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Sample records for burundi

  1. Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Background notes and statistics on Burundi are provided in the document. 27,834 sq. km. of hilly terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1990 population of 5.5 million growing at the annual rate of 3.2%. The work force total 1.9 million. Burundi claims a population comprised of 3 ethnic groups, adhering to 4 religions, and speaking 3 different languages. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 40% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 111/1,000, while life expectancy is 51 years. 1988 GDP was $1 billion, and was shrinking at the rate of 0.18%. Per capita income was $203, while 1989 figures reported 7% inflation. Agriculture accounts for 60% of GNP, industry for 14%; 1988 international trade deficit totalled $72 million. Additional data are provided on Burundi's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. Per capita food production has stagnated or declined since the mid-1980s, and the country remains heavily dependent upon foreign aid. Coffee earnings typically provide up to 90% of Burundi's export earnings, 40% of which went toward external debt in 1989. Long-term economic strategy centers upon improving the quality of its coffee, while encouraging production of tea, cotton, and some manufactured goods.

  2. RETHINKING VIOLENCE, RECONCILIATION AND RECONSTRUCTION IN BURUNDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Ndimurwimo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Armed violence and genocide are among the on-going problems that are still facing contemporary Africa and the world. In the aftermath of the outrages, devastation and appalling carnage of the Second World War, member states of the United Nations (UN undertook radical steps, inter alia, "to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights". Subsequently, the International Bill of Human Rights was proclaimed in order to lay down international human rights norms and standards of conduct and to prevent the recurrence of mass killings. Although Burundi is a State Party to the UN and African Union and is a signatory to a number of international and regional human rights treaties, the post-colonial history of Burundi is an epic tale of indescribable human suffering and misery as a result of systematic mass killings. At least every family or household in Burundi has been negatively affected by the mass killings of the 1960s, 1972, 1988 and 1990s, which have created a significant number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs.This article traces the root causes of Burundi's systemic armed violence and argues that despite several UN Security Council Resolutions and peace agreements aimed at national reconciliation and reconstruction, mass killings and other heinous crimes remain unaddressed. The article recommends that a comprehensive transitional justice model is required in post-conflict Burundi in order to bring about national reconciliation, healing and reconstruction.

  3. Beyond the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Accord for Burundi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article examines the absence of peace and security in Burundi after the transitional period. It argues that though the Arusha Accord provided the medium through which Burundi could resolve its political and security impasse, it also failed to create a safe and convenient atmosphere for Burundians to independently ...

  4. Traditional justice in the reconciliation between Rwanda and Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Castel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of traditional justice in two post-conflicts in the Great Lakes region: those of Rwanda and Burundi. In Rwanda, the government, led by the Rwanda Patriotic Front (FPR, has modernised and shaped for its own interests the gacaca, who are responsible for seeking justice for the victims of the 1994 genocide. In Burundi, the government has yet not deployed all the transitional justice mechanisms as envisaged in the Arusha agreement. The bushingantahe (the rehabilitation of whom is also envisaged in the agreement have not yet been incorporated into transitional justice.

  5. Connecting Community Security and DDR: Experiences from Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.C.; Kleingeld, J.; van Leeuwen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The report is based on 10 weeks of field research in Burundi between April and June 2010, and looks at the linkages between community security and DDR. It opens with a discussion of local experiences with DDR programmes, analyzing the impact of its different components, and analyzing the local

  6. Recovering from conflict: An analysis of food production in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haese, D' M.F.C.; Speelman, S.; Vandamme, E.; Nkunzimana, T.; Ndimubandi, J.; Haese, D' L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the devastating food insecurity in two densely populated provinces in the north of Burundi as a result of overpopulation and low production capacity in the aftermath of conflict. We compare data that was collected in the Ngozi and Muyinga Province in 2007 with data of

  7. Decision-making and small business growth in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijdenberg, E.L.; Masurel, E.; Paas, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of decision-making, in terms of the effectuation and causation orientation of small business owners, on the growth of their small businesses in an uncertain environment: Burundi. On the basis of primary data from a pre-study of 29 expert interviews, a

  8. Strategies for Urbanization and Economic Competitiveness in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This report argues that urbanization brings significant opportunities for both rural and urban areas and that Burundi needs to prioritize issues of economic growth and job creation. Based on a diagnostic evaluation of the current urbanization and spatial growth, GDP, and job potential, the report highlights the importance of prioritizing policies and investments to address deficiencies in ...

  9. From Rebellion to Electoral Violence. Evidence from Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Colombo; Olivia D'Aoust; Olivier Sterck

    2014-01-01

    We aim at understanding the triggers of electoral violence, which spoiled 80% ofelections in Africa during the last decades. We focus on Burundi, a country wherepolls were organized in 2010, only few months after the end of a long-lasting civilwar. We find that an acute polarization between ex-rebels’ groups is highly conduciveto electoral violence. In particular, we predict a five-fold increase in electoralviolence between the lowest- and highest-polarized municipality. However, neitherethni...

  10. Geo-additive modelling of malaria in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebhardt Albrecht

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health issue in Burundi in terms of both morbidity and mortality, with around 2.5 million clinical cases and more than 15,000 deaths each year. It is still the single main cause of mortality in pregnant women and children below five years of age. Because of the severe health and economic burden of malaria, there is still a growing need for methods that will help to understand the influencing factors. Several studies/researches have been done on the subject yielding different results as which factors are most responsible for the increase in malaria transmission. This paper considers the modelling of the dependence of malaria cases on spatial determinants and climatic covariates including rainfall, temperature and humidity in Burundi. Methods The analysis carried out in this work exploits real monthly data collected in the area of Burundi over 12 years (1996-2007. Semi-parametric regression models are used. The spatial analysis is based on a geo-additive model using provinces as the geographic units of study. The spatial effect is split into structured (correlated and unstructured (uncorrelated components. Inference is fully Bayesian and uses Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. The effects of the continuous covariates are modelled by cubic p-splines with 20 equidistant knots and second order random walk penalty. For the spatially correlated effect, Markov random field prior is chosen. The spatially uncorrelated effects are assumed to be i.i.d. Gaussian. The effects of climatic covariates and the effects of other spatial determinants are estimated simultaneously in a unified regression framework. Results The results obtained from the proposed model suggest that although malaria incidence in a given month is strongly positively associated with the minimum temperature of the previous months, regional patterns of malaria that are related to factors other than climatic variables have been identified

  11. Malnutrition, Subsequent Risk of Mortality and Civil War in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Verwimp

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of child malnutrition on the risk of mortality in Burundi, a very poor country heavily affected by civil war. We use anthropometric data from a longitudinal survey (1998-2007). We find that undernourished children, as measured by the height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) in 1998 had a higher probability to die during subsequent years. In order to address the problem of omitted variables correlated with both nutritional status and the risk of mortality, we use the len...

  12. Ageism in Belgium and Burundi: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquet M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Manon Marquet, Pierre Missotten, Sarah Schroyen, Desiderate Nindaba, Stéphane Adam Psychology of Aging Unit, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium Background: Recent cross-cultural comparisons between Asian and Western cultures have shown that ageism arises more from the lack of availability of social and economic resources for older adults than from the culture itself. We tested this assumption by conducting a survey among people living in a least developed country compared with those living in a developed country.Participants and methods: Twenty-seven Belgians living in Belgium, 29 Burundians living in Belgium, and 32 Burundians living in Burundi were included in this study. Their attitudes toward older adults were assessed using several self-reported measures.Results: Statistical analyses confirmed that older people are more negatively perceived by Burundians living in Burundi than by Burundians and Belgians living in Belgium, whose attitudes did not differ from each other.Conclusion: Consistent with our hypothesis, our results suggest that the level of development of a country and more particularly the lack of government spending on older people (pension and health care systems may contribute to their younger counterparts perceiving them more negatively. Keywords: attitudes toward older adults, cross-cultural differences, socioeconomic development, intergenerational relations

  13. Soil fertility status and challenges in Burundi: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboneka, Salvator

    2015-04-01

    Landlocked and thousands miles away from international sea ports, Burundi is one of the poorest country in the world. 58% of the population suffers chronic malnutrition, 67% live in absolute poverty (MDG report 2012). 90% of the estimated 10 million people depends on subsistence agriculture, on about 3 million ha of cultivable land. The average size of a family farm is less than 0.5 ha which has to support a family of typically 7 people . As a consequence, fallow practices are no longer possible and continuous land cultivation leads to enormous soil losses by erosion. As much as 100-200 metric tons per hectare of soil losses have been reported on the hill sides of the Mumirwa region, whose landscape is currently so degraded that the local community now say that "stones grow" in the zone. In medium to high altitude areas, about 1 million of ha are acidic (pH poverty of the population is such that access to fertilizers and adoption of sustainable practices is very weak. We believe that the main challenge to soil productivity in Burundi is more socio-economic than technical, and farmers should be helped with simple tools that should be linked to their indigenous knowledge about soil fertility. Sustainable management of soil fertility is the key challenge for farmers to optimize a sustainable yield. Key words: micro nutrient, soil fertility, nutrient depletion, soil acidity.

  14. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Burundi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Burundi. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Burundi estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 300 to more than 4 100 tonnes of uranium. The potential is rather evenly distributed throughout the Proterozoic of Burundi in various geological environments (unconformity, hydrothermal, fault controlled, etc.). The mission recommends that over a period of five years U.S. $ 3 to 4.5 million be spent on exploration in Burundi, with even spending on the various exploration techniques as e.g. prospecting, drilling trenching, geophysical surveys, analyses, etc. (author)

  15. Undernutrition, subsequent risk of mortality and civil war in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwimp, Philip

    2012-07-01

    The paper investigates the effect of child undernutrition on the risk of mortality in Burundi. Using anthropometric data from a longitudinal survey (1998-2007) we find that undernourished children, measured by the height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) in 1998 had a higher probability to die during subsequent years. In order to address the problem of omitted variables correlated with both nutritional status and the risk of mortality, we use the length of exposure to civil war prior to 1998 as a source of exogenous variation in a child's nutritional status. Children exposed to civil war in their area of residence have worse nutritional status. The results indicate that one year of exposure translates into a 0.15 decrease in the HAZ, resulting in a 10% increase in the probability to die. For boys, we find a 0.34 decrease in HAZ per year of exposure, resulting in 25% increase in the probability to die. For girls, the results are statistically not significant at the usual thresholds. We show the robustness of our results and we derive policy conclusion for a nutrition intervention in times of conflict. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Er Danmark virkelig dårligere til ligestilling end Burundi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjørup, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Danmark ligger ifølge den årlige Gender Gap Report under Rwanda og Burundi I ligestiling. Men kan det nu have sin rigtighed, spørger Karen Sjørup? Nej svarer hun, men derfor kan regeringen godt tage sig sammen......Danmark ligger ifølge den årlige Gender Gap Report under Rwanda og Burundi I ligestiling. Men kan det nu have sin rigtighed, spørger Karen Sjørup? Nej svarer hun, men derfor kan regeringen godt tage sig sammen...

  17. Grievance, Commodity Prices and Rainfall: A Village-level Analysis of Rebel Recruitment in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nillesen, E.E.M.; Verwimp, P.

    2009-01-01

    Grievance and reduced opportunity costs are two popular ideas within the civil war literature to explain participation in violent rebellion. We test both hypotheses at the village-level using data on recruitment activities during the civil war in Burundi. We use historical data on violent attacks in

  18. Wages in the food chain in Burundi: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.; Ndereyahaga, R.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey of the labour force conducted between the 7th of April and the 29th of April 2013 in all provinces of Burundi. In total 1,679 persons were interviewed; 52% were men, 48% women and 43% were under 30 years of

  19. Conflict and the Evolution of Institutions: Unbundling Institutions at the Local Level in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, M.J.; Bulte, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of armed conflict may persist long after the end of war, and may include a lasting institutional legacy. We use a novel dataset from rural Burundi to examine the impact of local exposure to conflict on institutional quality, and try to ‘unbundle’ institutions by distinguishing between

  20. Conflict and the evolution of institutions: Unbundling institutions at the local level in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Maarten J.; Bulte, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    The impact of armed conflict may persist long after the end of war, and may include a lasting institutional legacy. We use a novel dataset from rural Burundi to examine the impact of local exposure to conflict on institutional quality, and try to ‘unbundle’ institutions by distinguishing between

  1. Efficacité de différentes surfaces de séchage pour poissons Stolothrissa tanganicae et Limnothrissa miodon au Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert, V.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of different drying areas for fishes Stolothrissa tanganicae and Limnothrissa miodon in Burundi. The length of conservation of the fish called Ndagala in Burundi is very short because of an inefficient drying. Several drying area have been tested. The best one is the road asphalt. After drying on this surface it is possible to keep the fish twice longer than with the systems that are already installed in Burundi.

  2. Access to artesunate-amodiaquine, quinine and other anti-malarials: policy and markets in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuasi, John H; Diap, Graciela; Blay-Nguah, Samuel; Boakye, Isaac; Karikari, Patrick E; Dismas, Baza; Karenzo, Jeanne; Nsabiyumva, Lievin; Louie, Karly S; Kiechel, Jean-René

    2011-02-10

    Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in post-conflict Burundi. To counter the increasing challenge of anti-malarial drug resistance and improve highly effective treatment Burundi adopted artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and oral quinine as second-line treatment in its national treatment policy in 2003. Uptake of this policy in the public, private and non-governmental (NGO) retail market sectors of Burundi is relatively unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate access to national policy recommended anti-malarials. Adapting a standardized methodology developed by Health Action International/World Health Organization (HAI/WHO), a cross-sectional survey of 70 (24 public, 36 private, and 10 NGO) medicine outlets was conducted in three regions of Burundi, representing different levels of transmission of malaria. The availability on day of the survey, the median prices, and affordability (in terms of number of days' wages to purchase treatment) of AS-AQ, quinine and other anti-malarials were calculated. Anti-malarials were stocked in all outlets surveyed. AS-AQ was available in 87.5%, 33.3%, and 90% of public, private, and NGO retail outlets, respectively. Quinine was the most common anti-malarial found in all outlet types. Non-policy recommended anti-malarials were mainly found in the private outlets (38.9%) compared to public (4.2%) and NGO (0%) outlets. The median price of a course of AS-AQ was US$0.16 (200 Burundi Francs, FBu) for the public and NGO markets, and 3.5-fold higher in the private sector (US$0.56 or 700 FBu). Quinine tablets were similarly priced in the public (US$1.53 or 1,892.50 FBu), private and NGO sectors (both US$1.61 or 2,000 FBu). Non-policy anti-malarials were priced 50-fold higher than the price of AS-AQ in the public sector. A course of AS-AQ was affordable at 0.4 of a day's wage in the public and NGO sectors, whereas, it was equivalent to 1.5 days worth

  3. (Unglobalising civil society: the cases of women’s rights in Burundi and Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martín de Almagro Iniesta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution of the internal battles between activists in the transnational campaign for the implementa­tion of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security and subse­quent resolutions from a poststructuralist per­spective. Based on extensive fieldwork, the article attempts to answer the question of how international activists participating in a transnational campaign affect local women’s rights campaigns in two post-conflict states: Burundi and Liberia. Or rather, why was the transnational campaign for the Resolution 1325 in Burundi considered a failure while the same campaign in Liberia was deemed a success by the international community?

  4. Evaluation of a social marketing intervention promoting oral rehydration salts in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassegne, Sethson; Kays, Megan B; Nzohabonayo, Jerome

    2011-03-08

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death for children under five in Burundi; however, use of oral rehydration salts (ORS), the recommended first-line treatment, remains low. In 2004, PSI/Burundi launched a social marketing intervention to promote ORASEL among caregivers of children under five; the product was relaunched in 2006 with a new flavor. This study evaluates the intervention after the ORASEL relaunch, which included mass media and interpersonal communication activities. The study looks at trends in ORASEL use in Burundi and in behavioral determinants that may be related to its use. In 2006 and 2007, PSI conducted household surveys among Burundian females of reproductive age (15-49). Both surveys used a two-stage sampling process to select 30 households in each of 115 rural and urban collines throughout the nation. Survey respondents were asked about diarrhea treatment-related behavior; key behavioral determinants; and exposure to the ORASEL intervention. Data were analyzed to identify trends over time, characteristics of ORASEL users, and associations between exposure to the intervention and changes in ORASEL use and related behavioral determinants. ORASEL use among caregivers at their children's last diarrheal episode increased significantly from 20% in 2006 to 30% in 2007, and there were also desirable changes in several behavioral determinants associated with ORASEL use. Evaluation analysis showed that a higher level of exposure to the social marketing campaign was associated with greater use of ORASEL and with significant improvements in perceived availability, knowledge of the signs of diarrhea and dehydration, social support, and self-efficacy. ORS use can be improved through social marketing and educational campaigns that make the public aware of the availability of the product, encourage dialogue about its use, and increase skills and confidence relating to correct product preparation and administration. Further interventions in Burundi and

  5. Achieving the Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality in rural Africa: an experience from Burundi.

    OpenAIRE

    Tayler-Smith, K; Zachariah, R; Manzi, M; Van den Boogaard, W; Nyandwi, G; Reid, T; Van den Bergh, R; De Plecker, E; Lambert, V; Nicolai, M; Goetghebuer, S; Christaens, B; Ndelema, B; Kabangu, A; Manirampa, J

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the reduction in maternal mortality associated with the emergency obstetric care provided by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and to compare this to the fifth Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality. METHODS: The impact of MSF's intervention was approximated by estimating how many deaths were averted among women transferred to and treated at MSF's emergency obstetric care facility in Kabezi, Burundi, with a severe acute maternal morbidity. Using this e...

  6. “We Have No Influence”: International Discourse and the Instrumentalisation of Transitional Justice in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burundi may soon reach yet another crossroads in its tumultuous history and on its path towards transitional justice. A contentious draft law for a Truth and Reconciliation Commission awaits approval by the country’s National Assembly, which has raised a number of concerns about the independence of the eventual commission, the likelihood of popular participation in the process and the prospects for criminal justice. But as this practice note seeks to demonstrate, the international community in Burundi may in fact be contributing to the instrumentalisation of the process. The note highlights how the discourse of the international community may partially facilitate a certain duplicity among influential figures within the current government, particularly with respect to compliance with stipulations under the 2000 Arusha Peace Agreement. Two common rationalisations in particular are explained that have seemingly emerged among the international community with respect to transitional justice and that are at the heart of this instrumentalisation: outside imposition and a lack of influence. The note argues that since transitional justice can no longer be regarded as an apolitical process, international actors must be more cognisant of their actions and discourse with a view to ensuring credible transitional justice processes in contexts like Burundi.

  7. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhagaze, Patrick; Njuguna, Kahaki Kimani Margaret; Kandeke, Lévi; Courtright, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2%) were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%), followed by lens pathology (18.3%), uveal lesions (14.7%) and optic nerve lesions (11.9%). In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%). More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.

  8. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission report: Republic of Burundi. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrisch, W.; Chaigne, M.

    1983-06-01

    The basic objective of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation project lUREP is to 'Review the present body of knowledge pertinent to the existence of uranium resources, to review and evaluate the potential for the discovery of additional uranium resources and to suggest new exploration efforts which might be carried out in promising areas in collaboration with the countries concerned'. Therefore, the scope of the IUREP orientation phase Mission to Burundi was to review all data on past exploration in Burundi, to develop a better understanding of the uranium potential of the country, to make an estimate of the speculative resources of the country, to make recommendation as appropriate on the best methods or techniques for evaluating the resources in the favourable areas and for estimating possible costs as well, to compile a report which could be immediately available to the Burundian authorities. This mission gives a general introduction, a geological review of Burundi, information on non-uranium mining in Burundi, the history of uranium exploration, occurrences of uranium IUREP mission field reconnaissance, favourable areas for speculative potential, the uranium resources position and recommendations for future exploration. Conclusions are the following. The IUREP Orientation -phase mission to Burundi believes that the Speculative Resources of that country fall b etween 300 and 4100 tons uranium oxide but a less speculative appraisal is more likely between 0 and 1000 tons. There has been no uranium production and no official estimates of Uranium Resources in Burundi. Past exploration mainly dating from 1969 onwards and led the UNDP Mineral project has indicated a limited number of uranium occurrences and anomalies. The speculative uranium resources are thought to be possibly associated with potential unconformity related vein-like deposits of the Lower Burundian. Other speculative uranium resources could be associated with granitic or peribatholitic

  9. Leadership and Innovation-Listening to and Learning From Young People in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nininahazwe, Cédric; Alesi, Jacquelyne; Caswell, Georgina; Lumumba, Musah; Mellin, Julie; Ndayizeye, Nicholas-Monalisa; Orza, Luisa; Rahimi, Michaela; Westerhof, Nienke

    2017-02-01

    This commentary describes young people's leadership from the perspective of a youth-led organization in the Link Up project in Burundi, Réseau National des Jeunes vivant avec le VIH. It describes processes that enable young people to guide, influence, deliver, and improve health service provision; the challenges faced by Réseau National des Jeunes vivant avec le VIH and how they are addressing these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of a social marketing intervention promoting oral rehydration salts in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nzohabonayo Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death for children under five in Burundi; however, use of oral rehydration salts (ORS, the recommended first-line treatment, remains low. In 2004, PSI/Burundi launched a social marketing intervention to promote ORASEL among caregivers of children under five; the product was relaunched in 2006 with a new flavor. This study evaluates the intervention after the ORASEL relaunch, which included mass media and interpersonal communication activities. The study looks at trends in ORASEL use in Burundi and in behavioral determinants that may be related to its use. Methods In 2006 and 2007, PSI conducted household surveys among Burundian females of reproductive age (15-49. Both surveys used a two-stage sampling process to select 30 households in each of 115 rural and urban collines throughout the nation. Survey respondents were asked about diarrhea treatment-related behavior; key behavioral determinants; and exposure to the ORASEL intervention. Data were analyzed to identify trends over time, characteristics of ORASEL users, and associations between exposure to the intervention and changes in ORASEL use and related behavioral determinants. Results ORASEL use among caregivers at their children's last diarrheal episode increased significantly from 20% in 2006 to 30% in 2007, and there were also desirable changes in several behavioral determinants associated with ORASEL use. Evaluation analysis showed that a higher level of exposure to the social marketing campaign was associated with greater use of ORASEL and with significant improvements in perceived availability, knowledge of the signs of diarrhea and dehydration, social support, and self-efficacy. Conclusions ORS use can be improved through social marketing and educational campaigns that make the public aware of the availability of the product, encourage dialogue about its use, and increase skills and confidence relating to correct product

  11. Legal Loopholes and the Politics of Executive Term Limits: Insights from Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Vandeginste

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nomination of incumbent Pierre Nkurunziza to stand again for president in the 2015 national elections triggered a political and security crisis in Burundi. A crucial element in the controversy around his third term was the legality of his candidacy. This paper analyses how domestic and international actors responded to the legal loopholes that characterised Burundi’s term-limit legislation. Three responses are distinguished. First, quite paradoxically, an argument was put forward by third-term supporters that stressed constitutional legality, a value usually invoked by third-term opponents. Second, a peace agreement was referred to as a source of legitimacy and as a legal norm. Third, a Constitutional Court ruling was invoked to address the legal loophole. Despite the apparent irrelevance of legal norms in an increasingly authoritarian environment, law significantly shaped the dynamics of the third-term debate and of the wider crisis. The Burundi case also illustrates the limitations of constitutional engineering of democratic governance.

  12. Les Comités mixtes de sécurité humaine (CMSH) au Burundi : un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a socio-criminological approach, we illustrate the normative context of this security regime, highlight its political appropriation and propose ways to improve it based on the challenges identified. Keywords: Burundi, National Police, Joint Human Security Committees, Security Regime, Socio-criminological Approach ...

  13. Borderlands of mental health: Explorations in medical anthropology, psychiatric epidemiology and health systems research in Afghanistan and Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventevogel, P.

    2016-01-01

    Many areas of the globe today face continuous armed conflict, with more and more populations caught in the crossfire. This has been true in both Afghanistan and Burundi where populations have to cope with the psychological and social effects of ongoing collective violence. While living and working

  14. Les Comités mixtes de sécurité humaine (CMSH) au Burundi : un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the political regime in place to find an explanatory framework for its abuses. As part of ... Pour rappel, le Burundi vit, depuis son indépendance en juillet 1962, des ... La mise en place des comités mixtes de sécurité en tant que nouveau régime.

  15. SOTER-based soil parameter estimates for Central Africa - DR of Congo, Burundi and Rwanda (ver. 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    This harmonized set of soil parameter estimates for Central Africa, comprising Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, was derived from the Soil and Terrain Database for Central Africa (SOTERCAF ver. 1.0) and the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database, using standardized taxonomy-based

  16. Les Comités mixtes de sécurité humaine (CMSH) au Burundi : un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La police nationale du Burundi mise en place en 2004 a opté pour une philosophie de .... L'approche consociative privilégiée dans la mise en œuvre de l'accord et surtout dans la mise en ..... des enchevêtrements dans les prises de décision.

  17. Etat actuel des recherches sur la flore et la végétation du Rwanda et du Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reeksman

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available THE PRESENT STATE OF RESEARCH ON THE FLORA AND VEGETATION OF RWANDA ANDBURUNDI At the end of the last century, many explorers, mainly Germans, travelled in Burundi searching for the famous sources of the Nile and the legendary ‘Mountains of the Moon. ’ Apart from the very often accurate descriptions of the vegetation and flora they encountered, one is indebted to them for the rich harvest of specimens collected, many of which were destroyed in the bombing of Berlin in 1944-1945. When, in 1919, Burundi was placed under Belgian mandate, Belgian botanists took over the work and collected numerous specimens in the country. Their expeditions were organized from Zaire and were often of short duration, with the result that in 1965 there was still no systematic exploration of the country and in 1964 AETFAT classified Burundi as one of the lesser known areas in Africa. Systematic exploration of the country began in 1965 with J. Lewalle. Apart from the publication of an excellent work on the stratification of the vegetation, he collected more than 6 500 numbers of herbarium specimens, several of which represented new species. He worked in Burundi until 1972. From 1970 to 1980, Reekmans collected more than 9 500 specimens for the herbarium, mainly in the areas that were not intensively explored previously. He has published several works in connection with the phenology o f species and vegetation association of western Burundi. Many botanists invited by Lewalle and Reekmans, have had the opportunity to explore the country and to collect specimens of special groups. At present, it can be said that, except for a very small area of the country (otherwise well known in Rwanda where several studies have been made the flora of Burundi is now well known. Phytogeographical limits are well established and the publication of a vegetation map is due in the near future. A catalogue of the country’s flora is also to be published shortly. Apart from these

  18. Postavení Rwandy a Burundi v mezinárodních vztazích od 90. let 20. století

    OpenAIRE

    Špundová, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    Rwanda and Burundi are two countries that, in the beginning of 1990s, attracted attention of the whole international community. The genocide in Rwanda, the civil war in Burundi, and the following spill-over of conflict to neighbouring countries caused hundreds upon thousands of deaths and hundreds upon thousands of refugees. This work compares the internal development of these countries and their influence on other countries in Great Lake Region.

  19. The Eye of the Beholder: Service Provision and State Legitimacy in Burundi

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    Nora Stel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available State legitimacy – particularly its alleged potential to counter state fragility – has received increasing attention in academic and policy literature concerned with African development. Service provision can substantially influence such state legitimacy. Services, however, are mostly provided by a multiplicity of (state and non-state providers. This article therefore specifically explores how joint service delivery by multiple providers shapes the attribution of state legitimacy in Burundi by means of two qualitative case studies. Empirically, the article demonstrates, first, that the process of stakeholder interaction, rather than the output of this process, most distinctly shapes state legitimacy and, second, that there are substantial variations in legitimacy attribution by different stakeholders and for different state institutions. Epistemologically, the article suggests three specific challenges that merit attention in further empirical investigation of state legitimacy in fragile settings: the diversity of people’s expectations; the artificiality of state/non-state distinctions; and the personification and politicization of state institutions.

  20. Comportement de Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. Sw. dans la basse Ruzizi et le Mosso (Burundi

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    Vancoppenolle, R.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl Sw in lower Ruzizi and Mosso (Burundi. This paper describes the requirements of Stylosanthes guianensis in two ecological regions : Mosso (1 280 m alt. and lower Ruzizi (800 m alt.. This legume was introduced in 1953 into the grasslands of the east and in 1970 into lower Ruzizi, with the aim of improving the value of the natural pastures using leguminous plants. At Mosso, soil and climatic conditions were favourable for Stylosanthes and it grew well. However, since 1981. Anthracnose has severely reduced its growth and until a solution is found its general introduction will not be possible. In lower Ruzizi plant development was limited by low rainfall (670, 4 mm per year and soils with a low water retention capacity (sand dunes. For this region, it is necessary to identify cultivars resistant to drought and devise a method of establishing these cultivars on sand dunes.

  1. Sociopolitical analysis of the role of mediating of international organizations in conflicts at Burundi and Uganda

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    Alexandre Cesar Cunha Leite

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the effectiveness of the mediator role of the United Nations and the African Union on conflict resolution in the cases of Burundi and Uganda. The argument is that this mediating role influenced considerably in the negotiations since it realized a ceasefire in hostilities between the warring parties and the establishment of more significant agreements on pending issues. For this discussion, we attempted to describe the processes of successful mediation in recent decades in Africa, based on the cases as mentioned above, whose similar methods of resolution could achieve positive results. Finally, we evaluated the effectiveness of UN mediator in the field of maintenance and promotion of peace, emphasizing their strategies on reducing violence on the ground and in the protection of civilians.

  2. Emergency obstetric care in a rural district of Burundi: What are the surgical needs?

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    E De Plecker

    Full Text Available In a rural district hospital in Burundi offering Emergency Obstetric care-(EmOC, we assessed the a characteristics of women at risk of, or with an obstetric complication and their types b the number and type of obstetric surgical procedures and anaesthesia performed c human resource cadres who performed surgery and anaesthesia and d hospital exit outcomes.A retrospective analysis of EmOC data (2011 and 2012.A total of 6084 women were referred for EmOC of whom 2534(42% underwent a major surgical procedure while 1345(22% required a minor procedure (36% women did not require any surgical procedure. All cases with uterine rupture(73 and extra-uterine pregnancy(10 and the majority with pre-uterine rupture and foetal distress required major surgery. The two most prevalent conditions requiring a minor surgical procedure were abortions (61% and normal delivery (34%. A total of 2544 major procedures were performed on 2534 admitted individuals. Of these, 1650(65% required spinal and 578(23% required general anaesthesia; 2341(92% procedures were performed by 'general practitioners with surgical skills' and in 2451(96% cases, anaesthesia was provided by nurses. Of 2534 hospital admissions related to major procedures, 2467(97% were discharged, 21(0.8% were referred to tertiary care and 2(0.1% died.Overall, the obstetric surgical volume in rural Burundi is high with nearly six out of ten referrals requiring surgical intervention. Nonetheless, good quality care could be achieved by trained, non-specialist staff. The post-2015 development agenda needs to take this into consideration if it is to make progress towards reducing maternal mortality in Africa.

  3. La spécialisation régionale, moteur du cycle de développement au Burundi

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    Bergen, DW.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional specialization, a face behind the development of Burundi. The isolation of Burundi, its lack of natural resources and its high demografic pressure force the country to maximise the output of the arable land available while considering regional potentials. A well-planned regional specialization seems therefore necessary. In this paper, the significance and the purpose of regional specialization was assessed. Possible conditions for the introduction of the system were analyzed and an attempt was made to assess the potential of different agricultural production schemes as subjects for regional agricultural specialization. As a consequence of regional specialization, increased complementary production among regions (Le. increased dissimilarity among them should stimulate exchange (i. e. commercial activity offering readier usage of money in the rural environment. In these circumstances regional specialization might induce development for which commercializing of agricultural products seems essential and mandatory. Regional specialization however should coincide with regional agricultural specialization at its tranformation level.

  4. Identifying behavioural determinants for interventions to increase handwashing practices among primary school children in rural Burundi and urban Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Slekiene, Jurgita; Friedrich, Max N D; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2017-07-14

    This article presents the development of a school handwashing programme in two different sub-Saharan countries that applies the RANAS (risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation) systematic approach to behaviour change. Interviews were conducted with 669 children enrolled in 20 primary schools in Burundi and 524 children in 20 primary schools in Zimbabwe. Regression analyses were used to assess the influence of the RANAS behavioural determinants on reported handwashing frequencies. The results revealed that, in both countries, a programme targeting social norms and self-efficacy would be most effective. In Burundi, raising the children's perceived severity of the consequences of contracting diarrhoea, and in Zimbabwe, increasing the children's health knowledge should be part of the programme. The school handwashing programme should create awareness of the benefits of handwashing through educational activities, raise the children's ability and confidence in washing hands at school through infrastructural improvements, and highlight the normality of washing hands at school through events and poster creation.

  5. Maternal and reproductive health financing in Burundi: public-sector contribution levels and trends from 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont, Claire; Muhorane, Carmen; Moreira-Burgos, Isabelle; Juma, Ndereye; Avila-Burgos, Leticia

    2015-10-01

    An understanding of public financial flows to reproductive health (RH) at the country level is key to assessing the extent to which they correspond to political commitments. This is especially relevant for low-income countries facing important challenges in the area of RH. To this end, the present study analyzes public expenditure levels and trends with regards to RH in Burundi between the years 2010 to 2012, looking specifically at financing agents, health providers, and health functions. The analysis was performed using standard RH sub-account methodology. Information regarding public expenditures was gathered from national budgets, the Burundi Ministry of Public Health information system, and from other relevant public institutions. Public RH expenditures in Burundi accounted for $41.163 million international dollars in 2012, which represents an increase of 16 % from 2010. In 2012, this sum represented 0.57 % of the national GDP. The share of total public health spending allocated to RH increased from 15 % in 2010 to 19 % in 2012. In terms of public agents involved in RH financing, the Ministry of Public Health proved to play the most important role. Half of all public RH spending went to primary health care clinics, while more than 70 % of this money was used for maternal health; average public RH spending per woman of childbearing age stagnated during the study period. The flow patterns and levels of public funds to RH in Burundi suggest that RH funding correctly reflects governmental priorities for the period between 2010 and 2012. In a context of general shrinking donor commitment, local governments have come to play a key role in ensuring the efficient use of available resources and the mobilizing of additional domestic funding. A strong and transparent financial tracking system is key to carrying out this role and making progress towards the MDG Goals and development beyond 2015.

  6. Understanding low uptake of contraceptives in resource-limited settings: a mixed-methods study in rural Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndayizigiye, M; Fawzi, M C Smith; Lively, C Thompson; Ware, N C

    2017-03-15

    Family planning can reduce deaths, improve health, and facilitate economic development in resource-limited settings. Yet, modern contraceptive methods are often underused. This mixed-methods study, conducted in rural Burundi, sought to explain low uptake of contraceptives by identifying utilization barriers. Results may inform development of family planning interventions in Burundi and elsewhere. We investigated uptake of contraceptives among women of reproductive age in two rural districts of Burundi, using an explanatory sequential, mixed-methods research design. We first assessed availability and utilization rates of modern contraceptives through a facility-based survey in 39 health clinics. Barriers to uptake of contraceptives were then explored through qualitative interviews (N = 10) and focus groups (N = 7). Contraceptives were generally available in the 39 clinics studied, yet uptake of family planning averaged only 2.96%. Greater uptake was positively associated with the number of health professionals engaged and trained in family planning service provision, and with the number of different types of contraceptives available. Four uptake barriers were identified: (1) lack of providers to administer contraception, (2) lack of fit between available and preferred contraceptive methods, (3) a climate of fear surrounding contraceptive use, and (4) provider refusal to offer family planning services. Where resources are scarce, availability of modern contraceptives alone will likely not ensure uptake. Interventions addressing multiple uptake barriers simultaneously have the greatest chance of success. In rural Burundi, examples are community distribution of contraceptive methods, public information campaigns, improved training for health professionals and community health workers, and strengthening of the health infrastructure.

  7. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies.Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we ...

  8. Pépiniéristes privés au Burundi, vers une professionnalisation possible de la foresterie

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    Gasc, C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Private Sector Nursery Owners in Burundi, towards the Professionalization of Forestry. Burundi, a small country of the African Great Lakes Region, has a demographic increase which results in one of the highest population densities on the continent. Problems of deforestation and of firewood and timber scarcity are added to the well know degradation associated with soil erosion. Aware of this new problem, Burundi government stated a national forest project in 1979. During ten years, plants necessary for reforestation have been produced by state-owned nurseries controlled entirely by the forestry project. Currently in inter phase since 1990, the forestry project is faced with an important choice : what system of production to choose : private or project nurseries ? The analysis of each system has permitted to conclude in favour of the maintenance of a system of private production. To stimulate the development of the profession and to progressively decrease its dependence on the forest project, this analysis proposes answers to questions raised, insisting particularly on the significance of monitoring and on the choice of training methods.

  9. [Government policies and actions in Burundi in the area of rural development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mworoha, E

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses policies and actions designed by the government of Burundi to assure food self-sufficiency and to improve living conditions in rural areas. Burundi has had a long history of food self-sufficiency due to good soils, adequate rainfall, and hard work by the rural population. In the past 3 decades, however, the food supply has been threatened by various factors including soil erosion and rapid population increase. The government has undertaken a reforestation program which covered 51,050 hectares in the past 7 years with plans to cover 20% of the national territory by the year 2000. Work has also been done to contain rivers within their courses and to popularize antierosion techniques such as terracing and proper use of pastures. Partly because the population is growing at a rate of 2.7% per year, the average plot available per household is estimated at only 1.3 hectare, rendering efforts to improve productivity imperative. The high cost of chemical fertilizers has forced reliance on compost, and some 6 million compost heaps are now in existence. Agropastoral integration projects are seeking to improve yields through better combinations of livestock and land use. Research to improve the seed supply has already resulted in improved strains of rice, maize, wheat, kidney beans, manioc, sweet potatoes, cotton, tea and coffee. Regional seed production centers are planned to facilitate distribution and adaptation of seeds to each ecological zone. Research is underway to identify appropriate new crops and to extend the ranges of existing crops. To encourage participation of the rural population in agricultural improvement efforts, the government is financing schools and institutions which will train local level agricultural promoters and extension agents. Local governments at all levels, regional development societies, cooperatives and other structures are also being organized to assist farmers. In order to restructure and modernize the rural

  10. Fostering food security in areas of extreme poverty through Integrated Farm Management: the case of Burundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Aad; van Duivenbooden, Niek; van Beek, Christy

    2014-05-01

    Extreme poverty in Burundi's rural area and tensions between families with limited access to arable land hinder development towards a more stable and peaceful society. Due to these tensions and a rapid population growth, agricultural land is currently subject to increased degradation and low agricultural productivity. A whole range of other limiting factors contributes to this, such as: poor seed quality, poor nutrient management combined with low soil fertility, inadequate agronomic practices, pests and crop diseases, poorly developed supply chains, health problems, difficult access to credit, and insecurity. Solving one of these problems will not solve the chain that eventually leads to low food production; it will simply move the emphasis to the next constraining factor. An integrated rural development approach is therefore required to break this vicious circle. The project Fanning the Spark, a Public-Private-Partnership between Achmea Foundation, Alterra of Wageningen University and Research Centre, and HealthNet-TPO in Burundi started in September 2013 with an intervention in several rural villages in Gitega. The project's objective is to increase food production at village level, by means of investments in crop production, a family (income) insurance package that protects rural families against the financial consequences of catastrophic events (natural and health) and making micro-credits available. This will enhance farmers' workability and generate income from agricultural activities in order to break the poverty cycle and enhance food security. The insurance package comprises agricultural and health insurances, and will be jointly implemented with the sustainable agriculture component. The latter component focuses on Integrated Farm Management and the use of innovative soil management practices. Farmer-to-farmer training and scaling-up are crucial components, and in the first phase of the project "innovative farmer groups" have a central role in the

  11. Introduction of performance-based financing in burundi was associated with improvements in care and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfrer, Igna; Soeters, Robert; Van de Poel, Ellen; Basenya, Olivier; Longin, Gashubije; van de Looij, Frank; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2014-12-01

    Several governments in low- and middle-income countries have adopted performance-based financing to increase health care use and improve the quality of health services. We evaluated the effects of performance-based financing in the central African nation of Burundi by exploiting the staggered rollout of this financing across provinces during 2006-10. We found that performance-based financing increased the share of women delivering their babies in an institution by 22 percentage points, which reflects a relative increase of 36 percent, and the share of women using modern family planning services by 5 percentage points, a relative change of 55 percent. The overall quality score for health care facilities increased by 45 percent during the study period, but performance-based financing was found to have no effect on the quality of care as reported by patients. We did not find strong evidence of differential effects of performance-based financing across socioeconomic groups. The performance-based financing effects on the probability of using care when ill were found to be even smaller for the poor. Our findings suggest that a supply-side intervention such as performance-based financing without accompanying access incentives for poor people is unlikely to improve equity. More research into the cost-effectiveness of performance-based financing and how best to target vulnerable populations is warranted. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Medicines informal market in Congo, Burundi and Angola: counterfeit and sub-standard antimalarials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertocchi Paola

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of counterfeits and sub-standards in African medicines market is a dramatic problem that causes many deaths each year. The increase of the phenomenon of pharmaceutical counterfeiting is due to the rise of the illegal market and to the impossibility to purchase branded high cost medicines. Methods In this paper the results of a quality control on antimalarial tablet samples purchased in the informal market in Congo, Burundi and Angola are reported. The quality control consisted in the assay of active substance by means of validated liquid chromatographic methods, uniformity of mass determination, disintegration and dissolution tests. Moreover, a general evaluation on label and packaging characteristics was performed. Results The results obtained on thirty antimalarial tablet samples containing chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine showed the presence of different kinds of problems: a general problem concerning the packaging (loose tablets, packaging without Producer name, Producer Country and sometimes without expiry date; low content of active substance (in one sample; different, non-declared, active substance (in one sample; sub-standard technological properties and very low dissolution profiles (in about 50% of samples. This last property could affect the bioavailability and bioequivalence in comparison with branded products and could be related to the use of different excipients in formulation or bad storage conditions. Conclusion This paper evidences that the most common quality problem in the analysed samples appears to be the low dissolution profile. Here it is remarked that the presence of the right active substance in the right quantity is not a sufficient condition for a good quality drug. Dissolution test is not less important in a quality control and often evidences in vitro possible differences in therapeutic efficacy among drugs with the same active content. Dissolution

  13. Financial access to health care in Karuzi, Burundi: a household-survey based performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Evans, Sophie; Ponsar, Frederique; Reid, Tony; Bachy, Catherine; Van Herp, Michel; Philips, Mit

    2009-10-24

    In 2003, Médecins Sans Frontières, the provincial government, and the provincial health authority began a community project to guarantee financial access to primary health care in Karuzi province, Burundi. The project used a community-based assessment to provide exemption cards for indigent households and a reduced flat fee for consultations for all other households. An evaluation was carried out in 2005 to assess the impact of this project. Primary data collection was through a cross-sectional household survey of the catchment areas of 10 public health centres. A questionnaire was used to determine the accuracy of the community-identification method, households' access to health care, and costs of care. Household socioeconomic status was determined by reported expenditures and access to land. Financial access to care at the nearest health centre was ensured for 70% of the population. Of the remaining 30%, half experienced financial barriers to access and the other half chose alternative sites of care. The community-based assessment increased the number of people of the population who qualified for fee exemptions to 8.6% but many people who met the indigent criteria did not receive a card. Eighty-eight percent of the population lived under the poverty threshold. Referring to the last sickness episode, 87% of households reported having no money available and 25% risked further impoverishment because of healthcare costs even with the financial support system in place. The flat fee policy was found to reduce cost barriers for some households but, given the generalized poverty in the area, the fee still posed a significant financial burden. This report showed the limits of a programme of fee exemption for indigent households and a flat fee for others in a context of widespread poverty.

  14. Nurses’ Roles and Experiences with Enhancing Adherence to Tuberculosis Treatment among Patients in Burundi: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Carlsson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In TB control, poor treatment adherence is a major cause of relapse and drug resistance. Nurses have a critical role in supporting patients in TB treatment process. Yet, very little research has been done to inform policymakers and practitioners on nurses’ experiences of treatment adherence among patients with TB. Aim. To describe nurses’ experiences of supporting treatment adherence among patients with tuberculosis in Burundi. Method. The study adopted qualitative approach with a descriptive design. A purposive sampling was performed. Eight nurses were selected from two TB treatment centers in Burundi. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Result. According to the nurses, most patients complete their treatment. Educating patients, providing the medication, observing and following up treatment, and communicating with the patients were the key tasks by nurses to support adherence. Causes for interruption were medication-related difficulties, poverty, and patients’ indiscipline. Treatment adherence could also be affected by patients’ and nurses’ feelings. Providing transportation and meals could enhance treatment compliance. Conclusion. Nurses are critical resources to TB treatment success. In a poverty stricken setting, nurses’ work could be facilitated and adherence further could be enhanced if socioeconomic problems (transportation and nutritional support were alleviated.

  15. L'interconnexion entre la sécurité des communautés et les programmes de DDR: Un étude de terrain au Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.C.; Kleingeld, J.; van Leeuwen, M

    2010-01-01

    The report is based on 10 weeks of field research in Burundi between April and June 2010, and looks at the linkages between community security and DDR. It opens with a discussion of local experiences with DDR programmes, analyzing the impact of its different components, and analyzing the local

  16. Recalibrating Baseline Evidence in Burundi, Malawi, Senegal and Uganda: Exploring the Potential of Multi-Site, National-Level Stakeholder Engagement in Participatory Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Karen; Marphatia, Akanksha A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper details our collaborative work on the Improving Learning Outcomes in Primary Schools (ILOPS) project in Burundi, Malawi, Uganda and Senegal. ILOPS set out to establish an innovative template for multi-stakeholder, multinational participatory evaluation (PE) and examine the fundamental roles, relationships and evidence that underpin the…

  17. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  18. Equipping the poorest of the poor to become agents of community transformation: A case study of milk as a catalyst in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. van Aarde

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Community transformation has cultural, political and religious dimensions. In the case of Burundi, it is ranked 188/188 on the scale of the world’s poorest countries. The poor in Burundi have a fatalistic attitude towards poverty as a result of the unstable political climate, corruption and a climate of suspicion. The poor are cynical and have no hopeful future expectations. The resourcefulness of the poor having been muted. The Christian church of Burundi has developed a culture of dependency. The role of the church in the West has been limited to lifting the poor out of abject poverty. A creative use of available resources and the participation of the poor through the recognition of their own resourcefulness and stewardship is a sustainable approach to the alleviation of poverty. Newfrontiers churches have developed the approach of equipping the poor as a mission’s strategy to participate in the missio Dei. The majority of churches and non-governmental organisations who endeavour to alleviate poverty in Burundi have, what can be termed, a ‘dependency virus’ or ‘dependency crisis’ and are victims caught in the ‘dependency trap’, that is, they create a culture of dependency through their provision. The loss of dignity that follows, transform the community into a slave of the beneficiary system in which poverty is conceived as a lack of things rather than a mind-set born from help given by the beneficiary without the consent of the poor.

  19. Using organic matter to increase soil fertility in Burundi: potentials and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboneka, Salvator

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture production in Burundi is dominated by small scale farmers (0.5 ha/household) who have only very limited access to mineral inputs. In the past, farmers have relied on fallow practices combined with farm yard manures to maintain and improve soil fertility. However, due to the high population growth and high population density (370/km²), fallow practices are nowadays no longer feasible, animal manures cannot be produced in sufficient quantities to maintain soil productivity and food insecurity has become a quasi permanent reality. Most Burundian soils are characterized by 1:1 types of clay minerals (kaolinite) and are acidic in nature. Such soils are of very low cation exchange capacity (CEC). To compare the effect of % clays and % organic matter (% C), correlations tests have been conducted between the two parameters and the CEC. It was found that in high altitude kaolinitic and acidic soils, CEC was highly correlated to % C and less correlated to % clay, suggesting that organic matter could play an important role in improving fertility and productivity of these soils. Based on these findings, additional studies have been conducted to evaluate the fertilizer and soil amendment values of animal manures (cattle, goat, chicken), and leguminous (Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Senna simea, Senna spectabilis) and non-leguminous (Tithonia diversifolia) foliar biomass. It was observed that chicken manure significantly reduces Al3+ levels in acidic soils, while Tithonia diversifolia outperforms in nutrient releases compared to the commonly known leguminous agroforestry shrubs and trees indicated above. Although the above mentioned organic sources can contribute to the soil nutrients supply, the quantities potentially available on farm are generally small. The only solution is to supplement these organic sources with other organic sources (compost, organic household waste), chemical fertilizers and mineral amendments (lime) to achieve Integrated Soil

  20. Effect of organic and inorganic supply on Al detoxification and sorghum crop yield in ferralitic soils from Burundi

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    Van den Berghe, C.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology has been tested to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of organic fertilizers in combination or not with chemical fertilizers and lime on a ferralitic soil in Burundi. The experiments have shown that the samples obtained by weighing the mixed organic matter with water to obtain a paste are representative and the method by comparison of the regression coefficients after linear transformation of the response curve can also be applied on organic sources, when freshly applied. There were no significant differences at the 5 % level at 1 or 3 months between the sources for dry matter production of sorghum with and without fertilizer. Only when lime was applied these differences existed. For farmyard manure the effects of farmyard manure and farmyard manure * fertilizer on Al detoxification were significantly different at the 10 % level. All sources showed only differences on Al detoxification at the 5 % level when lime was applied.

  1. A ‘post-honeymoon’ measles epidemic in Burundi: mathematical model-based analysis and implications for vaccination timing

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    Katelyn C. Corey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a mathematical model with realistic demography, we analyze a large outbreak of measles in Muyinga sector in rural Burundi in 1988–1989. We generate simulated epidemic curves and age × time epidemic surfaces, which we qualitatively and quantitatively compare with the data. Our findings suggest that supplementary immunization activities (SIAs should be used in places where routine vaccination cannot keep up with the increasing numbers of susceptible individuals resulting from population growth or from logistical problems such as cold chain maintenance. We use the model to characterize the relationship between SIA frequency and SIA age range necessary to suppress measles outbreaks. If SIAs are less frequent, they must expand their target age range.

  2. The evolving role of traditional birth attendants in maternal health in post-conflict Africa: A qualitative study of Burundi and northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Primus Che; Urdal, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Many conflict-affected countries are faced with an acute shortage of health care providers, including skilled birth attendants. As such, during conflicts traditional birth attendants have become the first point of call for many pregnant women, assisting them during pregnancy, labour and birth, and in the postpartum period. This study seeks to explore how the role of traditional birth attendants in maternal health, especially childbirth, has evolved in two post-conflict settings in sub-Saharan Africa (Burundi and northern Uganda) spanning the period of active warfare to the post-conflict era. A total of 63 individual semi-structured in-depth interviews and 8 focus group discussions were held with women of reproductive age, local health care providers and staff of non-governmental organisations working in the domain of maternal health who experienced the conflict, across urban, semi-urban and rural settings in Burundi and northern Uganda. Discussions focused on the role played by traditional birth attendants in maternal health, especially childbirth during the conflict and how the role has evolved in the post-conflict era. Transcripts from the interviews and focus group discussions were analysed by thematic analysis (framework approach). Traditional birth attendants played a major role in childbirth-related activities in both Burundi and northern Uganda during the conflict, with some receiving training and delivery kits from the local health systems and non-governmental organisations to undertake deliveries. Following the end of the conflict, traditional birth attendants have been prohibited by the government from undertaking deliveries in both Burundi and northern Uganda. In Burundi, the traditional birth attendants have been integrated within the primary health care system, especially in rural areas, and re-assigned the role of 'birth companions'. In this capacity they undertake maternal health promotion activities within their communities. In northern Uganda, on

  3. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

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    Anselm Crombach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods: Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results: We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.

  4. Food for Survival: Diagnosing Crop Patterns to Secure Lower Threshold Food Security Levels in Farm Households of Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niragira, Sanctus; D'Haese, Marijke; D'Haese, Luc; Ndimubandi, Jean; Desiere, Sam; Buysse, Jeroen

    2015-06-01

    Burundi is one of the world's poorest countries, coming last in the Global Food Index (2013). Yet, a large majority of its population depends on agriculture. Most smallholder families do not produce enough to support their own families. To estimate the optimal crop mix and resources needed to provide the family with food containing sufficient energy, fat, and protein. This study uses mathematical programming to obtain the optimal crop mix that could maximize output given the constraints on production factor endowments and the need to feed the household. The model is calibrated with household-level data collected in 2010 in Ngozi Province in northern Burundi. Four models are developed, each representing a different farm type. The typology is based on 2007 data. Model predictions are compared with data collected during a revisit of the area in 2012. By producing a smaller number of crops and concentrating on those in which they have a comparative advantage, and trading produce and input with other farms, large and medium-sized farms can improve their productivity and hire extra workers to supplement family labor. Predictions of crops to be planted coincided to a high degree with those that farmers planted 2 years after our survey on newly acquired plots. Despite land scarcity, it is still possible for households that own land to find optimal crop combinations that can meet their minimal food security requirements while generating a certain level of income. Nearly landless households would benefit from the increased off-farm employment opportunities. With only 0.05 ha of land per capita, the annotation Nearly Landless is used to highlight the limited access to land observed in this farm category. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Prevention of Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) Positive Deviance Hearth (PDH) Approach in Burundi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madagasha, Aristide; Tse, Carmen; Baik, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and Objectives: PDH approach utilizes local resources and solutions to rehabilitate and prevent future malnutrition in children under five. Although PDH focuses on addressing underweight, PDH includes children with MAM and may have potential to address and prevent MAM where community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM), specifically targeted supplementary feeding component, may not be appropriate. The objectives are: 1) to assess the effectiveness of PDH to reduce moderate and severe underweight in participant children as well as prevent malnutrition in younger siblings of participant children; and 2) to assess PDH’s effectiveness for treatment and prevention of MAM in ten villages in Burundi. Methods: Starting September to November 2012, PDH was implemented by trained community volunteers in the ten villages. A “positive deviant” inquiry identified local practices that positively impact child nutritional status. These practices were transferred to families of malnourished children through experiential learning during 12 days of “Hearth” sessions. Two weeks of home visits followed Hearth. Mid-upper arm circumference of participant children (n = 70) were measured on the first day of Hearth, with appropriate referral for cases of severe acute malnutrition. Weights of children were assessed at Day 1 (n = 94), 12 (n = 94), 30 (n = 74) and one year after the start of Hearth (n = 92). Weight gain of children at Day 12 and 30 were compared with standard weight gains for PDH (200-250 grams for Day 12 and 400 grams for Day 30). Younger siblings were also weighed at the one year follow-up (n = 73). Results: Mean weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) of the children improved from -3.1±0.2 to -1.1±0.1 (p<0.001), showing sustained catch-up growth at home. Almost all children achieved the standard weight gain on Day 12 and Day 30 (92.6% (87/94) and 98.6% (73/74), respectively). Within one year, severe and moderate underweight decreased from 77

  6. Modélisation des processus physiques et biologiques dans des fosses septiques et voies de valorisation des boues de vidange:Application à Bujumbura-Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Nsavyimana, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Dans les pays en développement (PED) en général et au Burundi en particulier, la problématique de gestion des eaux usées et des déchets solides constitue un enjeu majeur pour les spécialistes et les autorités locales. En effet, suite à un manque des stations d'épuration collectives au Burundi, les fosses septiques sont les plus utilisées pour gérer les eaux usées produites. Cependant, les processus qui s'y déroulent ne sont pas encore maîtrisés et la gestion des boues de vidange lorsque c...

  7. Progrès de la connaissance du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi de 1993 à 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Nicolaï

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cette chronique, la vingt et unième d’une série qui a commencé avec l’année 1949, couvre la période 1993-2008 et a pour objectif de faire le point sur les progrès réalisés sur la connaissance du Congo (République démocratique du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi, dans le domaine de la géographie mais aussi dans les domaines des sciences naturelles et des sciences humaines qui peuvent fournir des données utiles ou indispensables aux géographes. Chaque référence bibliographique, livre ou article, est accompagnée d’un bref commentaire qui en retient les éléments principaux et surtout les faits ou les idées qui intéressent particulièrement les géographes. L’article comporte onze chapitres dont les plus importants concernent le milieu naturel, la géographie de la santé, la démographie, l’histoire (y compris l’histoire récente, la vie sociale et économique des campagnes traditionnelles et modernes, le secteur informel, les aspects de la vie urbaine. Les événements dramatiques qui se sont produits dans ces territoires africains au cours des quinze dernières années ont rendu la recherche sur le terrain particulièrement difficile tant pour les chercheurs nationaux que pour les chercheurs étrangers, ce qui se traduit notamment par une part de plus en plus importante des recherches menées en milieu urbain.This paper, the 21st issue of an edition of books and paper reviews on the knowledge of three countries of former Belgian Africa (DR Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi, covers the period 1993-2008. A short text for each reference points out the facts or ideas that are useful for geographers. The paper is composed of eleven sections. The most important are coping with the natural environment, health geography, population geography, history (including recent events, social and economic life in traditional and modern rural areas, informal economy, and urban geography. During the last sixteen years, conditions for field

  8. Agreement between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 13 June 2007. It was signed in Vienna on 27 September 2007. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 27 September 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Burundi and the Agency. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  9. Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 13 June 2007. It was signed in Vienna on 27 September 2007. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 27 September 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Burundi and the Agency

  10. De l'autosubsistance à l'économie d'échanges en agriculture. Un long itinéraire. Le cas du Burundi

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    Degand, J.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available From autosubsistence to exchange economy in agriculture. A very long way. The case of Burundi. By the increasing of population pressure on agricultural lands, equilibrium between resources and basic needs is getting impaired especially in production systems based on autosubsistence. Such an equilibrium keeps on being but at the expense of a progressive deterioration of the physical environment ; it means an unescapable decreasing of the soil fertility. This bad effect can be reduced by promoting exchanges among regions where crops patterns can be better in agreement with ecosystems.

  11. Potential of household environmental resources and practices in eliminating residual malaria transmission: a case study of Tanzania, Burundi, Malawi and Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semakula, Henry M; Song, Guobao; Zhang, Shushen; Achuu, Simon P

    2015-09-01

    The increasing protection gaps of insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual spraying methods against malaria have led to an emergence of residual transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and thus, supplementary strategies to control mosquitoes are urgently required. To assess household environmental resources and practices that increase or reduce malaria risk among children under-five years of age in order to identify those aspects that can be adopted to control residual transmission. Household environmental resources, practices and malaria test results were extracted from Malaria Indicators Survey datasets for Tanzania, Burundi, Malawi and Liberia with 16,747 children from 11,469 households utilised in the analysis. Logistic regressions were performed to quantify the contribution of each factor to malaria occurrence. Cattle rearing reduced malaria risk between 26%-49% while rearing goats increased the risk between 26%-32%. All piped-water systems reduced malaria risk between 30%-87% (Tanzania), 48%-95% (Burundi), 67%-77% (Malawi) and 58%-73 (Liberia). Flush toilets reduced malaria risk between 47%-96%. Protected-wells increased malaria risk between 19%-44%. Interestingly, boreholes increased malaria risk between 19%-75%. Charcoal use reduced malaria risk between 11%-49%. Vector control options for tackling mosquitoes were revealed based on their risk levels. These included cattle rearing, installation of piped-water systems and flush toilets as well as use of smokeless fuels.

  12. Characterisation of Central-African emissions based on MAX-DOAS measurements, satellite observations and model simulations over Bujumbura, Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Clio; Hendrick, Francois; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smedt, Isabelle; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Yu, Huan; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Bauwens, Maité; Ndenzako, Eugene; Nzohabonayo, Pierre; Akimana, Rachel; Niyonzima, Sébastien; Müller, Jean-Francois; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Central Africa is known for its strong biogenic, pyrogenic, and to a lesser extent anthropogenic emissions. Satellite observations of species like nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO), as well as inverse modelling results have shown that there are large uncertainties associated with the emissions in this region. There is thus a need for additional measurements, especially from the ground, in order to better characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic products emitted in this area. We present MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols performed in Central Africa, in the city of Bujumbura, Burundi (3°S, 29°E, 850m). A MAX-DOAS instrument has been operating at this location by BIRA-IASB since late 2013. Aerosol-extinction and trace-gases vertical profiles are retrieved by applying the optimal-estimation-based profiling tool bePRO to the measured O4, NO2 and HCHO slant-column densities. The MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for investigating the diurnal and seasonal cycles of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols. Regarding the aerosols, the retrieved AODs are compared to co-located AERONET sun photometer measurements for verification purpose, while in the case of NO2 and HCHO, the MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for validating GOME-2 and OMI satellite observations. To characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions in the Bujumbura region, the trace gases and aerosol MAX-DOAS retrievals are used in combination to MODIS fire counts/radiative-power and GOME-2/OMI NO2 and HCHO satellite data, as well as simulations from the NOAA backward trajectory model HYSPLIT. First results show that HCHO seasonal variation around local noon is driven by the alternation of rain and dry periods, the latter being associated with intense biomass-burning agricultural activities and forest fires in the south/south-east and transport from this region to Bujumbura. In contrast, NO2 is seen to depend mainly on local emissions close to the city, due

  13. A qualitative study exploring the determinants of maternal health service uptake in post-conflict Burundi and Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Primus Che; Bulage, Patience; Urdal, Henrik; Sundby, Johanne

    2015-02-05

    Armed conflict has been described as an important contributor to the social determinants of health and a driver of health inequity, including maternal health. These conflicts may severely reduce access to maternal health services and, as a consequence, lead to poor maternal health outcomes for a period extending beyond the conflict itself. As such, understanding how maternal health-seeking behaviour and utilisation of maternal health services can be improved in post-conflict societies is of crucial importance. This study aims to explore the determinants (barriers and facilitators) of women's uptake of maternal, sexual and reproductive health services (MSRHS) in two post-conflict settings in sub-Saharan Africa; Burundi and Northern Uganda, and how uptake is affected by exposure to armed conflict. This is a qualitative study that utilised in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) for data collection. One hundred and fifteen participants took part in the interviews and FGDs across the two study settings. Participants were women of reproductive age, local health providers and staff of non-governmental organizations. Issues explored included the factors affecting women's utilisation of a range of MSRHS vis-à-vis conflict exposure. The framework method, making use of both inductive and deductive approaches, was used for analyzing the data. A complex and inter-related set of factors affect women's utilisation of MSRHS in post-conflict settings. Exposure to armed conflict affects women's utilisation of these services mainly through impeding women's health seeking behaviour and community perception of health services. The factors identified cut across the individual, socio-cultural, and political and health system spheres, and the main determinants include women's fear of developing pregnancy-related complications, status of women empowerment and support at the household and community levels, removal of user-fees, proximity to the health facility, and attitude

  14. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Komproe, Ivan H; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S; Macy, Robert D; de Jong, Joop T V M

    2014-04-01

    Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving a sense of hope and functioning (preventive aim). We conducted a cluster randomized trial with 329 children in war-affected Burundi (aged 8 to 17 (mean 12.29 years, standard deviation 1.61); 48% girls). One group of children (n = 153) participated in a 15-session school-based intervention implemented by para-professionals, and the remaining 176 children formed a waitlist control condition. Outcomes were measured before, one week after, and three months after the intervention. No main effects of the intervention were identified. However, longitudinal growth curve analyses showed six favorable and two unfavorable differences in trajectories between study conditions in interaction with several moderators. Children in the intervention condition living in larger households showed decreases on depressive symptoms and function impairment, and those living with both parents showed decreases on posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms. The groups of children in the waitlist condition showed increases in depressive symptoms. In addition, younger children and those with low levels of exposure to traumatic events in the intervention condition showed improvements on hope. Children in the waitlist condition who lived on their original or newly bought land showed improvements in hope and function impairment, whereas children in the intervention condition showed deterioration on these outcomes. Given inconsistent effects across studies, findings do not support this school-based intervention as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms in conflict-affected children. The intervention appears to have more consistent preventive benefits, but these effects are

  15. Shifting management of a community volunteer system for improved child health outcomes: results from an operations research study in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jennifer; Makonnen, Raphael; Sula, Delphin

    2015-01-01

    Community-based strategies that foster frequent contact between caregivers of children under five and provide credible sources of health information are essential to improve child survival. Care Groups are a community-based implementation strategy for the delivery of social and behavior change interventions. This study assessed if supervision of Care Group activities by Ministry of Health (MOH) personnel could achieve the same child health outcomes as supervision provided by specialized non-governmental organization (NGO) staff. The study was a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design implemented in Burundi. A total of 45 MOH-led Care Groups with 478 Care Group Volunteers (CGVs) were established in the intervention area; and 50 NGO-led Care Groups with 509 CGVs were formed in the comparison area. Data were collected from 593 and 700 mothers of children 0-23 months at baseline and endline, respectively. Pearson's chi-squared test and difference-in-difference analysis assessed changes in 40 child health and nutrition outcomes. A qualitative process evaluation was also conducted midway through the study. The MOH-led Care Group model performed at least as well as the NGO-led model in achieving specific child health and nutrition outcomes. Mothers of children 0-23 months in the intervention and comparison sites reported similar levels of knowledge and practices for 38 of 40 dependent variables measured in the study, and these results remained unchanged after accounting for differences in the indicator values at baseline. Process monitoring data confirmed that the MOH-led Care Group model and the NGO-led Care Group model were implemented with similar intervention strength. The study demonstrated that behavior change interventions traditionally led by NGOs can be implemented through the existing MOH systems and achieve similar results, thereby increasing the potential for sustainable child health outcomes. Future research on the MOH-led Care Group model is required to

  16. Spatiotemporal distribution and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections following an eight-year school-based deworming programme in Burundi, 2007–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Assoum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating the effect of successive annual deworming rounds on the spatiotemporal distribution of infection prevalence and numbers at risk for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs can help identify communities nearing elimination and those needing further interventions. In this study, we aim to quantify the impact of an 8-year mass drug administration (MDA programme (from 2007 to 2014 on the spatiotemporal distribution of prevalence of STH infections and to estimate the number of school-aged children infected with STHs in Burundi. Methods During annual longitudinal school-based surveys in Burundi between 2007 and 2011, STH infection and anthropometric data for a total of 40,656 children were collected; these data were supplemented with data from a national survey conducted in 2014. Bayesian model based geostatistics (MBG were used to generate predictive prevalence maps for each STH species and year. The numbers of children at-risk of infection per district between 2008 and 2014 were estimated as the product of the predictive prevalence maps and population density maps. Results Overall, the degree of spatial clustering of STH infections decreased between 2008 and 2011; in 2014 the geographical clusters of all STH infections reappeared. The reduction in prevalence was small for Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the centre and central north of the country. Our predictive prevalence maps for hookworm indicate a reduction in prevalence along the periphery of the country. The predicted number of children infected with any STH species decreased substantially between 2007 and 2011, but in 2014 there was an increase in the predicted number of children infected with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. In 2014, the districts with the highest predicted number of children infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworms were Kibuye district (n = 128,903, Mabayi district (n = 35,302 and Kiremba (n = 87

  17. Ministerial Ordinance No. 530/166 of 10 July 1989, establishing measures to execute Decree-Law No. 1/007 of 20 March 1989 setting forth regulations on the entry, stay, and establishment of foreigners in Burundi and their departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Ordinance sets forth rules on visas, identity cards, and monetary guarantees as established in Decree-Law No. 1/007 of 20 March 1989. Visas can be granted for the purposes of transit, entry, stay, departure and return, and establishment of both determined and indeterminate length. A transit visa permits a foreigner to enter Burundi for not more than seventy-two hours; an entry visa allows a foreigner to make one or more entries into Burundi and stay there for a period of not more than three months; a visa of stay is given to a foreigner who already has a transit or entry visa and allows that person to lengthen his visit for up to six months; a visa of departure and return is granted to foreigners residing in Burundi who wish to return to Burundi after travelling abroad and is good for up to seven months; a visa of establishment of determinate length is granted to a person who wishes to become established in Burundi and whose proposed activity has already been approved; a visa of establishment of indeterminate length is granted to a foreigner who has resided in Burundi for the uninterrupted period of the preceding twenty years, although exceptions are possible, as in the case of persons who marry Burundi citizens. In order to receive an identity card, a foreigner must be registered in the community of his residence within fifteen days of obtaining a visa of establishment or permission to change his residence. Identity cards are given to six groups of foreigners: permanent residents, persons who hold visas of establishment of either determinate or indeterminate nature, diplomats, refugees, and the stateless. All persons authorized to establish themselves in Burundi are required to deposit a monetary guarantee in the amount of $1,250 US.

  18. Tubaramure, a Food-Assisted Integrated Health and Nutrition Program, Reduces Child Stunting in Burundi: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Olney, Deanna; Ruel, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to address undernutrition, but little is known about their effectiveness in improving child linear growth. We assessed the impact of Burundi's Tubaramure FA-MCHN program on linear growth. The program targeted women and their children during the first 1000 d and included 1) food rations, 2) strengthening of health services and promotion of their use, and 3) behavior change communication (BCC). A second objective was to assess the differential effect when varying the timing and duration of receiving food rations. We used a 4-arm, cluster-randomized controlled study to assess program impact with the use of cluster fixed-effects double-difference models with repeated cross-sectional data (baseline and follow-up 4 y later with ∼3550 children in each round). Treatment arms received food rations (corn-soy blend and micronutrient-fortified vegetable oil) for the first 1000 d (T24), from pregnancy through the child reaching 18 mo (T18), or from birth through the child reaching 24 mo ["no food during pregnancy" (TNFP)]. All treatment arms received BCC for the first 1000 d. The control arm received no food rations or BCC. Stunting (height-for-age z score effect in the T24 [7.4 percentage points (pp); P effect across arms were not significant (P > 0.01). Secondary analyses showed that the effect was limited to children whose mother and head of household had some primary education and who lived in households with above-median assets. FA-MCHN programs are an effective development tool to improve child linear growth and can protect children from political and economic shocks in vulnerable countries such as Burundi. A better understanding of how to improve the nutritional status of children in the worst-off households is needed. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01072279.

  19. Interaction entre le fumier enrichi, le calcaire et les différentes sources de phosphore issues de la roche phosphatée de Matongo sur un ferralsol de la région du Bututsi (Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rwigema, JB.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between enriched farmyard manure with fertilizers, lime and different phosphorus sources obtained from the phosphatic rock from Matongo on a ferralitic soil from the region of Bututsi (Burundi. This study on maize growing in pots shows that (i in combination with other inputs (farmyard manure and lime, the most soluble phosphorus sources (triple and simple superphosphate can be replaced by partially acidulated rock phosphate (50 % obtained by mixing simple superphosphate and rock phosphate both originating from the rock phosphate deposits in Matongo (Burundi, (ii the exchangeable Al can be reduced by both the addition of farmyard manure and lime, but the action of the different phosphorus 'source leave the most Bray-1 extractable phosphorus in the soil, the largest quantifies correspond to the highest doses of farmyard manure.

  20. “If you don’t take off your clothes, we’re going to kill you” : Sexual electoral violence as a silent weapon in Burundi and implications for humanitarian action

    OpenAIRE

    van Baalen, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on electoral violence has explored the variation in manifestation, perpetrators, victims and causes or motivations.  While explanations have prescribed to structural and electoral factors or the nature of politics, nature of elections and electoral institutions, the causes and motivations behind sexual electoral violence has been under-researched. This in-depth single case study of sexual violence against women associated with the opposition in Burundi explores the possibili...

  1. SMS and Web-Based e-Government Model Case Study: Citizens Complaints Management System at District of Gihosha –Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugenzi Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available E-Government basically comprises the use of electronic communications technologies such as the internet, in enhancing and advancing the citizens access to public services. In most developing countries including Burundi, citizens are facing many difficulties for accessing public services. One of the identified problems is the poor quality of service in managing citizens’ complaints. This study proposes an SMS and web based e-Government Model as a solution. In this study, a case study of a complaint management system at District of Gihosha has been used as a reference to prove that SMS and Web based e-Government Model can enhances the access of public services. The objective of this study is the development of an SMS and web-based system that can enhances the process and the management of citizens’ complaints at District of Gihosha. The system has been developed using PHP as front end, Apache as web server, MySQL as Database and Gammu as SMS gateway. The obtained results after testing the system shows that all the functionalities of the developed system worked properly. Thus, the SMS and web based complaint management system developed is considered to be effective.

  2. How do low-birthweight neonates fare 2 years after discharge from a low-technology neonatal care unit in a rural district hospital in Burundi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boogaard, W; Zuniga, I; Manzi, M; Van den Bergh, R; Lefevre, A; Nanan-N'zeth, K; Duchenne, B; Etienne, W; Juma, N; Ndelema, B; Zachariah, R; Reid, A

    2017-04-01

    As neonatal care is being scaled up in economically poor settings, there is a need to know more on post-hospital discharge and longer-term outcomes. Of particular interest are mortality, prevalence of developmental impairments and malnutrition, all known to be worse in low-birthweight neonates (LBW, Rural Burundi between January and December 2012. Of 146 LBW neonates, 23% could not be traced and 4% had died. Of the remaining 107 children (median age = 27 months), at least one developmental impairment was found in 27%, with 8% having at least five impairments. Main impairments included delays in motor development (17%) and in learning and speech (12%). Compared to LBW children (n = 100), very-low-birthweight (VLBW, <1500 g, n = 7) children had a significantly higher risk of impairments (intellectual - P = 0.001), needing constant supervision and creating a household burden (P = 0.009). Of all children (n-107), 18% were acutely malnourished, with a 3½ times higher risk in VLBWs (P = 0.02). Reassuringly, most children were thriving 2 years after discharge. However, malnutrition was prevalent and one in three manifested developmental impairments (particularly VLBWs) echoing the need for support programmes. A considerable proportion of children could not be traced, and this emphasises the need for follow-up systems post-discharge. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Knowledge and practices of general practitioners at district hospitals towards cervical cancer prevention in Burundi, 2015: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndizeye, Zacharie; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Vermandere, Heleen; Bogers, John Paul; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-16

    Well-organized screening and treatment programmes are effective to prevent Invasive Cervical Cancer (ICC) in LMICs. To achieve this, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the involvement of existing health personnel in casu doctors, nurses, midwives in ICC prevention. A necessary precondition is that health personnel have appropriate knowledge about ICC. Therefore, to inform policy makers and training institutions in Burundi, we documented the knowledge and practices of general practitioners (GPs) at district hospital level towards ICC control. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to April, 2015 among all GPs working in government district hospitals. A structured questionnaire and a scoring system were used to assess knowledge and practices of GPs. The participation rate was 58.2%. Majority of GPs (76.3%) had appropriate knowledge (score > 70%) on cervical cancer disease; but some risk factors were less well known as smoking and the 2 most important oncogenic HPV. Only 8.4% of the participants had appropriate knowledge on ICC prevention: 55% of the participants were aware that HPV vaccination exists and 48.1% knew cryotherapy as a treatment method for CIN. Further, 15.3% was aware of VIA as a screening method. The majority of the participants (87%) never or rarely propose screening tests to their clients. Only 2 participants (1.5%) have already performed VIA/VILI. Wrong thoughts were also reported: 39.7% thought that CIN could be treated with radiotherapy; 3.1% thought that X-ray is a screening method. In this comprehensive assessment, we observed that Burundian GPs have a very low knowledge level about ICC prevention, screening and treatment. Suboptimal practices and wrong thoughts related to ICC screening and treatments have also been documented. We therefore recommend an adequate pre- and in-service training of GPs and most probably nurses on ICC control before setting up any public health intervention on ICC control.

  4. La production laitière et la croissance du chevreau pendant la période néonatale chez la chèvre locale au Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farina, L.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk yield and kid's growth rate of local goats in Burundi during the first weeks after birth. A study on local goats in Burundi, specially the growth rate of the kid during the first weeks after birth, has been undertaken. Milk yield has been monitored to establish milking and suckling abilities of local goats. The results of daily controls have given a milk yield average of 511 g/day up to day 56 post partum. Lactation yield has been significantly affected by the doe's weight. During the first month, heavy goats have produced the equivalent of a glass of milk per day (about 200 ml for human consumption in addition to the quantity taken up by the kids. The daily weight gain of 54.05 g recorded from birth to 28 days of age in youngs is low, probably due to the limited quantity of milk available to them. Nevertheless local kids show an excellent conversion ratio of suckled milk, with a value of 3.93 kg of milk to produce 1 kg liveweight during the first 28 days, representing a very high food conversion.

  5. Effectiveness of the Maternal and Child Health handbook in Burundi for increasing notification of birth at health facilities and postnatal care uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kayo; Niyonkuru, Jacques; Juma, Ndereye; Mbonabuca, Térence; Osaki, Keiko; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    In Burundi, birth certificate ownership (56.4%) and postnatal care (PNC) coverage (30%) remain low. Birth certificates prove birth registration and allow clients to receive free medical care including PNC. To obtain birth certificates, notification of birth by witnesses is indispensable. However, use of existing parallel home-based records for mother and child has prevented clients from successfully receiving notification of birth and related information. To assess the effectiveness of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) handbook for increasing notification of birth at health facilities and PNC uptake. Pre- and post-introduction measurement were applied including: (i) structured interviews with two different sets of randomly selected mothers having infants aged less than six weeks at the pre- or post-studies; and (ii) secondary data from the national health management information system. 95.1% of mothers had an MCH handbook post-study. Significant improvement was observed in the proportion of mothers receiving notification of birth at health facilities, from 4.6% to 61.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55.9%-66.2%), and the proportion of mothers receiving guidance on PNC, from 35.9% to 64.2% (95% CI: 59.2%-69.3%). The annual PNC coverage (43.9% to 54.2%; p increased from 2013 to 2014. Among MCH handbook owners, mothers giving birth at hospitals/clinics had 2.62 higher odds (95% CI: 1.63-4.22) of obtaining notification of birth than mothers giving birth at health centers. Conversely, mothers delivering at hospitals/clinics had 0.51 lower odds (95% CI: 1.63-4.22) of receiving PNC guidance than mothers delivering at health centers. As previous studies showed, the MCH handbook appeared to help health personnel provide guidance on PNC, thereby it may have increased PNC. Furthermore, this study suggests the handbook contributed to every birth being counted. However, to increase the effectiveness of the handbook, health personnel should be encouraged toward its proper

  6. Efficacité de la roche phosphatée de Matongo au travers d'un compostage sur une culture de pomme de terre sur un sol acide de Rabiro (Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Berghe, C.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of phosphatic rock from Matongo applied in the composting process on potatoes on an acid soil of Rabiro. In the frame of the Cooperation between the CVHA (Cultures Vivrieres de Haute Altitute Project and the Program of Fertilisation of the Agro-systems on Altitude (FAVA of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in Burundi, the local phosphatic rock from Matongo has been compared to diammonium-phosphate when added in the composting process. The field trials with potatoes have shown that both phosphate sources have the same fertilizing value when the enriched compost was applied at the dose of 20 t/ha. It is very interesting from agricultural and economical viewpoint to use this phosphatic rock in combination with compost.

  7. Appréciation et amélioration de la qualité bactériologique du poisson commercialisé au Burundi. Cas de Stolothrissa tanganicae et Luciolates stappersii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindayigaya, E.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Appreciation and improvement of the bacteriological quality of fish commercialized in Burundi. Cases of Stolothrissa tanganicae and Luciolates stappersii. The bacteriological quality of Stolothrissa tanganicae and Luciolates stappersii has been estimated by determining the aerobic mesophilic flora, Staphylococcus aureus as pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis as fecal contamination indices. The freshness has been evaluated by the determination of the total volatile bases (T.V.B.. At the arrival of fresh fish on the market, the aerobic mesophilic flora was sometimes high due to inadequate handling and processing on board. Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus can be found in fresh fish. The determination of the T.V.B. and the bacteriological analysis provided concordant informations. An improvement of bacteriological quality has been obtained by a combination of the traditional conservation methods : drying, salting and smoking.

  8. Contraintes techniques et sociales en conservation du sol et des eaux en zone à très forte densité de population : l'exemple des montagnes du Mumirwa au Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu, C.

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the influence of cutting and picking of leaves on the quality of cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. "F46". The Burundi country located in mountainous tropical region of Central Africa, presents one of the highest density population among those overpopulated regions. The extreme soil occupation phenomenon at the greatest slope poses a serious problems of soil erosion. The author analyses the physical and social constraints of soil conservation and water management problems in a such context. It seems that the solutions to the technical problems of erosion control must undergo with a radical change in relation between rural community and administration in the way of more collaboration and comprehension of administrative services and more willingly participation from rural population.

  9. Diversité et distribution d'abondances des plantes d'un écosystème protégé dans un paysage anthropisé: cas de la Réserve Naturelle Forestière de Bururi, Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havyarimana, F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Diversity and Abundance Distribution of a Protected Ecosystem in an Anthropogenic Landscape: the Case of the Bururi Natural Forest Reserve of, Burundi. A study on plant species diversity and abundance distribution has been conducted in the Bururi Natural Forest Reserve (BNFR in Burundi in order to improve species conservation. The BNFR is an ecosystem embedded in an anthropogenic matrix, close to Bururi city and to agricultural lands. It is a forest patch resulting from the fragmentation of a larger forest that once occupied the entire Congo- Nile Crest. This study tested the hypothesis according to which the plant species abundance distribution in conserved forests corresponds to a log normal distribution, indicating that species are regularly distributed in the ecosystem. This distribution model is generally observed in stable ecosystems in which inter-specific competition is considered less important. The observed abundance distribution of the plant species was therefore compared to a log normal, a log series and a broken stick distribution model. Six of the plant species recorded in this study are considered threatened in Burundi. The observed plant species abundance distribution was found similar to the log series model which suggests the impact of disturbance on the abundance distribution despite the status of the BNFR of protected ecosystem in an anthropogenic landscape.

  10. Contribution á l’étude des lichens du Kivu (Zaire, du Rwanda et du Burundi. VII. Approche écogéographique de la flore et de la végétation lichéniques dans Pest de P Afrique centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lambinon

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available A short historical record of the lichenological exploration of tropical Africa, especially Kivu (Zaire, Rwanda and Burundi is given, including an account of the material collected and of the present state of taxonomic knowledge of the lichens. Several phytogeographical categories can be recognized in this area; they are (some with significant variants: subcosmopolitan, temperate-tropical, pantropical, paleotropical, afro-neotropical, guineo-congolian, sudano-zambezian, zambezian-afrooriental and zambezian, central African lakes endemic, afromontane and afroalpine. The distributional types of the lichens within the studied area are briefly described, as well as their importance in the main vegetation types.

  11. An Agricultural Expansion Strategy for Burundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-04

    missions. Farmers were able to work continuous plots only in tl. cast of pineapple, strawberries, and pomegranates. However, fruit trees such as the guava ...110 tons Lemons 1,200 tons Pomelos 25 tons Avocados 12,000 tons Mangoes 5,200 tons Guavas 3,200 tons Beef heart 280 tons Medlars 320 tons Total 31,485...30,908 9 1987-1988 36,223 1,040 37,263 10 1988-1989 34,112 1,200 35,312 35 TABLE 3 PRODUCTION OF TEA 1987 1988 Production of Tea Leaves (tons) 20,562

  12. Gendered violence and HIV in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Seckinelgin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pre-existing gender relations changed for the worse during the conflict and interventions to promote disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR failed to address the dynamics which shape the spread of HIV.

  13. Bringing ISFM to scale through an integrated farm planning approach: a case study from Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, A.; Duivenbooden, van N.; Nsabimana, F.; Beek, van C.L.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) is generally accepted as the most relevant paradigm for soil fertility improvement in the tropics. Successes however are mainly reported at plot level, while real impact at farm level and beyond remains scattered. As a consequence, many Sub-Saharan African

  14. The Political Economy of Post-Conflict Development: A Comparative Assessment of Burundi and Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Defence of Democracy – Forces for the Defence of Democracy] CVL Crystal Ventures Limited DRC Democratic Republic of Congo FRODEBU Front pour la...discuss four theoretical aspects of elite dynamics: political settlement, dominant party governance, technocratic elite, and political leadership to...such instances, leadership can take long-term views of development and allocate resources effectively.23 Contrarily, conflict mediators view winner

  15. Exploring future agricultural development and biodiversity in Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Soesbergen, Arnout; Arnell, Andrew P.; Sassen, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    Competition for land is increasing as a consequence of the growing demands for food and other commodities and the need to conserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. Land conversion and the intensification of current agricultural systems continues to lead to a loss of biodiversity and trade......-offs among ecosystem functions. Decision-makers need to understand these trade-offs in order to better balance different demands on land and resources. There is an urgent need for spatially explicit information and analyses on the effects of different trajectories of human-induced landscape change...... and that expanding protected areas to include other important biodiversity areas can help reduce biodiversity losses in all three countries. These results highlight the need for effective protection and the potential benefits of expanding the protected area network while meeting agricultural production needs....

  16. Solar hot water for household and institutional use in Bujumbura, Burundi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katihabwa, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on solar energy which is clean and renewable. It is the primary source for a wide range of energy resources such as biomass, hydraulics, coal, peat and petroleum. Until recently, the sun was the major source of energy used by man to satisfy his needs. The extraction and use of fossil fuels became important with the technological and industrial development that took place in the nineteenth century. For countries without fossil fuels (such as petroleum and coal), solar energy is an important asset. The oil crisis of 1973 clearly showed the limits of fossil fuel consumption. The crisis slowed down and, in some cases, severely hampered economic growth in many developing countries. To this day, fossil fuels remain expensive for many developing countries which have to part with a significant share of their meagre convertible currency resources to import fossil fuels. It is thus imperative that developing countries should investigate the possibility of developing solar energy systems that can reduce their dependence on fossil fuels. In the short term, high investment costs and shortage of qualified manpower are major constraints on the development of solar energy systems. In the long run, however, the benefits of solar energy systems are expected to overcome these constraints. The benefits include low operation costs and non-generation of pollutants. The decentralized nature of solar energy is an asset in the isolated rural areas of Africa. It is possible to build small solar units and this provide energy security and autonomy at the level of a community and even at the level of an individual. Solar energy has, however, one major disadvantage - its energy density is low (1.0 kw per square metre on the earth surface, after taking absorption losses into account)

  17. Understanding resilience in armed conflict: Social resources and mental health of children in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, B.J.; Tol, W.A.; Jordans, M.J.D.; Bass, J.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and

  18. The voices of the invisible girls : reintegration of former female child soldiers in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Camilla Carlsen

    2013-01-01

    Master thesis in development management - University of Agder 2013 Child soldiers are used in armed groups and forces around the word. Children as young as seven years of age have been reported to actively participate in armed conflict. The phenomenon of child soldiering has become increasingly recognized in recent decades. Females constitute between ten per cent to one third of the fighting forces worldwide. Despite this, girls and women have until recently been highly invisible in both r...

  19. Children of former child soldiers and never-conscripted civilians: a preliminary intergenerational study in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; de Jong, J.; O'Hara, R.; Koopman, C.

    2013-01-01

    Studies around the world show that former child soldiers (FCSs) have mental health strengths and limitations, and highlight the important role of families and communities in reintegration to society. However, there are limited data that examine the mental health risks and protective factors of the

  20. Validation of the Kirundi versions of brief self-rating scales for common mental disorders among children in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventevogel, P.; Komproe, I.H.; Jordans, M.J.; Feo, P.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Sub Saharan Africa, there has been limited research on instruments to identify specific mental disorders in children in conflict-affected settings. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of three self-report scales for child mental disorder in order to inform an emerging

  1. Developing and measuring healthcare capacity and quality in Burundi: LifeNet International’s horizontal conversion franchise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a departure from traditional “vertical” healthcare interventions in low-resource settings that work to combat a single specific health issue, LifeNet International (LN uses a horizontal conversion franchise to develop and measure healthcare capacity and quality in primarily faith-based health centers in East Africa. Through a comprehensive franchise package of Medical Training, Management Training, Pharmaceutical Supply, and Growth Financing, LN is able to leverage existing resources and respond to a greater number of the obstacles preventing facilities from providing quality care. Through its Quality Score Card, LN measures improvements in quality of care within its network. This tool has measured consistent and significant improvements in quality of care following LN partnership. Together, these services improve quality of care at East African primary care facilities in ways that issue-specific, “vertical” interventions cannot.

  2. Exploring future agricultural development and biodiversity in Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi: a spatially explicit scenario-based assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soesbergen, Arnout; Arnell, Andrew P.; Sassen, Marieke; Stuch, Benjamin; Schaldach, Rüdiger; Göpel, Jan; Vervoort, Joost; Mason-D’Croz, Daniel; Islam, Shahnila; Palazzo, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Competition for land is increasing as a consequence of the growing demands for food and other commodities and the need to conserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. Land conversion and the intensification of current agricultural systems continues to lead to a loss of biodiversity and trade-offs

  3. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi: a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, W.A.; Komproe, I.H.; Jordans, M.J.D.; Ndayisaba, A.; Ntamatumba, P.; Sipsma, H.; Smallegange, E.S.; Macy, R.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving

  4. Developing and measuring healthcare capacity and quality in Burundi: LifeNet International’s horizontal conversion franchise model

    OpenAIRE

    Michael F Brooks; Maggie Ehrenfried

    2016-01-01

    In a departure from traditional “vertical” healthcare interventions in low-resource settings that work to combat a single specific health issue, LifeNet International (LN) uses a horizontal conversion franchise to develop and measure healthcare capacity and quality in primarily faith-based health centers in East Africa. Through a comprehensive franchise package of Medical Training, Management Training, Pharmaceutical Supply, and Growth Financing, LN is able to leverage existing resources and ...

  5. Study of some physiological parameters of domestic guinea pigs in Burundi: gitega province case, natural region of kirimiro

    OpenAIRE

    Буторе, Жозеф

    2014-01-01

    Для того чтобы улучшить условия жизни и рентабельность разведения морских свинок в Бурунди, изучение некоторых физиологических параметров одомашненных морских свинок в Бурунди был проведен на ферме высшего института сельского хозяйства (ISA) на 22 морских свинок местных пород. В течение двенадцати месяцев, наблюдались некоторые параметры, связанные с физиологией морских свинок (воспроизводство, изменение массы тела, количество принимаемого корма и количество экскрементов в сутки). Установлено...

  6. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi : A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Wietse A.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S.; Macy, Robert D.; de Jong, Joop T V M; Komproe, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving

  7. The evolving role of traditional birth attendants in maternal health in post-conflict Africa: A qualitative study of Burundi and northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Primus Che; Urdal, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Many conflict-affected countries are faced with an acute shortage of health care providers, including skilled birth attendants. As such, during conflicts traditional birth attendants have become the first point of call for many pregnant women, assisting them during pregnancy, labour and birth, and in the postpartum period. This study seeks to explore how the role of traditional birth attendants in maternal health, especially childbirth, has evolved in two post-conflict settings in...

  8. A study on reintegration of street children in Burundi: experienced violence and maltreatment are associated with mental health impairments and impeded educational progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Street children are exposed to violence, and subsist in poor and generally precarious conditions. In conflict regions, institutional care facilities are often the only well established way to care for vulnerable children. Providing access to school education is considered to be key to allow successful integration into society. However, adverse effects of psychological disorders may pose another serious obstacle. In semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 Burundian male youths (mean age = 15.9 years), we assessed exposure to traumatic stressors, regularly and recently occurring violence as well as prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, substance dependence, suicidal risk, and progress in school. Former street children (n = 32) and other vulnerable children (n = 50) in a residential center were compared to children living in the streets (n = 15) or with families (n = 15). While the children living in the center were less regularly exposed to violence and reported less substance dependence than street children, PTSD symptoms were common among the former street children. Furthermore, we provided empirical evidence that for the children living in the center, recently experienced violence – mostly minor physical conflicts, psychological violence and neglect – was associated with increased PTSD symptomatology and impeded progress in school. In a population of children who experienced many traumatic incidences and a lot of violence, even minor violent events may trigger and reinforce PTSD symptoms. Hence controlling exposure to violence and addressing mental ill-health in vulnerable children is mandatory for reintegration. PMID:25566123

  9. Imagining the Great Lakes Region: discourses and practices of civil society regional approaches for peacebuilding in Rwanda, Burundi and DR Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van M.

    2008-01-01

    The idea has gained ground in recent years that, as conflicts in the countries of the Great Lakes Region are strongly interlinked, regional approaches are necessary to resolve them. This interest in regional dimensions of conflict and peacebuilding also gains currency in other parts of the world.

  10. First insights into the diversity of gill monogeneans of 'Gnathochromis' and Limnochromis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Burundi: do the parasites mirror host ecology and phylogenetic history?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmentová, N.; Gelnar, M.; Koblmüller, Stephan; Vanhove, M. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, e1629 (2016), e1629 ISSN 2167-8359 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cichlidogyrus * Ectoparasites * Lake Tanganyika * Limnochromini * Tropheini Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  11. Mécanisme pour un Développement Propre (MDP) du Protocole de Kyoto :barrières et opportunités pour les pays moins avancés d’Afrique. Cas du Burundi/Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol: barriers and opportunities for the least developed countries in Africa. Case study of Burundi.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisore, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Du Protocole de Kyoto est née une série d’objectifs de réduction des émissions de GES. Le respect de ces objectifs peut entraîner des coûts très lourds pour les économies des pays développés engagés dans la lutte contre les changements climatiques. Pour minimiser les coûts imposés par ces objectifs, des instruments économiques ont été développés, avec notamment la création de marchés du carbone. Y participent les trois mécanismes de flexibilité du Protocole de Kyoto parmi lesquels figure le M...

  12. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report from Sub-Saharan Africa, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Ghana, Lesoto, Liberia, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, contains articles...

  13. Mécanisme pour un développement propre (MDP) du protocole de Kyoto: barrières et opportunités pour les pays moins avancés d'Afrique :cas du Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Bisore, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Du Protocole de Kyoto est née une série d’objectifs de réduction des émissions de GES. Le respect de ces objectifs peut entraîner des coûts très lourds pour les économies des pays développés engagés dans la lutte contre les changements climatiques. Pour minimiser les coûts imposés par ces objectifs, des instruments économiques ont été développés, avec notamment la création de marchés du carbone. Y participent les trois mécanismes de flexibilité du Protocole de Kyoto parmi lesquels figure le M...

  14. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Crop Science and Production, Plant Breeding, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3005, Morogoro, Tanzania; Present address: Agricultural Faculty of Sciences (FACAGRO), Department of Crop Production, University of Burundi, P.O. Box 5132, Bujumbura, Burundi; Plant Breeding Genetics and ...

  15. History of Combat Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    eligibility with risk exposure. All of the alternatives were firmly planted within the prevailing perspective of recognition for risk; none proposed... Montenegro ; Somalia; Sudan; Haiti; Azerbaijan; Pakistan; Burundi; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Athens, Greece; Jordan; Tajikistan; Qatar; Rwanda

  16. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    EAC regionalism had no significant effect on agricultural exports of Burundi,. Rwanda and Uganda ... levels and adversely affect the economic growth of agricultural based economies. ...... Master of Arts Thesis, University of Saakatchewan,.

  17. Nutritional Recovery Outcome among Moderately Malnourished ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional Recovery Outcome among Moderately Malnourished Under-five Children in Communities Implementing Positive Deviance - Hearth or Community Health Workers' Nutrition Promotion Approaches in Karusi and Kirundo Provinces, Burundi.

  18. Responding to crises in the African Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynne Evans

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A published Adelphi Paper examines the international responses to the ethnic conflict in Burundi and Rwanda from 1993-97 and its overspill into neighbouring Zaire. This extract provides details of four concrete proposals.

  19. Search Results | Page 74 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 731 - 740 of 8489 ... Innovation for social inclusion in Africa: thinking aloud ... challenge for food security and sustainable development in Burundi ... Advocating for Science, Technology and Innovation: Lessons from a Decade of Linking ...

  20. 78 FR 41972 - Determination Under Section 107(a) of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ...-457) and Delegation of Waiver Authority Pursuant to Section 107(a) of Public Law 110-457, I hereby..., Barbados, Belarus, Burundi, Chad, Comoros, The Gambia, Liberia, Malaysia, Maldives, and Thailand. This...

  1. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sssa

    probable effects of decentralisation on the two elements of the rule of law to which I referred above: ... Decentralisation will probably increase efficiency and the central power will ...... Most of the ethnically motivated crimes committed in Burundi.

  2. What we do | Page 108 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social Protection and Vulnerable Communities in East Africa: Implications for Household Welfare. Social protection mechanisms can reduce poverty and vulnerability, increase work and educational achievement, and promote economic growth. Burundi, Kenya, Uganda, North Of Sahara, South Of Sahara. PROJECT ...

  3. Identity and Cultural Diversity in Conflict Resolution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doctorate thesis titled 'The political stakes of ethnicity in Burundi'. The article .... of durability and spiritual strength, as is proven by the rites performed when a king is .... permanent feature by creating a big psychological distance and an ethnic.

  4. Afro-pessimist discourse as a war song against the enemy, Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francis

    Rwanda Journal of Arts and Humanities, Volume 2 (2), 2017. 59 ... examined through the power management of the kings of Rwanda some elements of ..... order to defeat them, he chose a defensive strategy against Burundi, as this was the.

  5. All projects related to | Page 138 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, SMALL FARMS, AGRICULTURE, WOMEN, Food security. Region: Burundi ... Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: ... Topic: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH CAPACITY, RESEARCH METHODS, METHODOLOGY, SOUTH ASIA, Evaluation. Region: North ...

  6. Book Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Book Review. Water Resources Management in Ethiopia: Implications for the Nile Basin. ... general to specific issues within the Ethiopian context. ... properly made with regard to water source, ... of those of Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda,.

  7. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Partial Contents: AIDS in Burundi, Rwanda AIDS Situation in Country Examined, Estimated Over 750,000 HIV Positive, In 3 Years 4 Million May Be AIDS Carriers, Events at National AIDS Convention Analyzed, Senior Army...

  8. Kliimamuutuste mõju laboratoorium / Andres Tarand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarand, Andres, 1940-

    2001-01-01

    Segadused Ida-Aafrika riikides, nende põhjused. Tabel: Ida-Aafrika riikide mõned arengunäitajad: Etioopia, Sudaan, Somaali, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Keenia. Autor: Rahvaerakond Mõõdukad. Parlamendisaadik

  9. All projects related to | Page 238 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-31

    End Date: March 31, 2015. Topic: CONFLICTS, CAPITAL MOVEMENTS, STATE, Economic and social development, MILITARY ACTIVITY. Region: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Governance and Justice.

  10. All projects related to | Page 137 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. Africa has the highest proportion of undernourished people in the world. Topic: AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, SMALL FARMS, AGRICULTURE, WOMEN, Food security. Region: Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia. Program: Agriculture and Food Security.

  11. Post-War Economics. Micro-Level Evidence from the African Great Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    D'Aoust, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    This thesis starts by arguing that the civil conflicts that erupted in the African Great Lakes are rooted in a continuous pursuit of power, in which ethnic, regional and political identifiers are used by the contenders for power to rally community support. In an introductory chapter, I go back to the colonial era, drawing attention to Burundi and Rwanda, and then describe in more details Burundi's refugee crisis, ex-combatants' demobilization and the 2010 elections, all of which will be addre...

  12. Resultats principaux & recommandations: Le renforcement des Comités de Paix Locaux - Faciliter les débats des parties prenantes sur les choix stratégiques impliqués dans la justice transitionnelle au Burundi et en RDC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M. van; Nindorera, J.; Nzweve, J.-L.; Uffelen, G.-J. van; Corbijn, C.; Boer, Sanne de

    2016-01-01

    Les Comités de Paix Locaux (CPLs) sont devenus une importante stratégie d’organisations de développement pour promouvoir la justice transitionnelle dans des contextes touchés par des conflits. Dans la pratique, travailler avec les CPLs implique plusieurs choix stratégiques, y compris sur (1) la

  13. Globally threatened dragonflies (Odonata) in Eastern Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the status of East African dragonfly species (Odonata) listed globally as threatened on "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". The area considered includes Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Malawi. From a total of 323 species known from these countries, 31 are listed in ...

  14. Maritime vessels carry more than half of growing U.S.-East Africa trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Trade between the United States and East African countries (defined in this special report as Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda) has grown substantially in recent years, reaching $1.3 billion in value in 2007. Between 1997 and 2007, U.S. e...

  15. Sécurité alimentaire en Afrique : fonds Cultiver l'avenir de l'Afrique 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 mars 2018 ... Type. Subventions. Admissibilité. Le présent appel est destiné aux organismes souhaitant mener des activités de recherche en partenariat dans l'un ou plusieurs des pays admissibles : le Burundi ;; l'Éthiopie ;; le Kenya ;; le Malawi ;; le Mozambique ;; l'Ouganda ;; le Rwanda ;; la Tanzanie ;; la Zambie et ...

  16. IDRC in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    BURUNDI. RWANDA. Indian. Ocean. La ke. Ta n g a n yika. Lake. Victoria. Lake. Malawi. 100 km. Bolstering think tanks. IDRC is strengthening the capacity of three independent policy research institutes in the country. The Think Tank Initiative has awarded core funding to the. • Economic and Social Research Foundation.

  17. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1991-01-01

    Includes annotations for 19 government publications from 17 countries: Bolivia, Botswana, Burundi, Chile, Costa Rica, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Peru, Rwanda, and the Soviet Union. Topics covered include pornography, poverty, food, and hunger. The effect of library budget pressures on…

  18. 78 FR 78159 - Delegation of Authority Under Section 506(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... assistance to France, the African Union, the Republic of the Congo, Chad, Cameroon, Gabon, Burundi, Uganda, Rwanda, and other countries that contribute forces to the African Union-led International Support Mission in the Central African Republic and to make the determinations required under such section to direct...

  19. Evolution of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is the ability of the AU to mount properly constituted peace operations such as the AU Missions in Burundi and Sudan. However, even at this early stage, the author cautions that serious challenges, such as a lack of adequate manpower and funding for African peace operations, already plague the PSC. African Insight Vol.

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members

  1. The Relevance of Humanitarian Intervention in the New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They played a key role in restoring confidence among Burundians by insuring that the situation in the country did not degenerate into chaos. Their support towards the peace process ensured the implementation of the Arusha agreement for Burundi. La fin de la Guerre Froide a rendu possible un changement fondamental ...

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [ru

  3. Tradition, globalisation and language dilemma in education: African options for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwantabagu, Hermenegilde

    2011-08-01

    This paper addresses the dilemma of language in education in African countries with particular reference to Burundi. African languages are still marginalised by colonial languages such as French and English. Looking at other African countries in general and at the case of Burundi in detail, an analysis is made of the adopted policies aimed at promoting the use of the mother tongue as a basis for knowledge acquisition and cultural integration. Burundi has gone through a series of educational reforms both before and after gaining independence in 1962, with French and Kirundi competing as curricular teaching languages. After the integration of Burundi into the East African Community in July 2007, English and Kiswahili were added to the curriculum, complicating education policies. This article places particular emphasis on the contextual challenges that tend to impair the full implementation of the adopted policy reforms. The paper concludes by advocating for a multilingual approach in which the indigenous mother tongue serves as the basis for the acquisition of other languages in the curriculum.

  4. Confirmed range extension of the White-billed Buffalo Weaver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FAnsHAwe, J. 2002. Field guide of the birds of East Africa. Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda,. Rwanda, Burundi. London: T. & A.D. Poyser. zimmermAn, d.A., tUrner, d.A. & PeArson d.J. 1999. Birds of Kenya & Northern Tanzania. London: Helm Field Guides. Sandro Panzera. Museo di Storia Naturale del Salento, Calimera LE, Italy.

  5. On the Afrotropical genus Holmelgonia (Araneae, Linyphiidae, with the description of three new species from the Albertine Rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Nzigidahera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Holmelgonia were found in the mountain forest of Kibira National Park in Burundi: H. afromontana sp. nov. (♂♀, H. bosnasutus sp. nov. (♂♀ and H. disconveniens sp. nov. (♂. A key to the males in the genus, now containing 17 species, is provided.

  6. Search Results | Page 15 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    Results 141 - 150 of 1914 ... Commission for Science and Technology: An Overview of PICTURE-Africa. Published date. January 1, 2011. Studies. -. Agricultural land use, the fundamental challenge for food security and sustainable development in Burundi. Published date. January 1, 2011. Studies. -. Food security and minor ...

  7. Theater Sustainment Reserve for the Rwanda Defence Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    The East African magazine stated that the illegal armed group operating in the eastern DRC was moving into Burundi (Magical 2015). Rwanda’s...Gisenyi District Hospital in Rwanda.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. Accessed 31 March 2016. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books

  8. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  9. Identity and Cultural Diversity in Conflict Resolution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with the help of an institutional framework, while pretending to fight it. The Burundi nation that was built on moral and social values such as Ubushingantahe, Ubuntu, Ubupfasoni, a love for a work well done, and the value of effort, finds itself in a trap. There is a crisis of these values, which resulted in the legitimatisation of ...

  10. Publications | Page 260 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Patronage or partnership: Local capacity building in humanitarian crises. It is early 1998, on the outskirts of Bujumbura, the capital of Burundi. "People are dying like flies," says an understandably emotional American missionary running a refugee camp for four thousand Hutus. Asked by a reporter about a.

  11. Mainstreaming road safety in the regional integration of the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Community (EAC) comprising of five states: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda bear a disproportionate burden of the global public health burden for road traffic injuries (RTIs). In response to this, each state has devised its own road safety measures, but not at the EAC level. This paper aims to ...

  12. In their own words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC and Sierra Leone, the end of armed fighting has not brought with it the longed-for peace. Today, an epidemic of gender-based violence continues to undermine efforts to bring stability.

  13. Search Results | Page 76 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 751 - 760 of 8530 ... Commission for Science and Technology: An Overview of PICTURE-Africa. Published ... Managing food security among the rural poor in uganda: recognising vulnerability and it's drivers ... Agricultural land use, the fundamental challenge for food security and sustainable development in Burundi.

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [fr

  15. East African Community Law : Institutional, Substantive and Comparative EU Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ugirashebuja, E.; Ruhangisa, J.E.; Ottervanger, T.R.; Cuyvers, A.

    2017-01-01

    The East African Community (EAC) is a regional intergovernmental and supranational organization currently comprising the Republics of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, the United Republic of Tanzania, and the Republic of Uganda. Established in 2000, the EAC aims at widening and deepening

  16. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [es

  17. The Eleventh Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation. Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Greece Malaysia Turkmenistan Algeria Haiti Montenegro Uganda Azerbaijan Indonesia Oman United Arab Emirates Bahrain Iran Pakistan Uzbekistan Burundi Iraq...of their lives can also suffer, with the demands of providing constant care often crowding out parental duties, school, friends, and leisure

  18. Search Results | Page 12 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    Results 111 - 120 of 1119 ... Agricultural land use, the fundamental challenge for food security and sustainable development in Burundi. Published date. January 1, 2011. Reports ... Enhancing food production in semi arid coastal lowlands Kenya through water harvesting technologies. Published date. January 1, 2013. Studies.

  19. Practices of Third Wave Coffee : A Burundian Producer's Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, Lauren; Swilling, Mark; Vermeulen, Walter J.V.

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between coffee quality and sustainability is typically analysed using symbolic quality attributes, not material quality. This article provides a bottom-up perspective of Burundi's current competitive advantage in the global coffee market: material quality. The research agenda was

  20. The dynamics of security provision in the aftermath of war : How international efforts to contribute to security in post-settlement countries relate to national and local perceptions and practices of security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is based on field research in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and South Sudan and looks at the dynamics of security provisioning in post-settlement contexts. A particular focus is on international security interventions, which are constituted by Disarmament,

  1. Renforcement de la recherche sur les politiques et du plaidoyer ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing food security among the rural poor in uganda: recognising vulnerability and it's drivers. Download PDF. Studies. Agricultural land use, the fundamental challenge for food security and sustainable development in Burundi. Download PDF. Studies. Food security and minor crops in Uganda: the farmers' perspective ...

  2. : tous les projets | Page 204 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 685,000.00. Le rôle des milices, des autorités malveillantes et du capital voyou dans la Corne de l'Afrique. Projet.

  3. Search Results | Page 93 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 921 - 930 of 9578 ... Agriculture and Environment ... Afghanistan, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Micronesia, North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of), Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, .... Kenya has an estimated 18.2 million cattle, 16.3 million sheep, and 24.6 million goats.

  4. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012). Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Myanmar ...

  5. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012). Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali.

  6. Cultivate Africa's Future | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ten Eastern and Southern African countries will form part of this research: Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The project team will select projects using an open competitive call where applicants will submit a concept note, followed by a full proposal for ...

  7. Play and recreation in a developing country context: Assessing utility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Play and recreation programming are increasingly becoming part of the modern city. This study explored the level of access to, satisfaction with, and perceptions of quality of Jardin Public Gardens, the only public open green space in Bujumbura, Burundi's capital. The study evaluated distance, age, perceived quality, and ...

  8. Fish health status, research and management in East Africa: past ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the state of research on fish pathogens in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda from the early 1900s, the period when fisheries management started in the region, to date, and evaluates the current policy, regulatory frameworks, management practices and frameworks for addressing fish health ...

  9. Introduction course on the economical evaluation of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.

    1992-06-01

    A theoretical course on the financial and economical evaluation of energy projects is presented. The course was organized by the Banque Mondiale in Bujumbura, Burundi, from 11 to 16 November 1991. Subsequently attention is paid to the basics of economic analysis, the financial and the economical analysis of an investment project, and finally the prices of energy products. 4 figs., 13 refs

  10. Search Results | Page 7 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 61 - 70 of 132 ... Final technical report on the research project "Understanding Obstacles to Peace in the Great Lakes Region : Actors, Interests and Strategies". Even in cases where conflicts are interrelated and overlapping with reciprocal effects (Burundi, Rwanda, DRC, Uganda, Sudan etc.) there has been little effort ...

  11. HIV/AIDS AND THE RELIGIOUS LEADERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUDURO

    Arguably, no religion is free from this epidemic ...... 89 There have been documented reports in Burundi and Malaysia of couples offering fake HIV/AIDS ..... Sidibé M 2010 Having faith: The global challenge of HIV and AIDS (Speech delivered.

  12. Tanzania | Page 32 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In doing so, it emphasizes obstacles to peace rather than root causes of conflict. Case studies are presented from Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, ... L'inefficience et la corruption agissent de concert pour maintenir les gens dans la pauvreté. La solution : l'imposition de règlements obligeant les entreprises à ...

  13. the consequences of humanitarian peacekeeping in africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    non-military development, such as the spreading of disease and movement of refugees. A shift in defence policy had to accommodate a broader, more inclusive mandate and roles for humanitarian peacekeeping operations in African countries such as Eritrea, Ethiopia, the DRC, Burundi and Sudan. Missions were to be.

  14. Good Governance and Foreign Direct Investment : A Legal Contribution to a Balanced Economic Development in the East African Community (EAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbembe, Binda

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of the East African Community (EAC) is the promotion of a balanced economic development between its Partner States: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. And one of the ways to reach this economic development is the attraction of investment, especially Foreign Direct

  15. The Relevance of Humanitarian Intervention in the New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    clé en restaurant la confiance entre les Burundais en s'assurant que la situation dans le pays .... protection purposes needs to meet at least four basic objectives: ... unreasonable for the United Nations Operation in Burundi (UNOB) to enforce.

  16. Why land rights for women are critical | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... Photo credit: UN Women Burundi “Why waste land on them? ... under both men and women is more productive because women have more of ... In Tanzania, women with strong land rights were three times more likely to work ...

  17. Factors influencing smallholder farmers' bean production and supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) is a major staple food in Burundi; thus increasing its production and marketing has the potential for raising incomes of the farming households. In the country, bean outputs have been declining for decades, yet demand for the crop in East Africa has surged considerably. This study was ...

  18. A study on sustainable energy for cement industries in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumaran, G.S.; Msinjili, N.S.; Schmidt, W.; Florea, M.V.A.; Nibasumba, P.

    2012-01-01

    Rwanda is a landlocked country in the East Africa. It is surrounded by Uganda, Tanzania, Congo and Burundi. Rwanda is a fast developing country and it spends most of its revenues to import fossil fuels from either through Mombasa Port in Kenya or Dar es Salaam port in Tanzania because the energy

  19. Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle; Stoffelen, P.

    2012-01-01

    of the Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current...

  20. Annual report of the project BDI 5001: Improving cassava productivity through mutation breeding and better water and nutrient management practices using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    Implementating the IAEA/BDI 5001 project, ISABU has conducted several activities in order to contribute to the food security improvement and farmers’ incomes. Cassava productivity was indeed improved through soil fertilization, mutation breeding, cassava in vitro mutagenesis, halding mutant populations and best water and nutrient management practices using nuclear techniques. Scientific visits, workshops and farmer field schools were organized for different associations in different regions of Burundi for exchange of experience and diseases limitation. The expected results were the soil fertility, a good water management and the increase of the capacity of cassava to resist diseases, which gives a good yield of cassava. High officials from Burundi and expert form IAEA visited the project, the constraint is the lack of irradiation facilities in the region and ISABU propose that IAEA should support national Institutes.

  1. From Watch-dogs to Nation-builders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Simon; Mossin Brønden, Birgitte

    This working paper explores the changing roles of Diasporas in post-conflict Burundi in terms of contributing to development, reconciliation and peace building. Burundi is in a state of post-conflict recovery after decades of civil war and widespread ethnic violence. Due to repressive regimes...... or circulation of "brains". In this working paper, we explore the various initiatives that have been taken by various actors in order to try to engage the Diaspora in peace building and development. Such initiatives are taken at all levels from local grassroots and individual entrepreneurs to states...... engagements. First, it is now possible for members of the Diaspora to invest in the country, either with the prospect of returning in the future or simply to make a profit. Second, the Diaspora is increasingly involved in development projects. A third area of Diaspora engagement after conflict is the return...

  2. Mirror Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Simon

    Since the massive violence in the 1990s, Rwanda and Burundi have moved in two very different directions in terms of peace and state building. Rwanda is following a path of social engineering, creating a radically new national identity with a new citizenry in order to break with what is perceived...... as a national culture that led to the genocide. Because the conflict ended with a clear winner in 1994, the state has the moral legitimacy to carry through with its policies, and any opposition may be dismissed as supporting divisionism and genocidal ideologies. While Rwanda is concerned with social engineering......, Burundi is concerned with what we might term 'consociational engineering'. In other words, the complex, time consuming and often frustrating path out of conflict has been characterised by constant negotiations with countless factions and complex power-sharing deals, trying to take the concerns of all...

  3. Learning from praxis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    of impartiality. The use of force was typically limited to self-defence, and to some extent defence of the mission. The end of the Cold War also meant that it was possible for the UN Security Council to authorise more missions, including in areas where it had previously had not been possible due to the tensions...... for the maintenance of international peace and security. The basic idea was that the AU typically received a Chapter VII mandate from the UN Security Council (UNSC), and then deployed a force that was later re-hatted into a UN PSO mission. This happened, for instance, in Burundi, Darfur, Mali and CAR....... Kenya strongly opposes this idea because it is seen as undermining the regionally based standby system and the carrying value of the AU for collective security. The EASF response to the potential deployment of a military intervention force in Burundi in 2015 illustrate the limitations of the regional...

  4. Étude de la dégradation de deux boissons industrielles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mai 2017 ... associées à l'eau et au houblon (Caporale et al.,. 2004 ; Boivin 2005). Au Burundi, la bière fait partie de la culture burundaise. Par exemple, partager une ..... un désinfectant, on peut penser que les bactéries causant la dégradation de la bière se développent lentement dans la bouteille de l'Amstel bock.

  5. South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-20

    almost 900 soldiers to the U.N. Operation in Burundi (ONUB), where former President Nelson Mandela played a leading role in brokering a peace...racial segregation, won control of the National Assembly. The Assembly chose as President Nelson Mandela , the ANC leader who had been released from...reportedly improving. South Africa has taken a critical stance toward the war in Iraq, and former President Nelson Mandela has been vocal in his

  6. From Stalemate to Settlement: Lessons for Afghanistan from Historical Insurgencies That Have Been Resolved Through Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    negotiations in that case. To break the deadlock of stalled negotiations, Nelson Mandela was designated as a special mediator for the conflict in 1999...legal strictures of the state.”103 When Martin McGuinness, Hassan Nasrallah, and Nelson Mandela were first afforded political legitimacy, there... Mandela succeeded in negotiating an agreement between the warring parties in August 2000 that allowed for the establishment of a transi- Table 13 Burundi

  7. Přístupy k řešení problematiky hladu ve vybraných zemích subsaharské Afriky

    OpenAIRE

    Sommernitzová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the methods of solving hunger in the two selected countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (Ghana, Burundi). Its aim is to introduce the various possibilities of solving the problem of hunger in the world and than comparing these two contrasting economies assess, whether the states use only the different methods of combating hunger, or not. The thesis also suggestes what the selected countries should focus on in the future in order to quickly reduce the number of hungry people. G...

  8. Village Stability Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Special Operations Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    effects .8 In addition to these deaths, the UN reports 2.9 million 7 The eleven nations: DRC, Republic of Congo , Uganda, Rwanda , Burundi, Angola, Namibia...Lakes region of Central Africa on land that is easy to exploit but difficult to control. Since the 1994 genocide in Rwanda , which prompted massive...incumbent Hutu government in neighboring Rwanda initiated a genocide of the Tutsi population. The Tutsi Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) capitalized on the

  9. La détention avant jugement en droit burundais de la procédure pénale : la portée limitée de son caractère exceptionnel:De vrijheidsberoving voor veroordeling in het Burundese strafprocesrecht: de beperkte draagwijdte van haar uitzonderlijk karakter. Pre-trial detention in burundian criminal procedural law: the limited extent of its exceptional character

    OpenAIRE

    Ntahiraja, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted as a principle of criminal procedural law that pretrial detention should be the exception and not the rule. Grounds for that principle can be found in international human rights law, explicitly in some treaties (article 9, 3 of the international covenant on civil and political rights), implicitly in some others (article 6 of the african charter on human and peoples’ rights). In addition to being a party to such instruments, Burundi has incorporated their substantive cont...

  10. 2085-IJBCS-Article-Olga Yongo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    qu'un souvenir chez certaines personnes âgées. Leur mode de vie est profondément modifié. Ils ont tendance à s'orienter vers de nouvelles techniques de chasse et de pêche, et vers l'agriculture. REFERENCES. Angenot L. 1978. Les poisons de flèches africains. 1. Zaïre, Rwanda et Burundi. Africa Tervuren, 24: 36-54.

  11. Re-integration of Former Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Combatants into Civilian Society in Post-War Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    to national and local requirements.35 In Burundi, the peace efforts were also characterized by an approach "in stages,” said Isaiah Nibizi, head...Guantanamo Returnees, Combating Terrorism Center at West Point,” CTC Sentinel 1, Issue 1, 10–11. 80 Thomas W. Lippman W (2012), Saudi Arabia on the Edge...CRS Report for Congress, 29–30. 84 Thomas Hegghammer (2010), Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism Since 1979, London: Cambridge

  12. A potato model intercomparison across varying climates and productivity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Fleisher, David; Condori, Bruno; Quiroz, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A potato crop multi-model assessment was conducted to quantify variation among models and evaluate responses to climate change. Nine modeling groups simulated agronomic and climatic responses at low- (Chinoli, Bolivia and Gisozi, Burundi) and high- (Jyndevad, Denmark and Washington, United States.......01). These are the first reported results quantifying uncertainty for tuber/root crops and suggest modeling assessments of climate change impact on potato may be improved using an ensemble approach....

  13. Assessing the impact of mass rape on the incidence of HIV in conflict-affected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supervie, Virginie; Halima, Yasmin; Blower, Sally

    2010-11-27

    To quantify the potential impact of mass rape on HIV incidence in seven conflict-afflicted countries (CACs), with severe HIV epidemics, in sub-Saharan Africa. Uncertainty analysis of a risk equation model. A mathematical model was used to evaluate the potential impact of mass rape on increasing HIV incidence in women and girls in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, southern Sudan and Uganda. The model was parameterized with data from UNAIDS/WHO and the US Census Bureau's International Database. Incidence data from UNAIDS/WHO were used for calibration. Mass rape could cause approximately five HIV infections per 100,000 females per year in the DRC, Sudan, Somalia and Sierra Leone, double the number in Burundi and Rwanda, and quadruple the number in Uganda. The number of females infected per year due to mass rape is likely to be relatively low in Somalia and Sierra Leone at 127 [median (interquartile range [IQR] 55-254)] and 156 [median (IQR 69-305)], respectively. Numbers could be high in the DRC and Uganda: 1120 [median (IQR 527-2360)] and 2172 [median (IQR 1031-4668)], respectively. In Burundi, Rwanda and Sudan, the numbers are likely to be intermediate. Under extreme conditions, 10,000 women and girls could be infected per year in the DRC and 20 000 women and girls could be infected per year in Uganda. Mass rape could increase annual incidence by approximately 7% [median (IQR 3-15)]. Interventions and treatment targeted to rape survivors during armed conflicts could reduce HIV incidence. Support should be provided both on the basis of human rights and public health.

  14. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map...... is available in different formats and is accompanied by an extensive documentation of the floristic, physiognomic and other characteristics of the different vegetation types and useful woody species in the 8 countries. It is complemented by a species selection tool, which can be used to 'find the right tree...

  15. Counterinsurgency Scorecard Update: Afghanistan in Early 2015 Relative to Insurgencies Since World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    negotiated settlement. The 13 cases were Indonesia (Aceh), Northern Ireland, Bosnia, Chechnya , the Lebanese Civil War, Burundi, Kampuchea, Tajikistan...COIN loss Chechnya I 1994–1996 1 –7 –6 COIN loss Bosnia 1992–1995 0 –6 –6 COIN loss Laos 1959–1975 2 –7 –5 COIN loss Nagorno-Karabakh 1992–1994 0 –5...Somoza) 1978–1979 0 –6 –6 COIN loss Chechnya I 1994–1996 1 –7 –6 COIN loss Bosnia 1992–1995 0 –6 –6 COIN loss Laos 1959–1975 2 –7 –5 COIN loss

  16. Improving cassava productivity through mutation breeding and better water and nutrient management practices using nuclear techniques 'Project BDI 5001'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyizigiro, Ernest

    2018-01-01

    The cassava diseases, low soil fertility and moisture shortage causing a low cassava productivity and leading to poverty problem and food insecurity. The objective of the BDI 5001 Project was to develop farmers knowledge, cassava lines resistant to diseases using mutation breeding, soil fertility optimization, use nuclear techniques to retain water and control soil erosion in order to increase the cassava productivity. Procurement of laboratory equipment and other local material have been initiated by ISABU. Training and workshop was locally organized, researchers and official from burundi participated in Vienna in training courses and scientific visit for capacity building

  17. Migration, poverty and equality

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lykke E.

    2016-01-01

    The scale of inequality around the world is almost unfathomable. The average inhabitant of Norway, Qatar and Switzerland earns more in one day than what the average inhabitant of Malawi and Burundi earns in an entire year1. If you get pregnant in Sierra Leone, you are 300 times more likely to die from pregnancy related causes than if you get pregnant in Sweden2. If you are born in Angola or the Central African Republic, you are 50 times more likely to die within your first year of life than i...

  18. Amenaza Interdependiente en la Región de los Grandes Lagos

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya Rojas, Estefanía

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de esta monografía es analizar los alcances de la presencia de grupos armados ilegales como elementos determinantes en el origen de un subcomplejo de seguridad regional entre la República Democrática del Congo, Ruanda y Burundi. Se busca explicar cómo un conflicto étnico se traduce en la presencia de grupos insurgentes, y a su vez, establece una amenaza interdependiente entre los líderes políticos de dichos países, que permite hablar del subcomplejo de seguridad....

  19. Food and Nutritional Strategies Statement of the Seminar of the 3 November 1986, held at the Borschette Centre, organized by the CTA Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (ACP-EEC and the Royal Academy of Overseas Sciences - A.R.S.O.M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A diet sheet for Burundi is not enough to get a true image of the food situation. Some corrections have to be brought into the picture to take into account the geographic scattering of agricultural productions and the differences in access facilities to the food markets. Previsions and recommandations on food situation requires a good appreciation of the physical and institutional constraints which are weighing on agriculture. Only then it could be eventually possible to define an agricultural policy which has to be founded on regional specialization and on development of rural activities outside the agricultural sector.

  20. Hope in Africa?: social representations of world history and the future in six African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-10-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo).

  1. Paleolimnological investigations of anthropogenic environmental change in Lake Tanganyika: I. An introduction to the project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A.S.; Palacios-Fest, M. R.; McGill, J.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Verschuren, D.; Sinyinza, R.; Songori, T.; Kakagozo, B.; Syampila, M.; O'Reilly, C. M.; Alin, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated paleolimnological records from a series of river deltas around the northeastern rim of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa (Tanzania and Burundi) in order to understand the history of anthropogenic activity in the lake's catchment over the last several centuries, and to determine the impact of these activities on the biodiversity of littoral and sublittoral lake communities. Sediment pollution caused by increased rates of soil erosion in deforested watersheds has caused significant changes in aquatic communities along much of the lake's shoreline. We analyzed the effects of sediment discharge on biodiversity around six deltas or delta complexes on the east coast of Lake Tanganyika: the Lubulungu River delta, Kabesi River delta, Nyasanga/Kahama River deltas, and Mwamgongo River delta in Tanzania; and the Nyamuseni River delta and Karonge/Kirasa River deltas in Burundi. Collectively, these deltas and their associated rivers were chosen to represent a spectrum of drainage-basin sizes and disturbance levels. By comparing deltas that are similar in watershed attributes (other than disturbance levels), our goal was to explore a series of historical "experiments" at the watershed scale, with which we could more clearly evaluate hypotheses of land use or other effects on nearshore ecosystems. Here we discuss these deltas, their geologic and physiographic characteristics, and the field procedures used for coring and sampling the deltas, and various indicators of anthropogenic impact. ?? Springer 2005.

  2. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Protopopoff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. CONCLUSIONS: In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  3. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Baza, Dismas; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc

    2009-11-25

    Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  4. Measuring Hope Among Children Affected by Armed Conflict: Cross-Cultural Construct Validity of the Children's Hope Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, Emily E; Jordans, Mark; de Jong, Joop; Gross, Alden; Bass, Judith; Tol, Wietse

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the cross-cultural construct validity of hope, a factor associated with mental health protection and promotion, using the Children's Hope Scale (CHS). The sample ( n = 1,057; 48% girls) included baseline data from three cluster-randomized controlled trials with children affected by armed conflict ( n = 329 Burundi; n = 403 Indonesia; n = 325 Nepal). The confirmatory factor analysis in each country indicated good fit for the hypothesized two-factor model. Analysis by gender indicated that configural invariance was supported and that scalar invariance was demonstrated in Indonesia. However, metric and scalar invariance were not supported in Burundi and Nepal. In country comparisons, configural and metric invariance were met, but scalar invariance was not supported. Evidence from this study supports the use of the CHS within various sociocultural settings and across genders, but direct comparisons of CHS scores across groups should be done with caution. Rigorous evaluations of the measurement properties of mental health protective and promotive factors are necessary to inform both research and practice.

  5. Genetic and morphological characterisation of the Ankole Longhorn cattle in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeyo Mwai A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study investigated the population structure, diversity and differentiation of almost all of the ecotypes representing the African Ankole Longhorn cattle breed on the basis of morphometric (shape and size, genotypic and spatial distance data. Twentyone morphometric measurements were used to describe the morphology of 439 individuals from 11 sub-populations located in five countries around the Great Lakes region of central and eastern Africa. Additionally, 472 individuals were genotyped using 15 DNA microsatellites. Femoral length, horn length, horn circumference, rump height, body length and fore-limb circumference showed the largest differences between regions. An overall FST index indicated that 2.7% of the total genetic variation was present among sub-populations. The least differentiation was observed between the two sub-populations of Mbarara south and Luwero in Uganda, while the highest level of differentiation was observed between the Mugamba in Burundi and Malagarasi in Tanzania. An estimated membership of four for the inferred clusters from a model-based Bayesian approach was obtained. Both analyses on distance-based and model-based methods consistently isolated the Mugamba sub-population in Burundi from the others.

  6. Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among Burundian children aged 6-23 months: evidence from a national cross-sectional household survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkurunziza, Sandra; Meessen, Bruno; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Korachais, Catherine

    2017-07-25

    Burundi is one of the poorest countries and is among the four countries with the highest prevalence of stunting (58%) among children aged less than 5 years. This situation undermines the economic growth of the country as undernutrition is strongly associated with less schooling and reduced economic productivity. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting may help policy-makers to direct the limited Burundian resources to the most vulnerable segments of the population, and thus make it more cost effective. This study aimed to identify predictors of stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than two years in Burundi. The sample is made up of 6199 children aged 6 to 23 months with complete anthropometric measurements from the baseline survey of an impact evaluation study of the Performance-Based financing (PBF) scheme applied to nutrition services in Burundi from 2015 to 2017. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine stunting and severe stunting against a set of child, parental and household variables such as child's age or breastfeeding pattern, mother's age or knowledge of malnutrition, household size or socio-economic status. The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 53% [95%CI: 51.8-54.3] and 20.9% [95%CI: 19.9-22.0] respectively. Compared to children from 6-11 months, children of 12-17 months and 18-23 months had a higher risk of stunting (AdjOR:2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.4 and 3.2; 95% CI: 2.8-3.7). Other predictors for stunting were small babies (AdjOR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7 for medium-size babies at birth and AdjOR=2.9; 95% CI: 2.4-3.6 for small-size babies at birth) and male children (AdjOR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.4-1.8). In addition, having no education for mothers (AdjOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), incorrect mothers' child nutrition status assessment (AdjOR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.8-4), delivering at home (AdjOR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6) were found to be predictors for stunting. More than to 2 under five children in the

  7. Ethics after intervention: should warlords be empowered as statesmen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Duarte Flora Carvalho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War, when the number of peacekeeping and peacebuilding interventions considerably increased, the debate about their ethics raised as an important aspect regarding both its ends and its means. Literature was roughly divided between those who advocated for an approach centred on global actors, liberal peace and cosmopolitanism and those who stood for the role of local actors and indigenous solutions for the problems in question. In this regard, the relationship that the International Community usually held with warring parties in civil conflict came to the fore. This essay looks forward to providing insights about the role that warlords can play in facilitating and hindering internationally-led peace process. Using Burundi and Somalia as case-studies, it is argued that warlords can only commit to liberal and cosmopolitan ethics after the state institutions have been built and solidified.

  8. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.

  9. Mineral biofortification strategies for food staples: the example of common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W

    2013-09-04

    Common bean is the most important directly consumed legume, especially in the least developed countries of Africa (e.g., Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda) and Latin America (e.g., Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador). Biofortification is the process of improving staple crops for mineral or vitamin content as a way to address malnutrition in developing countries. The main goals of mineral biofortification have been to increase the concentration of iron or zinc in certain major cereals and legumes. In humans, iron is essential for preventing anemia and for the proper functioning of many metabolic processes, whereas zinc is essential for adequate growth and for resistance to gastroenteric and respiratory infections, especially in children. This paper outlines the advantages and needs of mineral biofortification in common bean, starting with the steps of breeding for the trait such as germplasm screening, inheritance, physiological, or bioavailability studies and finishing with product development in the form of new biofortified varieties.

  10. A survey of the praying mantises of Rwanda, including new records (Insecta, Mantodea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of two surveys targeting praying mantises in four localities in Rwanda, specifically Akagera National Park, Nyungwe National Park, Volcanoes National Park, and the Arboretum de Ruhande at the National University of Rwanda. Using an assortment of collecting techniques, including metal halide light traps, sweep netting vegetation and general searching, we obtained 387 adult and 352 juvenile specimens, representing 41 species. A total of 28 novel species records for Rwanda are added to the 18 previously recorded species for the country, in addition to 20 novel species records for the broader region, including neighbouring Uganda and Burundi. This study provides high resolution images of the dorsal habitus of both sexes of representative species, both pinned and living. Species distribution records are presented and discussed. With a 155% increase in species recorded from Rwanda, this survey illustrates the need for further taxonomic work in the region.

  11. Exploring the potential offered by legacy soil databases for ecosystem services mapping of Central African soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoodt, Ann; Baert, Geert; Van Ranst, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Central African soil resources are characterised by a large variability, ranging from stony, shallow or sandy soils with poor life-sustaining capabilities to highly weathered soils that recycle and support large amounts of biomass. Socio-economic drivers within this largely rural region foster inappropriate land use and management, threaten soil quality and finally culminate into a declining soil productivity and increasing food insecurity. For the development of sustainable land use strategies targeting development planning and natural hazard mitigation, decision makers often rely on legacy soil maps and soil profile databases. Recent development cooperation financed projects led to the design of soil information systems for Rwanda, D.R. Congo, and (ongoing) Burundi. A major challenge is to exploit these existing soil databases and convert them into soil inference systems through an optimal combination of digital soil mapping techniques, land evaluation tools, and biogeochemical models. This presentation aims at (1) highlighting some key characteristics of typical Central African soils, (2) assessing the positional, geographic and semantic quality of the soil information systems, and (3) revealing its potential impacts on the use of these datasets for thematic mapping of soil ecosystem services (e.g. organic carbon storage, pH buffering capacity). Soil map quality is assessed considering positional and semantic quality, as well as geographic completeness. Descriptive statistics, decision tree classification and linear regression techniques are used to mine the soil profile databases. Geo-matching as well as class-matching approaches are considered when developing thematic maps. Variability in inherent as well as dynamic soil properties within the soil taxonomic units is highlighted. It is hypothesized that within-unit variation in soil properties highly affects the use and interpretation of thematic maps for ecosystem services mapping. Results will mainly be based

  12. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric

    2014-04-23

    A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of

  13. Women's empowerment and male involvement in antenatal care: analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Na, Muzi; Cherewick, Megan; Hindin, Michelle; Mullany, Britta; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2014-08-30

    Increasing women's status and male involvement are important strategies in reducing preventable maternal morbidity and mortality. While efforts to both empower women and engage men in maternal health care-seeking can work synergistically, in practice they may result in opposing processes and outcomes. This study examines whether a woman's empowerment status, in sum and across economic, socio-familial, and legal dimensions, is associated with male partner accompaniment to antenatal care (ANC). Women's empowerment was measured based on the sum of nine empowerment items in the 2010-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys in eight sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso (n = 2,490), Burundi (n = 1,042), Malawi (n = 1,353), Mozambique (n = 414), Rwanda (n = 1,211), Senegal (n = 505), Uganda (n = 428) and Zimbabwe (n = 459). In cross-sectional analyses, bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions models were used to examine the odds of male partner accompaniment to ANC between women with above-average versus below-average composite and dimensional empowerment scores. In the majority of countries, male accompaniment to ANC was not uncommon. However, findings were mixed. Positive associations in women's composite empowerment and male involvement were observed in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.50) and Uganda (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.35), and in the economic empowerment dimension in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05-1.47). In Malawi, significant negative associations were observed in the odds of male accompaniment to ANC and women's composite (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97) and economic empowerment scores (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.94). No significant differences were observed in Burundi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, or Zimbabwe. Women's empowerment can be positively or negatively associated with male antenatal accompaniment. Male involvement efforts may benefit from empowerment initiatives that promote women's participation in social and economic spheres

  14. Child malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa: A meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys (2006-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing J Akombi

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest levels of child malnutrition globally. Therefore, a critical look at the distribution of malnutrition within its sub-regions is required to identify the worst affected areas. This study provides a meta-analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition indicators (stunting, wasting and underweight within four sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa.Cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2006-2016 of 32 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were used. The countries were grouped into four sub-regions (East Africa, West Africa, Southern Africa and Central Africa, and a meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of each malnutrition indicator within each of the sub-regions. Significant heterogeneity was detected among the various surveys (I2 >50%, hence a random effect model was used, and sensitivity analysis was performed, to examine the effects of outliers. Stunting was defined as HAZ<-2; wasting as WHZ<-2 and underweight as WAZ<-2.Stunting was highest in Burundi (57.7% and Malawi (47.1% in East Africa; Niger (43.9%, Mali (38.3%, Sierra Leone (37.9% and Nigeria (36.8% in West Africa; Democratic Republic of Congo (42.7% and Chad (39.9% in Central Africa. Wasting was highest in Niger (18.0%, Burkina Faso (15.50% and Mali (12.7% in West Africa; Comoros (11.1% and Ethiopia (8.70% in East Africa; Namibia (6.2% in Southern Africa; Chad (13.0% and Sao Tome & Principle (10.5% in Central Africa. Underweight was highest in Burundi (28.8% and Ethiopia (25.2% in East Africa; Niger (36.4%, Nigeria (28.7%, Burkina Faso (25.7%, Mali (25.0% in West Africa; and Chad (28.8% in Central Africa.The prevalence of malnutrition was highest within countries in East Africa and West Africa compared to the WHO Millennium development goals target for 2015. Appropriate nutrition interventions need to be prioritised in East Africa and West Africa if sub-Saharan Africa is to meet the WHO global nutrition target

  15. Assessment of the vulnerability and the resilience of the population at risk of multi-hazard: a support to geo-risk management in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michellier, Caroline; Kervyn, François; Tréfon, Théodore; Wolff, Eléonore

    2013-04-01

    GeoRisCA is a project which aims at studying the geo-risk in the Kivu region (DRC, Rwanda, Burundi), in order to support risk management. The approach developed in GeoRisCA combines methodologies from various disciplines, which will allow the analyses of seismic, volcanic and mass-movement hazards and the vulnerability assessment of the threatened elements. Vulnerability is a complex concept which is commonly defined as the susceptibility of the population, the infrastructures and the natural ecosystems to suffer from damages if a hazard occurs. The densely populated area extended from the North Kivu province in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to North Burundi and East Rwanda is vulnerable to several geohazards, such as landslides triggered by geodynamical processes (climate, seismicity, volcanism) and possibly worsen by anthropic actions. Located in the East African rift valley, the region is also characterized by a strong seismicity, with increasing people and infrastructure exposed. In addition, east DRC hosts the two most active African volcanoes: Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira. Their activity can have serious impacts, as in 2002 when Nyiragongo directly endangers the ~800.000 inhabitants of Goma city, located ~15 km to the south. Linked to passive volcanic degassing, SO2 and CO2 discharge may also increase the population vulnerability(morbidity, mortality). Focusing specifically on this region, the vulnerability assessment methodology developed in GeoRisCA takes into account "exposure to perturbations" and "adaptive capacity or resilience" of the vulnerable systems. On one hand, the exposure is identified as the potential degree of loss of a given element or set of elements at risk; i.e., the susceptibility of people, infrastructures and buildings with respect to a hazard (social vulnerability). It focuses mainly on land use, and on demographic and socio-economic factors that increase or attenuate the impacts of hazards events on local populations. On the

  16. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoki Mwabukusi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara, Burundi (Muyinga and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke. Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server–client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6, and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing

  17. Cost of epilepsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelczyk, Adam; Reese, Jens Peter; Dodel, Richard; Hamer, Hajo M

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this review was to overview published cost-of-illness (COI) studies of epilepsy and their methodological approaches. Epilepsy imposes a substantial burden on individuals and society as a whole. The mean prevalence of epilepsy is estimated at 0.52% in Europe, 0.68% in the US, and peaks up to 1.5% in developing countries. Estimation of the economic burden of epilepsy is of pivotal relevance to enable a rational distribution of healthcare resources. This is especially so with the introduction of the newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the marketing of vagal-nerve stimulators and the resurgence of new surgical treatment options, which have the potential to considerably increase the costs of treating epilepsy.A systematic literature review was performed to identify studies that evaluated direct and indirect costs of epilepsy. Using a standardized assessment form, information on the study design, methodological framework and data sources were extracted from each publication and systematically reported. We identified 22 studies worldwide on costs of epilepsy. The majority of the studies reflected the costs of epilepsy in Europe (three studies each for the UK and Italy, one study each for Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France and the EU) and the US (four studies), but studies were also available from India (two), Hong Kong, Oman, Burundi, Chile and Mexico. The studies utilized different frameworks to evaluate costs. All used a bottom-up approach; however, only 12 studies (55%) evaluated direct as well as indirect costs. The range for the mean annual direct costs lay between 40 International Dollar purchasing power parities (PPP-$) in rural Burundi and PPP-$4748 (adjusted to 2006 values) in a German epilepsy centre. Recent studies suggest AEDs are becoming the main contributor to direct costs. The mean indirect costs ranged between 12% and 85% of the total annual costs. Epilepsy is a cost-intensive disorder. A reliable comparison of the different COI

  18. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  19. Sexual violence as a risk factor for family planning-related outcomes among young Burundian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elouard, Yajna; Weiss, Carine; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Merten, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to examine associations between experience of sexual violence and family planning-related outcomes. A multi-stage cluster survey was conducted among a representative sample of 744 young women aged 15-24 in eight provinces in Burundi. The prevalence of young women who reported having ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse was 26.1%. Young women who had experienced sexual violence (ever) were 2.5 times more likely not to have used any modern contraceptives in the 12 months preceding the survey. They were also 2.3 times more likely to report that their last pregnancy was unplanned. Higher odds of not being able to negotiate contraceptive use with their partners were only reported by young women having experienced sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the survey when adjusted for confounders. Sexual violence was found to be significantly associated with contraceptive negotiation and use as well as unplanned pregnancy. Weak perceived ability to negotiate contraceptive use highlights gender inequalities leaving young women vulnerable to unprotected sex and thus unplanned pregnancies.

  20. Capacity building for sustainable energy development and poverty alleviation in sub-saharan Africa - the contribution of AFREPREN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karekezi, S.; Kithyoma, W. [AFREPREN/FWD, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2004-09-01

    African Energy Policy Research Network and Foundation for Woodstoves (AFREPREN /FWD) is an African initiative on energy, environment and sustainable development. AFREPREN/FWD brings together 97 African energy researchers and policy makers who have a long-term interest in energy research and the attendant policy-making process. AFREPREN/FWD has initiated policy research studies in 19 African countries, namely: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. AFREPREN/FWD's ultimate goal is to promote the greater use of cleaner energy options such as renewables for poverty alleviation in Africa. The near-term objective of AFREPREN /FWD is to strengthen local research capacity and to harness it in the service of energy policy making and planning. Initiated in 1987, AFREPREN is a collective regional response to the widespread concern over the weak link between energy research and the formulation and implementation of energy policy in Africa. (orig.)

  1. Violent offending promotes appetitive aggression rather than posttraumatic stress - a replication study with Burundian ex-combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke eKöbach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has identified appetitive aggression, i.e., the perception of committed, violent acts as appealing, exciting and fascinating, as a common phenomenon within populations living in precarious and violent circumstances. Investigating demobilized soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo demonstrated that violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression but not necessarily with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. In the present study we sought to replicate these results in an independent and larger sample of demobilized soldiers from Burundi. As with the Congolese ex-combatants, random forest regression revealed that the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts is the most important predictor of appetitive aggression and the number of lifetime experienced traumatic events is the main predictor for posttraumatic stress. Perpetrated violent acts with salient cues of hunting (pursuing the victim, the sight of blood, etc. were most predictive for perceiving violent cues appealingly after demobilization. Moreover, the association of violent acts and appetitive aggression as well as traumatic events and posttraumatic stress remains strong even years after demobilization. Patterns of traumatic events and perpetrated acts as predictors for posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression seem to be robust among different samples of ex-combatants who fought in civil wars. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address these complementary facets of combat-related disorders -- namely, posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression -- are indispensable for a successful reintegration of those who fought in armed conflicts and to achieve a successful transition to peace.

  2. Condoms and Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1992-01-01

    Social marketing entails promoting the appropriate and quality product to be sold in the right places at the right price. Even though mass media advertisement of condoms is forbid in Zaire, condoms have been effectively promoted and sold in the country using alternate approaches. 8 million units of the condom, Prudence, were sold in 1990, and Prudence has become the generic name for condoms in the Zaire. Noting that Coca-Cola, beer, and cigarettes may be purchased virtually ubiquitously, commercial outlets and local traders were enlisted to sell condoms at reduced prices on the market. Reduced price sales are possible since donor and government agencies provide the condoms to wholesalers and merchants free of charge. The successful social marketing of condoms expands condom availability to a greater segment of a country's population while recovering some public sector costs and shifting health care away from the public sector. Condoms are especially promoted to high risk groups such as commercial sex workers and their clients in Zaire. Similar programs have been inspired in 10 African countries including Cameroon and Burundi, as well as in Brazil, Haiti, and India. Prevention programs in Latin America and Asia will benefit from these program experiences in Africa. In closing, the article notes the need for an adequate and predictable commodity supply in attaining effective social marketing. Marked program success may, however, lead to sustainability problems.

  3. Productivity effects of higher education human capital in selected countries of Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koye Gerry Bokana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the productivity effects of higher education enrolment (HEE, higher education output (HEO and the associated productivity gap (GP on selected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA over the period between 1981 and 2014. It was hypothesized in the study that HEE and HEO had statistically significant positive impact on productivity in the selected sub-Saharan Africa countries over the stated period. Fixed effect Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV and a robust version of System Generalized Methods of Moment (SYSGMM were adopted as model estimating techniques. Results from the LSDV model indicated that HEE had no statistically significant positive impact on productivity growth in the twenty-one SSA countries. This non-significance was corrected in the dynamic model, but with negative effects on the growth rate of total factor productivity (TFP. The study further compared the worldwide technological frontier with those of the SSA countries under investigation and discovered that countries like Gabon, Mauritius and Swaziland ranked high, while Burundi needs to improve on its productivity determinants. The major conclusion of this study is therefore that higher education human capital should be supported with strong policy implementation, as this can have a positive impact on productivity growth.

  4. Sustainable manufacture of insect repellents derived from Nepeta cataria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Gregory S; Karirekinyana, Ginette; Galli, Federico; Patience, Nicolas A; Kubwabo, Cariton; Collin, Guy; Bizimana, Jean Claude; Boffito, Daria C

    2018-02-02

    Malaria devastates sub-Saharan Africa; the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 212 million people contract malaria annually and that the plasmodium virus will kill 419 000 in 2017. The disease affects rural populations who have the least economic means to fight it. Impregnated mosquito nets have reduced the mortality rate but the Anopheles mosquitoes are changing their feeding patterns and have become more active at dusk and early morning rather than after 22h00 as an adaptation to the nets. Everyone is susceptible to the Anopheles at these times but infants and pregnant women are the most vulnerable to the disease. Plant-based mosquito repellents are as effective as synthetic repellents that protect people from bites. They are sustainable preventative measures against malaria not only because of their efficacy but because the local population can produce and distribute them, which represents a source of economic growth for rural areas. Here, we extract and test the essential oil nepetalactone from Nepeta cataria via steam distillation. Families in endemic areas of Burundi found them effective against bites but commented that the odor was pungent. An epidemiological study is required to establish its clinical efficacy.

  5. High Resolution Population Maps for Low Income Nations: Combining Land Cover and Census in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; von Hagen, Craig; Di Gregorio, Antonio; Hay, Simon I.

    2007-01-01

    Background Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania) and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps. Conclusions We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk) and are freely available. PMID:18074022

  6. Spot-checks to measure general hygiene practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Ina L; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A variety of hygiene behaviors are fundamental to the prevention of diarrhea. We used spot-checks in a survey of 761 households in Burundi to examine whether something we could call general hygiene practice is responsible for more specific hygiene behaviors, ranging from handwashing to sweeping the floor. Using structural equation modeling, we showed that clusters of hygiene behavior, such as primary caregivers' cleanliness and household cleanliness, explained the spot-check findings well. Within our model, general hygiene practice as overall concept explained the more specific clusters of hygiene behavior well. Furthermore, the higher general hygiene practice, the more likely children were to be categorized healthy (r = 0.46). General hygiene practice was correlated with commitment to hygiene (r = 0.52), indicating a strong association to psychosocial determinants. The results show that different hygiene behaviors co-occur regularly. Using spot-checks, the general hygiene practice of a household can be rated quickly and easily.

  7. The Need to Help. The Domestic Arts of International Humanitarism, de Liisa H. Malkki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Fradejas-García

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available La literatura crítica con el humanitarismo ha emergido en el ámbito político internacional para quedarse. Renombrados científicos sociales como Didier Fassin (2012 o Thomas G. Weiss (2016, entre otros, han trabajado sobre los efectos de las intervenciones humanitarias desde diferentes ángulos. Cambiando el clásico enfoque en los beneficiarios, las políticas y los programas para pasar a indagar sobre las organizaciones y los trabajadores humanitarios, Liisa Malkki ha hecho una gran contribución a esta literatura profundizando en el porqué y el cómo de las acciones humanitarias. La autora es conocida por sus reflexiones etnográficas sobre las situaciones de exilio y refugio causadas por las sucesivas guerras y genocidios que asolaron en el último cuarto del siglo XX la zona de los grandes lagos africanos. Durante el genocidio ruandés de 1994, Malkki estaba finalizando un libro sobre un conflicto previo y olvidado en Burundi que provocó la llegada de refugiados hutus a Tanzania. La etnografía resultante, Purity and Exile (1995, explora cómo la violencia política y la cotidianeidad del exilio transforman la identidad y la conciencia histórica de los refugiados.

  8. Albinism in Africa: stigma, slaughter and awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Inigo, Andres E; Ladizinski, Barry; Sethi, Aisha

    2011-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a lack of pigment in the hair, skin, and eyes. Albinism is caused by defective or absent tyrosinase, an enzyme necessary for melanogenesis. Although rare in the western world, albinism is quite common in sub-Saharan Africa, likely as a result of consanguinity. Albinism has long been associated with stigma and superstitions, such as the belief that a white man impregnated the mother or that the child is the ghost of a European colonist. Recently, a notion has emerged that albino body parts are good-luck charms or possess magical powers. These body parts may be sold for as much as $75,000 on the black market. As a result there have been over 100 albino murders in Tanzania, Burundi, and other parts of Africa in the past decade, which is now beginning to garner international attention and thus prompting novel legislation. To ameliorate the plight of individuals with albinism in Africa, a coordinated effort must be organized, involving medical professionals (dermatologists, ophthalmologists, oncologists), public health advocates and educators, social workers, human rights and antidiscrimination activists, law-enforcement agencies, and governmental support groups. The main issues that should be addressed include skin cancer prevention education, stigma and discrimination denouncement, and swift prosecution of albino hunters and their sponsors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  10. JOURNALISTIC IDENTITY AND AUDIENCE PERCEPTIONS: Paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  11. High resolution population maps for low income nations: combining land cover and census in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Tatem

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas.We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps.We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km(2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk and are freely available.

  12. A spatially explicit assessment of current and future hotspots of hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa in the context of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Fritz, Steffen; van Wesenbeeck, C. F. A.; Fuchs, Michael; You, Liangzhi; Obersteiner, Michael; Yang, Hong

    2008-12-01

    Hunger knows no boundaries or borders. While much research has focused on undernutrition on a national scale, this report evaluates it at subnational levels for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to pinpoint hotspots where the greatest challenges exist. Undernutrition is assessed with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes by investigating anthropometric data on weight and length of individuals. The impact of climate change on production of six major crops (cassava, maize, wheat, sorghum, rice and millet) is analyzed with a GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (GEPIC) model with the same spatial resolution. Future hotspots of hunger are projected in the context of the anticipated climate, social, economic, and bio-physical changes. The results show that some regions in northern and southwestern Nigeria, Sudan and Angola with a currently high number of people with undernutrition might be able to improve their food security situation mainly through increasing purchasing power. In the near future, regions located in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, southwestern Niger, and Madagascar are likely to remain hotspots of food insecurity, while regions located in Tanzania, Mozambique and the Democratic Republic of Congo might face more serious undernutrition. It is likely that both the groups of regions will suffer from lower capacity of importing food as well as lower per capita calorie availability, while the latter group will probably have sharper reduction in per capita calorie availability. Special attention must be paid to the hotspot areas in order to meet the hunger alleviation goals in SSA.

  13. Parker's sneak-guard model revisited: why do reproductively parasitic males heavily invest in testes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Kohda, Masanori; Hori, Michio; Sato, Tetsu

    2011-10-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in males and may cause intraspecific differences in testes investment. Parker's sneak-guard model predicts that sneaker males, who mate under sperm competition risk, invest in testes relatively more than bourgeois conspecifics that have lower risk. Given that sneakers are much smaller than bourgeois males, sneakers may increase testes investment to overcome their limited sperm productivity because of their small body sizes. In this study, we examined the mechanism that mediates differential testes investment across tactics in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Lamprologus callipterus. In the Rumonge population of Burundi, bourgeois males are small compared with those in other populations and have a body size close to sneaky dwarf males. Therefore, if differences in relative testis investment depend on sperm competition, the rank order of relative testis investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge = bourgeois males in the other populations. If differences in relative testis investment depend on body size, the rank order of relative testes investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge > bourgeois males in the other populations. Comparisons of relative testis investment among the three male groups supported the role of sperm competition, as predicted by the sneak-guard model. Nevertheless, the effects of absolute body size on testes investment should be considered to understand the mechanisms underlying intraspecific variation in testes investment caused by alternative reproductive tactics.

  14. Reseña. Comprender el posconflicto armado colombiano desde la experiencia comparada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo Ríos Sierra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La obra colectiva Experiencias internacionales de paz. Lecciones aprendidas para Colombia es, sin duda, un trabajo de gran valor agregado para los tiempos que, actualmente, corren por el país. Un valor agregado en tanto que concita dos aspectos más que interesantes para el momento de vislumbrar un horizonte de posconflicto armado y construcción de paz por el que transita Colombia. En primer lugar, porque aspira a erigirse como una obra de referencia en la identificación y análisis de diferentes casos comparados, algunos ampliamente trabajados desde la academia, como son los casos de Centroamérica o Irlanda del Norte pero, igualmente, incorporando otros, más relegados en el mainstream científico-social, como Burundi y Nepal. Incluso, se abordan algunos de los más recientes y complejos casos como, particularmente, puede ser el ejemplo de Sudán del Sur. De otro lado, una segunda cuestión a destacar, prima facie, es el intento por identificar contextos similares en materia de resolución de conflictos al caso colombiano, analizar posibles lecciones aprendidas –ya sea para emular o, sencillamente, para no repetir– y, finalmente, realizar un ejercicio propositivo y constructivo de utilización para Colombia.

  15. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  16. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  17. First report of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasoidea from lungs of montane chameleons in Cameroon: description of two new species and notes on biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhermitte-Vallarino N.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The lung nematodes of the genus Rhabdias parasitic in chameleons were previously only known from east Africa and Madagascar. Two new species are described from Cameroon: i Rhabdias okuensis n. sp., type-host Chamaeleo (Trioceros quadricornis gracilior, from Mont Oku, is frequent; it resembles R. jarki from Burundi, with a short buccal capsule and a long, thin oesophagus, and is distinguished by its large cervical vesicle and cephalic characters (mouth aperture, papillae. The female parasites are hermaphroditic (spermatozoa identified and they pierce the lung wall and induce lesions, as R. jarki. In the same locality, another chameleon, C. (T. w. wiedersheimi also harbours R. okuensis, as demonstrated with the 12S rDNA and coxI gene sequences. ii R. cristati n. sp., type-host C. (T. cristatus, from Mount Cameroon, is described from one heavily infected specimen; it resembles R. chamaeleonis from East Africa, and is distinguished by the large buccal capsule and the thick apex of the intestine. The free-living phase, studied in R. okuensis, presents characters of other Rhabdias from chameleons: heterogony, development of larvae through matricidal endotoky, infective larval stages with a thick, rounded caudal extremity, exuvium transformed into a thick cuticular sheeth. Each free-living female produces one larva, as in other African Rhabdias, whereas the female of R. gemellipara, a parasite of a Malagasy chameleon, produces two larvae.

  18. Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae from Chamaeleonidae (Sauria: two new species from Trioceros ellioti in east Africa and one from Brookesia superciliaris in Madagascar

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    Lhermitte-Vallarino N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdias casiraghii n. sp. and R. kibiraensis n. sp. are described from Trioceros ellioti from Burundi and co-infection was observed in one of the host specimens. Distinctive characters between these species are, among others, the mouth and buccal capsule in front view, both of which are round in the former and laterally flattened in the latter species. Both species have a complete set of submedian head papillae (three in each submedian axis as observed in the fourth stage larva of R. americanus from anurans. This primitive character opposes them to other species parasitic in Chamaeleonidae that have a single papilla per axis. The third species is the first described from the primitive chamaeleonid genus Brookesia; R. brygooi n. sp. from B. superciliaris from Madagascar can be distinguished from other Rhabdias in Chamaeleonidae by the small diameter of its mouth and buccal capsule. In this character, it resembles parasites from anurans. However, its infective larva has a rounded caudal extremity ornated with buds, as described in species of Rhabdias parasitic in Chamaeleonidae.

  19. Human Factors Predicting Failure and Success in Hospital Information System Implementations in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Frank; Karara, Gustave; Nyssen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    From 2007 through 2014, the authors participated in the implementation of open source hospital information systems (HIS) in 19 hospitals in Rwanda, Burundi, DR Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, and Mali. Most of these implementations were successful, but some failed. At the end of a seven-year implementation effort, a number of risk factors, facilitators, and pragmatic approaches related to the deployment of HIS in Sub-Saharan health facilities have been identified. Many of the problems encountered during the HIS implementation process were not related to technical issues but human, cultural, and environmental factors. This study retrospectively evaluates the predictive value of 14 project failure factors and 15 success factors in HIS implementation in the Sub-Saharan region. Nine of the failure factors were strongly correlated with project failure, three were moderately correlated, and one weakly correlated. Regression analysis also confirms that eight factors were strongly correlated with project success, four moderately correlated, and two weakly correlated. The study results may help estimate the expedience of future HIS projects.

  20. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

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    Mareike eAugsburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude towards aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.

  1. Removing user fees in the health sector: a review of policy processes in six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meessen, Bruno; Hercot, David; Noirhomme, Mathieu; Ridde, Valéry; Tibouti, Abdelmajid; Tashobya, Christine Kirunga; Gilson, Lucy

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, governments of several low-income countries have taken decisive action by removing fully or partially user fees in the health sector. In this study, we review recent reforms in six sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Ghana, Liberia, Senegal and Uganda. The review describes the processes and strategies through which user fee removal reforms have been implemented and tries to assess them by referring to a good practice hypotheses framework. The analysis shows that African leaders are willing to take strong action to remove financial barriers met by vulnerable groups, especially pregnant women and children. However, due to a lack of consultation and the often unexpected timing of the decision taken by the political authorities, there was insufficient preparation for user fee removal in several countries. This lack of preparation resulted in poor design of the reform and weaknesses in the processes of policy formulation and implementation. Our assessment is that there is now a window of opportunity in many African countries for policy action to address barriers to accessing health care. Mobilizing sufficient financial resources and obtaining long-term commitment are obviously crucial requirements, but design details, the formulation process and implementation plan also need careful thought. We contend that national policy-makers and international agencies could better collaborate in this respect.

  2. Nations of the earth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    These books contain summaries of the national reports prepared for the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. Summary reports of the following countries are included: V. 1) Algeria, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Canada, Chad, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Guinea, Jordan, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Paraguay, Romania, Senegal, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Tokelau, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen Arab Republic, Yugoslavia. V. 2) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Central African Republic, Colombia, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Morocco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Oman, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Pacific Islands Developing Countries, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sudan, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Zimbabwe

  3. Journalistic identity and audience perceptions: paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  4. JOURNALISTIC IDENTITY AND AUDIENCE PERCEPTIONS: PARADIGM AND MODELS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN THE AFRICAN GREAT LAKES REGIÓN

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    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  5. Understanding Mass Atrocity Prevention during Periods of Democratic Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McLoughlin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding of why some countries experience mass atrocities during periods of democratic transition, while others do not. Scholars have long regarded democracy as an important source of stability and protection from mass atrocities such as genocide, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing. But democratic transition itself is fraught with the heightened risk of violent conflict and even mass atrocities. Indeed, a number of studies have identified regimes in transition as containing the highest risk of political instability and mass atrocities. What is overlooked is the question of how and why some regimes undergo such transitions without experiencing mass atrocities, despite the presence of a number of salient risk factors, including state-based discrimination, inter-group tension and horizontal inequality. Utilizing a new analytical framework, this article investigates this lacuna by conducting a comparative analysis of two countries—one that experienced atrocities (Burundi during transition, and one that did not (Guyana. How countries avoid such violence during transition has the potential to yield insights for the mitigation of risk associated with mass atrocity crimes.

  6. Spatial co-distribution of neglected tropical diseases in the East African Great Lakes region: revisiting the justification for integrated control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Archie C. A.; Deville, Marie-Alice; Ndayishimiye, Onésime; Brooker, Simon; Fenwick, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE To determine spatial patterns of co-endemicity of schistosomiasis mansoni and the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm in the Great Lakes region of East Africa, to help plan integrated neglected tropical disease programmes in this region. METHOD Parasitological surveys were conducted in Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya and Burundi in 28 213 children in 404 schools. Bayesian geostatistical models were used to interpolate prevalence of these infections across the study area. Interpolated prevalence maps were overlaid to determine areas of co-endemicity. RESULTS In the Great Lakes region, prevalence was 18.1% for Schistosoma mansoni, 50.0% for hookworm, 6.8% for A. lumbricoides and 6.8% for T. trichiura. Hookworm infection was ubiquitous, whereas S. mansoni, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly focal. Most areas were endemic (prevalence ≥10%) or hyperendemic (prevalence ≥50%) for one or more STHs, whereas endemic areas for schistosomiasis mansoni were restricted to foci adjacent large perennial water bodies. CONCLUSION Because of the ubiquity of hookworm, treatment programmes are required for STH throughout the region but efficient schistosomiasis control should only be targeted at limited high-risk areas. Therefore, integration of schistosomiasis with STH control is only indicated in limited foci in East Africa. PMID:20409287

  7. Journalistic identity and audience perceptions: paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  8. Older Adults Accessing HIV Care and Treatment and Adherence in the IeDEA Central Africa Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Newman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Very little is known about older adults accessing HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from 18,839 HIV-positive adults at 10 treatment programs in Burundi, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We compared characteristics of those aged 50+ with those aged 18–49 using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to determine if age was associated with medication adherence. Results. 15% of adults were 50+ years. Those aged 50+ were more evenly distributed between women and men (56% versus 44% as compared to those aged 18–49 (71% versus 29% and were more likely to be hypertensive (8% versus 3% (P<0.05. Those aged 50+ were more likely to be adherent to their medications than those aged 18–49 (P<0.001. Adults who were not heavy drinkers reported better adherence as compared to those who reported drinking three or more alcoholic beverages per day (P<0.001. Conclusions. Older adults differed from their younger counterparts in terms of medication adherence, sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics.

  9. The state, refugees and migration in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akokpari, J K

    1998-01-01

    Migration and refugee movements could significantly decline in sub-Saharan African countries. However, countries must redistribute meager resources equitably and engage in environmental protection. Refugee and migrant populations have increased in sub-Saharan Africa during 1969-95, from 700,000 to 6.8 million. This study examined the causes of migration and the implications for host countries. Doornbos (1990) identifies the root problem as the partisan nature of African politics and the incapacity to manage ecological degradation. The African state is wholly or partially responsible for the creation of conflicts. Examples abound in Zaire, South Africa, Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, Somalia, Ethiopia, Liberia, Congo, and Chad. State partisanship is also evident in Angola, Mozambique, Uganda, and Sierra Leone. An estimated 10 million Africans, in 1985, left their homes due to wars, government repression, or the inability of land to support them. In 1994, USAID estimated that 11.6 million Africans in 10 countries were threatened by famine from drought. Environmental degradation has generated conflicts. Africa's marginalized economy results in recession, unemployment, inflation, and distributional conflicts. Democratization has brought conflicts between the state, civil society, and exiles. Refugees face homelessness, poverty, emotional distress, inadequate food, and disease. Host countries face security threats, pressure on limited resources, rebellions from refugees and their involvement with foreign mercenaries, local conflicts between native and refugee populations, and environmental degradation from refugees.

  10. Electrical valorization of bamboo in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlero De Rosbo, Guillaume; Bussy, Jacques de

    2012-01-01

    ENEA releases a technical benchmark of small-scale woody biomass-to-electricity technologies, as well as its application to a project to valorize bamboo in Rwanda and Burundi. Within the framework of its voluntary consulting action, ENEA has provided technical and project management support to help INBAR (International Network for Bamboo and Rottin) evaluate the technical feasibility of its project and assess what would be the best available technology to fit with the project's objectives and local context. This report thus includes up-to-date description of combustion, gasification and pyrolysis technologies as well as associated power-generation engines. For each, principle, advantages and drawbacks, technical maturity, adaptation to small-scale, flexibility to a change in biomass, scale-up feasibility, economical aspects or else environmental impacts are described and compared. Unit's integration within its environment, electricity use and associated business models are also addressed, and needed bamboo crop surfaces to meet power supply objectives are assessed

  11. A gender-based approach to developing a healthy lifestyle and healthy weight intervention for diverse Utah women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Sara E; Digre, Kathleen B; Ralls, Brenda; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Rickard, Sylvia; Tavake-Pasi, Fahina; Napia, Eru Ed; Aiono, Heather; Chirpich, Meghan; Stark, Louisa A; Sunada, Grant; Keen, Kassy; Johnston, Leanne; Frost, Caren J; Varner, Michael W; Alder, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    Utah women from some cultural minority groups have higher overweight/obesity rates than the overall population. We utilized a gender-based mixed methods approach to learn about the underlying social, cultural and gender issues that contribute to the increased obesity risk among these women and to inform intervention development. A literature review and analysis of Utah's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data informed the development of a focus group guide. Focus groups were conducted with five groups of women: African immigrants from Burundi and Rwanda, African Americans, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Hispanics/Latinas, and Pacific Islanders. Six common themes emerged: (1) health is multidimensional and interventions must address health in this manner; (2) limited resources and time influence health behaviors; (3) norms about healthy weight vary, with certain communities showing more preference to heavier women; (4) women and men have important but different influences on healthy lifestyle practices within households; (5) women have an influential role on the health of families; and (6) opportunities exist within each group to improve health. Seeking insights from these five groups of women helped to identify common and distinct cultural and gender themes related to obesity, which can be used to help elucidate core obesity determinants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ring complexes and related rocks in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, J. R.

    Over 625 igneous complexes throughout Africa and Arabia have been selected and classified on the basis of petrographic association and chronology into six broad age groups forming 29 provinces. The groups range from Mid-Proterozoic to Tertiary and include gabbro, granite, syenite, foid syenite and carbonatite plutonic rocks, the majority in the form of ring-dykes, cone-sheets, plugs, circular intrusions, and their associated extrusive phases. Pan-African late or post-orogenic complexes (720-490 Ma) are common in the Arabian-Nubian and Tuareg shields of north Africa originating from subduction zone derived magmatism. Anorogenic complexes in Egypt, NE and central Sudan, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaïre-Burundi, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Angola span 550 to 50 Ma and are dominantly alkali granites and foid syenites. Many groups occur as en-echelon bands within linear arrays, and show migrating centres of intrusion in variable directions. In W. Africa there was a progressive shift of emplacement southwards during early Ordovician to Mid-Cretaceous times. Distribution patterns suggest thatdeep seated features, such as shear zones associated with lithospheric plate movements,controlled melting, and the resultant location of the complexes. Economic mineralization is not widespread in the rocks of the African ring complexes and is mainly restricted to small deposits of Sn, W, F, U and Nb.

  13. The Tree Project enlists youth to plant trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson, J.

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The climate of the African region around the "Great Lakes" induces a strong process of soil weathering which eventually leads to a strong aluminium saturation of the absorption complex, as expressed by the "m" index of Kamprath. The response to aluminium toxicity of the common bean cv. Diacol Calima, a widely grown variety in Burundi, has been studied in pot trials in two ways : (1 Using superficial soil samples of "humiferous high elevation kaolisols" whose "m" index varied between 4 and 92 ; (2 On culture condition consisting of an inert substrate complemented with a nutritional solution to which a serie of soluble aluminium concentrations were added. Under soil condition, biomass produced after a period of 25 days of growth, decreased as from "m" = 33. The number of Rhizobium nodules decreased drastically with aluminium toxicity becoming negligible at "m" - 33. On culture media, rising concentration of aluminium affected growth adversely as well, although root growth inhibition was less pronounced than under soil condition.

  14. Power, policy and the Prunus africana bark trade, 1972-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A; Anoncho, V F; Sunderland, T

    2016-02-03

    After almost 50 years of international trade in wild harvested medicinal bark from Africa and Madagascar, the example of Prunus africana holds several lessons for both policy and practice in the fields of forestry, conservation and rural development. Due to recent CITES restrictions on P. africana exports from Burundi, Kenya and Madagascar, coupled with the lifting of the 2007 European Union (EU) ban in 2011, Cameroon's share of the global P. africana bark trade has risen from an average of 38% between 1995 and 2004, to 72.6% (658.6 metric tons) in 2012. Cameroon is therefore at the center of this international policy arena. This paper draws upon several approaches, combining knowledge in working with P. africana over a 30-year period with a thorough literature review and updated trade data with "ground-truthing" in the field in 2013 and 2014. This enabled the construction of a good perspective on trade volumes (1991-2012), bark prices (and value-chain data) and the gaps between research reports and practice. Two approaches provided excellent lenses for a deeper understanding of policy failure and the "knowing-doing gap" in the P. africana case. A similar approach to Médard's (1992) analyses of power, politics and African development was taken and secondly, studies of commodity chains that assess the power relations that coalesce around different commodities (Ribot, 1998; Ribot and Peluso, 2003). Despite the need to conserve genetically and chemically diverse P. africana, wild populations are vulnerable, even in several "protected areas" in Burundi, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and in the forest reserves of Madagascar. Secondly, hopes of decentralized governance of this forest product are misplaced due to elite capture, market monopolies and subsidized management regimes. At the current European price, for P. africana bark (US$6 per kg) for example, the 2012 bark quota (658.675t) from Cameroon alone was worth over US$3.9 million, with the majority of

  15. Covering Post-Conflict Elections: Challenges for the Media in Central Africa Wahlberichterstattung in Post-Konflikt-Phasen: Herausforderungen für die Medien in Zentralafrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, elections were held in six countries of Central Africa experiencing “post-conflict” situations. The polls that took place in Burundi (2005, the Central African Republic (2005, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006, Congo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, Chad (1996, 2001, 2006 and Rwanda (2003 were crucial for peace-building. In some cases, they were widely supported and supervised by the international community, being considered the last step of a peace process and the first step toward establishing a truly representative “post-conflict” regime. The media were expected to play a large part in supporting these elections, both to inform the citizens, so they could make an educated choice, and to supervise the way the electoral administration was organizing the polls. This paper attempts to show the many challenges faced by the media while covering these post-conflict electoral processes. In a context of great political tension, in which candidates are often former belligerents who have just put down their guns to go to the polls, the media operate in an unsafe and economically damaged environment, suffering from a lack of infrastructure, inadequate equipment and untrained staff. Given those constraints, one might wonder if the media should be considered actual democratic tools in Central Africa or just gimmicks in a “peace-building kit” (including “free and fair” elections, multipartism and freedom of the press with no real impact on the democratic commitment of the elite or the political participation of the population.In den letzten zehn Jahren wurden in sechs zentralafrikanischen Ländern, die sich in einer Post-Konflikt-Phase befanden, Wahlen abgehalten. Die Wahlgänge in Burundi (2005, der Zentralafrikanischen Republik (2005, der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (2006, Kongo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, dem Tschad (1996, 2001, 2006 und Ruanda (2003 waren entscheidend für die Friedenskonsolidierung. Einige dieser

  16. Diversity of DNA fingerprints in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, A; Swinne, D; Staib, F; Bennett, J E; Kwon-Chung, K J

    1995-07-01

    DNA fingerprint patterns of 156 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates (26 AIDS patients, 46 non-AIDS patients, and 40 environmental sources) from both varieties (126 C. neoformans var. neoformans and 30 C. neoformans var. gattii isolates) and from seven countries were analyzed by using the DNA probe UT-4p. Nine and twelve distinct DNA fingerprint patterns were observed for isolates of the C. neoformans var. neoformans and var. gattii, respectively. No pattern was unique to AIDS patients, non-AIDS patients, or the environment. Pattern II was observed more often in non-AIDS patients (8 of 23) than in AIDS patients (0 of 25). Pattern V was the most prevalent pattern (42 of 82) in clinical and environmental isolates. Isolates from three AIDS patients in Burundi and Zaire exhibited patterns identical to each other but different from those of isolates collected from their houses (i.e., dust of floors, walls, etc.) or a nearby pigeon coop. DNA fingerprint stability was determined for 53 isolates from nine non-AIDS patients at different time intervals during 5 to 128 weeks of antifungal therapy. For eight patients, the fingerprint pattern was stable while the ninth may have had a mixed infection. Pattern II was observed in 4 of 9 patients, which is similar to 4 of 14 in other non-AIDS patients as reported here. In spite of the extensive pattern heterogeneity among 15 C. neoformans var. gattii isolates in Australia, the patterns observed in seven California isolates were quite different from those in Australia. Among isolates of C. neoformans var. gattii, one fingerprint pattern (designated b) was observed in several countries of the Far East. The fingerprint patterns of two of three environmental isolates from Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees in Australia were identical to those of 2 of the 12 clinical isolates from the country.

  17. Effects of multi-stakeholder platforms on multi-stakeholder innovation networks: Implications for research for development interventions targeting innovations at scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, Marc; Hermans, Frans; van Asten, Piet; Leeuwis, Cees

    2018-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) have been playing an increasing role in interventions aiming to generate and scale innovations in agricultural systems. However, the contribution of MSPs in achieving innovations and scaling has been varied, and many factors have been reported to be important for their performance. This paper aims to provide evidence on the contribution of MSPs to innovation and scaling by focusing on three developing country cases in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Rwanda. Through social network analysis and logistic models, the paper studies the changes in the characteristics of multi-stakeholder innovation networks targeted by MSPs and identifies factors that play significant roles in triggering these changes. The results demonstrate that MSPs do not necessarily expand and decentralize innovation networks but can lead to contraction and centralization in the initial years of implementation. They show that some of the intended next users of interventions with MSPs–local-level actors–left the innovation networks, whereas the lead organization controlling resource allocation in the MSPs substantially increased its centrality. They also indicate that not all the factors of change in innovation networks are country specific. Initial conditions of innovation networks and funding provided by the MSPs are common factors explaining changes in innovation networks across countries and across different network functions. The study argues that investigating multi-stakeholder innovation network characteristics targeted by the MSP using a network approach in early implementation can contribute to better performance in generating and scaling innovations, and that funding can be an effective implementation tool in developing country contexts. PMID:29870559

  18. Perspectives of resettled African refugees on accessing medicines and pharmacy services in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services among refugees in Queensland, Australia, from the perspectives of resettled African refugees. A generic qualitative approach was used in this study. Resettled African refugees were recruited via a purposive snowball sampling method. The researcher collected data from different African refugee communities, specifically those from Sudanese, Congolese and Somalian communities. Participants were invited by a community health leader to participate in the study; a community health leader is a trained member of the refugee community who acts as a 'health information conduit' between refugees and the health system. Invitations were done either face-to-face, telephonically or by email. The focus groups were digitally recorded in English and transcribed verbatim by the researcher. Transcripts were entered into NVIVO© 11 and the data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Four focus groups were conducted between October and November 2014 in the city of Brisbane with African refugees, one with five Somali refugees, one with five Congolese refugees, one with three refugee community health leaders from South Sudan, Liberia and Eritrea and one with three refugee community health leaders from Uganda, Burundi and South Sudan. Eleven sub-themes emerged through the coding process, which resulted in four overarching themes: health system differences, navigating the Australian health system, communication barriers and health care-seeking behaviour. With regard to accessing medicines and pharmacy services, this study has shown that there is a gap between resettled refugees' expectations of health services and the reality of the Australian health system. Access barriers identified included language barriers, issues with the Translating and Interpreter Service, a lack of professional communication and cultural beliefs affecting health care-seeking behaviour. This exploratory study has

  19. The present-day epidemiological situation in the Horn of Africa on the example of Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    This article presents information on the environmental hazards prevailing in Somalia and recommends a health prophylaxis in connection with a potential deployment of Polish Military Contingent to this part of the world. Somalia is a country located in the eastern part of Africa, in the so-called Horn of Africa. The country has been continuously at war for over two decades. Because of its much-devastated municipal and industrial infrastructure, widespread famine and limited access of the local people to healthcare it is considered one of the countries where living conditions are extremely difficult. Epidemiological indexes in Somalia are the worst in the world, and the Somali citizens are entirely dependent on foreign humanitarian assistance. At present, three different military operations, under the auspices of international organizations, have been carried out on the soil and the territorial waters: the European Union Naval Force Somalia--Operation Atlanta, the NATO Operation Ocean Shield, and the biggest of the three--the UN peacekeeping mission AMISOM with 9,5 thousand African troops, mainly from Uganda and Burundi). Despite their presence, the situation of the civilian population is critical. If the number ofpeacekeeping and stabilization troops deployed to the Horn of Africa is increased, it is very likely that Polish soldiers will also get involved in the military operations in Somalia. because of a strong possibility that following European military contingents are going to be relocated to East Africa to carry out the mandatory tasks, in relation to the occurrence of difficult climatic conditions and low sanitary standards, it is necessary to undertake appropriate preventive measures before the departure (compulsory/recommended vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, stocks of medicines to be taken by soldiers for an extended period of time, prevention and treatment kits), throughout the deployment (acclimatization, avoiding alcohol, water and

  20. The importance and significance of peace studies with special reference to South Africa’s political-security role in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neethling

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The origins of peace studies as an academic field of inquiry could be traced to the late 1940s and the field has been developing considerably since then. Currently, scholars at various tertiary institutions over the world are involved in using their academic skills to educate students about the causes of wars and violent conflict while pointing out various alternatives to these phenomena. Peace studies in the South African and broader African context are certainly of great significance and importance. After all, the gripping and devastating violence that manifested in African countries such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, the DRC, Somalia, Angola, the Comoros and many other conflict-stricken areas warrant scholarly attention with a view to better understanding the causes, dynamics and effects of such conflict. By means of this understanding the conflict could be addressed through mechanisms of conflict resolution and peace building could be promoted. Furthermore, the South African Government’s progressive military involvement in international peace missions in recent years is far more than an issue of mere military concern. It is a matter of great political interest and significance. Being supportive of the need for peace studies in the curricula of South African universities (and African universities in general, this article argues that South African students should be exposed to a rich and comprehensive literature on the search for international peace and security; of how to understand and deal with the causes of large-scale conflict and violence; and how these could be curtailed and resolved − literature which informs scholarly discussions and research in many centres and places of education, training and peace building.

  1. Beyond the crisis: building back better mental health care in 10 emergency-affected areas using a longer-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping-Jordan, JoAnne E; van Ommeren, Mark; Ashour, Hazem Nayef; Maramis, Albert; Marini, Anita; Mohanraj, Andrew; Noori, Aqila; Rizwan, Humayun; Saeed, Khalid; Silove, Derrick; Suveendran, T; Urbina, Liliana; Ventevogel, Peter; Saxena, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Major gaps remain - especially in low- and middle-income countries - in the realization of comprehensive, community-based mental health care. One potentially important yet overlooked opportunity for accelerating mental health reform lies within emergency situations, such as armed conflicts or natural disasters. Despite their adverse impacts on affected populations' mental health and well being, emergencies also draw attention and resources to these issues and provide openings for mental health service development. Cases were considered if they represented a low- or middle-income country or territory affected by an emergency, were initiated between 2000 and 2010, succeeded in making changes to the mental health system, and were able to be documented by an expert involved directly with the case. Based on these criteria, 10 case examples from diverse emergency-affected settings were included: Afghanistan, Burundi, Indonesia (Aceh Province), Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, occupied Palestinian territory, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Timor-Leste. These cases demonstrate generally that emergency contexts can be tapped to make substantial and sustainable improvements in mental health systems. From these experiences, 10 common lessons learnt were identified on how to make this happen. These lessons include the importance of adopting a longer-term perspective for mental health reform from the outset, and focusing on system-wide reform that addresses both new-onset and pre-existing mental disorders. Global progress in mental health care would happen more quickly if, in every crisis, strategic efforts were made to convert short-term interest in mental health problems into momentum for mental health reform.

  2. Social network analysis of multi-stakeholder platforms in agricultural research for development: Opportunities and constraints for innovation and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Frans; Sartas, Murat; van Schagen, Boudy; van Asten, Piet; Schut, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) are seen as a promising vehicle to achieve agricultural development impacts. By increasing collaboration, exchange of knowledge and influence mediation among farmers, researchers and other stakeholders, MSPs supposedly enhance their 'capacity to innovate' and contribute to the 'scaling of innovations'. The objective of this paper is to explore the capacity to innovate and scaling potential of three MSPs in Burundi, Rwanda and the South Kivu province located in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In order to do this, we apply Social Network Analysis and Exponential Random Graph Modelling (ERGM) to investigate the structural properties of the collaborative, knowledge exchange and influence networks of these MSPs and compared them against value propositions derived from the innovation network literature. Results demonstrate a number of mismatches between collaboration, knowledge exchange and influence networks for effective innovation and scaling processes in all three countries: NGOs and private sector are respectively over- and under-represented in the MSP networks. Linkages between local and higher levels are weak, and influential organisations (e.g., high-level government actors) are often not part of the MSP or are not actively linked to by other organisations. Organisations with a central position in the knowledge network are more sought out for collaboration. The scaling of innovations is primarily between the same type of organisations across different administrative levels, but not between different types of organisations. The results illustrate the potential of Social Network Analysis and ERGMs to identify the strengths and limitations of MSPs in terms of achieving development impacts.

  3. Effects of multi-stakeholder platforms on multi-stakeholder innovation networks: Implications for research for development interventions targeting innovations at scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartas, Murat; Schut, Marc; Hermans, Frans; Asten, Piet van; Leeuwis, Cees

    2018-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) have been playing an increasing role in interventions aiming to generate and scale innovations in agricultural systems. However, the contribution of MSPs in achieving innovations and scaling has been varied, and many factors have been reported to be important for their performance. This paper aims to provide evidence on the contribution of MSPs to innovation and scaling by focusing on three developing country cases in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Rwanda. Through social network analysis and logistic models, the paper studies the changes in the characteristics of multi-stakeholder innovation networks targeted by MSPs and identifies factors that play significant roles in triggering these changes. The results demonstrate that MSPs do not necessarily expand and decentralize innovation networks but can lead to contraction and centralization in the initial years of implementation. They show that some of the intended next users of interventions with MSPs-local-level actors-left the innovation networks, whereas the lead organization controlling resource allocation in the MSPs substantially increased its centrality. They also indicate that not all the factors of change in innovation networks are country specific. Initial conditions of innovation networks and funding provided by the MSPs are common factors explaining changes in innovation networks across countries and across different network functions. The study argues that investigating multi-stakeholder innovation network characteristics targeted by the MSP using a network approach in early implementation can contribute to better performance in generating and scaling innovations, and that funding can be an effective implementation tool in developing country contexts.

  4. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei and coffee production in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei, the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model. In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.

  5. Correlates of complete childhood vaccination in East African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen E Canavan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of childhood vaccinations, vaccination rates in low-income countries (LICs vary widely. Increasing coverage of vaccines to 90% in the poorest countries over the next 10 years has been estimated to prevent 426 million cases of illness and avert nearly 6.4 million childhood deaths worldwide. Consequently, we sought to provide a comprehensive examination of contemporary vaccination patterns in East Africa and to identify common and country-specific barriers to complete childhood vaccination. METHODS: Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS for Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda, we looked at the prevalence of complete vaccination for polio, measles, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG and DTwPHibHep (DTP as recommended by the WHO among children ages 12 to 23 months. We conducted multivariable logistic regression within each country to estimate associations between complete vaccination status and health care access and sociodemographic variables using backwards stepwise regression. RESULTS: Vaccination varied significantly by country. In all countries, the majority of children received at least one dose of a WHO recommended vaccine; however, in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Uganda less than 50% of children received a complete schedule of recommended vaccines. Being delivered in a public or private institution compared with being delivered at home was associated with increased odds of complete vaccination status. Sociodemographic covariates were not consistently associated with complete vaccination status across countries. CONCLUSIONS: Although no consistent set of predictors accounted for complete vaccination status, we observed differences based on region and the location of delivery. These differences point to the need to examine the historical, political, and economic context of each country in order to maximize vaccination coverage. Vaccination against these childhood diseases is a

  6. Identifying Water Insecurity Hotspots in the Lake Victoria Basin of Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, N. G.; Shukla, S.; Linard, C.; Gaughan, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), one of Africa's most populated transboundary watersheds and home to more than 30 million inhabitants, is increasingly challenged by both water quality problems and water quantity shortages against a backdrop of climate variability and change; and other environmental challenges. As a result of pollution, droughts, more erratic rainfall, heightened demand for water for both consumption and agricultural needs as well as differences in water allocation among the riverine countries of Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi, many parts of this region are already experiencing water scarcity on a recurrent basis. Furthermore, given projected annual population growth rates of 2.5 to 3.5% for the next 20 years, water shortages are likely to be exacerbated in the future. Analyzing historical changes in the water resources of this region is hence important to identify "hot spots" that might be most sensitive to future changes in climate and demography. In this presentation, we report the findings of a comprehensive analysis performed to (i) examine changes in water resources of LVB in recent decades and (ii) identify overlap between regions of significant changes in water resources with land cover changes and high population centers that are also projected to grow the fastest over the coming decades. We first utilize several satellite, stations and model(s) based climatic and hydrologic datasets to assess changes in water resources in this region. We then use a quality-controlled Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product to identify areas of significant land cover changes. Simultaneously we use projections of gridded population density based on differential growth rates for rural and urban population to estimate fastest projected human population growth for 2030 and 2050 relative to 2010 data. Using the outcomes of these change analysis we identify water insecurity hotspots in the LVB.

  7. Population growth and development: the Kenyan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamwange, M

    1995-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Kenya and high fertility impacts negatively on economic development. The growth and high fertility results in declines in gross national product, per capita food consumption, and land quality; a high dependency ratio; urban crowding; and inadequate health systems. East Africa has the highest crude birth rates in Africa, and Kenya has the highest birth rate of 54/1000 population in East Africa. The African crude death rate is 50% higher than the world average, but Kenya's death rate is the lowest in East Africa and comparable to North American and European death rates. Kenya has the highest rate of natural increase of about 4%. Population growth rates rose over the decades. Kenya's average population density is well above the sub-Saharan African average and much lower than very high density countries. Population is unequally distributed. Regional densities are widely divergent, and the highest densities in Western province are well above densities in Rwanda and Burundi. Urban growth has increased, as has migration to urban areas. Nairobi has 57% of urban population. Improved health and nutrition have contributed to increased life expectancy. The desired family size is large. The impact of demographic factors on economic conditions is evident in the decline in gross national product per capita growth to under 1% during 1972-88. A slight upswing occurred during 1988-93, but other crises are emerging. Food production has not kept pace with population growth. Production has been low due to serious land degradation, short fallow periods, and traditional farming practices. Population pressure has forced families to shift agriculture onto marginal lands, and desertification has increased. A growing proportion of the population is unemployed or underemployed. Population programs should address the underlying conditions for fertility decline.

  8. Demographic patterns and sustainable development in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawiah, E O

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that the present demographic patterns in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana, do not augur well for the achievement of sustainable development. Ghana is characterized by a youthful population, rapid population growth, uneven population distribution, high fertility, and rural-urban migration which has brought human numbers into collision with resources to sustain them. It is submitted that the issues discussed are equally applicable to the subregion as well. The estimated population in 1993 was about 16.4 million. The population of Ghana increased from 1970 to 1984 at a rate of growth of 2.6% per annum. The proliferation of small settlements has serious implications for sustainable development. Urban centers comprised about 12.9% of the total population in 1948, 23% in 1960, 28.3% in 1970, and 31.3% in 1984. The average woman in Ghana still has more than six children. The 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) indicated that the median age at first marriage for women was 16.5 years. Contraceptive use is low in sub-Sahara Africa. Currently married women (15-49) currently using any modern method ranged from 1% in Burundi (1987) and Mali (1987) to 36% in Zimbabwe (1988/89). The rapid population growth in Ghana, coupled with the concentration of infrastructural facilities and job opportunities in the urban centers, has resulted in a massive rural-urban migration. Basic social facilities like health, water, housing, and electricity have been stretched to their breakpoints. The Government of Ghana initiated a major effort to put environmental issues on the priority agenda in March 1988. This led to the preparation of an Environmental Action Plan (EAP) in 1991 to address issues relating to the protection of the environment, but the need is still urgent to adopt relevant population policies as a basic strategy in sustainable development.

  9. It is possible to increase by over thirty per cent the Nile Water availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2011-01-01

    The population of the Nile catchment is presently 250 Million and will probably reach 400 Million in 2040. The catchment includes two parts of about same population but with a very different climate. - The upstream rainy part (most of this area is in Ethiopia, Uganda and South Sudan). - The downstream dry part i.e North Sudan and Egypt. The available water from the Nile runoff is evaluated as average as 72 Billion m 3 /year; it is quite totally coming from the upstream part and used in the downstream part. For their development the upstream populations (including also part of Tanzania, Kenya, Congo, Rwanda and Burundi) are now requiring a significant share of the run off generated from local rains when Egypt and North Sudan claim historic rights on the Nile Waters. The best way to avoid conflicts is to increase the water availability for keeping in Egypt and North Sudan at least the water volume presently used and to allow to upstream countries the water resources necessary for their development, possibly in the range of 100 m 3 / year / capita in 2030 or 2040. The average total runoff of the Nile is in fact close to 140 Billion m 3 / year but over 40 Billion evaporate in the South Sudan Swamps and 15 Billion in the reservoirs of Aswan and Northern Sudan. A solution for reducing by half these two main losses is presented in this paper: it is based upon a concrete knowledge of the local very specific data and upon a successful experience of adapted technical solutions

  10. Social network analysis of multi-stakeholder platforms in agricultural research for development: Opportunities and constraints for innovation and scaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Hermans

    Full Text Available Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs are seen as a promising vehicle to achieve agricultural development impacts. By increasing collaboration, exchange of knowledge and influence mediation among farmers, researchers and other stakeholders, MSPs supposedly enhance their 'capacity to innovate' and contribute to the 'scaling of innovations'. The objective of this paper is to explore the capacity to innovate and scaling potential of three MSPs in Burundi, Rwanda and the South Kivu province located in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. In order to do this, we apply Social Network Analysis and Exponential Random Graph Modelling (ERGM to investigate the structural properties of the collaborative, knowledge exchange and influence networks of these MSPs and compared them against value propositions derived from the innovation network literature. Results demonstrate a number of mismatches between collaboration, knowledge exchange and influence networks for effective innovation and scaling processes in all three countries: NGOs and private sector are respectively over- and under-represented in the MSP networks. Linkages between local and higher levels are weak, and influential organisations (e.g., high-level government actors are often not part of the MSP or are not actively linked to by other organisations. Organisations with a central position in the knowledge network are more sought out for collaboration. The scaling of innovations is primarily between the same type of organisations across different administrative levels, but not between different types of organisations. The results illustrate the potential of Social Network Analysis and ERGMs to identify the strengths and limitations of MSPs in terms of achieving development impacts.

  11. Predictors of posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression in active soldiers and former combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Nandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the period between 1993 and 2005, the people of Burundi were trapped within a violent civil war. In post-conflict regions, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were found to be widespread. At the same time, combatants often reported having perceived committing violence as exciting and appealing, an experience referred to as appetitive aggression. Both of these phenomena hamper the building of a functional and peaceful society. Objective: This study aims to investigate the factors that are associated with the level of PTSD and appetitive aggression in former and still active combatants. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 948 male Burundians: 556 active soldiers and 392 ex-combatants. PTSD symptom severity was assessed using the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview, while appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale. Results: Linear regression analyses revealed that the number of traumatic events, childhood maltreatment, and their interaction predicted PTSD symptom severity, whereas self-committed violence did not. The number of traumatic events and self-committed violence were associated with appetitive aggression. Childhood maltreatment alone was not associated with appetitive aggression; however, its interaction with self-committed violence did predict appetitive aggression. When controlling for predictors, ex-combatants reported a higher degree of PTSD symptomatology, whereas active soldiers reported a higher degree of appetitive aggression. Conclusion: We conclude that childhood maltreatment is an additional, significant risk factor that exacerbates the psychological consequences of violent conflicts. Self-committed violence may not necessarily engender trauma-related disorders, but is highly related to appetitive aggression.

  12. Simulated effects of a seasonal precipitation change on the vegetation in tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Gritti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen data collected in Africa at high (Kuruyange, valley swamp, Burundi and low altitude (Victoria, lake, Uganda; Ngamakala, pond, Congo showed that after 6 ky before present (BP, pollen of deciduous trees increase their relative percentage, suggesting thus the reduction of the annual amount of precipitation and/or an increase of in the length of the dry season. Until now, pollen-climate transfer functions only investigated mean annual precipitation, due to the absence of modern pollen-assemblage analogs under diversified precipitation regimes. Hence these functions omit the potential effect of a change in precipitation seasonality modifying thus the length of the dry season. In the present study, we use an equilibrium biosphere model (i.e. BIOME3.5 to estimate the sensitivity of equatorial African vegetation, at specific sites, to such changes. Climatic scenarios, differing only in the monthly distribution of the current annual amount of precipitation, are examined at the above three locations in equatorial Africa. Soil characteristics, monthly temperatures and cloudiness are kept constant at their present-day values. Good agreement is shown between model simulations and current biomes assemblages, as inferred from pollen data. To date, the increase of the deciduous forest component in the palaeodata around 6 ky BP has been interpreted as the beginning of a drier climate period. However, our results demonstrate that a change in the seasonal distribution of precipitation could also induce the observed changes in vegetation types. This study confirms the importance of taking into account seasonal changes in the hydrological balance. Palaeoecologists can greatly benefit from the use of dynamic process based vegetation models to acccount for modification of the length of the dry season when they wish to reconstruct vegetation composition or to infer quantitative climate parameters, such as temperature and precipitation, from pollen or vegetation

  13. Effect of pay for performance to improve quality of maternal and child care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashis; Gopalan, Saji S; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2016-04-14

    Pay for Performance (P4P) mechanisms to health facilities and providers are currently being tested in several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to improve maternal and child health (MCH). This paper reviews the existing evidence on the effect of P4P program on quality of MCH care in LMICs. A systematic review of literature was conducted according to a registered protocol. MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Embase were searched using the key words maternal care, quality of care, ante natal care, emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) and child care. Of 4535 records retrieved, only eight papers met the inclusion criteria. Primary outcome of interest was quality of MCH disaggregated into structural quality, process quality and outcomes. Risk of bias across studies was assessed through a customized quality checklist. There were four controlled before after intervention studies, three cluster randomized controlled trials and one case control with post-intervention comparison of P4P programs for MCH care in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, the Philippines, and Rwanda. There is some evidence of positive effect of P4P only on process quality of MCH. The effect of P4P on delivery, EmONC, post natal care and under-five child care were not evaluated in these studies. There is weak evidence for P4P's positive effect on maternal and neonatal health outcomes and out-of-pocket expenses. P4P program had a few negative effects on structural quality. P4P is effective to improve process quality of ante natal care. However, further research is needed to understand P4P's impact on MCH and their causal pathways in LMICs. PROSPERO registration number CRD42014013077 .

  14. Evidence of multiple introductions of HIV-1 subtype C in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Joana Morais; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2012-10-01

    HIV-1 subtype C is the most prevalent group M clade in southern Africa and some eastern African countries. Subtype C is also the most frequent subtype in Angola (southwestern Africa), with an estimated prevalence of 10-20%. In order to better understand the origin of the HIV-1 subtype C strains circulating in Angola, 31 subtype C pol sequences of Angolan origin were compared with 1950 subtype C pol sequences sampled in other African countries. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Angolan subtype C sequences were distributed in 16 different lineages that were widely dispersed among other African strains. Ten subtype C Angolan lineages were composed by only one sequence, while the remaining six clades contain between two and seven sequences. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis indicates that most Angolan clades probably originated in different southern African countries with the exception of one lineage that most likely originated in Burundi. Evolutionary analysis suggests that those Angolan subtype C clades composed by ≥ 2 sequences were introduced into the country between the late 1970s and the mid 2000s. The median estimated time frame for the origin of those Angolan lineages coincides with periods of positive migration influx in Angola that were preceded by phases of negative migratory outflow. These results demonstrate that the Angolan subtype C epidemic resulted from multiple introductions of subtype C viruses mainly imported from southern African countries over the last 30years, some of which have been locally disseminated establishing several autochthonous transmission networks. This study also suggests that population mobility between Angola and southern African countries during civil war (1974-2002) may have played a key role in the emergence of the Angolan subtype C epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A potato model intercomparison across varying climates and productivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, David H; Condori, Bruno; Quiroz, Roberto; Alva, Ashok; Asseng, Senthold; Barreda, Carolina; Bindi, Marco; Boote, Kenneth J; Ferrise, Roberto; Franke, Angelinus C; Govindakrishnan, Panamanna M; Harahagazwe, Dieudonne; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Naresh Kumar, Soora; Merante, Paolo; Nendel, Claas; Olesen, Jorgen E; Parker, Phillip S; Raes, Dirk; Raymundo, Rubi; Ruane, Alex C; Stockle, Claudio; Supit, Iwan; Vanuytrecht, Eline; Wolf, Joost; Woli, Prem

    2017-03-01

    A potato crop multimodel assessment was conducted to quantify variation among models and evaluate responses to climate change. Nine modeling groups simulated agronomic and climatic responses at low-input (Chinoli, Bolivia and Gisozi, Burundi)- and high-input (Jyndevad, Denmark and Washington, United States) management sites. Two calibration stages were explored, partial (P1), where experimental dry matter data were not provided, and full (P2). The median model ensemble response outperformed any single model in terms of replicating observed yield across all locations. Uncertainty in simulated yield decreased from 38% to 20% between P1 and P2. Model uncertainty increased with interannual variability, and predictions for all agronomic variables were significantly different from one model to another (P < 0.001). Uncertainty averaged 15% higher for low- vs. high-input sites, with larger differences observed for evapotranspiration (ET), nitrogen uptake, and water use efficiency as compared to dry matter. A minimum of five partial, or three full, calibrated models was required for an ensemble approach to keep variability below that of common field variation. Model variation was not influenced by change in carbon dioxide (C), but increased as much as 41% and 23% for yield and ET, respectively, as temperature (T) or rainfall (W) moved away from historical levels. Increases in T accounted for the highest amount of uncertainty, suggesting that methods and parameters for T sensitivity represent a considerable unknown among models. Using median model ensemble values, yield increased on average 6% per 100-ppm C, declined 4.6% per °C, and declined 2% for every 10% decrease in rainfall (for nonirrigated sites). Differences in predictions due to model representation of light utilization were significant (P < 0.01). These are the first reported results quantifying uncertainty for tuber/root crops and suggest modeling assessments of climate change impact on potato may be

  16. Dermatophytes and dermatophytosis in the eastern and southern parts of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweze, E I; Eke, I E

    2018-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is currently a disease of global importance and a public health burden. It is caused by dermatophytes, which attack and grow on dead animal keratin. Dermatophytes belong to three genera, namely, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. The predominant clinical forms and causative agents vary from one region of the world to another. Poor socioeconomic status, high population densities, and poor sanitary conditions are some of the factors responsible for the high prevalence of dermatophytosis in many developing countries, which include countries in southern and eastern Africa, the focus of this review. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no review article on published findings on dermatophytosis in the eastern and southern parts of Africa. This information will be of interest to the medical and research community since the world has become a global village. This review covers published research findings in eastern and southern regions of Africa until this date. The countries covered in the current review include Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, South Africa, Mozambique, Madagascar, Malawi, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana. T. violaceum is the most common human etiological agent in all the countries under review with prevalence ranging from 56.7% to 95%, except for Madagascar (M. langeronii, reclassified as M. audouinii), Uganda (M. gypseum) and Malawi (M. audouinii). Tinea capitis was the most clinical type, followed by tinea corporis. Etiological agents of animal dermatophytoses were variable in the countries where they were reported. Major risk factors for dermatophytoses are age, climatic, and socioeconomic factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Timing of the volcanism of the southern Kivu province: Implications for the evolution of the western branch of the East African rift system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasteels, P.

    1989-01-01

    New K-Ar datings of a large rock sampling from the South Kivu volcanic province (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi) are reported. No ages older than 10 Ma have been obtained. This result contrasts with older assumptions and puts severe constraints on the relations between volcanism and rift evolution. From 10 to 7.5 Ma tholeiitic volcanism predominates corresponding to an episode of fissural eruptions; from 7.5 to 5 Ma alkali basalts and their differentiates are mainly erupted in localized rifts. A culmination of activity occurs between 6.0 and 5.5 Ma ago. Pleistocene alkalic volcanism is restricted to localized areas. The transition from tholeiites to alkali-basaltic volcanism dated around 7.5 Ma would correspond to a major rifting phase which corresponds with the initiation of Lake Kivu Basin formation. The distribution of tholeiitic rocks in the central part of the rift, and predominantly alkalic rocks along the western active border fault, strengthens the idea that the former are associated with tension, the latter with vertical, possibly also strike-slip movements. Volcanism in the Western Rift is restricted to areas where tension occurs in a zone which is located between two zones of strike-slip. In the South Kivu area normal faults intersect strike-slip faults and this seems to have determined the location of volcanic activity. Magma formation is considered to be related with shear heating combined with adiabatic decompression in ascending diapirs. This implies heating at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary as a result of extension. Generation of tholeiitic or alkalic magmas is connected with the variable ascent velocity of mantle diapirs or with variable shear heating along the shear zone. Changes in both magma composition and intensity of volcanic activity with time are considered to be related to major phases of rift evolution. (orig.)

  18. Molecular and Phylogeographic Analysis of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus Type 1 Strains Infecting Treatment-naive Patients from Kigali, Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusine, John; Jurriaans, Suzanne; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Cornelissen, Marion; Kateera, Brenda; Boer, Kimberly; Karita, Etienne; Mukabayire, Odette; de Jong, Menno; Ondoa, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at describing the genetic subtype distribution of HIV-1 strains circulating in Kigali and their epidemiological link with the HIV-1 strains from the five countries surrounding Rwanda. One hundred and thirty eight pol (RT and PR) sequences from 116 chronically- and 22 recently-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients from Kigali were generated and subjected to HIV drug resistance (HIV-DR), phylogenetic and recombinant analyses in connection with 366 reference pol sequences from Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Uganda (Los Alamos database). Among the Rwandan samples, subtype A1 predominated (71.7%), followed by A1/C recombinants (18.1%), subtype C (5.8%), subtype D (2.9%), one A1/D recombinant (0.7%) and one unknown subtype (0.7%). Thirteen unique and three multiple A1/C recombinant forms were identified. No evidence for direct transmission events was found within the Rwandan strains. Molecular characteristics of HIV-1 were similar between chronically and recently-infected individuals and were not significantly associated with demographic or social factors. Our report suggests that the HIV-1 epidemic in Kigali is characterized by the emergence of A1/C recombinants and is not phylogenetically connected with the HIV-1 epidemic in the five neighboring countries. The relatively low level of transmitted HIV-DR mutations (2.9%) reported here indicates the good performance of the ART programme in Rwanda. However, the importance of promoting couples' counseling, testing and disclosure during HIV prevention strategies is highlighted. PMID:22905148

  19. It is possible to increase by over thirty per cent the Nile Water availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2011-01-15

    The population of the Nile catchment is presently 250 Million and will probably reach 400 Million in 2040. The catchment includes two parts of about same population but with a very different climate. - The upstream rainy part (most of this area is in Ethiopia, Uganda and South Sudan). - The downstream dry part i.e North Sudan and Egypt. The available water from the Nile runoff is evaluated as average as 72 Billion m{sup 3} /year; it is quite totally coming from the upstream part and used in the downstream part. For their development the upstream populations (including also part of Tanzania, Kenya, Congo, Rwanda and Burundi) are now requiring a significant share of the run off generated from local rains when Egypt and North Sudan claim historic rights on the Nile Waters. The best way to avoid conflicts is to increase the water availability for keeping in Egypt and North Sudan at least the water volume presently used and to allow to upstream countries the water resources necessary for their development, possibly in the range of 100 m{sup 3} / year / capita in 2030 or 2040. The average total runoff of the Nile is in fact close to 140 Billion m{sup 3} / year but over 40 Billion evaporate in the South Sudan Swamps and 15 Billion in the reservoirs of Aswan and Northern Sudan. A solution for reducing by half these two main losses is presented in this paper: it is based upon a concrete knowledge of the local very specific data and upon a successful experience of adapted technical solutions

  20. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine W Ruktanonchai

    Full Text Available Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries.We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1 skilled birth attendance, 2 receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3 receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015.Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19-0.3, while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61-0.89 and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45-0.75.Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all maternal health care services. These

  1. The UNDP/World Bank monitoring program on small scale biomass gasifiers (BTG's experience on tar measurements)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoef, H.A.M. [Biomass Technology Group BTG, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    By the time that small-scale biomass gasifiers were 'rediscovered' and promoted for use in developing countries (1970s), UNDP and the World Bank were well aware of the pitfalls of previous attempts to diffuse decentralized energy technologies. Therefore they decided to initiate a technology assessment programme before endorsing and/or stimulating a widespread gasifier introduction programme in developing countries. On July 1, 1983, the UNDP/WB worldwide Small-scale biomass gasifier monitoring was initiated, which was to {sup c}ollect uniform data on the actual field performance, economics, safety and public acceptability of biomass gasifiers currently operating in developing countries{sup .} For the UNDP/WB program BTG developed a tar measuring protocol which was used at twenty gasifiers worldwide (Indonesia, Philippines, Brazil, Mali, Seychelles, Vanuatu and Burundi). Other parameters monitored include pressure and temperatures at various spots, gasflow, fuel consumption, lubrication oil analyses, gas-composition analyses, emission measurements. The seven year programme showed that most of donor funded projects failed, mainly because there was not sufficient commitment from involved parties. National programs on the utilization of loca available biomass resources mostly failed because the fuel did not suit the requirements of gasifier reactor. In case of proper project design/set-up most of the small scale biomass gasifiers operated without major problems. Examples of such projects are the ones in Balong and Majalengka (Indonesia) Onesua (Vanuatu), Espara Feliz (Brazil) and Dogofiry (Mali). A motivated team of technicians, operators, managers is one the most important items within this respect. Most of the heat gasifiers are installed commercially and are much more successful compared to the subsidized power gasifiers. Local manufactured gasifiers are generally constructed of low quality materials causing frequent technical problems. However, locally

  2. Prevalence of malnutrition among HIV-infected children in Central and West-African HIV-care programmes supported by the Growing Up Programme in 2011: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesson, Julie; Masson, David; Adonon, Arsène; Tran, Caroline; Habarugira, Capitoline; Zio, Réjane; Nicimpaye, Léoncie; Desmonde, Sophie; Serurakuba, Goreth; Kwayep, Rosine; Sare, Edith; Konate, Tiefing; Nimaga, Abdoulaye; Saina, Philemon; Kpade, Akossiwa; Bassuka, Andrée; Gougouyor, Gustave; Leroy, Valériane

    2015-05-26

    The burden of malnutrition among HIV-infected children is not well described in sub-Saharan Africa, even though it is an important problem to take into account to guarantee appropriate healthcare for these children. We assessed the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated factors among HIV-infected children in HIV care programmes in Central and West-Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2011 among the active files of HIV-infected children aged 2-19 years old, enrolled in HIV-care programmes supported by the Sidaction Growing Up Programme in Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Chad and Togo. Socio-demographics characteristics, anthropometric, clinical data, and nutritional support were collected. Anthropometric indicators, expressed in Z-scores, were used to define malnutrition: Height-for-age (HAZ), Weight-for-Height (WHZ) for children children ≥5 years. Three types of malnutrition were defined: acute malnutrition (WHZ/BAZ malnutrition (HAZ malnutrition (WHZ/BAZ malnutrition. Overall, 1350 HIV-infected children were included; their median age was 10 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 7-13 years), 49 % were girls. 80 % were on antiretroviral treatment (ART), for a median time of 36 months. The prevalence of malnutrition was 42 % (95 % confidence interval [95% CI]: 40-44 %) with acute, chronic and mixed malnutrition at 9 % (95% CI: 6-12 %), 26 % (95% CI: 23-28 %), and 7 % (95% CI: 5-10 %), respectively. Among those malnourished, more than half of children didn't receive any nutritional support at the time of the survey. Acute malnutrition was associated with male gender, severe immunodeficiency, and the absence of ART; chronic malnutrition with male gender and age (malnutrition with male gender, age (malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition in HIV-infected children even on ART remains high in HIV care programmes. Anthropometric measurements and appropriate nutritional care of malnourished HIV

  3. ECOSOC conference news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The Economic and Social Council of the UN met in Geneva for its fifty-third summer session from July 3-28. A request for a study regarding the world's multinational corporations, a call on the Governments concerned for action to stop the reported clandestine trafficking in labor from Africa to Europe, far-reaching recommendations on land reform, and measures to eliminate mass poverty and unemployment in the developing countries, were some of the major decisions taken by the Economic and Social Council. Of particular interest to the Agency are the following matters: 1. Science and Technology A standing committee on science and technology, for which the Council at this session approved terms of reference and a programme of work, was established last year to provide guidance and to make recommendations on matters relating to assistance in the application of science and technology to development. Under the mandate as approved, the standing committee was given the power to suggest scientific and technological policies to promote development in the interest of all mankind. It will assist the Council in co-ordinating the activities of United Nations bodies in the field of science and technology and in appraisal of this field during the decade of the 1970s. 2. The Council also decided to return to the question of United Nations sponsorship of the Protein Advisory Group (PAG) in the summer of 1973. It invited the Secretary-General, in the meantime, to work out proposals for the operation and administration of a special protein fund. 3. United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration The Council further has recommended that at its forthcoming session the General Assembly should consider the establishment of a United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration with a view to finalizing and approving the Statute. Membership of the Council Members of the council are: Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Ceylon, Chile, China, Finland, France, Ghana, Haiti

  4. Holocene Millennial Time Scale Hydrological Changes In Central-east Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, D.; Bonnefille, R.; Beaufort, L.

    The Holocene hydrological changes of a tropical swamp is reconstructed using a high resolution pollen record (ca 50 yrs) from the Kuruyange valley (Burundi, Africa, 3°35'S, 29°41'E), at 2000 m elevation. The sequence was dated by 10 radiocarbon dates, allowing reconstruction between ca 12 500 and 1000 cal yr B.P. In the Kuruyange swamp, peat accumulated rapidly at a sedimentation rate varying from 0.73 (prior to 6200 cal yr B.P.) to 1.51 mm/yr (during the late Holocene). A pollen index of water table, based on a ratio of aquatic versus non-aquatic plants has been used in order to test the hypothesis of hydrological constraints on the swampy ecosystem. Eight arid phases are evidenced by the index minima at 12 200, 11 200, 9900, 8600, 6500, 5000, 3400, 1600 cal yr B.P. The good agreement existing between this index and independent data such as (i) low-resolution East-African lake level reconstruct ions (Gillespie et al., 1983) and (ii) ?18O analyses from Arabian Sea (Sirocko et al., 1993) suggests the water table level responds to the monsoon dynamic. The Index varies periodically with a combination of 1/1515, 1/880 and 1/431 years-1 frequencies, revealed by time series analyses (Blackman-Tukey and Maximum Entropy). The extrapolation of the composite curve based on these 3 periodicities show that two major climatic events defined in the high latitudes between 1000 and 660 cal yr B.P. (Medieval Warm Period) and between 500 and 100 cal yr B.P. (Little Ice Age) are recorded in our data and show respectively high and low stands of the water table. Our results support some previous pollen-derived climate estimates in Ethiopia done by Bonnefille and Umer (1994). Moreover, the "1500 year" cycle registered in our data from the tropics, already evidenced in higher latitudes (Wijmstra et al., 1984; Bondet al., 1997; Schulz et al., 1999; Bond et al., 2001) support the hypothesis of strong teleconnections between tropical/subtropical and polar climates during the deglaciation

  5. Widespread rape does not directly appear to increase the overall HIV prevalence in conflict-affected countries: so now what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is severely affected by HIV/AIDS and conflict. Sexual violence as a weapon of war has been associated with concerns about heightened HIV incidence among women. Widespread rape by combatants has been documented in Burundi, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan and Uganda. To examine the assertion that widespread rape may not directly increase HIV prevalence at the population level, we built a model to determine the potential impact of varying scenarios of widespread rape on HIV prevalence in the above seven African countries. Discussion Our findings show that even in the most extreme situations, where 15% of the female population was raped, where HIV prevalence among assailants was 8 times the country population prevalence, and where the HIV transmission rate was highest at 4 times the average high rate, widespread rape increased the absolute HIV prevalence of these countries by only 0.023%. These projections support the finding that widespread rape in conflict-affected countries in SSA has not incurred a major direct population-level change in HIV prevalence. However, this must not be interpreted to say that widespread rape does not pose serious problems to women's acquisition of HIV on an individual basis or in specific settings. Furthermore, direct and indirect consequences of sexual violence, such as physical and psychosocial trauma, unwanted pregnancies, and stigma and discrimination cannot be understated. Summary The conclusions of this article do not significantly change current practices in the field from an operational perspective. Proper care and treatment must be provided to every survivor of rape regardless of the epidemiological effects of HIV transmission at the population level. Sexual violence must be treated as a protection issue and not solely a reproductive health and psychosocial issue. It is worth publishing data and conclusions that could be

  6. A methodology to track temporal dynamics and rainfall thresholds of landslide processes in the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsieurs, Elise; Jacobs, Liesbet; Kervyn, François; Kirschbaum, Dalia; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Derauw, Dominique; Kervyn, Matthieu; Nobile, Adriano; Trefois, Philippe; Dewitte, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    The East African rift valley is a major tectonic feature that shapes Central Africa and defines linear-shaped lowlands between highland ranges due to the action of geologic faults associated to earthquakes and volcanism. The region of interest, covering the Virunga Volcanic Province in eastern DRC, western Rwanda and Burundi, and southwest Uganda, is threatened by a rare combination of several types of geohazards, while it is also one of the most densely populated region of Africa. These geohazards can globally be classified as seismic, volcanic and landslide hazards. Landslides, include a wide range of ground movements, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. Landslides are possibly the most important geohazard in terms of recurring impact on the populations, causing fatalities every year and resulting in structural and functional damage to infrastructure and private properties, as well as serious disruptions of the organization of societies. Many landslides are observed each year in the whole region, and their occurrence is clearly linked to complex topographic, lithologic and vegetation signatures coupled with heavy rainfall events, which is the main triggering factor. The source mechanisms underlying landslide triggering and dynamics in the region of interest are still poorly understood, even though in recent years, some progress has been made towards appropriate data collection. Taking into account difficulties of field accessibility, we present a methodology to study landslide processes by multi-scale and multi-sensor remote sensing data from very high to low resolution (Pléiades, TRMM, CosmoSkyMed, Sentinel). The research will address the evolution over time of such data combined with other earth observations (seismic ground based networks, catalogues, rain gauge networks, GPS surveying, field observations) to detect and study landslide occurrence, dynamics and evolution. This research aims to get insights into the rainfall

  7. Impact of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and radioactive waste trafficking in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukabar, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    Africa is the world's second largest and the most populated continent after Asia, it has a total population of approximately 800 million people. It comprises of 54 sovereign nations out of which 36 are coastal countries and blessed with over 100 Seaports. Apart from Nigeria, South Africa, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Libya, all the other remaining African countries are extremely poor and unviable. As a result of this, Africa has been experiencing a lot of civil unrest since the 1960s when most of the African countries gained their independence from their former colonial masters, the civil unrest in countries like Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Mozambique, Liberia, Sierra Leon and recently in Cote D'Ivoire, are good examples. In addition to abject poverty of less than 1$ per person per day makes trafficking in drugs, arms, humans and weaponry trade on the continent becomes much more rampant. Today the continent is experiencing the coming of a new evil deal called 'Trade in radioactive waste'; which involves the transporting of materials from existing or decommissioned nuclear plants ranging from fairly used Trucks, laboratory equipment s, office facilities, clothing materials like booths and raincoats, roofing sheets and even toxic waste from the developed countries to it's waste bin in Africa, where it is unsafely disposed after collecting millions of dollars from It's original owners (UN report, 2001). Recent statistics have revealed that most of the people involved in the evil businesses of trafficking in drugs, human, arms and trading in weaponry, are diverting in to the so called new evil business of 'Trade in Radioactive waste' because this new evil business financially exceeds the rest of the above listed evil businesses. This is clearly proved by the recent toxic waste disposed in Abidjan Cot Devoir in August 2006. The materials from the decommissioned nuclear plant sites can be hazardous if for example a roofing sheet

  8. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Nove, Andrea; Lopes, Sofia; Pezzulo, Carla; Bosco, Claudio; Alegana, Victor A; Burgert, Clara R; Ayiko, Rogers; Charles, Andrew Sek; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Msechu, Esther; Kathini, Esther; Matthews, Zoë; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1) skilled birth attendance, 2) receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3) receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015. Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19-0.3), while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61-0.89) and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45-0.75). Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all maternal health care services. These results

  9. Imaging in the Land of 1000 Hills: Rwanda Radiology Country Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rosman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rwanda is an equatorial country in central Africa (Figure 1, and part of the East African Community of Burundi, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. It is a small country, just over 10,000 square miles. Its population of nearly 12,000,000 makes it the most densely populated state in continental Africa. Rwanda’s capital, Kigali, is a mile-high city. Its elevation makes the climate much cooler and more comfortable than a typical equatorial climate. The average annual temperature is 20.5 degrees Celsius with a narrow range – April, the coldest month has an average temperature of 20 degrees, whereas August, the warmest month has an average temperature of 21.5 degrees. Economically, Rwanda functions as a subsistence agricultural country but has been actively striving to emerge as a middle-income country. Its primary exports are coffee and tea. In 1994, the majority Hutu population carried out mass genocide of the ethnic Tutsi minority In a coordinated slaughter committed by neighbors against each other, and with low-technology weapons like machetes, nearly 1,000,000 people were killed in 100 days (1. The country was devastated. Immediately post-genocide, Rwanda was one of the poorest countries in the world with nearly 70% of the population living below the poverty line (2. Until 1997, Rwanda had the lowest life expectancy of any country in the world (3. The physician work force was depleted due to the direct and indirect consequences of the Rwandan Genocide. Since this time there has been a steady economic recovery (4, along with remarkable medical recovery. Average life expectancy nationwide, only 27 years in the early 1990s, has now reached 63 years (3.Since the 2012 publication (5 highlighting its advances, radiology in Rwanda has benefitted from the capital infusion that has helped to propel the overall growth in the economic and health sectors. As of 2012, there are five national referral hospitals, 41 district hospitals, one military hospital and

  10. Medicinal plants used by Burundian traditional healers for the treatment of microbial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngezahayo, Jérémie; Havyarimana, François; Hari, Léonard; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Infectious diseases represent a serious and worldwide public health problem. They lead to high mortality, especially in non-developed countries. In Burundi, the most frequent infectious diseases are skin and respiratory (mainly in children) infections, diarrhea, added to malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Local population used mostly traditional herbal medicines, sometimes animal and mineral substances, to fight against these plagues. To survey in different markets and herbal shops in Bujumbura city, medicinal plants sold to treat microbial infections, with particular emphasis on the different practices of traditional healers (THs) regarding plant parts used, methods of preparation and administration, dosage and treatment duration. The ethnobotanical survey was conducted by interviewing, using a pre-set questionnaire, sixty representative healers, belonging to different associations of THs approved and recognised by the Ministry of Health. Each interviewed herbalist also participated in the collection of samples and the determination of the common names of plants. The plausibility of recorded uses has been verified through an extensive literature search. Our informants enabled us to collect 155 different plant species, distributed in 51 families and 139 genera. The most represented families were Asteraceae (20 genera and 25 species), Fabaceae (14 genera and 16 species), Lamiaceae (12 genera and 15 species), Rubiaceae (9 genera and 9 species), Solanaceae (6 genera and 6 species) and Euphorbiaceae (5 genera and 6 families). These plants have been cited to treat 25 different alleged symptoms of microbial diseases through 271 multi-herbal recipes (MUHRs) and 60 mono-herbal recipes (MOHRs). Platostoma rotundifolium (Briq.) A. J. Paton (Lamiaceae), the most cited species, has been reported in the composition of 41 MUHRs, followed by Virectaria major (Schum.) Verdc (Rubiaceae, 39 recipes), Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw. (Crassulaceae, 37 recipes), Stomatanthes

  11. Could there have been substantial declines in sexual risk behavior across sub-Saharan Africa in the mid-1990s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Susanne F; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2014-09-01

    HIV prevalence is decreasing in much of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the drivers of the decline are subject to much dispute. Using mathematical modeling as a tool for hypothesis generation, we demonstrate how the hypothesis that the drop in prevalence reflects declines in sexual risk behavior is self-consistent. We characterize these potential declines in terms of their scale, duration, and timing, and theorize on how small changes in sexual behavior at the individual-level could have driven large declines in HIV prevalence. A population-level deterministic compartmental model was constructed to describe the HIV epidemics in 24 countries in SSA with sufficient trend data. The model was parameterized by national HIV prevalence and HIV natural history and transmission data. The temporal evolution of sexual risk behavior was characterized using established tools and uncertainty and sensitivity analyses on the results were conducted. Declines in the scale of sexual risk behavior between 31.8% (Botswana) and 89.3% (Liberia) can explain the declining HIV prevalence across countries. The average decline across countries was 68.9%. The transition in sexual risk behavior lasted between 2.7 (Botswana) and 16.6 (Gabon) years with an average of 8.2 years. The turning point year of the transition occurred between 1993 (Burundi) and 2001 (Namibia), but clustered around 1995 for most countries. The uncertainty and sensitivity analyses affirmed our model predictions. The hypothesis that HIV prevalence declines in SSA have been driven by declines in sexual risk behavior is self-consistent and provides a convincing narrative for an evolving HIV epidemiology in this region. The hypothesized declines must have been remarkable in their intensity, rapidity, and synchronicity to explain the temporal trends in HIV prevalence. These findings provide contextual support for the hypothesis that changes in sexual behavior that materialized in the 1990s are a dominant driver of the recent

  12. Who is Responsible for Instability in the Democratic Republic of Congo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Sidorova

    2014-01-01

    relations with neighbouring countries - Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi which for tens of years exploit illegally natural resources of the DRC and try to lay hold of frontier Congolese territories.

  13. Encouraging self-development. Profile: Louise Lassonde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, J

    1992-01-01

    A profile of Louise Lassonde, population advisor to the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) portrays her ethnic and educational background, her interests, and achievements. She was born a French Canadian near Montreal and earned a degree in anthropology with an emphasis on the ancient cultures of Peru. A second degree was earned in sociology and a Ph.D. in demography. In her investigations, it was discovered that there were few remnants of the old Indian culture remaining in the Andean highlands; Quechua and Spanish languages were learned in the process. Her professional responsibilities have included university teaching in development and demography in Montreal, development assistance work in Burundi, Rwanda, and eastern Zaire as regional director for a Canadian nongovernmental organization, and consultancy activities for UNICEF and UNFPA. As a consultant, she was engaged in studying women and their ways of generating income and improving the quality of their lives. In 1989, her position was as country director to Togo and Benin within the UN Population Fund followed by a position in the UNCED secretariat in Geneva. Her field experience has contributed to a view that time is precious and that there is accountability for action or inaction. A little bit of effort can go a long way, i.e., improved management and information and good will. The assumption is that people have the will and desire to improve their own and their families as long as there is hope and freedom from a discouraging atmosphere. Lack of understanding can create tremendous barriers. The example is given of a man presenting with malaria at an African health center and not being treated because of his tribal affiliation; he died when medicine was within reach. Support must be provided in terms of health and education so that people can set the targets for themselves and develop creative solutions compatible with their own cultures. Her positive approach is visible in her insistence

  14. Religious and cultural traits in HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayati, Ali-Akbar; Bakayev, Valerii; Bahadori, Moslem; Tabatabaei, Seyed-Javad; Alaei, Arash; Farahbood, Amir; Masjedi, Mohammad-Reza

    2007-10-01

    The pandemic of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa and the rise of epidemics in Asia to the previously unforeseen level are likely to have global social, economic, and political impacts. In this emergency, it is vital to reappraise the weight of powerful religious and cultural factors in spreading the disease. The role of Islam in shaping values, norms, and public policies in North African states is to be appreciated for the lowest HIV prevalence in their populations. Yet, the place of religion in prevention of the disease diffusion is not fully understood nor worldwide acknowledged by the primary decision makers. Another topic, which has received little attention to date, despite the abundance of literature concerning the unfortunate Africa's anti-AIDS campaign, is an issue of colonial past. To better comprehend the share of both traits in diverse spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, we studied the correlation between Muslim and Christian proportions in the state's population and HIV rate. By this method, Muslim percentage came out as a potential predictor of HIV prevalence in a given state. In another approach, most subcontinental countries were clustered by colocalization and similarity in their leading religion, colonial past, and HIV seroprevalence starting from barely noticeable (0.6 - 1.2%, for Mauritania, Senegal, Somalia, and Niger) and low levels (1.9 - 4.8%, for Mali, Eritrea, Djibouti, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina-Faso, and Chad) for Muslim populated past possessions of France and Italy, in the northern part of the subcontinent. Former territories of France, Belgium, Portugal, and the UK formed two other groups of the countries nearing the equator with Catholic prevailing (Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Gabon, and Burundi) or mixed populations comprising Christian, Muslim, and indigenous believers (Benin, Ghana, Uganda, Togo, Angola, Nigeria, Liberia, Kenya, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, and Sierra-Leone), which covered the HIV

  15. ECOSOC conference news[Economic and Social Council of the UN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    The Economic and Social Council of the UN met in Geneva for its fifty-third summer session from July 3-28. A request for a study regarding the world's multinational corporations, a call on the Governments concerned for action to stop the reported clandestine trafficking in labor from Africa to Europe, far-reaching recommendations on land reform, and measures to eliminate mass poverty and unemployment in the developing countries, were some of the major decisions taken by the Economic and Social Council. Of particular interest to the Agency are the following matters: 1. Science and Technology A standing committee on science and technology, for which the Council at this session approved terms of reference and a programme of work, was established last year to provide guidance and to make recommendations on matters relating to assistance in the application of science and technology to development. Under the mandate as approved, the standing committee was given the power to suggest scientific and technological policies to promote development in the interest of all mankind. It will assist the Council in co-ordinating the activities of United Nations bodies in the field of science and technology and in appraisal of this field during the decade of the 1970s. 2. The Council also decided to return to the question of United Nations sponsorship of the Protein Advisory Group (PAG) in the summer of 1973. It invited the Secretary-General, in the meantime, to work out proposals for the operation and administration of a special protein fund. 3. United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration The Council further has recommended that at its forthcoming session the General Assembly should consider the establishment of a United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration with a view to finalizing and approving the Statute. Membership of the Council Members of the council are: Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Ceylon, Chile, China, Finland, France, Ghana, Haiti

  16. Analysis of human resources for health strategies and policies in 5 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, in response to GFATM and PEPFAR-funded HIV-activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailhol, Johann; Craveiro, Isabel; Madede, Tavares; Makoa, Elsie; Mathole, Thubelihle; Parsons, Ann Neo; Van Leemput, Luc; Biesma, Regien; Brugha, Ruairi; Chilundo, Baltazar; Lehmann, Uta; Dussault, Gilles; Van Damme, Wim; Sanders, David

    2013-10-25

    Global Health Initiatives (GHIs), aiming at reducing the impact of specific diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), have flourished since 2000. Amongst these, PEPFAR and GFATM have provided a substantial amount of funding to countries affected by HIV, predominantly for delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) and prevention strategies. Since the need for additional human resources for health (HRH) was not initially considered by GHIs, countries, to allow ARV scale-up, implemented short-term HRH strategies, adapted to GHI-funding conditionality. Such strategies differed from one country to another and slowly evolved to long-term HRH policies. The processes and content of HRH policy shifts in 5 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa were examined. A multi-country study was conducted from 2007 to 2011 in 5 countries (Angola, Burundi, Lesotho, Mozambique and South Africa), to assess the impact of GHIs on the health system, using a mixed methods design. This paper focuses on the impact of GFATM and PEPFAR on HRH policies. Qualitative data consisted of semi-structured interviews undertaken at national and sub-national levels and analysis of secondary data from national reports. Data were analysed in order to extract countries' responses to HRH challenges posed by implementation of HIV-related activities. Common themes across the 5 countries were selected and compared in light of each country context. In all countries successful ARV roll-out was observed, despite HRH shortages. This was a result of mostly short-term emergency response by GHI-funded Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and to a lesser extent by governments, consisting of using and increasing available HRH for HIV tasks. As challenges and limits of short-term HRH strategies were revealed and HIV became a chronic disease, the 5 countries slowly implemented mid to long-term HRH strategies, such as formalisation of pilot initiatives, increase in HRH production and mitigation of internal migration of HRH

  17. An updated atlas of human helminth infections: the example of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanja Peris

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable and updated maps of helminth (worm infection distributions are essential to target control strategies to those populations in greatest need. Although many surveys have been conducted in endemic countries, the data are rarely available in a form that is accessible to policy makers and the managers of public health programmes. This is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa, where empirical data are seldom in the public domain. In an attempt to address the paucity of geographical information on helminth risk, this article describes the development of an updated global atlas of human helminth infection, showing the example of East Africa. Methods Empirical, cross-sectional estimates of infection prevalence conducted since 1980 were identified using electronic and manual search strategies of published and unpublished sources. A number of inclusion criteria were imposed for identified information, which was extracted into a standardized database. Details of survey population, diagnostic methods, sample size and numbers infected with schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths were recorded. A unique identifier linked each record to an electronic copy of the source document, in portable document format. An attempt was made to identify the geographical location of each record using standardized geolocation procedures and the assembled data were incorporated into a geographical information system. Results At the time of writing, over 2,748 prevalence surveys were identified through multiple search strategies. Of these, 2,612 were able to be geolocated and mapped. More than half (58% of included surveys were from grey literature or unpublished sources, underlining the importance of reviewing in-country sources. 66% of all surveys were conducted since 2000. Comprehensive, countrywide data are available for Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda. In contrast, information for Kenya and Tanzania is typically clustered in specific regions of

  18. Child malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa: A meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys (2006-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akombi, Blessing J; Agho, Kingsley E; Merom, Dafna; Renzaho, Andre M; Hall, John J

    2017-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest levels of child malnutrition globally. Therefore, a critical look at the distribution of malnutrition within its sub-regions is required to identify the worst affected areas. This study provides a meta-analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition indicators (stunting, wasting and underweight) within four sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2006-2016) of 32 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were used. The countries were grouped into four sub-regions (East Africa, West Africa, Southern Africa and Central Africa), and a meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of each malnutrition indicator within each of the sub-regions. Significant heterogeneity was detected among the various surveys (I2 >50%), hence a random effect model was used, and sensitivity analysis was performed, to examine the effects of outliers. Stunting was defined as HAZAfrica; Niger (43.9%), Mali (38.3%), Sierra Leone (37.9%) and Nigeria (36.8%) in West Africa; Democratic Republic of Congo (42.7%) and Chad (39.9%) in Central Africa. Wasting was highest in Niger (18.0%), Burkina Faso (15.50%) and Mali (12.7%) in West Africa; Comoros (11.1%) and Ethiopia (8.70%) in East Africa; Namibia (6.2%) in Southern Africa; Chad (13.0%) and Sao Tome & Principle (10.5%) in Central Africa. Underweight was highest in Burundi (28.8%) and Ethiopia (25.2%) in East Africa; Niger (36.4%), Nigeria (28.7%), Burkina Faso (25.7%), Mali (25.0%) in West Africa; and Chad (28.8%) in Central Africa. The prevalence of malnutrition was highest within countries in East Africa and West Africa compared to the WHO Millennium development goals target for 2015. Appropriate nutrition interventions need to be prioritised in East Africa and West Africa if sub-Saharan Africa is to meet the WHO global nutrition target of improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition by 2025.

  19. Characteristics of HIV-Infected Children at Enrollment into Care and at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebola Adedimeji

    Full Text Available Despite the World Health Organization (WHO regularly updating guidelines to recommend earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART in children, timely enrollment into care and initiation of ART in sub-Saharan Africa in children lags behind that of adults. The impact of implementing increasingly less restrictive ART guidelines on ART initiation in Central Africa has not been described.Data are from the Central Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA pediatric cohort of 3,426 children (0-15 years entering HIV care at 15 sites in Burundi, DRC, and Rwanda. Measures include CD4 count, WHO clinical stage, age, and weight-for-age Z score (WAZ, each at enrollment into HIV care and at ART initiation. Changes in the medians or proportions of each measure by year of enrollment and year of ART initiation were assessed to capture potential impacts of changing ART guidelines.Median age at care enrollment decreased from 77.2 months in 2004-05 to 30.3 months in 2012-13. The median age at ART initiation (n = 2058 decreased from 83.0 months in 2004-05 to 66.9 months in 2012-13. The proportion of children ≤24 months of age at enrollment increased from 12.7% in 2004-05 to 46.7% in 2012-13, and from 9.6% in 2004-05 to 24.2% in 2012-13 for ART initiation. The median CD4 count at enrollment into care increased from 563 (IQR: 275, 901 in 2004-05 to 660 (IQR: 339, 1071 cells/μl in 2012-13, and the median CD4 count at ART initiation increased from 310 (IQR:167, 600 in 2004-05 to 589 (IQR: 315, 1113 cells/μl in 2012-13. From 2004-05 to 2012-13, median WAZ improved from -2 (IQR: -3.4, -1.1 to -1 (IQR: -2.5, -0.2 at enrollment in care and from -2 (IQR: -3.8, -1.6 to -1 (IQR: -2.6, -0.4 at ART initiation.Although HIV-infected children ≤24 months of age accounted for half of all children enrolling in care in our cohort during 2012-13, they represented less than a quarter of all those who were initiated on ART during the same period

  20. State-building and human resources for health in fragile and conflict-affected states: exploring the linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Falisse, Jean-Benoit; Bertone, Maria Paola; Alonso-Garbayo, Alvaro; Martins, João S; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Pavignani, Enrico; Martineau, Tim

    2015-05-15

    Human resources for health are self-evidently critical to running a health service and system. There is, however, a wider set of social issues which is more rarely considered. One area which is hinted at in literature, particularly on fragile and conflict-affected states, but rarely examined in detail, is the contribution which health staff may or do play in relation to the wider state-building processes. This article aims to explore that relationship, developing a conceptual framework to understand what linkages might exist and looking for empirical evidence in the literature to support, refute or adapt those linkages. An open call for contributions to the article was launched through an online community. The group then developed a conceptual framework and explored a variety of literatures (political, economic, historical, public administration, conflict and health-related) to find theoretical and empirical evidence related to the linkages outlined in the framework. Three country case reports were also developed for Afghanistan, Burundi and Timor-Leste, using secondary sources and the knowledge of the group. We find that the empirical evidence for most of the linkages is not strong, which is not surprising, given the complexity of the relationships. Nevertheless, some of the posited relationships are plausible, especially between development of health cadres and a strengthened public administration, which in the long run underlies a number of state-building features. The reintegration of factional health staff post-conflict is also plausibly linked to reconciliation and peace-building. The role of medical staff as part of national elites may also be important. The concept of state-building itself is highly contested, with a rich vein of scepticism about the wisdom or feasibility of this as an external project. While recognizing the inherently political nature of these processes, systems and sub-systems, it remains the case that state-building does occur over time

  1. Natural equilibria and anthropic effects on sediment transport in big river systems: The Nile case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~ 6700 km, from Burundi and Rwanda highlands south of the Equator to the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes. It is thus the longest natural laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are carrying out a continuing research project to investigate changes in sediment composition associated with a variety of chemical and physical processes, including weathering in equatorial climate and hydraulic sorting during transport and deposition. Petrographic, mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic fingerprints of sand and mud have been monitored along all Nile branches, from the Kagera and White Nile draining Archean, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basements uplifted along the western branch of the East African rift, to the Blue Nile and Atbara Rivers sourced in Ethiopian volcanic highlands made of Oligocene basalt. Downstream of the Atbara confluence, the Nile receives no significant tributary water and hardly any rainfall across the Sahara. After construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964, the Nile ceased to be an active conveyor-belt in Egypt, where the mighty river has been tamed to a water canal; transported sediments are thus chiefly reworked from older bed and levee deposits, with minor contributions from widyan sourced in the Red Sea Hills and wind-blown desert sand and dust. Extensive dam construction has determined a dramatic sediment deficit at the mouth, where deltaic cusps are undergoing ravaging erosion. Nile delta sediments are thus recycled under the effect of dominant waves from the northwest, the longest Mediterranean fetch direction. Nile sands, progressively enriched in more stable minerals such as quartz and amphiboles relative to volcanic rock fragments and pyroxene, thus undergo multistep transport by E- and NE-directed longshore currents all along the coast of Egypt and Palestine, and are carried as far as Akko Bay in northern Israel. Nile mud reaches the Iskenderun Gulf in southern Turkey. A full

  2. Evaluation des caractéristiques physico-chimiques et sensorielles de la purée de tomate locale produite à petite échelle au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dossou, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of Local Tomato Past Produced at Small Scale in Benin. L'article fait le point sur les avancements notés dans l'éradication de la peste bovine en Afrique sub-saharienne, avec à l'horizon 2010, l'éradication mondiale de la peste, telle que prévu par le Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP. Le programme Pan-Africain de Contrôle des Epizooties (PACE, un programme exécuté depuis 1999 sous l'égide de l'Union Africaine (UA avec le concours financier du Fonds Européen pour le Développement (UE, exécute actuellement la dernière phase de ce programme d'éradication. Les auteurs passent en revue l'historique, le diagnostic et les outils de contrôle de cette maladie, tant chez le bétail que chez la faune. A l'heure actuelle, il ne reste qu'une partie de l'Afrique de l'est où sévit la maladie. Cependant aucun foyer n'y a été signalé depuis 2001. La seule lignée encore rencontrée (lignée 2 africaine se cantonne à l'écosystème somalien, qui regroupe la Somalie, l'est du Kenya et la 5ième région de l'Ethiopie. Réapparue en 1994, 1998, et 2001 dans la faune sauvage, cette lignée représente donc la cible des derniers efforts d'éradication. En dehors de cette zone, la peste bovine semblerait être absente de l'Afrique de l'est. En Afrique de l'ouest et du centre où la maladie est absente depuis des décennies, les activités sont axées sur la certification internationale (par l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé Animale, OIE de l'absence de la maladie et de l'infection. Sur les 30 pays que couvre le PACE, 12 pays ont obtenu à ce jour le statut 'indemne de l'infection': Bénin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Congo, Erythrée, Guinée, Guinée Bissau, Mali, RDC, Rwanda, Sénégal et Togo. Onze pays enfin, la Côte d'Ivoire, l'Ethiopie, le Ghana, le Kenya, la Mauritanie, le Niger, le Nigeria, l'Ouganda, le Soudan, la Tanzanie et le Tchad ont été déclarés 'indemnes de maladie' (en ce

  3. The White Nile sedimentary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~6700 km from south of the Equator to finally reach the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes (Woodward et al. 2007). This is the longest sedimentological laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are investigating changes in sediment composition associated with diverse chemical and physical processes, including weathering and hydraulic sorting. The present study focuses on the southern branch of the Nile across 20° of latitude, from hyperhumid Burundi and Rwanda highlands in central Africa to Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan at the southern edge of the Sahara. Our study of the Kagera basin emphasizes the importance of weathering in soils at the source rather than during stepwise transport, and shows that the transformation of parent rocks into quartzose sand may be completed in one sedimentary cycle (Garzanti et al. 2013a). Micas and heavy minerals, less effectively diluted by recycling than main framework components, offer the best key to identify the original source-rock imprint. The different behaviour of chemical indices such as the CIA (a truer indicator of weathering) and the WIP (markedly affected by quartz dilution) helps us to distinguish strongly weathered first-cycle versus polycyclic quartz sands (Garzanti et al. 2013b). Because sediment is efficiently trapped in East African Rift lakes, the composition of Nile sediments changes repeatedly northwards across Uganda. Downstream of both Lake Kyoga and Lake Albert, quartzose sands are progressively enriched in metamorphiclastic detritus supplied from tributaries draining amphibolite-facies basements. The evolution of White Nile sediments across South Sudan, a scarcely accessible region that suffered decades of civil war, was inferred from the available information (Shukri 1950), integrated by original petrographic, heavy-mineral and geochemical data (Padoan et al. 2011). Mineralogical and isotopic signatures of Bahr-el-Jebel and Sobat sediments, derived

  4. Access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: a geocoded inventory and spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Paul O; Maina, Joseph; Thuranira, Pamela N; Macharia, Peter M; Alegana, Victor A; English, Mike; Okiro, Emelda A; Snow, Robert W

    2018-03-01

    %) women of child bearing age are located more than 2-h travel time from the nearest hospital. Marked differences were observed within and between countries, ranging from less than 25% of the population within 2-h travel time of a public hospital in South Sudan to more than 90% in Nigeria, Kenya, Cape Verde, Swaziland, South Africa, Burundi, Comoros, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Zanzibar. Only 16 countries reached the international benchmark of more than 80% of their populations living within a 2-h travel time of the nearest hospital. Physical access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in Africa remains poor and varies substantially within and between countries. Innovative targeting of emergency care services is necessary to reduce these inequities. This study provides the first spatial census of public hospital services in Africa. Wellcome Trust and the UK Department for International Development. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: a geocoded inventory and spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O Ouma, MSc

    2018-03-01

     282 013 (29·0% people and 64 495 526 (28·2% women of child bearing age are located more than 2-h travel time from the nearest hospital. Marked differences were observed within and between countries, ranging from less than 25% of the population within 2-h travel time of a public hospital in South Sudan to more than 90% in Nigeria, Kenya, Cape Verde, Swaziland, South Africa, Burundi, Comoros, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Zanzibar. Only 16 countries reached the international benchmark of more than 80% of their populations living within a 2-h travel time of the nearest hospital. Interpretation: Physical access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in Africa remains poor and varies substantially within and between countries. Innovative targeting of emergency care services is necessary to reduce these inequities. This study provides the first spatial census of public hospital services in Africa. Funding: Wellcome Trust and the UK Department for International Development.

  6. Online Database Allows for Quick and Easy Monitoring and Reporting of Supplementary Feeding Program Performance: An Analysis of World Vision CMAM Programs (2006-2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emary, Colleen; Aidam, Bridget; Roberton, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Despite the widespread implementation of interventions to address moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), lack of robust monitoring systems have hindered evaluation of the effectiveness of approaches to prevent and treat MAM. Since 2006, World Vision (WV) has provided supplementary feeding to 280,518 children 6-59 months of age (U5) and 105,949 pregnant and lactating women (PLW) as part of Community Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) programming. The Excel-based system initially used for monitoring individual site programs faced numerous challenges. It was time consuming, prone to human error, lost data as a result of staff turnover and hence use of data to inform program performance was limited. In 2010, World Vision International (WVI)’s Nutrition Centre of Expertise (NCOE) established an online database to overcome these limitations. The aim of the database was to improve monitoring and reporting of WV’s CMAM programs. As of December 2013, the database has been rolled out in 14 countries Burundi, Chad, DRC, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan, Pakistan, South Sudan, Somalia, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Methods: The database includes data on admissions (mid-upper arm circumference, weight for height, oedema, referral) and discharge outcomes (recovered, died, defaulted, non-recovered, referral) for Supplementary Feeding Programs (SFPs) for children U5 as well as PLWs. A quantitative analysis of the data sets available was conducted to identify issues with data quality and draw findings from the data itself. Variations in program performance as compared to Sphere standards were determined by country and aggregated over the 14 countries. In addition, time trend analyses were conducted to determine significant different and seasonality effects. Results: Most data was related to program admissions from 2010 to July 2013, though some retrospective program data was available from 2006 to 2009. The countries with the largest number

  7. Towards a Global High Resolution Peatland Map in 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Barthelmes, Karen-Doreen; Joosten, Hans; Dommain, Rene; Margalef, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Some 3% of land area on planet Earth (approx. 4 million km2) is covered by peatlands. About 10% (~ 0.3 % of the land area) are drained and responsible for a disproportional 5 % of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Victoria et al., 2012). Additionally, peatland drainage and degradation lead to land subsidence, soil degradation, water pollution, and enhanced susceptibility to fire (Holden et al., 2004; Joosten et al., 2012). The global importance of peatlands for carbon storage and climate change mitigation has currently been recognized in international policy - since 2008 organic soils are subject of discussion in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Joosten, 2011). In May 2013 the European Parliament decided that the global post 2020 climate agreement should include the obligation to report emissions and removals from peatland drainage and rewetting. Implementation of such program, however, necessitates the rapid availability of reliable, comprehensive, high resolution, spatially explicit data on the extent and status of peatlands. For many reporting countries this requires an innovation in peatland mapping, i.e. the better and integrative use of novel, but already available methods and technologies. We developed an approach that links various science networks, methodologies and data bases, including those of peatland/landscape ecology for understanding where and how peatlands may occur, those of remote sensing for identifying possible locations, and those of pedology (legacy soil maps) and (palaeo-)ecology for ground truthing. Such integration of old field data, specialized knowledge, and modern RS and GIS technologies enables acquiring a rapid, comprehensive, detailed and rather reliable overview, even on a continental scale. We illustrate this approach with a high resolution overview of peatland distribution, area, status and greenhouse gas fluxes e.g. for the East African countries Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and Zambia. Furthermore, we

  8. An Integrated Hydrological and Water Management Study of the Entire Nile River System - Lake Victoria to Nile Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Alo, Clement; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Policelli, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    The Nile basin River system spans 3 million km(exp 2) distributed over ten nations. The eight upstream riparian nations, Ethiopia, Eretria, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Tanzania and Kenya are the source of approximately 86% of the water inputs to the Nile, while the two downstream riparian countries Sudan and Egypt, presently rely on the river's flow for most of the their needs. Both climate and agriculture contribute to the complicated nature of Nile River management: precipitation in the headwaters regions of Ethiopia and Lake Victoria is variable on a seasonal and inter-annual basis, while demand for irrigation water in the arid downstream region is consistently high. The Nile is, perhaps, one of the most difficult trans-boundary water issue in the world, and this study would be the first initiative to combine NASA satellite observations with the hydrologic models study the overall water balance in a to comprehensive manner. The cornerstone application of NASA's Earth Science Research Results under this project are the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) and the USDA Atmosphere-land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. These two complementary research results are methodologically independent methods for using NASA observations to support water resource analysis in data poor regions. Where an LDAS uses multiple sources of satellite data to inform prognostic simulations of hydrological process, ALEXI diagnoses evapotranspiration and water stress on the basis of thermal infrared satellite imagery. Specifically, this work integrates NASA Land Data Assimilation systems into the water management decision support systems that member countries of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) and Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD, located in Nairobi, Kenya) use in water resource analysis, agricultural planning, and acute drought response to support sustainable development of Nile Basin water resources. The project is motivated by the recognition that

  9. Payment methods for outpatient care facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Beibei; He, Li; Meng, Qingyue; Jia, Liying

    2017-01-01

    trials, non-randomised trials, controlled before-after studies, interrupted time series, and repeated measures studies that compared different payment methods for outpatient health facilities. We defined outpatient care facilities in this review as facilities that provide health services to individuals who do not require hospitalisation or institutionalisation. We only included methods used to transfer funds from the purchaser of healthcare services to health facilities (including groups of individual professionals). These include global budgets, line-item budgets, capitation, fee-for-service (fixed and unconstrained), pay for performance, and mixed payment. The primary outcomes were service provision outcomes, patient outcomes, healthcare provider outcomes, costs for providers, and any adverse effects. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We conducted a structured synthesis. We first categorised the comparisons and outcomes and then described the effects of different types of payment methods on different categories of outcomes. We used a fixed-effect model for meta-analysis within a study if a study included more than one indicator in the same category of outcomes. We used a random-effects model for meta-analysis across studies. If the data for meta-analysis were not available in some studies, we calculated the median and interquartile range. We reported the risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and the relative change for continuous outcomes. Main results We included 21 studies from Afghanistan, Burundi, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania, the United Kingdom, and the United States of health facilities providing primary health care and mental health care. There were three kinds of payment comparisons. 1) Pay for performance (P4P) combined with some existing payment method (capitation or different kinds of input-based payment) compared to the existing payment method We

  10. Impact of Air Temperature and SST Variability on Cholera Incidence in Southeastern Africa, 1971-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Shlomit

    2010-05-01

    The most important climatic parameter related to cholera outbreaks is the temperature, especially of the water bodies and the aquatic environment. This factor governs the survival and growth of V. cholerae, since it has a direct influence on its abundance in the environment, or alternatively, through its indirect influence on other aquatic organisms to which the pathogen is found to attach. Thus, the potential for cholera outbreaks may rise, parallel to the increase in ocean surface temperature. Indeed, recent studies indicate that global warming might create a favorable environment for V. cholerae and increase its incidence in vulnerable areas. Africa is vulnerable to climate variability. According to the recent IPCC report on Africa, the air temperature has indicated a significant warming trend since the 1960s. In recent years, most of the research into disease vectors in Africa related to climate variability has focused on malaria. The IPCC indicated that the need exists to examine the vulnerabilities and impacts of climatic factors on cholera in Africa. In light of this, the study uses a Poisson Regression Model to analyze the possible association between the cholera rates in southeastern Africa and the annual variability of air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) at regional and hemispheric scales, for the period 1971-2006. Data description is as follows: Number of cholera cases per year in Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique. Source: WHO Global Health Atlas - cholera. Seasonal and annual temperature time series: Regional scale: a) Air temperature for southeastern Africa (30° E-36° E, 5° S-17° S), source: NOAA NCEP-NCAR; b) Sea surface temperature, for the western Indian Ocean (0-20° S, 40° E-45° E), source: NOAA, Kaplan SST dataset. Hemispheric scale (for the whole Southern Hemisphere): a) Air temperature anomaly; b) Sea surface temperature anomaly. Source: CRU, University of East Anglia. The following

  11. Paying for performance to improve the delivery of health interventions in low- and middle-income countries .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Fretheim, Atle; Kessy, Flora L; Lindahl, Anne Karin

    2012-02-15

    also needed to use one of the following study designs: randomised trial, non-randomised trial, controlled before-after study or interrupted time series study, and had to have been conducted in low- or middle-income countries (as defined by the World Bank). We aimed to present a meta-analysis of results. However, due to the limited number of studies in each category, the diversity of intervention designs and study methods, as well as important contextual differences, we present a narrative synthesis with separate results from each study. Nine studies were included in the review: one randomised trial, six controlled before-after studies and two interrupted time series studies (or studies which could be re-analysed as such). The interventions were varied: one used target payments linked to quality of care (in the Philippines). Two used target payments linked to coverage indicators (in Tanzania and Zambia). Three used conditional cash transfers, modified by quality measurements (in Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo). Two used conditional cash transfers without quality measures (in Rwanda and Vietnam). One used a mix of conditional cash transfers and target payments (China). Targeted services also varied. Most of the interventions used a wide range of targets covering inpatient, outpatient and preventive care, including a strong emphasis on services for women and children. However, one focused specifically on tuberculosis (the main outcome measure was cases detected); one on hospital revenues; and one on improved treatment of common illnesses in under-sixes. Participants were in most cases in a mix of public and faith-based facilities (dispensaries, health posts, health centres and hospitals), though districts were also involved and in one case payments were made direct to individual private practitioners.One study was considered to have low risk of bias and one a moderate risk of bias. The other seven studies had a high risk of bias. Only one study

  12. London forum targets Africa's cancer crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    meeting, which will be chaired by Alan Milburn, former UK Secretary of State for Health. One of the key speakers is Hilary Benn, UK Secretary of State for International Development. Cancer Control in Africa is limited to 140 delegates. Those attending are central to the implementation of cancer strategies. They include 19 African Health Ministries, from Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Gabon, Ghana, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Uganda and Zambia. Also invited are leading African doctors and health professionals, many of the world's foremost oncologists, UK government members and advisors, cancer organizations and charities (World Health Organization (WHO), International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research (INCTR), U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI), American Cancer Society (ACS), International Union Against Cancer (UICC), African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC), National Cancer Research Institute, UK, Breakthrough Breast Cancer, African Palliative Care Association and Help the Hospices), representatives from the pharmaceutical industry (GSK, Roche, Novartis, GE Healthcare and Eli Lilly), the Gates Foundation, the African Development Bank and investment bankers. There will be two press briefings: Venue: Committee Room, The Reform Club, 104 Pall Mall, London, SW1Y 5EW. Times: Thursday, 10 May, 09:00-10:00 and Friday, 11 May, 16:00-17:00. Space is limited to 25 journalists per briefing. Advance registration is therefore requested. (IAEA)

  13. London forum targets Africa's cancer crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    meeting, which will be chaired by Alan Milburn, former UK Secretary of State for Health. One of the key speakers is Hilary Benn, UK Secretary of State for International Development. Cancer Control in Africa is limited to 140 delegates. Those attending are central to the implementation of cancer strategies. They include 19 African Health Ministries, from Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Gabon, Ghana, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Uganda and Zambia. Also invited are leading African doctors and health professionals, many of the world's foremost oncologists, UK government members and advisors, cancer organizations and charities (World Health Organization (WHO), International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research (INCTR), U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI), American Cancer Society (ACS), International Union Against Cancer (UICC), African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC), National Cancer Research Institute, UK, Breakthrough Breast Cancer, African Palliative Care Association and Help the Hospices), representatives from the pharmaceutical industry (GSK, Roche, Novartis, GE Healthcare and Eli Lilly), the Gates Foundation, the African Development Bank and investment bankers. There will be two press briefings: Venue: Committee Room, The Reform Club, 104 Pall Mall, London, SW1Y 5EW. Times: Thursday, 10 May, 09:00-10:00 and Friday, 11 May, 16:00-17:00. Space is limited to 25 journalists per briefing. Advance registration is therefore requested. (IAEA) [fr

  14. Niobium and tantalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Papp, John F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    mineral tantalite ((Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6), which is found as an accessory mineral in rare-metal granites and pegmatites that are also enriched in lithium and cesium (termed lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT)-type pegmatites).Brazil and Canada are the leading nations that produce niobium mineral concentrates, but Brazil is by far the leading producer, accounting for about 90 percent of production, which comes mostly from weathered material derived from carbonatites. Brazil and Canada also have the largest identified niobium resources; additional resources, although they are less well reported, occur in Angola, Australia, China, Greenland, Malawi, Russia, and South Africa. Australia and Brazil have been the leading producers of tantalum mineral concentrates, although recently Ethiopia and Mozambique have also been significant suppliers of tantalum. Artisanal mining of columbite-tantalite (also called coltan) is practiced in many countries, particularly Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo [Kinshasa]), Nigeria, Rwanda, and Uganda. Brazil has about 40 percent of the identified tantalum resources; other countries and regions with identified tantalum resources include, in decreasing order of resources, Australia, Asia, Russia and the Middle East, Africa, North America, and Europe. Identified niobium and tantalum resources in the United States are small, low grade, and difficult to recover and process, and are thus not commercially recoverable at current prices. Consequently, the United States meets its current and expected future needs for niobium and tantalum through imports of primary mineral concentrates and alloys and through recovery from foreign and domestic alloy scrap that contain the metals.Environmentally, the main issues related to niobium and tantalum mining are land disruptions, the volume of waste materials and their disposal, and the radioactivity of some tailings and waste materials that contain thorium and uranium. Because of the relative biological

  15. Payment methods for outpatient care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Beibei; He, Li; Meng, Qingyue; Jia, Liying

    2017-03-03

    -after studies, interrupted time series, and repeated measures studies that compared different payment methods for outpatient health facilities. We defined outpatient care facilities in this review as facilities that provide health services to individuals who do not require hospitalisation or institutionalisation. We only included methods used to transfer funds from the purchaser of healthcare services to health facilities (including groups of individual professionals). These include global budgets, line-item budgets, capitation, fee-for-service (fixed and unconstrained), pay for performance, and mixed payment. The primary outcomes were service provision outcomes, patient outcomes, healthcare provider outcomes, costs for providers, and any adverse effects. At least two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We conducted a structured synthesis. We first categorised the comparisons and outcomes and then described the effects of different types of payment methods on different categories of outcomes. We used a fixed-effect model for meta-analysis within a study if a study included more than one indicator in the same category of outcomes. We used a random-effects model for meta-analysis across studies. If the data for meta-analysis were not available in some studies, we calculated the median and interquartile range. We reported the risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and the relative change for continuous outcomes. We included 21 studies from Afghanistan, Burundi, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania, the United Kingdom, and the United States of health facilities providing primary health care and mental health care. There were three kinds of payment comparisons. 1) Pay for performance (P4P) combined with some existing payment method (capitation or different kinds of input-based payment) compared to the existing payment methodWe included 18 studies in this comparison, however we did not include five studies in the effects