WorldWideScience

Sample records for bus accidents

  1. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...... principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...

  2. Accidents of bus drivers : an epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.I. Pokorny (Mirko); D.H.J. Blom (Dick)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractIn the history of accident research much emphasis has been laid on general statistics, different types of case studies concentrating on various personal factor-s, circumstantial influences etc. Often, in certain waves, the unequal initial liability theory (the accident proneness concept;

  3. Bus drivers' mental conditions and their relation to bus passengers' accidents with a focus on the psychological stress concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Sugiura, Miyuki; Tanaka, Sumio; Mizuno, Yuki; Yanagiya, Toshio; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the psychological factors of bus drivers' instability that were related to bus passengers' accidents according to the hypothesis model based on the stress concept of Lazarus and Folkman (1984). This research was carried out in 2006. Participants of the study were 39 Japanese male bus drivers. Their average age was 40.2 (SD: 11.1). The average duration of employment was 4.5 (SD:6.1) years. A questionnaire was used that was composed of items concerning the frequency of bus passengers' accidents, performance of safe driving, job stressors, stress reaction and recognition from others. Based on the results, a model assuming that stress reaction caused by job stressors disturbed the bus driver's safe driving and was associated with passengers' accidents in the bus was verified to some degree. Especially, melancholy and tired feeling toward passengers showed a strong relation to the passengers' accidents in the bus. This suggested much room for intervention. Moreover, the recognition from others of their job was confirmed to act as a control factor of the stress reaction.

  4. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act...... that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because...

  5. [Sleep habits and traffic accidents in inter-provincial bus drivers of Arequipa, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Alex; Rey de Castro, Jorge; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while driving. Sleepiness or fatigue while driving was common in this population and their driving and rest habits could contribute to this.

  6. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  7. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  8. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  9. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  10. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  11. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  12. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  13. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  14. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  15. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  16. BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

      BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-100-introduction-to-business-entire-course/   BUS 100 Assignment 1 Fundamentals of Effective Communication in the Workplace BUS 100 Assignment 2 Ethical and Socially Responsive Business BUS 100 Introduction To Business Week 1-11 Discussions BUS 100 week 1 discussions BUS 100 week 2 Discussions BUS 100 week 3 Discussions BUS 100 week 4 Discussions ...

  17. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaqing Wu; Rui Song; Youan Wang; Feng Chen; Shubin Li

    2015-01-01

    The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT) and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the ...

  18. BUS 438 Concepts of Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    BUS 438 Concepts of Emerging Markets Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-438-concepts-of-emerging-markets/   BUS438 BUS/438  MODULE 3 ASSIGNMENT 3 Concepts of Emerging Markets [ARGOSY

  19. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  20. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  1. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  2. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  3. [Investigation on events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X G; Liu, Y; Cen, Y; Wu, P; Zhou, H L; Han, C M

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the characteristics of events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China. Methods: Events of bus on fire happened between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrieved through Baidu search engine, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, and PubMed database in the search strategy with " bus" and " fire" or " arson" as keywords combined with the name of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of the mainland of China. The occurrence time, region, cause of fire, casualties of each event were recorded, and the correlative analysis was conducted. Data were processed with Microsoft Excel software. Results: Totally 287 events of bus on fire were retrieved, among which 49 events happened in 2009, 36 events happened in 2010, 35 events happened in 2011, 37 events happened in 2012, and respectively 65 events happened in 2013 and 2014. The events of bus on fire most frequently happened in June and July, respectively 49 and 39 events. Among the distribution of occurrence regions of events of bus on fire, there were 78 events (27.18%) in east China, 52 events (18.12%) in northeast China, 41 events (14.29%) both in north China and south China. Among the causes of events of bus on fire, spontaneous combustion of bus ranked in the first (267 events, accounting for 93.03%), followed by arson (13 events, accounting for 4.53%). Among the 13 events of bus on fire caused by arson, 7 events happened between 16: 00 and 20: 00, and 3 events happened between 8: 00 and 10: 00. Totally 27 events of bus on fire (9.41%) were with casualties, among which 13 events (48.15%) were caused by spontaneous combustion of bus, 10 events (37.04%) were caused by arson, and 4 events (14.81%) were caused by traffic accidents. Arson caused the most severe casualties (at least 88 deaths and 287 injuries), followed by spontaneous combustion of bus (at least 35 deaths and 140 injuries) and traffic accidents (at least 9 deaths and 20 injuries). Conclusions

  4. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  5. Indicadores psicossociais relacionados a acidentes de trânsito envolvendo motoristas de ônibus Indicadores psicosociales relacionados a accidentes de tráfico envolviendo conductores de ómnibus Psychological and social indicators associated to traffic accidents involving bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Carla Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    retraso y problemas familiares. La perspectiva temporal de presente no mostró relación con envolvimiento en accidentes. Se concluyó que la incidencia del envolvimiento de conductores de ómnibus en accidentes de tráfico puede ser evitada, o al menos disminuida, por medio de mejorías de aquellas condiciones de trabajo y de políticas públicas de salud y seguridad pública.Psychological and social conditions potentially related to traffic accidents involving bus drivers are identified. Participants were 457 drivers, males and employees of local public transportation companies of Natal, RN, Brazil. Questionnaire contained items on professional performance comprising potentially stressing situations, effects of organizational policies and socio-demographic characteristics, in addition to Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Variables highly associated to accident occurrences included extra work hours, work during vacations, medical leave, passengers' complaints, excessive daytime sleepiness, and concern about sleep, arriving late and family problems. Present time perspective was not related to involvement in accidents. Results suggest that involvement in traffic accidents may be avoided, or at least diminished, by an improvement in work conditions and through public policies of health and safety.

  6. 77 FR 48592 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... authorized by 49 U.S.C. 5309(b), as amended by Section 3011 of the Safe, Affordable, Flexible, Efficient... Livability Initiatives (77 FR 6178). The NOFA explained the requirements and procedures for eligible... facilities, bus-related equipment, and transit asset management systems. The FY 2012 Bus...

  7. PERFORMANCE OF BUS LANES IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin KIM

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance impacts of reserved bus lanes in Seoul were evaluated and several suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the bus preferential treatment are proposed. The impacts of reserved bus lanes on both bus and auto performance were primarily measured by the relative speed changes of buses and autos and the average circulation rate of bus trips. Empirical results showed that the bus lanes were successful in improving average bus performance compared with other adjacent traffic. It was confirmed that right turning movement of the buses would cause the deterioration of bus speed in the curbside bus lanes. The average circulation rate of daily bus trips during the bus operation periods was somewhat increased by the bus lane introduction. A current warrant for reserved bus lanes in Korea was reviewed, and average bus speed during peak periods was proposed as a new warrant. In order to improve the effectiveness of the reserved bus lane, the type of lane markings in reserved bus lane, enforcement strategies for illegal parking in the bus lane and FIFO service at bus stops are discussed.

  8. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  9. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  10. The Myth of the "Ideal Bus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Does as an ideal bus technology exist? Many companies have and will promote a single technology as the ideal bus that will meet all application needs, but in actuality, each bus technology has its own strengths and weaknesses and thus is appropriate for different applications. History has shown the folly of claiming an ideal bus for every application.

  11. High-Speed Ring Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  12. Scaling Laws in Chennai Bus Network

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the structural properties of the complex bus network of Chennai. We formulate this extensive network structure by identifying each bus stop as a node, and a bus which stops at any two adjacent bus stops as an edge connecting the nodes. Rigorous statistical analysis of this data shows that the Chennai bus network displays small-world properties and a scale-free degree distribution with the power-law exponent, $\\gamma > 3$.

  13. SCHOOL BUS GARAGES, 1966 REVISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, HERBERT F.

    STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL BUS GARAGES INCLUDING BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF--(1) SITE DEVELOPMENT, (2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND (3) MECHANICAL (HEATING, PLUMBING, AND VENTILATION) AND ELECTRICAL FACTORS. (JT)

  14. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  15. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  16. Wishbone bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mohandeep; 10.5121/vlsic.2012.3210

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC). This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Micro controller Bus Architecture (AMBA) by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle). Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  17. Risk Factors for Near Miss Incident among Long Distance Bus Drivers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nor Ronaidi NIK MAHDI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accident is a worldwide public health issue that has its highest impact on low and middle income countries including Malaysia. Many previous studies concerned on the causality of the actual accidents and little attention were given to near miss incidents. Hence, the current study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors for near miss incident among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 517 long distance bus drivers. Data were collected using interview-guided translated and validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Manchester Driver Behaviour questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the significant factors for near miss incident among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia.Results: The prevalence of near miss incident among long distance bus drivers was 37.5% (95% CI: 33.5, 41.8. The significant associated factors for near miss incident were younger age group (ORadj : 1.99; 95% CI: 1.32, 3.01, longer distance travelled per day (ORadj : 2.34; 95% CI: 1.52, 3.60, sleep disturbances (ORadj : 1.74; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.54 and errors in driving behaviour (ORadj : 1.31; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.39.Conclusion: Self-reported near miss incidents were relatively high among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia. This issue should be taken seriously and preventive action should consider the significant human factors such as younger age group, errors in driving behaviours, sleep disturbances as well as occupational factors like distance travelled per day. Keywords: Road traffic accident, Near miss, Bus drivers, Malaysia 

  18. Aids to School Bus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  19. School bus and children's traffic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan

    2007-01-01

    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  20. Low-inductance bus lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernick, A.

    1977-01-01

    Laminated bus strips and bifilar litz cable connectors for high-power rectifiers, thrisistors, and transistors provide low inductance and eliminate electromagnetic interference in high-power circuits. These techniques offer significant cost advantages because of ease of assembly and consistent high quality of product. Effectiveness makes general usage in static power conversion likely.

  1. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  2. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed.

  3. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  4. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  5. Bus crash severity in the United-States: The role of driver behavior, service type, road factors and environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005-2009. Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers...

  6. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  7. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  8. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  9. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  10. Bus Routes, Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  11. YUTONG BUS: Grateful To The Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shenyin&Wanguo Securities issued an announcement on Jan 9 rating Yutong Bus(600066)as"buying",on the basis that the bus maker's gross profits went better in the last quarter of 2008 and to be further improved in the first quarter of 2009,with an increased market share. The report drew attention inside the in- dustry when the entire bus segment was suffering a tough time.

  12. Wishbone Bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandeep Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC. This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle. Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  13. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  14. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  15. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  16. Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport.

  17. Excessive sleepiness, sleep hygiene, and coping strategies among night bus drivers: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Uma Maheswari; Chhabria, Mamta S.; Rao, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sleep disruption and excessive sleepiness are the known consequences of shift work. The recent spate of night-time road and air accidents, with some being directly attributed to driver sleepiness prompted us to undertake this study. Aims: To screen for excessive sleepiness, coping practices, and post-shift sleep hygiene in night bus drivers. Settings and Design: This prospective study was carried out on night bus drivers of a public transport organization in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Bus drivers driving for ≥8 h at night were screened with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a prevalidated shift work questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the compiled data using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: One hundred and eighty bus drivers aged 22–63 years were screened. Excessive Sleepiness: Although only 2 (1.1%) drivers scored above the cutoff on ESS, 10 (5.6%) and 103 (57.2%) drivers admitted to feeling sleepy during daytime and night driving respectively. None of the drivers admitted to causing accidents related to sleepiness. The coping strategies for nocturnal sleepiness included consuming coffee/tea (16.7%), chewing tobacco (12.8%), smoking (6.1%), and walking (3.9%). Post-Shift Sleep Practices: Post-shift sleep duration ranged between 1 h and 10 h. Twenty-six (14.4%) and 16 (8.9%) drivers had difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep, respectively, while 9 (5%) reported frequent awakening during daytime sleep. Conclusion and Implications: This study has demonstrated a high incidence of nocturnal sleepiness and daytime sleep disruption among night bus drivers, thus necessitating the need for education about shift work and alertness testing among shift workers in critical professions. PMID:28194081

  18. Design of intelligent bus stop based on GPRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思远

    2013-01-01

    To provide people waiting on the bus stop the information about the number of passengers on the bus traffic and distance between the site and the running bus. Design a set of intelligent bus stop system. This system counts up the number of the people gets on the bus and the people getting out of the bus to add up the people on the bus by infrared sensor and uses the hall sensor to measure the distance of having driven. Then, send data via GPRS. Finally display on the corresponding bus stop.

  19. Hiding Solar-Array Bus Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    End terminals mounted under cells, maximizing usable illuminated area. Reconfigured solar panel bus bars placed under cells, reducing portion of module area not occupied by active silicon. Underside of last cell in string of cells serves as contact for positive bus. Negative tab of last cell in string is wrapped around from top of cell. Tabs are connected to output boards mounted under cells.

  20. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  1. From the hybrid bus to the fully electrical bus; Vom Hybridbus zum vollelektrischen Bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffel, Christian [VCDB VerkehrsConsult Dresden-Berlin GmbH, Dresden (Germany). Team Elektromobilitaet

    2013-05-15

    To an increasing extent, hybrid buses have become omnipresent in conurbations as far as public transport is concerned. However, they are only an intermediate stage on the path to the fully electrical bus. The development path has been marked out and depends on the progress made in energy storage technology and automobile industry. From an economic point of view, practicable and adequate funding measures are required for the time being for precisely arranging electromobility in public transport and thus before an audience of millions. (orig.)

  2. Influence of bus stop with left-turn lines between two adjacent signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ming-Bao; Ye, Lan-Hang; Pei, Ya-Nan

    2016-08-01

    Based on the symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a three-lane cellular automaton model between two intersections containing a bus stop with left-turning buses is established in which model the occurrences of vehicle accidents are taken into account. The characteristics of traffic flows with different ratios of left-turn lines are discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that the left-turn lines have more negative effects on capacity, accident rate as well as delay if the stop is located close to the intersections, where the negative effect in a near-side stop is more severe than that in a far-side one. The range of appropriate position for a bus stop without the bottleneck effect becomes more and more narrow with the increase of the ratio of left-turn bus lines. When the inflow is small, a short signal cycle and a reasonable offset are beneficial. When the inflow reaches or exceeds the capacity, a longer signal cycle is helpful. But if the stop position is inappropriate, the increase of cycle fails in reducing the negative effect of left-turning buses and the effectiveness of offset is weakened. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50478088) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2015202266).

  3. FAST BUS Test Box (LAIKA) (Engineering Materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The assembly drawing AD 135-518-00-RO, and the drawings referenced thereon, provide the data and specifications for constructing the LAIKA Test Box. Some drawings are not available, although they are listed on the material lists included. The assembly is a manual tester for FAST BUS modules, both masters and slaves. FAST BUS signals are generated by means of switches or push buttons and provide the state of the bus lines by lighting LED's. The box acts as either a master or slave - depending upon the module under test. It also acts as an ATC to test the arbitration logic of a master or ATC device.

  4. Drivetrain system of an ultracapacitor electric bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Zhigu; Zhu Chunbo; Yang Shiyan; Cheng Shukang

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a design of the drivetrain system of an electric bus with ultracapacitor (UC) as the only on-board power source. The system includes three main parts, namely, UC bank, motor and the converter, vehicle management unit (VMU). Analyses results in detail on the functional design and experiments on work bench of each part were also presented, which validated the reliability of the system. Furthermore, driving results in field of the bus verified the feasibility of the design of the drivetrain system. The bus has very good dynamic performances and shows a promising applications prospect in the short and medium route buses system.

  5. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  6. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  7. BUS 1000母线保护的应用%Application of BUS 1000 Bus-Bar Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓光; 张贵金; 冷雪玉

    2001-01-01

    发电厂的母线是电厂中的一个重要组成元件,当母线上发生故障时,将使连接在故障母线上的所有元件在修复故障母线期间,或转换到另一组母线上运行以前遭到停电。同时还可能破坏系统稳定,造成严重后果。因此,母线保护装置是正确迅速切除母线故障的重要装置,它的拒动或误动将给电力系统带来严重危害。详细介绍了华能丹东发电厂350 MW发电机组采用的BUS 1000型母线保护的原理,并对其正常运行及区内、外故障、断路器失灵保护、母联断路器过流保护等几个方面作了详细分析。%Bus bar is an important component in e lectric power plant.When bus bar fault occurs,all components connected on the fa ulty bus bar will be in outage until power restores by repairing the faulty bus bar or switching them over to another bus bar.Furthermore,it may cause the destr uction of system stability resulting in serious consequence.Bus bar protection d evice is the very device to quickly remove bus bar faults,and its malfunctioning will bring serious harm to power system. The principle of BUS 1000 bus bar prot ection used for 350 MW unit of dandong power plant is introduced.Its normal oper ation and several aspects,such as in-and out-area faults,out-of-order breake r protection,bus bar breaker over-current protection,are analyzed in detail.

  8. Effect of periodic inflow on speed-controlled shuttle bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus controlled the speed when passengers come periodically at the origin. We propose the nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of the speed-controlled bus with the periodic inflow. The bus schedule is closely connected to the motion. The motion of the speed-controlled bus is affected by the periodic inflow. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on both speed control and periodic inflow. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions by varying both periodic inflow and speed control. We clarify the dependence of the bus motion on both speed control and periodic inflow.

  9. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  10. DESIGN AND EXPERIMENT OF ELECTRIC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Performance and reliability experiments on BJD-6100EV electric buses, jointly developed by Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Public Transport Company, are introduced. Output power model of battery pack is established and maximum output power is analyzed. A permanent magnetic direct current (PMDC) motor with enhanced windings is developed for the bus. Torque-speed characteristics of the motor are modeled and performance of electric bus is analyzed. Computational method of the range of electric bus is proposed and discussed. Experiments show that electric bus can realize design requirements. Computational methods are verified with the help of field test. It is expected that design and computation method will provide helpful reference to development of electric vehicles.

  11. Development of multifunctional digital bus bar protection relay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuki, Masaru; Yoshikawa, Motoyasu; Hayashi, Eiji; Oki, Michio; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Iwaya, fumio; Yoshizumi, Tatunori (Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-03-25

    The existing analog bus bar protection relays of a substation have been easily affected by saturation of the current transformer and apt to malfunction at an accident occurred outside. Kansai Electric Power Co. developed jointly with Hitachi Manufacturing Co. a new calculation algorithm to avert the effect of the current transformer saturation (ratio differential relay system with memory of the amount of inhibition) by digitizing the above existing relay. Taking notice of the fact that transient saturation of the current transformer occurs from at least one half wave or later after the accident current started passing, this system memorizes the amount of inhibition of the relay by a signal within the time zone of nonsaturation immediately after the start of the accident current and by this value prevents malfunction at the time of current transformer saturation. The systems to which this relay is applied are as follows: system voltages are 77kV and 154kV for the resistance grounded neutral system, and 275kV for the resistance grounded neutral system and 275kV for the system with solidly earthed neutral. The substations to which this relay is to be installed are medium and large scale substations each of which has 8 or more terminals. Its short circuit capacity is 3,300kVA for the 77kV system, 10,600kVA for the 154kV system and 23,800kVA for the 275kV system. 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. A comparison of core degradation phenomena in the CORA, QUENCH, Phébus SFD and Phébus FP experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haste, T., E-mail: tim.haste@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Steinbrück, M., E-mail: martin.steinbrueck@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Barrachin, M., E-mail: marc.barrachin@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Luze, O. de, E-mail: olivier.de-luze@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Grosse, M., E-mail: mirco.grosse@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Stuckert, J., E-mail: juri.stuckert@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The results of the experiments CORA, QUENCH and Phébus SFD/FP are summarised. • All phenomena expected up to melt movement to the lower head are shown consistently. • Separate-effect tests performed at KIT and IRSN aid improve their modelling. • Data from the integral tests help independent validation of new and improved models. • The improved codes will help reduce uncertainties in safety-critical areas for core degradation. - Abstract: Over the past 20 years, integral fuel bundle experiments performed at IRSN Cadarache, France (Phébus-SFD and Phébus FP – fission heated) and at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany (CORA and QUENCH – electrically heated), accompanied by separate-effect tests, have provided a wealth of detailed information on core degradation phenomena that occur under severe accident conditions, relevant to such safety issues as in-vessel retention of the core, recovery of the core by water reflood, hydrogen generation and fission product release. These data form an important basis for development and validation of severe accident analysis codes such as ASTEC (IRSN/GRS, EC) and MELCOR (USNRC/SNL, USA) that are used to assess the safety of current and future reactor designs, so helping to reduce the uncertainty associated with such code predictions. Following the recent end of the Phébus FP project, it is appropriate now to compare the core degradation phenomena observed in these four major experimental series, indicating the main conclusions that have been drawn. This covers subjects such as early phase degradation up to loss of rod-like geometry (all the series), late phase degradation and the link between fission product release and core degradation (Phébus FP), oxidation phenomena (all the series), reflood behaviour (CORA and QUENCH), as well as particular topics such as the effects of control rod material and fuel burn-up on core degradation. It also outlines the separate-effects experiments performed to

  13. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  14. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  15. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  16. Research on safety regimens of tourist bus in Japan Research on safety regimens of tourist bus in Japan%日本旅游客车安全管理制度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文辉

    2016-01-01

    Japanese tourist bus traffic accidents happened continuously these years. A tourist bus ran edgewise into a wal on an expressway in Gunma Prefecture, kiling seven people and injuring 39 others in April 2012. 4 years later, on Jan.15, 2016, fourteen people died and 26 were injured when a tourist bus crashed in Nagano Prefecture. It was the worst tol from a tourist bus accident since 1990s. This paper aimed on current safety regimens concerning tourist bus in Japan, including admission management, operation safety management on roads, safety supervision, accident prevention etc, in order to give some fundamental knowledge to those who interesting in accident investigation of Japan and tourist bus rule making of Japan.%近年来,日本接连不断发生旅游客车交通事故。继2012年4月29日群马县发生一起致7人死亡、39人受伤的旅游客车交通事故后,2016年1月15日,日本长野县又发生一起14人死亡、26人受伤的旅游客车侧翻事故,是日本自1990年有详细交通事故记录以来发生伤亡最严重的一次旅游客车交通事故。本文系统梳理日本现行法律法规对旅游客车准入管理、运行安全管理、安全监管、事故预防等方面的管理规定,便于相关人员进一步跟踪研究日本旅游客车事故调查处理情况和相关安全管理制度修改完善情况。

  17. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  18. Stress prevention in bus drivers: Evaluation of 13 natural experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Aust, B.; Berg, A.M. van den; Siegrist, J.

    2000-01-01

    The research aim was to select, compare, and analyze interventions and preventive actions from international bus companies to decrease bus drivers' occupational stress and sickness absenteeism. Through networking, international surveys, and literature study, 13 "natural experiments" were identified

  19. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  20. Secure Bus-Ticketing System using NFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Lopes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For making the day to day life more convenient for the passengers travelling in bus some technologies can be used like Near Field Communication (NFC, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID. The proposed system is based on ticketing and identification of passengers in public transport. The system suggest a user friendly automated ticketing system which will automatically deduct the passengers fare according to the distance travelled as well as detect the passengers detail information. The system also helps to calculate the total revenue of a single bus in a day. Another important aspect is reusability, which helps use ticket multiple times as it is rechargeable.

  1. Bus training for developmentally disabled adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D; Griffith, J; McComish, K; Swasbrook, K

    1984-07-01

    The effectiveness of a program combining classroom and community training in the teaching of bus-riding skills to developmentally disabled adults. These skills were taught sequentially using questions about a slide presentation, role playing, and performance in the natural environment. The experimental design was based upon the work of Neef, Iwata, and Page (1978). Test trials were conducted after each phase of training. Results showed that all subjects learned the necessary bus-riding skills and maintained their performance throughout the follow-up period of at least 1 year. The combination training method proved to be efficient and cost effective.

  2. An Efficient Segmental Bus-Invert Coding Method for Instruction Memory Data Bus Switching Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Ji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a bus coding methodology for the instruction memory data bus switching reduction. Compared to the existing state-of-the-art multiway partial bus-invert (MPBI coding which relies on data bit correlation, our approach is very effective in reducing the switching activity of the instruction data buses, since little bit correlation can be observed in the instruction data. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed encoding can reduce up to 42% of switching activity, with an average of 30% reduction, while MPBI achieves just 17.6% reduction in switching activity.

  3. Framework for Bus Rapid Transit Development and Deployment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark A.; Yin, Yafeng; Balvanyos, Tunde; Ceder, Avishai

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of its investigation into deployment planning for bus rapid transit systems. In this study, we conducted a macro-scale examination of bus rapid transit systems from technical, operational, institutional, and planning perspectives. We then developed the theoretical foundation for a deployment planning framework for bus rapid transit systems that specifically takes into account the unique features of bus rapid transit that differ from other transit alternatives....

  4. Air quality on bus routes in Umea, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, H.; Forsberg, B. [Dept. of Environmental Health and Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University SE, Umea (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    Bus traffic in some local streets with up to 650 buses per day has resulted in complaints about air pollution and suggestions from residents that the bus routes should be changed to other streets. We have studied nitrogen dioxide and benzene concentrations at five exposed sites and at two representative control sites without bus traffic, and found no general differences in air quality. However, the site and temperature adjusted concentrations fell significantly during a strike among bus drivers. (authors)

  5. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  6. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

    1988-09-01

    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  7. Bus Routes, Bus Routes, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Anne Arundel County, OIT GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2011. It is described as 'Bus...

  8. Bus Stops, This shapefile contains existing bus stops for Charlotte Area Transit System, Published in 2006, Charlotte Area Transit System.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as 'This shapefile contains existing bus stops for...

  9. Information management advanced development. Volume 3: Digital data bus breadboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and evaluation of the digital data bus breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) requirements summary, (2) parametric data for bus design, (3) redundancy concepts, and (4) data bus breadboard performance and interface requirements.

  10. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a foll...

  11. Blowers in bus systems; Einsatz von Ventilatoren in BUS-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneeweiss, H. [ebm - Werke GmbH und Co., Mulfingen (Germany). R und D

    2000-07-01

    Modern industrial blowers are compact and have good control characteristics. Centralized or decentralized monitoring has become a state-of-the-art technology. Bus systems make it possible to monitor and analyze component status at any time. Electronically commutated external rotor motors with bus interfaces offer a wide spectrum of applications. [German] Beim Einsatz von Ventilatoren und Geblaesen in der Industrie ist es heute Standard, dass die Geraete einen kompakten Aufbau und gute Regel- bzw. Steuereigenschaften aufweisen. Immer mehr setzt sich auch die zentrale und dezentrale Ueberwachung von Geraeten durch. Mit einem BUS-System kann der aktuelle Status jeder Komponente jederzeit abgefragt und der Zustand analysiert werden. Durch spezielle Einsatzbedingungen werden heute elektronisch kommutierte Aussenlaeufermotoren mit BUS-Schnittstellen versehen. Damit steht ein breites Anwendungsspektrum zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  12. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  13. Inrush-Current Limiter And Bus Isolator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolland, Carlisle R.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic circuit protects electrical power bus and source of power against excessive current demands. Circuit intended for use with power-consuming electronic system drawing pulsed currents and including capacitor bank as low-impedance secondary source from which pulsed currents drawn.

  14. SDRAM bus schedule of HDTV video decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; He, Yan L.; Yu, Lu

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, a time division multiplexed task scheduling (TDM) is designed for HDTV video decoder is proposed. There are three tasks: to fetch decoded data from SDRAM for displaying (DIS), read the reference data from SDRAM for motion compensating (REF) and write the motion compensated data back to SDRAM (WB) on the bus. The proposed schedule is based on the novel 4 banks interlaced SDRAM storage structure which results in less overhead on read/write time. Two SDRAM of 64M bits (4Bank×512K×32bit) are used. Compared with two banks, the four banks storage strategy read/write data with 45% less time. Therefore the process data rates for those three tasks are reduced. TDM is developed by round robin scheduling and fixed slot allocating. There are both MB slot and task slot. As a result the conflicts on bus are avoided, and the buffer size is reduced 48% compared with the priority bus scheduling. Moreover, there is a compacted bus schedule for the worst case of stuffing owning to the reduced executing time on tasks. The size of buffer is reduced and the control logic is simplified.

  15. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  16. STOCHASTIC BUS DISPATCHING MODEL UNTUK OPTIMALISASI JUMLAH BUS TRANSJAKARTA KORIDOR 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road user causing traffic jam finds out a way, busway. However, in its implementation, the number of fleet available does not enough to take the passengers. It results in the an amassed of passengers at several bus stops. This leads to passenger dissatisfaction satisfaction which eventually causes Transjakarta users to reuse private cars. Definitely this situation may builds up traffic jams. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model is used to simulate public transportation that operates regularly.

  17. Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The eGov-Bus project provides citizens and businesses with improved access to virtual public services, which are based on existing national eGovernment Web services and which support cross-border life events. Requirements and specific rules of these life events are considered, and personalization of user preferences is supported. eGov-Bus is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national eGovernment services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The eGov-Bus process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as eGovernment Web services. Further, eGov-Bus relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. The eGov-Bus architecture is business oriented, it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services and providing a Service Bus.

  18. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  19. Accidents - personal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  20. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  1. Regenerative polymeric bus architecture for board-level optical interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N; Hashim, A; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2012-05-21

    A scalable multi-channel optical regenerative bus architecture based on the use of polymer waveguides is presented for the first time. The architecture offers high-speed interconnection between electrical cards allowing regenerative bus extension with multiple segments and therefore connection of an arbitrary number of cards onto the bus. In a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 4-channel 3-card polymeric bus module is designed and fabricated on standard FR4 substrates. Low insertion losses (≤ -15 dB) and low crosstalk values (bus modules using a prototype 3R regenerator.

  2. Heat Transfer in the LHC Main Superconducting Bus Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Richter, D

    2011-01-01

    CERN is performing a systematic analysis of the interconnecting bus bars of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) main magnets. Their thermal, electrical, mechanical and hydraulic performances are addressed. In the frame of these studies, the heat transfer between the main superconducting (SC) bus bars and the surrounding He bath is investigated. It represents a key parameter in the comprehension of the bus bars stability and quench propagation mechanisms, thus crucial for the analysis of the 2008 incident which was triggered by a defective bus bars joint. This paper reports on the experimental tests and relative analysis aiming at describing the thermal behavior of the LHC main bus bars.

  3. Improvement on Transportation Safety on Bus by Installing A Speed Limiter in Conventional Engine to Reduce Speed Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving is one of the conditions when the driver should be given special attention to make the motor vehicle in driving way and the driver should be in a good condition. However, the problem is in a certain condition the driver lost their control speed due to their target and minimize the driving time and it led the high potential to accident. Therefore, speed limiter which applied in the bus is urgently needed to reduce the accident and improve their awareness of road safety. Developed speed limiter is completed by fuel cut-off system to prevent the engine and maintain the speed. Limitation of speed be adapted by government regulation. From the results show that the highest and average speed of 136 km/h and 123.5 km/h is observed by bus speed prior to use speed limiter. After speed limiter applied in the bus, the approved maximum speed is 90 km/h. Those data approve that the speed limiter can reduce 83% from the top speed before speed limiter applied.

  4. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  5. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  6. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation.

  7. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  8. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  9. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  10. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  11. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  12. CNG buses fire safety : learnings from recent accidents in France and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Perrette, Lionel; Wiedemann, Helmut K.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The use of CNG in bus and private vehicles is growing steadily. Recent fire accidents involving CNG buses have shown that tanks may explode though compliant with current ECE UN R110 regulation. Such a repeated scenario is certainly not acceptable having in mind the tremendous amount of energy released when a compressed tank bursts. Investigation of German and French recent cases detailed in this article highlights potential improvements in current CNG buses fire safety...

  13. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  14. Power-optimal encoding for low-power address bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented a novel bus encoding method to reduce the switching activity on address buses and hence reduce power dissipation. Dynamic-sorting encoding (DSE) method reduces the power dissipation of address bus based on the dynamic reordering of the modified offset address bus lines. This method reorders the ten least significant bits of offset address according to the range of offset address, and the optimal sorting pattern is transmitted through the high bits of address bus without the need for redundant bus lines. The experimental results using an instruction set simulator and SPEC2000 benchmarks show that DSE method can reduce signal transitions on the address bus by 88.2%, and the actual overhead of the encoder circuit is estimated after encoder is designed and synthesized in 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The results show that DSE method outperforms the low-power encoding schemes presented in the past.

  15. Osmotic regulation of transcription in Lactococcus lactis: ionic strength-dependent binding of the BusR repressor to the busA promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Yves; Bouvier, Jean; Gutierrez, Claude

    2007-07-24

    The busA locus of Lactococcus lactis encodes a glycine betaine uptake system. At low osmolarity, the transcription of busA is repressed by the BusR protein, which is responsible for the osmotic inducibility of the busA promoter (busAp). In this work, we investigated the mechanism of the osmo-dependent repression by BusR. We found that BusR binding to the busA promoter is dependent on the ionic strength in vitro. Using a BusR derivative carrying a phosphorylation site and the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme, we showed that these proteins are able to form a stable ternary complex by both binding to the same busAp fragment. The association/dissociation of BusR to the RNA polymerase-busAp complex is strictly correlated to the surrounding ionic strength. Together, these results suggest that during growth at low osmolarity BusR represses transcription from busAp at a step further the recruitment of the RNA polymerase. At high osmolarity, an elevated cytoplasmic ionic strength would dissociate BusR from busAp, resulting in the osmotic induction of the busA operon.

  16. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  17. Pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S. Q.; Li, Yueming

    1997-12-01

    We propose a pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus. Such a bus can use one of two hardwared priority schemes: the linear priority scheme and the round-robin priority scheme. Our simulation results show that the performance of the proposed bus is significantly better than the performances of known pipelined synchronous time-division multiplexing optical buses. The possibilities of using our buses to construct multichannel switches and multidimensional processor arrays are also discussed.

  18. A 3D bus interconnect for network line cards

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, J; Kocak, T

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a 3D bus architecture as a processor-memory interconnection system to increase the throughput of the memory system currently used on line cards. The 3D bus architecture allows multiple processing elements on a line card to access a shared memory. The main advantage of the proposed architecture is to increase the network processor off-chip memory bandwidth while diminishing the latency otherwise caused by the single bus competition.

  19. PNEUMATIC - LOGIC SYNTHESIS OF BUS DOOR FROM ASPECT OF AUTOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Stefanovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a logic synthesis procedure pneumatic control of the door of the bus for suburban traffic. Minimization of pneumatic control is determined graphically by Weitz – Carnot method. It also shows all pneumatic components belonging to installations used for opening and closing the door of the bus. Finally it is shown the basic maintenance of pneumatic system of the bus door.

  20. Bus coordination holding control for transit hubs under APTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Jing; ZHAO Ming

    2009-01-01

    To increase the passenger transferring efficiency, the bus coordination holding control for transit hubs,hich is as an important dynamic dispatching method for improving the service level of transit hubs, was studied in the framework of bus coordination dispatching mode. Firstly, the bus coordination holding control flow was studied based on Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) environment. Then a control model was presented to optimize the bus vehicle holding time, and a genetic algorithm was designed as the solving method. In the end, an example was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy and the algorithm.

  1. Model Passengers’ Travel Time for Conventional Bus Stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited number of berths can result in a subsequent bus stopping at the upstream of a bus stop when all berths are occupied. When this traffic phenomenon occurs, passengers waiting on the platform usually prefer walking to the stopped bus, which leads to additional walking time before boarding the bus. Therefore, passengers’ travel time consumed at a bus stop is divided into waiting time, additional walking time, and boarding time. This paper proposed a mathematical model for analyzing passengers’ travel time at conventional bus stop based on theory of stochastic service system. Field-measured and simulated data were designated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. By analyzing the results, conclusion was conducted that short headway can reduce passengers’ waiting time at bus stop. Meanwhile, the theoretical analysis explained the inefficiency of bus stops with more than three berths from the perspective of passengers’ additional walking time. Additional walking time will increase in a large scale when the number of berths at a bus stop exceedsthe threshold of three.

  2. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  3. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  4. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  5. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Fergyanto E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  6. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  7. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  8. It's Time to Move for School Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ The 1st China School Buses Development Seminar &.International School Buses Expo will be held from February 15 to 18, 2012 in the National Convention Center in Beijing, according to the National Office of Education on the Traffic Safety of Primary and Secondary School Students.It aims to publicize the Chinese standards for school bus safety, improve the development, production and operation of school buses in China and the rest of the world, promote the application new technologies on school buses, and call on people to care about and support the development of school buses.

  9. Using the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft onboard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Chris; Bordes, Yves

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus as the principal onboard data handling bus for future spacecraft applications. The paper takes a pragmatic approach by: Identifying the characteristics of the onboard bus traffic and its characteristics; Looking at future trends in onboard bus traffic; Describing the characteristics of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus; Proposing techniques that can be used on the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft application.

  10. Review of bus drivers' occupational stress and stress prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Di Martino, V.

    1995-01-01

    Although heterogeneous in methodology and content, 32 studies from 13 countries on bus drivers' work and health are similar in their conclusions. Bus-driving–characterized by high demands, low control and low support – can be regarded as a classic example of high-strain occupation, with high risks o

  11. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  12. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  13. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  14. A High Efficiency DC Bus Regulator / RPC for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-02-01

    DC bus voltage regulation may be required in future high powered spacecraft due to the length of the busses or because they are not generated at precise voltage levels. In these cases the regulation range is often only a few percent increase or decrease, but conventional DC voltage regulators switch all the power passing through them, and this level of power switched determines the size and losses in the regulator. A recently developed concept uses a low power DC-DC converter in series with the bus to raise or lower the bus voltage over a small range. This partial power processing technique combines the small size and power losses of the low power converter with the ability to regulate, (over a small range) a high power bus. The Series Connected Buck Boost Regulator (SCBBR) described herein provides bus regulation with an efficiency of 98%. The circuit also provides bus switching and overcurrent limiting functions of a Remote Power Controller (RPC). This paper describes the circuit design and performance of a breadboard SCBBR configured as a bus voltage regulator providing +/- 40% voltage regulation range, bus switching, and overload limiting.

  15. A decentralized software bus based on IP multicas ting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd

    1995-01-01

    We describe decentralized reconfigurable implementation of a conference management system based on the low-level Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting protocol. IP multicasting allows low-cost, world-wide, two-way transmission of data between large numbers of conferencing participants through the Multicasting Backbone (MBone). Each conference is structured as a software bus -- a messaging system that provides a run-time interconnection model that acts as a separate agent (i.e., the bus) for routing, queuing, and delivering messages between distributed programs. Unlike the client-server interconnection model, the software bus model provides a level of indirection that enhances the flexibility and reconfigurability of a distributed system. Current software bus implementations like POLYLITH, however, rely on a centralized bus process and point-to-point protocols (i.e., TCP/IP) to route, queue, and deliver messages. We implement a software bus called the MULTIBUS that relies on a separate process only for routing and uses a reliable IP multicasting protocol for delivery of messages. The use of multicasting means that interconnections are independent of IP machine addresses. This approach allows reconfiguration of bus participants during system execution without notifying other participants of new IP addresses. The use of IP multicasting also permits an economy of scale in the number of participants. We describe the MULITIBUS protocol elements and show how our implementation performs better than centralized bus implementations.

  16. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  17. Mercer County off-peak fare-free bus demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dommasch, I.N.; Hollinger, R.L.

    1979-07-01

    A system-wide, off-peak fare-free bus demonstration project is being conducted in Mercer County, New Jersey to study effects of fare-free bus operation. Data collected for 2 1/2 months of operation are presented. Since implementation of the fare-free service, Mercer Metro off-peak ridership has increased approximately 45 to 50%. This equates to an overall system-wide ridership increase of about 10 to 15%. One effect of the fare-free operation has been to increase bus run times, caused in part by accompanying increases in the occurrence and length of bus delays in the downtown area. The percentage of filled bus seats has changed from about 10% before the demonstration, to over 50% after the off-peak fares were eliminated.

  18. An Overview of Staged-bus Operation in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hesam Hafezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, demand for passenger travel is higher, due to economic growth. Government policy encourages people to use public transportation instead of their private carsto reduce of traffic congestion and air pollution. In the city areas, bus networks are the major part of the public transportation system because they are easily accessible and cheaper compared to other types of public transportation. In this study revelation of details of bus operation included different agents is studied. Bus operations, during provision of their service, have interaction with three main agents: bus agent, passenger agent and traffic agent. Study of the influence of each agent in bus operation is presented in this study, using the macroscopic way.

  19. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  20. Method and systems for a radiation tolerant bus interface circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinstler, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A bus management tool that allows communication to be maintained between a group of nodes operatively connected on two busses in the presence of radiation by transmitting periodically a first message from one to another of the nodes on one of the busses, determining whether the first message was received by the other of the nodes on the first bus, and when it is determined that the first message was not received by the other of the nodes, transmitting a recovery command to the other of the nodes on a second of the of busses. Methods, systems, and articles of manufacture consistent with the present invention also provide for a bus recovery tool on the other node that re-initializes a bus interface circuit operatively connecting the other node to the first bus in response to the recovery command.

  1. MATHEMATIC MODEL FOR SITY BUS SCHEDULING IN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahid Sahid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Various methods can be used to construct a mathematical model of the transportation problems. One model that can be used is a linear model. Several studies have used a linear model to get the schedule and the optimal route of bus trips. This research will build a mathematical model of a city bus transportation problems in DIY using linear models. Linear model is built to get the condition density city bus passengers on shifts respectively that morning, noon, and evening. After finding a suitable model, applied to the bus passengers data in Yogyakarta. From these results it can be seen the optimum conditions in terms of density, because the condition of the city bus at this time that quiet enthusiasts. Besides, the optimum density at each shift in the morning is 11 passengers, 10 passengers during the day, and evening 9 passengers.   Keywords: transportation problems, the linear model, the optimal route, density

  2. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  3. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  4. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  5. Strategic nonviolent conflict: The Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Balcı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonviolent action emerges under the conditions of recognized an unacceptable political oppression and injustice. The people, who find the situation unacceptable, develop three ways of behavior. First, they exit the situation. Second, they engage in everyday forms of resistance. Third, they participate in political action which has two aspects: institutional and non-institutional. Institutional political action comprises of the regular political activities such as voting, taking part in legislative process, and joining political parties. Non-institutional political action, on the contrary, arises as either violent action or nonviolent action. This paper examines the emergence, progress, and spread of the Montgomery Bus Boycott as one of the leading examples of the nonviolent struggles in the last century.

  6. Strategic nonviolent conflict: The Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdaverdi Balcı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonviolent action emerges under the conditions of recognized an unacceptable political oppression and injustice. The people, who find the situation unacceptable, develop three ways of behavior. First, they exit the situation. Second, they engage in everyday forms of resistance. Third, they participate in political action which has two aspects: institutional and non-institutional. Institutional political action comprises of the regular political activities such as voting, taking part in legislative process, and joining political parties. Non-institutional political action, on the contrary, arises as either violent action or nonviolent action. This paper examines the emergence, progress, and spread of the Montgomery Bus Boycott as one of the leading examples of the nonviolent struggles in the last century

  7. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  8. Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.

  9. Integrated optics bus access module for intramachine communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Tammela, Simo K. T.; Hannula, Tapio

    1991-12-01

    The feasibility of a passive bidirectional fiber optic bus and the packaging considerations of a bus access module have been studied. The bus uses 110/125 micrometers HCS fiber and passive integrated optic couplers for bus access. The access couplers are asymmetric and were fabricated using a Ag-Na ion exchange process. The asymmetry of the coupler was 5 dB, the launch loss to the bus was 6 dB and the tap-off loss to the node was 11 dB. With the integrated optics coupler it is possible to connect 6 nodes to the bidirectional bus. It is also possible to realize a simple, easy-to-use, and reliable bus access module for intramachine communication. The integrated optics coupler, a LED chip, and a PIN-diode chip and transceiver electronics are packaged in an electrical connector with a two-fiber optical cable pigtail. Active and passive components are butt coupled to the coupler. The 0.5 dB alignment tolerances for the fiber pigtails, the LED, and the PIN-diode chips are +/- 5 micrometers .

  10. Scheduling Combination Optimization Research for Bus Lane Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazao Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Different scheduling forms can be adopted in bus lane system to meet passengers’ travel demand well and improve operational efficiency. Therefore, this paper researched the optimal headway and bus scheduling combination of a bus lane line. Bus scheduling combination is composed of a sequence of full-length, express bus and short-turn. We established a model to minimize passengers’ waiting cost and vehicles’ operation cost and to optimize headway and bus scheduling combination, under the constraint of the headway restriction for each stop, the minimum number of vehicle trips in one hour and the proportion of short-turn and express bus trips in total trips. The model was solved by improved genetic algorithm, and the optimal solution was obtained by repeating the operation of genetic algorithm L times. The results of numerical example show that the whole cost can be saved by 21.77% at most after optimization, which indicate the model and algorithm we presented are reasonable and practicable.

  11. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  12. Evaluation of Candidate Measures for Home-Based Screening of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Taiwanese Bus Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Ting

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleepiness-at-the-wheel has been identified as a major cause of highway accidents. The aim of our study is identifying the candidate measures for home-based screening of sleep disordered breathing in Taiwanese bus drivers, instead of polysomnography. Methods: Overnight polysomnography accompanied with simultaneous measurements of alternative screening devices (pulse oximetry, ApneaLink, and Actigraphy, heart rate variability, wake-up systolic blood pressure and questionnaires were completed by 151 eligible participants who were long-haul bus drivers with a duty period of more than 12 h a day and duty shifting. Results: 63.6% of professional bus drivers were diagnosed as having sleep disordered breathing and had a higher body mass index, neck circumference, systolic blood pressure, arousal index and desaturation index than those professional bus drivers without evidence of sleep disordered breathing. Simple home-based candidate measures: (1 Pulse oximetry, oxygen-desaturation indices by ≥3% and 4% (r = 0.87~0.92; (2 Pulse oximetry, pulse-rising indices by ≥7% and 8% from a baseline (r = 0.61~0.89; and (3 ApneaLink airflow detection, apnea-hypopnea indices (r = 0.70~0.70, based on recording-time or Actigraphy-corrected total sleep time were all significantly correlated with, and had high agreement with, corresponding polysomnographic apnea-hypopnea indices [(1 94.5%~96.6%, (2 93.8%~97.2%, (3 91.1%~91.3%, respectively]. Conversely, no validities of SDB screening were found in the multi-variables apnea prediction questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, night-sleep heart rate variability, wake-up systolic blood pressure and anthropometric variables. Conclusions: The indices of pulse oximetry and apnea flow detection are eligible criteria for home-based screening of sleep disordered breathing, specifically for professional drivers.

  13. [Drowning accidents in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krandick, G; Mantel, K

    1990-09-30

    This is a report on five boys aged between 1 and 5 years who, after prolonged submersion in cold water, were treated at our department. On being taken out of the water, all the patients were clinically dead. After 1- to 3-hour successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a rectal temperature of about 27 degrees C, they were rewarmed at a rate of 1 degree/hour. Two patients died within a few hours after the accident. One patient survived with an apallic syndrome, 2 children survived with no sequelae. In the event of a water-related accident associated with hypothermia, we consider suitable resuscitation to have preference over rewarming measures. The most important treatment guidelines and prognostic factors are discussed.

  14. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  15. Using microcomputers for lighting appliance control using a DALI bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article concerns the DALI bus theoretical and practical aspects. The DALI bus is a modern technology developed especially for illumination systems control. Authors are outlining communication basic principles related to the physical layer and going up to more complex data transactions among particular devices. The article main topic is aimed at two device models development based on microcontroller and exploiting that technology. The first of those two devices is a DALI slave unit enabling the light source or multi switch with light indication components control via DALI bus. The second device measures the ambient illumination intensity and it also detects errors in the load.

  16. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  17. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion.

  18. Development in Conducting Bus of RE-Al Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德富; 胡捷; 章萍芝; 石瑛; 李彦利

    2001-01-01

    Four kinds of deformed aluminum alloys were tested. One kind of RE-A1-Mg-Si alloy, which possessed high conductivity and strength, was the first priority by contrast test, The large specification bus of conducting aluminum all oys was made by thermomechanical process during the industrial experiment. The properties of the bus are as follows:the tensile strength σb is 238 MPa, the conductivity (v.s. IACS) is 54.3%, and the current-carrying capacity is beyond 3.1kA during working process. This kind of RE-Al alloy bus has been applied to several electrical transmitting and transforming work.

  19. Designing and modelling Havana’s future bus rapid transit

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, James; Ortegon-Sanchez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    A single bus route in Havana’s bus system is modelled from the current position to a modernised bus rapid transit (BRT). The system is based on an expert-led visioning process and Cuba’s official planning documents, which define the high-level design criteria and their objectives. Building on the experiences of BRT systems that operate in other Latin American cities, a conceptual design for Havana’s BRT system is defined in terms of the key institutional, technical and financial frameworks, a...

  20. Statistical Analysis for the Driving Cycle of Beijing's Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震坡; 孙逢春; 王军; 孙立清

    2004-01-01

    According to the test data of the driving model for Beijing's bus routes, 9 parameters and the actual values of Beijing bus are confirmed to evaluate the driving cycle, 2 ways of establishing driving cycle model are analyzed, the formula of calculating driving cycle is acquired, and the calculating driving cycle model and the statistical driving cycle model for the buses in Beijing urban areas are set up. This study provides scientific basis for selecting the bus type and confirming the design parameters and the running method in Beijing.

  1. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Choong-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, uninterruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS is discussed and elaborated.

  2. RENEB accident simulation exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Materials and methods: Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results ob...

  3. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuri...

  4. Intelligent Energy Management in a Two Power-Bus Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    Dirty Bus Branch 28V Battery Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator Load Clean Bus Branch 28V Battery Bus Bus 19 DISTRIBUTION...Motor Field Controlled DC generator DC Power Supply Electronic Load DC Power Supply (125V, 3A) Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator...Battery Lithium Battery Load Electronic Load Clean Bus Branch Original System Demo System Hydraulic System Permanent DC Motor Alternator Field

  5. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  6. Rfid-Based Automatic Bus Ticketing: Features and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudah, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advancements in various technologies have made remarkable developments in various fields for public welfare and public transport is one such area. In the near future public bus transport system with advanced technologies like Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), GSM, GPS, ZigBee and RF modules will gain spotlight due to their advantage of higher convenience and greater life standards as compared to the conventional bus systems. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all several proposed bus ticketing and bus information methods has been presented in detail. The study brings out improved solution in terms of cost, convenience, user satisfaction and future implementation. The choice of working modules and their efficient performance has been discussed along with the highlighted importance of the need of technology for welfare of common public and visually impaired.

  7. Study on the Bus Real-time Dispatching Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YingZou; JianguoLi; JianhuaHuang; ZhenminTang

    2004-01-01

    The real-time dispatching model on bus system is studied in this article. Realtime dispatching can resume the planned schedule quickly, and then to ensure the reliability of the public transport service and to well raise the service quality.

  8. Multi-Gigabit Rate Radiation Hard Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High speed robust very low power radiation hardened bus interconnects are required to accelerate on-board computations, further improve reconfigurability and upgrade...

  9. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  10. Bus Passenger Recognition and Track of Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Zhou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is a research aiming at realizing making a statistics on passenger flow volume of bus, which not only helps traffic services center rationally schedule vehicles, but also can avoid overload. The system makes machine vision technology and digital image processing technique applied in customer counting of bus. The key questions in the study include effective collection of video image, effective extraction of moving object in sequence images, recognition of moving targets, trace and count of moving objects. The paper makes deep analysis on relevant technology from the perspective of the theory and practical application of the algorithm, and the study makes achievements. The theoretical algorithm for the study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is distinctive. The practical experiments indicate that the system can satisfy the real-time requirements, and can accurately make statistics on the number of passengers, which has great application value.

  11. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  12. Examining the Optimal Fuel Type for Urban Bus Operations

    OpenAIRE

    CAULFIELD, BRIAN

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Washington D.C. Public service fleets offer an attractive option for introducing renewable fuels and alternative technologies on a large scale, which allow for the reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and exhaust air pollutants. This paper ex amines the use of biomethane (bio-CNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) for part of the bus fleet in Dublin. Dublin is typical of many international urban centres with a large bus fleet; therefore the results...

  13. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xiaobao; Huan Mei; Gao Ziyou

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the...

  14. Bus Routes, CTran Bus routes, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  15. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  16. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  17. Learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van

    2014-01-01

    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  18. [Practical management of CPB accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoix, J-P; Fenet, L; Provenchere, S

    2012-05-01

    Accident of CPB is a reality. It is important to be prepared for discussion with the family, with the hospital administration, eventually with the justice. But we have also to support perfusionnist and anesthetic team in charge of the patient during accident.

  19. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the ...

  20. Application of CAN Bus Technology on Zhongtong Bus%CAN总线技术在中通客车上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳

    2012-01-01

    The application status of CAN bus technology on Zhongtong bus is introduced, the methods of bus data collection and analysis on Zhongtong traditional and new energy bus are discussed and the development direction of CAN bus technology is prospected.%介绍CAN总线技术在中通客车上的应用状况,探讨中通传统客车及新能源客车的总线数据采集和分析方法。

  1. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  2. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  3. Typologie des Accidents Cyclistes

    OpenAIRE

    Amoros, Emmanuelle; BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Hours, Martine

    2015-01-01

    L'usage du vélo est en hausse en ville ; cette pratique est encouragée dans le cadre du développement durable et de la lutte contre la sédentarité. Pour accompagner cela, il faut réduire les risques d'accident, et pour ce faire, mieux les connaître. Nous utilisons le Registre des victimes de la circulation routière du Rhône, basé sur les services hospitaliers (dont les urgences) ; il est quasi-exhaustif : env. 1100 blessés à vélo/an versus 120 dans les données officielles. L'ensemble des cycl...

  4. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  5. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  6. Capacity Region of a New Bus Communication Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuojun Zhuang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a new bus communication model, where two transmitters wish to send their corresponding private messages and a common message to a destination, while they also wish to send the common message to another receiver connected to the same wire. From an information-theoretical point of view, we first study a general case of this new model (with discrete memoryless channels. The capacity region composed of all achievable (R0,R1,R2 triples is determined for this general model, where R1 and R2 are the transmission rates of the private messages and R0 is the transmission rate of the common message. Then, the result is further explained via the Gaussian example. Finally, we give the capacity region for the new bus communication model with additive Gaussian noises and attenuation factors. This new bus communication model captures various communication scenarios, such as the bus systems in vehicles, and the bus type of communication channel in power line communication (PLC networks.

  7. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The presence of numerous local spatial constraints makes the process and extent of epidemic spreading extremely difficult to predict. Also, majority of the studies have focused on the contagion processes on scale-free network topologies whereas, spatially-constrained real-world networks such as, bus networks exhibit a wide-spectrum of network topology. Therefore, we aim in this study to understand this complex dynamical process of epidemic outbreak and information diffusion on the bus networks for six different Indian cities usin...

  8. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  9. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  10. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  11. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  12. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    a questionnaire in 1978 regarding psychosocial factors and health. The prevalence of frequent low back pain was 57%. In a control group of 195 motormen the prevalence was 40%. Standardized Morbidity Ratio for bus drivers discharged from hospital during the period 1978-1984 with the diagnosis lumbar disc...... herniation was 137 compared to all Danish men. These differences were statistically significant. Of psychosocial factors only "the feeling of being mentally unbalanced" was found to be statistically significantly related to subsequent hospital discharge with a LBT-diagnosis. Long seniority as bus driver...

  13. Persecution as a Theme in Isaac Bashevis Singer's The Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Minzhi

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Bashevis Singer is very much concerned about the fate of Jewish people,so he often presents Jews'sufferings in his literary works.The Bus,by means of describing the narrator's experiences during a bus tour through Spain,in different dimensions reinforces the destructive impact of persecution that Jews have gone through.Moreover,he implies such persecution is not merely confined between Jews and the Gentile,but also spreads among the whole human beings who hold differet beliefs.

  14. Development of fiber optic data bus for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komouchi, Yutaka; Sueoka, Akira

    1988-02-01

    An account is given of the design, construction, and both ground and flight testing of a star-coupled fiber-optic data bus consisting of an optic coupler, fibers, a connector, and a transmitter/receiver. This system precludes spark/fire hazards and crosstalk problems, while offering very small size and weight for a given capability. The communication protocol for the data bus is of 1 Mbit/sec command response type, and its design attempted to minimize the effect on electronic interfaces as a result of conversion from electrical to fiber-optic buses.

  15. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...... could provide a continuative power supply to the loads. An overview of Multi-DC-Bus solutions is presented in this paper. The performances are compared on the basis of possible DC microgrid configurations, redundancy, different DC voltage levels....

  16. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    “Sustainable transport” has become a headline for transport planning and policy making around the world. While there are many different definitions of what Sustainable Transport means, it commonly includes efforts to improve the environmental performance of transport systems, and to promote...... alternative modes of transport to private cars, such as public transport. In this paper we focus only on the potential of bus transport services in cities for attracting travellers from cars. It is a basic assumption behind this paper that the ability of public bus transport to attract travellers from cars...

  17. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  18. Performance evaluation of UHF RFID technologies for real-time bus recognition in the Taipei Bus Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-06-18

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses.

  19. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  20. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  1. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R

    1997-08-01

    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

  2. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  3. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  4. How to Cut Costs by Saving School Bus Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiff, Hank

    A program started in Washington County, Maryland in 1980 has been successful in saving school bus fuel and bringing down transportation costs incurred by its fleet of 200 buses. Driver training and motivation, as well as a partial transfer to diesel buses, are at the heart of the program. The drivers are taught five fuel saving techniques: cut…

  5. Platform Screen Doors Enhanced Bus Rapid Transit Intelligent Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghua Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is the last straw to clutch at to solve the urban traffic issue, to develop high-capacity rapid transit and promote transit priority. Characterized by low cost, short construction cycle and flexible development, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has been favored by more and more cities in the world. The Platform Screen Doors (PSDs system is an important component at BRT stations, and it is original motive to be designed to satisfy the growing demand from BRT application to provide increased safety and comfort in the first. With the continual increased demand for BRT intelligent performance, the PSDs system is applied to get Bus Location Information with accurate position of arrival and departure at stop, to provide Real-Time Information (RTI for BRT passengers using PSDs/GPS compound location technology, to put into practice Bus Fleet Management (BFM. Considering the capability of accurate location, it can be applied to actualize Bus Sign Priority in the future. The authors are luck to take in part the practice of BRT system, especially in the BRT intelligent systems, the papers will introduce upwards application and conceive in detail.

  6. Interface For MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic control-logic subsystem acts as interface between microcontroller and MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Subsystem made of relatively small number of integrated circuits. Advantages include low power, few integrated-circuit chips, and little need for control signals.

  7. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  8. Are Good Deeds Compulsory for Young Bus Riders?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A recent popular post on the Internet concerns friction on a bus in Hangzhou, east China’s Zhejiang Province. A young female passenger surnamed Wu refused to give herseat to a 77-year-old woman when she wasasked to do so by an elderly man surnamed

  9. Bullying on the School Bus: A Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of bullying on the school bus. Videotapes were used to identify occurrences of bullying on buses of elementary school students. Incidents were reviewed for forms of bullying, fullness, presence of friends, and severity of acts. Results indicated that approximately two incidents occurred per bus…

  10. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  11. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  12. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  13. Tram of Bus: Does the Tram Bonus Exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunschoten, T.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Nes, R.

    2013-01-01

    The tram bonus is a much discussed topic as there is severe uncertainty about its definition and its existence. In this paper the tram bonus is considered to be the extra value it generates for travellers, which causes a new tram service to gain more passengers when compared to an equivalent bus ser

  14. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  15. Energy Performance Optimization of a Bus for Urban Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many people use public transports in urban centres. Consequently, every day a lot of buses move within cities, trying to ensure the best service to citizens. During the year buses becomecrowded places and using an air conditioning system in constant operation, it tries to ensure a certain condition of comfort for the passengers on board. The aim of this study is to analyse and optimize the energy performance of a bus shell, identifying practical solutions that have not yet been adopted in order to reduce the impact of air conditioning on bus consumption and, therefore, on air pollution. For this reason it was decided to conduct a thermal analysis of a bus for public transport, in order to understandthe behaviour of the bus shell and to deduce possible optimization measures that have not yet been made until now. The analysis was carried out considering the hottest day of July and the coldest day ofJanuary, considering the conditions of operation based on the most common graphics TGM able to define the concentration of traffic city during the 24 hours per day. The study was done using the dynamicsimulation software TRNSYS. With this software it was possible to recreate faithfully the structure of the bus and the external environmental conditions, assessing the impact of different technical solutions for an improvement of internal conditions and a reduction of the cooling capacity required. Because the presence of passengers in public transport is considered like a “benefit” during the winter, the analysis started with the identification of a summer solution and the subsequent evaluation of this solution for the wintertime. The aim of this study was to optimize the bus shell and select the most appropriate solutions. Regarding the transparent surfaces it has been given importance to factors such as the thermal transmittance and the solar gain factor (g-value. Aware of the influence given by the solar radiation on the energy loads, we

  16. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  17. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  18. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  19. [Accidents of fulguration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

    1976-01-01

    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous

  20. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  1. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  2. Bus Stops Location and Bus Route Planning Using Mean Shift Clustering and Ant Colony in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supangat, Kenny; Eko Soelistio, Yustinus

    2017-03-01

    Traffic Jam has been a daily problem for people in Jakarta which is one of the busiest city in Indonesia up until now. Even though the official government has tried to reduce the impact of traffic issues by developing a new public transportation which takes up a lot of resources and time, it failed to diminish the problem. The actual concern to this problem actually lies in how people move between places in Jakarta where they always using their own vehicle like cars, and motorcycles that fill most of the street in Jakarta. Among much other public transportations that roams the street of Jakarta, Buses is believed to be an efficient transportation that can move many people at once. However, the location of the bus stop is now have moved to the middle of the main road, and its too far for the nearby residence to access to it. This paper proposes an optimal location of optimal bus stops in West Jakarta that is experimentally proven to have a maximal distance of 350 m. The optimal location is estimated by means of mean shift clustering method while the optimal routes are calculated using Ant Colony algorithm. The bus stops locations rate of error is 0.07% with overall route area of 32 km. Based on our experiments, we believe our proposed bus stop plan can be an interesting alternative to reduce traffic congestion in West Jakarta.

  3. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  4. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  5. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  6. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  7. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  8. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  9. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  10. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  11. Bathtub immersion accidents involving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J

    1977-02-12

    A review of 19 consecutive serious bathtub immersion accidents (11 survivals, 8 fatalities) is presented. In all instances, consciousness was lost in the water. Unlike other childhood accidents which usually show a male predominance, the sexes are equally affected. The modal age is 11 months. Six separate causes of bath drownings and near-drownings have been identified, and in 14 of the 19 accidents, two or more causes were operating concurrently. Median estimated immersion time for survivals was four minutes, and five minutes for fatalities. The median depth of water was eight inches. An 'at risk' profile for home bathtub drownings is presented; this includes the youngest or second youngest child of a large family, a family of grade 4 to 7 sociooccupational status (congalton) and a family in which routine is temporarily broken.

  12. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2006-01-01

    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Accident/. If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  13. StarBus+: Distributed Object Middleware Practice for Internet Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-Min Wang; Yu-Feng Wang; Yang-Bin Tang

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, the booming of Internet challenges the middleware in three aspects: quality of service,balance of changes and stabilization, and across-Internet integration. This paper presents our work on distributed object computing middleware technology for these challenges, as well as the research and development on StarBus+, which is a CORBA standard-compliant middleware suite with the features such as object request broker supporting multi-* quality of service, component model, and integration with Web Service. This paper comprehensively presents the design and characteristics of StarBns+, and demonstrates how StarBus+ is enhanced to address the challenges of Internet computing through three case studies: inter-enterprise integration over Internet, application evolution through dynamic reconfiguration,and great massive information system building. The paper also suggests some research directions which are important for Internet computing.

  14. Implementation of I 2C Master Bus Protocol on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regu Archana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on I 2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit protocol interface between Master Bus protocol and slave. Here we are interfacing between micro-controller and DS1307. I 2C bus protocol sends 8 bit data from micro-controller to DS1307. This module was designed in VHDL and simulated and synthesized using Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.2. I 2C and optimized for area and power. This concept is widely applicable from any high speed device or low speed device to any low speed device or high speed device. This module acts as a slave for the DS1307 at the same time acts like a master for the micro-controller device which can be considered as a slave. . It can be used to interface low speed peripherals like motherboard, embedded system, mobile phones, set top boxes, DVD, PDA’s or other electronic devices.

  15. Distributed cooperative synchronization strategy for multi-bus microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Zhong, Chaolu; Hou, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    communication breaks down, the primary droop control can still operate robustly. Small signal model of entire system is developed to adjust the parameters of distributed active synchronization controller. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method....... synchronization methods based on centralized communication are very costly and not suitable for multi-bus microgrids that have a large number of distributed generators (DGs). To address this concern, this study presents an active synchronization control strategy based on distributed cooperation technology...... for multi-bus microgrids. The proposed method can reconnect the microgrid in island to UG seamlessly with sparse communication channels. Synchronization correction signals are generated by a voltage controller, which are only transmitted to the leader DGs. Meanwhile, each DG exchanges information with its...

  16. THE DESIGN OF VMEBUS BRIDGE CONTROLLER WITH SHARC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Wu Shunjun; Su Tao

    2005-01-01

    Targeting at the high expense and inflexibility to realize VMEbus bridge controller by professional Integrated Circuit (IC), this paper presents a scheme of adopting CPLD/FPGA (Complicated Programmable Logic Device/Field Programmable Gate Array) to design bridge controller between VMEbus and local bus. SHARC DSP (Digital Signal Processor) bus is an example. It has functions of nearly entire master/slave interface of VMEbus, and can act as DMA (Direct Memory Access) controller and perform block transfer in DMA or master processor initiative way without length limit. External circuit of the design is very simple. In comparison with special ICs, it has high performance to price ratio and can be easily applied to local buses of other processors with quite a little modification.

  17. Bus Encoder for Crosstalk Avoidance in RLC Modeled Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nagendra Babu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the encoding methods proposed in recent years have dealt with only RC modeled VLSI interconnects. For deep sub micron technologies (DSM, on-chip inductive effects have increased due to faster clock speeds, smaller signal rise times and longer length of on-chip interconnects. All these issues raise the concern for cross talk, propagation delay and power dissipation of overall. Therefore, this research work introduces an efficient Bus Encoder using Bus Inverting (BI method. The proposed design dramatically reduces both cross talk and power dissipation in RLC modeled interconnects which makes it suitable for current high-speed low-power VLSI interconnects. The proposed model demonstrates an overall reduction of power dissipation and cross talk induced delay by 55.43% and 45.87%, respectively.

  18. Technology Update of a Control System Trough Corba Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Bertocchi, A; Buceti, G; Centioli, C; Muzio, D D; Iannone, F; Mazza, G; Panella, M; Vitale, V

    2001-01-01

    After more than 10 years of activity, FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) has to face the problem of taking advantage of the new hardware and software technology saving all the investments yet done. So, for example, the 20 years old Westinghouse PLCs (communicating only through a serial line) have to be leaved in operation while a web-based tool has to be released for plan monitoring purpose. CORBA bus has been demonstrated to be the answer to set up the communication between old and new hardware and software blocks. On FTU the control system is based on Basestar, a Digital/Compaq software suite. We will describe how the real time database of Basestar is now accessed by Java graphic tools, LabView and, in principle, any package accepting external routines. An account will be also done in the data acquisition area where a Camac serial highway driver has been integrated in the new architecture still through the CORBA bus

  19. Investigation on full distribution CNC system based on SERCOS bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A full distribution CNC system based on SERCOS bus is studied in accordance with the limitations of traditional PC-based motion card.The conventional PC-based motion control card is dispersed into several autonomous intelligent servo-control units with the function of servo driver.The autonomous intelligent servocontrol units realize the loop control of position,velocity and current.Interpolation computation is completed in PC and the computational results are transferred to every autonomous intelligent servo-control unit by high speed SERCOS bus.Software or hardware synchronization technology is used to ensure all servomotors are successive and synchronously running.The communication and synchronization technology of SERCOS are also researched and the autonomous intelligent servo-control card is developed byself.Finally,the experiment of circle contour process on a prototype system proves the feasibility.

  20. Health effect of a bus ride in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, T.

    1983-07-01

    Health effects on subjects during a bus drive on an urban road were investigated in a real situation. Leukocyte count, adrenalin level in blood and urine, noradrenalin and dopamine in urine, diastolic blood pressure, and index of vascular resistance increased significantly on the drive day compared with the control day. A bus drive on an urban road induced enhanced sympathetic-adreno-medullary activity in real life as a result of the comprehensive effect of various factors. The concentrations of air pollutants were excessively high on the road, and correlated with traffic volume. It was concluded that the interactions between psychogenic, physical nonspecific and physical specific effects should be taken into consideration when evaluating human health effects of air pollution in the urban environment.

  1. Leveraging Bus Mobility to Enable Communications in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Gaito, Sabrina; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that the deployment of an opportunistic network on any public transportation system leads to obtain a scalable and efficient urban communication platform. We use the term Bus Switched Networks (BSNs) to indicate this urban backbone that complements the services of 3G networks and enables to meet the application level requirements for a large class of applications by ensuring high delivery ratio and acceptable delays under different conditions of packet load. We sustain these arguments by providing three contributions. The first contribution is a novel and lightweight probabilistic routing protocol for BSN which we prove to be highly effective in satisfying the loose QoS required by urban-wide delay-tolerant information services. The second contribution is the proposal of URBeS, an analysis platform that, given a specific city served by public transportation, produces real bus mobility traces and traffic analysis for any given routing protocol. The last contribution is an extensive benchmark a...

  2. Design of CAN Bus Application in the Process of Papermaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisheng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the design of can bus application in the process of papermaking. The design for an intelligent measure and control system based on the technology of CAN bus, is applied to detect and control the concentration of wood-pulp, the temperature of multistage dryer and other parameters in the process of papermaking, in order to meet the control requirements and characters for the study quality and ensure paper even and cohesive under the course of manufacturer. The intelligence of measure and control system has been predominantly researched in the article, including the proposal of intelligent control node and communication model, the design of hardware interface circuit in the intelligent measure and control node and the design of whole system.

  3. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  4. Virtual Instrument Based on GPIB Interface Bus1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao,Ying; Qi,Hanhong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the technique of GPIB businterface. Through the controlling of the GPIB interface board,the computer controlled the current source and the voltmeter, both of which have GPIB bus interface, and a virtual instrument testing system for I~V curve was composed. The virtual instrument front panel and the background graphical control program in Labview environment accomplish virtual instrument testing task along with the hardware system.

  5. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  6. MEASURING CUSTOMER’S SATISFACTION ON BUS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rabiul Islam; Mohammed S. Chowdhury; Mohammad Sumann Sarker; Salauddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the factors measuring customers’ satisfaction, especially the impact of service quality on customers’ satisfaction in public transportation industry in the university town of Sintok located in Kedah province of Malaysia. In order to assess the relationships between service quality and customer satisfaction survey http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1003.htmdata were collected from 300 Bus commuters. All hypotheses were tes...

  7. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  8. The Designing Bus for Nuclear Safety Class Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa [PONUTech Co,. Ltd., Research Institute, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Kwangki [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is based on the IEEE 802.3 standard as one of the communication which is the I/O (Input/Output), sensors and communication function of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in industry and factory environment use is increasing. The Nuclear Safety Class Controller implemented by the EtherCAT applied bus can be shown the improving performance of data transmission in the controller.

  9. Nearly deterministic Bell measurement using quantum communication bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Ming; Zhu, Meng-zheng; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-03-01

    We present a scheme to implement Bell states measurement for an arbitrary number of photons by using robust continuous variable coherent modes, called as quantum communication bus (qubus) and weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. Remarkably, the success probability of our scheme is close to unity, and our scheme does not require any ancillary resource entanglement. Our scheme is likely to yield versatile applications for quantum computation and quantum teleportation.

  10. Capacity models on expressway near a bus bay stop with an access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪宾; 孙小端; 贺玉龙; 宇仁德

    2015-01-01

    To determinate the expressway capacity near a bus bay stop with an access, capacity models on the expressway near a bus stop with an access were developed on the basis of gap acceptance theory and queuing theory. Depending on a bus stop position to an entrance or an exit ramp, the capacity models were developed for four cases. Bus bay stops with overflow and bus bay stops without overflow were considered. A comparison of simulation experiment and model calculation was carried out. Results show that the suggested models have high accuracy and reliability, at bus arrival rate below 60 vehicles per hour (veh/h) or vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit below 200 passenger cars units per hour (pcu/h), and there are no significant difference in the capacities for four cases. When bus arrival rate is above 240 veh/h, the capacities of all four cases will decline rapidly. With berth number increasing, the increasing of the capacities is no obvious for four cases. As the bus arrival rate and vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit increase, bus stops located downstream of an entrance and upstream of an exit have a remarkably effect on the capacities. The latter case is much heavier than the former. Those results can be used to traffic design and optimization on urban expressway near a bus stop with an access.

  11. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    Full Text Available The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  12. BUS BAY PERFORMANCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CAPACITY OF ROAD NETWORK IN DAR ES SALAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin K. Mushule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of major problems facing motorists in Dar es Salaam city today is congestion. Bus bays have a significant influence on the capacity of a roadway because they interfere with passing vehicles primarily when buses maneuver to pull into and out of bus bays. Bus bay stops will also interfere with vehicles movement if bus demand exceeds the bus bay capacity resulting in some buses waiting in the travel lane until the buses occupying the bay exit the bay. This paper presents the results of a study which was carried out to evaluate the bus bay performance and its influence on the capacity of the roadway network in the city of Dar es Salaam. The case study area covered 11 bus stops along Morogoro road from Ubungo to Magomeni Mapipa. Capacity of bus bays was studied using procedure outlined in the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual of 2003. This enabled the researcher to determine parameters such as dwell times and clearance times which are major determinants of bus stop capacity. The results indicate that only 18% of the bus bay stops studied did not have adequate capacity to cater for the available demand. 9% did not have adequate capacity during peak hours but the capacity was adequate during off-peak hours. The remaining 73% of bus bay stops possess adequate capacity all the time. Although most bus bay stops studied possess adequate capacity, severe congestion was observed at these locations. This is due to erratic behavior of bus drivers who do not utilize the provided space for them to drop off and pick up passengers. Clearly, this is an area that requires more strict enforcement in order to ease the congestion problem in the city by operating the existing capacity more efficiently."

  13. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  14. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  15. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ávila Assunção

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  16. Ring Bus Architecture for a Solid-State Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. John; Kopf, Edward; Cox, Brian

    2008-01-01

    A document concisely describes a ring bus architecture for a proposed solid-state recorder (SSR) that would serve as buffer of data to be transmitted from a spacecraft to Earth. This architecture would afford fault tolerance needed for reliable operation in an anticipated high-radiation environment in which traditional SSRs cannot operate reliably. Features of the architecture include one or more controller boards and multiple memory boards interconnected in a ringlike topology. The interconnections would be high-speed serial links complying with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 1393 (which pertains to a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus). Accordingly, each controller and memory board would be equipped with an IEEE-1393-compliant ring-bus-interface unit. The ringlike topology and the multiplicity of memory boards (and, optionally, of controller boards) would afford the redundancy needed for fault tolerance. Each board would be a fault-containment region. The IEEE 1393 links could be routed so that the SSR would continue to function even in the event of multiple failures. This architecture would also support scalability over a wide range. In a fully redundant configuration, it could accommodate between 1 and 125 memory boards.

  17. Designing Parallel Bus Using Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyandra Sharad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper entitled “DESIGNING PARALLEL BUSUSING UNIVERSAL ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER TRANSMITTER” is designed to the core of a UART interface module, which includes both receive and transmit modules, and the command parser. This paper will be a viable solution to design parallel buses with the help of UART. In the test bench , there is a RFM(register file model to which we write/read back data from just to check our design .The txt file issues serial inputs to the core and the core outputs parallel data and address in the form of bus. This bus is connected to our RFM (register file model instantiated in the test bench along with the design. This makes easy to retrieve parallel data from serial input. The base of the paper is to use microcontroller along with other components to interface with the physical world. In contrast, most serial communication must first be converted back into parallel form by a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART before they may be directly connected to a data bus. Both Transmissions (Parallel and Serial are used to connect peripheral devices and enable us to communicate with these devices. The UART core described here is designed using VHDL and implemented on Xilinx Vertex FPGA.

  18. Fuel cell transit bus development & commercialization programs at Gerogetown University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, R.; Larkins, J.; Romano, S. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fourteen years ago, Georgetown University (GU) perceived the need for a clean, efficient power systems for transportation that could operate on non-petroleum based fuels. The transit bus application was selected to begin system development. GU recognized the range and recharge constraints of a pure battery powered transit bus. A Fuel Cell power system would circumvent these limitations and, with an on board reformer, accommodate liquid fuel for rapid refueling. Feasibility studies for Fuel Cell power systems for transit buses were conducted with the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1983. Successful results of this investigation resulted in the DOT/DOE Fuel Cell transit bus development program. The first task was to prove that small Fuel Cell power plants were possible. This was achieved with the Phase I development of two 25 kW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) brassboard systems. A liquid cooled version was selected for the Phase II activity in which three 30-foot Fuel Cell powered Test Bed Buses (TBBs) were fabricated. The first of these TBBs was delivered in the spring of 1994. All three of these development vehicles are now in Phase III of the program to conduct testing and evaluation, is conducting operational testing of the buses. The test will involve two fuel cell-operated buses; one with a proton exchange fuel cell and the other with a phosphoric acid fuel cell.

  19. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  20. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  1. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers. PMID:25741657

  2. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  3. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  4. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  5. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...

  6. New technology for accident prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Work Accidents and Professional Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Hauptmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The major accident is defined as “any event occurred, like an emission of dangerous materials or agents, which emerges from uncontrolled evolutions along the exploitation of any objective that leads to the immediate or delayed occurrence of serious dangers with impact over human health or over the environment, inside or outside the objective in which are involved one or more than one dangerous materials”.The dangerous phenomenon is a potential source of harms. In the ambit of industrial risks of accidental origins, this expression more frequently refers to physical phenomena like conflagrations, explosions, toxic gases dispersion, etc.Any accident scenario relates itself to the potential effects at the level of environmental “targets”. In the case of major accidents, we can distinguish the following categories of “targets”: human (employees of the objective, working or resident people in the nearby of the emplacement; the installation or equipments that may stay at the origin of the accidents (dangerous equipments; certain all-important equipments to ensure the safety level of the installation (critical security equipments: control rooms, civil fire brigade headquarters, etc; goods and structures situated in the installation’ environment (ground water, rivers, soil, flora, fauna.

  8. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  9. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  10. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  11. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document disc

  12. Analysing truck position data to study roundabout accident risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kamla, Jwan Jameel Shekh Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce accident risk, highway authorities prioritise maintenance budgets partly based upon previous accident history. However, as accident rates have continued to fall in most contexts, this approach has become problematic as accident ‘black spots’ have been treated and the number of accidents at any individual site has fallen. Another way of identifying sites of higher accident risk might be to identify near-miss accidents (where an accident nearly happened, but was avoided), whi...

  13. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  14. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  15. Design and VHDL simulation of a special high speed spaceborne bus controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The application of high speed data bus on the satellites having several remote sensors could not only satisfy the demand of high speed data transfer,but also could reuse the equipment at both the com-ponent and subsystem levels for other space missions,thus reducing the costs of on-board processing system integration.In this article,a special high speed data bus with simple interfaces is chosen for transferring the data produced by remote sensors and other instrumentations.First,the function and the structure of the data bus are discussed carefully.And then,the bus controller,which is a key mod-ule of the data bus,is designed.At last,the function and performance of the bus controller are verified by VHDL simulation.

  16. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS, which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus, coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introducing novel functions: asynchronous meter trigger, adaptive slot scheduling, and bitmap-wise retransmission request. Through experiments, we demonstrate that BWM-Bus guarantees higher data success ratio with lower data aggregation time, as well as longer lifetime than WM-Bus standard.

  17. The RRR of the Cu components of the LHC main bus bar splices

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, S; Fessia, P; Principe, R; CERN. Geneva. TE Department

    2010-01-01

    The different LHC main bus bar splice components (bus bar cable, splice U-piece and wedge and bus bar stabilizer) are subjected to different heat treatments (HTs) during bus bar assembly and splice soldering. The influence of soldering HTs on the RRR of the LHC main bus bar cable strands has been determined. The RRR of several splice U-pieces and wedges dismounted from the LHC has been measured. A correlation between the Vickers hardness and the RRR of the high purity Cu profiles has been established. All U-pieces tested that were produced before 2009 have a RRR>200, while the RRR of all wedges and of U-pieces of 2009 production have a much lower RRR. All tests of LHC main bus bar samples performed so far in the laboratory indicate a RRR of approximately 200 or higher.

  18. Study on the Injury Criterion of Occupants in the Event of a Frontal Collision of Bus%营运大客车正面碰撞乘员伤害的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福军; 王青春; 代伟良; 谢熠萌

    2015-01-01

    客车发生正面碰撞事故约占客车碰撞事故的50%~60%。利用LS-DYNA软件,建立了包括假人、安全带和安全气囊在内的大客车车体有限元模型,对不同速度下营运大客车的正面碰撞特性进行了模拟仿真计算,分析了无任何保护措施、佩戴安全带及佩戴安全带且安全气囊起爆三种事故形态下乘员头部HPC值、胸部压缩量和大腿骨轴向接触力等伤害值。研究结果表明,安全带对于驾驶员的保护意义重大,为营运大客车乘员保护设计以及合理制定营运大客车正面碰撞法规提供数据参考。%Passenger car head-on collision accident accounts for about 50~60% of all passenger car acci-dent. Firstly, the finite element model of bus body with the dummy, seat belt and airbag was created, and non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA was used to carry out the simulation, then the injury criteri-ons of occupants were calculated and compared for the bus, bus with seat belt and bus with seat belt and airbag, related to the head performance criterion (HPC), the thorax compression criterion (ThCC) and the femur force criterion (FFC). The results show that the driver's seat belt for the protection of driver is signifi-cant. The study was useful for the occupants’ protection design of bus and the introduction of legislation for frontal collision of bus.

  19. The influence of bus stop on traffic flow with velocity-difference-separation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pengjun; Wang, Wei; Ge, Hongxia

    2016-06-01

    Based on velocity-difference-separation model, the mixed traffic flow on two-lane road is investigated. For a fixed road length, the influence of bus and bus stops on traffic flow is studied with the increasing traffic density. Compared with the result without bus stops given by Li et al., a new traffic state is found, which is valuable for studying the impacts of public transport on urban traffic flow.

  20. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Hyderabad

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda; Maddali Sai Satya Goutham

    2014-01-01

    Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS). Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BR...

  1. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-06-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  2. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P

    1989-12-01

    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions.

  3. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  4. A Prediction System Using a P2P Overlay Network for a Bus Arrival System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Hsuan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of times and the surge of metropolitan populations, government agencies often promote the construction of public transport. Unlike rail transportation or rapid transit systems, it is often difficult to estimate the vehicle arrival times at each station in a bus transportation system due to metropolitan transportation congestion. Traffic status is often monitored using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, WSNs are always separated from one another spatially. Recent studies have considered the connection of multiple sensor networks. This study considers a combination view of peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks and WSN architecture to predict bus arrival times. Each bus station, which is also a P2P overlay peer, is connected in a P2P overlay network. A sensor installed in each bus can receive data via peers to obtain the moving speed of a bus. Then, each peer can exchange its data to predict bus arrival times at bus stations. This method can considerably increase the accuracy with which bus arrival times can be predicted and can provide traffic status with high precision. Furthermore, these data can also be used to plan new bus routes according to the information gathered.

  5. An interactive wireless communication system for visually impaired people using city bus transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-04-25

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  6. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  7. Practical approaches in accident analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M.

    An accident analysis technique based on successive application of structural response, explosion dynamics, gas cloud formation, and plant operation failure mode models is proposed. The method takes into account the nonideal explosion characteristic of a deflagration in the unconfined cloud. The resulting pressure wave differs significantly from a shock wave and the response of structures like lamp posts and walls can differ correspondingly. This gives a more realistic insight into explosion courses than a simple TNT-equivalent approach.

  8. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1992-01-01

    During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses.

  9. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  10. Communication Architecture Synthesis for Multi-bus SoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Zitouni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the systems on chip (SoC design, the synthesis of communication architecture constitutes the bottleneck which can affect the performances of the system. Various schemes and protocols can be necessary, just as various topologies of interconnection. To reduce the complexity of the communications refinement, we present in this study a model and a synthesis approach for multi-bus communication architecture containing centralized bridge. The automation of the arbiter synthesis step profited from a detailed attention. This stage generates a hierarchical arbiter integrating various priority arbitration modules. The proposed approach was integrated in a toolbox based environment

  11. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  12. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  13. Development of a Multi‐bus platform for automation testbed

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Mathias; Knapik, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    The task for this thesis was to develop, construct and evaluate a multi‐bus communication system,connected to a PC via USB and capable of communicating in CAN, I2C and SPI and develop drivers for itin National Instruments LabVIEW.In the beginning a study was made of the communication buses followed by an investigation of whattype of hardware that could accomplish this task. A microcontroller unit was selected andprogrammed in MikroElektronika MikroC Pro v.3.2 to act as the interface between t...

  14. Study on Braking Energy Regeneration System for City Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zheng-yao; CHEN Ru-wen; YANG Xue-mei; LIU Gou-bing; JIN Jia-jun

    2011-01-01

    Braking of the urban vehicles of public service wastes a large number of engine energy in the condition of starting and stopping frequently. Aiming at the problem, an electro-mechanical braking energy regeneration system was proposed which adopted a high-speed flywheel and a battery to recover the braking energy and achieve the secondary traction for the auxiliary start function. The system strategy was designed and the braking simulation was processed to validate its feasibility. The experiment results show that the system can effectively recover the braking energy, improve the starting performance of the city bus and it can be applied to the engineering.

  15. Distributed Data Acquisition and Control by Software Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecil Bruce-Boye; Dmitry A. Kazakov

    2004-01-01

    Increasing global competition forces manufacturers of products from all technical fields to guarantee a high product quality for a long period of time. At the same time it is necessary to minimize production costs. In order to meet all these requirements, on-line data acquisition and processing are of increasing importance in distributed automation systems. A software bus operating on industrial Ethernet has an ability to minimize operating costs by offering easy installation, scalability,high degree of reliability and remote monitoring and control.

  16. Bus ride: an ethnographic exercise in Cafezal Quarter

    OpenAIRE

    Fé, Janine Damasceno Moura; Universidade Federal do Piauí; Souza, Maria Irene Pellegrino de Oliveira; Universidade Estadual de Londrina

    2006-01-01

     This work studies ethnography with theory basis from Collier Jr; Achutti; Maffesoli. The research method is photography and the target population are workers and passengers of a bus line, the Cafezal (quarter in the outskirts of Londrina-PR). It is noted that even in the most regular situations, it is possible to capture significant elements for ethnographic research.   O trabalho estuda a etnografia com referencial teórico de Collier Jr; Achutti, Maffesoli. O método de pesquisa é a fotog...

  17. DC Bus Regulation with a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the DC bus regulation control algorithm for the NASA flywheel energy storage system during charge, charge reduction and discharge modes of operation. The algorithm was experimentally verified with results given in a previous paper. This paper presents the necessary models for simulation with detailed block diagrams of the controller algorithm. It is shown that the flywheel system and the controller can be modeled in three levels of detail depending on the type of analysis required. The three models are explained and then compared using simulation results.

  18. [Accidents in travellers - the hidden epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Alexander; Hatz, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The risk of malaria and other communicable diseases is well addressed in pre-travel advice. Accidents are usually less discussed. Thus, we aimed at assessing accident figures for the Swiss population, based on data of the register from 2004 to 2008 of the largest Swiss accident insurance organization (SUVA). More than 139'000 accidents over 5 years showed that 65 % of the accidents overseas are injuries, and 24 % are caused by poisoning or harm by cold, heat or air pressure. Most accidents happened during leisure activities or sports. More than one third of the non-lethal and more than 50 % of the fatal accidents happened in Asia. More than three-quarters of non-lethal accidents take place in people between 25 and 54 years. One out of 74 insured persons has an accident abroad per year. Despite of many analysis short-comings of the data set with regard to overseas travel, the figures document the underestimated burden of disease caused by accidents abroad and should affect the given pre-health advice.

  19. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  20. Bus Stops, Ctran amd Rtp Bus Stops, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  1. Bus Stops, Maryland Transit Administration Local and Commuter Bus Stops, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'Maryland Transit...

  2. Bus Routes, Maryland Transit Administration Local and Commuter Bus Routes, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'Maryland Transit...

  3. Bus Routes, This shapefile contains lines that follow the path of the existing bus routes, Published in 2006, Charlotte Area Transit System.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'This shapefile contains lines that follow the path of...

  4. Quantifying the risk of extreme aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kumer Pial; Dey, Asim Kumer

    2016-12-01

    Air travel is considered a safe means of transportation. But when aviation accidents do occur they often result in fatalities. Fortunately, the most extreme accidents occur rarely. However, 2014 was the deadliest year in the past decade causing 111 plane crashes, and among them worst four crashes cause 298, 239, 162 and 116 deaths. In this study, we want to assess the risk of the catastrophic aviation accidents by studying historical aviation accidents. Applying a generalized Pareto model we predict the maximum fatalities from an aviation accident in future. The fitted model is compared with some of its competitive models. The uncertainty in the inferences are quantified using simulated aviation accident series, generated by bootstrap resampling and Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. UNIVERSALIZATION OF BUS BODY FACING DETAILS AND PRODUCTION TOOLING FOR THEIR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taranenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The directions concerning bus body production costs reduction based on large-size facing details stamping on electric-hydraulic presses are considered. The engineering of unified large-size facing detail blanks, manufacturing processes and variants of unified technological tooling for bus body facing details production, including simple- or multi-type details are described.

  6. Spaceflight qualification of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanegan, Mark C.

    1993-09-01

    The small explorer (SMEX) project at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) launched the first spaceflight implementation of the MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) in July of 1992. The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), of which the MIL-STD-1773 data bus is a part, has been successful. The MIL-STD-1773 bus is the implementation of the MIL-STD-1553 protocol using fiber optics. Advantages of the fiber optic bus over the electrical bus include lower power, lower weight, and immunity from EMI/RFI. It does not radiate electrical or magnetic fields. It is a nonconductor so it cannot conduct electrical noise into or from a subsystem. This is particularly advantageous on a spacecraft with very sensitive instruments which are often susceptible to electrical interference. Although the MIL-STD-1773 bus is a 1 Mbps bus like the MIL-STD-1553 bus, the fiber optics also provide a path to the much higher rate systems required in upcoming NASA missions.

  7. Converter Power Density Increase using Low Inductive Integrated DC-link Capacitor/Bus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Franke, Toke; Rannested, Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    The power losses in switching devices have a direct effect on the maximum converter power. For a voltage source converter, the DC-link bus has a major influence on the power loss and safe operating area of the power devices. The Power Ring Film CapacitorTM integrated with an optimized bus structu...

  8. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength. 571.221 Section 571.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221, School bus body joint...

  9. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength. S1. Scope. This standard establishes requirements for the strength of the body panel joints in...

  10. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  11. This Could Save Your Child's Life. A School Bus Handrail Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    School-bus handrails have had the same basic design for more than 30 years. However, students' recent propensity to wear oversized and baggy clothing increases the likelihood that clothing or accessories may become snagged on bus handrails. Children across the United States have been injured or killed when their clothing or accessories caught in…

  12. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  13. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  14. Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

  15. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA-bus data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) data was designed. This module was realized using complex programmable gate arrays. The gate arrays were connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter is used for set up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADC's can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules which process ADC data with pipeline arithmetics and produce the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision is transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was developed for the proposed neutral particle search. It was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data, and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision.

  16. Studying customer loyalty at Daewoo express bus service, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables. However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.

  17. Improved blood pressure control among school bus drivers with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Joseph; Severance-Fonte, Tina; Morandi-Matricaria, Elizabeth; Wogen, Jenifer; Frech-Tamas, Feride

    2010-04-01

    The impact of a hypertension awareness and educational program, BP DownShift, was evaluated among school bus drivers in a southern US state. At baseline (August 2007), blood pressure (BP) measurements, self-reported demographics, and hypertension awareness and management practices were collected from drivers who consented to participate in the study. Interventions included 4 educational mailings, installation of BP machines at all bus terminals, and access to free dietitian consultations and gym memberships. BP was evaluated using Department of Transportation guidelines. BP was remeasured and a survey was administered at follow-up (May 2008). At baseline, 208 drivers consented to the BP screening; 120 (58%) returned for a follow-up assessment. Most participants completing the study were female (73%) and African American (72%). Mean age was 50 years and mean body mass index was 32 kg/m(2); 52% of participants were obese. In all, 58% of participants reported a prior diagnosis of hypertension by a physician, and 63% reported taking antihypertensive medication. Both systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) were lower at follow-up (135/82 mmHg vs. 145/87 mmHg at baseline; P 10 mmHg, and 44% had a reduction in DBP > 5 mmHg. At follow-up, 58% were controlled to BP improvement in BP control, which may positively impact commercial driver's license recertification as well as improve employee health.

  18. CERPEN FARUK “BUS KOTA” DALAM SEMIOTIK ROLAND BARTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Widyatwati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature called beautiful if it contains the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful for the readers. Short story “Bus Kota” (City Bus containing the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful to the reader. The mandate will be revealed by Roland Barthes' semiotic theory in the book S/Z. Literature has its own allure and text have accrued but not due to independence because of the difference in quality. Texts merge into a unity, or restore any text not as an individual but as a form of plurality. Literature as part of a social system is an expression of the author's sense of the outpouring of public life. Literary works can express themselves in the author's view the social and cultural changes in society because of the development of information technology and rapid. Technological developments and socio-cultural information can change in society so as to affect the psychology of the people. Society must have a thickness of faith not only for themselves, but to be able to maintain equanimity in the life of a pluralistic society

  19. Study on the optimum design of bus window pillar join40t; Bus window pillar ketsugo buzai no saiteki sekkei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomioka, N. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Lim, S.; Kim, M.; Lee, H.; Kang, S.; Bae, D.

    1997-10-01

    Automobile body structure is generally assembled using various spot welded box sectional members. Especially, in the case of the bus, the shape of window pillar joint is assembled m T-type. This T-type member has some problem such as high stress concentration, low fatigue strength and structural rigidity. Therefore, in this report, performed a study on the optimum design of the bus window pillar joint for such problem by FEM analysis and experiments. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Bus rapid transit (BRT) and transitoriented development (TOD) : How to transform and adjust the Swedish cities for attractive bus systems like BRT? What demands BRT?

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovski, Todor

    2013-01-01

    Bus rapid transit (BRT) is an innovative bus system with sophisticated vehicles and inflexible busways integrated in the cities, high capacity and high quality, high speed and frequency, distinctive image and comfort. Many in Sweden believe that is impossible to introduce BRT, even though the Swedish towns and cities can benefit from the image, speed and frequency that BRT symbolizes. The archipelago-like urbanization, urban sprawl and the uncompetitive journey times of public transportation ...

  1. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Souri, Hamid; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Sepahbodi, Ghazal

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. Methods: In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran) during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ), big five personality test (NEO personality inventory) and semi-structured interview (schizophrenia and affective disorders scale) were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR) of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004). It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009), but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. Conclusion: The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s license. PMID:28293047

  2. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. Methods: In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ, big five personality test (NEO personality inventory and semi-structured interview (SADS were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004. It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009, but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. Conclusion: The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s license.

  3. Injuries to pedestrians in road traffic accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, R. M.; Turner, W H; Duthie, R. B.; Wilde, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Although there have been many reports on injuries to occupants of cars in road traffic accidents, there have been few prospective studies of injuries to pedestrians in such accidents. For this reason a two year prospective study of pedestrians in road traffic accidents in the Oxford region was carried out. The incidence of death in pedestrians was significantly higher than in car occupants or motorcyclists. The principal determinant of death was the weight of the vehicle concerned. The most c...

  4. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  5. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  6. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  7. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  8. Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

    1999-09-19

    The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

  9. Aerospace Accident - Injury Autopsy Data System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aerospace Accident Injury Autopsy Database System will provide the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) Aerospace Medical Research Team (AMRT) the ability to...

  10. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  11. HTGR severe accident sequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.; Kornegay, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic, fission product transport, and atmospheric dispersion calculations are presented for hypothetical severe accident release paths at the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Off-site radiation exposures are calculated for assumed release of 100% of the 24 hour post-shutdown core xenon and krypton inventory and 5.5% of the iodine inventory. The results show conditions under which dose avoidance measures would be desirable and demonstrate the importance of specific release characteristics such as effective release height. 7 tables.

  12. Accident Management in VVER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Auria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the investigation study on accident management in VVER-1000 reactor type conducted in the framework of a European Commission funded project. The mentioned study involved both experimental and computational fields. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the main findings from the execution of a wide-range analysis focused on AM in VVER-1000 with main regard to the qualification of computational tools and the proposal for an optimal AM strategy for this kind of NPP.

  13. [Multiple injuries in mass accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondrák, E

    1984-01-01

    The treatment starts with reanimation, managing the shock, followed by life-saving surgery on the central nervous system, chest, abdomen, large blood vessels and the uropoietic system. From the very beginning the therapy should be conducted on an intradisciplinary basis, first with the anaesthesiologist, later with other specialists as required. Once the patient's life has been saved, treatment of eyes, hands and systematic attention to extremities should follow. Shock has to be managed within 24 hours. Luxations of large joints should be reposed on the date of injury, open fractures closed, all fractures immobilized in favourable position. No extension should be applied in patients suffering from brain injuries; fractures of the femur should be fixed surgically by a second team in the course of the neurosurgical operation. A stomatologist's assistance makes general anaesthesia possible even with fractures of the jaw. In mass accidents the therapeutic plan for the polytraumatized should be fixed on the following day. A mass accident involving 35 injured treated within two and a half hours demonstrates this procedure in 7 polytraumatized persons.

  14. Correspondence model of occupational accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Conte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter

  15. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  16. Radiological accidents balance in medicine; Bilan des accidents radiologiques en medecine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs.

  17. Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caples, Linda Griffin

    1992-01-01

    Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

  18. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  19. Global estimates of fatal occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, J

    1999-09-01

    Data on occupational accidents are not available from all countries in the world. Furthermore, underreporting, limited coverage by reporting and compensation schemes, and non-harmonized accident recording and notification systems undermine efforts to obtain worldwide information on occupational accidents. This paper presents a method and new estimated global figures of fatal accidents at work by region. The fatal occupational accident rates reported to the International Labour Office are extended to the total employed workforce in countries and regions. For areas not covered by the reported information, rates from other countries that have similar or comparable conditions are applied. In 1994, an average estimated fatal occupational accident rate in the whole world was 14.0 per 100,000 workers, and the total estimated number of fatal occupational accidents was 335,000. The rates are different for individual countries and regions and for separate branches of economic activity. In conclusion, fatal occupational accident figures are higher than previously estimated. The new estimates can be gradually improved by obtaining and adding data from countries where information is not yet available. Sectoral estimates for at least key economic branches in individual countries would further increase the accuracy.

  20. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost

  1. An introduction to serious nuclear accident chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Russell St. John Foreman

    2015-01-01

    A review of the chemistry occurring inside a nuclear power plant during a serious reactor accident is presented. This includes some aspects of the behavior of nuclear fuel, its cladding, cesium and iodine. This review concentrates on the chemistry of an accident in a water-cooled reactor loaded with uranium dioxide or mixed metal oxide fuel.

  2. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  3. Characterisation of vibration input to flywheel used on urban bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Kanarachos, S.; Christensen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Vibration induced from road surface has an impact on the durability and reliability of electrical and mechanical components attached on the vehicle. There is little research published relevant to the durability assessment of a flywheel energy recovery system installed on city and district buses. Relevant international standards and legislations were reviewed and large discrepancy was found among them, in addition, there are no standards exclusively developed for kinetic energy recovery systems on vehicles. This paper describes the experimentation of assessment of road surface vibration input to the flywheel on a bus as obtained at the MIRA Proving Ground. Power density spectra have been developed based on the raw data obtained during the experimentation. Validation of this model will be carried out using accelerated life time tests that will be carried out on a shaker rig using an accumulated profile based on the theory of fatigue damage equivalence in time and frequency domain aligned with the model predictions.

  4. Application of gravity model on the Korean urban bus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Inho; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2016-11-01

    Mobility models have been studied to describe the underlying mechanism of human mobility. The mobility patterns in various transportation systems were understood with the gravity model by estimating the traffic as a simple function of population and distance. Compared to most studies on large-scale systems, we focused on the validity and characteristics of gravity model for intraurban mobility. Several variations of gravity model are applied on the urban bus systems of five medium-sized cities in Korea. The gravity model successfully estimates the intraurban traffic without universal exponents for cities. From the change of exponents by predictor types, we figure out the effect by a non-trivial relation between traffic and population in the urban areas.

  5. FAKTOR PENYEBAB KERUSAKAN SISTEM MESIN PADA BUS APTB PPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Chairani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Comfort and safety of public transportation, particularly APTB PPD buses, becomes high expectations for its customers. Those expectations must be supported by the application of a good engine maintenance system. By using the method of Reliability Centered Maintenance may be determined appropriate actions to mitigate damage. From the analysis known the failures of the APTB PPD bus are malfunctions of the fuel engine, power transfer systems, difficulty to move the gear lever, and lubricating system for the rough engine noise. The cause of engine malfunction is dirty diesel filter, vehicle acceleration malfunction is due to the clutch plate wear out. Difficulty to move the gear lever indicates that the clutch slips. Rough engine noise caused by the flow of oil to the engine stalled as the result of dirty oil filter. The results of the logic tree analysis show that for each failure requires scheduling of time directed task.

  6. Error protection capability of space shuttle data bus designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proch, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Error protection assurance in the reliability of digital data communications is discussed. The need for error protection on the space shuttle data bus system has been recognized and specified as a hardware requirement. The error protection techniques of particular concern are those designed into the Shuttle Main Engine Interface (MEI) and the Orbiter Multiplex Interface Adapter (MIA). The techniques and circuit design details proposed for these hardware are analyzed in this report to determine their error protection capability. The capability is calculated in terms of the probability of an undetected word error. Calculated results are reported for a noise environment that ranges from the nominal noise level stated in the hardware specifications to burst levels which may occur in extreme or anomalous conditions.

  7. Design and Analysis of Bus Front Panel Usin G FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Advance composite materials have taken the significant share with other engineering materials due to its mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Advance composite like E-glass, S-glass, Carbon fiber, Kevlar are not yet confined at the aerospace industry but gradually these are taking over the position of other industries as well. Because of its attaining high intricacy in designing factors and as well as cheaper mould design and also less cost in production of few numbers. The applications of FRPs are spirally increasing. The aim of this project is to develop a BUS FRONT PANEL with a help of FRPs in order to sustain all the mechanical properties which are equivalent to the metals with the help of advanced computer aided software designs like ANSYS. In computer aided engineering to make the product proven in the realistic market.

  8. [Bus drivers' biomechanical risk assessment in two different contexts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracco, A; Coggiola, M; Perrelli, F; Banchio, M; Martignone, S; Gullino, A; Romano, C

    2012-01-01

    The application of standardize methods for the biomechanical risk assessment in non-industrial cycled activity is not always possible. A typical case is the public transport sector, where workers complain of suffering for shoulder more than elbow and wrist pains. The Authors present the results of two studies involving two public transport companies and the risk of biomechanical overload of upper limbs for bus and tram drivers. The analysis has been made using three different approaches: focus groups; static analysis by using anthropometric manikins; work sampling technique by monitoring worker's activity and posture at each minute, for two hours and for each binomial vehicle-route, considering P5F e P95M drivers and assessing the perceived efforts thorough the Borg's CR10 Scale. The conclusive results show that the ergonomic analysis managed by multiple non-standardized techniques may reach consistent and repeatable results according to the epidemiological evidences.

  9. Wind farm protection using an IEC 61850 process bus architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinn, D. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed wind farm protection using an IEC 61850 process bus architecture. Data is transmitted via IEC 61850 messages over a fiber optic communications network to a central relaying unit (CRU) that executes protection and control (P and C) functions for a whole wind farm. The presentation also discussed the need to further simplify P and C design. Challenges of wind farm protection include physical distance; relay location; and selectivity/isolation. P and C hardware evolution was illustrated and its advantages were presented. These included one relay to set, configure, test, and maintain; eliminate the need for transfer trips; free monitoring; free disturbance recording; and easy integration of data. The development of commercially available systems began around 1990 with the IPACS system developed by Hydro One, and the SIPSUR system developed in Spain. 7 figs.

  10. Entangling a Series of Trapped Ions by Moving Cavity Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Miao; JIA Huan-Yu; WEI Lian-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing. We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity. The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus. Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled. As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated. The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.%@@ Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing.We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity.The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus.Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled.As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated.The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  11. Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.

  12. 基于聚类分析下的公交路线优化%Bus Route Optimization Based on Cluster Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅静; 陈亚婷

    2016-01-01

    交通是城市的动脉,它的状况是城市文明的重要标志。近年来,城市交通建设的发展赶不上需求的增长,多数城市市区交通日趋拥挤,堵车和车祸频频发生,出门难,乘车难,行车难是市民面临的重要问题之一,亟待解决。本文根据公交网络服务水平聚类分析的方法,把聚类分析方法应用于公交线路的技术性能诊断上,结合某市公交线网的现状数据资料,分析该城市公交线路存在的问题,提出简单的优化思路,为该城市公交优化和规划提供依据。%Transportation is the artery of city, and it is an important symbol of city civilization. In recent years, the development of city traffic construction can’t catch up with the growth of demand, as a result of which, urban traffic is becoming more and more crowded, traffic jams and accidents happened frequently, and difficulties in going out, taking a bus and driving cars have become one of the important problems need to be solved. According to the method of clus-tering analysis of public transit network service level, the diagnosis performance of clustering analysis method is ap-plied to the bus lines, and combined with the public traffic line network status data of a city, the paper analyzes the ex-isting problems of the city bus lines and puts forward the optimal simple ideas, which can provide a reference for the city bus optimization and planning.

  13. Simulation and Improvement of Safety Performances of a Certain School Bus%某专用校车顶部安全性能仿真与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良模; 陈东益; 袁刘凯; 张遵智; 张汤赟

    2012-01-01

    为提高专用校车顶部安全性,对某专用校车在翻滚事故中的顶部结构对乘员的保护作用进行了研究.利用Hypermesh与Hypercrash软件建立其车身有限元模型.针对碰撞包含几何非线性、材料非线性和边界非线性的特点,选择并定义了合适的非线性材料和壳单元,进行了焊接及其他连接方式的模拟.利用RADIOSS求解器,进行校车翻滚保护仿真及乘用车顶部抗压强度仿真.结果表明:在翻滚保护仿真中,该车车身结构能承受标准要求的1.5倍整备质量载荷,在顶部抗压强度仿真中,施力板下表面侵入量为46 mm,满足标准要求.参照有关国际标准,对A柱及横梁结构进行改进设计,使单根横梁的最大承载能力达到64700 N,提高了该车的翻滚保护性能.%To improve the roof safety of a certain school bus, the occupant protection performances of a certain school bus roof structure in rollover accidents are studied here. A durability finite element model of the bus is built by using Hypermesh and Hypercrash. As automotive collision contains the characteristics of geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity and boundary nonlinearity, the appropriate nonlinear materials and shell elements are selected and defined,and the spots and other connections are simulated. The rollover protection and roof crush resistance simulation are carried out by RADIOSS. The results show that the body structure is able to withstand 1. 5 times of the gross vehicle weight of the standard in roll-over protection simulation, and the intrusion distance is 46 mm in roof crush resistance simulation. Both simulation results meet the requirements of standards. Referring to related international advanced standards, the design of A-pillar and crossbeam is improved, the maximum bearing capacity of one single beam reaches 64 700 N, and the roll-over protection performances of the school bus are improved.

  14. Observational study on efficacy of negative expiratory pressure test proposed as screening for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome among commercial interstate bus drivers - protocol study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirata Raquel P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a respiratory disease characterized by the collapse of the extrathoracic airway and has important social implications related to accidents and cardiovascular risk. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether the drop in expiratory flow and the volume expired in 0.2 s during the application of negative expiratory pressure (NEP are associated with the presence and severity of OSA in a population of professional interstate bus drivers who travel medium and long distances. Methods/Design An observational, analytic study will be carried out involving adult male subjects of an interstate bus company. Those who agree to participate will undergo a detailed patient history, physical examination involving determination of blood pressure, anthropometric data, circumference measurements (hips, waist and neck, tonsils and Mallampati index. Moreover, specific questionnaires addressing sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness will be administered. Data acquisition will be completely anonymous. Following the medical examination, the participants will perform a spirometry, NEP test and standard overnight polysomnography. The NEP test is performed through the administration of negative pressure at the mouth during expiration. This is a practical test performed while awake and requires little cooperation from the subject. In the absence of expiratory flow limitation, the increase in the pressure gradient between the alveoli and open upper airway caused by NEP results in an increase in expiratory flow. Discussion Despite the abundance of scientific evidence, OSA is still underdiagnosed in the general population. In addition, diagnostic procedures are expensive, and predictive criteria are still unsatisfactory. Because increased upper airway collapsibility is one of the main determinants of OSA, the response to the application of NEP could be a predictor of this disorder. With the

  15. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Kale; S V Veeravalli; H D Punekar; M M Yelmule

    2007-08-01

    Open window buses without air-conditioning are a major mode of urban and inter-city transport in most countries. High occupancy combined with hot and humid conditions makes travel in these buses quite uncomfortable. In this study air flow through a bus has been studied that could be the basis for low cost and ecofriendly methods of increasing passenger comfort and possibly reduce drag. The aerodynamics of such a road vehicle has not been studied as previous investigations have been confined to vehicles with closed windows that present a smooth exterior to air flow. Using a 1:25 scaled Perspex model of an urban bus in Delhi, flow visualization was performed in a water channel. The Reynolds numbers were onetenth of a real bus moving at $10 m/s$. Smoke and tuft visualizations were also performed on an urban bus at 40 km/h. Numerical simulations were performed at the actual Reynolds number. Even though there were Reynolds number differences, the broad features were similar. Air enters the bus from the rear windows, moves to the front (relative to the bus) and exits from the front windows. Inside air velocity relative to the bus is about one-tenth of the free-stream velocity. The flow is highly three-dimensional and unsteady.

  16. DESIGN OF TRANSITION TIME ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUE FOR REDUCING BUS DELAY EFFECTS ON NOC INTERCONNECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEERA K S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing computation-intensive applications the number of computing resources in single-chip has enormously increased, because current VLSI technology can support such an extensive integration of transistors. By adding many computing resources such as CPU, DSP, specific IPs, etc to build a system in System-on-Chip, its interconnection between each other becomes another challenging issue. In most System-on-Chip applications, a shared bus interconnection which needs arbitration logic to serialize several bus access requests, is adopted to communicate with each integrated processing unit because of its low-cost and simple control characteristics. However, such shared bus interconnection has some limitation in its scalability because only one master at a time can utilize the bus which means all the bus accesses should be serialized by the arbitrator. Therefore, in such an environment where the number of bus requesters is large and their required bandwidth for interconnection is more than the current bus, some other interconnection methods should be considered. Such scalable bandwidth requirement can be satisfied by using on-chip packet-switched micro-network of interconnects, generally known as Network-on-Chip (NoC architecture. It suffers however from increasingly serious interconnect crosstalk effects, which constrain the overall performance of NOC systems. In this paper some delay tolerance methods are proposed.

  17. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  18. Implementation of an AMBA Advanced High Performance Bus protocol IP block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Vucha Sandeep Magarde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of an AMBA advanced high performance bus (AHB protocol IP block is presented in this paper. The AHB (Advanced High-performance Bus is a high-performance bus in AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture family. This AHB can be used in high clock frequency system modules. The AHB acts as the high-performance system backbone bus. AHB supports the efficient connection of processors, on-chip memories and off-chip external memory interfaces with low-power peripheral macro cell functions. In this work, the design of the Advanced High-Performance Bus Protocol is developed which has the basic blocks such as Master and Slave. The arbitration mechanism is used to ensure that only one master has access to the bus at any one time and the AHB decoder is used to decode the address of each transfer and provide a select signal for the slave that is involved in the transfer. This AMBA-AHB protocol can be adopted in all the application provided the design should be an AHB compliant.

  19. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  20. [Clinical examinations for the traffic accident patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Masahito

    2008-11-30

    Traffic accident is a leading cause of unintentional death and about six-thousands annually died in Japan. As about one-million of persons suffer from traffic injuries, most of them seek medical attention. Therefore, medical staffs have to find the injuries accurately and treat immediately. Furthermore, the cause of accident should also be considered; why the accident was occurred, human error of the driver? To solve these problems, clinical examinations were needed. Medical staffs have to understand the characteristics of the traffic injuries: severe and multiple blunt injuries, popular injuries can be estimated with considering the pattern of the accident. Because some of the accidents are occurred when the driver is under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, screening of these subjects should be performed. Because the public is largely unaware of the preventable nature of traffic injuries, in addition to diagnose and treat accurately, we medical staffs have to attend on the primary prevention of the traffic injuries.

  1. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  2. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  3. On the road : non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investi...

  4. Simulation of the Control Strategy for an Electric Bus with Motorized Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liqiang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to simulate the running state of the bus as real as possible and verify the correctness of electric bus control system that is developing, which is good for reducing the development cycle and cost for enterprise. The vehicle dynamics model is built and the actual vehicle driving condition is simulated in AMESim and the vehicle control strategy is established in Simulink. The co-simulation platform is used to simulate the actual running state of the bus with the action of the control system, which provides the reference for subsequent real vehicle test.

  5. Immigrant Children School Route Study: Network Based Analysis And School Bus Layout Suggestions%北京流动儿童就学的校车线路研究——基于网络法的分析及校车设施布局建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯; 郑童; 吕斌

    2012-01-01

    mmigrant children's accessibility to schools is an important issue to social justice and harmonious development. With respect to frequent school bus accidents, the paper interviews immigrant students, uses ArcGis network analysis methods, designs school bus routes based on nearby road situation and students' homes, raises relative strategies for school service area and school bus layout, increases accessibility of immigrant students, and provides guarantees for school bus safety.%流动儿童的就学可达性关系到社会公平与和谐发展的重要话题.针对当前校车问题频发的情况,研究从城市规划的空间角度出发,通过对学生住址和同学情况的访谈,采取ArcGis中的网络分析说明根据周边道路情况和学生住址设计校车路线的方法,并对学校服务区和校车设施布局提出相应策略,不仅提高了流动儿童就学可达性,还为校车安全提供了保障.

  6. Introduction of MAN Lion’s City Conceptual Articulated Bus%德国曼恩客车系列愈加丰富

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云清文

    2016-01-01

    During IAA 2016, German based MAN demonstrated total of ten models of various buses including city-bus, city-to-city bus and long-distance bus, etc. Among all these models, the most innovative highlight is the model of MAN Lion’s City Conceptual Articulated bus, as well as the re-charging technology associated to it.

  7. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  8. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  9. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  10. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  11. Flywheel bus opens doors for investors; Vliegwielbus opent deuren voor investeerders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    1999-03-01

    A brief impression is given of the performance of the first prototype of the CCM-developed (Centre for Construction and Mechatronics in Nuenen, Netherlands) flywheel bus, fuelled by LPG and powered by a flywheel

  12. Traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus in two-lane traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoichi; Nagatani, Takashi; Taniguchi, Naoki

    2005-05-01

    We study the traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus (slow car) in a two-lane traffic of cars. We use the dynamic model which is an extended one of the optimal velocity model to take into account the lane changing. The fundamental (flow-density) diagram is presented. The fundamental diagram changes highly by introducing a bus on a two-lane roadway. It is found that there are the six distinct states for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus. The spatio-temporal patterns are presented for the distinct traffic states. The dynamical state of traffic changes with density of cars. It is shown that the dynamical transitions among the distinct traffic states occur at some values of density. The phase diagram (region map) is shown for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus.

  13. Bus Stops, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2008. Data by this publisher are...

  14. Scheduling bus services in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mawardi; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Oughalime, Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    This study deals with bus scheduling problem in a local public university. Given existing bus daily trips, set of buses used and set of policy, the aims of this study are to optimize the use of buses for in-campus trips and to cover the trip demands. This study is conducted at Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam that involves six-zone trips and a single depot. The bus scheduling problem in UiTM is formulated using the integer programming model and the LINGO 12.0 software is used for solving this bus scheduling model. The results of this model showed that the number of buses can be reduced during off-peak hours. Furthermore, optimal trips can also be identified from the results.

  15. Performance analysis of time triggered communication bus based on network calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiandong; Ma, Lianchuan; Cao, Yuan; Mu, Jiancheng

    2017-03-01

    The time triggered mechanism is the activity of incentive system in the scheduled time. Each node of the time-triggered communication bus knows when the data information can be transmitted, so the behavior of communication nodes is determined and predictable. This feature is very suitable for appling in the industry field of high safety requirement. According to EN50159 standard for railway signal system security related communication, this paper analyzes the reliability of the physical layer of communication bus, and uses the network calculus method to establish the arrival curve model and service curve model which quantitatively calculate the time delay characteristic of time trigger bus to determine the number of retransmissions of data communications. The time-triggered communication bus is proved that it can meet the security requirements of the railway signal transmission system.

  16. Survival analysis of car travel time near a bus stop in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoBao; GAO ZiYou; GUO HongWei; HUAN Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an important investigation into car travel time affected by mixed traffic flow near a bus stop on the basis of survival analysis theory.Travel time data associated with mixed traffic characteristics near a bus stop were collected by video cameras.A hazard-based duration model was introduced to analyze the effects of mixed traffic flow on car travel time.The results indicate that mixed traffic flow impacts car travel time significantly.And the presence of bus berthing violation would delay car travel time.The proposed model can be used to forecast temporal shifts in car travel time due to changes in mixed traffic flow.The influential factors related to mixed traffic flow should be given full consideration in the planning and designing of bus stops in developing countries.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Different Arbitration Protocols for Multiple—Bus Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄旗铭; 杨庆; 等

    1996-01-01

    Earlier performance studies of multiple-bus multiprocessor systems assume a random selection of competing requests for bus assignment and ignore the effects of realistic bus arbitraion schemes on the performance of such systems.In this paper,we present performance analysis of the multiple-bus systems with different arbitration protocols.The priority protocols considered are random selection,fixed priority,rotating priority,round-robin and FIFO.Analytical models are developed for each of these five different priority protocols.Each of our analyses models exactly the behavior of the corresponding priority protocol with little computation cost.The analytical models are validated through extensive simulations and are them used to carry out performance analysis and comparison of different priority protocols.Numerical results obtained from our models show that the round-robin protocol performs the best amont the five protocols in the system with a few buses.

  18. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  19. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  20. Exploring public bus service quality in South Africa: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanda M. Vilakazi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, which is a deviation from the usual practice of using SERVQUAL or an adaptedversion thereof, uses McKnight, Pagano and Paaswell’s (1986 service quality dimensions,namely reliability; extent of service; comfort; safety; and affordability (RECSA and structuralequation modelling to determine commuters’ perception of public bus service quality in amajor city in South Africa. The RECSA model was adapted and fitted to the data collectedfrom a convenience sample of bus commuters in Johannesburg, using structural equationmodelling. It was ascertained that reliability, service, comfort and safety influenced thepublic bus commuters’ perception of the overall service quality. The implications of theaforementioned findings for providers of public bus services are explained.

  1. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela S Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A., a little annoyed (L.A. and highly annoyed (H.A.. The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality

  2. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  3. Bavarian liquid hydrogen bus demonstration project - safety, licensing and acceptability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R.; Knorr, H.; Pruemm, W.

    1999-07-01

    A regular 12 m city bus of the MAN SL 202 type with an internal combustion engine adapted to hydrogen operation and auxiliary gasoline operation was demonstrated in the Bavarian cities of Erlangen and Munich between April 1996 and August 1998. Three bus operators, Erlanger Stadtwerke, Stadtwerke Muenchen and Autobus Oberbayern were testing the bus in three different operating schemes. In order to be able to perform this worldwide first public demonstration of a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) city bus in regular service, several requirements with respect to safety, licensing, training and acceptability had to be fulfilled. These activities were focusing mainly on the hydrogen specific issues such as (a) integration of onboard LH{sub 2} storage vessels, piping and instrumentation, (b) implementation of storage and refueling infrastructure in the operators' yards, (c) adaptation of the maintenance garages, (d) training of operating and maintenance personnel. During phase II of the demonstration activity a poll was performed on passengers traveling onboard the hydrogen-powered city bus in order to determined the level of acceptance among the users of the bus. The bus was designed and manufactured by MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktiengesellschaft. The cryogenic fuel storage and the refueling equipment were designed and manufactured by Linde AG. The realization of the hardware was financially supported by the European Commission (EC) within the Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project. The demonstration phase was financially supported by EC and the Bavarian State Government. Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik performed project monitoring for both funding organizations. The presentation will summarize the most important results of this demonstration phase and will address the measures undertaken in order to get the bus, the refueling infrastructure and the maintenance and operating procedures approved by the relevant authorities.

  4. Mechanical analysis of the main bus bars in the DFBA shuffling modules

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, D

    2012-01-01

    The main bus bars (13 kA) inside the shuffling modules of the distribution feed boxes powering the LHC arcs (DFBA) are subjected to high Lorentz forces. The structural behaviour of the bus bars under such forces is here analysed. The results are discussed with respect to a risk of structural failure due to excessive deformation or degradation of the electrical insulation by repeated contact with other surfaces.

  5. Effects of Self Stretching on Pain and Musculoskeletal Symptom of Bus Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed ...

  6. Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems Based on Schedulability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach to bus access optimization and schedulability analysis for the synthesis of hard real-time distribution embedded systems. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication delays proposing four different message...... scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the bus access scheme are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments....

  7. 基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制方案%Air-conditioner Control Project for Electric Bus Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桥生

    2012-01-01

    The author simply introduces two kinds of present control modes for air-conditioner of electric bus in domestic market,puts forward a new kind of its control mode based on CAN bus,and design the CAN's messages reports.%简述国内电动客车空调的两种控制模式;提出一种基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制模式,并设计CAN通讯报文。

  8. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Chen

    Full Text Available As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  9. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopan; Kong, Yunfeng; Dang, Lanxue; Hou, Yane; Ye, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  10. Evaluating the Impacts of Bus Fare on Social Equity Based on IC Card Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowu Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bus fare equity has attracted significant attention in China in the past few years. Compared with developed countries, China’s intelligent transportation systems are in their infancy, with immature bus fare policies being used in many public transit systems. The methods used for evaluating public transit fare equity in developed countries compare different fare policies based on rich data and cannot be directly applied in developing countries like China. In this paper, we present a method that uses IC card data, bus-mounted GPS data, and relevant statistical yearbook data to evaluate the equity of flat bus fare. The method ranks the factors that influence the impacts of bus fare on social equity for different passenger groups and indicates that trip distance and passenger boarding time are the two primary factors for bus fare equity from a resource allocation perspective. Finally, we present a case study that evaluates the flat fare policy for route 204 in Suzhou using the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible.

  11. EtherBone - A Network Layer for the Wishbone SoC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Kreider, M; Lewis, J; Włostowski, T; Serrano, J

    2011-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was de...

  12. An analytical algorithm to determine allowable ampacities of horizontally installed rectangular bus bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenta Dardan O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to propose an algorithm for the determination of the allowable ampacities of single rectangular-section bus bars without the occurrence of correction factors. Without correction factors, the ampacity computation of the copper and aluminium bus bars is fully automatized. The analytical algorithm has been implemented in a computer program code that along with the allowable ampacity can compute the bus bar temperature and the individual heat transfer coefficient for each side of the bus bar, as well as their corresponding power losses. Natural and forced convection correlations for rectangular bus bars are applied. Effects of the solar radiation and radiation heat losses from the bus bar surface are taken into consideration as well. The finite element method (FEM has been used for the linear/non-linear steady-state thermal analysis, i.e. for validation of the analytical algorithm. All FEM-based numerical computations were carried out using the COMSOL Heat Transfer Module. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33046

  13. Optimal Design of the Feeder-Bus Network Based on the Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the classic feeder-bus network design problem (FBNDP, which can be described as follows: for the passenger travel demand between rail stations and bus stops on a given urban transit network, it designs the optimal feeder bus routes and frequencies so as to minimize the passengers’ travel expense and the operator’s cost. We extended the demand pattern of M-to-1 in most existing researches to M-to-M. We comprehensively considered the passenger travel cost, which includes the waiting and riding cost on the bus, riding cost on rail, and transfer cost between these two transportation modes, and presented a new genetic algorithm that determines the optimal feeder-bus operating frequencies under strict constraint conditions. The numerical examples under different demand patterns have been experienced and analysed, which showed the robustness and efficiency of the presented algorithm. We also found that the distribution pattern of the travel demand has a significant influence on the feeder-bus network construction.

  14. Multi Resolution AHB Bus Tracer with Real Time Compression for SOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jagadish Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller based Bus Architecture consists of AHB, APB, ASB and AXI. In this project we are Tracing AHB (Advanced High performance Bus signals with Real time Compression and Multi-resolution Techniques. A simple transaction on the AHB consists of an address phase and a subsequent data phase. Access to the target device is controlled through a MUX , thereby admitting bus-access to one bus-master at a time. In AHB Tracer we have to Trace Address signals, Data signals and Control signals, we have to compress them depending on AHB protocols. A multi-resolution AHB on-chip bus tracer is named as SYS_HMRBT (AHB Multi-resolution Bus Tracer and is used for monitoring. The goal is to provide better compression quality and multiple resolution traces to meet the complex SoC debugging needs. Compressing all signals at cycle-accurate-level does not always meet the debugging needs. As SOCs become more complex, the transaction level debugging becomes increasingly important, since it helps designers focus on the functional behaviors, instead of interpreting complex signals. By using this SYS_HMRBT, we can achieve 79%-96% of compression depending on selected resolution mode. Tools Used for this Project are Modelsim for Simulation, and Xilinx ISE II for Synthesis

  15. Route Design Model of Feeder Bus Service for Urban Rail Transit Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of urban public transportation systems, the feeder bus fills a service gap left by rail transit, effectively extending the range of rail transit’s service and solving the problem of short-distance travel and interchanges. By defining the potential demand of feeder bus services and considering its relationship with the traffic demands of corresponding staging areas, the distance between road and rail transit, and the repetition factor of road bus lines, this paper established a potential demand model of roads by opening feeder bus services and applying a logit model for passenger flow distribution. Based on a circular route model, a route starting and ending at urban rail transit stations was generated, and a genetic algorithm was then applied to solve it. The Wei-Fang community of Shanghai was selected as the test area. Per the model and algorithm, the feeder route length was conformed to a functional orientation of short-distance travel and the feeder service of a feeder bus; the route mostly covered where conventional bus lines were fewer, which is a finding that is in agreement with the actual situation; the feasibility of the model and algorithm was verified.

  16. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  17. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  18. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... States vessel wherever such casualty or accident occurs; or (3) With respect to a foreign tank vessel... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  19. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  20. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  1. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  2. Ruthenium release from fuel in accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, G.; Marchetto, C.; Plumecocq, W. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR and LIMSI, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2010-07-01

    During a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident, fission products may be released from the fuel matrix and then reach the containment building and the environment. Ruthenium is a very hazardous fission product that can be highly and rapidly released in some accident scenarios. The impact of the atmosphere redox properties, temperature, and fuel burn-up on the ruthenium release is discussed. In order to improve the evaluation of the radiological impact by accident codes, a model of the ruthenium release from fuel is proposed using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. In addition, a model of fuel oxidation under air is described. Finally, these models have been integrated in the ASTEC accident code and validation calculations have been performed on several experimental tests. (orig.)

  3. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucheron, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. [Severe parachuting accident. Analysis of 122 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, U; Mischkowsky, T

    1993-06-01

    Based on a population of 122 severely injured patients the causes of paragliding accidents and the patterns of injury are analyzed. A questionnaire is used to establish a sport-specific profile for the paragliding pilot. The lower limbs (55.7%) and the lower parts of the spine (45.9%) are the most frequently injured parts of the body. There is a high risk of multiple injuries after a single accident because of the tremendous axial power. The standard of equipment is good in over 90% of the cases. Insufficient training and failure to take account of geographical and meteorological conditions are the main determinants of accidents sustained by paragliders, most of whom are young. Nevertheless, 80% of our patients want to continue paragliding. Finally some advice is given on how to prevent paragliding accidents and injuries.

  5. The Chornobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.J. [ed.; Poyarkov, V.; Bar`yakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.; Kholosha, V.; Shestopalov, V.

    1999-10-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chornobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chornobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chornobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  6. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  7. Review of methodology for accident consequence assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Watson, E.C.

    1978-09-01

    This report reviews current methodologies for reactor accident consequence analysis and describes areas where modifications are warranted. Methodologies reviewed are: (1) Models in Regulatory Guides 1.109, 1.111 and 1.113 used for evaluation of compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I; (2) Models in Regulatory Guides used for evaluation of consequences from accidents of Classes 3-8; (3) Models for evaluation of Class 9 accidents presented in the Reactor Safety Study; and (4) Models in the Liquid Pathway Generic Study. The review is designed to aid in the ultimate goal of selection of a comprehensive set of models to extend the Class 9 methodology of the Reactor Safety Study to the analysis of Classes 3-8 accidents.

  8. The epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    of bicyclists and risk situations. The findings should make a basis for preventive programmes in order to decrease the number and severity of bicyclists collision accidents. Data from the emergency room in a 2 year period was combined with data from questionnaires. The study group consisted of 1021 bicyclists...... group of accidents were the collisions with the 'soft' road users (bicyclists, mopeds, and pedestrians) and another group were the collisions with the 'hard' road users (motor vehicles, motorcycles). Preventive measures have to be directed at both these groups of accidents. To decrease the number...... of collision accidents with motor vehicles it is necessary to separate the bicyclists from the 'hard road traffic' especially at crossings. Preventive measures must also be directed at the bicyclists. Information must be given to warn the bicyclists against the risks, not only for collisions with motor...

  9. Bus Travel Willingness under the Condition of Bus Information%公交信息条件下的公交出行意愿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左毅刚; 李文权; 陈茜; 李洁; 郭士永

    2014-01-01

    In-depth analysis of influencing mechanism of bus information on the residents travel mode choice is the theoretical basis of rational planning of urban bus travel information environment ,which has important significance for ur-ban traffic management and congestion mitigation .Based on the theory of planned behavior ,at the basis of three basic variables of behavior attitude ,subjective norm ,perceived behavioral control in the theory of planned behavior ,variables of transit information ,personal attributes and travel experience are added to improve the theory of planned behavior .An improved theory of planned behavior is used to build a bus travel willingness model under the condition of bus Informa-tion .With the Nanjing residents as research object ,a structural equation model is used to verify the survey data in order to determine the interaction between various factors and their impact on the willingness of bus travel .The results show that the bus information has significant and positive impact on bus travel variables of attitude ,subjective norm and per-ceived behavioral control with the influencing coefficients of 0 .533 ,0 .451 and 0 .576 respectively ,and that the bus infor-mation has indirect influence on bus travel willingness and the total effect is 0 .92 ,which shows that high quality of the in-formation can improve the appeal of bus and enhance bus travel willingness of residents .%深入解析公交信息对居民公交出行意愿的影响机理,是合理规划城市公交出行信息环境的理论基础,对于城市交通管理以及交通拥堵的缓解有着重要的意义。基于计划行为理论在行为态度、主观规范、知觉行为控制3个基本变量的基础上加入公交信息、出行经验、个人属性等变量,对计划行为理论加以改进,利用改进的计划行为理论建立公交信息条件下的公交出行意愿模型。以南京市居民为调查研究对象,运用结构方程模型对调查数

  10. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, D.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Personality characteristics of the child accident repeater

    OpenAIRE

    Manheimer, Dean I.; Mellinger, Glen D

    1997-01-01

    From 8874 boys and girls aged 4 to 18 in Berkeley-Oakland, California, 684 were selected to represent high-, intermediateor low-accident-liability children, based on records of medically attended injuries. Using data from intensive interviews with mothers supplemented with school records, we found a statistically significant relation between accident liability and indexes of extraversion, daring, roughhousing, and other traits tending to expose children to hazards. Similar relations held for ...

  12. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J (eds.) (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Agrenius, Lennart (ed.) (Agrenius Ingenjoersbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident.

  13. MEASURING CUSTOMER’S SATISFACTION ON BUS TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the factors measuring customers’ satisfaction, especially the impact of service quality on customers’ satisfaction in public transportation industry in the university town of Sintok located in Kedah province of Malaysia. In order to assess the relationships between service quality and customer satisfaction survey http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1003.htmdata were collected from 300 Bus commuters. All hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlations, controlling for the background variables of gender, marital status, ethnicity and education. The results indicate that hypotheses 1 through 5 were supported. Using multiple regressions as a basis for causal paths, a model was developed that examined the influence of all five dimensions of service quality on customers’ satisfaction. The model explained 26.9% of the variance which indicates that 26.9% of the changes in the dependent variable are explained by the independent variables. Altogether, independent variables explained 26.9% of the variations.

  14. Bus Based Synchronization Method for CHIPPER Based NoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muralidharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network on Chip (NoC reduces the communication delay of System on Chip (SoC. The main limitation of NoC is power consumption and area overhead. Bufferless NoC reduces the area complexity and power consumption by eliminating buffers in the traditional routers. The bufferless NoC design should include live lock freeness since they use hot potato routing. This increases the complexity of bufferless NoC design. Among the available propositions to reduce this complexity, CHIPPER based bufferless NoC is considered as one of the best options. Live lock freeness is provided in CHIPPER through golden epoch and golden packet. All routers follow some synchronization method to identify a golden packet. Clock based method is intuitively followed for synchronization in CHIPPER based NoCs. It is shown in this work that the worst-case latency of packets is unbearably high when the above synchronization is followed. To alleviate this problem, broadcast bus NoC (BBus NoC approach is proposed in this work. The proposed method decreases the worst-case latency of packets by increasing the golden epoch rate of CHIPPER.

  15. A synchronous serial bus for multidimensional array acoustic logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Baiyong; Ju, Xiaodong; Lu, Junqiang; Qiao, Wenxiao

    2016-12-01

    In high-temperature and spatial borehole applications, a distributed structure is employed in a multidimensional array acoustic logging tool (MDALT) based on a phased array technique for electronic systems. However, new challenges, such as synchronous multichannel data acquisition, multinode real-time control and bulk data transmission in a limited interval, have emerged. To address these challenges, we developed a synchronous serial bus (SSB) in this study. SSB works in a half-duplex mode via a master-slave architecture. It also consists of a single master, several slaves, a differential clock line and a differential data line. The clock line is simplex, whereas the data line is half-duplex and synchronous to the clock line. A reliable communication between the master and the slaves with real-time adjustment of synchronisation is achieved by rationally designing the frame format and protocol of communication and by introducing a scramble code and a Hamming error-correcting code. The control logic of the master and the slaves is realized in field programmable gate array (FPGA) or complex programmable logic device (CPLD). The clock speed of SSB is 10 MHz, the effective data rate of the bulk data transmission is over 99%, and the synchronous errors amongst the slaves are less than 10 ns. Room-temperature test, high-temperature test (175 °C) and field test demonstrate that the proposed SSB is qualified for MDALT.

  16. Severe accident risks from external events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the early development of design requirements for seismic events in USA early developing nuclear electric generating fleet.Notable safety studies,including WASH-1400,Sandia Siting Study and the NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk study,are briefly reviewed in terms of their relevance to extreme accidents arising from seismic and other severe accident initiators.Specific characteristic about the nature of severe accidents in nuclear power plant (NPP) are reviewed along with present day state-of-art analysis methodologies (methods for estimation of leakages and consequences of releases (MELCOR) and MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS)) that are used to evaluate severe accidents and to optimize mitigative and protective actions against such accidents.It is the aim of this paper to make nuclear operating nations aware of the risks that accompany a much needed energy resource and to identify some of the tools,techniques and landmark safety studies that serve to make the technology safer and to maintain vigilance and adequate safety culture for the responsible management of this valuable but unforgiving technology.

  17. FUNDING OF ACCIDENT INSURANCE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gamankova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of financial provision of public and private accident insurance. Analyzes the methodology of forming insurance premium rates in private accident insurance. The study examines the practice of reforming the financial security of the state social insurance against accidents. The results show need to implement scientifically proven approach to determining premium rates in the state social insurance based on mathematical statistics and actuarial calculations to ensure that such conditions on the one hand, can insure the risk, and the other - to provide the insurer the ability to perform insurance obligations' commitments. One of the promising areas of improvement Accident Insurance determines to define increasing the role of the private sector to create and attraction of investments, financing, reduce costs, and provision of insurance services on insurance against accidents at a qualitatively higher level. The results show the need to consider the usefulness of a mixed provision of services to accident insurance under state or non-state system, and the viability and effectiveness of the combination of these systems.

  18. CURRENT FACTORS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B AMINMAN SOUR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.
    Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809 at the time of study (1997-1998. Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.
    Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old, students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.
    Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.

     

  19. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, Marjan

    2002-12-01

    The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

  20. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  1. A new vehicle data bus architecture and IVIS evaluation platform for ITS modulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelt, P.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kirson, A.M. [Motorola, Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States); Scott, S. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    An increasing number of ITS-related after-market systems present a set of in-vehicle installation and use problems relatively unique in the history of automobile use. Many automobile manufacturers would like to offer these new state of the art devices to customers, but are hampered by the current design cycle of new cars. While auto manufacturers are indeed using multiplex buses (the automotive equivalent of a computer local area network), problems remain because manufacturers are not converging on a single bus standard. This paper presents a new dual-bus architecture to address these problems, with an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) research platform on which the principles embodied in the ITS Data Bus architecture can be evaluated. The dual-bus architecture has been embodied in a proposed SAE standard, with a ratification vote in December, 1996. The architecture and a reference model for the interfaces and protocols of the new bus are presented and described. The goals of the ITS Data Bus are to be inexpensive and easy to install, and to provide for safe and secure functioning. These high-level goals are embodied in the proposed standard. The IVIS Development Platform comprises a number of personal computers linked via ethernet LAN, with a high-end PC serving as the IVIS computer. In this LAN, actual devices can be inserted in place of the original PC which emulated them. This platform will serve as the development and test bed for an ITS Data Bus Conformity Test, the SAE standard for which has also been developed.

  2. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops.Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes in two New Zealand cities.Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%, both young people and adults (44%, just young people (6% and alone (5%. An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%–90%. Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk.Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  3. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Oliver, Jane; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%-90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  4. Exploring Environmental Effects of Accidents During Marine Transport of Dangerous Goods by Use of Accident Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Hans Gottberg; Haastrup, P.; Petersen, H J Styhr

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most...

  5. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  6. Vibration reduction in electric bus during acceleration and gear shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles have replaced many gasoline vehicles in urban environments. The magnitude of vibrations and emissions from electric vehicles are less than those from conventional gasoline-powered vehicles. However, electric vehicles still have mechanical vibrations, such as those created by the power system. During vehicle acceleration, driveline vibration is very prominent. This work focuses on vehicle vibration caused by the electric powertrain in electric vehicles under rapid acceleration/deceleration and gear shifting. Since the dynamic response of an electric motor is rapid, driving torsional vibration arising from acceleration/deceleration and gear shifting is typically transmitted from driveline to vehicle’s body, adversely affecting a driver’s comfort. This work presents a novel effective control logic that reduces vibrations from an electric driveline system. This system controls the electric motor to suppress driveline torsional vibration transmitted to the driver’s seat, effectively reducing vertical vibrations and enhancing driver comfort. This work conducts simulations and hardware tests. In the development of the driveline and motor control logic, Adaptive Modeling Environment for Simulation analytical software is applied to create the driveline system model. To model structural vibrations, HyperMesh is used, and LS DYNA is applied to simulate free vibration and forced vibration. The analytical results for free vibration are compared with empirical data. The analytical results for driveline dynamics are applied as input for the finite element model to analyze forced vibration. Vibrations from the electric driveline move through the motor mount and frame to the driver’s seat track. The simulation results demonstrate this control logic strategy applied to an electric bus motor controller effectively reduces fluctuation in driveline torque during acceleration by up to 84.19% and during gear shifting by up to 44.96%. The

  7. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bunt, R. [Southern Nuclear, Atlanta, GA (United States); Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ellison, Paul B. [GE Power and Water, Duluth, GA (United States); Francis, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gabor, John D. [Erin Engineering, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Linthicum, R. [Exelon Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Luangdilok, W. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lutz, R. [PWR Owners Group (PWROG); Paik, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Plys, M. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wachowiak, R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  8. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  9. 基于CAN总线的车间粉尘检测系统设计%Workshop Dust Detection System Design Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凯红; 李成; 王聪毅; 方鸿基

    2016-01-01

    The dust concentration in the air of workplace exceeds a certain percentage can easily lead to accidents. A work-shop dust detection system design based on CAN bus technology was designed to monitor the dust concentration at any time.The system used STC89C52 as the processor.CAN bus network was used to communicate between master-slave node.Expounding the general design idea,the hardware circuit of CAN bus node module was designed and the development of PC software and CAN communication program were described.The system passed the test and realized the real-time monitoring of dust concentration,re-alizing the remote control requirements,had a sound and light alarm reminder function. The detection system is stable and relia-ble,has good detection performance,high sensitivity and broad application prospect.%车间空气中的粉尘浓度超过一定比例容易引发生产事故,为随时监测粉尘浓度,设计了一种基于CAN总线的车间粉尘检测系统。该系统以STC89C52作为处理器,采用CAN总线网络实现主从节点之间的通信。介绍了总体设计思路,对CAN总线节点模块的硬件电路进行了设计,研发上位机软件以及CAN通信程序。该系统经过测试实现了对车间粉尘浓度的实时监控,达到了远程操作控制的要求,具有声光报警提醒的功能。整个检测系统运行稳定可靠,检测性能好,灵敏度高。

  10. An interconnecting bus power optimization method combining interconnect wire spacing with wire ordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; Hao Bao-Tian; En Yun-Fei; Yang Yin-Tang; Li Yue-Jin

    2011-01-01

    On-chip interconnect buses consume tens of percents of dynamic power in a nanometer scale integrated circuit and they will consume more power with the rapid scaling down of technology size and continuously rising clock frequency,therefore it is meaningful to lower the interconnecting bus power in design. In this paper, a simple yet accurate interconnect parasitic capacitance model is presented first and then, based on this model, a novel interconnecting bus optimization method is proposed. Wire spacing is a process for spacing wires for minimum dynamic power, while wire ordering is a process that searches for wire orders that maximally enhance it. The method, i.e., combining wire spacing with wire ordering, focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with a consideration of bus performance requirements.The optimization method is verified based on various nanometer technology parameters, showing that with 50% slack of routing space, 25.71% and 32.65% of power can be saved on average by the proposed optimization method for a globalbus and an intermediate bus, respectively, under a 65-nm technology node, compared with 21.78% and 27.68% of power saved on average by uniform spacing technology. The proposed method is especially suitable for computer-aided designof nanometer scale on-chip buses.

  11. Real-time and reliability analysis of time-triggered CAN-bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Jiqiang; Zhang Chuansen; Bai Ronggang; Xue Liqiang

    2013-01-01

    Real-time performance and reliability are two most important issues in applications of time-triggered controller area network (CAN) bus systems at present.A scheduling matrix of time-triggered CAN-bus system is established using average-loading algorithm.Periodic messages are guaranteed to transmit without delay by distributing independent transmission windows within the system matrix.Considering the traditional CAN-bus transmission mechanism and the time-triggered feature,an algorithm is improved to calculate the worst-case delay of event-triggered messages in time-triggered CAN-bus systems.The failure probability is calculated for event-triggered messages whose worst-case delay exceeds their deadlines.Different levels of redundant structures of CAN-bus circuits are analyzed and the maintenance management is proposed to improve the system reliability.Finally,the reliabilities of different structures are calculated and the influences of maintenance on the system reliability are analyzed.

  12. Performance of school bus retrofit systems: ultrafine particles and other vehicular pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfang; Zhu, Yifang

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the performance of retrofit systems for diesel-powered school buses, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) muffler and a spiracle crankcase filtration system (CFS), regarding ultrafine particles (UFPs) and other air pollutants from tailpipe emissions and inside bus cabins. Tailpipe emissions and in-cabin air pollutant levels were measured before and after retrofitting when the buses were idling and during actual pick-up/drop off routes. Retrofit systems significantly reduced tailpipe emissions with a reduction of 20-94% of total particles with both DOC and CFS installed. However, no unequivocal decrease was observed for in-cabin air pollutants after retrofitting. The AC/fan unit and the surrounding air pollutant concentrations played more important roles for determining the in-cabin air quality of school buses than did retrofit technologies. Although current retrofit systems reduce children's exposure while waiting to board at a bus station, retrofitting by itself does not protect children satisfactorily from in-cabin particle exposures. Turning on the bus engine increased in-cabin UFP levels significantly only when the wind blew from the bus' tailpipe toward its hood with its windows open. This indicated that wind direction and window position are significant factors determining how much self-released tailpipe emissions may penetrate into the bus cabin. The use of an air purifier was found to remove in-cabin particles by up to 50% which might be an alternative short-to-medium term strategy to protect children's health.

  13. Design and Implementation of High Performance AHB Arbiter for on chip Bus Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHUTOSH KUMAR SINGH,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resolution is a big issue in SOC( system On Chip while dealing with number of master trying to sense a single data bus . The ffectiveness of a system to resolve this priority resides in its ability to logical assignment of the chance to transmit data width of the data, response to the interrupts etc. The purpose of this paper is to propose the scheme to implement such a system using the specification of AMBA bus protocol .The scheme involves the typical AMBA features of ‘single clock edge transition ‘, Split transaction ‘,’several bus masters ‘, ‘burst transfer ’.The bus arbiter ensures that only one bus master at a time is allowed to initiate data ransfers. Even though the arbitration protocol is fixed, any arbitration algorithm, such as highest priority or fair access can be implemented depending on the application requirements .The design architecture is written using VHDL(Very High Speed Integrated CircuitsHardware Description Language code using Xilinx ISE Tools .The architecture is modeled and synthesized using RTL(Register Transfer Level abstraction and Implemented on Virtex2 series.

  14. Analisis Perpindahan Moda dari Taksi dan Mobil Pribadi ke Bus Damri di Bandar Udara Juanda Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina Octavianti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pesatnya pertumbuhan penumpang di Bandar Udara Juanda yang terjadi pada setiap tahunnya, menyebabkan meningkatnya jumlah pengguna taksi dan mobil pribadi. Semakin bertambah pengguna taksi dan mobil pribadi tersebut, maka semakin padat kendaraan yang memenuhi ruas jalan akses ke dan dari Bandar Udara Juanda Surabaya. Dalam tugas akhir ini dilakukan analisa untuk mengetahui jumlah penumpang yang bersedia untuk berpindah moda dari taksi dan mobil pribadi ke bus Damri di Bandar Udara Juanda Surabaya. Data primer diperoleh dari hasil survey kuisioner penumpang taksi dan mobil pribadi dengan teknik stated preference. Metode yang digunakan untuk menganalisa data adalah metode logit biner. Dari hasil analisa, terlihat bahwa penumpang dengan penghasilan Rp. 2 juta – Rp. 5 juta dan berasal tujuan dari kota luar Surabaya lebih dominan menggunakan mobil pribadi daripada taksi. Probabilitas perpindahan moda dari taksi ke bus Damri adalah 22%  untuk bus dengan tarif Rp. 20.000 dan waktu tempuh 35 menit. Sedangkan probabilitas perpindahan moda dari mobil pribadi ke bus Damri adalah 66% untuk bus dengan tarif Rp. 15.000 dan waktu tempuh 35 menit.

  15. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS in Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS. Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BRT is the best way to overcome it. If a country gets richer the development will be seen in different aspects like education, industry, science and technology etc., except transport which will get worse. There are many ways to get rid of these traffic issues and transport problems. What attracted the countries to install BRT is the bus way concept as that it can cover whole city and is cheaper than the rail. BRT is a high speed rapid transit system using high capacity vehicles, physically separated bus ways, modern station with electronic fare collection, rapid boarding and high service frequency which result more passengers and less congestion. This paper presents an overview of BRTS and corridor selection & assessment for it in Hyderabad through surveys etc.

  16. Geometric-Process-Based Battery Management Optimizing Policy for the Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry and promotive policies worldwide, the electric bus (E-bus has been adopted in many major cities around the world. One of the most important factors that restrain the widespread application of the E-bus is the high operating cost due to the deficient battery management. This paper proposes a geometric-process-based (GP-based battery management optimizing policy which aims to minimize the average cost of the operation on the premise of meeting the required sufficient battery availability. Considering the deterioration of the battery after repeated charging and discharging, this paper constructs the model of the operation of the E-bus battery as a geometric process, and the premaintenance time has been considered with the failure repairment time to enhance the GP-based battery operation model considering the battery cannot be as good as new after the two processes. The computer simulation is carried out by adopting the proposed optimizing policy, and the result verifies the effectiveness of the policy, denoting its significant performance on the application of the E-bus battery management.

  17. Design and Analysis of Virtual Bus Transport Using Synchronous Digital Hierarchy/Synchronous Optical Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented a new data link layer design for the virtual bus architecture. The virtual bus is a hierarchical access network offered a broadcast capability for data and signaling. The proposed of the study is to support Quality of Service (QoS in network. During study, the most promising technology capable of delivering full service access at high data rates is Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH/Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET. For that reason, we develop SDH/SONET as a physical layer for the virtual bus network. The main goal of this investigation was to study the performance of transmission medium and the overall performance of the network. We exemplify a Multiple Access Protocol (MAP with Generic Frame Procedure (GFP for transmitting IP network protocol datagram over SDH/SONET. This is a novel method for transmitting MAP with GFP. The protocol adds multi-terminal access capability to an inherently point-to-point link. It enabled the design of seamless networking environments using SDH/SONET as the transmission medium for Metropolitan Area Network (MAN. The new frame mapping protocol is known as Virtual Bus Transport (VBT. The performance of multiple traffic generators in a virtual bus network is of major interest for mobile network provider. We used OMNeT simulation tool to evaluate the result. Through the simulation it proved that the VBT scheduling technique offers better treatment mainly to the higher Qos requirement traffic.

  18. Degenerative hairlets on the vestibular sensory cells in mutant bustling (BUS/Idr) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, K; Hashimoto, R; Hanai, A; Yoshizaki, N; Yonezawa, S; Otani, H

    1997-01-01

    The bustling mouse (BUS/Idr: bus) is a mutant mouse strain which exhibits deafness, bustling/hyperkinetic behaviour and functional disorders seemingly related to the vestibular system. This phenotype develops in homozygous (bus/bus) mice and has been shown from cross experiments to be genetically induced by a single autosomal recessive gene. We previously detected, with light and electron microscopy, post-natal degeneration of the inner ear sensory cells in homozygotes. In the present study, we examined, by electron microscopy, the development of pathological changes in the sensory epithelia of the macula acustica and crista ampullaris of homozygous mice of various ages, paying special attention to the detailed morphology of the sensory hairlets. The homozygous mice exhibited specific pathological changes: a decrease in the number of hairs; disarrangement of the kinocilium-stereocilia pattern; and, fused and/or very large stereocilia. Homozygotes also frequently exhibited apical cytoplasmic herniation, or bleb of hair cells, as well as a degenerated kinocilium in the sensory epithelium. Heterozygotes showed similar changes, but to a lesser degree and frequency. As for the vestibular organs, similar pathological changes had developed at day, 17 of gestation. These pathological findings and onset suggest that the BUS mouse may be a mutant mouse strain distinct from other reported strains which display similar behaviour, and may be a useful animal model for the study of human degenerative vestibular disorders.

  19. Ecodriving for Reduction of Bus Transit Emission with Vehicle’s Hybrid Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzheng Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a global ecodriving optimal control to advise the green driving speed for bus transit to minimize the exhaust emission using Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I communication. Assuming communication between vehicles and infrastructure (V2I and knowledge of traffic signal timings and waiting passengers at stations are known, an optimal driving speed is proposed to minimize the total vehicle emissions of the bus route. The dwell time of the bus transit at each station which includes two parts is proposed. A traffic lights timing model is employed as constraints to control the formation of the green wave band. Vehicle specific power (VSP model is further applied to evaluate the exhaust emission level linked with the speed and acceleration of the bus transit. An approximate sixteen-kilometer traffic network including fourteen intersections and fifteen stations of Beijing bus transit line 1 in Chaoyang District, Beijing, is chosen to investigate the performance of the developed ecodriving approach.

  20. Utility and Weight of Factors of Bus Transit’ s Service Quality Analysis in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrong Liu; Tangyi Guo

    2015-01-01

    Service quality is a major factor that affects how public transport users evaluate bus service. In order to evaluate how bus users make trade⁃offs across travel cost, time, reliability, etc., and to investigate the extent to which the components of service quality vary according to relevant trip characteristics, this paper analyzes service quality of bus transit with the conjoint analysis. Through data analysis, the levels ’ utility values of reliability, waiting time, walking time, etc.,on the commuter trip and the non⁃commuter trip are gotten, so it is the utility function of the transit system. Then the factors’ weights are obtained through the utility values. The results show that on the commuter trip, passengers value reliability the most, which is followed by waiting time and walking time, while in⁃bus environment, price and station environment’ s weights are small. While on the non⁃commuter trip, the weights in a higher order to lower order are the first for reliability, the second for in⁃bus environment, the third for walking time, the fourth for station environment and the last for ticket price.

  1. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  2. Predicting road accidents: Structural time series approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the model for occurrence of road accidents in Malaysia between the years of 1970 to 2010 was developed and throughout this model the number of road accidents have been predicted by using the structural time series approach. The models are developed by using stepwise method and the residual of each step has been analyzed. The accuracy of the model is analyzed by using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the best model is chosen based on the smallest Akaike information criterion (AIC) value. A structural time series approach found that local linear trend model is the best model to represent the road accidents. This model allows level and slope component to be varied over time. In addition, this approach also provides useful information on improving the conventional time series method.

  3. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

    2000-05-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  4. Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.

    1984-03-01

    The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

  5. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  6. Internal Accident Report: fill it out!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    It is important to report all accidents, near-misses and dangerous situations so that they can be avoided in the future.   Reporting these events allows the relevant services to take appropriate action and implement corrective and preventive measures. It should be noted that the routing of the internal accident report was recently changed to make sure that the people who need to know are informed. Without information, corrective action is not possible. Without corrective action, there is a risk that the events will recur. As soon as you experience or see something amiss, fill out an internal accident report! If you have any questions the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. The HSE Unit

  7. Agricultural implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2016-01-01

    More than 4 years has passed since the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Immediately after the accident, 40 to 50 academic staff of the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Tokyo created an independent team to monitor the behavior of the radioactive materials in the field and their effects on agricultural farm lands, forests, rivers, animals, etc. When the radioactive nuclides from the nuclear power plant fell, they were instantly adsorbed at the site where they first touched; consequently, the fallout was found as scattered spots on the surface of anything that was exposed to the air at the time of the accident. The adsorption has become stronger over time, so the radioactive nuclides are now difficult to remove. The findings of our study regarding the wide range of effects on agricultural fields are summarized in this report. PMID:27538845

  8. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-06

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  9. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K (Dept. of Radiology, Toeoeloe Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email: frank.bensch@hus.fi

    2011-12-15

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  10. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Medford, G.T. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.

  11. Analysis of bus width and delay on a fully digital signum nonlinearity chaotic oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-07-29

    This paper introduces the first fully digital implementation of a 3rd order ODE-based chaotic oscillator with signum nonlinearity. A threshold bus width of 12-bits for reliable chaotic behavior is observed, below which the system output becomes periodic. Beyond this threshold, the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) is shown to improve up to a peak value at 16-bits and subsequently decrease with increasing bus width. The MLE is also shown to gradually increase with number of introduced internal delay cycles until a peak value at 14 cycles, after which the system loses chaotic properties. Introduced external delay cycles are shown to rotate the attractors in 3-D phase space. Bus width and delay elements can be independently modulated to optimize the system to suit specifications. The experimental results of the system show low area and high performance on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with throughput of 13.35 Gbits/s for a 32-bit implementation.

  12. Research on Integration of Coal Mine Monitoring and Control System with Field Bus Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the construction of current coal mine monitoring and control systems in China, the paper proposes three kinds of applicable schemes of integrating PLC and DCS systems with field bus technology to digitize the system and to improve the flexibility and extent of the system. Essentially, the paper introduces the integration of FCS on I/O layers. Based on a real coal mine safety-monitoring and control system applied with a CAN field bus, the major technology of system relays and extensions is discussed. We believe that one of the most applicable methods is currently replacing the connection between function-stations and field-sensors with a CAN bus on I/O layers for system integration.

  13. The high current bus-bars of the LHC from conception to manufacture

    CERN Document Server

    Belova, L; Perinet-Marquet, J-L; Urpin, C

    2006-01-01

    The main magnets of the LHC are series-connected electrically in different excitation circuits by means of superconducting bus-bars, carrying a maximum current of 13 kA. These superconducting bus-bars consist of a superconducting cable thermally and electrically coupled to a copper section all along length. The function of the copper section is essentially to provide an alternative path for the magnet current in case the superconducting cable loses its superconductivity and returns to normal state because of a transient system disturbance or normal zone propagation coming from the neighboring magnets. When a superconducting bus-bar quenches to normal state its temperature must always stay below a safe values of about 100 ° C while the copper is conducting. With regard to that, a quench signal is initiated, which in turn triggers the ramping down of the current from 13000 A to 0....

  14. Uncertainty in Bus Arrival Time Predictions: Treating Heteroscedasticity With a Metamodel Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Sullivan, Aidan; Pereira, Francisco Camara; Zhao, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Arrival time predictions for the next available bus or train are a key component of modern traveler information systems (TISs). A great deal of research has been conducted within the intelligent transportation system community in developing an assortment of different algorithms that seek...... of heteroscedasticity in the predictions is demonstrated and then a metamodel approach is deployed, which augments existing predictive systems using quantile regression to place bounds on the associated error. As a case study, this approach is applied to data from a real-world TIS in Boston. This method allows bounds...... to increase the accuracy of these predictions. However, the inherent stochastic and nonlinear nature of these systems, particularly in the case of bus transport, means that these predictions suffer from variable sources of error, stemming from variations in weather conditions, bus bunching, and numerous other...

  15. Implemented Wavelet Packet Tree based Denoising Algorithm in Bus Signals of a Wearable Sensorarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmack, M.; Nguyen, S.; Mercorelli, P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a thermosensing embedded system with a sensor bus that uses wavelets for the purposes of noise location and denoising. From the principle of the filter bank the measured signal is separated in two bands, low and high frequency. The proposed algorithm identifies the defined noise in these two bands. With the Wavelet Packet Transform as a method of Discrete Wavelet Transform, it is able to decompose and reconstruct bus input signals of a sensor network. Using a seminorm, the noise of a sequence can be detected and located, so that the wavelet basis can be rearranged. This particularly allows for elimination of any incoherent parts that make up unavoidable measuring noise of bus signals. The proposed method was built based on wavelet algorithms from the WaveLab 850 library of the Stanford University (USA). This work gives an insight to the workings of Wavelet Transformation.

  16. Implementation of Bus Rapid Transit in Copenhagen: A Mesoscopic Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Kornerup Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Bus Rapid Transit(BRT) has shown to be an efficient and cost-effective mode of public transport, and has gained popularity in many cities around the world.To optimise the operations and infrastructure it is advantageous to deploy transportmodels. However, microscopic models are very inefficient...... for large scale corridors due to the vast amount of data and resources required.Hence, it is relevant to investigate how to model and evaluate BRT efficiently.In this paper the effects of implementing BRT in Copenhagen is discussed including how to evaluate and model bus operations.For this purpose......, a mesoscopic simulationmodel is developed. In the model busoperations are modelled on a microscopic level whereas the interactions with other traffic are modelled macroscopically.This makes it possible to model high-frequency bus services such as BRT lines in more details without the time consumption of micro...

  17. Steering Stability of a Bus Powered by Natural Gas While Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural gas as bus propellant presupposes the application of a driving unit adjusted to the use of natural gas in addition to the application of a corresponding gas facility. The first part of the paper describes the distinguishing features related to the storage of compressed natural gas tanks as the main carriers of additional mass due to the use of this energy substance for the propulsion of buses, as well as their effect on the structural features of vehicles. The second part of the paper covers the formulation and analysis of differential equations in terms of the steering system’s stability, and the equations depict the motion of the natural gas bus with its structural features, according to the defined models for instances of bus braking with locked front, rear and all wheels.

  18. 微型计算机PCI总线浅析%On Microcomputer PCI Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝菊; 孙景瑞; 刘艳

    2001-01-01

    较系统地分析了PCI总线的定义、分类及特点,论述了PCI总线的读写时序及总线仲裁问题,并将PCI总线应用在图象处理等方面,解决了数据通量的瓶颈问题.%This article analyses the definition,classification andpeculiarity of PCI bus systematically. And it expounds the problem of reading and writing proc ession and arbiitration of PCI bus. Further more, the PCI bus has been used in the im age treatment and any other fields,solving the difficult problem of data flux.

  19. Testing of Environmental Satellite Bus-Instrument Interfaces Using Engineering Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Donald; Hayner, Rick; Nosek, Thomas; Roza, Michael; Hendershot, James E.; Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the formulation and execution of a laboratory test of the electrical interfaces between multiple atmospheric scientific instruments and the spacecraft bus that carries them. The testing, performed in 2002, used engineering models of the instruments and the Aura spacecraft bus electronics. Aura is one of NASA s Earth Observatory System missions. The test was designed to evaluate the complex interfaces in the command and data handling subsystems prior to integration of the complete flight instruments on the spacecraft. A problem discovered during the flight integration phase of the observatory can cause significant cost and schedule impacts. The tests successfully revealed problems and led to their resolution before the full-up integration phase, saving significant cost and schedule. This approach could be beneficial for future environmental satellite programs involving the integration of multiple, complex scientific instruments onto a spacecraft bus.

  20. Calculation of Flexible Bus-Bars Electrodynamic Stability with Application of Implicit Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Panamarenka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method for calculation of open-air substations’ flexible bus-bars dynamic at short-circuit has been improved on equations of a flexible elastic string with application of an implicit scheme. On the basis of the numerical method a computer program FLEBUS for calculation of substations’ flexible bus-bars dynamic at short-circuit has been developed. An approbation and an estimation of calculation result reliability have been carried out in accordance with the program while using experimental data. On the basis of the obtained information it is possible to assert that the developed program is an independent tool for calculation of electrodynamic stability of substations’ flexible bus-bars.

  1. Increasing throughput of multiplexed electrical bus in pipe-lined architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameh; Brezzo, Bernard V; Kapur, Mohit

    2014-05-27

    Techniques are disclosed for increasing the throughput of a multiplexed electrical bus by exploiting available pipeline stages of a computer or other system. For example, a method for increasing a throughput of an electrical bus that connects at least two devices in a system comprises introducing at least one signal hold stage in a signal-receiving one of the two devices, such that a maximum frequency at which the two devices are operated is not limited by a number of cycles of an operating frequency of the electrical bus needed for a signal to propagate from a signal-transmitting one of the two devices to the signal-receiving one of the two devices. Preferably, the signal hold stage introduced in the signal-receiving one of the two devices is a pipeline stage re-allocated from the signal-transmitting one of the two devices.

  2. Design of belt conveyor electric control device based on CC-link bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Goufen; Zhan, Minhua; Li, Jiehua

    2016-01-01

    In view of problem of the existing coal mine belt conveyor is no field bus communication function, two levels belt conveyor electric control system design is proposed based on field bus. Two-stage belt conveyor electric control system consists of operation platform, PLC control unit, various sensors, alarm device and the water spraying device. The error protection is realized by PLC programming, made use of CC-Link bus technology, the data share and the cooperative control came true between host station and slave station. The real-time monitor was achieved by the touch screen program. Practical application shows that the system can ensure the coalmine production, and improve the automatic level of the coalmine transport equipment.

  3. Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Accident Safety Design for High Speed Elevator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawiwat Veeraklaew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been many elevators exist in buildings for such a long time; however, an accident might happen as a free fall due to lacks of maintenance or some other accident such as firing. Although this situation is rarely occurred, many people are still concerned about it. The question here is how to make passengers to feel safe and confident when they are using an elevator, especially, high speed elevator. This problem is studied here in this paper as a free fall spring-mass-damper system with the stiffness and damping coefficient can be computed as minimum jerk of the system with given constraints on trajectories.

  5. Lessons learned from early criticality accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1996-06-01

    Four accidents involving the approach to criticality occurred during the period July, 1945, through May, 1996. These have been described in the format of the OPERATING EXPERIENCE WEEKLY SUMMARY which is distributed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety. Although the lessons learned have been incorporated in standards, codes, and formal procedures during the last fifty years, this is their first presentation in this format. It is particularly appropriate that they be presented in the forum of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project Workshop closest to the fiftieth anniversary of the last of the four accidents, and that which was most instrumental in demonstrating the need to incorporate lessons learned.

  6. LESSONS LEARNED FROM A RECENT LASER ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Michael; /SLAC

    2011-01-26

    A graduate student received a laser eye injury from a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser beam while adjusting a polarizing beam splitter optic. The direct causes for the accident included failure to follow safe alignment practices and failure to wear the required laser eyewear protection. Underlying root causes included inadequate on-the-job training and supervision, inadequate adherence to requirements, and inadequate appreciation for dimly visible beams outside the range of 400-700nm. This paper describes how the accident occurred, discusses causes and lessons learned, and describes corrective actions being taken.

  7. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  8. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  9. An Analog Speech I/O Channel for the Nova 2 Computer Based on the S-100 Bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    These exten- 10 V16 ISI ’ negative Vectored interrupt t,lin’ sions to the original Altair bus 11 V17 (S)’ negative Vectored interrupt re 7 represent a...specified tion. 67 PHANTOM (B) negative A bus signal which disables norma *12. For 16-bit masters and slaves, slave d vices and enables phantom the DI and DO

  10. Evaluating a GPS-Based Transportation Device to Support Independent Bus Travel by People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; Holloway, Shane; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the utility of a PDA-based software system with integrated GPS technology for providing location-aware visual and auditory prompts to enable people with intellectual disability to successfully navigate a downtown bus route. Participants using the system were significantly more successful at completing a bus route than were people in a…

  11. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and mutagenicity in bus drivers and mail carriers exposed to urban air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.M.; Wallin, H.; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in Denmark have shown that bus drivers and tramway employees were at an increased risk for developing several types of cancer and that bus drives from central Copenhagen have high levels of biomarkers of DNA damage. Aims: The present study evaluates 1-hydroxypyrene co...

  12. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and mutagenicity in bus drivers and mail carriers exposed to urban air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Wallin, Håkan; Binderup, Mona Lise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Denmark have shown that bus drivers and tramway employees were at an increased risk for developing several types of cancer and that bus drives from central Copenhagen have high levels of biomarkers of DNA damage.AIMS: The present study evaluates 1-hydroxypyrene con...

  13. ABB i-bus EIB智能酒店灯光控制系统设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华卫智能设备

    2007-01-01

    @@ i-bus系统介绍 欧洲安装总线(EIB,European Instlallation Bus)在亚洲称为电气安装总线(Electrical Installation Bus),是电气布线领域使用范围最广的行业规范和产品标准.

  14. 49 CFR 1331.5 - Additional standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. 1331.5 Section 1331.5 Transportation Other Regulations... standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. (a) Rate bureaus must... tariff structure modifies in a relatively non-uniform fashion the relationship between most...

  15. BUS 320 Assignment 2: Case Study: Michael Dell—The Man Behind Dell

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    BUS 320 Assignment 2: Case Study: Michael Dell—The Man Behind Dell   Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-320-assignment-2-case-study-michael-dell-the-man-behind-dell/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com   Assignment 2: Case Study: Michael Dell—The Man Behind Dell Presentation (Change Management) Michael Dell began building and selling computers from his dorm room at age 19. He dropped out of the University of Texas when his sales hit $60 million and has nev...

  16. Mobile Encounters: Bus 5A as a cross-cultural meeting place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten; Christensen, Mathilde Dissing

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores modes of encounters in the everyday practice of bus travel. Particularly, it addresses cross-cultural encounters located in the tension between familiarity and difference, between inclusion and exclusion. The paper is located in contemporary thoughts, approaching public transport...... not only as a moving device but also as a social arena. Furthermore, the bus is simultaneously perceived as a public space, at once composite, contradictory and heterogeneous, and as a meeting place involving ‘Throwntogetherness’. The encounters analysed are bodily, emotional charged and outspoken meetings...

  17. MSCT findings in a controlled bus bombing using a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nikolaj Friis

    2009-01-01

    In terrorist acts such as car and bus bombings by a suicide bomber using home made or other explosives, there may be many fatalities and wounded. From a forensic pathological point of view this poses a challenge regarding identification of the fatalities, recording the injuries and identifying...... and recovering relevant foreign bodies that might have been used in the bomb to inflict more damages to bystanders. The author will present MSCT findings and the injuries found at autopsy in 10 dead pigs were positioned inside the bus in a controlled explosion. This will be done in correlation to the individual...

  18. bus660 full course  all discussions and all week assignments but no week 8

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    bus660 full course  all discussions and all week assignments but no week 8   Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus660-full-course/   week 1 Present an example of a business situation that you believe would lend itself to the use of a quantitative business model. Clearly explain how the model could be used in this situation. grand canyon 2 Multiple models are often used in supporting business decision making. Why might this be the case and ...

  19. Research and design on a kind of CASE environment architectural style based on ToolBus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Bing; Shen Yan; Xie Jun; Wang Yong; Xiong Guangze

    2005-01-01

    Because CASE (computer aided software engineering) environment is a kind of complex system software, its software architecture is very important. From the viewpoint of software architecture, this paper first presents TBus architectural style, which is a kind of CASE environment architectural style based on ToolBus, then describes the architectural model and system's behavior in formal method, researches and analyzes the corresponding tool structural model. Last the paper implements a TBus architectural instance-LambdaBridge, which proves the validity of ToolBus and TBus architectural styles.

  20. Empirical Assessment on Factors Affecting Travel Time of Bus Rapid Transit

    OpenAIRE

    Fergyanto E Gunawan

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the century, many cities around the world adopt the bus rapid transit (BRT) system to fulfill their need of mass transportation system. The system features with platform-level boarding, bus lanes in the central verge of the road, off-vehicle fare collection, and physically protected busway. So far, these criteria are considered to be the most important aspects with respect to the BRT performance. In this research, we intend to study to what extent the BRT performance ma...

  1. Inductive Theorem Proving and Computer Algebra in the Mathweb Software Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Juergen; Dennis, Louise Abigail

    2002-01-01

    Reasoning systems have reached a high degree of maturity in the last decade. However, even the most successful systems are usually not general purpose problem solvers but are typically specialised on problems in a certain domain. The MathWeb SOftware Bus (Mathweb-SB) is a system for combining reasoning specialists via a common osftware bus. We described the integration of the lambda-clam systems, a reasoning specialist for proofs by induction, into the MathWeb-SB. Due to this integration,...

  2. Realization and optimization of bus bar current transducers based on Hall effect sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Marjan; Jovanović, Uglješa; Jovanović, Igor; Mančić, Dragan; Popović, Radivoje S.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the realization and optimization of two coreless open-loop bus bar current transducers based on a Hall effect sensor are presented. Two types of bus bar are evaluated: flat rectangular and rectangular with a restrictive region in the middle. Both realized transducers are capable of measuring AC and DC currents up to 300 A and 10 kHz frequency with nonlinearity less than 0.3% in the entire range. Several methods for resolving issues with the skin effect and stray magnetic fields are presented along with the experimental test results. Some of the presented methods are novel and have never been evaluated.

  3. Study on Ultracapacitors Parameter Design and Control Strategy of Electric Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of ultracapacitors efficiency and vehicle driving character, three conditions restricting the ultracapacitors charge/discharge time are derived. The study focuses on ultracapacitors specific design rules decided by charge/discharge time and how to integrate with battery packs and converter through ultracapacitors' voltage and current double regulators. Through BFC6100-EV electric bus test, it is shown that the proposed method and control strategy are feasible and the system can effectively improve the bus dynamic performance and ability to receive braking energy effectively.

  4. Application of ABB i-bus(R)EIB/KNX in Commercial Plaza%ABB i-bus(R)EIB/KNX在商业广场中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全林; 杜乐

    2008-01-01

    简要介绍了ABB i-bus(R)EIB/KNX智能建筑控制系统的基本原理及特点,并通过ABB i-bus(R)系统在西安骡马市商业步行街的应用,阐述了该系统在智能照明控制方面的功能、设备特点及优势.并通过该智能照明控制系统在安装前后电费开支的理论计算值分析,比较了采用该系统的节能效果.

  5. Assessment on the occupational exposure of urban public bus drivers to bioaccessible trace metals through resuspended fraction of settled bus dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Liu, Sa [Environmental Health Sciences Division, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720-7360 (United States); Ye, Wenyuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Lin, Nan; Meng, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Feng, Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Lu, Binyu [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Xing, Baoshan [Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Limited information is available on the bioaccessible fraction of trace metals in the resuspended fraction of settled bus dust in order to estimate bus drivers ' occupational exposure. In this study, 45 resuspended fraction of settled dust samples were collected from gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) powered buses and analyzed for trace metals and their fraction concentrations using a three-step sequential extraction procedure. Experimental results showed that zinc (Zn) had the greatest bioaccessible fraction, recorded as an average of 608.53 mg/kg, followed in order of decreasing concentration by 129.80 mg/kg lead (Pb), 56.77 mg/kg copper (Cu), 34.03 mg/kg chromium (Cr), 22.05 mg/kg nickel (Ni), 13.17 mg/kg arsenic (As) and 2.77 mg/kg cadmium (Cd). Among the three settled bus dust exposure pathways, ingestion was the main route. Total exposure hazard index (HIt) for non-carcinogenic effect trace metals was lower than the safety level of 1. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for drivers was estimated for trace metal exposure. Pb and Ni presented relatively high potential risks in the non-carcinogenic and potentially carcinogenic health assessment for all drivers. ILCR was in the range of 1.84E − 05 to 7.37E − 05 and 1.74E − 05 to 6.95E − 05 for gasoline and CNG buses, respectively. - Highlights: • As, Cd and Ni had relatively higher bioaccessibility and mobility in the resuspended fraction of settled bus dust. • Bioaccessible metal concentrations were higher in gasoline-fueled buses than those in CNG-fueled buses. • The carcinogenic risk probabilities to drivers were around the acceptable level.

  6. Violent deaths among composers (accidents, drownings and murders)

    OpenAIRE

    Breitenfeld, Darko; Vodanović, Marijo; Akrap, Ankica; Juran, Dominik; Kranjčec, Darko; Vuksanović, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we described different accidents, drowning and murders as the main cause of death among 145 composers. We included accidents (48 composers), drowning (26 composers) and murders (71 composers) which were mainly fatal, and premature. Accidents are the third leading cause of deaths today. Murders were often during the wars and revolutions (World War I, II, French, Russian revolution). We mentioned all of the etiologies of these accidents, drowning and murders according to the c...

  7. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Alves Rudelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%. Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%, and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%. In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places.

  8. Severe Accident Test Station Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing safety margins in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents is currently the focus of a number of international R&D programs. The current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system is particularly susceptible since the Zr-based cladding experiences rapid oxidation kinetics in steam at elevated temperatures. Therefore, alternative cladding materials that offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012. This report summarizes the capabilities of the SATS and provides an overview of the oxidation kinetics of several candidate cladding materials. A suggested baseline for evaluating ATF candidates is a two order of magnitude reduction in the steam oxidation resistance above 1000ºC compared to Zr-based alloys. The ATF candidates are categorized based on the protective external oxide or scale that forms during exposure to steam at high temperature: chromia, alumina, and silica. Comparisons are made to literature and SATS data for Zr-based alloys and other less-protective materials.

  9. ANS severe accident program overview & planning document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) severe accident document was developed to provide a concise and coherent mechanism for presenting the ANS SAP goals, a strategy satisfying these goals, a succinct summary of the work done to date, and what needs to be done in the future to ensure timely licensability. Guidance was received from various bodies [viz., panel members of the ANS severe accident workshop and safety review committee, Department of Energy (DOE) orders, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for ALWRs and advanced reactors, ACRS comments, world-wide trends] were utilized to set up the ANS-relevant SAS goals and strategy. An in-containment worker protection goal was also set up to account for the routine experimenters and other workers within containment. The strategy for achieving the goals is centered upon closing the severe accident issues that have the potential for becoming certification issues when assessed against realistic bounding events. Realistic bounding events are defined as events with an occurrency frequency greater than 10{sup {minus}6}/y. Currently, based upon the level-1 probabilistic risk assessment studies, the realistic bounding events for application for issue closure are flow blockage of fuel element coolant channels, and rapid depressurization-related accidents.

  10. Diving Accidents. Analyses of Underlying Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Nitrogen narcosis 3 0.3 bad gas 3 0.3 Total 1,036 100.1 1,033 100.2 Another factor of potential relevance in mishap occurrence was the time of day...exposure air, and nitrogen -oxygen equivalent air were all at relatively high risk of terminating in a mishap. Accident rates for the other variables

  11. Accidents with biological material in workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonice Andréa Alves Cavalcante

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the accidents with biological material occurred among workers of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009. Secondary data were collected in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System by exporting data to Excel using Tabwin. Among the types of occupational accidents reported in the state, the biological accidents (no. = 1,170 accounted for 58.3% with a predominance of cases among nurses (48.6%. The percutaneous exposure was the most frequent occurrence and the circumstances of the accidents were related to the handling of sharps and the most common organic material was blood (63.5%. More than 50% of the workers were vaccinated against hepatitis B, but without information regarding the evaluation of vaccine response. The study revealed the need of improvement in the quality of the information, once the sub-entries and inconsistencies make the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System less trustworthy in the characterization of the affected workers.

  12. [Current situation of accidents in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Zinser, José Valente

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of traffic accidents is of concern. About 1.2 million people die every year on the roadways and about 20 to 50 million suffer from non-lethal trauma. Countries with low or medium incomes have higher rates of lethality by traffic accidents (21.5 and 19.5 per 100,000 habitants, respectively) than countries with higher incomes (10.3 per 100,000). It is estimated that the cost of traffic accidents in countries that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), escalate to rates that are between 2-5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). According to data from the health sector in Mexico, these rates are equivalent to 1.3 of GDR The WHO foresees that traffic accident traumas will rise to be the third cause of mortality in 2030. Because of the high complexity of the transport sector, it is necessary that the Transport and Communication Ministry works in a multidisciplinary and intersectorial fashion to ensure that the land transportation systems operate effectively in accordance with national economic development and the quality of life of the Mexican people.

  13. Chernobyl accident. [Radiation monitoring in UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    A brief report is given of the implications for the UK from the radioactivity released during the Chernobyl accident. Results of radio-activity monitoring around the UK are given and the additional radiation doses to the UK population are evaluated.

  14. Speed Variance and Its Influence on Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Nicholas J.; Gadirau, Ravi

    A study was conducted to investigate the traffic engineering factors that influence speed variance and to determine to what extent speed variance affects accident rates. Detailed analyses were carried out to relate speed variance with posted speed limit, design speeds, and other traffic variables. The major factor identified was the difference…

  15. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We compared the rate of fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis (MS) with that of the general population. The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry and covered all 10174 persons in whom MS was diagnosed during the period 1953...

  16. Analysis of Credible Accidents for Argonaut Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, S. C.; Kathern, R. L.; Robkin, M. A.

    1981-04-01

    Five areas of potential accidents have been evaluated for the Argonaut-UTR reactors. They are: • insertion of excess reactivity • catastrophic rearrangement of the core • explosive chemical reaction • graphite fire • fuel-handling accident. A nuclear excursion resulting from the rapid insertion of the maximum available excess reactivity would produce only 12 MWs which is insufficient to cause fuel melting even with conservative assumptions. Although precise structural rearrangement of the core would create a potential hazard, it is simply not credible to assume that such an arrangement would result from the forces of an earthquake or other catastrophic event. Even damage to the fuel from falling debris or other objects is unlikely given the normal reactor structure. An explosion from a metal-water reaction could not occur because there is no credible source of sufficient energy to initiate the reaction. A graphite fire could conceivably create some damage to the reactor but not enough to melt any fuel or initiate a metal-water reaction. The only credible accident involving offsite doses was determined to be a fuel-handling accident which, given highly conservative assumptions, would produce a whole-body dose equivalent of 2 rem from noble gas immersion and a lifetime dose equivalent commitment to the thyroid of 43 rem from radioiodines.

  17. Inventory of socioeconomic costs of work accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, J.; Greef, M. de

    2002-01-01

    The European Commission has prioritised the need to develop knowledge of the economic and social costs arising from occupational accidents and illnesses in their communication about a new Community strategy on safety and health at work for 2002-06. This report from the Agency aims to contribute to t

  18. Development of the Severe Accident Analysis DB for the Severe Accident Management Expert System (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This report contains analysis methodologies and calculation results of 5 initiating events of the severe accident analysis database system. The Ulchin 3,4 NPP has been selected as reference plants. Based on the probabilistic safety analysis of the corresponding plant, 54 accident scenarios, which was predicted to have more than 10-10 /ry occurrence frequency, have been analyzed as base cases for the Large loss of Coolant sequence database. The functions of the severe accident analysis database system will be to make a diagnosis of the accident by some input information from the plant symptoms, to search a corresponding scenario, and finally to provide the user phenomenological information based on the pre-analyzed results. The MAAP 4.06 calculation results in this report will be utilized as input data to develop the database system

  19. Utilization of accident databases and fuzzy sets to estimate frequency of HazMat transport accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuanhua; Keren, Nir; Mannan, M Sam

    2009-08-15

    Risk assessment and management of transportation of hazardous materials (HazMat) require the estimation of accident frequency. This paper presents a methodology to estimate hazardous materials transportation accident frequency by utilizing publicly available databases and expert knowledge. The estimation process addresses route-dependent and route-independent variables. Negative binomial regression is applied to an analysis of the Department of Public Safety (DPS) accident database to derive basic accident frequency as a function of route-dependent variables, while the effects of route-independent variables are modeled by fuzzy logic. The integrated methodology provides the basis for an overall transportation risk analysis, which can be used later to develop a decision support system.

  20. Facial trauma among victims of terrestrial transport accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio d'Avila; Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega Barbosa; Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino; Lorena Marques da Nóbrega; Patrícia Meira Bento; Efigênia Ferreira e Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In developing countries, terrestrial transport accidents - TTA, especially those involving automobiles and motorcycles - are a major cause of facial trauma, surpassing urban violence. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional census study attempted to determine facial trauma occurrence with terrestrial transport accidents etiology, involving cars, motorcycles, or accidents with pedestrians in the northeastern region of Brazil, and examine victims' socio-demographic characteri...