of the breadth and depth of Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach."" - Science""Anyone with even a minimal interest in mathematics and fantasy will find The Fourth Dimension informative and mind-dazzling... [Rucker] plunges into spaces above three with a zest and energy that is breathtaking."" - Martin Gardner ""Those who think the fourth dimension is nothing but time should be encouraged to read The Fourth Dimension, along with anyone else

  18. The emerging fourth sector

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Sector is a new phenomenon related to dual social and financial value creation, until now not clearly defined with crisp sectoral boundaries and an operationalized definition. The phenomenon is getting increased attention in media, conferences, business schools and by organizations all over the world, and this study intends to explain the macroenvironmental changes that led to the rise of the fourth sector, describe new trends of social value creation in the private ...

  19. BUS 600 ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    ben

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+   BUS 600 Week 1 Assignment Vision Statement BUS 600 Week 1 DQ 1 Importance of Communication BUS 600 Week 1 DQ 2 Ashford Learning Resources BUS 600 Week 2 Assignment Topic Thesis Statement for Research Paper BUS 600 Week 2 DQ 1 Reducing Communication Barriers BUS 600 Week 2 DQ 2 Intercultural Communication Competence BUS 600 Week 3 Assignment Communications...

  20. BUS 620 ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    atwater

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 1 What is Marketing   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 2 Marketing Strategies   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 1 Assignment Tesco Case   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 1 Buyer Behavior   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 2 Customer Needs   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 2 Industry Forecasting   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 3...

  1. BUS 660 ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   BUS 660 Week 1 Assignment Developing Leaders at UPS  BUS 660 Week 2 Assignment Leadership Style  BUS 660 Week 3 Assignment Leadership Traits  BUS 660 Week 4 Assignment Leadership Skills  BUS 660 Week 5 Assignment Big Changes for a Small Hospital  BUS 660 Week 6 Assignment Research Paper BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 1Leadership Defined BU...

  2. BUS 644 (New) ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    ashford

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating:  A+     ASHFORD BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethical Issues and Operations (New) ASHFORD BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Processes (New) ASHFORD BUS 644 Week 1 Midas Case Study (New) ASHFORD BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 1 Productivity (New) ASHFORD BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Design and Quality (New) ASHFORD BUS 644 Week 2 Memorial Hospital Case Study (New) ASHFORD BUS...

  3. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  4. Bus Routes, Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  5. YUTONG BUS: Grateful To The Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shenyin&Wanguo Securities issued an announcement on Jan 9 rating Yutong Bus(600066)as"buying",on the basis that the bus maker's gross profits went better in the last quarter of 2008 and to be further improved in the first quarter of 2009,with an increased market share. The report drew attention inside the in- dustry when the entire bus segment was suffering a tough time.

  6. Wishbone Bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandeep Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC. This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle. Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  7. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    . Important elements have been: Division of previously horizontal integrated organisations, corporatisation, privatisation, public-private partnerships, tendering and management by goals and results. The main purpose of the NPM reforms has been to increase the efficiency, effectiveness and accountability of...... first component regards the organisation of public bus transport at the local level. This involves the deregulation and privatisation reforms introduced by the Conservative Government from 1986 onwards, as well as the ‘partnerships’ and other new instruments introduced by the Labour Government in the...

  8. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  9. A comparative evaluation of different teaching aids among fourth term medical students to improve the knowledge, attitude and perceptions about pharmacovigilance: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish G. Bagewadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Study was designed to assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s and to evaluate the effectiveness of different teaching aids.Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based pre- and post-test on (KAP Knowledge, Attitude, Perception about pharmacovigilance. Students were given handouts regarding pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting one week before the educational interventions. Fourth term medical students (n=72 participated in the study. They were randomly allocated into group A (n=24, group B (n=24 and group C (n=24. A pre-validated 20-point questionnaire on Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s reporting was distributed to each group of students before the educational intervention to know their awareness. The interactive educational interventions on Pharmacovigilance were given using Overhead projector (OHP and transparencies to group A students, Black board (BB method to group B students, Power point presentation (PPT method to group C students respectively. Theoretical content was the same in all the educational interventions. The chi-square test and one way ANOVA was used for statistical calculation.Results: The overall response rates were expressed as percentages, Mean±SD. The Mean Pre-KAP scores on knowledge was (7.7±0.48 but the total post- KAP scores after (OHP, (BB, and (PPT were (12.1±0.39, (17.4±0.3, (19.4±0.21 respectively. The correct response rates were found to be statistically significant (P<0.001.The feedback from the students was encouraging; handouts before the class were greatly welcomed.Conclusion: The study greatly imparted knowledge about pharmacovigilance and ADR’s reporting and students preferred power point presentations the most.

  10. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  11. BUS 670 ASH Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    kuran

    2015-01-01

    ASHFORD BUS 670 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+     ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 1 Constitutional and Legal Underpinnings of Business Law ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 2 Ethics and Law ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 1 Individual Assignment Legal Underpinnings of Business Law ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 1 Crimes That Harm Business Versus Crimes Committed by Business ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 2 ...

  12. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  13. Characterisation of an urban bus network for environmental purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Michel; Villanova, André

    2004-12-01

    Since pollutant emissions are closely related to the operating conditions of vehicles, their evaluation usually involves studying these operating conditions (through bus instrumentation and monitoring under actual operation), the design of representative driving or engine test cycles and the measurement of pollutant emissions. A preliminary characterisation of the routes on a bus network should make it possible to identify typical routes, the driving conditions and pollutant emissions of which are then studied. Two approaches are envisaged and applied to the Paris area, for which a wealth of information is available, which should be transferable to other bus networks. Both approaches are based on factorial analysis and automatic clustering, to allow optimum description and the identification of a pertinent typology of the bus routes in several classes. The first attempt at characterisation is based on statistics relating to bus operations: route characteristics (length, dedicated bus lanes, number of stops, location of stops: schools, tourist sites, hospitals, railways or underground stations), travel time, commercial speed, annual statistics (number of passengers, number of vehicles per hour, total kilometres), the irregularity of travel (variation of travel times, injuries, congestion.), as well as information on the problems encountered (congestion, distribution of the passenger load, junctions, bends). A second approach is based on the analysis of the "urban context" in which buses are driven. Population, employment, housing, road network, traffic and places that generate or disturb traffic (schools, railway stations, shopping areas, etc.) are calculated for the Ile de France region, by cells of 100 x 100 m, and collected in a geographical information system (GIS). Statistical analyses enable a typology of these urban cells to be established, the main parameters being density, type of housing, road types and traffic levels. The bus routes are then analysed

  14. Energy Performance Optimization of a Bus for Urban Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many people use public transports in urban centres. Consequently, every day a lot of buses move within cities, trying to ensure the best service to citizens. During the year buses becomecrowded places and using an air conditioning system in constant operation, it tries to ensure a certain condition of comfort for the passengers on board. The aim of this study is to analyse and optimize the energy performance of a bus shell, identifying practical solutions that have not yet been adopted in order to reduce the impact of air conditioning on bus consumption and, therefore, on air pollution. For this reason it was decided to conduct a thermal analysis of a bus for public transport, in order to understandthe behaviour of the bus shell and to deduce possible optimization measures that have not yet been made until now. The analysis was carried out considering the hottest day of July and the coldest day ofJanuary, considering the conditions of operation based on the most common graphics TGM able to define the concentration of traffic city during the 24 hours per day. The study was done using the dynamicsimulation software TRNSYS. With this software it was possible to recreate faithfully the structure of the bus and the external environmental conditions, assessing the impact of different technical solutions for an improvement of internal conditions and a reduction of the cooling capacity required. Because the presence of passengers in public transport is considered like a “benefit” during the winter, the analysis started with the identification of a summer solution and the subsequent evaluation of this solution for the wintertime. The aim of this study was to optimize the bus shell and select the most appropriate solutions. Regarding the transparent surfaces it has been given importance to factors such as the thermal transmittance and the solar gain factor (g-value. Aware of the influence given by the solar radiation on the energy loads, we

  15. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  16. The Inspiration of Fourth Generation Evaluation to Teaching Evaluation on Chinese College Teachers%第四代评价理论对我国高校教师教学评价的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周柔玲

    2016-01-01

    第四代评价理论为评价领域提出了全新的理念与方法,基于关注利益相关者和主张价值多元化,提出"回应、协商、共同构建"的建构主义方法论,启示我国高校教师教学评价要重视利益相关者,并在丰富评价理念的基础上注重对教师教学的质性评价.%Fourth Generation Evaluation has provided a brand new idea and method for the field of evaluation. Paying attention to stakeholders and advocating value pluralism, it proposed the constructivist methodology based on "response, consultation and co-construction", inspiring that stakeholders should be empha-sized in teaching evaluation on Chinese college teachers and qualitative evaluation on teachers' teaching should be stressed based on enriching the relevant ideas of evaluation.

  17. 第四代评价理论对我国高校教师教学评价的启示%The Inspiration of Fourth Generation Evaluation to Teaching Evaluation on Chinese College Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周柔玲

    2016-01-01

    Fourth Generation Evaluation has provided a brand new idea and method for the field of evaluation. Paying attention to stakeholders and advocating value pluralism, it proposed the constructivist methodology based on "response, consultation and co-construction", inspiring that stakeholders should be empha-sized in teaching evaluation on Chinese college teachers and qualitative evaluation on teachers' teaching should be stressed based on enriching the relevant ideas of evaluation.%第四代评价理论为评价领域提出了全新的理念与方法,基于关注利益相关者和主张价值多元化,提出"回应、协商、共同构建"的建构主义方法论,启示我国高校教师教学评价要重视利益相关者,并在丰富评价理念的基础上注重对教师教学的质性评价.

  18. Improving bus travel times with passive traffic signal coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada Romeu, Miguel Ángel; Trapote Barreira, César; Roca Riu, Mireia; Robusté Antón, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    A simulation optimization model is outlined: traffic signal offsets in intersections are calculated to minimize the travel time of bus users in an urban network. The model considers a passive signal priority system and restricts the maximal incremental delay caused to car users. The simulation tool is able to trace discrete trajectories of both buses and cars in a network. It also evaluates potential perturbations that may cause time variations for average performance. Moreover, the optimizat...

  19. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  20. Evaluation of city buses installed diesel particulate filter systems on fleet test; Diesel particulate filter system wo tosaishita rosen bus no soko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, H. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An environmental air quality of suspended particulate matter is insufficient in the big city area. To reduce the particulate matter, improvement of engine and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system are carrying. The purpose of this report is to investigate a possibility of practical use of the city buses installed DPF systems. From March 1995, investigation for practical use of these DPF systems on a route buses was carried in regular service operation of the Tokyo and Yokohama Transportation Bureau. The investigation items are service situation, smoke density and preparation inspection. From the result for 2 years service operation, each DPF systems needed some failure correspondence. but these were not fatal problem on using the DPF system. Then the subject of relative to durability and reliability became clear, and the performance of a low particulate emission DPF system obtained the high value evaluation for users. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Drivetrain system of an ultracapacitor electric bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Zhigu; Zhu Chunbo; Yang Shiyan; Cheng Shukang

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a design of the drivetrain system of an electric bus with ultracapacitor (UC) as the only on-board power source. The system includes three main parts, namely, UC bank, motor and the converter, vehicle management unit (VMU). Analyses results in detail on the functional design and experiments on work bench of each part were also presented, which validated the reliability of the system. Furthermore, driving results in field of the bus verified the feasibility of the design of the drivetrain system. The bus has very good dynamic performances and shows a promising applications prospect in the short and medium route buses system.

  2. Analysis of Journey to Work Travel Behavior by Car and Bus in the Sydney Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthanaya P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Car dependence is a fundamental problem in the sustainability of cities with low-density suburban sprawl. Increasing the use of public transport is one of the policy objectives commonly adopted to overcome this problem. It is essential to study journey to work travel behavior by car and bus. This paper applied preference function to analyze travel behavior and Moran’s I spatial statistic to evaluate the spatial association. The results indicated that the commuting preferences of residents have moved towards distance maximization. In general, bus was preferred for shorter distance trips whilst car was preferred for longer distance trips. Unlike car, by increasing distances from the Central Business District, residents tended to use bus for shorter distance trip. A significant positive spatial association was identified for both the slope preferences by car and bus where zones with a preference towards longer or shorter trips tended to travel to zones with similar preferences.

  3. Health effect of a bus ride in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, T.

    1983-07-01

    Health effects on subjects during a bus drive on an urban road were investigated in a real situation. Leukocyte count, adrenalin level in blood and urine, noradrenalin and dopamine in urine, diastolic blood pressure, and index of vascular resistance increased significantly on the drive day compared with the control day. A bus drive on an urban road induced enhanced sympathetic-adreno-medullary activity in real life as a result of the comprehensive effect of various factors. The concentrations of air pollutants were excessively high on the road, and correlated with traffic volume. It was concluded that the interactions between psychogenic, physical nonspecific and physical specific effects should be taken into consideration when evaluating human health effects of air pollution in the urban environment.

  4. Fourth-rank cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some cosmological implications of the recently proposed fourth-rank theory of gravitation are studied. The model exhibits the possibility of being free from the horizon and flatness problems at the price of introducing a negative pressure. The field equations we obtain are compatible with kobs=0 and Ωobstclas approx. 1020tPlanck approx. 10-23s. When interpreted at the light of General Relativity the treatment is shown to be almost equivalent to that of the standard model of cosmology combined with the inflationary scenario. Hence, an interpretation of the negative pressure hypothesis is provided. (author). 8 refs

  5. Incremental bus service design: combining limited-stop and local bus services

    OpenAIRE

    Chiraphadhanakul, Virot; Barnhart, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Long in-vehicle travel times resulting from frequent stops make bus service an unattractive choice for many commuters. Limited-stop bus services however have the advantage of shorter in-vehicle times experienced by passengers. In this work, we seek to modify a given bus service by optimally reassigning some number of bus trips, as opposed to providing additional trips, to operate a limited-stop service. We propose an optimization model to determine a limited-stop service route to be operated ...

  6. DESIGN AND EXPERIMENT OF ELECTRIC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Performance and reliability experiments on BJD-6100EV electric buses, jointly developed by Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Public Transport Company, are introduced. Output power model of battery pack is established and maximum output power is analyzed. A permanent magnetic direct current (PMDC) motor with enhanced windings is developed for the bus. Torque-speed characteristics of the motor are modeled and performance of electric bus is analyzed. Computational method of the range of electric bus is proposed and discussed. Experiments show that electric bus can realize design requirements. Computational methods are verified with the help of field test. It is expected that design and computation method will provide helpful reference to development of electric vehicles.

  7. BUS 599 STRAYER Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    alfonos

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+ STRAYER BUS 599 Week 1 Assignment Crafting and Executing Strategy Case JetBlue Airways STRAYER BUS 599 Week 2 Assignment Competitive Forces and SWOT Analysis Case Whole Foods Market STRAYER BUS 599 Week 3 Assignment Foreign Market Entry and Diversification Case Corona Beer STRAYER BUS 599 Week 4 Assignment HRM Issues Diversification Strategies Case Nucor Corporation STRAYER BUS 5...

  8. BUS 670 ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    bertoz

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+     ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 1 Constitutional and Legal Underpinnings of Business Law ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 2 Ethics and Law ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 1 Individual Assignment Legal Underpinnings of Business Law ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 1 Crimes That Harm Business Versus Crimes Committed by Business ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Liability ASHFORD...

  9. Bus Network Modeling Using Ant Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Sepideh Eshragh; Shahriar Afandizadeh Zargari; Ardeshir Faghri; Earl Rusty Lee

    2010-01-01

    Bus transit network modeling is a complex and combinatorial problem. The main purpose of this paper is to apply a contemporary method for designing a bus transit network with the objective of achieving optimum results. The method is called Ant Algorithms, a Meta Heuristic method, which has been applied to optimization problems in transportation with noticeable success. The description of the algorithm, as well as the main methodology and computations, is presented in this paper. Furthermore, ...

  10. Hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Province of Manitoba has been actively pursuing hydrogen since 2001 as one part of a portfolio of renewable energy alternatives. Six priority hydrogen actions have been underway covering a variety of opportunities, including two recently completed major transit bus and refueling demonstrations. A brief overview of Manitoba's activities on hydrogen will be provided, emphasizing the lessons learned from recent projects such as the hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus demonstration, and in particular implications for the research community. (author)

  11. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopan; Kong, Yunfeng; Dang, Lanxue; Hou, Yane; Ye, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26176764

  12. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Chen

    Full Text Available As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  13. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... fosters sustainability and the development of urban and rural land use. Through Bus Livability Initiative... Programs (State of Good Repair and Bus Livability Initiatives) and Clean Fuels Grant Program, Augmented...), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Funding Availability for FTA State of Good Repair, Livability,...

  14. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes. PMID:26294903

  15. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  16. BUS 630 ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    avery

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+ ASHFORD BUS 630 Week 1 Assignment Case 2B Mendel Paper Company (Old) ASHFORD BUS 630 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethics in Cost Control (Old) ASHFORD BUS 630 Week 1 DQ 2 Fixed and Variable costs (Old) ASHFORD BUS 630 Week 2 DQ 1 Product costs (Old) ASHFORD BUS 630 Week 2 DQ 2 Job Order Costing vs. Proess Costing (Old) ASHFORD BUS 630 Week 2 Assignment Case 3A (Auerbach Enterprises) (Old) ...

  17. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  18. Designing Bus Structure for Digital Controller of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Gil; Park, Gang Min; Lee, Myeong Kyun; Yoo, Kwan Woo; Yun, Dong Hwa [Research Institute, PONUTech, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    In this paper, the bus structure design for the digital controller of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. The most important portion is the bus in the digital controller. A bus is responsible for transmission data among the various Input/Output (I/O) board, Processor board and Communication board. An existing bus is a parallel bus structure such as the VERSA Module Euro (VME) bus and an extended Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) Controller. Central Processing Unit (CPU) processing speed and communication speed is faster than before, but the parallel bus has a speed limit. Because it is the physically lines shared and the weakness about reflected wave. That is, use of the parallel bus has been the cause of the performance degradation of system. To solve the parallel bus problem, the bus has been developed by serial. The configuration of transceiver logic was simplified by not share the bus that all boards and processor boards was connected to the point-to-point. Serial bus was configured using physically Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS). The speed limit of bus was broken by the LVDS what is consisted of a strong against the reflected-wave of signal, noise and etc. Each channel of bus has a different speed mode and is able to set a required transmission way. Different transmission ways of each channel are able to transmit data to match the required response time of system. The LVDS speed has about basically 1Gbps but the bus was composed with less than 50Mbps considering the environmental characteristics of nuclear. It was shown that the configuration of the serial bus was the performance and the reliability more improving than parallel bus.

  19. Designing Bus Structure for Digital Controller of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the bus structure design for the digital controller of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. The most important portion is the bus in the digital controller. A bus is responsible for transmission data among the various Input/Output (I/O) board, Processor board and Communication board. An existing bus is a parallel bus structure such as the VERSA Module Euro (VME) bus and an extended Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) Controller. Central Processing Unit (CPU) processing speed and communication speed is faster than before, but the parallel bus has a speed limit. Because it is the physically lines shared and the weakness about reflected wave. That is, use of the parallel bus has been the cause of the performance degradation of system. To solve the parallel bus problem, the bus has been developed by serial. The configuration of transceiver logic was simplified by not share the bus that all boards and processor boards was connected to the point-to-point. Serial bus was configured using physically Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS). The speed limit of bus was broken by the LVDS what is consisted of a strong against the reflected-wave of signal, noise and etc. Each channel of bus has a different speed mode and is able to set a required transmission way. Different transmission ways of each channel are able to transmit data to match the required response time of system. The LVDS speed has about basically 1Gbps but the bus was composed with less than 50Mbps considering the environmental characteristics of nuclear. It was shown that the configuration of the serial bus was the performance and the reliability more improving than parallel bus

  20. Notes on the fast bus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In any system there will be modules that gather and process data from the experiment's detectors and perhaps from other sources such as the accelerator control system or monitoring system. In order to have a general system these modules must be able to communicate with each other and perhaps with a host computer or a group of controlling computers. A very general communications system is the bus system, used in computers, in which all devices are connected in parallel to a group of lines, typically 50 to 100. By means of a protocol of communication on some of these lines, a device that wants to control the bus makes its wishes known. If the device is the highest priority one currently asking for the bus, it gains bus mastership and then signals another device that it wants to communicate with by means of a set of address lines. This system works very well in a computer that includes a processor, memory, and peripheral devices; its disadvantage is that only one device can be bus master at a time and only one communication can take place at a time. The proposed solution to this problem is to segment the bus so that each segment can operate independently without interfering with another one. This allows a large amount of parallel operation. It is, of course, necessary for one segment to communicate with other ones at some point in the process, and this is achieved by a device called the segment interconnect (SI). Much of the character of the system will be determined by the details of the SI. One possibility is a device that passes information only when the address falls within a band of values (or perhaps several bands); details of its specification are being worked on now

  1. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  2. Secure Bus-Ticketing System using NFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Lopes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For making the day to day life more convenient for the passengers travelling in bus some technologies can be used like Near Field Communication (NFC, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID. The proposed system is based on ticketing and identification of passengers in public transport. The system suggest a user friendly automated ticketing system which will automatically deduct the passengers fare according to the distance travelled as well as detect the passengers detail information. The system also helps to calculate the total revenue of a single bus in a day. Another important aspect is reusability, which helps use ticket multiple times as it is rechargeable.

  3. NOC AND BUS ARCHITECTURE: A COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJEEV KAMAL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Network-on-chip designs promise to offer considerable advantages over the traditional bus-based architecture. As continuing scaling of Moore’s law enables ever greater transistor densities, design complexity, power limitations and application convergence networks have started to replace busses in much smaller systems and the enhancement of NoC. This paper summarizes the advantages of the NoC and the limitations of traditional bus based architecture. In this paper we discuss a detailed comparison of area, power, scalability andperformance of traditional busses in comparison with NoC.

  4. Bus Network Modeling Using Ant Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Eshragh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bus transit network modeling is a complex and combinatorial problem. The main purpose of this paper is to apply a contemporary method for designing a bus transit network with the objective of achieving optimum results. The method is called Ant Algorithms, a Meta Heuristic method, which has been applied to optimization problems in transportation with noticeable success. The description of the algorithm, as well as the main methodology and computations, is presented in this paper. Furthermore, a case study using Ant Algorithms applied to the city of Ghazvin, one of the most important suburbs of Tehran, Iran, is presented.

  5. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska; Jadwiga Siedlecka; Elżbieta Gadzicka; Agata Szyjkowska; Marta Dania; Piotr Viebig; Marcin Kosobudzki; Alicja Bortkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years). Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before...

  6. Implementing a Large Data Bus VLIW Microprocessor

    OpenAIRE

    Weng F. Lee; Ali Y.M. Shakaff

    2008-01-01

    Microprocessors have grown tremendously in its computing and data crunching capability since the early days of the invention of a microprocessor. Today, most microprocessors in the market are at 32 bits, while the latest microprocessors from IBM, Intel and AMD are at 64 bits. To further grow the computational capability of a microprocessor, there are two possible paths. One method is to increase the data bus size of the microprocessor to 128/256/512 bits. The larger the data bus size, the mor...

  7. BHLS, Bus, tram: tesi, antitesi, sintesi.

    OpenAIRE

    López Lambas, Maria Eugenia; Valdés Serrano, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Il sistema di trasporto detto Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) è stato lanciato a Curitiba, in Brasile, nel 1974 per offrire un trasporto in bus efficiente ed efficace nella città in rapida espansione. Questa sperienza, insieme a quella di Ottawa (1983) e Quito (1994) ha dimostrato di essere una soluzione molto efficiente per il trasporto di massa. Per tutta l’Europa si sono iniziate a sviluppare esperienze simili, introducendo però un concetto diverso per quanto riguarda la qualità di servizio. In...

  8. Design of E-City Bus Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar Shinde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available E-city bus tracking system will serve as a viable notification system that will effectively assist passengers in making the decision of whether to wait for the bus or not. This system is a standalone system designed to display the real-time location(s of the buses with the use of GSM module technology. The system will consist of an IR transmitter module installed on the buses, receiver boards installed on the bus stops and GSM receiver connected with PC monitoring the whole arrangement. It will also have passenger information system software installed at the bus stops and which will provide user the relevant information regarding all the bus numbers going for his source to destination along with the route details. It will also transmit its bus numbers and route names, with the help of LED transmitter, continuously as soon as the bus comes within the range of the receiver at the bus stop.

  9. Framework for Bus Rapid Transit Development and Deployment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark A.; Yin, Yafeng; Balvanyos, Tunde; Ceder, Avishai

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of its investigation into deployment planning for bus rapid transit systems. In this study, we conducted a macro-scale examination of bus rapid transit systems from technical, operational, institutional, and planning perspectives. We then developed the theoretical foundation for a deployment planning framework for bus rapid transit systems that specifically takes into account the unique features of bus rapid transit that differ from other transit alternatives....

  10. Fourth Generation Reactor Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns over energy resources availability, climate changes and energy supply security suggest an important role for nuclear energy in future energy supplies. So far nuclear energy evolved through three generations and is still evolving into new generation that is now being extensively studied. Nuclear Power Plants are producing 16% of the world's electricity. Today the world is moving towards hydrogen economy. Nuclear technologies can provide energy to dissociate water into oxygen and hydrogen and to production of synthetic fuel from coal gasification. The introduction of breeder reactors would turn nuclear energy from depletable energy supply into an unlimited supply. From the early beginnings of nuclear energy in the 1940s to the present, three generations of nuclear power reactors have been developed: First generation reactors: introduced during the period 1950-1970. Second generation: includes commercial power reactors built during 1970-1990 (PWR, BWR, Candu, Russian RBMK and VVER). Third generation: started being deployed in the 1990s and is composed of Advanced LWR (ALWR), Advanced BWR (ABWR) and Passive AP600 to be deployed in 2010-2030. Future advances of the nuclear technology designs can broaden opportunities for use of nuclear energy. The fourth generation reactors are expected to be deployed by 2030 in time to replace ageing reactors built in the 1970s and 1980s. The new reactors are to be designed with a view of the following objectives: economic competitiveness, enhanced safety, minimal radioactive waste production, proliferation resistance. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) was established in January 2000 to investigate innovative nuclear energy system concepts. GIF members include Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Euratom, France Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States with the IAEA and OECD's NEA as permanent observers. China and Russia are expected to join the GIF initiative. The following six systems

  11. High quality joints of copper bus bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bhattacharyya,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient joints in copper bus bar conductors can be made very simply by bolting and clamping. This paper proposes the method to maximize the jointing efficiency in order to eliminate hot spots in switchgears by optimizing the effect of spreading resistance and interface resistance.

  12. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  13. Implementing a Large Data Bus VLIW Microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng F. Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microprocessors have grown tremendously in its computing and data crunching capability since the early days of the invention of a microprocessor. Today, most microprocessors in the market are at 32 bits, while the latest microprocessors from IBM, Intel and AMD are at 64 bits. To further grow the computational capability of a microprocessor, there are two possible paths. One method is to increase the data bus size of the microprocessor to 128/256/512 bits. The larger the data bus size, the more data can be crunched at any one time. The second method is to implement multiple microprocessor core in a single microprocessor unit. For example, Intel's Pentium 4 Dual Core and AMD's Athlon Dual Core both have two microprocessor core within a single microprocessor unit. Latest from Intel and AMD are quad core microprocessors with four microprocessor core within a single microprocessor unit. Both methods have its advantages and disadvantages. Both methods yields different design issues and have different engineering limitations. This research looks into the possibility of implementing a large data bus size VLIW microprocessor core of 256 bits on the data bus. VLIW is chosen as opposed to CISC and RISC due to its ease of scalability.

  14. School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

  15. An appraisal of QR code use to deliver bus arrival time information at bus stops in Southampton

    OpenAIRE

    Gammer, Nick

    2011-01-01

    The provision of at-stop bus arrival time information has numerous potential benefits to bus users. With real-time passenger information well established in the UK the challenge is relaying accurate bus arrival times to passengers in a cost effective manner. Display screens are costly to install and maintain, rendering placement at all bus stops economically undesirable. QR codes represent an inexpensive alternative to delivering this information, usually at zero marginal cost to users. Q...

  16. Virginia School Bus Driver Training: Does Training Program Adequacy Affect school Bus Accident Rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, James O

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of data provided by the Virginia Departments of Motor Vehicles, Transportation, and Education all show school buses as having a significantly higher number of accidents per hundred million miles of travel than other forms of transportation. Such statistics are alarming and formal study of school bus accident factors has been limited. The purposes of this study were to (a) establish the adequacy of the school bus driver training programs of Local Education Agencies(LEAs...

  17. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  18. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton’s potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  19. Design and Analysis of Virtual Bus Transport Using Synchronous Digital Hierarchy/Synchronous Optical Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented a new data link layer design for the virtual bus architecture. The virtual bus is a hierarchical access network offered a broadcast capability for data and signaling. The proposed of the study is to support Quality of Service (QoS in network. During study, the most promising technology capable of delivering full service access at high data rates is Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH/Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET. For that reason, we develop SDH/SONET as a physical layer for the virtual bus network. The main goal of this investigation was to study the performance of transmission medium and the overall performance of the network. We exemplify a Multiple Access Protocol (MAP with Generic Frame Procedure (GFP for transmitting IP network protocol datagram over SDH/SONET. This is a novel method for transmitting MAP with GFP. The protocol adds multi-terminal access capability to an inherently point-to-point link. It enabled the design of seamless networking environments using SDH/SONET as the transmission medium for Metropolitan Area Network (MAN. The new frame mapping protocol is known as Virtual Bus Transport (VBT. The performance of multiple traffic generators in a virtual bus network is of major interest for mobile network provider. We used OMNeT simulation tool to evaluate the result. Through the simulation it proved that the VBT scheduling technique offers better treatment mainly to the higher Qos requirement traffic.

  20. Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The eGov-Bus project provides citizens and businesses with improved access to virtual public services, which are based on existing national eGovernment Web services and which support cross-border life events. Requirements and specific rules of these life events are considered, and personalization of user preferences is supported. eGov-Bus is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national eGovernment services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The eGov-Bus process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as eGovernment Web services. Further, eGov-Bus relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. The eGov-Bus architecture is business oriented, it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services and providing a Service Bus.

  1. Measurement of Parasitic Inductances in the Bus-Bar Assembly of a High Power Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Aniket; Narayanan, G.

    2016-05-01

    Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) based voltage source converters use copper plates with insulating sheets in between them (sandwich bus-bar arrangement) for connecting the different device terminals in the power circuit. In such converters, the parasitic inductances in the power circuit are crucial as they cause overvoltage spikes across the device. Also, the parasitics affect the current sharing between IGBTs when they are connected in parallel in high power converters. The conduction path through plates and fasteners in the bus-bar assembly is three-dimensional and quite complex, making analytical evaluation of the stray inductance quite challenging. The first objective here is to present a simple experimental setup and experimental procedure, which are convenient for power electronic engineers, to measure the bus-bar inductance. The next objective is to carry out experimental studies on the inductances offered by different components and sub-assemblies in a bus-bar assembly. This includes evaluation of inductances of the different conduction paths in typical bus-bar plates. The third objective is to experimentally evaluate the parasitic inductances in the bus-bar assembly of a commercial 250 kVA high power converter. Each leg of this converter consists of two 300 A/1200 V IGBTs connected in parallel. The effective inductance seen by the individual device modules are determined experimentally.

  2. Testing of Environmental Satellite Bus-Instrument Interfaces Using Engineering Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Donald; Hayner, Rick; Nosek, Thomas; Roza, Michael; Hendershot, James E.; Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the formulation and execution of a laboratory test of the electrical interfaces between multiple atmospheric scientific instruments and the spacecraft bus that carries them. The testing, performed in 2002, used engineering models of the instruments and the Aura spacecraft bus electronics. Aura is one of NASA s Earth Observatory System missions. The test was designed to evaluate the complex interfaces in the command and data handling subsystems prior to integration of the complete flight instruments on the spacecraft. A problem discovered during the flight integration phase of the observatory can cause significant cost and schedule impacts. The tests successfully revealed problems and led to their resolution before the full-up integration phase, saving significant cost and schedule. This approach could be beneficial for future environmental satellite programs involving the integration of multiple, complex scientific instruments onto a spacecraft bus.

  3. Reliability analysis of repairable multi-state system with common bus performance sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an instantaneous availability model for repairable multi-state system (MSS) with common bus performance sharing is proposed. The repairable MSS consists of some multi-state units and a common bus performance redistribution system. Each unit in the system has several performance levels and must satisfy its individual random demand. A unit can transmit the surplus performance to other units in real time through the common bus performance redistribution system, if it has a performance that exceeds its demand. The entire system fails if the demand of any unit is not satisfied. A new method based on the combination of the stochastic process method and the universal generating function technique is suggested to evaluate the instantaneous availability and the mean instantaneous performance deficiency of the proposed repairable MSS. Two examples are given for applications in the end

  4. Contribution of the working group 2 to the fourth evaluation report of the inter government expert group on the climatic change. Evaluation 2007 of the climatic changes: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; Contribution du Groupe de travail 2 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'expert intergouvernemental sur l'evolution du climat. Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: impacts, adaptation et vulnerabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document exposes the results of the fourth evaluation report of the working group II of the inter government experts group on the climatic change. This evaluation presents the today scientific understanding of the climatic change impacts on the humans and their adaptation ability and vulnerability. It is based on the GIEC evaluations and new knowledge added since the third evaluation report. (A.L.B.)

  5. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  6. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 2: Reactor pressure vessel embrittlement and thermal annealing; Reactor vessel lower head integrity; Evaluation and projection of steam generator tube condition and integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Fourth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 21--23, 1996. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Czech Republic, Finland, France, Japan, Norway, Russia and United Kingdom. This volume is divided into the following sections: reactor pressure vessel embrittlement and thermal annealing; reactor vessel lower head integrity; and evaluation and projection of steam generator tube condition and integrity. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  7. Bus Access Optimisation for FlexRay-based Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    -real time communication in a deterministic manner. In this paper, we propose techniques for optimising the FlexRay bus access mechanism of a distributed system, so that the hard real-time deadlines are met for all the tasks and messages in the system. We have evaluated the proposed techniques using...

  8. First remarks on the initiative of conception and evaluation of the safety of the reactors of the fourth generation; Premieres reflexions sur la demarche de conception et d'evaluation de la surete des reacteurs de quatrieme generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Ch.; Maliverney, B.; Mulet-Marquis, D.; Sauvage, J.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Guesdon, B. [Technical Secretary (France); Carluec, B.; Ehster, S. [AREVA NP, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Greneche, D. [AREVA NC, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Anzieu, P. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Fiorini, G.L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Rozenholc, M.; Vitton, F.; Rouyer, J.L

    2007-09-15

    The objectives of the nuclear systems of the fourth generation impose ambitious requirements which concern the sustainable development, the competitiveness, the safety, the reliability, the resistance to proliferation and the physical protection. The examination of the policies of safety applicable to these systems is led at the same moment to the national and international levels. In France, thoughts on the safety is organized within the French consultative group of safety (G.C.F.S.) which collects the industrial actors and of research and development involved in the development of the new systems. Within the framework of the initiatives of international harmonization, the G.C.F.S. suggests defining recommendations common to all the concepts of the fourth generation reactors then on the basis of this neutral frame towards the technologies, establishing specific recommendations for each of the systems. (N.C.)

  9. MICROSAT: A New, Small Satellite Bus Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Courtney

    1989-01-01

    The Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation of North America (AMSAT-NA) is pioneering a new, small satellite bus concept known as "Microsat." The product is roughly a nine inch cube, exclusive of antennas, with five sub-assemblies. Four are standard: radio transmitter(s), radio receiver(s), power system, and onboard computer. The fifth module is reserved for payload or special application hardware. Design goals dictate that the cost of the satellites and the cost and complexity of ground terminal...

  10. BUS 475 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 6 Times, Rating: A+   BUS 475 Capstone Final Examination Part 1   1.    In the managerial function of __________, managers encourage and motivate workers to work toward organizational goals.   2.    eBay.com is a vast auction site that is similar to a competitive market in some ways but differs from it in others. Which of the following describes...

  11. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  12. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  13. Estimation of City Bus Travelers Using GSM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri Mukta Ranjan Singha,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mobile phone connectivity and its transition record can be used as useful information to estimate traffic users on urban roads. Mandatory use of a mobile phone dedicated to the city bus, can help in finding all other mobile phone users who are moving in the same city bus. Because, all the mobile phones will have same transition records with the mobile phone dedicated to the city bus. With this arrangement, at the background and Mobile Phone Network as a background data collection system, we have developed an algorithm to estimate the number city bus on an urban road and around a road junction at a particular time. The algorithm will also show the number of city bus users on urban road and around an urban road junction at a particular time. This estimate will help the urban traffic managers to optimize the city bus flow to minimize traffic congestion.

  14. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiankun Peng; Hao Fan; Hongwen He; Deng Pan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB). In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator) model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area ne...

  15. Study of bus driving parameters on urban route

    OpenAIRE

    Fuad DASHDAMIROV

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with bus traffic time and speed on stage and route in the whole. The factors affecting bus driving parameters are divided into groups. The factors of significant impact are found in each group. The method of consideration of such factors impact on driving parameters in timetable making, is proposed. The extent of impact of selected factors on bus driving time and speed is studied.

  16. TMS communications hardware. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. S.; Hopkins, G. T.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communication system used in the Trend Monitoring System to interconnect intelligent graphics terminals to a host minicomputer is described. The terminals and host are connected to the bus through a microprocessor-based RF modem termed a Bus Interface Unit (BIU). The BIU hardware and the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen-While-Talk protocol used on the network are described.

  17. Efficient multiqubit entanglement via a spin-bus

    CERN Document Server

    Friesen, M; Hu, X; Lidar, D; Biswas, Asoka; Friesen, Mark; Hu, Xuedong; Lidar, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible architecture where controllable long-range couplings between spins are built up from local exchange interactions. The scheme consists of a spin-bus, with strong, always-on interactions, coupled dynamically to external spin qubits. The presence of a spectral gap enables the bus to function as a long-range conduit for spin information. The bus also forms a hub for multiqubit entangling operations. We show how multiqubit gates may be used to efficiently generate $W$-states--an important entanglement resource. In this way, the spin-bus provides an alternate route for scalable solid-state quantum computation, using currently available experimental resources.

  18. Status of the IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus project has been influenced by and has influenced FASTBUS and several other contemporary bus designs. This paper summarizes the current status of that project, which is directed toward the needs of modern 32-bit microprocessor systems with multiple processors. Some of the technology developed for P896 will be important for future non-ECL implementations of FASTBUS and other buses. In particular, new bus drivers and receivers should greatly improve the performance and reliability of backplane buses and cable buses. The current status of the P896 serial bus is also summarized

  19. Examination of an Urban City Bus Operating Conditions and Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Soylu, Seref (Coordinador); Bal, Ayda; Semercioglu, Hulya; Ay, Eyup Fatih

    2010-01-01

    It was observed that real world driving characteristics of the city bus don’t correlate well with that of the ETC, which is the certification cycle for the city bus engines. For this reason it is not realistic to expect emission levels lower than corresponding EURO standards from the city bus during real world driving. City bus NOx emissions in terms of grams per second are increasing with engine load and speed but the total NOx emissions for entire trip are the maximum at the locations whe...

  20. The Software Bus, an Object-Oriented Data Exchange System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Software Bus System, developed for object-oriented task to task communication in a TCP/IP based network. The Software Bus is a set of library functions, developed to be used for the Picasso-3 UIMS, and as a general purpose tool for dynamically interfacing programs at run-time. The Software Bus offers a high level object-oriented data exchange mechanism that relieves the application programmer of the low level TCP/IP-programming and communication protocol handling. The Software Bus is currently available under several UNIX platforms and a version for Windows NT is planned for late 1996. (author)

  1. Multi-Gigabit Rate Radiation Hard Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High speed robust very low power radiation hardened bus interconnects are required to accelerate on-board computations, further improve reconfigurability and...

  2. 76 FR 37393 - FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... project includes elements to conserve energy, such as passive solar heating, solar panels, wind turbines... (49 U.S.C. 5339), both authorized by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient, Transportation Equity... Bus Facilities Program funds, authorized by 49 U.S.C. 5309(b) of the Safe, Accountable,...

  3. Bus bar joints stability and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A

    2009-01-01

    A defective bus connection between two dipole magnets was the primary cause of the incident in sector 34 on September 19th. I will show how this could have happened, i.e. how a highly resistive joint has caused a thermal runaway and burned (or opened) before the QPS threshold was reached. In the second part of the talk I will present the new detection limits for the QPS upgrade of the RB and RQ circuits, required to avoid similar thermal runaways in the future.

  4. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  5. Availability of ARINC 629 Avionic Data Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Gabillon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The three traditional objectives of computer security are confidentiality, integrity and availability. Availability can be defined as the prevention of denial of service. Confidentiality and integrity have been addressed in several theoretical works whereas the concept of availability has not been much investigated by the scientific community. This paper is an attempt to define through a case study the concept of availability. We first define a set of availability constraints that avionic data bus protocols should enforce. Then, we consider the ARINC 629 Basic Protocol (BP and the ARINC Combined Protocol (CP which were implemented on the Boeing 777. We check whether these protocols respect our availability constraints or not.

  6. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  7. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully

  8. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  9. Bus application of oxygen-enrichment technology and diesel-electric hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.

    1993-10-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) mandate very strict limits on particulate, smoke, and other emissions from city buses. The use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol, can help transit operators, such as the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), meet the mandated limits. However, the capital investment needed to convert the fueling infrastructure and buses is large, as is the expense of training personnel. If a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus can be implemented with the help of oxygen-enrichment technology or a diesel-electric hybrid system, this large investment could be postponed for many years. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) initiated this project to evaluate the possibility of applying these technologies to CTA buses. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a limited number of engine tests and computer analyses and concluded that both concepts are practical and will help in a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus that can meet the mandated limits of the CAA amendments. The oxygen enrichment of combustion air depends on the availability of a compact and economical membrane separator. Because the technology for this critical component is still under development, it is recommended that an actual bus demonstration be delayed until prototype membranes are available. The hybrid propulsion system is ready for the demonstration phase, and it is recommended that the CTA and RTA commence planning for a bus demonstration.

  10. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-wei; Wang, Dian-hai

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays. PMID:25759720

  11. The Effect of Working Conditions to the Health Status in Taxi and Bus Drivers in Canakkale, Turkey; Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Uludag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growing taxi and bus driver workforce is at risk for poor health status, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the relationship between working conditions and health status in taxi and bus drivers. Material and Method: This study is a descriptive study. The population of the study was taxi and bus drivers in central of Canakkale. There were total 250 taxi and bus drivers who registered in The Chamber of Canakkale Drivers and Vehicle. We reached the 70 taxi drivers and 93 bus drivers. The participants were visited at their workplace. We performed the questionnaire that include the socio-demografic features, habits, the working conditions. We evaluated the blood pressure, waist-hip measurements and capillary blood glucose at any time. Results: Total of the 163 men drivers were enrolled the study. Nine (12.9% taxi drivers and 6 (6.5% bus drivers were hipertensive, and 1 taxi driver and 2 bus drivers with random capillary blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg. The prevalence of hypertension was 9.2%, diabetes mellitus was 1.8, obesity was 49.4%. Discussion: Drivers have many risk factors for CVD like stress and immobility. In our study, the socio-demografic and working conditions are limited for explaining the risk for hipertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity in drivers in Canakkale. These study have to be done in metropolitan cities. In this aspect, the drivers can be evaluated in their own living spaces and working conditions.

  12. THE FOURTH STATE OF WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Savich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The fourth state of water is aqueous vapor which, under power action of magnetic-field strength at Curie point at the moment of magnetic phase transition, acquires properties of ferroelectric plasma. The latter is the basis of origination of such natural phenomena as a thunderstorm cloud and a ball lightning capable of releasing, under certain conditions, lightning strokes and, during explosion, plenty of thermal energy, which is typical of a low-temperature reactor.

  13. The Fourth Microlensing Planet Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Yock, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The fourth microlensing planet, otherwise known as OGLE-2005-BLG-169Lb, was discovered by a collaboration of US, NZ, Polish and UK astronomers in 2005-2006. Recently the results were confirmed by the Hubble Space Telescope and by the Keck Observatory. OGLE-2005-BLG-169Lb is the first microlensing planet to receive such confirmation. Its discovery and confirmation are described here in an historical context.

  14. Evaluation on Clinical Effect of Microsurgical Treatment of the Fourth Ventricular Tumors%显微手术治疗第四脑室肿瘤的临床效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐建建; 张紫寅; 周建; 马春阳; 王子珍; 黄秋虎

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨显微手术治疗第四脑室肿瘤的临床效果。方法分析2011年1月—2013年12月海南医学院附属医院收治的行显微手术的第四脑室肿瘤35例的临床资料,总结治疗经验。结果35例均行显微手术,8例采用小脑下蚓部入路,23例采用小脑延髓裂入路,4例采用联合入路;病变全切除32例,次全切除3例;术后病理检查显示髓母细胞瘤15例,室管膜瘤10例,血管母细胞瘤及星形胶质细胞瘤各3例,脉络层乳头瘤2例,胶质母细胞瘤和脑膜瘤各1例。术后头晕、步态不稳及脑积水等均有明显改善。术后6个月,卡氏功能状态标准评分60分2例,70分9例,80分17例,90分6例,100分1例。32例术后随访6~36个月,27例生活正常,5例复发(其中2例死亡);3例失访。结论恰当选择手术入路、良好手术技巧及正确处理并发症是增强显微手术治疗第四脑室肿瘤效果的重要因素。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of microsurgical treatment of the fourth ventricular tumors. Methods Clinical data of 35 cases of fourth ventricle tumors operated on in Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College from January 2011 to December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The treatment experience was summarize. Results All the patients underwent microsurgery. 8 patients were operated on by cerebellar vermis approach and 23 patients were operated on by cerebella medulla oblongata approach, and the others by combination approach;32 cases underwent total resection and 3 cases underwent subtotal resection; postoperative pathological examination showed medulloblastoma (15 cases), ependy-moma(10 cases), hemangioblastoma(3 cases), star cutin cell tumor (3 cases), choroid layer papilloma (2 cases), cutin mother cell tumors (1 case) and meningiomas (1 case). Hydrocephalus, dizziness, ataxia symptoms were improved after op-eration. KPS was used to evaluate the patients' situation 6 months after operation; 2 cases with

  15. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  16. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  17. A decentralized software bus based on IP multicas ting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd

    1995-01-01

    We describe decentralized reconfigurable implementation of a conference management system based on the low-level Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting protocol. IP multicasting allows low-cost, world-wide, two-way transmission of data between large numbers of conferencing participants through the Multicasting Backbone (MBone). Each conference is structured as a software bus -- a messaging system that provides a run-time interconnection model that acts as a separate agent (i.e., the bus) for routing, queuing, and delivering messages between distributed programs. Unlike the client-server interconnection model, the software bus model provides a level of indirection that enhances the flexibility and reconfigurability of a distributed system. Current software bus implementations like POLYLITH, however, rely on a centralized bus process and point-to-point protocols (i.e., TCP/IP) to route, queue, and deliver messages. We implement a software bus called the MULTIBUS that relies on a separate process only for routing and uses a reliable IP multicasting protocol for delivery of messages. The use of multicasting means that interconnections are independent of IP machine addresses. This approach allows reconfiguration of bus participants during system execution without notifying other participants of new IP addresses. The use of IP multicasting also permits an economy of scale in the number of participants. We describe the MULITIBUS protocol elements and show how our implementation performs better than centralized bus implementations.

  18. Review of bus drivers' occupational stress and stress prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Di Martino, V.

    1995-01-01

    Although heterogeneous in methodology and content, 32 studies from 13 countries on bus drivers' work and health are similar in their conclusions. Bus-driving–characterized by high demands, low control and low support – can be regarded as a classic example of high-strain occupation, with high risks o

  19. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...

  20. An Overview of Staged-bus Operation in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hesam Hafezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, demand for passenger travel is higher, due to economic growth. Government policy encourages people to use public transportation instead of their private carsto reduce of traffic congestion and air pollution. In the city areas, bus networks are the major part of the public transportation system because they are easily accessible and cheaper compared to other types of public transportation. In this study revelation of details of bus operation included different agents is studied. Bus operations, during provision of their service, have interaction with three main agents: bus agent, passenger agent and traffic agent. Study of the influence of each agent in bus operation is presented in this study, using the macroscopic way.

  1. Improved design of HIRFL-CSR EVME bus controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EVME bus controller which is a key component of the HIRFL-CSR control system was improved. Besides reconfiguring the embedded Linux, a utility program was developed for data exchange between the controller and the database. The bus controller is based on ARM920T(ARM9) micro processor which is BGA packaged. The bus controller has the universal interface of VGA display, keyboard, and mouse. The backboard interface logic is programmed in an in-system configurable FPGA device. The bus can drive high current up to 64 mA, with the flexibility of the programmable signal definitions. All the improved performance helped the EVME bus controller play a crucial role in HIRFL-CSR control system. (authors)

  2. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  3. Search for the fourth standard model family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existence of the fourth family follows from the basics of the standard model (SM) and the actual mass spectrum of the third family fermions. We discuss possible manifestations of the fourth SM family at existing and future colliders. The LHC and Tevatron potentials to discover the fourth SM family have been compared. The scenario with dominance of the anomalous decay modes of the fourth-family quarks has been considered in detail.

  4. A New PWM Modifying Technique for Reconstructing Three-phase Currents from DC Bus Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Shigehisa; Iwaji, Yoshitaka; Tobari, Kazuaki; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi

    Vector control is used to drive a DC brushless motor and generally needs current information. DC bus current detection is often adopted as a low cost method for reconstructing three-phase currents. PWM modifying techniques increase the DC pulse duration, thereby enabling easy detection of the DC bus current. However, these techniques have two problems: reducing a noise frequency and making the reconstructed current waveforms distorted by current ripple. In the techniques, modification signals are added to the three-phase voltage commands; the sum of the signals over a single cycle is zero. The authors examined several PWM modifying techniques from the points of view of noise and current distortion performance. One of the techniques had a good noise performance, and the frequency component of the noise was the same as the carrier frequency (fc). However, the reconstructed current waveforms were distorted. The total harmonic distortion (THD) varied from 1.7% to 4.1%. Another technique had a very poor noise performance, and the frequency component on the noise was one-fourth of fc. The authors developed a new PWM modifying method called “Half Pulse Shift”, which achieves the optimum noise and current distortion performance. The frequency component of the new method was two-thirds of fc, and the current waveforms were not distorted; the THD in the simulations and experiments was 0.5%-1.4% and 3.4%-3.6%, respectively.

  5. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  6. The fourth Board of Governors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency at its fourth regular session, which was held in Vienna from 20 September to 1 October 1960, elected five Member States to serve a two-year term on the Agency's Board of Governors. The five were Argentina, El Salvador, the Federal Republic of Germany, Iraq and Thailand. The new members succeed Indonesia, the Netherlands, Peru, the United Arab Republic and Venezuela, which were elected for a two-year term by the second session of the General Conference in 1958

  7. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttell, Peter D.; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2014-11-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections for the homogeneous case, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realization of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  8. The fourth dimension simply explained

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Henry P

    2005-01-01

    To remove the contents of an egg without puncturing its shell or to drink the liquor in a bottle without removing the cork is clearly unthinkable - or is it? Understanding the world of Einstein and curved space requires a logical conception of the fourth dimension.This readable, informative volume provides an excellent introduction to that world, with 22 essays that employ a minimum of mathematics. Originally written for a contest sponsored by Scientific American, these essays are so well reasoned and lucidly written that they were judged to merit publication in book form. Their easily unders

  9. Learning through policy tourism: circulating bus rapid transit from South America to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Wood

    2014-01-01

    Study tours, a form of ‘policy tourism’ in which local actors travel elsewhere to see best practice and meet with those in the exporting locality who implemented it, have become a basic tenet for policy exchange. In the pursuit of these lessons, hundreds of South African public transport enthusiasts visited South America, particularly Bogota, to learn of its thriving bus rapid transit (BRT) network. This paper evaluates the influence of these exchanges on BRT circulation and adoption—what tak...

  10. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxia Zheng; Wenji Zhao; Xing Yan; Tongtong Shu; Qiulin Xiong; Fantao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of...

  11. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  12. Status of the FASTBUS standard data bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FASTBUS is a new laboratory standard data bus intended for use in experimental data acquisition and control. The development of FASTBUS began with a feasibility study in 1976, and is presently at the development prototyping stage. The principal aims of the standard are to provide a factor of ten or more improvement in speed of data transfers over present systems, as well as to provide an architecture for systems containing multiple processors. Developmental prototypes now in progress include crates, backplanes, cooling devices, power supplies, test and diagnostic modules, and user modules. A sizeable software development effort is also underway. Several experiments have made commitments to use FASTBUS. A review of current work and potential applications is given. 10 figures

  13. Project survey for trolley-bus transport; Johdinautoliikenteen hankeselvitys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, T.; Eklund, P.; Airaksinen, S.; Maettoe, R.; Laehdetie, A.

    2011-04-15

    To investigate the feasibility and rationality of the revival of trolley bus traffic in Helsinki a full size project plan was conducted for a variety of alternatives. This included a survey on the latest developments of the trolley bus technology, three optional plans for route network, a budgetary level design for a fully functional depot in Koskela bus depot, examination of urban landscape structures, a study on organisational options, particular technical specifications applicable on suitable trolley buses and an examination of the impacts on the environment and on the future development of public transport. The basic concept of a trolley bus as a means of electric public transport vehicle has found its form over the years, but all the components of the system undergo at present intensive development. In context of this survey also the option of a fully autonomous electric bus powered by accumulators or fuel cells and the like was investigated. However, such technology is still totally inadequate for a heavy duty bus. There are no economically competitive and effective systems available as yet. The trolley bu is the far most reliable system and gives the best life cycle economy for a foreseeable future. Earliest estimates for alternative electric technologies in regular bus service are viable just after one investment cycle some time beyond 2030. Then it should be possible to run without the support of a comprehensive overhead line. The latest achievements in the development of trolley bus are auxiliary engine and accumulator systems allowing for more autonomous propulsion. Nowadays, trolley buses are equipped with an auxiliary power unit that alleviates the traditional restrictions of the overhead line. The modern trolley bus may run short distances without the trolley lines. Recuperation of the kinetic energy at deceleration (braking) either into the overhead line network or by storing it in the vehicle is one of the characteristics of modern trolley buses

  14. Inter operability of smart field devices on an open field-bus: from laboratory tests to on-site applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a field trial held in EDF's R and D laboratories concerning smart field instruments (sensors, I/O modules, transmitters) operating on the WorldFIP field-bus. The trial put into operation a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on the field-bus with available industrial field devices and software tools. The field trial enables EDF's teams to address the inter-operability issue regarding smart field devices and to prepare the forthcoming step from analog to fully digital measurement technology by evaluating new services and higher performances provided. Possible architectures for process control and on-site testing purposes have been identified. A first application for a flow-measuring rig is under way. It implements a WorldFIP field-bus based DCS with FIP/HART multiplexers, FIP and HART smart devices (sensors and actuators) and a field management system. (authors)

  15. DWPF Melter No.2 Prototype Bus Bar Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization and performance testing of a prototype DWPF Melter No.2 Dome Heater Bus Bar are described. The prototype bus bar was designed to address the design features of the existing system which may have contributed to water leaks on Melter No.1. Performance testing of the prototype revealed significant improvement over the existing design in reduction of both bus bar and heater connection maximum temperature, while characterization revealed a few minor design and manufacturing flaws in the bar. The prototype is recommended as an improvement over the existing design. Recommendations are also made in the area of quality control to ensure that critical design requirements are met

  16. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion. PMID:22321902

  17. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  18. Gravitational lensing in fourth order gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; Troisi, A

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is investigated in the weak field limit of fourth order gravity in which the Lagrangian of the gravitational field is modified by replacing the Ricci scalar curvature R with an analytical expression $f(R)$. Considering the case of a pointlike lens, we study the behaviour of the deflection angle in the case of power law Lagrangians, i.e. with f(R) = f_0 R^n. In order to investigate possible detectable signatures, the position of the Einstein ring and the solutions of the lens equation are evaluated considering the change with respect to the standard case. Effects on the amplification of the images and the Paczynski curve in microlensing experiments are also estimated.

  19. Impact of a walking school bus program on children’s active commuting to school and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walking School Bus (WSB) pilot program was evaluated to determine the impact on student’s Active Commuting to School (ACS) and moderate-to vigorous- physical activity (MVPA). We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 8 low income, elementary schools in Houston, TX, USA. Students (n=149) wer...

  20. Rfid-Based Automatic Bus Ticketing: Features and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudah, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advancements in various technologies have made remarkable developments in various fields for public welfare and public transport is one such area. In the near future public bus transport system with advanced technologies like Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), GSM, GPS, ZigBee and RF modules will gain spotlight due to their advantage of higher convenience and greater life standards as compared to the conventional bus systems. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all several proposed bus ticketing and bus information methods has been presented in detail. The study brings out improved solution in terms of cost, convenience, user satisfaction and future implementation. The choice of working modules and their efficient performance has been discussed along with the highlighted importance of the need of technology for welfare of common public and visually impaired.

  1. Constant of heat conduction and stabilization of bus bar conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, G.

    Using the one-dimensional, time-independent conduction state, a constant of heat conduction is given bringing about the known stabilization theorem and a closed expression for the bus bar to be cryogenically stable in superconducting accelerators.

  2. Bus Passenger Recognition and Track of Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Zhou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is a research aiming at realizing making a statistics on passenger flow volume of bus, which not only helps traffic services center rationally schedule vehicles, but also can avoid overload. The system makes machine vision technology and digital image processing technique applied in customer counting of bus. The key questions in the study include effective collection of video image, effective extraction of moving object in sequence images, recognition of moving targets, trace and count of moving objects. The paper makes deep analysis on relevant technology from the perspective of the theory and practical application of the algorithm, and the study makes achievements. The theoretical algorithm for the study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is distinctive. The practical experiments indicate that the system can satisfy the real-time requirements, and can accurately make statistics on the number of passengers, which has great application value.

  3. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  4. Optimal control system of the intermittent bus-only approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Jiang; Yulin Chang

    2014-01-01

    To guarantee bus priority with a minimum impact on car traffic at intersections, an optimal control system of the intermittent bus-only approach (IBA) was proposed. The problems of the existing system are first solved through optimization: the judgment time of the IBA system was advanced to allow a bus to jump car queues if the bus was detected to arrive at the intersection, and the instant that the IBA lane became available to cars was controlled dynamically to increase the capacity of the IBA lane. The total car delay in one cycle was then analyzed quantitatively when implementing the optimal control system. The results show that in comparison with the existing system of the IBA, the car delay is greatly reduced and the probability of a car stopping twice is low after optimizing the IBA system.

  5. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qiqi Wang; , Wei Zhang; Rendong Yang; Yuanxiu Huang; Lin Zhang; Peishan Ning; Xunjie Cheng; Schwebel, David C; Guoqing Hu; Hongyan Yao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China. Methods We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city) were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicte...

  6. Modelling traffic incidents to support dynamic bus fleets management for sustainable transport

    OpenAIRE

    Polyviou, Polyvios

    2011-01-01

    The continuous implementation of highly technological functions and specifically intelligent transport systems in public transport highlights the need of highly efficient, accurate and reliable bus operations network. Intelligent transport systems can support a variety of functions, including dynamic bus fleet management which has yet to be established in most bus fleets in the UK in a systematic way. In order to support dynamic bus fleet management by detecting the fundamental role of bus an...

  7. Bus designs for time-probabilistic multicore processors

    OpenAIRE

    Jalle Ibarra, Javier; Kosmidis, Leonidas; Abella Ferrer, Jaume; Quiñones Moreno, Eduardo; Cazorla Almeida, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic Timing Analysis (PTA) reduces the amount of information needed to provide tight WCET estimates in real-time systems with respect to classic timing analysis. PTA imposes new requirements on hardware design that have been shown implementable for single-core architectures. However, no support has been proposed for multicores so far. In this paper, we propose several probabilistically-analysable bus designs for multicore processors ranging from 4 cores connected with a single bus, t...

  8. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Neeta Pandey; Bharat Choudhary; Kirti Gupta; Ankit Mittal

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL) tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are id...

  9. A FPGA-based serial BUS test system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serial BUS test system was introduced, it can use to analyze the errors of electrical and protocol. The test system is composed of two parts: electronics and software. The electronics include: impedance match electronics, signal conditioning electronics, AD convert electronics, FPGA DAQ electronics and USB interface. The software is divided into following blocks: firmware of FPGA and USB, USB driver, BUS protocol algorithm, operation and display interface. (authors)

  10. Fourth Lepton Family is Natural in Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Imagine to discover a new fourth family of leptons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) but no signs of an associated fourth family of quarks. What would that imply? An intriguing possibility is that the new fermions needed to compensate for the new leptons gauge anomalies simultaneously address the...... structure with and without mixing with the Standard Model families. We also analyze the LHC potential to observe the fourth lepton family in tandem with the new composite Higgs dynamics. We finally introduce a model uniting the fourth lepton family and the technifermion sector at higher energies....

  11. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  12. Bus Routes, CTran Bus routes, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  13. Low-floor bus design preferences of walking aid users during simulated boarding and alighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James; Steinfeld, Edward; Bareria, Piyush

    2012-01-01

    Low-floor buses represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with limited mobility. However, there is still a need for research on the inclusive design of transit buses to identify specific low-floor bus design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging for passengers with functional and mobility impairments. These include doorway locations, seating configuration and the large front wheel-well covers that collectively impact boarding, alighting and interior movement of passengers. Findings from a laboratory study using a static full-scale simulation of a lowfloor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with and without walking aids are presented (n=41). Simulated bus journeys that included boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting were performed. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty. The need for assistive design features (e.g. handholds, stanchions), legroom and stowage space for walking aids was evident. These results demonstrate that specific design conditions in low-floor buses can significantly impact design preference among those who use walking aids. Consideration of ergonomics and inclusive design can therefore be used to improve the design of low-floor buses. PMID:22317485

  14. Bias of averages in life-cycle footprinting of infrastructure: truck and bus case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-11-18

    The life-cycle output (e.g., level of service) of infrastructure systems heavily influences their normalized environmental footprint. Many studies and tools calculate emission factors based on average productivity; however, the performance of these systems varies over time and space. We evaluate the appropriate use of emission factors based on average levels of service by comparing them to those reflecting a distribution of system outputs. For the provision of truck and bus services where fuel economy is assumed constant over levels of service, emission factor estimation biases, described by Jensen's inequality, always result in larger-than-expected environmental impacts (3%-400%) and depend strongly on the variability and skew of truck payloads and bus ridership. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emission factors for diesel trucks in California range from 87 to 1,500 g of CO2 equivalents per ton-km, depending on the size and type of trucks and the services performed. Along a bus route in San Francisco, well-to-wheel emission factors ranged between 53 and 940 g of CO2 equivalents per passenger-km. The use of biased emission factors can have profound effects on various policy decisions. If average emission rates must be used, reflecting a distribution of productivity can reduce emission factor biases. PMID:25321067

  15. Combined Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm Approach to Bus Network Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Olszewski, Piotr; Goh, Pong-Chai

    A new method - combined simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithm (GA) approach is proposed to solve the problem of bus route design and frequency setting for a given road network with fixed bus stop locations and fixed travel demand. The method involves two steps: a set of candidate routes is generated first and then the best subset of these routes is selected by the combined SA and GA procedure. SA is the main process to search for a better solution to minimize the total system cost, comprising user and operator costs. GA is used as a sub-process to generate new solutions. Bus demand assignment on two alternative paths is performed at the solution evaluation stage. The method was implemented on four theoretical grid networks of different size and a benchmark network. Several GA operators (crossover and mutation) were utilized and tested for their effectiveness. The results show that the proposed method can efficiently converge to the optimal solution on a small network but computation time increases significantly with network size. The method can also be used for other transport operation management problems.

  16. Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of the Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium was to explore the impact of current developments in nuclear medicine on absorbed dose calculations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting including the edited discussion that followed the presentations. Topics that were addressed included the dosimetry associated with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and blood elements, ultrashort-lived radionuclides, and positron emitters. Some specific areas of discussion were variations in absorbed dose as a result of alterations in the kinetics, the influence of radioactive contaminants on dose, dose in children and in the fetus, available instrumentation and techniques for collecting the kinetic data needed for dose calculation, dosimetry requirements for the review and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, and a comparison of the effect on the thyroid of internal versus external irradiation. New models for the urinary blader, skeleton including the active marrow, and the blood were presented. Several papers dealt with the validity of traditional ''average-organ'' dose estimates to express the dose from particulate radiation that has a short range in tissue. These problems are particularly important in the use of monoclonal antibodies and agents used to measure intracellular functions. These proceedings have been published to provide a resource volume for anyone interested in the calculation of absorbed radiation dose

  17. ANALISIS SARANA ANGKUTAN UMUM BUS DAMRI DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhan Rizal Amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the availability and use of public transportation by taking a case study of the Damri bus which has Ngaliyan-Pucanggading route. The availability of public transport is not comparable to the demand for public transportation services so that the problems of transportation emerge. Additionally, the use of public transport becomes an important factor to develop the transportation. The study is conducted by surveying the Damri passengers of B.04 lane and logistic regression is used for the analysis. The method of determining the needs of transportation is issued by Departemen Perhubungan. It is used to calculate and determine whether the public transportation should be added or reduced. Then, the factors used as the independent variables in the analysis are the Damri’s safety, effectiveness, efficiency, service and reliability. The results show that Perum Damri does not need to add more Damri bus for B.04 because the results’ calculation is 0.6. and the factors that significantly influence the use Damri bus is the variable of safety, effectiveness and efficiency. However, the variables of service and reliability do not significantly influence the use of B.04 Damri bus.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ketersediaan dan penggunaan angkutan sarana angkutan umum penumpang dengan mengambil studi kasus pada bus Damri jalur dengan trayek Ngaliyan-Pucanggading. Ketersediaan sarana angkutan umum yang tersedia tidak sebanding dengan besarnya permintaan akan jasa angkutan umum oleh masyarakat umum sehingga muncul permasalahan transportasi. Di samping itu, penggunaan angkutan umum yang beroperasi menjadi faktor penting dalam upaya pengembangan sarana transportasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode survey terhadap para penumpang bus Damri jalur B.04 dan dianalisis dengan Regresi Logistik. Metode penentuan kebutuhan armada dikeluarkan oleh Departemen Perhubungan yang digunakan untuk menghitung apakah suatu

  18. Contribution of the the working group 1 to the fourth evaluation report of the intergovernmental experts group on the climate evolution. Evaluation 2007 of the climatic changes the physical scientifical bases. Abstract for the deciders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the progresses in the knowledge of the scientifical understand of the natural and human causes of the climatic change. It is based on the GIEC evaluations and the last six years of research with scenario and simulations. (A.L.B.)

  19. Systems Prototyping with Fourth Generation Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtys, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    The development of information systems using an engineering approach that uses both traditional programing techniques and fourth generation software tools is described. Fourth generation applications tools are used to quickly develop a prototype system that is revised as the user clarifies requirements. (MLW)

  20. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  1. Comparative evaluation of self-etching primers with fourth and fifth generation dentin-bonding systems on carious and normal dentin substrates: An in vitro shear bond strength analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giriyappa, Ramesh H; Chandra, B Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that bonding to caries-affected dentin would yield strengths that are lower than bond strengths achievable when bonded to normal dentin. Dentin-bonding systems used in this study were fourth and fifth generation as well as self-etching primers. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary molars were selected of which 24 were caries-affected teeth and the remaining were noncarious teeth. Random sampling was...

  2. Comparative evaluation of self-etching primers with fourth and fifth generation dentin-bonding systems on carious and normal dentin substrates: An in vitro shear bond strength analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giriyappa Ramesh; Chandra B

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that bonding to caries-affected dentin would yield strengths that are lower than bond strengths achievable when bonded to normal dentin. Dentin-bonding systems used in this study were fourth and fifth generation as well as self-etching primers. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary molars were selected of which 24 were caries-affected teeth and the remaining were noncarious teeth. Random sampling wa...

  3. High Performance BDR for the PCU of AlphaBus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrier, Laurent; Besdel, Patrick; Daubresse, Thierry; Trehet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Very high-power satellites for Telecom missions require 100V bus. Some Telecom payloads may be used in TDMA mode with a power modulation up to 30% of the Payload power. Full performance of the PCU is required in this case even in eclipse mode. It is clear that this requirement is very demanding especially for the BDR design.100V bus system leads making this requirement more difficult as Bus and Battery short-circuit protections have to operate under a voltage of 100V. This paper describes first the overall BDR design with a special focus on the innovative battery short-circuit protection that is not achieved by a "classical" series SSPC on the battery line.The constraints brought by the TDMA mode are detailed, especially on the input filter of the BDR in presence of large battery inductance. The solution developed to cope with large TDMA current is then presented with the associated TDMA performance.

  4. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The presence of numerous local spatial constraints makes the process and extent of epidemic spreading extremely difficult to predict. Also, majority of the studies have focused on the contagion processes on scale-free network topologies whereas, spatially-constrained real-world networks such as, bus networks exhibit a wide-spectrum of network topology. Therefore, we aim in this study to understand this complex dynamical process of epidemic outbreak and information diffusion on the bus networks for six different Indian cities usin...

  5. Can propulsion and fuel diversity for the bus fleet achieve the win–win strategy of energy conservation and environmental protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We first report WTW energy and environmental impacts of new-energy buses in China. • Both CNGV and BEV eliminate petroleum use but increase the burden of other fossil fuels. • BEV is the best to reduce WTW NOX and VOC emissions but no benefit for PM2.5 and SO2. • CNGV has PM2.5 emission reductions by 70% greater than DV but no benefit in GHG emissions. • HEV is the only option that can reduce energy use and pollutant emissions at the same time. - Abstract: China is facing serious issues involving energy sufficiency, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution caused partly by the rapid growth of vehicles. In order to relieve those problems, new energy vehicles are introduced into the bus and car market. We adopt life cycle analysis to evaluate the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy consumption, CO2 emissions and pollutant emissions from the traditional diesel bus and new energy buses, including diesel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), compressed natural gas vehicles (CNGVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This study reports the current situation and projects future scenarios for the BEV bus for several regions in China due to significant regional differences in the power generation mix. Compared to the diesel bus, the HEV bus can reduce petroleum, fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions by about 20%, and, at the same time, produce stable reduction benefits for all air pollutants. The CNG bus achieves reductions of WTW primary PM2.5 emissions by 70% over its diesel counterpart and, of course, uses little petroleum; but increases fossil fuel consumption moderately and has no benefit in GHG emissions. The BEV bus can deliver a substantial petroleum consumption advantage and greatly reduce the WTW NOX, VOC and CO emissions; but, if the electricity is generated from burning coal, the BEV bus has no PM2.5 emission benefit compared to the conventional diesel bus. Currently, the BEV bus increases fossil energy use and CO2 emissions in the coal

  6. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  7. On-chip bus standards in a broadcast architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Romaguera i Restudis, Josep-Oriol

    2012-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] This final project has been developed in the School of Electrical Engineering (in Aalto University) and its main goal is to value whether AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture) is a good option to develop an on-chip broadcast architecture. To carry it out, various alternatives are taken in account: use full AMBA (with all its signals), use CAN (Controller Area Network) bus instead of AMBA, and use modified AMBA (using only the signals that will be used). Once one alternativ...

  8. Fuzzy logic control for active bus suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study an active controller is presented for vibration suppression of a full-bus suspension model that use air spring. Since the air spring on the full-bus model may face different working conditions, auxiliary chambers have been designed. The vibrations, caused by the irregularities of the road surfaces, are tried to be suppressed via a multi input-single output fuzzy logic controller. The effect of changes in the number of auxiliary chambers on the vehicle vibrations is also investigated. The numerical results demonstrate that the presented fuzzy logic controller improves both ride comfort and road holding.

  9. Instrumentation bus systems and communication methods for DNBPS fast controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostics Neutral Beam (DNB) injector requires different type of controllable power supplies, to be operated in predefined sequence; hence demands for a complex control system. Instrumentation and control (I and C) is to be opted considering design feasibility and maintainability over a long life span of experiment. One of the most important standards for I and C is the computer bus, which is needed for the selection of input and output (I/O) devices, CPU boards and other components. This paper summarizes the various I/O bus and communication methods among interconnected sub systems with reference to DNB power supply control system. (author)

  10. Persecution as a Theme in Isaac Bashevis Singer's The Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Minzhi

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Bashevis Singer is very much concerned about the fate of Jewish people,so he often presents Jews'sufferings in his literary works.The Bus,by means of describing the narrator's experiences during a bus tour through Spain,in different dimensions reinforces the destructive impact of persecution that Jews have gone through.Moreover,he implies such persecution is not merely confined between Jews and the Gentile,but also spreads among the whole human beings who hold differet beliefs.

  11. The fourth state of water

    OpenAIRE

    E.V. Savich

    2013-01-01

    Четвертое состояние воды – это водяной пар под энергетическим воздействием напряженности магнитного поля в точке Кюри, в момент магнитного фазового перехода обретает свойство сегнетоэлектрической плазмы, которая есть основа образований таких природных явлений, как грозовое облако и шаровая молния, способных при определенных условиях выделять молнийные разряды и при взрыве большое количество тепловой энергии, что характерно для низкотемпературного реактора. The fourth state of water is aque...

  12. Handle Fireworks with Care on The Fourth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fourth Take steps to avoid injury while celebrating independence To use the sharing features on this page, ... a university news release. And Dr. Jay McCollum, director of emergency services at the university's Eye Hospital, ...

  13. Fourth Moments and Independent Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Jari; Taskinen, Sara; Nordhausen, Klaus; Oja, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    In independent component analysis it is assumed that the components of the observed random vector are linear combinations of latent independent random variables, and the aim is then to find an estimate for a transformation matrix back to these independent components. In the engineering literature, there are several traditional estimation procedures based on the use of fourth moments, such as FOBI (fourth order blind identification), JADE (joint approximate diagonalization of eigenmatrices), a...

  14. Improving student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Putnam, Robert F; Handler, Marcie W; Ramirez-Platt, Christina M; Luiselli, James K

    2003-01-01

    We describe a multicomponent intervention to improve bus-riding behavior of students attending an urban public school. The intervention was developed with technical assistance consultation that emphasized collaboration among students, school personnel, and bus drivers. The primary intervention procedures were identifying appropriate behaviors during transportation ("bus rules"), training bus drivers to deliver positive reinforcement, and rewarding student performance through a weekly school-b...

  15. MSCT findings in a controlled bus bombing using a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nikolaj Friis

    2009-01-01

    pig's position in the bus at the time of detonation. 1 of the pigs was rigged as a suicide bomber while the others were individually placed as passengers and bus driver inside the bus alongside dummies. Measurements of the blast force and fast speed video recordings were made during the detonation...

  16. Bus Operations for Pupil Transportation. "Chrome-Yellow and Red Lights."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannels, Morris W.

    This paper is based on a committee report of the last National School Bus Conference on "Minimum Standards for School Buses." Standards for school bus operations are included for (1) administrators, (2) supervisors, (3) school bus drivers, (4) student passengers, and (5) maintenance and service personnel. The report deals also with procedures for…

  17. DETERMINATION OF THE DELAY DEPARTURE TIME OF THE BUS FROM STOPPING POINT INTO THE CAR FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for estimation of the bus departure delax from the bus stopping point after passenger loading is presented. The model allows to take into account the traffic density on a particular road section of the transport network, as well as the bus parameters.

  18. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  19. Comparative evaluation of self-etching primers with fourth and fifth generation dentin-bonding systems on carious and normal dentin substrates: An in vitro shear bond strength analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giriyappa Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that bonding to caries-affected dentin would yield strengths that are lower than bond strengths achievable when bonded to normal dentin. Dentin-bonding systems used in this study were fourth and fifth generation as well as self-etching primers. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary molars were selected of which 24 were caries-affected teeth and the remaining were noncarious teeth. Random sampling was done with eight teeth in each group based on the bonding system used. In caries-affected teeth, the soft, stainable, caries-infected dentin was excavated using a caries detector dye whereas the hard, caries-affected, nonstainable dentin was retained. All the teeth were subsequently mounted in a suitable acrylic mould. Prepared teeth were restored with a single composite resin, using three different dentin bonding systems. These prepared specimens were transferred to a Hounsfield tensometer to measure the shear bond strength. The results obtained were analyzed using Anova, Student′s unpaired t-test, and Student Neuman Keulis test. Results: The results showed that the self-etching primer required the highest mean shear load compared to the fifth and fourth generation dentin-bonding systems in both normal dentin and caries-affected dentin. Conclusion: Bond strength to dentin depends on whether the dentinal tubule is open or occluded. Within the limitations of this study, it was observed that bond strength to caries-affected dentin was low compared to normal dentin.

  20. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  1. Platform Screen Doors Enhanced Bus Rapid Transit Intelligent Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghua Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is the last straw to clutch at to solve the urban traffic issue, to develop high-capacity rapid transit and promote transit priority. Characterized by low cost, short construction cycle and flexible development, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has been favored by more and more cities in the world. The Platform Screen Doors (PSDs system is an important component at BRT stations, and it is original motive to be designed to satisfy the growing demand from BRT application to provide increased safety and comfort in the first. With the continual increased demand for BRT intelligent performance, the PSDs system is applied to get Bus Location Information with accurate position of arrival and departure at stop, to provide Real-Time Information (RTI for BRT passengers using PSDs/GPS compound location technology, to put into practice Bus Fleet Management (BFM. Considering the capability of accurate location, it can be applied to actualize Bus Sign Priority in the future. The authors are luck to take in part the practice of BRT system, especially in the BRT intelligent systems, the papers will introduce upwards application and conceive in detail.

  2. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes of...

  3. What's Happening on the School Bus Performance Front?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Hanford L.

    The most urgent order of business in the national scene is to complete the development of a series of new performance tests for school bus bodies and chassis to establish a benchmark for safe construction that can be verified by independent testing agencies. Such performance tests should incorporate the new Federal Joint Strength Efficiency…

  4. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    questionnaire in 1978 regarding psychosocial factors and health. The prevalence of frequent low back pain was 57%. In a control group of 195 motormen the prevalence was 40%. Standardized Morbidity Ratio for bus drivers discharged from hospital during the period 1978-1984 with the diagnosis lumbar disc...

  5. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  6. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  7. Measurements on and simulations of a biogas-fuelled bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical models for torque/fuel consumption and emissions have been studied for a biogas-fuelled bus used in urban traffic in Linkoeping, Sweden. It is noted that the cycle ECE R-49 is not representative for city buses, but that the Braunschweig cycle gives rather good agreement. 2 refs, 37 figs

  8. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  9. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  10. Significance of Phébus-FP results for plant safety in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Prototypicality of Phebus is unique for severe accident integral code assessment. • MELCOR and SCDAP show good simulation capability. • Phebus revealed knowledge gaps concerning organic iodine source. • Complementary studies seek to reduce uncertainties. • New engineering technology is developed to resolve organic iodine issue. - Abstract: Switzerland, in common with other countries, uses source term estimates to formulate emergency plans in the unlikely event of an accident with release of activity to the environment. In the past estimates have typically been based on conservative treatments of the accident sequence, necessitated by the limited validation status of models used for the phenomena that control the reactor accident evolution. Although analyses using best-estimate tools frequently indicated substantially smaller releases – knowledge and data were insufficient to place reliance on the methods or the calculated results. The Phébus programme is unique in providing a source of integral transient data on fission product release, transport and chemical behaviour under prototypic conditions, capturing the entire portfolio of processes – transport, material and chemical – and their causal interaction. To this day, no other source of such data is available. These data provide a means to assess, improve and validate methods for source term evaluation and establish the needs for establishing new processes to mitigate the source term. There are strong synergies and complementarities between the Phébus project, the International Source Term Project, the iodine-related studies at PSI and the aerosol retention projects at PSI, and current moves toward improved management/mitigation of severe accidents. The Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Swiss utilities running five nuclear power plants share in the findings. The need to strengthen the foundation on which we perform best

  11. The Naturalness of the Fourth SM Family

    CERN Document Server

    Sultansoy, S

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of the fourth family follows from the SM basics. According to flavor democracy the Dirac masses of the fourth SM family fermions are almost equal with preferable value 450 GeV, which corresponds to common (for all fundamental fermions) Yukawa coupling equal to SU(2) gauge coupling gW. In principle, one expect u4 a little bit lighter than d4, while nu4 could be essentially lighter than l4 due to Majorana mass terms for right-handed components of neutrinos. Obviously, the fourth family quarks will be copiously produced at the LHC. However, the first indication of the fourth SM family may be provided by early Higgs boson observation due to almost an order enhancement of the gluon fusion to Higgs cross-section. For the same reason the Tevatron still has a chance to observe the Higgs boson before the LHC. Concerning the fourth family leptons, in general, best place will be NLC/CLIC. However, for some mass regions and MNS matrix elements double discovery of both the nu4 and H could be possible at the ...

  12. The Fourth R: A School-Based Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Wolfe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.

  13. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment ...

  14. Improving student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Robert F; Handler, Marcie W; Ramirez-Platt, Christina M; Luiselli, James K

    2003-01-01

    We describe a multicomponent intervention to improve bus-riding behavior of students attending an urban public school. The intervention was developed with technical assistance consultation that emphasized collaboration among students, school personnel, and bus drivers. The primary intervention procedures were identifying appropriate behaviors during transportation ("bus rules"), training bus drivers to deliver positive reinforcement, and rewarding student performance through a weekly school-based lottery. Disruptive bus behaviors, as measured by discipline referrals and suspensions, decreased with intervention relative to baseline phases in an ABAB reversal design. These positive results were maintained over the long term, with school personnel assuming responsibility for intervention in the absence of ongoing consultation. PMID:14768676

  15. Implementation of an AMBA Advanced High Performance Bus protocol IP block

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Vucha Sandeep Magarde; Miss. Shruti Bhargava; Rishabh Singh Kurmi

    2011-01-01

    The design of an AMBA advanced high performance bus (AHB) protocol IP block is presented in this paper. The AHB (Advanced High-performance Bus) is a high-performance bus in AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture) family. This AHB can be used in high clock frequency system modules. The AHB acts as the high-performance system backbone bus. AHB supports the efficient connection of processors, on-chip memories and off-chip external memory interfaces with low-power peripheral macro cell f...

  16. Control of a three-phase four-wire shunt-active power filter based on DC-bus energy regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro; Luna, A.; Liserre, Marco

    This paper presents a nonconventional three-phase four-wire shunt active power filter (APF) topology controlled by using an energy approach. A general study of power terms involved in the operation of the four-wire APF is conducted in order to evidence the relationship between instantaneous energ...... the energy-state of its DC-bus. The method has been experimentally tested on a four leg APF based on a neutral-point-clamped DC bus. Such topology allowed the test of the most general case, including harmonics and imbalance in utility voltage and in load currents....... stored in the DC bus and active power requirements on the APF. Harmonics and imbalances both on the utility voltage and load current have been considered and the power developed by the active power filter has been evaluated. This study allows designing a controller for the APF based on the regulation of...

  17. Fourth International Seminar and Fourth National Workshop 'Use and development of Health Related Industrial Isotope Products'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the main subjects was tackled during the Fourth International Seminar and Fourth National Workshop 'Use and development of Health Related Industrial Isotope Products' which took place on December 7th, 8th and 9th 2010, devoted to the XV Anniversary of the Isotope Centre is showed in the paper.(author)

  18. A Fourth Chiral Generation And Susy Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Wingerter, Akin

    2011-01-01

    We revisit four generations within the context of supersymmetry. We compute the perturbativity limits for the fourth generation Yukawa couplings and show that if the masses of the fourth generation lie within reasonable limits of their present experimental lower bounds, it is possible to have perturbativity only up to scales around 1000 TeV, i.e. the current experimental bounds and perturbative unification are mutually exclusive. Such low scales are ideally suited to incorporate gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, where the mediation scale can be as low as 10-20 TeV. The minimal messenger model, however, is highly constrained. Lack of electroweak symmetry breaking rules out a large part of the parameter space, and in the remaining part, the fourth generation stau is tachyonic.

  19. Design of a CAN bus interface for photoelectric encoder in the spaceflight camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Wan, Qiu-hua; She, Rong-hong; Zhao, Chang-hai; Jiang, Yong

    2009-05-01

    In order to make photoelectric encoder usable in a spaceflight camera which adopts CAN bus as the communication method, CAN bus interface of the photoelectric encoder is designed in this paper. CAN bus interface hardware circuit of photoelectric encoder consists of CAN bus controller SJA 1000, CAN bus transceiver TJA1050 and singlechip. CAN bus interface controlling software program is completed in C language. A ten-meter shield twisted pair line is used as the transmission medium in the spaceflight camera, and speed rate is 600kbps.The experiments show that: the photoelectric encoder with CAN bus interface which has the advantages of more reliability, real-time, transfer rate and transfer distance overcomes communication line's shortcomings of classical photoelectric encoder system. The system works well in automatic measuring and controlling system.

  20. Fourth Ventricular Schwannoma: Identical Clinicopathologic Features as Schwann Cell-Derived Schwannoma with Unique Etiopathologic Origins

    OpenAIRE

    Allan H. Friedman; Senthil Radhakrishnan; Cummings, Thomas J.; June Tibaleka; Shahid M. Nimjee; Karikari, Isaac O.; Hodges, Tiffany R.

    2011-01-01

    Background. To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the literature of fourth ventricular schwannoma. The etiology and natural history of intraventricular schwannomas is not well understood. A thorough review of potential etiopathogenic mechanisms is provided in this case report. Case Description. A 69-year-old man presented with an incidentally found fourth ventricular tumor during an evaluation for generalized weakness, gait instability, and memory disturbance. Magnetic resonanc...

  1. Empirical Assessment on Factors Affecting Travel Time of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergyanto E Gunawan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the century, many cities around the world adopt the bus rapid transit (BRT system to fulfill their need of mass transportation system. The system features with platform-level boarding, bus lanes in the central verge of the road, off-vehicle fare collection, and physically protected busway. So far, these criteria are considered to be the most important aspects with respect to the BRT performance. In this research, we intend to study to what extent the BRT performance may be affected by the interference of the mixed traffic during the BRT operation. We adopt an empirical approach by observing the phenomenon unfolding in the eleven TransJakarta BRT corridors. The TransJakarta BRT operates in the city of Jakarta, the capital of the Republic of Indonesia. We record the travel time data from station to station for the case where the TransJakarta bus can travel smoothly and the case where the traveling bus is interfered with the mixed traffic. For the cases, we evaluate the travel time variation. As the results, we found that the Corridor 1 of TransJakarta BRT has the best performance in term of the travel time variation. For the two directions, the corridor has the mean travel time of 34 min, the standard deviation of 3 min, and the travel time variation of 8%. On this corridor, the mixed-traffic interference is relatively negligible. On the Corridor 7, the two-direction travel times have the mean of 45 min, the standard deviation of 8 min, and the travel time variation of 16%. On the Corridor 9, the twodirection travel times have the mean of 1 hr and 25 min, the standard deviation of 11 min, and the travel time variation of 14%. On the last two corridors, the busways are heavily interfered by the mixed traffic; thus, the end-to-end travel times are significantly uncertain although only very few road segments are interfered. The research leads us to a conclusion that the interference, although only occurs on a road segment, may

  2. Energy efficiency analysis of a series plug-in hybrid electric bus with different energy management strategies and battery sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Recuperation and fuel-to-traction efficiencies are analyzed for a PHEV powertrain. • Two different energy controls are compared in terms of the two efficiencies. • Impact of battery downsizing on the two efficiencies is quantified. • Convex modeling and optimization are used to analyze the powertrain. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with the tank-to-wheel (TTW) analysis of a series plug-in hybrid electric bus operated in Gothenburg, Sweden. The bus line and the powertrain model are described. The definition and the calculation method of the recuperation and fuel-to-traction efficiencies are delineated for evaluating the TTW energy conversion. The two efficiencies are quantified and compared for two optimization-based energy management strategies, in which convex modeling and optimization are used. The impact of downsizing the battery on the two efficiencies is also investigated

  3. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  4. Fourth-Generation Computer Languages: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, John

    1988-01-01

    Points out that mainframe computer users today can make their requirements known to the computer in simple English. Provides a listing of fourth generation computer language advantages over third generation languages. Summarizes a program to streamline faculty records on a mainframe computer. (MVL)

  5. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  6. Fourth Dutch Process Security Control Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Zielstra, A.

    2010-01-01

    On December 1st, 2009, the fourth Dutch Process Control Security Event took place in Baarn, The Netherlands. The security event with the title ‘Manage IT!’ was organised by the Dutch National Infrastructure against Cybercrime (NICC). Mid of November, a group of over thirty people participated in the

  7. Implementation of I 2C Master Bus Protocol on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regu Archana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on I 2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit protocol interface between Master Bus protocol and slave. Here we are interfacing between micro-controller and DS1307. I 2C bus protocol sends 8 bit data from micro-controller to DS1307. This module was designed in VHDL and simulated and synthesized using Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.2. I 2C and optimized for area and power. This concept is widely applicable from any high speed device or low speed device to any low speed device or high speed device. This module acts as a slave for the DS1307 at the same time acts like a master for the micro-controller device which can be considered as a slave. . It can be used to interface low speed peripherals like motherboard, embedded system, mobile phones, set top boxes, DVD, PDA’s or other electronic devices.

  8. Design of CAN Bus Application in the Process of Papermaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisheng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the design of can bus application in the process of papermaking. The design for an intelligent measure and control system based on the technology of CAN bus, is applied to detect and control the concentration of wood-pulp, the temperature of multistage dryer and other parameters in the process of papermaking, in order to meet the control requirements and characters for the study quality and ensure paper even and cohesive under the course of manufacturer. The intelligence of measure and control system has been predominantly researched in the article, including the proposal of intelligent control node and communication model, the design of hardware interface circuit in the intelligent measure and control node and the design of whole system.

  9. Leveraging Bus Mobility to Enable Communications in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Gaito, Sabrina; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that the deployment of an opportunistic network on any public transportation system leads to obtain a scalable and efficient urban communication platform. We use the term Bus Switched Networks (BSNs) to indicate this urban backbone that complements the services of 3G networks and enables to meet the application level requirements for a large class of applications by ensuring high delivery ratio and acceptable delays under different conditions of packet load. We sustain these arguments by providing three contributions. The first contribution is a novel and lightweight probabilistic routing protocol for BSN which we prove to be highly effective in satisfying the loose QoS required by urban-wide delay-tolerant information services. The second contribution is the proposal of URBeS, an analysis platform that, given a specific city served by public transportation, produces real bus mobility traces and traffic analysis for any given routing protocol. The last contribution is an extensive benchmark a...

  10. Hardware Engines for Bus Encryption: A Survey of Existing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Elbaz, R; Sassatelli, G; Guillemin, P; Anguille, C; Bardouillet, M; Buatois, C; Rigaud, J B

    2011-01-01

    The widening spectrum of applications and services provided by portable and embedded devices bring a new dimension of concerns in security. Most of those embedded systems (pay-TV, PDAs, mobile phones, etc...) make use of external memory. As a result, the main problem is that data and instructions are constantly exchanged between memory (RAM) and CPU in clear form on the bus. This memory may contain confidential data like commercial software or private contents, which either the end-user or the content provider is willing to protect. The goal of this paper is to clearly describe the problem of processor-memory bus communications in this regard and the existing techniques applied to secure the communication channel through encryption - Performance overheads implied by those solutions will be extensively discussed in this paper.

  11. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  12. StarBus+: Distributed Object Middleware Practice for Internet Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-Min Wang; Yu-Feng Wang; Yang-Bin Tang

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, the booming of Internet challenges the middleware in three aspects: quality of service,balance of changes and stabilization, and across-Internet integration. This paper presents our work on distributed object computing middleware technology for these challenges, as well as the research and development on StarBus+, which is a CORBA standard-compliant middleware suite with the features such as object request broker supporting multi-* quality of service, component model, and integration with Web Service. This paper comprehensively presents the design and characteristics of StarBns+, and demonstrates how StarBus+ is enhanced to address the challenges of Internet computing through three case studies: inter-enterprise integration over Internet, application evolution through dynamic reconfiguration,and great massive information system building. The paper also suggests some research directions which are important for Internet computing.

  13. THE DESIGN OF VMEBUS BRIDGE CONTROLLER WITH SHARC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Wu Shunjun; Su Tao

    2005-01-01

    Targeting at the high expense and inflexibility to realize VMEbus bridge controller by professional Integrated Circuit (IC), this paper presents a scheme of adopting CPLD/FPGA (Complicated Programmable Logic Device/Field Programmable Gate Array) to design bridge controller between VMEbus and local bus. SHARC DSP (Digital Signal Processor) bus is an example. It has functions of nearly entire master/slave interface of VMEbus, and can act as DMA (Direct Memory Access) controller and perform block transfer in DMA or master processor initiative way without length limit. External circuit of the design is very simple. In comparison with special ICs, it has high performance to price ratio and can be easily applied to local buses of other processors with quite a little modification.

  14. BUS 501(str) UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 3 Times, Rating: A Business - General Business Assignment 4: Technical and Cost or Price Evaluations and Price Reasonableness Due Week 8 and worth 130 points Imagine that you are a government employee (or military personnel). You have received a proposal from a contractor for a two-billion-dollar ($2,000,000,000) project for the purchase of fifty (52) towers to be installed on the Arizona-Mexico...

  15. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The pres...

  16. Crack detection sensor layout and bus configuration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In crack detection applications large sensor arrays are needed to be able to detect and locate cracks in structures. Emerging graphene-oxide paper sensing skins are a promising technology that will help enable structural sensing skins, but in order to make use of them we must consider how the sensors will be laid out and wired on the skin. This paper analyzes different sensor shapes and layouts to determine the layout which provides the preferred performance. A ‘snaked hexagon’ layout is proposed as the preferred sensor layout when both crack detection and crack location parameters are considered. In previous work we have developed a crack detection circuit which reduces the number of channels of the system by placing several sensors onto a common bus line. This helps reduce data and power consumption requirements but reduces the robustness of the system by creating the possibility of losing sensing in several sensors in the event that a single wire breaks. In this paper, sensor bus configurations are analyzed to increase the robustness of the bused sensor system. Results show that spacing out sensors in the same bus as much as possible increases the robustness of the system and that at least 3 buses are needed to prevent large segments of a structure from losing sensing in the event of a bus failure. This work is a preliminary effort toward enabling a new class of ‘networked materials’ that will be vitally important for next generation structural applications. ‘Networked materials’ have material properties related to information theoretic concepts. An example material property is ‘bandwidth’ per unit of material that might indicate the amount of information the material can provide about its state-of-health. (paper)

  17. System investigation H2 bus fleet (technology, regulations, future development)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cooperation with Ansaldo Ricerche, ICIL have compiled a technical catalogue, providing the impartial descriptions, both of existing technology and regulations, and the likely future developments of these, as to remedy the first problem faced by a potential hydrogen bus fleet operator viz the absence of an impartial description of the available vehicle and fuels systems together with the absence of a description of regulatory and safety factors which need consideration. (orig.)

  18. Scheduling with Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Doboli, Alex; Pop, Paul;

    2000-01-01

    of control. Our goal is to derive a worst case delay by which the system completes execution, such that this delay is as small as possible; to generate a logically and temporally deterministic schedule; and to optimize parameters of the communication protocol such that this delay is guaranteed. We......, generates an efficient bus access scheme as well as the schedule tables for activation of processes and communications....

  19. Leveraging Bus Mobility to Enable Communications in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gaito, Sabrina; Maggiorini, Dario; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that the deployment of an opportunistic network on any public transportation system leads to obtain a scalable and efficient urban communication platform. We use the term Bus Switched Networks (BSNs) to indicate this urban backbone that complements the services of 3G networks and enables to meet the application level requirements for a large class of applications by ensuring high delivery ratio and acceptable delays under different conditions of packet load. We sustain these ...

  20. The Designing Bus for Nuclear Safety Class Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is based on the IEEE 802.3 standard as one of the communication which is the I/O (Input/Output), sensors and communication function of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in industry and factory environment use is increasing. The Nuclear Safety Class Controller implemented by the EtherCAT applied bus can be shown the improving performance of data transmission in the controller

  1. Damping torque analysis for DC bus implemented damping control

    OpenAIRE

    W. Du; WANG, HAIFENG; Ju, P.; Dunn, R

    2010-01-01

    Damping torque analysis is a well-developed technique for understanding and studying power system oscillations. This paper presents the applications of damping torque analysis for DC bus implemented damping control in power transmission networks in two examples. The first example is the investigation of damping effect of shunt VSC (Voltage Source Converter) based FACTS voltage control, i.e., STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator) voltage control. It is shown in the paper that STATCOM voltag...

  2. New Long-Distance Bus Terminals in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    A. Saxinger; M. Nachtsheim

    2014-01-01

    For many decades long-distance busses were never of great importance in Germany. This part of public transport was almost exclusively provided by railway transportation. Legally, railway transportation was protected from competition. Applications for long-distance bus line concessions had no chance of success.However the amendment of the German Federal Passenger Transportation Act to 1st January 2013 liberalized the German market for long-distance busses significantly. Entrepreneurs still nee...

  3. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    men in the same age group. The incidence of all manifestations of peptic ulcer disease among bus drivers did not differ from the incidence among Danish men. Of occupational and psycho-social factors, wage dissatisfaction and smoking showed statistically significant association with hospital discharge...... with PU in a 6 3/4-year period. Job dissatisfaction, stress symptoms and lack of some social network factors tended to increase the risk of hospital discharge with PU....

  4. A simplified model for scheduling services on auxiliary bus lines

    OpenAIRE

    Codina Sancho, Esteve; Montero Mercadé, Lídia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical programming based model is described to assist with the schedule of services for a set of auxiliary bus lines that operate alleviating a disruption of the regular transportation system during a given time period. In contrast to other models, considered static, service schedules are set taking into account demand fluctuations that may happen in that time period. Passenger flows are represented with a multi-commodity structure and disseminate throug...

  5. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  6. FAKTOR PENYEBAB KERUSAKAN SISTEM MESIN PADA BUS APTB PPD

    OpenAIRE

    Laela Chairani; Yulita Veranda Usman; Nur Yulianti Hidayah

    2015-01-01

    Comfort and safety of public transportation, particularly APTB PPD buses, becomes high expectations for its customers. Those expectations must be supported by the application of a good engine maintenance system. By using the method of Reliability Centered Maintenance may be determined appropriate actions to mitigate damage. From the analysis known the failures of the APTB PPD bus are malfunctions of the fuel engine, power transfer systems, difficulty to move the gear lever, and lubricating sy...

  7. Oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Santella, R. M.; Šrám, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 617, - (2007), s. 23-32. ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA AV ČR 1QS500390506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : oxidative stress * bus drivers * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  8. Modelling urban bus transport emissions in Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, James; Avila, Jordi Mirabent

    2010-01-01

    This study described and focuses on the public transport bus system in Santiago de Cuba. Specifically we explore the fuel consumption of the various diesel buses over a three year period from 2007 to 2009 and with a forecast for the forthcoming years. The study considers the potential for fuel savings through a variety of methods which are each described and then modelled. Pollution is also calculated for a variety of scenarios and some suggestions are made in order to lower the overall...

  9. Market brief : the alternative fuels bus market in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2003, alternative fuel bus technologies in India were valued at approximately $1.5 billion. There are an estimated 600,000 buses in India, of which 21 per cent are owned by public transit. Bus production is currently 33,000 per year and increasing at 4 per cent annually. The main alternative fuel bus technologies include fuel cells, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Since urban centres in India are among the most polluted in the world, demand for these technologies is strong. India is ranked fifth in the world in terms of vehicles converted to natural gas. In 2003, New Delhi switched from diesel to CNG fuel for buses but has faced challenges because there is no well-developed underground distribution system and refilling times are long due to weak pressure at fueling stations. India's new $28 million fuel cell bus development project aims to place 8 fuel cell powered buses with the Delhi Transport Corporation. This market brief describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. It describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers listed the companies that buy alternative fuel buses in India. Considerations for market-entry in India were also outlined

  10. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    OpenAIRE

    Jeongyong Kim; Inho Song; Woongchul Choi

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a bat...

  11. Hardware Engines for Bus Encryption: a Survey of Existing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Elbaz, Reouven; Torres, Lionel; Sassatelli, Gilles; GUILLEMIN, Pierre; Anguille, Claude; Bardouillet, Michel; Buatois, Christian; Rigaud, Jean-Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    The widening spectrum of applications and services provided by portable and embedded devices bring a new dimension of concerns in security. Most of those embedded systems (pay-TV, PDAs, mobile phones, etc...) make use of external memory. As a result, the main problem is that data and instructions are constantly exchanged between memory (RAM) and CPU in clear form on the bus. This memory may contain confidential data like commercial software or private contents, which either the end-user or th...

  12. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  13. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  14. The Data Acquisition System Based on PMC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Igarashi, Y; Higuchi, T; Ikeno, M; Inoue, E; Itoh, R; Kodama, H; Murakami, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakao, M; Nakayoshi, K; Saitoh, M; Shimazaki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tanaka, M; Tauchi, K; Varner, G; Yamauchi, M; Yasu, Y; Katayama, T; Watanabe, K; Ishizuka, M; Onozawa, S

    2003-01-01

    High energy physics experiments in KEK/Japan rush into over KHz trigger stage. Thus, we need a successor of the data acquisition(DAQ) system that replaces the CAMAC or FASTBUS systems. To meet these needs, we have developed a DAQ system which includes a crate, base-board modules, daughter cards for front-end A/D or T/D conversion, and back-end communication cards for data transfer and timing control. The size of the crate is for the 9U Euro-cards with the standard VME32 bus and extension connectors for power supply. The base-board comprises of a local bus with the sequencer connected to the front-end daughter cards via event buffering FIFOs, and the standard PMC (PCI mezzanine card) bus to be set a PMC processor unit to reduce data size from the front-end daughter cards. A data transfer module, which is connected to the event building system, and a trigger control unit, which communicates with the central timing controller are installed on the back-end communication card connected to the rear end of the base-...

  15. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  16. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Wang

    Full Text Available To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China.We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicted bus driver violations.The incidence of illegal stopping at bus stations was 20.2%. Illegal stopping was less frequent on weekends, sunny days, and at stations with cameras, with adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs of 0.81, 0.65 and 0.89, respectively. The incidence of violating traffic light signals was 2.2%, and was lower on cloudy than sunny days (adjusted IRR: 0.60. The incidence of distracted driving was 3.3%. The incidence of distracted driving was less common on cloudy days, rainy or snowy days, and foggy/windy/dusty days compared to sunny days, with adjusted IRRs of 0.54, 0.55 and 0.07, respectively.Traffic violations are common in bus drivers in urban China and they are associated with the date, weather, and presence of traffic cameras at bus station. Further studies are recommended to understand the behavioral mechanisms that may explain bus driver violations and to develop feasible prevention measures.

  17. Capacity models on expressway near a bus bay stop with an access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪宾; 孙小端; 贺玉龙; 宇仁德

    2015-01-01

    To determinate the expressway capacity near a bus bay stop with an access, capacity models on the expressway near a bus stop with an access were developed on the basis of gap acceptance theory and queuing theory. Depending on a bus stop position to an entrance or an exit ramp, the capacity models were developed for four cases. Bus bay stops with overflow and bus bay stops without overflow were considered. A comparison of simulation experiment and model calculation was carried out. Results show that the suggested models have high accuracy and reliability, at bus arrival rate below 60 vehicles per hour (veh/h) or vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit below 200 passenger cars units per hour (pcu/h), and there are no significant difference in the capacities for four cases. When bus arrival rate is above 240 veh/h, the capacities of all four cases will decline rapidly. With berth number increasing, the increasing of the capacities is no obvious for four cases. As the bus arrival rate and vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit increase, bus stops located downstream of an entrance and upstream of an exit have a remarkably effect on the capacities. The latter case is much heavier than the former. Those results can be used to traffic design and optimization on urban expressway near a bus stop with an access.

  18. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model. PMID:26214001

  19. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust and its implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary study measured Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the resuspendable fraction of settled dust on 39 bus lines, to evaluate the impact of engine type (gasoline and compressed natural gas) on exposure for commuters and drivers. Benzo(b)fluoranthene(BbF) was the predominant PAH in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust. The concentration of total PAHs was 92.90 ± 116.00 μg/g (range: 0.57–410) in gasoline buses and 3.97 ± 1.81 (range: 2.01–9.47) in compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. Based on Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalent concentrations for the sum of 16 PAHs, the average daily dose (ADD) via dust ingestion and dermal contact was calculated. The ADD of PAHs was higher for commuters and drivers in gasoline-powered buses than in buses using CNG buses. For both short and long duration journeys, young commuters were exposed to higher levels of PAHs via dust ingestion and dermal contact than adult commuters. - Highlights: • Resuspendable fraction of settled dust from microenvironment of buses in Harbin monitored for PAHs exposure assessment. • Higher levels of PAHs pollutants at gasoline-powered buses than at compressed natural gas-powered buses. • Non-occupational and occupational exposures in the microenvironment of buses are assessed. - Occupational and non-occupational exposure to PAHs from the microenvironment of bus

  20. Life cycle cost analysis of a car, a city bus and an intercity bus powertrain for year 2005 and 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international economy, in the beginning of the 20th century, is characterized by uncertainty about the supply and the price of oil. Together with the fast decrease of electrical propulsion component prices, it becomes more and more cost effective to develop vehicles with alternative powertrains. This paper focuses on two questions: Are alternative powertrains especially cost effective for specific applications?; How does an increased fossil fuel price influences the choose of powertrain? To assess these questions, a computer tool named THEPS, developed in a Ph.D. project, is used. Three applications and three scenarios are analysed. The applications, a car, a city bus and an intercity bus, are vehicles all assumed to operate in Sweden. One scenario represents year 2005, the other two year 2020. The two future scenarios are characterized by different fossil fuel prices. The study, presented in the paper, indicates that alternative powertrains can be competitive from a cost perspective, in some applications, already in year 2005. It is for example cost effective to equip a city bus, running in countries with a high fuel price, with a hybrid powertrain. The study also indicates that pure electric, hybrid and/or fuel cell cars will probably be a more cost effective choice than conventional cars in year 2020. Another indication is that it will not be clear which powertrain concept to choose. The reason is that many cost effective powertrain concepts will be offered. The best choice will depend on the application

  1. Standard Bus System on Accelerator and the Possibility of Its Application in P3TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usually accelerator in the research and applied laboratory already used standard bus system on their control systems. In the beginning several laboratories uses CAMAC system and then gradually use to VME or VXI bus such as at Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) in VA USA, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) in Tsukuba Japan, and National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Upton, NY, USA. On China since pre-requirement it has been decided to use VME bus. EPICS program have been developed in the world for physics experiment, VME bus control system. P3TM needs to study VME bus and its availability on the market, also to make collaboration with EPICS user and try to obtain it if standard bus for control system is to be considered. (author)

  2. Identification of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durlav Hazarika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several online methods were proposed for investigating the voltage stability condition of an interconnected power system using the measurements of voltage and current phasors at a bus. For this purpose, phasor measurement units (PMUs are used. A PMU is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electrical network, using a common time source (reference bus for synchronisation. This study proposes a method for online monitoring of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables namely – (i real power, (ii reactive power and (iii bus voltage magnitude at a bus. The measurements of real power, reactive power and bus voltage magnitude could be extracted/captured from a smart energy meter. The financial involvement for implementation of the proposed method would significantly lower compared with the PMU-based method.

  3. Complex motion of a shuttle bus between two terminals with periodic inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus serving repeatedly between two terminals when passengers come periodically at two terminals A and B. The period and phase of the periodic inflow of passengers at terminal A are different from those at terminal B. The dynamic behavior of the bus is highly affected by the difference between two periods and the phase difference. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamics. We present the extended circle map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on the inflow periods, the period difference, the phase difference, and the loading parameter. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions. The quasi-periodic motion changes to a chaotic motion by the difference between two periods.

  4. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS, which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus, coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introducing novel functions: asynchronous meter trigger, adaptive slot scheduling, and bitmap-wise retransmission request. Through experiments, we demonstrate that BWM-Bus guarantees higher data success ratio with lower data aggregation time, as well as longer lifetime than WM-Bus standard.

  5. The RRR of the Cu components of the LHC main bus bar splices

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, S; Fessia, P; Principe, R; CERN. Geneva. TE Department

    2010-01-01

    The different LHC main bus bar splice components (bus bar cable, splice U-piece and wedge and bus bar stabilizer) are subjected to different heat treatments (HTs) during bus bar assembly and splice soldering. The influence of soldering HTs on the RRR of the LHC main bus bar cable strands has been determined. The RRR of several splice U-pieces and wedges dismounted from the LHC has been measured. A correlation between the Vickers hardness and the RRR of the high purity Cu profiles has been established. All U-pieces tested that were produced before 2009 have a RRR>200, while the RRR of all wedges and of U-pieces of 2009 production have a much lower RRR. All tests of LHC main bus bar samples performed so far in the laboratory indicate a RRR of approximately 200 or higher.

  6. Gravitational waves in fourth order gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozziello, S.; Stabile, A.

    2015-08-01

    In the post-Minkowskian limit approximation, we study gravitational wave solutions for general fourth-order theories of gravity. Specifically, we consider a Lagrangian with a generic function of curvature invariants . It is well known that when dealing with General Relativity such an approach provides massless spin-two waves as propagating degree of freedom of the gravitational field while this theory implies other additional propagating modes in the gravity spectra. We show that, in general, fourth order gravity, besides the standard massless graviton is characterized by two further massive modes with a finite-distance interaction. We find out the most general gravitational wave solutions in terms of Green functions in vacuum and in presence of matter sources. If an electromagnetic source is chosen, only the modes induced by are present, otherwise, for any gravity model, we have the complete analogy with tensor modes of General Relativity. Polarizations and helicity states are classified in the hypothesis of plane wave.

  7. Twenty-Fourth Meeting of the Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation, 24-25 May 2012, NEA Headquarters, 12 boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France - Summary record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives the summary record of the past 24. Meeting of the Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation: review of the experimental nuclear data activities of relevance to the evaluation projects (NEA Data Bank member countries, Japan, USA, China, Russia), brief progress reports from the evaluation projects and discussion of future plans (ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, TENDL, BROND, CENDL, IAEA), review of final or near-final subgroup reports (subgroups 27 (Prompt photon production from fission products), 28 (Processing of covariance data), 29 (U-235 capture cross-section in the keV to MeV energy region), 31 (Meeting nuclear data needs for advanced reactor systems)), status of ongoing subgroups (subgroups C (High priority request list for nuclear data), 33 (Methods and issues for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance), 34 (Coordinated evaluation of 239Pu in the resonance region), 35 (Scattering angular distribution in the fast energy range), 36 (Reporting and usage of experimental data for evaluation in the resolved resonance region)), proposals for new subgroups, discussions on the opportunity to create a World Wide Evaluated Nuclear Data File/Library, information on conferences and meetings of interest to the nuclear data community

  8. Fourth World Theory: The Evolution of . . .

    OpenAIRE

    Olon F. Dotson

    2014-01-01

    Fourth World theory is a methodology for examining and developing greater understanding of the extent of the distress and abandonment commonly found in the cores of American cities resulting from de-industrialization, historic segregation and discrimination patterns, suburban sprawl, erosion of a viable tax base, racism, inability to embrace the concept of desegregation and civil rights legislation, fear, despair, crumbling infrastructure systems, disinvestment in urban school systems, and en...

  9. Fourth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This publication consists of papers presented at NASA Langley Research Center's fourth workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. Topic considered include: Proving properties of accident; modeling and validating SAFER in VDM-SL; requirement analysis of real-time control systems using PVS; a tabular language for system design; automated deductive verification of parallel systems. Also included is a fundamental hardware design in PVS.

  10. Fourth international conference on Networks & Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Meghanathan, Natarajan; Nagamalai, Dhinaharan; Computer Networks & Communications (NetCom)

    2013-01-01

    Computer Networks & Communications (NetCom) is the proceedings from the Fourth International Conference on Networks & Communications. This book covers theory, methodology and applications of computer networks, network protocols and wireless networks, data communication technologies, and network security. The proceedings will feature peer-reviewed papers that illustrate research results, projects, surveys and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the diverse areas of computer networks & communications.

  11. Flavour democracy calls for the fourth generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued with the help of an illustrative mode, that the inter species hierarchy among the fermion masses and the quark mixing angles can be accommodated naturally in the standard model with (approximate) flavour democracy provided there are four families of sequential quark-leptons with all members of the fourth family having roughly equal masses. The special problem of light neutrino masses (if any) and possible solutions are also discussed. (author). 15 refs

  12. Flavour democracy calls for the fourth generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued with the help of an illustrative model, that the inter species hierarchy among the fermion masses and the quark mixing angles can be accommodated naturally in the standard model with (approximate) flavor democracy provided there are three exactly massless neutrinos and four families of sequential quark-leptons with all members of the fourth family having roughly equal masses. The special problem of light neutrino masses (if any) and possible solutions are also discussed. (author). 22 refs

  13. Flavour Democracy Calls for the Fourth Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, A

    1993-01-01

    It is argued with the help of an illustrative model, that the inter--species hierarchy among the fermion masses and the quark mixing angles can be accommodated naturally in the standard model with (approximate) flavor democracy provided there are four families of sequential quark--leptons with all members of the fourth family having roughly equal masses. The special problem of light neutrino masses (if any) and possible solutions are also discussed.

  14. Art meets mathematics in the fourth dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Lipscomb, Stephen Leon

    2014-01-01

    To see objects that live in the fourth dimension we humans would need to add a fourth dimension to our three-dimensional vision. An example of such an object that lives in the fourth dimension is a hyper-sphere or “3-sphere”. The quest to imagine the elusive 3-sphere has deep historical roots: medieval poet Dante Alighieri, in his circa 1300 AD Divine Comedy, used a 3-sphere to convey his allegorical vision of the Christian afterlife. In 1917, Albert Einstein visualized the universe, at each instant in time, as a 3-sphere. He described his representation as “…the place where the reader’s imagination boggles. Nobody can imagine this thing.” Over time, however, our understanding of the concept of dimension evolved. By 2003, a researcher had successfully rendered into human vision the structure of a 4-web (think of an every increasingly-dense spider’s web). In this text Stephen Lipscomb takes his innovative dimension theory research a step further, using the 4-web to reveal a new partial image of a...

  15. Fourth-rank gravity and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the consequences of describing the metric properties of space-time through a quartic line element. The associated ''metric'' is a fourth-rank tensor Gμυλπ. In order to recover a Riemannian behaviour of the geometry it is necessary to have Gμυλπ = g (μυgλπ). We construct a theory for the gravitational field based on the fourth-rank metric Gμυλπ. In the absence of matter the fourth-rank metric becomes separable and the theory coincides with General Relativity. In the presence of matter we can maintain Riemmanianicity, but now gravitation couples, as compared to General Relativity, in a different way to matter. We develop a simple cosmological model based on a FRW metric with matter described by a perfect fluid. For the present time the field equations are compatible with kOBS = O and ΩOBS tCLAS approx. 1020t PLANCK approx. 10-23s. Our final and most important result is the fact that the entropy is an increasing function of time. When interpreted at the light of General Relativity the treatment is shown to be almost equivalent to that of the standard model of cosmology combined with the inflationary scenario. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig

  16. Telling time in the Fourth Gospel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H. Neyrey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available When we begin the task of telling time in the Fourth Gospel, we bring something not found in any previous study, namely, a model of time articulated by cross- ultural anthropologists (Bordieu, in Pitt-Rivers 1963:55-72, Ayoade, in Wright 1984:71-89. As much as we admire Davies’ study, she has no notes to her chapter on time nor any citations in her bibliography to indicate that she has any conversation partners, much less cultural experts, a deficit to be filled in this study. Learning to tell time entails three theoretical considerations: a definition of time, key classifications of it, and special attention to what the ancients meant by past, present and future. With these lenses we are prepared to do as thorough a study as we can on telling time in the Fourth Gospel. As we consider each classification, we will suggest a brief meaning of it from the experts on time, then present a body of Greco-Roman materials illustrative of the classification, and finally use it to gather and interpret data in John. Proving the native existence of these classifications for telling time in antiquity is essential for readers to have a background against which to compare their usage with that of the Fourth Gospel.

  17. “HEALTH & PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AMONG S.T. BUS DRIVERS IN MAHARASHTRA"

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash Sadashiv Rane

    2016-01-01

    In State transport bus is one of the main mode of public transport in Maharashtra State. S.T. Bus Drivers have common complaints like gastro-intestinal problems, acute headaches, back pain, neck related problem, knee pain, burning sensation and watering in their eyes. Occupational stress is one of the hazard for many bus drivers. For the present study 100 S. T. drivers were selected through purposive and random sample selection technique. Information pertaining to the present research work ha...

  18. Modeling and simulation of thirty bus system with D-STATCOM for power quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkata Kishore

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with power quality improvement of thirty bus system using D-STATCOM. The thirty bus system is modeled using the elements of simulink. This model is used for conducting the simulation studies. The simulation results of the thirty bus system with and without D-STATCOM are presented. Power Quality improvement is observed by adding D-STATCOM in the existing network.

  19. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Jerman; Maja Meško

    2016-01-01

    Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from differ...

  20. The Bus Extension Module Design and Verification of POSAFE-Q Using LVDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the Bus Extension Module using Low Voltage Differential Signal (LVDS). A Bus Extension Module use Safety-Related PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), called POSAFE-Q (made by POSCO ICT), for handling many data (I/O) extension rack. A processor module of POSAFE-Q can control I/O Module installed another rack. This paper explains Bus Extension Module and Data transfer technology using LVDS. (author)

  1. Best Operational and Maintenance Practices for City Bus Fleets to Maximize Fuel Economy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In most large cities in developing countries, buses continue to be the public transport option of choice, carrying a large share of urban travelers. However, transit bus companies in these countries are often cash-strapped. In many cases, the operating cost per bus kilometer exceeds revenues and bus fares are often kept low irrespective of the cost of providing service. Many cities are dom...

  2. Field-bus based control-management integrated system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and types of the field-bus as well as its application in Nuclear Power Plant are discussed in this paper, and a new control-management integrated system for nuclear power plant that is based on field-bus is put forward. Analysis and study is carried out in terms of the hierarchy and architecture, network protocol and field-bus type and data information flow. (authors)

  3. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Hyderabad

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda; Maddali Sai Satya Goutham

    2014-01-01

    Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS). Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BR...

  4. Reducing carbon emissions by introducing electric vehicle enhanced dedicated bus lanes

    OpenAIRE

    Doolan, Ronan; Muntean, Gabriel-Miro

    2014-01-01

    Most cities have special lanes dedicated to buses, however these lanes are rarely used at full capacity. At the same time governments around the world are encouraging people to buy electric vehicles. This paper proposes the creation of electric vehicle enhanced dedicated bus lanes (E-DBL), by allowing electric vehicles access to bus lanes, in order to improve the use of road capacity. By opening bus lanes to electric vehicles, traffic congestion could be eased, the range ...

  5. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang-il Hwang; Sung-wook Nam

    2014-01-01

    Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS), which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus), coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introdu...

  6. A Prediction System Using a P2P Overlay Network for a Bus Arrival System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Hsuan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of times and the surge of metropolitan populations, government agencies often promote the construction of public transport. Unlike rail transportation or rapid transit systems, it is often difficult to estimate the vehicle arrival times at each station in a bus transportation system due to metropolitan transportation congestion. Traffic status is often monitored using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, WSNs are always separated from one another spatially. Recent studies have considered the connection of multiple sensor networks. This study considers a combination view of peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks and WSN architecture to predict bus arrival times. Each bus station, which is also a P2P overlay peer, is connected in a P2P overlay network. A sensor installed in each bus can receive data via peers to obtain the moving speed of a bus. Then, each peer can exchange its data to predict bus arrival times at bus stations. This method can considerably increase the accuracy with which bus arrival times can be predicted and can provide traffic status with high precision. Furthermore, these data can also be used to plan new bus routes according to the information gathered.

  7. Bus Routes, Prince George's County "The Bus" Bus Routes, Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Prince George's County Office of Information Technology and Communications.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  8. Bus Stops, Prince George's County "The Bus" Bus Stop locations., Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Prince George's County Office of Information Technology and Communications.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  9. Medical Evaluation of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children. Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, 2d Session. Committee Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    This paper reports a medical evaluation of a federal program providing funds for special nutritious food supplements to low income pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children up to four years of age who are nutritional risks. Growth, dietary intake, and biochemical measures were obtained for study infants at the time of enrollment in the…

  10. Calculation of the fourth-rank molecular hypermagnetizability of some small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagola, G. I.; Caputo, M. C.; Ferraro, M. B.; Lazzeretti, P.

    2004-05-01

    A computational scheme has been developed within the framework of Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory to evaluate nonlinear interaction energy contributions for a molecule in the presence of an external spatially uniform, time-independent magnetic field. Terms connected with the fourth power of the perturbing field, representing the fourth-rank hypermagnetizabilities of five small molecules, have been evaluated at the coupled Hartree-Fock level of accuracy within the conventional common-origin approach. Gaugeless basis sets of increasing size and flexibility have been employed in a numerical test, adopting two different coordinate systems to estimate the degree of convergence of theoretical tensor components.

  11. Lead levels in the workers blood at the Toluca bus terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out in order to detect the levels of lead in blood in exposed workers to the lead in their place of work, in the Toluca bus terminal. The measurement of the levels of lead in blood was carried out in a sample of 31 people of 60 workers for atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead is a general protoplasmic poison that is accumulative and produce great variety of symptoms, the lead could be absorbed inside the body for ingestion, inhalation and through the skin. Organic compounds of the lead as tetraethyl lead, penetrate the cutaneous barrier quickly. From the beginning the personal habits were evaluated, hygienic, nutritious and the environmental conditions by means of a questionnaire. The levels of lead in opposing blood, they were below them you limit permissible for personal exposed, published by the WHO. (Author)

  12. Communication in quantum networks of logical bus topology

    CERN Document Server

    Brougham, T; Jex, I

    2009-01-01

    Perfect state transfer (PST) is discussed in the context of passive quantum networks with logical bus topology, where many logical nodes communicate using the same shared media, without any external control. The conditions under which, a number of point-to-point PST links may serve as building blocks for the design of such multi-node networks are investigated. The implications of our results are discussed in the context of various Hamiltonians that act on the entire network, and are capable of providing PST between the logical nodes of a prescribed set in a deterministic manner.

  13. Distributed Data Acquisition and Control by Software Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecil Bruce-Boye; Dmitry A. Kazakov

    2004-01-01

    Increasing global competition forces manufacturers of products from all technical fields to guarantee a high product quality for a long period of time. At the same time it is necessary to minimize production costs. In order to meet all these requirements, on-line data acquisition and processing are of increasing importance in distributed automation systems. A software bus operating on industrial Ethernet has an ability to minimize operating costs by offering easy installation, scalability,high degree of reliability and remote monitoring and control.

  14. DC Bus Regulation with a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the DC bus regulation control algorithm for the NASA flywheel energy storage system during charge, charge reduction and discharge modes of operation. The algorithm was experimentally verified with results given in a previous paper. This paper presents the necessary models for simulation with detailed block diagrams of the controller algorithm. It is shown that the flywheel system and the controller can be modeled in three levels of detail depending on the type of analysis required. The three models are explained and then compared using simulation results.

  15. Communication Architecture Synthesis for Multi-bus SoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Zitouni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the systems on chip (SoC design, the synthesis of communication architecture constitutes the bottleneck which can affect the performances of the system. Various schemes and protocols can be necessary, just as various topologies of interconnection. To reduce the complexity of the communications refinement, we present in this study a model and a synthesis approach for multi-bus communication architecture containing centralized bridge. The automation of the arbiter synthesis step profited from a detailed attention. This stage generates a hierarchical arbiter integrating various priority arbitration modules. The proposed approach was integrated in a toolbox based environment

  16. Disseny òptim de sistemes Bus Rapid Transit (BRT's)

    OpenAIRE

    Segurana Sardà, Ovidi

    2007-01-01

    A la dècada dels setanta va aparèixer a Curitiba un nou tipus de transport urbà, l'anomenat Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). L'idea principal d'aquest nou mode de transport fou aconseguir, amb una inversió moderada, el millor sistema possible de transport públic en superfície. Així doncs, es varen implantar diverses iniciatives innovadores. Avui dia, aquest sistema està implantat amb èxit en diverses ciutats de tots els continents i segueix en expansió. Tot i això, encara existeix en el nostre paí...

  17. Energy model of network-on-chip and a bus

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkotte, Pascal T.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Kavaldjiev, Nikolay; Becker, Jens E.; Becker, Jurgen

    2005-01-01

    A Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient onchip communication architecture for Multi-Processor Systemon- Chip (MPSoC) architectures. In earlier papers we proposed two Network-on-Chip architectures based on packet-switching and circuit-switching. In this paper we derive an energy model for both NoC architectures to predict their energy consumption per transported bit. Both architectures are also compared with a traditional bus architecture. The energy model is primarily needed to find a ...

  18. Energy Model of Networks-on-Chip and a Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkotte, Pascal T.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Kavaldjiev, Nikolay; Becker, Jens E.; Becker, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    A Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient onchip communication architecture for Multi-Processor Systemon-Chip (MPSoC) architectures. In earlier papers we proposed two Network-on-Chip architectures based on packet-switching and circuit-switching. In this paper we derive an energy model for both NoC architectures to predict their energy consumption per transported bit. Both architectures are also compared with a traditional bus architecture. The energy model is primarily needed to find a n...

  19. Relationship between Quality of Building Maintenance Management Services for Indoor Environmental Quality and Occupant Satisfaction: Case Study of Bus Terminal Buildings in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Full Chong Choon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance is often defined as the series of activities undertaken to take care of the building structure and services to ensure the intended functions and optimal performance of a building life cycle. The management department of a building is usually responsible for the enhancement of the indoor environment quality by service delivery and for boosting occupant productivity and satisfaction. Thus, a salient point of this study is to determine the current level of the building’s maintenance management service for indoor environmental quality in Penang bus terminals, along with its occupant satisfaction with regards to the services provided in the building. The assessment of the indoor environmental quality includes the evaluation of thermal comfort, lighting condition, air quality and cleanliness. Apart from that, qualitative and quantitative methodologies were applied during the process of data collection and analysis. A questionnaire survey was distributed to 500 of the targeted population for each bus terminal, including passengers and the staff. In this study, the conclusion was drawn in which the maintenance management service level of the bus terminal was directly proportional to occupant satisfaction. However, the current quality of maintenance management services in the bus terminals are still not up to the level of the occupants’ satisfaction.

  20. Geometry, relativity and the fourth dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Rucker, Rudolf

    1977-01-01

    This is a highly readable, popular exposition of the fourth dimension and the structure of the universe. A remarkable pictorial discussion of the curved space-time we call home, it achieves even greater impact through the use of 141 excellent illustrations. This is the first sustained visual account of many important topics in relativity theory that up till now have only been treated separately.Finding a perfect analogy in the situation of the geometrical characters in Flatland, Professor Rucker continues the adventures of the two-dimensional world visited by a three-dimensional being to expl

  1. Analiticity in fourth order wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through a familiar example (δ-function potential in one dimension) the analytic properties of Jost functions associated with fourth order equations are presented. It is shown how to construct the Jost functions and the two discontinuities matrices associated to the line of singularities. The latter divide the complex k-plane in eight regions of analiticity. One of these matrices is related to the asymptotic behaviour of scattering state. The other is not. Both being necessary to solve the inverse problem. Besides the usual poles related to bound states there are also other poles associated with total reflexion. (Author)

  2. The fourth pattern of attachment: Disorganized / disoriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment behavior, the author answers the following questions about: the behavior children categorized as Disorganized/disorientated or Controlling in the procedure of the Strange situation; the life circumstances, in which these children live; the reasons for lack of balanced strategies of attachment and characteristics of their general manner of adaptation. The author finds the characteristics of the mothers' (insensitivity to be significantly influential for the emergence of the fourth pattern of attachment. These children are heterogeneous regarding adaptation in general. Professional help preceding negative consequences for their socioemotional development is neccesary.

  3. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  4. The Fourth VLBA Calibrator Survey - VCS4

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, L.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Fomalont, E.; Gordon, D

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the fourth extension to the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) Calibrator Survey, containing 258 new sources not previously observed with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). This survey, based on three 24 hour VLBA observing sessions, fills remaining areas on the sky above declination -40 degrees where the calibrator density is less than one source within a 4 degree radius disk at any given direction. The share of these area was reduced from 4.6% to 1.9%. Source positio...

  5. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries

  6. Bus Stops, Bus stops created from hard copy CAT transit maps. Includes information on if there is a shelter present or not., Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, City of Bismarck.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as 'Bus stops...

  7. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state. PMID:27275375

  8. Studying customer loyalty at Daewoo express bus service, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables. However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.

  9. Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

  10. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  11. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT System Impacts to Environmental Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shojaei Baghini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the mechanism and performance of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system and its impacts on environment quality. Environment quality is an indicator of regional quality of life, supporting the health and well-being of the public and sustainability of the urban and natural environment. Transit agencies are adopting vehicles with alternative fuels, propulsion systems and pollutant emissions controls. One of the ways to improve the transportation environment is through the reduction of BRT emissions to improve air quality. The primary advantage of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system is that it can be adapted to a multitude of operating environments, with sufficient scalability to deliver increased carrying capacity to meet future ridership growth. Moreover, the system will also likely reduce overall the noise levels by determining suitable noise management systems. The paper finds that a BRT system offers the greatest potential for greenhouse gas reductions primarily because BRT vehicles generally offer lower CO2 emissions per passenger mile than other transportation system.

  12. Efficiency and robustness of different bus network designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, John Zhen Fu; Bin Othman, Nasri; Ng, Keng Meng; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    We compare the efficiencies and robustness of four transport networks that can be possibly formed as a result of deliberate city planning. The networks are constructed based on their spatial resemblance to the cities of Manhattan (lattice), Sudan (random), Beijing (single-blob) and Greater Cairo (dual-blob). For a given type, a genetic algorithm is employed to obtain an optimized set of the bus routes. We then simulate how commuter travels using Yen's algorithms for k shortest paths on an adjacency matrix. The cost of traveling such as walking between stations is captured by varying the weighted sums of matrices. We also consider the number of transfers a posteriori by looking at the computed shortest paths. With consideration to distances via radius of gyration, redundancies of travel and number of bus transfers, our simulations indicate that random and dual-blob are more efficient than single-blob and lattice networks. Moreover, dual-blob type is least robust when node removals are targeted but is most resilient when node failures are random. The work hopes to guide and provide technical perspectives on how geospatial distribution of a city limits the optimality of transport designs.

  13. Channel access: A software bus for the LAACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The host processor for a code running within a distributed process control system is often predetermined by constraints built into the software architecture of the control system. Input/output (I/O) channels directly connected to the host processors are usually easier to access in software than channels on remote processors. It is often difficult to modernize selective parts of a control system's software while leaving the other parts unchanged. Likewise, software developed at one laboratory is often difficult to integrate into a control system developed at another laboratory. Software that runs in one machine or operating-system architecture is often unable to communicate with control-system software running on a different platform. For the Los Alamos Accelerator Control System (LAACS) we have attempted to address the above difficulties with a software communication facility which we call Channel Access. Channel Access provides a 'software bus' that allows programs to be connected through a network to I/O channels on real-time processors in a manner similar to the way in which hardware modules are integrated within a standardized hardware bus such as CAMAC or VME. We have already placed an operator interface on Channel Access and we are currently designing alarm, archiving and sequencing tools as well. Numerous application-specific programs use Channel Access. This paper describes the unique feature of this approach and its performance as an integral part of the Los Alamos Accelerator Control System. (orig.)

  14. The universal serial bus endoscope: design and initial clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Zendejas, Gregorio; Dobke, Marek K; Guerrerosantos, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Endoscopic forehead lift is a well-established procedure in aesthetic plastic surgery. Many agree that currently available video-endoscopic equipment is bulky, multipieced and sometimes cumbersome in the operating theater. A novel system, the Universal Serial Bus Endoscope (USBE) was designed to simplify and reduce the number of necessary equipment pieces in the endoscopic setup. The USBE is attached by a single cable to a Universal Serial Bus (USB) port of a laptop computer. A built-in miniaturized cold light source provides illumination. A built-in digital camera chip enables procedure recording. The real-time images and movies obtained with USBE are displayed on the computer's screen and recorded on the laptop's hard disk drive. In this study, 25 patients underwent endoscopic browlift using the USBE system to test its clinical usefulness, all with good results and without complications or need for revision. The USBE was found to be reliable and easier to use than current video-endoscope equipment. The operative time needed to complete the procedure by the authors was reduced approximately 50%. The design and main technical characteristics of the USBE are presented. PMID:15383889

  15. Development of an integrated cryogenic bus for spacecraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, David C.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Davis, Thomas M.; Tomlinson, Joe; Stoyanof, Marko; Crawford, Larry; Glaister, David S.

    1997-01-01

    To improve the efficiency and reduce the overdesign penalties associated with integrating cryogenic systems into spacecraft, the Integrated Cryogenic Bus (ICB) program was initiated in April 1996. The technical objectives of the program were to develop an integrated, lightweight means of thermally linking a cryogenic cooling source to a cooled satellite component, to commonize the interfaces to the cooling source and cooled component, and to commonize the integration of these systems into spacecraft. The technical plan involves several steps beginning with the definition of requirements, the identification and characterization of potential bus components, the development of new concepts and optimization methods, breadboard testing, and prototype development. Six months into the program, over 25 cryocooler, focal plane, and cryogenic hardware organizations have been interviewed or surveyed to identify requirements, numerous components have been identified and characterized, several preliminary concepts have been developed, an optimization plan has been outlined, and critical breadboard tests have begun. This paper summarizes the progress to date during Phase I of this Phillips Laboratory program funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO).

  16. Bus Stops, Maryland Transit Administration Local and Commuter Bus Stops, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'Maryland Transit...

  17. Bus Routes, This shapefile contains lines that follow the path of the existing bus routes, Published in 2006, Charlotte Area Transit System.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'This shapefile contains lines that follow the path of...

  18. Bus Stops, Ctran amd Rtp Bus Stops, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  19. Converter Power Density Increase using Low Inductive Integrated DC-link Capacitor/Bus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Franke, Toke; Rannested, Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    The power losses in switching devices have a direct effect on the maximum converter power. For a voltage source converter, the DC-link bus has a major influence on the power loss and safe operating area of the power devices. The Power Ring Film CapacitorTM integrated with an optimized bus structu...

  20. 77 FR 71865 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Transit... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 appropriations for the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, authorized... Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses to help finance...

  1. 76 FR 41323 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... 215 (73 FR 47046, Aug.13, 2008). On October 1, 2008, DOL began using a revised special warranty for... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants AGENCY: Federal Transit... Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, authorized by Section 3038 of the Transportation...

  2. Study on the optimum design of bus window pillar join40t; Bus window pillar ketsugo buzai no saiteki sekkei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomioka, N. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Lim, S.; Kim, M.; Lee, H.; Kang, S.; Bae, D.

    1997-10-01

    Automobile body structure is generally assembled using various spot welded box sectional members. Especially, in the case of the bus, the shape of window pillar joint is assembled m T-type. This T-type member has some problem such as high stress concentration, low fatigue strength and structural rigidity. Therefore, in this report, performed a study on the optimum design of the bus window pillar joint for such problem by FEM analysis and experiments. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Integral Data Test of HENDL1.0/MG and VisualBUS with Neutronics Shielding Experiments (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高纯静; 许德政; 李静惊; 吴宜灿; 邓铁如

    2004-01-01

    HENDL1.0/MG, a multi-group working library of the Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, was home-developed by the FDS Team of ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) on the basis of several national data libraries. To validate and qualify the process of producing HENDL1.0/MG, simulating calculations of a series of existent spherical shell benchmark experiments (Al, Mo, Co, Ti, Mn, W, Be and V) have been performed with HENDL1.0/MG and the multifunctional neutronics code system named VisualBUS home-developed also by FDS Team.

  4. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  5. Enhanced bus operations: the Curitiba model and its applicability to China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, M.G.H. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Transport Operations

    2001-09-30

    Rail transportation offers a higher carrying capacity in addition to its better quality of service than bus transportation. However, rail transportation is rather inflexible and costly, ensuring that bus transportation will remain a major factor in the developing and developed world. In this paper, the author examined the possibility for the transfer of the advantages of rail transport to bus operations, after careful review of the Curitiba model in Brazil, which operates a tube station system. Some of the characteristics of the Curitiba system are its enclosed stations rather than bus stops, ticket purchase on entering the station, at-grade access to the buses, long buses with multiple doors, and the extensive use of bus lanes. A particular aspect that was looked at was the use of smartcards for payment in a closed fare system, as well as other transport telematics. Its potential applicability to China was examined and assessed, from the perspective of toll road construction. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Micro-navigation for urban bus passengers: using the Internet of Things to improve the public transport experience

    OpenAIRE

    Foell, Stefan; Kortuem, Gerd; Rawassizadeh, Reza; Handte, Marcus; Iqbal, Umer; Marron, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Public bus services are widely deployed in cities around the world because they provide cost-effective and economic public transportation. However, from a passenger point of view urban bus systems can be complex and difficult to navigate, especially for disadvantaged users, i.e. tourists, novice users, older people, and people with impaired cognitive or physical abilities. We present Urban Bus Navigator (UBN), a reality-aware urban navigation system for bus passengers with the ability to reco...

  7. Fourth-party Logistics Optimization Decision-making Based on Graph Model with Multi-dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Wei-Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Based on practical project, this study proposes key steps of optimization and decision-making in the fourth-party logistics operation. First, we identified supplier evaluation indicators by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. A directed graph model with multi-dimensions was established based on four elements: price, time, logistics capacity and evaluation information of 3PL suppliers. After simplifying and transforming some restrictions, we solved the problem with Dijkstra algori...

  8. The Fourth Phi Delta Kappa Poll of Teachers' Attitudes toward the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Carol A.

    1997-01-01

    In the fourth Phi Delta Kappan teacher opinion poll, teachers evaluate both their own schools and colleagues highly, feel that on-campus student misbehavior has declined slightly since 1989, favor cutting administrators to save money, give parents Cs and Ds on child-rearing, think part-time student employment hurts academic performance, and…

  9. 76 FR 42730 - In the Matter of Certain Univeral Serial Bus (“USB”) Portable Storage Devices, Including USB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Univeral Serial Bus (``USB'') Portable Storage Devices, Including USB... certain universal serial bus (``USB'') portable storage devices, including USB flash drives and components... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain universal serial bus...

  10. Results of the fourth IAEA standard problem test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency organized and conducted its fourth Standard Problem Exercise in 1993 to 1994. The test for the Exercise was provided by Hungary, the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute. The experimental basis was the PMK-2, an integral-type model of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant of VVER-440/213-type. Numerous countries/organizations participated in the computer code validation. Exercise from both the countries having VVER-type reactors and western organizations. The Exercise showed the applicability of sophisticated thermohydraulics system codes to VVER reactors, with some weaknesses in the predictions. This paper gives an insight into the SPE-4 test, especially from the point of view of VVER-specific phenomena by evaluating the key parameters of the test and comparing it with examples of computer code validation. The paper is a contribution to the Hungarian-Slovenian co-operation on the application of FFT method to PMK-2 based code validation.(author)

  11. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varieschi, Gabriele U.; Ault, Kellie L.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remains the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions at or near the wormhole throat. Some exotic matter might still be needed at the junction between our solutions and flat spacetime, but we demonstrate that the averaged null energy condition (as evaluated along radial null geodesics) is satisfied for a particular set of wormhole geometries. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel.

  12. Minutes of the fourth SALE program participants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a documentation of the presentations made to the Fourth Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (S.A.L.E.) Program Participants Meeting at Argonne, Illinois, July 8-9, 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and was coordinated by the S.A.L.E. Program of the New Brunswick Laboratory. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum through which administration of the Program and methods appropriate to the analysis of S.A.L.E. Program samples could be discussed. The Minutes of the Meeting is a collection of presentations by the speakers at the meeting and of the discussions following the presentations. The presentations are included as submitted by the speakers. The discussion sections were transcribed from tape recordings of the meeting and were edited to clarify and emphasize important comments. Seventeen papers have been abstracted and indexed

  13. Development of a fourth generation predictive capability maturity model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Richard Guy; Witkowski, Walter R.; Urbina, Angel; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2013-09-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated for an intended application. The primary application of this tool at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been for physics-based computational simulations in support of nuclear weapons applications. The two main goals of a PCMM evaluation are 1) the communication of computational simulation capability, accurately and transparently, and 2) the development of input for effective planning. As a result of the increasing importance of computational simulation to SNL's mission, the PCMM has evolved through multiple generations with the goal to provide more clarity, rigor, and completeness in its application. This report describes the approach used to develop the fourth generation of the PCMM.

  14. Fourth harmonic generation of DKDP crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterated dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals of different deuterium contents were cut for type-Ⅰ non-critical phase-matching with the direction at 90° to the crystal z axis and at 45° to the crystal x axis, and then measured in the fourth harmonic generation experiments with fundamental wavelengths of 1 064 nm and 1 053 nm. respectively. The optimum deuterium content of DKDP crystal was confirmed by measuring the relation between deuterium content and phase-matching angle, The results indicate that DKDP crystal can not achieve non-critical phase matching by adjusting its deuterium content at room temperature with the fundamental wavelength of 1 064 nm. However, at the fundamental wavelength of 1053 nm. the optimum deuterium content of DKDP crystal is 85%, to achieve non-critical phase matching at room temperature. (authors)

  15. Fourth-rank gravity. A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the consequences of describing the metric properties of space-time through a quartic line element. The associated ''metric'' is a fourth-rank tensor. After developing some fundamentals for such geometry, we construct a field theory for the gravitational field. This theory coincides with General Relativity in the vacuum case. Departures from General Relativity are obtained only in the presence of matter. We develop a simple cosmological model which is not in contradiction with the observed value Ω approx. 0.2-0.3 for the energy density parameter. A further application concerns conformal field theory. We are able to prove that a conformal field theory possesses an infinite-dimensional symmetry group only if the dimension of space-time is equal to the rank of the metric. In this case we are able to construct an integrable conformal field theory in four dimensions. The model is renormalisable by power counting. (author). 9 refs

  16. Fourth Thematic CERN School of Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    Alberto Pace, CSC Director

    2016-01-01

    The Fourth Thematic School of Computing (tCSC2016) takes place this year in Split, Croatia, from 22 to 28 May 2016.   The theme is "Efficient and Parallel Processing of Scientific Data", looking at: The challenge of scientific data processing: commonalities, analogies and the main differences between different sciences. Size of scientific software projects. Parallelism and asynchronism: computation and I/O. The School is open to postgraduate students and research workers with a few years' experience in elementary particle physics, computing, engineering or related fields.  All applicants are welcome, including former and future participants in the main CSC summer school. Registration will close on 15 February and participation is limited to 24 students. To register, please go here. About: The Thematic Schools are part of the annual series of CERN Schools of Computing, to promote advanced learning and knowledge exchange on the subject of scientific compu...

  17. The Fourth VLBA Calibrator Survey - VCS4

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, L A; Fomalont, E B; Gordon, D

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the fourth extension to the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) Calibrator Survey, containing 262 new sources not previously observed with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). This survey, based on three 24 hour VLBA observing sessions, fills remaining areas on the sky above declination -40 degrees where the calibrator density is less than one source within a 4 degree radius disk at any given direction. The share of these area was reduced from 4.6% to 1.9%. Source positions were derived from astrometric analysis of group delays determined at 2.3 and 8.6 GHz frequency bands using the Calc/Solve software package. The VCS4 catalogue of source positions, plots of correlated flux density versus projected baseline length, contour plots and fits files of naturally weighted CLEAN images, as well as calibrated visibility function files are available on the Web at http://gemini.gsfc.nasa.gov/vcs4 .

  18. Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems IV

    2008-01-01

    In June of 2002, over 500 professors, students and researchers met in Boston, Massachusetts for the Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems. The attendees represented a remarkably diverse collection of fields: biology, ecology, physics, engineering, computer science, economics, psychology and sociology, The goal of the conference was to encourage cross-fertilization between the many disciplines represented and to deepen understanding of the properties common to all complex systems. This volume contains 43 papers selected from the more than 200 presented at the conference. Topics include: cellular automata, neurology, evolution, computer science, network dynamics, and urban planning. About NECSI: For over 10 years, The New England Complex Systems Institute (NECSI) has been instrumental in the development of complex systems science and its applications. NECSI conducts research, education, knowledge dissemination, and community development around the world for the promotion of the study of complex sys...

  19. Novel low cost standardized Nano-Satellite structure bus for LEO missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anubhav, T.; Sarwesh, P.; Narayan, V.; Varma, P. A.; Prasad, R. A.; Loganathan, M.; Rao, D. N.; Sriram, S.; Venkatesh, M.

    This paper focuses on SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS which is a standardized Nano-Satellite structure bus. It provides a standard platform for a wide variety of missions in LEO and can be realized in a very short developmental period. The bus was designed and developed for SRMSAT, the SRM University (Sri Ramaswamy Memorial University) student Nano-Satellite, by the undergraduate students and faculty of SRM University in collaboration with Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The bus can support payloads up to a mass of 20kg. SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS has a mass of around 6 kg and dimensions 280mm × 280mm × 280mm with an available volume of 11000 cc. Vibration Testing of the bus has been performed upto 6.7 gRMS. This makes the satellite capable of being launched by any launch vehicle in the world. An innovative PCB mounting design has been introduced in this structure bus which facilitates mounting of a maximum 7 PCB trays independently, each tray capable of holding a 250 mm2 PCB. Structural analysis of SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS was done using NX Nastran. The boundary conditions for each analysis were defined based on the loading conditions as specified by the launcher, PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle). Optimization of each individual component was performed by maintaining a minimum threshold between the local frequencies of the component and global frequencies of the entire satellite. Static, Modal, Harmonic and Random Vibration analysis of the structure bus was performed. This paper also describes the methodology followed in the static and dynamic analysis of the structure bus to finalize the design. The results have been tested and validated at ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore with around 90% accuracy and the structure has been certified as a standard structure bus for Nano-satellite missions. In terms of expandability, this structure bus is capable of accommodating deployable solar panels. Also, the payload mounting is not only restricted to th- bottom deck but can

  20. Fourth World Theory: The Evolution of . . .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olon F. Dotson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fourth World theory is a methodology for examining and developing greater understanding of the extent of the distress and abandonment commonly found in the cores of American cities resulting from de-industrialization, historic segregation and discrimination patterns, suburban sprawl, erosion of a viable tax base, racism, inability to embrace the concept of desegregation and civil rights legislation, fear, despair, crumbling infrastructure systems, disinvestment in urban school systems, and environmental justice issues. This article uses the analytical lens of Fourth World theory to examine how such structural and cultural forces contributed to the severely distressed conditions now found in the city of Gary, Indiana. Tracking its one-hundred-year history, from its founding as an industrial town through its post-industrial decline occurring during the city’s first African-American mayor’s five terms in office, the methodology clearly demonstrates how the social construction of race has systematically undermined every aspect of Gary’s overall quality of life. To illustrate that this city is not an anomaly but rather reflects a typical pattern of disparity and uneven development arising from racist practices, Gary is compared to other cities of similar size and also to the much larger Detroit. The article triangulates academic literature, news media archives, and an oral history provided by the mayor to show how Gary evolved from being a model industrial city to a cauldron of racial disparity. The paper concludes by arguing that continued absence of reflection on the nation’s historical racialization of place threatens not just impoverished communities of color, but also the sustainability of the entire nation.

  1. Conservative fourth-order time integration of non-linear dynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating the...... direct fourth-order accurate representation of the original differential equations. This fourth-order form is energy conserving for systems with force potential in the form of a quartic polynomial in the displacement components. Energy conservation for a force potential of general form is obtained by...... resulting time integrals of the inertia and stiffness terms via integration by parts. This process introduces the time derivatives of the state space variables, and these are then substituted from the original state-space differential equations. The resulting discrete form of the state-space equations is a...

  2. Heterotopic Pancreatic Neoplasm Presenting as an Obstructing Mass at the Fourth Portion of the Duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Stock

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Heterotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a rare finding at laparotomy. Herein we present the case of a patient with malignant transformation of a heterotopic pancreas located in the fourth portion of the duodenum. Case report A 79-year-old woman was admitted to the surgery service with complaints of early satiety and abdominal fullness progressively worsening over the previous two years. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and an upper endoscopy revealed an obstructing mass in the fourth portion of the duodenum, biopsies were negative for carcinoma. A segmentectomy of the third and fourth portions of the duodenum was performed. Post-operative histology revealed malignant transformation of a heterotopic pancreas. The patient had an unremarkable postoperative recovery and was discharged home. Conclusion In evaluation of patients with distal duodenal masses, we report that heterotopic pancreatic neoplasms should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  3. Treatment of Complications after Distraction Osteogenesis for Brachymetatarsia of the Fourth Metatarsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Mariko; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Kishi, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    Congenital brachymetatarsia most commonly involves the fourth ray and may be combined with metacarpal shortening. Numerous reports have demonstrated the usefulness of gradual lengthening of the metatarsals. However, very few studies have investigated methods of recovering the lost regenerative bone. The patient was a 16-year-old girl with bilateral brachymetatarsia of the fourth metatarsal. After a long consolidation period after gradual lengthening of the fourth metatarsal by 20 mm, the patient had an hourglass-shaped regenerated bone. Therefore, we grafted a bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite and collagen composite. Six months after the surgery, well-regenerated bone could be recognized on radiographic evaluation and was resistant to refracture. Callus distraction is a method that aims to avoid donor site morbidity. The strength of artificial bone is often a problem. Bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite and collagen composite compensates for the lack of regenerated bone and distraction gap and prevents refracture, thus preventing complications after metatarsal distraction. PMID:27536496

  4. Fourth-order partial differential equation noise removal on welding images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partial differential equation (PDE) has become one of the important topics in mathematics and is widely used in various fields. It can be used for image denoising in the image analysis field. In this paper, a fourth-order PDE is discussed and implemented as a denoising method on digital images. The fourth-order PDE is solved computationally using finite difference approach and then implemented on a set of digital radiographic images with welding defects. The performance of the discretized model is evaluated using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Simulation is carried out on the discretized model on different level of Gaussian noise in order to get the maximum PSNR value. The convergence criteria chosen to determine the number of iterations required is measured based on the highest PSNR value. Results obtained show that the fourth-order PDE model produced promising results as an image denoising tool compared with median filter

  5. Fourth-order partial differential equation noise removal on welding images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Suhaila Abd; Ibrahim, Arsmah; Sulong, Tuan Nurul Norazura Tuan [Center of Mathematics Studies, Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor. Malaysia (Malaysia); Manurung, Yupiter HP [Advanced Manufacturing Technology Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti TEknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor. Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    Partial differential equation (PDE) has become one of the important topics in mathematics and is widely used in various fields. It can be used for image denoising in the image analysis field. In this paper, a fourth-order PDE is discussed and implemented as a denoising method on digital images. The fourth-order PDE is solved computationally using finite difference approach and then implemented on a set of digital radiographic images with welding defects. The performance of the discretized model is evaluated using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Simulation is carried out on the discretized model on different level of Gaussian noise in order to get the maximum PSNR value. The convergence criteria chosen to determine the number of iterations required is measured based on the highest PSNR value. Results obtained show that the fourth-order PDE model produced promising results as an image denoising tool compared with median filter.

  6. Fourth Ventricular Schwannoma: Identical Clinicopathologic Features as Schwann Cell-Derived Schwannoma with Unique Etiopathologic Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany R. Hodges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the literature of fourth ventricular schwannoma. The etiology and natural history of intraventricular schwannomas is not well understood. A thorough review of potential etiopathogenic mechanisms is provided in this case report. Case Description. A 69-year-old man presented with an incidentally found fourth ventricular tumor during an evaluation for generalized weakness, gait instability, and memory disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a heterogeneously enhancing lesion in the fourth ventricle. A suboccipital craniotomy was performed to resect the lesion. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma (WHO grade I. Conclusions. Schwannomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraventricular tumors. Although the embryologic origins may be different from nerve sheath-derived schwannomas, the histologic, clinical, and natural history appear identical and thus should be managed similarly.

  7. Design and Analysis of Bus Front Panel Usin G FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Advance composite materials have taken the significant share with other engineering materials due to its mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Advance composite like E-glass, S-glass, Carbon fiber, Kevlar are not yet confined at the aerospace industry but gradually these are taking over the position of other industries as well. Because of its attaining high intricacy in designing factors and as well as cheaper mould design and also less cost in production of few numbers. The applications of FRPs are spirally increasing. The aim of this project is to develop a BUS FRONT PANEL with a help of FRPs in order to sustain all the mechanical properties which are equivalent to the metals with the help of advanced computer aided software designs like ANSYS. In computer aided engineering to make the product proven in the realistic market.

  8. FAKTOR PENYEBAB KERUSAKAN SISTEM MESIN PADA BUS APTB PPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Chairani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Comfort and safety of public transportation, particularly APTB PPD buses, becomes high expectations for its customers. Those expectations must be supported by the application of a good engine maintenance system. By using the method of Reliability Centered Maintenance may be determined appropriate actions to mitigate damage. From the analysis known the failures of the APTB PPD bus are malfunctions of the fuel engine, power transfer systems, difficulty to move the gear lever, and lubricating system for the rough engine noise. The cause of engine malfunction is dirty diesel filter, vehicle acceleration malfunction is due to the clutch plate wear out. Difficulty to move the gear lever indicates that the clutch slips. Rough engine noise caused by the flow of oil to the engine stalled as the result of dirty oil filter. The results of the logic tree analysis show that for each failure requires scheduling of time directed task.

  9. The Bus Extension Module of POSAFE-Q Using LVDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Safety-Related PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) develops new technology to handle many data promptly. The simple method to handle effective many data reduces operating voltage on 3.3V or under 3.3V, so that is possible to handle data high speed data. This method to reduce operating voltage is effective handling high speed data, but ultimately it has electromagnetic problem.(EMI/EMC) The paper attributes to high-speed data processing, and electromagnetic waves in order to meet the manner of handling the existing data signal Transistor- Transistor Logic (TTL) in the data processing capacity and good electromagnetic characteristics Low Voltage Differential Signal (LVDS) method using the SUN 1,2 is applied to Safe-related PLC (POSFE-Q) on the implementation of the bus expansion module is described

  10. Modeling a bus through a sequence of traffic lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Penagos, Juan Felipe; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2015-07-01

    We propose a model of a bus traveling through a sequence of traffic lights, which is required to stop between the traffic signals to pick up passengers. A two dimensional model, of velocity and traveled time at each traffic light, is constructed, which shows non-trivial and chaotic behaviors for realistic city traffic parameters. We restrict the parameter values where these non-trivial and chaotic behaviors occur, by following analytically and numerically the fixed points and period 2 orbits. We define conditions where chaos may arise by determining regions in parameter space where the maximum Lyapunov exponent is positive. Chaos seems to occur as long as the ratio of the braking and accelerating capacities are greater than about ˜3.

  11. Entangling a Series of Trapped Ions by Moving Cavity Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Miao; JIA Huan-Yu; WEI Lian-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing. We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity. The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus. Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled. As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated. The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.%@@ Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing.We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity.The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus.Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled.As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated.The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  12. Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.

  13. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Kale; S V Veeravalli; H D Punekar; M M Yelmule

    2007-08-01

    Open window buses without air-conditioning are a major mode of urban and inter-city transport in most countries. High occupancy combined with hot and humid conditions makes travel in these buses quite uncomfortable. In this study air flow through a bus has been studied that could be the basis for low cost and ecofriendly methods of increasing passenger comfort and possibly reduce drag. The aerodynamics of such a road vehicle has not been studied as previous investigations have been confined to vehicles with closed windows that present a smooth exterior to air flow. Using a 1:25 scaled Perspex model of an urban bus in Delhi, flow visualization was performed in a water channel. The Reynolds numbers were onetenth of a real bus moving at $10 m/s$. Smoke and tuft visualizations were also performed on an urban bus at 40 km/h. Numerical simulations were performed at the actual Reynolds number. Even though there were Reynolds number differences, the broad features were similar. Air enters the bus from the rear windows, moves to the front (relative to the bus) and exits from the front windows. Inside air velocity relative to the bus is about one-tenth of the free-stream velocity. The flow is highly three-dimensional and unsteady.

  14. DESIGN OF TRANSITION TIME ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUE FOR REDUCING BUS DELAY EFFECTS ON NOC INTERCONNECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEERA K S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing computation-intensive applications the number of computing resources in single-chip has enormously increased, because current VLSI technology can support such an extensive integration of transistors. By adding many computing resources such as CPU, DSP, specific IPs, etc to build a system in System-on-Chip, its interconnection between each other becomes another challenging issue. In most System-on-Chip applications, a shared bus interconnection which needs arbitration logic to serialize several bus access requests, is adopted to communicate with each integrated processing unit because of its low-cost and simple control characteristics. However, such shared bus interconnection has some limitation in its scalability because only one master at a time can utilize the bus which means all the bus accesses should be serialized by the arbitrator. Therefore, in such an environment where the number of bus requesters is large and their required bandwidth for interconnection is more than the current bus, some other interconnection methods should be considered. Such scalable bandwidth requirement can be satisfied by using on-chip packet-switched micro-network of interconnects, generally known as Network-on-Chip (NoC architecture. It suffers however from increasingly serious interconnect crosstalk effects, which constrain the overall performance of NOC systems. In this paper some delay tolerance methods are proposed.

  15. Searching for the fourth family quarks through anomalous decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the fourth standard model family. Because of the high masses of the fourth family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the fourth standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.

  16. Effect of Educational Program to Decrease Substance Abuse among Suburban Bus Drivers Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Moeini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Driving under the influence of drugs is considered a social pathology that has adverse effects on a society. This study aimed to investigate the effect of substance abuse educational program among the bus drivers on the basis of the theory of planned be-havior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 80 suburban bus drivers working at Hamadan transportation terminal. The bus drivers were randomly divided in two equal groups (intervention and control. Intervention program design was implemented after diagnostic evaluation. The effect of educational intervention on behavior was assessed two months after the last training session. SPSS -16 was employed for data analysis. Results: After the educational intervention, the average rates of the constructs of the theory of planned behavior in the intervention group significantly increased but these changes were not significant in the control group: attitude (t=9.53, P=0.000, subjective Norms (t=9.59, P=0.000, perceived behavioral control (t=-4.14, P =0.000. Also, behavioral intention to substance abuse avoidance and current behavior for substance abuse significantly decreased in the intervention group as compared to the control group (P<0.05. Behavioral intention and current behavior in the intervention group subsided from 15 and 12 people before the educational intervention to 3 and 0 people at the end of the educational program, respec-tively. Conclusion: The results showed that using the theory of planned behavior along with the train-ing skills strategies to resist drug abuse has a significant impact to create a psychiatric immu-nization and substance refusal in drivers. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21 (4:330-340

  17. On-Orbit Verification Status of the Payload Supply System and the Sensor Bus System Onboard TET-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Andreas; Pellowski, Frank; Tiefenbeck, Christoph; Heyer, Heinz-Volker; Lemke, Norbert M. K.

    2013-08-01

    The TET-1 satellite was successfully launched on the 22nd of July 2012 and is now flying in its destined orbit of about 510 km. After the LEOP and commissioning phase the spacecraft is performing the on-orbit verification of the eleven experimental payloads. New and innovative satellite technologies have been tested in a space environment over a period of one year to demonstrate their capabilities for the use in future satellites. As system prime, Kayser-Threde GmbH (KT) is responsible for the definition and management of the spacecraft and the ground control. In the current payload operation phase, the data of the implemented Payload Supply System (PSS) developed by KT will be evaluated and verified. The PSS builds the interface between the satellite bus and the payloads which all have different requirements concerning power, communication and operation. The PSS operates and supports the payloads very satisfactorily for their verification. Based on this success the PSS has the opportunity to be implemented in the next TET platform based satellites. Furthermore KT developed the Sensor Bus System (SBS) payload for testing an electrical sensor bus network with digital temperature sensors. The sensors and parts of the payload's data handling unit were assembled with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components to verify its applicability in a low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. This paper should give an overview of the ongoing TET-1 mission focusing on the implemented PSS and SBS. Gathered data of this two systems will be analyzed and discussed in order to verify its functionality and applicability inside future TET or similar LEO satellites.

  18. Public transport subsidies. The impacts of regional bus cards on the travel demand and energy use in Finish urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Pekkarinen, S. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This study is a part of a larger Finnish project financed by the Ministry of Transport and Communications concerned with evaluating the impacts of new integrated fare and ticket policies. The objective of the policy is to encourage a modal shift from cars to public transport, thereby reducing energy use and the harmful environmental effects of transport. The regional bus card systems (RBC) provide the opportunity to purchase a monthly ticket, at a substantial discount of normal fares, which is valid on all buses in an area covering a city centre and the smaller independent communities surrounding. RBC systems are subsidized by both Local Authorities and the state government and are currently operating in over ten urban areas in Finland. The objectives of this research project are: (1) to estimate the fare elasticities of the demand of bus services and the price elasticities of RBC demand, (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of the adopted subsidizing policy and (3) to assess the consequences of the fares policy on energy use in transport. This paper deals specifically with the latter two issues. (EG)

  19. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

    This text, a revision and extension of the first three editions, consists of papers discussing the basic considerations in sampling air for specific purposes, sampler calibration, systems components, sample collectors, and descriptions of air-sampling instruments. (BT)

  20. Heisenberg Spin Bus as a Robust Transmission Line for Perfect State Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Sangchul; Shim, Yun-Pil; Friesen, Mark; Hu, Xuedong

    2011-01-01

    We study the protocol known as quantum state transfer for a strongly coupled antiferromagnetic spin chain or ring (acting as a spin bus), with weakly coupled external qubits. By treating the weak coupling as a perturbation, we find that perfect state transfer (PST) is possible when second order terms are included in the expansion. We also show that PST is robust against variations in the couplings along the spin bus and between the bus and the qubits. As evidence of the quantum interference which mediates PST, we show that the optimal time for PST can be smaller with larger qubit separations, for an even-size chain or ring.

  1. Geometric-Process-Based Battery Management Optimizing Policy for the Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Jin-kuan Wang; Peng Han; Ying-hua Han

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry and promotive policies worldwide, the electric bus (E-bus) has been adopted in many major cities around the world. One of the most important factors that restrain the widespread application of the E-bus is the high operating cost due to the deficient battery management. This paper proposes a geometric-process-based (GP-based) battery management optimizing policy which aims to minimize the average cost of the operation on the premise ...

  2. Power Talk: How to Modulate Data over a DC Micro Grid Bus using Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar; Liu, Hongpeng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    , while it is received by processing the bus measurements that units perform. This implies that the communication does not require a dedicated modem, but instead it is piggybacked on top of the power electronics. The communication is challenged by the random fluctuations of the voltage level due to the......We introduce a novel communication strategy for DC Micro Grids (MGs), termed power talk, in which the devices communicate by modulating the power levels in the DC bus. The information is transmitted by varying the parameters that the MG units use to control the level of the common bus voltage...

  3. Quality Criteria Development within the Fourth Framework Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised EC patient Directive 97/43/EURATOM introduces a number of new and extremely relevant requirements into the legal framework of radiation protection of persons who undergo medical exposure throughout Europe. Key elements of the most relevant changes involve a more objective assessment of radiological performance. In particular, the establishment of optimisation strategies involving clinical and patient dose audits, as well as quality assurance, will be required. There is no doubt that within this changing framework for radiation protection of the patient, advice and guidance regarding best practice at a European level will play a vital role in the achievement of consistent and harmonised practice. In order to establish a starting point for both the structure and content of advice and guidance on best practice for radiation protection of the patient, the Commission of European Communities has established European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for diagnostic radiographic images for adult and paediatric patients as well as computed tomography. These documents have already been made available throughout Europe in English and translation into a number of European Languages is under way for re-circulation within specific Member States. Whilst this process was continuing a Fourth Framework Research Programme has been under way in the period 1996-2000 to develop and evaluate further the robustness of the Quality Criteria for diagnostic radiographic images for adult patients. An overview is presented of the most relevant findings of the Fourth Framework Research Project with a strong emphasis on operational outcomes relevant to focused multipartner, multinational research programmes of a multidisciplinary nature. Detailed findings of the project will be presented elsewhere in the meeting and through future publications. (author)

  4. Assessment of social studies in fourth grade

    OpenAIRE

    Magajna, Metka

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to collect the experience of teachers in the evaluation process and perhaps to help future teachers by doing so. The theoretical part defines evaluation and its purpose, and presents measurement characteristics which teachers should consider in the evaluation process. Errors in the evaluation process, which occur if measurement characteristics are not considered, are also described. Several ways and types of evaluation are presented, with their advantages and ...

  5. Fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyneis, Claude M; Leitner, D; Todd, D S; Sabbi, G; Prestemon, S; Caspi, S; Ferracin, P

    2008-02-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a rf frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice B(ECR) will be explored in this article. Based on the semiempirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current third generation ECR ion sources, which operate at rf frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the third generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials, such as Nb(3)Sn, to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with rf frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass, and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continues to make this a promising avenue for development. PMID:18315111

  6. Examination of nuclear systems of fourth generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes a detailed discussion of the six nuclear systems selected by the Generation IV International Forum with the objective of coordinating research and development activities which should result in the deployment of nuclear systems (reactors and associated fuel cycle installations) of fourth generation by the second half of the 21. century. These systems are: sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), very high temperature reactors (VHTR), gas cooled fast reactors (GFR), lead cooled fast reactors (LFR) or lead bismuth eutectic reactors (LBE), molten salt reactors (MSR), and supercritical water reactors (SCWR). Fast systems are interesting as they favour the transmutation of fertile materials into fissile materials. History and perspectives of development, main characteristics, management of safety functions, risk analysis, impact on the environment, radiation protection and decommissioning, concept maturity and R and D needs are discussed for each of these systems. A comparison is reported in terms of main characteristics of reactors, of neutron characteristics and reactivity control, of sensitivity to cooling losses, of confinement function, of exploitation safety, of in-service inspection, of behaviour in case of severe accident, of toxicity of chemical substances, of sensitivity to aggressions (seism), of concept maturity and technological difficulties. The report also proposes a review of the various fuels which can be used in these different systems and which have been considered as eligible by the International Forum: oxides, carbides, nitrides, metals, waste processing. The last part addresses the transmutation of long life radioactive elements: physics, context, assessment of scenarios soundness, influence of transmutation on installations and transports

  7. Fourth generation type reactors - Synthesis note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six types of reactors have been studied: High or very high temperature helium cooled type reactors, fast neutrons sodium cooled type reactors, fast neutrons gas cooled type reactors, fast neutrons lead or lead-bismuth cooled type reactors, supercritical water type reactors, molten salt type reactors. For the high or very high temperature type reactors the questions of safety and radiation protection have been tackled through the fuel, the neutronics, the materials, the passive systems, safety and reliability of associated industrial processes, risks in relation with graphite, fire and explosion risks linked to hydrogen production; about the fast neutron sodium cooled type reactors the principal questions of safety are tackled through the specific risks linked to the metallic fuel, the neutronic effects in case of loss of coolant said sodium 'vacuum effect', risk of core meltdown, risks linked to sodium, passive systems, ability of structures inspection; concerning the fast neutron gas cooled type reactors, the questions of safety and radiation protection are the aspects linked to the reactor and the aspects linked to the fuel fabrication, this last question has been tackled for each reactor type. A part has been devoted to the production and the management of waste in the case of deployment of a fourth generation reactors park. (N.C.)

  8. Heading for the fourth nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author examines the evolution of the global nuclear order since the advent of nuclear weapons in 1945 to present by breaking down the sixty-plus years of nuclear history into three analytically distinct 'ages', each lasting roughly twenty years. By doing so, the author traces back the roots of the current nuclear predicament to some early seeds of trouble which have gradually grown more profound. He attributes much of the unraveling of the nuclear order to: - Certain inherent weaknesses in the original NPT formula; - Changes in the global distribution of power since the codification of the nuclear order in the 1960's; - The dissemination of nuclear weapon technology; and - Complacency and subsequent disillusionment with the nuclear order since the early 1990's. The paper further analyzes what could precipitate a new nuclear age around 2010. The author argues that such a 'fourth nuclear age' would likely be characterized by either a nuclear anarchy, which he believes has become the default option, or a more benign nuclear order manifested by lower numbers of weapons and stringent controls and restrictions on remaining nuclear arsenals and activities. He concludes by considering the more pressing requirements for regaining nuclear stability

  9. IAEA research contracts. Fourth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume represents the fourth annual report on the results obtained under the Agency's research contract programme. During the short life of this programme, which is not quite six years old, a total investment of more than three million dollars has been made to support research in selected fields at institutes in 50 Member States. Extensive summaries are presented herein for all final reports relating to contracts which were completed during 1963. As it is the policy of the Agency to encourage publication in the open scientific literature of the results of work done under research contracts, a number of papers have also appeared in the appropriate journals - the Agency having been notified of 75 such publications in 1963. A complete list of references to these is given at the end of this report. The scientific data presented in the summaries of course remain the responsibility of the contractor. The Agency, however, is responsible for any additional observations. The reports presented are related to research in the field of radioactive waste management and environmental sciences; health physics and radiation protection; radiobiology; nuclear reactors physics and nuclear fuels; radioisotope applications in agriculture and medicine

  10. Emission comparison of urban bus engine fueled with diesel oil and 'biodiesel' blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi; Battistelli, Chiara L.; Conti, Luigi; Crebelli, Riccardo; De Berardis, Barbara; Iamiceli, Anna Laura [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Gambino, Michele; Iannaccone, Sabato [Istituto Motori - CNR, via Marconi 8, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2004-07-05

    The chemical and toxicological characteristics of emissions from an urban bus engine fueled with diesel and biodiesel blend were studied. Exhaust gases were produced by a turbocharged EURO 2 heavy-duty diesel engine, operating in steady-state conditions on the European test 13 mode cycle (ECE R49). Regulated and unregulated pollutants, such as carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAHs), carbonyl compounds and light aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified. Mutagenicity of the emissions was evaluated by the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay. The effect of the fuels under study on the size distribution of particulate matter (PM) was also evaluated. The use of biodiesel blend seems to result in small reductions of emissions of most of the aromatic and polyaromatic compounds; these differences, however, have no statistical significance at 95% confidence level. Formaldehyde, on the other hand, has a statistically significant increase of 18% with biodiesel blend. In vitro toxicological assays show an overall similar mutagenic potency and genotoxic profile for diesel and biodiesel blend emissions. The electron microscopy analysis indicates that PM for both fuels has the same chemical composition, morphology, shape and granulometric spectrum, with most of the particles in the range 0.06-0.3 {mu}m.

  11. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  12. Survival analysis of car travel time near a bus stop in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoBao; GAO ZiYou; GUO HongWei; HUAN Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an important investigation into car travel time affected by mixed traffic flow near a bus stop on the basis of survival analysis theory.Travel time data associated with mixed traffic characteristics near a bus stop were collected by video cameras.A hazard-based duration model was introduced to analyze the effects of mixed traffic flow on car travel time.The results indicate that mixed traffic flow impacts car travel time significantly.And the presence of bus berthing violation would delay car travel time.The proposed model can be used to forecast temporal shifts in car travel time due to changes in mixed traffic flow.The influential factors related to mixed traffic flow should be given full consideration in the planning and designing of bus stops in developing countries.

  13. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Different Arbitration Protocols for Multiple—Bus Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄旗铭; 杨庆; 等

    1996-01-01

    Earlier performance studies of multiple-bus multiprocessor systems assume a random selection of competing requests for bus assignment and ignore the effects of realistic bus arbitraion schemes on the performance of such systems.In this paper,we present performance analysis of the multiple-bus systems with different arbitration protocols.The priority protocols considered are random selection,fixed priority,rotating priority,round-robin and FIFO.Analytical models are developed for each of these five different priority protocols.Each of our analyses models exactly the behavior of the corresponding priority protocol with little computation cost.The analytical models are validated through extensive simulations and are them used to carry out performance analysis and comparison of different priority protocols.Numerical results obtained from our models show that the round-robin protocol performs the best amont the five protocols in the system with a few buses.

  15. Microprocessor based dual bus structured data acquisition and processing system : DAPS-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microprocessor based dual bus structured data acquisition and processing system has been designed around Intel 8080 microprocessor. The system is described and operational results are given. (M.G.B.)

  16. Toward Real-time Multi-criteria Decision Making for Bus Service Reliability Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vu The; Eklund, Peter; Cook, Chris

    2015-01-01

    -objective evolutionary algorithm using a dynamic Bayesian network, applies preventive strategies to forestall bus unreliability and, where unreliability is evident, restore reliability using corrective strategies. 'Holding', 'expressing', 'short-turning' and 'deadheading' are the corrective strategies considered...

  17. Bus Routes, Published in 2006, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Atlanta Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often...

  18. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  19. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  20. Using FTT-CAN to the Flexible Control of Bus Redundancy and Bandwidth Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Valter; Fonseca, José; Ferreira, Joaquim

    2006-01-01

    Controller Area Network (CAN) is a popular and very well-known bus system, both in academia and in industry, initially targeted to automotive applications as a single digital bus to replace the wiring that were growing complexity, weight and cost with the advent of new automotive appliances. However, requirements have evolved and CAN’s dependability and bandwidth limitations led to the emergence of alternative networks such as FlexRay and TTP/C. Nevertheless, we believe that it...

  1. Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems Based on Schedulability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach to bus access optimization and schedulability analysis for the synthesis of hard real-time distribution embedded systems. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication delays proposing four different message...... scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the bus access scheme are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments....

  2. Loss of power of a 220 VAC safety bus bar at Embalse NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embalse nuclear power plant is located at the Cordoba Province, 5 kilometres Southern the town of Embalse. It is equipped with one 600 MWe CANDU reactor. At the time of the event, which occurred on 11 October 2004, the plant was operating normally at full power. The Embalse nuclear power plant electrical power system buses are classified, in reliability decreasing order, into the following four different levels: 1) Class I: uninterrupted direct current supplies for safety related and other essential loads; 2) Class II: uninterrupted alternating current supplies for safety related and other essential loads; 3) Class III: alternating current supplies to essential auxiliaries which can tolerate the short interruption required until to start up and load the on-site standby generators and 4) Class IV: normal alternating current supplies to auxiliaries which can tolerate long duration interruptions without affecting personnel or equipment safety (Class IV is the normal source of power to Class III system). In particular, the Class II 220 VAC uninterrupted monophasic safety bus bars are composed by three 220 VAC subsystems powered by the following two sources of power: Class I uninterrupted safety bus bars (5551 BUA, BUB and BUC bars) and Class III secondary distribution 5433-MCC5 and MCC6. The Class II 220 VAC bus bars are normally powered from Class I bus bars through static monophasic inverters. Beside, in a static monophasic out of service case, Class II bus bar affected could be powered from Class III bus bars via a transformer stabilizer. Class II bus bars supplies power to both control computers and the AC instrumentation and control devices. When 220 VAC (Class II) 5542-BUC-monophasic-inverter failure was coincident with a subsequent independent failure to transfer to the Class III through static commuter 5542-SVR-C, a loss of the 220 VAC uninterrupted monophasic safety bus bar (Class II) event was caused. (author)

  3. Calculation of Flexible Bus-Bars Electrodynamic Stability with Application of Implicit Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Y. G. Panamarenka

    2008-01-01

    A numerical method for calculation of open-air substations’ flexible bus-bars dynamic at short-circuit has been improved on equations of a flexible elastic string with application of an implicit scheme. On the basis of the numerical method a computer program FLEBUS for calculation of substations’ flexible bus-bars dynamic at short-circuit has been developed. An approbation and an estimation of calculation result reliability have been carried out in accordance with the program while using expe...

  4. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN A BUS COMPANY: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Ribeiro de Araújo; Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine the application of a method for assessing the performance of the product development process (PDP) through the assessment of managerial skills in a bus body industry. A case study was carried out and a PDP method was applied through a questionnaire addressing the PDP management skills according to Dechamps and Nayak (1997) model and validated by Silva (2001) in a bus body company which showed all the features available in the literature on industria...

  5. Dynamic bus lanes in Sweden – a pre-study : PROVDYK – Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Olstam, Johan; Häll, Carl-Henrik; Smith, Göran; Habibovic, Azra; Anund, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Dedicated bus lanes and bus streets have, in recent years, become common measures for prioritisation of public transport. By ensuring free path along routes, they increase average speed and travel time reliability of buses. However, a major drawback is that the total traffic capacities of the roads decrease. Hence, these measures are only suitable when the total traffic flow is low enough to allow for a reduction of lanes; if it is possible to reroute adjacent traffic; or if it is possible to...

  6. A perception system for accurate automatic control of an articulated bus

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Carlota; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the perception system for an automatic articulated bus where an accurate tracking trajectory is desired. Among the most promising transport infrastructures of the autonomous or semi-autonomous transportation systems, the articulated bus is an interesting low cost and friendly option. This platform involves a mobile vehicle and a private circuit inside CSIC premises. The perception system, presented in this work, based on 2D laser scanner as a prime sensor generates local ...

  7. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Jerman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from different bus transport companies in Slovenia. Selected data were analyzed with chi-square test and multiple regression analysis. Results: We determined that there is a relationship between the state of health of professional bus drivers and participation in sport activity and that there is a statistically significant impact of lifestyle on the absenteeism of professional bus drivers. Organization: The study points to the necessity of management’s awareness to improve the conditions for the health status of employees and, consequently, absenteeism. Managers need to be more vigilant in ensuring conditions and social security that will allow employees a higher quality lifestyle. Society: The poor quality lifestyle of professional bus drivers, which includes different addictions, inadequate physical activity, and poor working conditions, is a significant factor causing absenteeism. All these factors influence the onset of negative consequences, such as the direct cost of compensation payments, costs of replacing the absent person, a reduction in productivity, which in turn affect economic growth and the high cost of health care. Originality: This is the first focus group study of professional bus drivers that targets lifestyle and its connection to absenteeism. Limitations/Future Research: The main limitation of the study is the number of respondents. The reason for this is that professional drivers are less responsive in the survey and that the study was conducted only in Slovenia, country of two

  8. Central Thermal Bus for Micro and Small Satellites: Scalability and Adaptability

    OpenAIRE

    Wooldridge, John; Wrenn, Kim; Wolf, Dave; Bugby, Dave; Krein, Steve; Mark, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Swales Aerospace is engaged in the development of a Centralized Thermal Bus (CTB), which stands to significantly increase the capability, flexibility, and scalability of a small or micro-sat bus. The CTB is a multievaporator hybrid loop heat pipe (MEHLHP). It combines the best qualities of both capillary pumped loops and loop heat pipes while improving operational robustness, simplifying mission modes and system deployment/startup. Key benefits of the CTB are: multiple load heat transport, he...

  9. The Metabolic Syndrome and its Association with Over Time Driving in Iranian Professional Bus Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin Blouri; Ali Saba; Amin Shirazi; Farnaz Nabizadeh; Maghsoud Matinkhah; Iraj Mohebbi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MeS) in professional bus drivers, and its association with overtime working hours among those drivers in Urmia, Iran. In this cross sectional study the studies population was 626 professional bus drivers, aged 20-69 yr. The MeS (according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III), Waist circumference, Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Fasting plasma glucose, Triglyceride...

  10. Scaling and correlations in three bus-transport networks of China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xinping; Hu, Junhui; Liu, Feng; Liu, Lianshou

    2007-01-01

    We report the statistical properties of three bus-transport networks (BTN) in three different cities of China. These networks are composed of a set of bus lines and stations serviced by these. Network properties, including the degree distribution, clustering and average path length are studied in different definitions of network topology. We explore scaling laws and correlations that may govern intrinsic features of such networks. Besides, we create a weighted network representation for BTN w...

  11. External validation of psychological job demands in a bus driver sample

    OpenAIRE

    Gimeno, D; Benavides, F G; Mira, M.; Martinez, J. M.; Benach, J

    2004-01-01

    Psychosocial risk factors have been considered as characteristics of the work environment rather than an individual issue, but their presence in the workplace is usually measured by self-reported questionnaires, based on worker attitudes. The objective of the study was to compare a self-reported measure of psychological job demands in a bus driver sample with selected indicators of bus company activity, as external 'objective' indicators, in order to assess its external validity. The final sa...

  12. Correlation between Driver Subjective Fatigue and Bus Lateral Position in a Driving Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    GHARAGOZLOU, Faramarz; Mazloumi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Nahvi, Ali; Ashouri, Mohammadreza; Mozaffari, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Driver fatigue as a leading cause of death in the transportation industry can impair the driving performance in long-distance driving task. Studies on the links of driver subjective fatigue and the bus lateral position are still an exploratory issue that requires further investigation. This study aimed to determine the correlation between the driver subjective fatigue and the bus lateral position in a driving simulator. Methods: This descriptive-analytical research was conducted o...

  13. Bavarian liquid hydrogen bus demonstration project - safety, licensing and acceptability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R.; Knorr, H.; Pruemm, W.

    1999-07-01

    A regular 12 m city bus of the MAN SL 202 type with an internal combustion engine adapted to hydrogen operation and auxiliary gasoline operation was demonstrated in the Bavarian cities of Erlangen and Munich between April 1996 and August 1998. Three bus operators, Erlanger Stadtwerke, Stadtwerke Muenchen and Autobus Oberbayern were testing the bus in three different operating schemes. In order to be able to perform this worldwide first public demonstration of a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) city bus in regular service, several requirements with respect to safety, licensing, training and acceptability had to be fulfilled. These activities were focusing mainly on the hydrogen specific issues such as (a) integration of onboard LH{sub 2} storage vessels, piping and instrumentation, (b) implementation of storage and refueling infrastructure in the operators' yards, (c) adaptation of the maintenance garages, (d) training of operating and maintenance personnel. During phase II of the demonstration activity a poll was performed on passengers traveling onboard the hydrogen-powered city bus in order to determined the level of acceptance among the users of the bus. The bus was designed and manufactured by MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktiengesellschaft. The cryogenic fuel storage and the refueling equipment were designed and manufactured by Linde AG. The realization of the hardware was financially supported by the European Commission (EC) within the Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project. The demonstration phase was financially supported by EC and the Bavarian State Government. Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik performed project monitoring for both funding organizations. The presentation will summarize the most important results of this demonstration phase and will address the measures undertaken in order to get the bus, the refueling infrastructure and the maintenance and operating procedures approved by the relevant authorities.

  14. Congestion Management by TCPST In IEEE 9 Bus System Using Matlab Simulink.

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Sharma; Ram Avtar Jaswal

    2013-01-01

    Increased electric power consumption causes transmission lines to be driven close to or even beyond their transfer capacities resulting in overloaded lines and congestions. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) provide an opportunity to resolve congestions by controlling power flows and voltages. Main focus in this paper lies on the Thyristor Controlled Phase Shift Transformer (TCPST). IEEE 9 bus system is considered for congestion management. Parameters for bus system are predefined by IE...

  15. The bus rapid transit system: A service quality dimension of commuter uptake in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince D. Ugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated commuter uptake of the bus rapid transit (BRT system in Cape Town,South Africa. As a stated preference survey was not carried out prior to the launch of the new BRT system in the City of Cape Town, it became difficult to assess commuters’ preferences,which would have provided City policymakers and planners with an understanding of customer satisfaction of the proposed bus service. The commuting trend of the BRT system in the City indicates that tickets sales and utilisation by commuters is gradually picking up, but one would have expected high commuter engagement in terms of the modernity profile of the BRT system. This study investigated commuters’ (n = 260 satisfaction levels with 30 service quality variables on a self-rated questionnaire, using quantitative research methodology.The study result showed that passengers were not satisfied with the transport fare and the availability or accessibility of ticket sales outlets. In the context of this study, this result implies that the ‘responsiveness and affordability’ variable of the service quality dimensions should be an area of interest and review to City of Cape Town policymakers and planners. Service quality trends in public transport were also highlighted.

  16. Proceedings: Fourth Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, C

    2001-07-24

    Commercial applications of data mining in areas such as e-commerce, market-basket analysis, text-mining, and web-mining have taken on a central focus in the JCDD community. However, there is a significant amount of innovative data mining work taking place in the context of scientific and engineering applications that is not well represented in the mainstream KDD conferences. For example, scientific data mining techniques are being developed and applied to diverse fields such as remote sensing, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, structural mechanics, computational fluid dynamics etc. In these areas, data mining frequently complements and enhances existing analysis methods based on statistics, exploratory data analysis, and domain-specific approaches. On the surface, it may appear that data from one scientific field, say genomics, is very different from another field, such as physics. However, despite their diversity, there is much that is common across the mining of scientific and engineering data. For example, techniques used to identify objects in images are very similar, regardless of whether the images came from a remote sensing application, a physics experiment, an astronomy observation, or a medical study. Further, with data mining being applied to new types of data, such as mesh data from scientific simulations, there is the opportunity to apply and extend data mining to new scientific domains. This one-day workshop brings together data miners analyzing science data and scientists from diverse fields to share their experiences, learn how techniques developed in one field can be applied in another, and better understand some of the newer techniques being developed in the KDD community. This is the fourth workshop on the topic of Mining Scientific Data sets; for information on earlier workshops, see http://www.ahpcrc.org/conferences/. This workshop continues the tradition of addressing challenging problems in a field where the diversity of applications is

  17. Multi Resolution AHB Bus Tracer with Real Time Compression for SOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jagadish Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller based Bus Architecture consists of AHB, APB, ASB and AXI. In this project we are Tracing AHB (Advanced High performance Bus signals with Real time Compression and Multi-resolution Techniques. A simple transaction on the AHB consists of an address phase and a subsequent data phase. Access to the target device is controlled through a MUX , thereby admitting bus-access to one bus-master at a time. In AHB Tracer we have to Trace Address signals, Data signals and Control signals, we have to compress them depending on AHB protocols. A multi-resolution AHB on-chip bus tracer is named as SYS_HMRBT (AHB Multi-resolution Bus Tracer and is used for monitoring. The goal is to provide better compression quality and multiple resolution traces to meet the complex SoC debugging needs. Compressing all signals at cycle-accurate-level does not always meet the debugging needs. As SOCs become more complex, the transaction level debugging becomes increasingly important, since it helps designers focus on the functional behaviors, instead of interpreting complex signals. By using this SYS_HMRBT, we can achieve 79%-96% of compression depending on selected resolution mode. Tools Used for this Project are Modelsim for Simulation, and Xilinx ISE II for Synthesis

  18. Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Ihlström, Jonas; Fors, Carina; Kecklund, Göran; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2016-08-01

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes. PMID:27098307

  19. EtherBone - A Network Layer for the Wishbone SoC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Kreider, M; Lewis, J; Włostowski, T; Serrano, J

    2011-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was de...

  20. 13.8-kV (ground) fault-bus-relaying study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was made at the request of the committee appointed to investigate a power outage which occurred on May 5, 1980, at the ORGDP in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. A portion of this outage was due to a false ground on the 13.8-kV fault-bus-relaying system. This report covers the following five areas: (1) fundamentals of fault-bus relaying and application at ORGDP; (2) description of the false ground on the 13.8-kV fault-bus-relaying system and corrective actions taken at that time; (3) causes of the false 13.8-kV fault-bus-relay trip; (4) further possible corrective actions to reduce the possibility of another false 13.8-kV fault-bus-relay trip; and (5) effects of reducing ground-fault current magnitude and its effects on ground/relay coordination. Recommendations are presented concerning the reduction of the possibility of another false 13.8-kV fault-bus-relay trip and the reduction of the magnitude of ground-fault current

  1. ETHERBONE - a network layer for the wishbone SoC bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was developed in the scope of the White-Rabbit Timing Project (WR) at CERN and GSI/FAIR, which employs GigaBit Ethernet technology to communicate with memory mapped slave devices. WR will make use of EB as means to issue commands to its timing nodes and control connected accelerator hardware. (authors)

  2. System Interconnect Bus (SIB) compatible multi crate CAMAC Controller (CC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes design of SIB compatible crate controller with PC interface. SIB is a general-purpose parallel 1/O interface bus used for connecting multi crate system with single PC-interface. The crate controller comprises of a dedicated PC-AT add-on SIB interface card and two width CAMAC module designed to work at station 24 and station 25 of CAMAC crate. PC Interface card (SIBINT) is used for communication between PC/AT host computer and CAMAC Crates. The controller module incorporates a set of registers, logic to generate CAMAC data way timing. Transmission protocol used is RS485 standard. This controller is used for multiple CAMAC crates system, interfaced to PC, using a 60 core twisted pair flat ribbon cable. The crate controller is developed for use in process control, general-purpose data acquisition and control system and laboratory automation. Sustained data transfer rate achieved by controller is 115 Kword/sec each word being 32 bits in length. (author)

  3. Evolution of weighted complex bus transit networks with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ailing; Xiong, Jie; Shen, Jinsheng; Guan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Study on the intrinsic properties and evolutional mechanism of urban public transit networks (PTNs) has great significance for transit planning and control, particularly considering passengers’ dynamic behaviors. This paper presents an empirical analysis for exploring the complex properties of Beijing’s weighted bus transit network (BTN) based on passenger flow in L-space, and proposes a bi-level evolution model to simulate the development of transit routes from the view of complex network. The model is an iterative process that is driven by passengers’ travel demands and dual-controlled interest mechanism, which is composed of passengers’ spatio-temporal requirements and cost constraint of transit agencies. Also, the flow’s dynamic behaviors, including the evolutions of travel demand, sectional flow attracted by a new link and flow perturbation triggered in nearby routes, are taken into consideration in the evolutional process. We present the numerical experiment to validate the model, where the main parameters are estimated by using distribution functions that are deduced from real-world data. The results obtained have proven that our model can generate a BTN with complex properties, such as the scale-free behavior or small-world phenomenon, which shows an agreement with our empirical results. Our study’s results can be exploited to optimize the real BTN’s structure and improve the network’s robustness.

  4. Bus Based Synchronization Method for CHIPPER Based NoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muralidharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network on Chip (NoC reduces the communication delay of System on Chip (SoC. The main limitation of NoC is power consumption and area overhead. Bufferless NoC reduces the area complexity and power consumption by eliminating buffers in the traditional routers. The bufferless NoC design should include live lock freeness since they use hot potato routing. This increases the complexity of bufferless NoC design. Among the available propositions to reduce this complexity, CHIPPER based bufferless NoC is considered as one of the best options. Live lock freeness is provided in CHIPPER through golden epoch and golden packet. All routers follow some synchronization method to identify a golden packet. Clock based method is intuitively followed for synchronization in CHIPPER based NoCs. It is shown in this work that the worst-case latency of packets is unbearably high when the above synchronization is followed. To alleviate this problem, broadcast bus NoC (BBus NoC approach is proposed in this work. The proposed method decreases the worst-case latency of packets by increasing the golden epoch rate of CHIPPER.

  5. Bus Travel Willingness under the Condition of Bus Information%公交信息条件下的公交出行意愿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左毅刚; 李文权; 陈茜; 李洁; 郭士永

    2014-01-01

    In-depth analysis of influencing mechanism of bus information on the residents travel mode choice is the theoretical basis of rational planning of urban bus travel information environment ,which has important significance for ur-ban traffic management and congestion mitigation .Based on the theory of planned behavior ,at the basis of three basic variables of behavior attitude ,subjective norm ,perceived behavioral control in the theory of planned behavior ,variables of transit information ,personal attributes and travel experience are added to improve the theory of planned behavior .An improved theory of planned behavior is used to build a bus travel willingness model under the condition of bus Informa-tion .With the Nanjing residents as research object ,a structural equation model is used to verify the survey data in order to determine the interaction between various factors and their impact on the willingness of bus travel .The results show that the bus information has significant and positive impact on bus travel variables of attitude ,subjective norm and per-ceived behavioral control with the influencing coefficients of 0 .533 ,0 .451 and 0 .576 respectively ,and that the bus infor-mation has indirect influence on bus travel willingness and the total effect is 0 .92 ,which shows that high quality of the in-formation can improve the appeal of bus and enhance bus travel willingness of residents .%深入解析公交信息对居民公交出行意愿的影响机理,是合理规划城市公交出行信息环境的理论基础,对于城市交通管理以及交通拥堵的缓解有着重要的意义。基于计划行为理论在行为态度、主观规范、知觉行为控制3个基本变量的基础上加入公交信息、出行经验、个人属性等变量,对计划行为理论加以改进,利用改进的计划行为理论建立公交信息条件下的公交出行意愿模型。以南京市居民为调查研究对象,运用结构方程模型对调查数

  6. Study of cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle by CSF cinema MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle by CSF cinema MRI. Materials and methods: Nine patients with intraventricular cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle were studied. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery in all cases. All of these patients were examined systematically before the operation and studied with CSF cinema MRI in mid sagittal section and finger-gated scan technique. Results: (1) The path of CSF flow was directly displayed. All cysticercosis presented as a filling defect, and a cyst with a smooth wall. (2) The ventricular compliance was normal in cysticercosis. (3) The cysticercosis in active stage was free in the fourth ventricle and could be rolled over, its shape might change slightly within a cardiac cycle. In the degenerative stage, its wall could adhere to the ependyma and obstruct the CSF flow. Conclusion: CSF cinema MRI can demonstrate the degree of obstruction and pattern of CSF flow in cysticercosis of the fourth ventricle, thereby providing useful information for proper management

  7. Sampling and analysis plan for the former Atomic Energy Commission bus lot property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities proposed in support of an initial investigation of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) bus lot property currently owned by Battelle Memorial Institute. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activity is to investigate the potential for contamination above established action levels. The SAP will provide defensible data of sufficient quality and quantity to support recommendations of whether any further action within the study area is warranted. To assist in preparing sampling plans and reports, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has published Guidance on Sampling and Data Analysis Methods. To specifically address sampling plans for petroleum-contaminated sites, Ecology has also published Guidance for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites. Both documents were used as guidance in preparing this plan. In 1992, a soil sample was taken within the current study area as part of a project to remove two underground storage tanks (USTs) at Battelle`s Sixth Street Warehouse Petroleum Dispensing Station (Section 1.3). The results showed that the sample contained elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the heavy distillate range. This current study was initiated in part as a result of that discovery. The following topics are considered: the historical background of the site, current site conditions, previous investigations performed at the site, an evaluation based on the available data, and the contaminants of potential concern (COPC).

  8. Sampling and analysis plan for the former Atomic Energy Commission bus lot property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities proposed in support of an initial investigation of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) bus lot property currently owned by Battelle Memorial Institute. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activity is to investigate the potential for contamination above established action levels. The SAP will provide defensible data of sufficient quality and quantity to support recommendations of whether any further action within the study area is warranted. To assist in preparing sampling plans and reports, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has published Guidance on Sampling and Data Analysis Methods. To specifically address sampling plans for petroleum-contaminated sites, Ecology has also published Guidance for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites. Both documents were used as guidance in preparing this plan. In 1992, a soil sample was taken within the current study area as part of a project to remove two underground storage tanks (USTs) at Battelle's Sixth Street Warehouse Petroleum Dispensing Station (Section 1.3). The results showed that the sample contained elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the heavy distillate range. This current study was initiated in part as a result of that discovery. The following topics are considered: the historical background of the site, current site conditions, previous investigations performed at the site, an evaluation based on the available data, and the contaminants of potential concern (COPC)

  9. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NOx) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NOx and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%. (Author)

  10. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NOX) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NOX and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%

  11. Fourth-order partial differential equations for effective image denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjai Kim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns mathematical image denoising methods incorporating fourth-order partial differential equations (PDEs. We introduce and analyze piecewise planarity conditions (PPCs with which unconstrained fourth-order variational models in continuum converge to a piecewise planar image. It has been observed that fourth-order variational models holding PPCs can restore better images than models without PPCs and second-order models. Numerical schemes are presented in detail and various examples in image denoising are provided to verify the claim.

  12. SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus: Proton irradiation test results and spaceflight SEU data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) was launched in July of 1992 as part of the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) mission. The SEDS utilizes NASA's first MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Multiplexed Data Bus (or 1773 bus) to communicate with other spacecraft subsystems in the space environment. The 1773 bus is the fiber optic version of the MIL-STD-1553 Data Bus, a electronic wire bus used in many avionics applications. The authors present proton test and space flight single event effect data for NASA's first fiber optic data bus. Bit error rate predictions based on a new proton direct ionization model agree well with flight data for proton belt and solar flare effects

  13. Attributions of Academic Performance among Third Year and Fourth Year Biology Major Students

    OpenAIRE

    Nick John B. Solar

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study aimed to determine the attributions of academic performance of third year and fourth year biology major students in the College of Education, West Visayas State University, School Year 2013-2014. The academic performance were categorized or measured in terms of test, projects, workbooks, and laboratory experiments, class participation, and attendance. The Attributions in academic performance were evaluated using the closed-form questionnairechecklist,ca...

  14. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  15. Effect of Educational Program to Decrease Substance Abuse among Suburban Bus Drivers Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Moeini, B.; S. Bashirian; A. Moghimbeigi; V. Kafami; A.A. Mousali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Driving under the influence of drugs is considered a social pathology that has adverse effects on a society. This study aimed to investigate the effect of substance abuse educational program among the bus drivers on the basis of the theory of planned be-havior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 80 suburban bus drivers working at Hamadan transportation terminal. The bus drivers were randomly divided in two equal groups (intervention a...

  16. Bus Automata For Intelligent Robots And Computer Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Jerome

    1988-02-01

    Bus automata (BA's) are arrays of automata, each controlling a module of a global interconnection network, an automaton and its module constituting a cell. Connecting modules permits cells to become effectively nearest neighbors even when widely separated. This facilitates parallelism in computation far in excess of that allowed by the "bucket-brigade" communication bottleneck of traditional cellular automata (CA's). Distributed information storage via local automaton states permits complex parallel data processing for rapid pattern recognition, language parsing and other distributed computation at systolic array rates. Global BA architecture can be entirely changed in the time to make one cell state transition. The BA is thus a neural model (cells correspond to neurons) with network plasticity attractive for brain models. Planar (chip) BA's admitting optical input (phototransistors) become powerful retinal models. The distributed input pattern is optically fed directly to distributed local memory, ready for distributed processing, both "retinally" and cooperatively with other BA chips ("brain"). This composite BA can compute control signals for output organs, and sensory inputs other than visual can be utilized similarly. In the BA retina is essentially brain, as in mammals (retina and brain are embryologically the same). The BA can also model opto-motor response (frogs, insects) or sonar response (dolphins, bats), and is proposed as the model of choice for the brains of future intelligent robots and for computer eyes with local parallel image processing capability. Multidimensional formal languages are introduced, corresponding to BA's and patterns the way generative grammars correspond to sequential machines, and applied to fractals and their recognition by BA's.

  17. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    One option under current study for the Terrestrial Planet Finder-Occulter (TPF-O) observatory shares some key features of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Both are space telescopes with a primary mirror aperture of around 2.4 meters and designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths, with the major difference in science capability being that TPF-O has an areal FOV on the order of 100 times larger than that of HST. This larger FOV, whose science camera is also expected to provide fine guidance, and other mission differences, mean that most TPF-O SC bus subsystems will have very different requirements than those of HST. Unlike HST in LEO, TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large FOV require much higher performance data processing and communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. TPF-O will have a specialized tracking system that allows the formation flying occulter to maintain its required position. However, despite these additional features, the velocity required for reaching SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require TPF-O to have a compact and low-mass design relative to HST. Finally, TPF-O may utilize a modular design to reduce development cost and, if it required, allow servicing using approaches different from those of HST.

  18. On a class of fourth order linear recurrence equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui-Sun Cheng

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with sequences that satisfy a class of fourth order linear recurrence equations. Basic properties of such sequences are derived. In addition, we discuss the oscillatory and nonoscillatory behavior of such sequences.

  19. Properties of bound states containing fourth family quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy fourth generation of quarks that have sufficiently small mixing with the three known SM families form hadrons. In the present work, we calculate the masses and decay constants of mesons containing either both quarks from the fourth generation or one from fourth family and the other from observed SM quarks, namely charm or bottom quark, in the framework of the QCD sum rules. In the calculations, the two gluon condensate diagrams as nonperturbative contributions are taken into account. The obtained numerical results are reduced to the known masses and decay constants of the b-bar b and c-bar c quarkonia, when the fourth family quark is replaced by the bottom or charm quark.

  20. Neurocysticercosis: regression of a fourth ventricular cyst with praziquantel.

    OpenAIRE

    Allcut, D A; Coulthard, A

    1991-01-01

    Symptomatic intraventricular cysticerci are said to respond poorly to the anticestodial agent praziquantel. A case is reported of rapid regression of a large cyst of the fourth ventricle after oral praziquantel, avoiding the need for surgery.