WorldWideScience

Sample records for burundi

  1. Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Background notes and statistics on Burundi are provided in the document. 27,834 sq. km. of hilly terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1990 population of 5.5 million growing at the annual rate of 3.2%. The work force total 1.9 million. Burundi claims a population comprised of 3 ethnic groups, adhering to 4 religions, and speaking 3 different languages. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 40% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 111/1,000, while life expectancy is 51 years. 1988 GDP was $1 billion, and was shrinking at the rate of 0.18%. Per capita income was $203, while 1989 figures reported 7% inflation. Agriculture accounts for 60% of GNP, industry for 14%; 1988 international trade deficit totalled $72 million. Additional data are provided on Burundi's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. Per capita food production has stagnated or declined since the mid-1980s, and the country remains heavily dependent upon foreign aid. Coffee earnings typically provide up to 90% of Burundi's export earnings, 40% of which went toward external debt in 1989. Long-term economic strategy centers upon improving the quality of its coffee, while encouraging production of tea, cotton, and some manufactured goods. PMID:12178032

  2. Spotlight: Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A

    1996-09-01

    This article summarizes demographic information on Burundi. Population in mid-1996 was 5.9 million. There were 46 births/1000 population and 16 deaths/1000 population. Infant mortality was 102/1000 live births. The rate of natural increase was 3% per year. The total fertility rate was 6.6 births/woman. 1% of married women used modern contraceptives. Life expectancy was 48 years for men and 52 years for women. In this country of 9900 sq. miles of land area most of the people live in the western region, which has fertile volcanic soil and a plateau area. Population density is 600 people/sq. mile. 6% live in urban areas. 85% of the population are Hutu (a Bantu ethnic group) and 14% are Tutsi (a Hamitic group); 1% are Twa or pygmies. About 3000 Europeans and 2000 South Asians live in Burundi. Government is dominated by the Tutsi minority. The country achieved independence from Belgium in 1962. The country has experienced civil strife between the Hutus and the Tutsis since the assassination by Tutsi troops in 1993 of the first democratically elected Hutu president. An estimated 100,000 refugees fled the country in 1996. 67% of the population are Christians, and 32% practice indigenous religions; 1% are Muslim. The economy is heavily dependent on coffee exports. About 50% of children aged under 5 are malnourished. Maternal mortality is an estimated 1300 deaths/100,000 live births. AIDS is expected to reduce total population by 4% by 2005. 85% of rural population and 55% of urban population are below the absolute poverty level. 50% of rural population have access to safe water and sanitation. PMID:12291558

  3. RETHINKING VIOLENCE, RECONCILIATION AND RECONSTRUCTION IN BURUNDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Ndimurwimo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Armed violence and genocide are among the on-going problems that are still facing contemporary Africa and the world. In the aftermath of the outrages, devastation and appalling carnage of the Second World War, member states of the United Nations (UN undertook radical steps, inter alia, "to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights". Subsequently, the International Bill of Human Rights was proclaimed in order to lay down international human rights norms and standards of conduct and to prevent the recurrence of mass killings. Although Burundi is a State Party to the UN and African Union and is a signatory to a number of international and regional human rights treaties, the post-colonial history of Burundi is an epic tale of indescribable human suffering and misery as a result of systematic mass killings. At least every family or household in Burundi has been negatively affected by the mass killings of the 1960s, 1972, 1988 and 1990s, which have created a significant number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs.This article traces the root causes of Burundi's systemic armed violence and argues that despite several UN Security Council Resolutions and peace agreements aimed at national reconciliation and reconstruction, mass killings and other heinous crimes remain unaddressed. The article recommends that a comprehensive transitional justice model is required in post-conflict Burundi in order to bring about national reconciliation, healing and reconstruction.

  4. Traditional justice in the reconciliation between Rwanda and Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni Castel

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the use of traditional justice in two post-conflicts in the Great Lakes region: those of Rwanda and Burundi. In Rwanda, the government, led by the Rwanda Patriotic Front (FPR), has modernised and shaped for its own interests the gacaca, who are responsible for seeking justice for the victims of the 1994 genocide. In Burundi, the government has yet not deployed all the transitional justice mechanisms as envisaged in the Arusha agreement. The bushingantahe (the rehabilitati...

  5. Traditional justice in the reconciliation between Rwanda and Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Castel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of traditional justice in two post-conflicts in the Great Lakes region: those of Rwanda and Burundi. In Rwanda, the government, led by the Rwanda Patriotic Front (FPR, has modernised and shaped for its own interests the gacaca, who are responsible for seeking justice for the victims of the 1994 genocide. In Burundi, the government has yet not deployed all the transitional justice mechanisms as envisaged in the Arusha agreement. The bushingantahe (the rehabilitation of whom is also envisaged in the agreement have not yet been incorporated into transitional justice.

  6. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Burundi Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hare, Harry

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. The crisis of 1993 and the long drawn-out conflict that followed in Burundi had a devastating effe...

  7. Recovering from conflict: An analysis of food production in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haese, D' M.F.C.; Speelman, S.; Vandamme, E.; Nkunzimana, T.; Ndimubandi, J.; Haese, D' L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the devastating food insecurity in two densely populated provinces in the north of Burundi as a result of overpopulation and low production capacity in the aftermath of conflict. We compare data that was collected in the Ngozi and Muyinga Province in 2007 with data of household

  8. Youth Intervention for Peace Project: Burundi Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigirindavyi, Jean-Paul

    2004-01-01

    The experience of Rwanda's genocide in 1994 shocked the world into disbelief as Western media finally focused their attention on the region's ongoing conflict. Yet little is being done today to prevent the reproduction of a parallel disaster in its twin country, Burundi, where similar conflict patterns may spark another intensely violent civil…

  9. Burundi - Investing in Leadership Development through the Rapid Results Approach

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The government of Burundi appealed to the World Bank Institute (WBI) for help in strengthening the capacities of leadership to implement policies and programs that would achieve measurable results. The new government needed to make tough decisions on competing priorities, including allocating an estimated US$12 billion to achieve the millennium development goals, and carrying out reforms t...

  10. Distributional conflict, the state, and peace building in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Ndikumana, Léonce

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the causes of conflict in Burundi and discusses strategies for building peace. The analysis of the complex relationships between distribution and group dynamics reveals that these relationships are reciprocal, implying that distribution and group dynamics are endogenous. The nature of endogenously generated group dynamics determines the type of preferences (altruistic or exclusionist), which in turn determines the type of allocative institutions and policies that prevail i...

  11. Reintegration of child soldiers in Burundi: a tracer study

    OpenAIRE

    Jordans Mark JD; Komproe Ivan H; Tol Wietse A; Ndayisaba Aline; Nisabwe Theodora; Kohrt Brandon A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07); and at present (T3; 2010). Pa...

  12. La recherche sur caféier arabica au Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Bitoga, JP.; Fïémal, J.; Lambot, C.; Snoeck, D.

    1994-01-01

    Agronomie Research On Arabica Coffee Tree In Burundi. Interaction of an insect Pseudotheraptus devastans and of a fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on cassava anthracnose development has been studied. Disease setting is made in two stages : realization of wounds on cassava cuttings by Pseudotheraptus devastans, then invasion of those ones by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Infection also needs a high level of relative humidity (87 %) and a favourable temperature. Optimal values are situat...

  13. (Re)making the Social World: The Politics of Transitional Justice in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Rubli, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Der vorliegende Artikel beleuchtet wesentliche parteipolitische Konzeptionen zu Transitional Justice, wie sie im öffentlichen Diskurs zur Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit in Burundi erkennbar sind. Bezugnehmend auf die zunehmend kritische Literatur zu Transitional Justice versucht die Autorin, Antworten jenseits der Interpretation zu finden, der politische Wille zur Umsetzung des Transitional-Justice-Modells sei in Burundi nicht in ausreichendem Maß ...

  14. Soil fertility status and challenges in Burundi: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboneka, Salvator

    2015-04-01

    Landlocked and thousands miles away from international sea ports, Burundi is one of the poorest country in the world. 58% of the population suffers chronic malnutrition, 67% live in absolute poverty (MDG report 2012). 90% of the estimated 10 million people depends on subsistence agriculture, on about 3 million ha of cultivable land. The average size of a family farm is less than 0.5 ha which has to support a family of typically 7 people . As a consequence, fallow practices are no longer possible and continuous land cultivation leads to enormous soil losses by erosion. As much as 100-200 metric tons per hectare of soil losses have been reported on the hill sides of the Mumirwa region, whose landscape is currently so degraded that the local community now say that "stones grow" in the zone. In medium to high altitude areas, about 1 million of ha are acidic (pH land of the Imbo zone, dedicated to rice cultivation, manifest indications of salinity. A recent survey showed that 14% of the 2.800 ha of land committed to rice production is affected by rising salinity. Although soil salinity constitutes a challenge to rice producers in that region, soil acidity, often combined with Al toxicity, is the major limitation to soil productivity throughout Burundi. Almuminum saturation up to 60% and pH as low as 4.5 are observed. As elsewhere, technical solutions do exist, but the level of poverty of the population is such that access to fertilizers and adoption of sustainable practices is very weak. We believe that the main challenge to soil productivity in Burundi is more socio-economic than technical, and farmers should be helped with simple tools that should be linked to their indigenous knowledge about soil fertility. Sustainable management of soil fertility is the key challenge for farmers to optimize a sustainable yield. Key words: micro nutrient, soil fertility, nutrient depletion, soil acidity.

  15. Geo-additive modelling of malaria in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebhardt Albrecht

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health issue in Burundi in terms of both morbidity and mortality, with around 2.5 million clinical cases and more than 15,000 deaths each year. It is still the single main cause of mortality in pregnant women and children below five years of age. Because of the severe health and economic burden of malaria, there is still a growing need for methods that will help to understand the influencing factors. Several studies/researches have been done on the subject yielding different results as which factors are most responsible for the increase in malaria transmission. This paper considers the modelling of the dependence of malaria cases on spatial determinants and climatic covariates including rainfall, temperature and humidity in Burundi. Methods The analysis carried out in this work exploits real monthly data collected in the area of Burundi over 12 years (1996-2007. Semi-parametric regression models are used. The spatial analysis is based on a geo-additive model using provinces as the geographic units of study. The spatial effect is split into structured (correlated and unstructured (uncorrelated components. Inference is fully Bayesian and uses Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. The effects of the continuous covariates are modelled by cubic p-splines with 20 equidistant knots and second order random walk penalty. For the spatially correlated effect, Markov random field prior is chosen. The spatially uncorrelated effects are assumed to be i.i.d. Gaussian. The effects of climatic covariates and the effects of other spatial determinants are estimated simultaneously in a unified regression framework. Results The results obtained from the proposed model suggest that although malaria incidence in a given month is strongly positively associated with the minimum temperature of the previous months, regional patterns of malaria that are related to factors other than climatic variables have been identified

  16. Family agriculture and environment in Kirundo province, Northern Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Minani, Bonaventure; Rurema, Déo-Guide; Lebailly, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Burundi has nine million inhabitants in an area of 27,834 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. More than 90% of the population lives in rural areas. In Kirundo province, people has increased from 404,564 in 1990 to 628,256 inhabitants in 2008 with the annual population growth rate of 3.17%. This region had several cycles of drought leading several people to flee the famine and go to the neighboring countries. However, this region was the breadbasket of Buru...

  17. Recovering from conflict: An analysis of food production in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Haese, D', M.F.C.; Speelman, S.; Vandamme, E.; Nkunzimana, T.; Ndimubandi, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the devastating food insecurity in two densely populated provinces in the north of Burundi as a result of overpopulation and low production capacity in the aftermath of conflict. We compare data that was collected in the Ngozi and Muyinga Province in 2007 with data of households interviewed on the same hills in 1996. Households live from subsistence farming, erratic surplus sales, sales of coffee and banana and occasional off- and non-farm work. We find that not only did...

  18. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Burundi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Burundi. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Burundi estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 300 to more than 4 100 tonnes of uranium. The potential is rather evenly distributed throughout the Proterozoic of Burundi in various geological environments (unconformity, hydrothermal, fault controlled, etc.). The mission recommends that over a period of five years U.S. $ 3 to 4.5 million be spent on exploration in Burundi, with even spending on the various exploration techniques as e.g. prospecting, drilling trenching, geophysical surveys, analyses, etc. (author)

  19. Die (Wieder-)Herstellung sozialer Wirklichkeit: Die Politik der Transitional Justice in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Der vorliegende Artikel beleuchtet wesentliche parteipolitische Konzeptionen zu Transitional Justice, wie sie im öffentlichen Diskurs zur Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit in Burundi erkennbar sind. Bezugnehmend auf die zunehmend kritische Literatur zu Transitional Justice versucht die Autorin, Antworten jenseits der Interpretation zu finden, der politische Wille zur Umsetzung des Transitional-Justice-Modells sei in Burundi nicht in ausreichendem Maß vorhanden. Sie versteht Transitional Justice ...

  20. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Ruhagaze; Kahaki Kimani Margaret Njuguna; Lévi Kandeke; Paul Courtright

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. Materials and Methods: All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired be...

  1. On the land use practices and their ecological impacts in Burundi, Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    サンガ, ンゴイ ガザディ; 福山, 薫; 山元, 龍三郎; Sanga, Ngoie Kazadi; Fukuyama, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Ryuzaburo

    1994-01-01

    This field investigation in Burundi sheds some new light on the acute and conflictual interaction between the man, his culture and the natural environment in which he has to perform some ecomonical activity for his living. In Burundi, these problems are inherent to the traditional lifestyle of the highly dense population settled all over the country and living on agriculture and cattle reering. Nation-wide erosion is at the end of the long and complex process of land destruction (slash and bu...

  2. Evaluation of a social marketing intervention promoting oral rehydration salts in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Nzohabonayo Jerome; Kays Megan B; Kassegne Sethson

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death for children under five in Burundi; however, use of oral rehydration salts (ORS), the recommended first-line treatment, remains low. In 2004, PSI/Burundi launched a social marketing intervention to promote ORASEL among caregivers of children under five; the product was relaunched in 2006 with a new flavor. This study evaluates the intervention after the ORASEL relaunch, which included mass media and interpersonal communication ...

  3. Republic of Burundi Skills Development for Growth : Building Skills for Coffee and Other Priority Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    With limited land, capital, and a fast growing population, Burundi's main asset is its youthful population. Its main challenge is also to create good quality jobs for its youth. With low levels of educational attainment and poor health status, the quality of this young population is poor. After more than 13 years of conflict ending in 2000, and a period of modest recovery, Burundi has the ...

  4. Reintegration of child soldiers in Burundi: a tracer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordans Mark JD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452 and never-recruited peers (N=191 who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06; immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07; and at present (T3; 2010. Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Results Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. Conclusion The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program.

  5. Power-Sharing, Conflict and Transition in Burundi: Twenty Years of Trial and Error Machtteilung, Konflikt und Wandel in Burundi: Zwanzig Jahre Versuch und Irrtum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Vandeginste

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past twenty years, Burundi has experimented with powersharing as an instrument of political liberalisation, democratisation and conflict resolution. This contribution analyses the different meanings the concept of power-sharing has had throughout Burundi’s recent and extremely violent political transition, in particular during the lengthy peace process. It shows how national and international actors have found inspiration in the toolbox of consociationalism to negotiate and design the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi signed in August 2000 and its posttransition Constitution. Power-sharing has been instrumental in achieving the – short-term – objective of war termination. It has also de-ethnicised political competition and reduced the (potentially destabilising effect of elections. Measured against more ambitious state-building objectives (democracy, rule of law, accountable and effective governance, power-sharing has (so far not been able to make a difference. Several factors and developments threaten the “survival” of the power-sharing model in Burundi. In Burundi wird seit zwanzig Jahren mit Power-Sharing als Instrument politischer Liberalisierung, Demokratisierung und Konfliktlösung experimentiert. Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert, welche unterschiedlichen Bedeutungen das Konzept der Machtteilung in der jüngsten und extrem gewalttätigen Entwicklungsphase Burundis angenommen hat, insbesondere während des langwierigen Friedensprozesses. Er zeigt auf, inwieweit nationale und internationale Akteure sich bei der Aushandlung und Planung des Arusha-Abkommens zu Frieden und Versöhnung in Burundi, das im August 2000 unterzeichnet wurde, sowie der anschließenden Verfassung am Instrumentarium der Konkordanzdemokratie bedient haben. Power-Sharing erwies sich als nützlich, das kurzfristige Ziel einer Beendigung des Krieges zu erreichen, und trug zur De-Ethnisierung des politischen Wettbewerbs und zur

  6. (Remaking the Social World: The Politics of Transitional Justice in Burundi Die (Wieder-Herstellung sozialer Wirklichkeit: Die Politik der Transitional Justice in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on political parties, this article highlights divergent conceptualizations of key elements of transitional justice that are part of the current contestation of the dealing-with-the-past process in Burundi. Speaking to the emerging critical literature on transitional justice, this article attempts to look beyond claims that there is a lack of political will to comply with a certain global transitional justice paradigm. In this article, transitional justice is conceived of as a political process of negotiated values and power relations that attempts to constitute the future based on lessons from the past. This paper argues that political parties in Burundi use transitional justice not only as a strategy to protect partisan interests or target political opponents, but also as an instrument to promote their political struggles in the course of moulding a new, post-conflict society and state.Der vorliegende Artikel beleuchtet wesentliche parteipolitische Konzeptionen zu Transitional Justice, wie sie im öffentlichen Diskurs zur Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit in Burundi erkennbar sind. Bezugnehmend auf die zunehmend kritische Literatur zu Transitional Justice versucht die Autorin, Antworten jenseits der Interpretation zu finden, der politische Wille zur Umsetzung des Transitional-Justice-Modells sei in Burundi nicht in ausreichendem Maß vorhanden. Sie versteht Transitional Justice als politischen Prozess, in dem Werte und Machtverhältnisse ausgehandelt werden und in dem versucht wird, die Zukunft des Landes auf der Basis der Lehren aus der Vergangenheit zu gestalten. Die Autorin argumentiert, dass die politischen Parteien in Burundi Transitional Justice nicht nur als Strategie nutzen, Parteiinteressen durchzusetzen oder politische Gegner zu treffen, sondern auch als Mittel, im Rahmen ihrer politischen Auseinandersetzungen den Aufbau einer Post-Konflikt-Gesellschaft und eines neuen Staates zu unterstützen.

  7. La riziculture d'altitude au Burundi : principales contraintes et diversification variétale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detry, JF.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude rice cultivation in Burundi : major constraints and varietal diversification. Rice cultivation developed since 1980 in highland swamps of Burundi. The major constraints identified are low temperatures, resulting in an extension of the cultural cycle and a high sterility rate, and 2 diseases : bacterial sheath brown rot of rice and blast. The varietal diversification problem which was the most urgent to delimit seems to be well resolved now. The improvement programme has many types of different rices at his disposal ; their main characteristics are discussed in relation to the ecological zones for which they are recommended.

  8. Crisis or continuity? Framing land disputes and local conflict resolution in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is about the importance of framing in conflict situations, and how this informs peacebuilding interventions. It discusses the consequences of understanding land disputes in Burundi as a short-term problem, resulting from the massive return of refugees and displaced to their former homes

  9. Wages in the food chain in Burundi: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Tijdens; J. Besamusca; R. Ndereyahaga

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey of the labour force conducted between the 7th of April and the 29th of April 2013 in all provinces of Burundi. In total 1,679 persons were interviewed; 52% were men, 48% women and 43% were under 30 years of

  10. [Burundi, a new beginning? The burden of the past].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidi, H

    1988-03-01

    Burundi, unlike most Central African nations, had a relatively rich precolonial history. A well-structured monarchy reigned from the beginning of the 16th century, according to some historians. A strong monarch of the early 19th century extended the borders of the country to approximately their current limits. In 1903, the country was conquered by the Germans, to be ceded to Belgium after Germany's defeat in World War I. After World War II, political parties seeking independence began to form. The UPRONA (Union for National Progress) party was founded by Prince Louis Rwagasore, and became the most active and best organized, attracting mass support. The party was banned by the colonial authorities on the grounds that the family of the king could not participate in elections or political activities. Nevertheless, the party triumphed in legislative elections in September 1961. Rwagasore was assassinated in October 1961. Independence was declared in July 1962. Successional struggles and tribal rivalries blocked efforts at reform of the government and economy. Civil war in 1972 saw the slaughter of between 100,000 and 300,000 citizens before order was restored with the aid of the Zairean army. The Second Republic was declared in a bloodless coup in 1976 by Colonel Bagaza. In the 1st years of his rule production increased, tentative efforts at industrialization were made, and schools and roads were constructed. Toward the end of his reign, however, he became increasingly jealous of his prerogatives and expelled, fired, or imprisoned members of government and high functionaries, and curbed the activities of the Catholic Church to which 65% of the population belonged. Relations with neighboring countries deteriorated while the nation's economic situation worsened. A coup in 1987 led by Major Buyoya was rapidly followed by release of political prisoners and improved relations with the Church and neighboring countries. Nevertheless, the country had a huge debt, prices for

  11. “We Have No Influence”: International Discourse and the Instrumentalisation of Transitional Justice in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    David Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Burundi may soon reach yet another crossroads in its tumultuous history and on its path towards transitional justice. A contentious draft law for a Truth and Reconciliation Commission awaits approval by the country’s National Assembly, which has raised a number of concerns about the independence of the eventual commission, the likelihood of popular participation in the process and the prospects for criminal justice. But as this practice note seeks to demonstrate, the international community i...

  12. Dynamique et perspectives de la filière cotonnière du Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Gahungu, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Cotton cultivation was introduced in Burundi in 1919 under the Belgian mandate with the objective to monetize the rural economy and open the country to international trade. After independence (1962), the cotton crop continued to flourish as a vertically integrated chain from upstream to downstream in pursuing the objectives of job creation, import substitution and maximizing the added value generated by various cotton products. Since 1993, the cotton is in perpetual decline due to vari...

  13. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)Population Density and Abundance in Kibira National Park,Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Hakizimana, Dismas; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Successful conservation and management strategy of wild animals usually starts by assessing their population size. This is of particular relevance in areas submitted to long periods of human conflicts which is the case of Burundi. A census of chimpanzee populations was made throughout Kibira National Park between September 2011 and February 2013 to provide reliable information on density estimates of chimpanzees inhabiting the forest. The method was based on marked nest counts from line trans...

  14. Medicines informal market in Congo, Burundi and Angola: counterfeit and sub-standard antimalarials

    OpenAIRE

    Bertocchi Paola; Antoniella Eleonora; Cocchieri Emilia; Di Maggio Anna; Gaudiano Maria; Alimonti Stefano; Valvo Luisa

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The presence of counterfeits and sub-standards in African medicines market is a dramatic problem that causes many deaths each year. The increase of the phenomenon of pharmaceutical counterfeiting is due to the rise of the illegal market and to the impossibility to purchase branded high cost medicines. Methods In this paper the results of a quality control on antimalarial tablet samples purchased in the informal market in Congo, Burundi and Angola are reported. The quality ...

  15. Financial access to health care in Karuzi, Burundi: a household-survey based performance evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Herp Michel; Bachy Catherine; Reid Tony; Ponsar Frederique; Lambert-Evans Sophie; Philips Mit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2003, Médecins Sans Frontières, the provincial government, and the provincial health authority began a community project to guarantee financial access to primary health care in Karuzi province, Burundi. The project used a community-based assessment to provide exemption cards for indigent households and a reduced flat fee for consultations for all other households. Methods An evaluation was carried out in 2005 to assess the impact of this project. Primary data collection...

  16. “We Have No Influence”: International Discourse and the Instrumentalisation of Transitional Justice in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burundi may soon reach yet another crossroads in its tumultuous history and on its path towards transitional justice. A contentious draft law for a Truth and Reconciliation Commission awaits approval by the country’s National Assembly, which has raised a number of concerns about the independence of the eventual commission, the likelihood of popular participation in the process and the prospects for criminal justice. But as this practice note seeks to demonstrate, the international community in Burundi may in fact be contributing to the instrumentalisation of the process. The note highlights how the discourse of the international community may partially facilitate a certain duplicity among influential figures within the current government, particularly with respect to compliance with stipulations under the 2000 Arusha Peace Agreement. Two common rationalisations in particular are explained that have seemingly emerged among the international community with respect to transitional justice and that are at the heart of this instrumentalisation: outside imposition and a lack of influence. The note argues that since transitional justice can no longer be regarded as an apolitical process, international actors must be more cognisant of their actions and discourse with a view to ensuring credible transitional justice processes in contexts like Burundi.

  17. Morbidity and mortality surveillance in Rwandan refugees--Burundi and Zaire, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    In April 1994, resumption of a longstanding conflict between the Hutus and Tutsis--the two major ethnic groups in the central African countries of Burundi and Zaire--resulted in civil war and mass genocide in Rwanda. An estimated 63,000 (primarily Tutsi) refugees subsequently moved from Rwanda into northern Burundi, and 500,000 refugees fled to Tanzania (Figure 1). In early July 1994, as armed strife subsided, many Tutsis returned home to Rwanda, and an estimated 1 million Rwandan Hutus fled to Zaire, and 170,000 fled to Burundi. To monitor the health status of the refugees, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working in refugee camps in both countries established systems for rapid surveillance of morbidity and mortality. This report presents the findings of these systems during May-September 1994 (the period of the most intensive population migration) and indicates that mortality was high among refugees in camps in both countries. PMID:8592491

  18. Perspectives de développement de l'aviculture au Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branckaert, R.

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Perspectives about the national poultry development in Burundi. The Department of Animal Science has completed a first stage in research about the national poultry development in Burundi. A preliminary study determined the potential market of poultry products in Bujumbura, Burundi's Capital, and showed a close relationship between the average family income and the consumption of this type of products. It showed the absolute necessity to reduce its cost price. Therefore, eight kinds of diets mainly based on local agro-industrial by-products were tested. The comparison allowed to keep a diet for laying hens with neither grains nor animal proteins and a diet for broilers with only 10 % of corn and less than 18 % of fresh blood meal. These two diets were tested on three strains of laying hens and one of broilers with interesting results i. e. 65 % of laying for the WARREN strain and 1, 7kg of live-weight at eight weeks for the HUBBARD strain at low feeding cost : 4 Bu. F per egg and 50Bu. F per kg of live weight of broiler product. Therefore, it is for the government to set up a modem poultry-farming for small and medium producers with rational use of local agro-industrial by-products.

  19. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission report: Republic of Burundi. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic objective of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation project lUREP is to 'Review the present body of knowledge pertinent to the existence of uranium resources, to review and evaluate the potential for the discovery of additional uranium resources and to suggest new exploration efforts which might be carried out in promising areas in collaboration with the countries concerned'. Therefore, the scope of the IUREP orientation phase Mission to Burundi was to review all data on past exploration in Burundi, to develop a better understanding of the uranium potential of the country, to make an estimate of the speculative resources of the country, to make recommendation as appropriate on the best methods or techniques for evaluating the resources in the favourable areas and for estimating possible costs as well, to compile a report which could be immediately available to the Burundian authorities. This mission gives a general introduction, a geological review of Burundi, information on non-uranium mining in Burundi, the history of uranium exploration, occurrences of uranium IUREP mission field reconnaissance, favourable areas for speculative potential, the uranium resources position and recommendations for future exploration. Conclusions are the following. The IUREP Orientation -phase mission to Burundi believes that the Speculative Resources of that country fall between 300 and 4100 tons uranium oxide but a less speculative appraisal is more likely between 0 and 1000 tons. There has been no uranium production and no official estimates of Uranium Resources in Burundi. Past exploration mainly dating from 1969 onwards and led the UNDP Mineral project has indicated a limited number of uranium occurrences and anomalies. The speculative uranium resources are thought to be possibly associated with potential unconformity related vein-like deposits of the Lower Burundian. Other speculative uranium resources could be associated with granitic or peribatholitic

  20. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ruhagaze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. Materials and Methods: All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Results: Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2% were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%, followed by lens pathology (18.3%, uveal lesions (14.7% and optic nerve lesions (11.9%. In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%. More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. Conclusion: The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.

  1. Observations préliminaires pour un élevage de grenouilles au Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbanis, M.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary observations on frog use in Burundi. The paper describes a frog cropping technique used in the Ruzizi plain. The frogs are captured by night with a spot-light in the wild populations. Legs are prepared on the place of capture and then transported by bicycle to Bujumbura for sale. A 4 hunters team can harvest 500 - 1.000 frogs in one night ; cropping is seasonal. The frog hunted is Rana occipitalis (legs mean weight is 37.1 g. Rational frog farming is envisaged.

  2. Observations préliminaires pour un élevage de grenouilles au Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Verbanis, M.; Cordier, Y.; Hardouin, J.; Gasogo, A.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary observations on frog use in Burundi. The paper describes a frog cropping technique used in the Ruzizi plain. The frogs are captured by night with a spot-light in the wild populations. Legs are prepared on the place of capture and then transported by bicycle to Bujumbura for sale. A 4 hunters team can harvest 500 - 1.000 frogs in one night ; cropping is seasonal. The frog hunted is Rana occipitalis (legs mean weight is 37.1 g). Rational frog farming is envisaged.

  3. Evaluation of a social marketing intervention promoting oral rehydration salts in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nzohabonayo Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death for children under five in Burundi; however, use of oral rehydration salts (ORS, the recommended first-line treatment, remains low. In 2004, PSI/Burundi launched a social marketing intervention to promote ORASEL among caregivers of children under five; the product was relaunched in 2006 with a new flavor. This study evaluates the intervention after the ORASEL relaunch, which included mass media and interpersonal communication activities. The study looks at trends in ORASEL use in Burundi and in behavioral determinants that may be related to its use. Methods In 2006 and 2007, PSI conducted household surveys among Burundian females of reproductive age (15-49. Both surveys used a two-stage sampling process to select 30 households in each of 115 rural and urban collines throughout the nation. Survey respondents were asked about diarrhea treatment-related behavior; key behavioral determinants; and exposure to the ORASEL intervention. Data were analyzed to identify trends over time, characteristics of ORASEL users, and associations between exposure to the intervention and changes in ORASEL use and related behavioral determinants. Results ORASEL use among caregivers at their children's last diarrheal episode increased significantly from 20% in 2006 to 30% in 2007, and there were also desirable changes in several behavioral determinants associated with ORASEL use. Evaluation analysis showed that a higher level of exposure to the social marketing campaign was associated with greater use of ORASEL and with significant improvements in perceived availability, knowledge of the signs of diarrhea and dehydration, social support, and self-efficacy. Conclusions ORS use can be improved through social marketing and educational campaigns that make the public aware of the availability of the product, encourage dialogue about its use, and increase skills and confidence relating to correct product

  4. Potential Natural Vegetation Map of Eastern Africa (Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia). Version 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Paulo; Kindt, Roeland; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow;

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map is...

  5. Etat actuel des recherches sur la flore et la végétation du Rwanda et du Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reeksman

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available THE PRESENT STATE OF RESEARCH ON THE FLORA AND VEGETATION OF RWANDA ANDBURUNDI At the end of the last century, many explorers, mainly Germans, travelled in Burundi searching for the famous sources of the Nile and the legendary ‘Mountains of the Moon. ’ Apart from the very often accurate descriptions of the vegetation and flora they encountered, one is indebted to them for the rich harvest of specimens collected, many of which were destroyed in the bombing of Berlin in 1944-1945. When, in 1919, Burundi was placed under Belgian mandate, Belgian botanists took over the work and collected numerous specimens in the country. Their expeditions were organized from Zaire and were often of short duration, with the result that in 1965 there was still no systematic exploration of the country and in 1964 AETFAT classified Burundi as one of the lesser known areas in Africa. Systematic exploration of the country began in 1965 with J. Lewalle. Apart from the publication of an excellent work on the stratification of the vegetation, he collected more than 6 500 numbers of herbarium specimens, several of which represented new species. He worked in Burundi until 1972. From 1970 to 1980, Reekmans collected more than 9 500 specimens for the herbarium, mainly in the areas that were not intensively explored previously. He has published several works in connection with the phenology o f species and vegetation association of western Burundi. Many botanists invited by Lewalle and Reekmans, have had the opportunity to explore the country and to collect specimens of special groups. At present, it can be said that, except for a very small area of the country (otherwise well known in Rwanda where several studies have been made the flora of Burundi is now well known. Phytogeographical limits are well established and the publication of a vegetation map is due in the near future. A catalogue of the country’s flora is also to be published shortly. Apart from these

  6. Etude de la fertilisation intégrée en milieu paysan dans la région naturelle du Mugamba (Burundi)

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Berghe, C.; Sota, P.; Mujawayezu, A.

    1992-01-01

    Study of the integrated fertilisation in farmers fields in the natural region of Mugamba (Burundi). In the frame of the cooperation between the CVHA project (Cultures vivrieres de Haute Altitude) and the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in Bujumbura, Burundi, 75 trials were installed between 1988 and 1990 in the Mugamba region comparing the effect of non-treated and treated composts with fertilizers on potatoes. Chemical analysis of composts and soils proved several deficiencies. There was no...

  7. Pregnancy history and current use of contraception among women of reproductive age in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda: analysis of demographic and health survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Matanda, Dennis J; Ayiko, Rogers; Rujumba, Joseph; Muiruri, Charles; Amendah, Djesika; Atela, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between pregnancy history and the use of contraception among women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in East Africa. Methods Demographic and Health Surveys data from Burundi (2010), Kenya (2008–2009), Rwanda (2010), Tanzania (2010) and Uganda (2011) were used in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to determine the effects of women's pregnancy history on their use of contraception. Setting Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Participants 32...

  8. Challenging Small-scale Farming, A Non-parametric Analysis of the (Inverse) Relationship Between Farm Productivity and Farm Size in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    M. VERSCHELDE; M. D’HAESE; G. RAYP; Vandamme, E.

    2011-01-01

    We use a nonparametric estimation of the production function to investigate the relation- ship between farm productivity and farming scale in poor smallholder agricultural systems in the north of Burundi. Burundi is one of the poorest countries in the world, with a predominant small scale subsistence farming sector. A Kernel regression is used on data of mixed cropping systems to study the determinants of production including different factors that have been identified in literature as missin...

  9. Analyse du rôle de la biodiversité végétale des forêts de Kigwena et de Rumonge au Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Hakizimana, P; Masharabu, T; Bangirinama, F.; Habonimana, B.; Bogaert, J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the Role of Plant Resources Harvested from Kigwena and Rumonge Forests, Burundi. The main objective of this study was to inventory the natural plant resources harvested by local populations in the forests of Kigwena and Rumonge, both located in South-Western Burundi, relatively closer, but physionomically different. Eighty and 41 species of medicinal plants, 33 and 25 species used for their materials, 21 and 23 edible species, 14 and 19 species for energy use, and 5 and 12 species...

  10. Potentiel du bananier dans la gestion et la conservation des sols ferrallitiques du Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Rishirumuhirwa, T.

    1993-01-01

    Une étude a été menée à la station de Mashitsi (Burundi) pour mettre en évidence la production et le rôle des résidus du bananier dans la gestion du ruissellemnet et le contrôle de l'érosion. Concernant la production, les résultats montrent que les rendements en résidus restent faibles sur des sols aussi acides et désaturés (1 à 2,7 t/ha/an de matière sèche selon les densités de plantation). Disposés sous forme de bandes de paillis, ces résidus permettent de couvrir entre 10 et 25% du sol ave...

  11. The Eye of the Beholder: Service Provision and State Legitimacy in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Stel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available State legitimacy – particularly its alleged potential to counter state fragility – has received increasing attention in academic and policy literature concerned with African development. Service provision can substantially influence such state legitimacy. Services, however, are mostly provided by a multiplicity of (state and non-state providers. This article therefore specifically explores how joint service delivery by multiple providers shapes the attribution of state legitimacy in Burundi by means of two qualitative case studies. Empirically, the article demonstrates, first, that the process of stakeholder interaction, rather than the output of this process, most distinctly shapes state legitimacy and, second, that there are substantial variations in legitimacy attribution by different stakeholders and for different state institutions. Epistemologically, the article suggests three specific challenges that merit attention in further empirical investigation of state legitimacy in fragile settings: the diversity of people’s expectations; the artificiality of state/non-state distinctions; and the personification and politicization of state institutions.

  12. Le bois petrifies de la plaine de la haute Rusizi (Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reeksman

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available THE DISCOVERY OF PETRIFIED FOSSILS IN THE HIGH RUSIZI PLAIN (BURUNDIPalaeobotanical research in Central Africa is still very fragmentary. In Burundi, apart from the very classical and abundant stromatolites of the Mosso (in the south of the country, Sah (1967 has indicated the occurrence of vegetal debris in the fluviolacustrian sediments o f the mid-upper Rusizi plain. These fragments have never been identified, but a study of the pollen grains found in sedimentary layers of the same age has revealed some features of the vegetation and of the climate prevailing in the Upper Neogene period.In November 1978 we discovered in north-western Burundi a deposit of petrified trunks of exceptional size. These fossils had been exposed a short time previously when a small quarry was established. The deposit contained four trunks, two of which were large: length, 1 m; diameter, 90 cm; weight, more than 1 000 kg.Initial macro and submicrospic examination of fragments showed an anatomical structure similar to the structure of some fossils described in Kivu (Zaire and belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae.Samples were sent to Tervuren (R. Dechamps and to Liêge (Mrs Demaret and their joint studies revealed that these trunks belong to the genus Julbernardia and probably to J. globiflora.  Their age would be about 1 200 000 years.Since then, other trunks have been found (at least ten. According to our study, it is concluded that they have a very different structure from those of the previous specimens. Samples were sent to Tervuren and to Liêge for further study and the conclusions from the specialists should be available very soon.

  13. Bilan du programme d'amélioration en riziculture d'altitude au Burundi (1300-1700 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilquin, JP.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Point of a Breeding Programme for High Altitude Rice Growing in Burundi (1, 300-1, 700m. The constraints of the rice growing of altitude between the tropics are specifie : a permanent cold temperature stress, a bacteriose caused by Pseudomonas fuscovaginae and a blast which is epidemie. The two first constraints can be solved by the bulk method with 3 rapid advanced generations al low altitude (800 m before to be submitted at the natural selection at 1550 m. The efficiency of natural selection is high against low temperature stress and against the bacterial sheath rot induced by the Pseudomonas. Actually the main problem is the pyriculariose. Which strategy to use ? Gene rotation is not practicable in Burundi. Only mixtures of varieties are recommended.

  14. Présentation de la Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques de l'Université du Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordier, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The project "Faculty of Agricultural Sciences" in Burundi. The Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Burundi, was created in 1976 and organizes the education for the last three years of the course, the first two ones being covered by the Faculty of Sciences. The cooperation with Belgium started same year under the coordination of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Catholic University of Louvain. New buildings are available since 1988, in Bujumbura. Six Belgians are permanently posted for the educational and research programme, together with some volonteers. There are 8 departments (Fertilisation and Agricultural techniques, Animal production, Forestry and Biometries, Plant improvement and Ecology, Plant protection, Rural socio-economics, Technology and Rural engineering, Soil Sciences. Following scientific activities can be mentioned i. a. : rice improvement in altitude swamps, use of local products like fosfates and manure, swamp reclamation, farming Systems, extractible plant products, small ruminants selection, ...

  15. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi: a cluster randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, W.A.; Komproe, I. H.; Jordans, M. J. D.; Ndayisaba, A.; Ntamatumba, P.; Sipsma, H.; Smallegange, E.S.; Macy, R.D.; Jong, de, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving a sense of hope and functioning (preventive aim). Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized trial with 329 children in war-affected Burundi (aged 8 to 17 (mean 12.29 years, standard deviation 1.61...

  16. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi : A cluster randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Wietse A.; Komproe, Ivan H; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S.; Macy, Robert D; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.; Komproe, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving a sense of hope and functioning (preventive aim). Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized trial with 329 children in war-affected Burundi (aged 8 to 17 (mean 12.29 years, standard deviation 1.61...

  17. Maternal and reproductive health financing in Burundi: public-sector contribution levels and trends from 2010 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Chaumont, Claire; Muhorane, Carmen; Moreira-Burgos, Isabelle; Juma, Ndereye; Avila-Burgos, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of public financial flows to reproductive health (RH) at the country level is key to assessing the extent to which they correspond to political commitments. This is especially relevant for low-income countries facing important challenges in the area of RH. To this end, the present study analyzes public expenditure levels and trends with regards to RH in Burundi between the years 2010 to 2012, looking specifically at financing agents, health providers, and health fu...

  18. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies.Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we ...

  19. Growth analysis and modelling oF CIP potato genotypes for their characterisation in two contrasting environments of Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Harahagazwe, Dieudonné; LEDENT, Jean-François; Rusuku, G.

    2012-01-01

    A version of LINTUL-POTATO model was used in the context of highlands and lowlands of Burundi to calculate a potential yield as limited by meteorological factors only. This potential yield was compared to the yields obtained in field experiments conducted in the respective areas using potato genotypes from International Potato Center (CIP) reported to be adapted to tropical conditions. Deviations of observed yields from potential yield varied with genotype and location. These deviations were ...

  20. Pépiniéristes privés au Burundi, vers une professionnalisation possible de la foresterie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasc, C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Private Sector Nursery Owners in Burundi, towards the Professionalization of Forestry. Burundi, a small country of the African Great Lakes Region, has a demographic increase which results in one of the highest population densities on the continent. Problems of deforestation and of firewood and timber scarcity are added to the well know degradation associated with soil erosion. Aware of this new problem, Burundi government stated a national forest project in 1979. During ten years, plants necessary for reforestation have been produced by state-owned nurseries controlled entirely by the forestry project. Currently in inter phase since 1990, the forestry project is faced with an important choice : what system of production to choose : private or project nurseries ? The analysis of each system has permitted to conclude in favour of the maintenance of a system of private production. To stimulate the development of the profession and to progressively decrease its dependence on the forest project, this analysis proposes answers to questions raised, insisting particularly on the significance of monitoring and on the choice of training methods.

  1. Fostering food security in areas of extreme poverty through Integrated Farm Management: the case of Burundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Aad; van Duivenbooden, Niek; van Beek, Christy

    2014-05-01

    Extreme poverty in Burundi's rural area and tensions between families with limited access to arable land hinder development towards a more stable and peaceful society. Due to these tensions and a rapid population growth, agricultural land is currently subject to increased degradation and low agricultural productivity. A whole range of other limiting factors contributes to this, such as: poor seed quality, poor nutrient management combined with low soil fertility, inadequate agronomic practices, pests and crop diseases, poorly developed supply chains, health problems, difficult access to credit, and insecurity. Solving one of these problems will not solve the chain that eventually leads to low food production; it will simply move the emphasis to the next constraining factor. An integrated rural development approach is therefore required to break this vicious circle. The project Fanning the Spark, a Public-Private-Partnership between Achmea Foundation, Alterra of Wageningen University and Research Centre, and HealthNet-TPO in Burundi started in September 2013 with an intervention in several rural villages in Gitega. The project's objective is to increase food production at village level, by means of investments in crop production, a family (income) insurance package that protects rural families against the financial consequences of catastrophic events (natural and health) and making micro-credits available. This will enhance farmers' workability and generate income from agricultural activities in order to break the poverty cycle and enhance food security. The insurance package comprises agricultural and health insurances, and will be jointly implemented with the sustainable agriculture component. The latter component focuses on Integrated Farm Management and the use of innovative soil management practices. Farmer-to-farmer training and scaling-up are crucial components, and in the first phase of the project "innovative farmer groups" have a central role in the

  2. Nutritive value of some tropical grasses used by traditional small farms in the highlands of Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivyobizi, André; Deswysen, Armand; Dehareng, Daniel; Peeters, Alain; Larondelle, Yvan

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to estimate--according to the French feeding system--the nutritive value of three tropical grasses (Eragrostis olivacea, Setaria sphacelata and Tripsacum laxum) used in traditional small farms of Burundi. Dry matter (DM) yield was monitored on anti-erosive hedges or on small fields in 60 small farms for eight consecutive years. DM intake and digestibility values were measured on seven steers or seven male sheep. Degradability values were determined on three sheep. S. sphacelata exhibited higher DM yield (t ha(-1)), energy (UF, kg(-1) DM) and protein (PDI, g kg(-1) DM) values (17.3, 0.73 and 68, respectively) than T. laxum (9.11, 0.64 and 47) and E. olivacea (not determined, 0.46 and 42). The UF and PDI intakes of these grass species were able to meet only 51% to 92% of the energy and 59% to 133% of the protein requirements for maintenance of the experimental animals. PMID:19777362

  3. The benefits of aggressive traits: a study with current and former street children in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive behavior in children and youths is commonly associated with exposure to violence and maltreatment. Consequently, aggressive behavior has often been explained as a form of reactive behavior in response to violence-inflicted mental suffering. However, perpetrating violence can become appealing, fascinating and exciting, i.e., may acquire appetitive, self-rewarding aspects. We postulated that this appetitive form of aggression reduces the vulnerability for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in insecure and violent environments. Furthermore we investigated the extent to which reactive aggression and appetitive aggression account for recent violent behavior in children and youths. We conducted semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 children and youths (Mage=15.9 years) recruited from the streets, families and a residential center for vulnerable children in Burundi. We investigated the cumulative exposure to traumatic events and to domestic and community violence, assessed the recently committed offenses, the severity of PTSD symptoms, and the potential for reactive and appetitive aggression. Reactive aggression was positively related to PTSD, whilst appetitive aggression was negatively related to PTSD. Children higher in appetitive aggression were also more likely to display violent behavior. These results suggest that an appetitive perception of violence may be an useful adaption to insecure and violent living conditions reducing the vulnerability of children for trauma-related mental disorders. However, positive feelings experienced through violent or cruel behavior are also an important risk factor for ongoing aggressive behavior and therefore need to be considered in prevention strategies. PMID:24411982

  4. Etude d'un système de désherbage de la culture cotonnière au Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carême, C.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton Weeds and Study of a Chemical Cotton Weeding System in Burundi. Cotton fields maintenance is a major constraint for farmers in Burundi. A chemical cotton herbicide system has studied and used to adjust an integrated weed management system especially against Cyperus esculentus L. during annual crop rotation. "Low volume spraying" herbicides provided efficient crop weeding during the six first weeks after sowing and increased the average productivity with 16 to 33 %. Herbicides had no negative effect on the bean crops following a cotton in the rotation.

  5. Financial access to health care in Karuzi, Burundi: a household-survey based performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Herp Michel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, Médecins Sans Frontières, the provincial government, and the provincial health authority began a community project to guarantee financial access to primary health care in Karuzi province, Burundi. The project used a community-based assessment to provide exemption cards for indigent households and a reduced flat fee for consultations for all other households. Methods An evaluation was carried out in 2005 to assess the impact of this project. Primary data collection was through a cross-sectional household survey of the catchment areas of 10 public health centres. A questionnaire was used to determine the accuracy of the community-identification method, households' access to health care, and costs of care. Household socioeconomic status was determined by reported expenditures and access to land. Results Financial access to care at the nearest health centre was ensured for 70% of the population. Of the remaining 30%, half experienced financial barriers to access and the other half chose alternative sites of care. The community-based assessment increased the number of people of the population who qualified for fee exemptions to 8.6% but many people who met the indigent criteria did not receive a card. Eighty-eight percent of the population lived under the poverty threshold. Referring to the last sickness episode, 87% of households reported having no money available and 25% risked further impoverishment because of healthcare costs even with the financial support system in place. Conclusion The flat fee policy was found to reduce cost barriers for some households but, given the generalized poverty in the area, the fee still posed a significant financial burden. This report showed the limits of a programme of fee exemption for indigent households and a flat fee for others in a context of widespread poverty.

  6. Medicines informal market in Congo, Burundi and Angola: counterfeit and sub-standard antimalarials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertocchi Paola

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of counterfeits and sub-standards in African medicines market is a dramatic problem that causes many deaths each year. The increase of the phenomenon of pharmaceutical counterfeiting is due to the rise of the illegal market and to the impossibility to purchase branded high cost medicines. Methods In this paper the results of a quality control on antimalarial tablet samples purchased in the informal market in Congo, Burundi and Angola are reported. The quality control consisted in the assay of active substance by means of validated liquid chromatographic methods, uniformity of mass determination, disintegration and dissolution tests. Moreover, a general evaluation on label and packaging characteristics was performed. Results The results obtained on thirty antimalarial tablet samples containing chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine showed the presence of different kinds of problems: a general problem concerning the packaging (loose tablets, packaging without Producer name, Producer Country and sometimes without expiry date; low content of active substance (in one sample; different, non-declared, active substance (in one sample; sub-standard technological properties and very low dissolution profiles (in about 50% of samples. This last property could affect the bioavailability and bioequivalence in comparison with branded products and could be related to the use of different excipients in formulation or bad storage conditions. Conclusion This paper evidences that the most common quality problem in the analysed samples appears to be the low dissolution profile. Here it is remarked that the presence of the right active substance in the right quantity is not a sufficient condition for a good quality drug. Dissolution test is not less important in a quality control and often evidences in vitro possible differences in therapeutic efficacy among drugs with the same active content. Dissolution

  7. Nelson Mandela realiza un nuevo milagro : Esta vez, liderando la búsqueda de una paz duradera en la lastimada Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Emilio J.

    2001-01-01

    Finalmente la paz llegó a Burundi. El autor describe los esfuerzos desplegados por el veterano líder sudafricano en la siempre difícil y complicada relaci ón entre las etnias hutus y tutsis en ese país africano.

  8. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  9. Fluorapatite in carbonatite-related phosphate deposits: the case of the Matongo carbonatite (Burundi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrée, Sophie; Boulvais, Philippe; Tack, Luc; André, Luc; Baele, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    The Matongo carbonatite intrusive body in the Neoproterozoic Upper Ruvubu alkaline plutonic complex (URAPC) in Burundi is overlain by an economic phosphate ore deposit that is present as breccia lenses. The ore exhibits evidence of supergene enrichment but also preserves textures related to the concentration of fluorapatite in the carbonatitic system. Magmatic fluorapatite is abundant in the ore and commonly occurs as millimeter-sized aggregates. It is enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE), which is especially apparent in the final generation of magmatic fluorapatite (up to 1.32 wt% LREE2O3). After an episode of metasomatism (fenitization), which led to the formation of K-feldspar and albite, the fluorapatite-rich rocks were partly brecciated. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions obtained on the calcite forming the breccia matrix (δ18O = 22.1 ‰ and δ13C = -1.5 ‰) are consistent with the involvement of a fluid resulting from the mixing of magmatic-derived fluids with a metamorphic fluid originating from the country rocks. In a subsequent postmagmatic event, the carbonates hosting fluorapatite were dissolved, leading to intense brecciation of the fluorapatite-rich rocks. Secondary carbonate-fluorapatite (less enriched in LREE with 0.07-0.24 wt% LREE2O3 but locally associated with monazite) and coeval siderite constitute the matrix of these breccias. Siderite has δ18O values between 25.4 and 27.7 ‰ and very low δ13C values (from -12.4 to -9.2 ‰), which are consistent with the contribution of organic-derived low δ13C carbon from groundwater. These signatures emphasize supergene alteration. Finally, the remaining voids were filled with a LREE-poor fibrous fluorapatite (0.01 wt% LREE2O3), forming hardened phosphorite, still under supergene conditions. Pyrochlore and vanadiferous magnetite are other minerals accumulated in the eluvial horizons. As a consequence of the supergene processes and fluorapatite accumulation, the phosphate ore, which

  10. Using organic matter to increase soil fertility in Burundi: potentials and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboneka, Salvator

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture production in Burundi is dominated by small scale farmers (0.5 ha/household) who have only very limited access to mineral inputs. In the past, farmers have relied on fallow practices combined with farm yard manures to maintain and improve soil fertility. However, due to the high population growth and high population density (370/km²), fallow practices are nowadays no longer feasible, animal manures cannot be produced in sufficient quantities to maintain soil productivity and food insecurity has become a quasi permanent reality. Most Burundian soils are characterized by 1:1 types of clay minerals (kaolinite) and are acidic in nature. Such soils are of very low cation exchange capacity (CEC). To compare the effect of % clays and % organic matter (% C), correlations tests have been conducted between the two parameters and the CEC. It was found that in high altitude kaolinitic and acidic soils, CEC was highly correlated to % C and less correlated to % clay, suggesting that organic matter could play an important role in improving fertility and productivity of these soils. Based on these findings, additional studies have been conducted to evaluate the fertilizer and soil amendment values of animal manures (cattle, goat, chicken), and leguminous (Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Senna simea, Senna spectabilis) and non-leguminous (Tithonia diversifolia) foliar biomass. It was observed that chicken manure significantly reduces Al3+ levels in acidic soils, while Tithonia diversifolia outperforms in nutrient releases compared to the commonly known leguminous agroforestry shrubs and trees indicated above. Although the above mentioned organic sources can contribute to the soil nutrients supply, the quantities potentially available on farm are generally small. The only solution is to supplement these organic sources with other organic sources (compost, organic household waste), chemical fertilizers and mineral amendments (lime) to achieve Integrated Soil

  11. Late Quaternary biomass changes from 13C measurements in a highland peatbog from Equatorial Africa (Burundi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of total organic matter were measured in two cores collected from the Kashiru peatbog in Burundi, Equatorial Africa. The record, which spans at least the last 40,000 yr, documents the C3-C4 biomass balance in the organic sediment. Among the major modern peat formers, most plants are C3 species and are characterized by δ13C values of -25.5 ± 2.3% (vs PDB). The C4 plants, which are characterized by higher δ13C values (-11.3 ± 0.7%) belong to the Gramineae (Miscanthidium sp.) and Cyperaceae families (Cyperus latifolius, C. papyrus, Pycreus nigricans). In the fossil record, δ13C values of total organic matter vary between -28 and -15% in response to the relative fluxes of C3 and C4 plants. Before 30,000 yr B.P., low δ13C values (-23.5 ± 1.1%) match high arboreal pollen contents. From 30,000 to 15,000 yr B.P., higher δ13C values (-17.6 ± 1.1%) correspond to a significant increase in percentages of grass pollen. During this episode, a short and sharp shift toward lighter carbon isotopic compositions at 21,000 yr B.P. is synchronous with higher input of arboreal pollen. From 15,000 to 12,000 yr B.P., the 13C content decreases (δ13C = -22.9 ± 1.4%). This shift, which cannot be explained by an increase in the arboreal vegetation, could be explained by the spreading of C3 Gramineae or C3 Cyperaceae. The interval from 12,000 to 7000 yr B.P. is poorly documented in these cores due to much lower organic matter accumulation. Low δ13C values (δ13C = -25.2 ± 1.3%) are observed from 7000 to 5000 yr B.P., when the pollen data show development of C3 mountain forest. The Late Holocene is characterized by a mixed C3-C4 organic matter accumulation (δ13C = -20.9 ± 1.6%). This study depicts a change in the dominant photosynthetic pathway among the herbaceous components, notably at the glacial-interglacial transition, when C3 plants were favored by increased water supply and/or higher atmospheric CO2 concentration. (author)

  12. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among people living with HIV/AIDS in Burundi: a cross-sectional study

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    Nzorijana Janvière

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since little is known about chronic kidney disease (CKD among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in Sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence and nature of CKD were assessed in Burundi through a multicenter cross-sectional study. Methods Patients underwent assessments at baseline and 3 months later. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR was estimated using abbreviated 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Diseases (MDRD and Cockroft-Gault estimation methods. Patients were classified at month 3 into various CKD stages using the National Kidney Foundation (NKF definition, which combines GFR and urinary abnormalities. Risk factors for presence of proteinuria (PRO and aseptic leukocyturia (LEU were further analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Results Median age of the patients in the study (N = 300 was 40 years, 70.3% were female and 71.7% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Using the MDRD method, CKD prevalence in patients was 45.7%, 30.2% of whom being classified as stage 1 according to the NKF classification, 13.5% as stage 2 and 2% as stage 3. No patient was classified as stage 4 or 5. Among CKD patients with urinary abnormality, PRO accounted for 6.1% and LEU for 18.4%. Significant associations were found between LEU and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID use, previous history of tuberculosis, low body mass index and female gender and between PRO and high viral load. Conclusion Our study, using a very sensitive definition for CKD evaluation, suggests a potentially high prevalence of CKD among PLWHA in Burundi. Patients should be regularly monitored and preventative measures implemented, such as monitoring NSAID use and adjustment of drug dosages according to body weight. Urine dipsticks could be used as a screening tool to detect patients at risk of renal impairment.

  13. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

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    Anselm Crombach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods: Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results: We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.

  14. Burundi; Sixth Review Under the Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and Request for Waiver of Performance Criteria: Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Staff Statement; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    Burundi showed commendable performance owing to its prudent macroeconomic policies and ambitious structural reforms under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). Executive Directors appreciated its macroeconomic stability, strong fiscal discipline, and prudent monetary policies in support of low inflation objectives. They emphasized the need to reduce poverty, sustain macroeconomic stability, and strengthen implementation of structural reforms in reaching the MDGs. They appreciated ...

  15. Modélisation des processus physiques et biologiques dans des fosses septiques et voies de valorisation des boues de vidange:Application à Bujumbura-Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Nsavyimana, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Dans les pays en développement (PED) en général et au Burundi en particulier, la problématique de gestion des eaux usées et des déchets solides constitue un enjeu majeur pour les spécialistes et les autorités locales. En effet, suite à un manque des stations d'épuration collectives au Burundi, les fosses septiques sont les plus utilisées pour gérer les eaux usées produites. Cependant, les processus qui s'y déroulent ne sont pas encore maîtrisés et la gestion des boues de vidange lorsque c...

  16. Diarrhoea prevalence in children under five years of age in rural Burundi: an assessment of social and behavioural factors at the household level

    OpenAIRE

    Diouf, Katharina; Tabatabai, Patrik; Rudolph, Jochen; Marx, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Low- and middle-income countries are particularly burdened with this both preventable and treatable condition. Targeted interventions include the provision of safe water, the use of sanitation facilities and hygiene education, but are implemented with varying local success.Objective: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with diarrhoea in children under five years of age in rural Burundi.Design: A ...

  17. Perceptions of the effects of armed conflict on maternal and reproductive health services and outcomes in Burundi and Northern Uganda: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Primus Che; Bulage, Patience; Urdal, Henrik; Sundby, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Armed conflict potentially poses serious challenges to access and quality of maternal and reproductive health (MRH) services, resulting in increased maternal morbidity and mortality. The effects of armed conflict may vary from one setting to another, including the mechanisms/channels through which the conflict may lead to poor access to and quality of health services. This study aims to explore the effects of armed conflict on MRH in Burundi and Northern Uganda. Methods This is a d...

  18. The cost effectiveness of integrated care for people living with HIV including antiretroviral treatment in a primary health care centre in Bujumbura, Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Renaud, Adrien; Basenya, Olivier; De Borman, Nicolas; Greindl, Isaline; Meyer-Rath, Gesine

    2009-01-01

    The incremental cost effectiveness of an integrated care package (i.e. medical care including antiretroviral therapy and other services such as psychological and social support) for people living with HIV/AIDS was calculated in a not-for-profit primary health care centre in Bujumbura run by Society of Women Against Aids (SWAA) - Burundi, an African non-governmental organisation (NGO). Results are expressed as cost-effectiveness ratio 2007, constant US$ per Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY)...

  19. The cost effectiveness of integrated care for people living with HIV including antiretroviral treatment in a primary health care centre in Bujumbura, Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The incremental cost effectiveness of an integrated care package (i.e. medical care including antiretroviral therapy and other services such as psychological and social support) for people living with HIV/AIDS was calculated in a not-for-profit primary health care centre in Bujumbura run by Society of Women Against Aids (SWAA) - Burundi, an African non-governmental organisation (NGO). Results are expressed as cost-effectiveness ratio 2007, constant US$ per Disability-Ad...

  20. Toward policies for climate change mitigation: "Barriers for family-sized biogas in the District of Gihanga, Burundi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkunzimana, Leonard; Huart, Michel; Zaccai, Edwin

    2014-05-01

    In the context of climate change mitigation and poverty reduction, it has been argued that biogas energy is relevant, as it is economically and ecologically useful. In the 1980s, biogas use played an important role in the development of Burundi. Many schools and public institutions had implemented such installations. Unfortunately, many biogas infrastructures were destroyed in the civil war of the 1990s. This study analyzes what could be done, after a decade of crisis, to develop that sector. It aims to assess how and to what extent the inhabitants of villages are willing to contribute to the development of biogas technologies. We interviewed 150 farmers in order to assess their perception on the ecologic and economic features of biogas plants if implemented in their villages. The influence of socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic factors of households was assessed in this study. Results suggest that the maximum amount that a household is willing to pay each month for biogas use at a family level is positive for large-size households, households that are aware of climate change, consumers of candles, households with high income, households with an educated head, women, and breeders. However, the willingness decreases for households with older head of families. The study concludes that awareness campaigns on biogas benefits and financial and nonfinancial incentives are necessary. This policy should probably and primarily be oriented toward some more receptive categories of the population. Women should be fully involved, considering their positive motivation toward sustaining this sector.

  1. Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 13 June 2007. It was signed in Vienna on 27 September 2007. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 27 September 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Burundi and the Agency

  2. Agreement between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 13 June 2007. It was signed in Vienna on 27 September 2007. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 27 September 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Burundi and the Agency. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  3. Etude économique du marché des produits vivriers au Burundi Analyse chronologique des prix de la pomme de terre

    OpenAIRE

    Degand, J.; D'Haese, L.; Ndimira, PF.

    1985-01-01

    Market Economie Analysis of Food Crops in Burundi - Time Serie Analysis of Potato Prices. As compared with the study to the bean prices (see Tropicultura Vol. 1, n°3, pp. 86-98), the time serie of potato prices displays seasonal moves with larger amplitudes. These variations are due to differents factors : - specific rhythm of the crop cycle - low level of commercialization - storage difficulties during the harvest period. On the other hand it has been identified a long run move in potato pri...

  4. Analyse du rôle de la biodiversité végétale des forêts de Kigwena et de Rumonge au Burundi

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    Hakizimana, P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Role of Plant Resources Harvested from Kigwena and Rumonge Forests, Burundi. The main objective of this study was to inventory the natural plant resources harvested by local populations in the forests of Kigwena and Rumonge, both located in South-Western Burundi, relatively closer, but physionomically different. Eighty and 41 species of medicinal plants, 33 and 25 species used for their materials, 21 and 23 edible species, 14 and 19 species for energy use, and 5 and 12 species for cultural use were respectively noticed. Among the collected species, 42.7% and 55.4% respectively served for multiple uses. In the forest of Kigwena, the leaves (26.7% and stems (28% were the most collected plant parts whereas in the forest of Rumonge the stems (35.7% were the dominant category. Edible mushrooms, honey and termites are also collected in the two forests. Both forests play consequently a significant role by offering to the local populations the possibility to diversify their incomes (various products marketed along the roads and in the urban centres, their food, and, in particular, their popular medicine.

  5. Etude de la fertilisation intégrée en milieu paysan dans la région naturelle du Mugamba (Burundi

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    Van den Berghe, C.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the integrated fertilisation in farmers fields in the natural region of Mugamba (Burundi. In the frame of the cooperation between the CVHA project (Cultures vivrieres de Haute Altitude and the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in Bujumbura, Burundi, 75 trials were installed between 1988 and 1990 in the Mugamba region comparing the effect of non-treated and treated composts with fertilizers on potatoes. Chemical analysis of composts and soils proved several deficiencies. There was no significant difference between the yields for the treated composts at 10 t/ha and the non-treated composts at 20t/ha, which could lead to major savings in labour input. The economical analysis has proved that there was a positive and significant influence on profit, value/cost value and risk factor when treated and non-treated compost were compared. The exchangeable AP + in the soil after harvesting at Ijenda and Mpehe was significantly lower for the treated composts. For the P-Bray-1 these differences occurred at all sites of experimentation. It is strongly recommended that research on composting and application of the compost takes in account the experience of FAO in this field. In this context several trials have been installedin 1991 and 1992.

  6. Metamorphic modifications of the Muremera mafic-ultramafic intrusions, eastern Burundi, and their effect on chromite compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The Muremera mafic-ultramafic intrusions were emplaced into metasedimentary rocks of the Karagwe-Ankole Belt in eastern Burundi, as part of the Mesoproterozoic Kibaran tectonomagmatic event. Igneous minerals of the Muremera intrusions have been partly altered to hydrous and carbonated metamorphic assemblages, although in most cases, the original igneous textures are well-preserved. Rounded, subhedral cumulus olivine has been partially and pseudomorphically replaced by lizardite-magnetite mesh-rim and lizardite-brucite mesh-centre assemblages, while anhedral interstitial plagioclase has been replaced by chlorite-tremolite. A later and localized event results in prograde alteration to antigorite-magnetite-chlorite-talc-carbonate and talc-carbonate-chlorite assemblages. The rocks are inferred to have undergone at least three separate metamorphic/alteration events resulting in: AS1 - an early alteration assemblage (mesh-rim lizardite-magnetite) characterized by very low fluid/rock ratios and widespread distribution; AS2 - a later, widespread low-temperature retrogressive (mesh-centre lizardite-brucite) assemblage associated with abundant close-spaced parallel veins; AS3 - later, prograde (antigorite-magnetite) and AT4 (talc-chlorite-carbonate) assemblages associated with more localized shearing and higher fluid/rock ratios. The AS1 assemblage most likely represents deuteric alteration that occurred soon after intrusion and cooling. The AS2 assemblage may relate to a continuation of this cooling, or may be correlated with the regional upright D2 folding event, while the AS3 and AT4 alteration assemblages are most likely correlated with the N-S oriented D3 faulting episode linked to the distal East African Orogeny. Euhedral to subhedral chromite grains are essentially unaltered where enclosed in primary unaltered olivine, pyroxene or plagioclase, as well as in AS1 lizardite-magnetite and AS2 lizardite-brucite altered olivine or pyroxene. In samples which show alteration

  7. Characterisation of Central-African emissions based on MAX-DOAS measurements, satellite observations and model simulations over Bujumbura, Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Clio; Hendrick, Francois; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smedt, Isabelle; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Yu, Huan; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Bauwens, Maité; Ndenzako, Eugene; Nzohabonayo, Pierre; Akimana, Rachel; Niyonzima, Sébastien; Müller, Jean-Francois; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Central Africa is known for its strong biogenic, pyrogenic, and to a lesser extent anthropogenic emissions. Satellite observations of species like nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO), as well as inverse modelling results have shown that there are large uncertainties associated with the emissions in this region. There is thus a need for additional measurements, especially from the ground, in order to better characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic products emitted in this area. We present MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols performed in Central Africa, in the city of Bujumbura, Burundi (3°S, 29°E, 850m). A MAX-DOAS instrument has been operating at this location by BIRA-IASB since late 2013. Aerosol-extinction and trace-gases vertical profiles are retrieved by applying the optimal-estimation-based profiling tool bePRO to the measured O4, NO2 and HCHO slant-column densities. The MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for investigating the diurnal and seasonal cycles of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols. Regarding the aerosols, the retrieved AODs are compared to co-located AERONET sun photometer measurements for verification purpose, while in the case of NO2 and HCHO, the MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for validating GOME-2 and OMI satellite observations. To characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions in the Bujumbura region, the trace gases and aerosol MAX-DOAS retrievals are used in combination to MODIS fire counts/radiative-power and GOME-2/OMI NO2 and HCHO satellite data, as well as simulations from the NOAA backward trajectory model HYSPLIT. First results show that HCHO seasonal variation around local noon is driven by the alternation of rain and dry periods, the latter being associated with intense biomass-burning agricultural activities and forest fires in the south/south-east and transport from this region to Bujumbura. In contrast, NO2 is seen to depend mainly on local emissions close to the city, due

  8. Análisis económico del sistema presupuestario y de la estructura de los Presupuestos Generales del Estado en Burundi (1962-2012)= Analyse economique du système budgétaire et de la structure du Budget Général de l´Etat au Burundi (1962-2012).

    OpenAIRE

    Funenge, Blaise

    2013-01-01

    Burundi realiza una práctica presupuestaria cercana a los modelos jurídicos napoleónicos y Westminster usados en los sistemas presupuestarios de los países de la OCDE. Es un país sin ingresos fiscales interiores suficientes porque el 90% de la población vive de la economía de subsistencia. Esto provoca una dependencia de las transferencias y préstamos externos de los presupuestos generales del Estado. Este trabajo analiza cualitativamente y descriptivamente los presupuestos generales del Esta...

  9. Peace-building and reconciliation dividends of integrated health services delivery in post-conflict Burundi: qualitative assessments of providers and community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Cathryn; Edward, Anbrasi

    2015-01-01

    While demonstrating causality remains challenging, several 'health-peace' mechanisms have been proposed to describe how health systems contribute to peace-building and stability in post-conflict settings. A qualitative study was undertaken in southern Burundi to identify drivers of social tension and reconciliation in the catchment area of Village Health Works, a health services organisation. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in early 2014 with a total of one hundred and twenty community members and staff representing a range of conflict and recovery experience. Themes emerging from these interviews indicated mechanisms at the individual, household, community, and regional levels through which health provision mitigates tensions and promotes social cohesion. This peace dividend was amplified by the clinic's integrated model, which facilitates further community interaction through economic, agricultural and education programmes. Land pressure and the marginalisation of repatriated refugees were cited as drivers of local tension. PMID:25875719

  10. Etude économique du marché des produits vivriers au Burundi Analyse chronologique des prix de la pomme de terre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degand, J.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Market Economie Analysis of Food Crops in Burundi - Time Serie Analysis of Potato Prices. As compared with the study to the bean prices (see Tropicultura Vol. 1, n°3, pp. 86-98, the time serie of potato prices displays seasonal moves with larger amplitudes. These variations are due to differents factors : - specific rhythm of the crop cycle - low level of commercialization - storage difficulties during the harvest period. On the other hand it has been identified a long run move in potato prices, the frequence of which is badly known. This move keeps mainly being under business cycle influence. It seems anyway that income demand elasticity of potatoes looks very high in such a way that wages moving up entail a rise in potato prices on the market of Bujumbura.

  11. Pour un renouvellement de l'apprentissage du FLE au Burundi: l'apport interculturel de la didactisation des contes burundais

    OpenAIRE

    Ndikumagenge, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Cette thèse de doctorat est une réflexion sur les stratégies à mettre en œuvre afin de résoudre le problème posé par le programme d’enseignement du français au Burundi, un programme qui poursuit des objectifs limités, présente des démarches méthodologiques fondées sur des théories d’enseignement dépassées et qui est illustré par des méthodes inappropriées. En vue de pallier ces lacunes dans le secteur éducatif, nous avons proposé de tenir compte des avancées de la recherche didactique en mati...

  12. Diarrhoea prevalence in children under five years of age in rural Burundi: an assessment of social and behavioural factors at the household level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Diouf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Low- and middle-income countries are particularly burdened with this both preventable and treatable condition. Targeted interventions include the provision of safe water, the use of sanitation facilities and hygiene education, but are implemented with varying local success. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with diarrhoea in children under five years of age in rural Burundi. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 551 rural households in northwestern Burundi. Areas of inquiry included 1 socio-demographic information, 2 diarrhoea period prevalence and treatment, 3 behaviour and knowledge, 4 socio-economic indicators, 5 access to water and water chain as well as 6 sanitation and personal/children's hygiene. Results: A total of 903 children were enrolled. The overall diarrhoea prevalence was 32.6%. Forty-six per cent (n=255 of households collected drinking water from improved water sources and only 3% (n=17 had access to improved sanitation. We found a lower prevalence of diarrhoea in children whose primary caretakers received hygiene education (17.9%, boiled water prior to its utilisation (19.4% and were aged 40 or older (17.9%. Diarrhoea was associated with factors such as the mother's age being less than 25 and the conviction that diarrhoea could not be prevented. No gender differences were detected regarding diarrhoea prevalence or the caretaker's decision to treat. Conclusions: Diarrhoea prevalence can be reduced through hygiene education and point-of use household water treatment such as boiling. In order to maximise the impact on children's health in the given rural setting, future interventions must assure systematic and regular hygiene education at the household and community level.

  13. Analyse et stratégies de développement de l’agriculture familiale dans un pays post-conflit: cas de la Province de Kirundo au nord du Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Minani, Bonaventure

    2014-01-01

    The Burundian family farming is indeed at the center of solutions to food and nutrition insecurity prevailing in Burundi. The agricultural sector contributes more than 40 % of GDP and employs 90 % of active people. Kirundo famers practiced family agriculture market-oriented. This region was formerly considered as the breadbasket of the country because it fed many regions in cereals and legumes. Before 1993, Kirundo was the second rural province who had fewer households (28 %) living under pov...

  14. Barriers in the Delivery of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Post-Conflict Africa: Qualitative Case Studies of Burundi and Northern Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primus Che Chi

    Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates are particularly grim in conflict, post-conflict and other crisis settings, a situation partly blamed on non-availability and/or poor quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC services. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to effective delivery of EmONC services in post-conflict Burundi and Northern Uganda, in order to provide policy makers and other relevant stakeholders context-relevant data on improving the delivery of these lifesaving services.This was a qualitative comparative case study that used 42 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions for data collection. Participants were 32 local health providers and 37 staff of NGOs working in the area of maternal health. Data was analysed using the framework approach.The availability, quality and distribution of EmONC services were major challenges across the sites. The barriers in the delivery of quality EmONC services were categorised into two major themes; human resources-related challenges, and systemic and institutional failures. While some of the barriers were similar, others were unique to specific sites. The common barriers included shortage of qualified staff; lack of essential installations, supplies and medications; increasing workload, burn-out and turnover; and poor data collection and monitoring systems. Barriers unique to Northern Uganda were demoralised personnel and lack of recognition; poor referral system; inefficient drug supply system; staff absenteeism in rural areas; and poor coordination among key personnel. In Burundi, weak curriculum; poor harmonisation and coordination of training; and inefficient allocation of resources were the unique challenges. To improve the situation across the sites, efforts are ongoing to improve the training and recruitment of more staff; harmonise and strengthen the curriculum and training; increase the number of EmONC facilities

  15. Characteristics of antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients lost-to-care in HIV clinics in Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, and Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolka, Kristen; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Kiumbu, Modeste; Atibu, Joseph; Azinyue, Innocent; Akam, Wilfred; Balimba, Ashue; Mfangam Molu, Brigitte; Mukumbi, Henri; Niyongabo, Theodore; Twizere, Christelle; Newman, Jamie; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients are vulnerable to becoming lost-to-care (LTC) because they are not monitored as often as patients on treatment. We examined data from 19,461 HIV positive adults at 10 HIV clinics in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Cameroon, and Burundi participating in the Phase 1 International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS Central Africa (IeDEA-CA) study. Patients were LTC if they were ART-naïve and did not return within 7 months of the end of data collection. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk factors associated with LTC. Of 5353 ART-naïve patients, 4420 (83%) were LTC and 933 (17%) were in-care. The odds of being LTC were greatest among patients from DRC (OR = 2.16, CI: 1.64-2.84, p ART-naïve patients may increase earlier initiation of ART. PMID:26855169

  16. Tuberculose chez le personnel de santé du secteur public au Burundi: fréquence et facteurs de risque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuku, Olivier; Ruhindiza, Bienvenu Mukuku; Mupepe, Alexis Kumba; Sawadogo, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de déterminer la fréquence de la tuberculose (TB) chez le personnel de santé du secteur public en charge des patients tuberculeux et d’évaluer les facteurs de risque de contracter la tuberculose chez ce personnel au Burundi. Méthodes Il s’agit d’une étude transversale à visée analytique réalisée auprès de 300 travailleurs prestant dans 30 centres de dépistage et de traitement de la TB (CDT) au Burundi du 16 octobre au 15 novembre 2012. Les paramètres sociodémographiques et professionnels ainsi que l’antécédent de vaccination BCG de travailleurs ayant été touché par la TB ont été analysé et comparé à ceux de travailleurs qui ne l’ont pas été. Le seuil de signification a été fixé à p risque de souffrir de la TB est de près de 4 fois chez les travailleurs âgés d’au moins 50 ans (OR=3,73; 1,53-9,08), chez ceux qui n’ont jamais reçu de vaccin de BCG (OR=3,73; 1,24-11,03), chez ceux qui n’ont pas de cicatrice vaccinale de BCG (OR=3,80; 1,67-8,62) et chez ceux qui travaillent depuis au moins 6 ans dans un CDT (OR=3,79; 1,44-9,96); ce risque est de 9 fois chez ceux qui sont mariés (OR=9,42; 1,26-70,23), de 8 fois chez ceux qui n’aèrent pas leurs salles de travail (OR=8,20; 1,48-48,23) et de 6 fois chez ceux qui ont comme profession nettoyeur ou aide-soignant (OR=6,12; 2,92-12,82). Par contre, aucune corrélation statistiquement significative n’a été observée entre le fait de souffrir de la TB et le sexe mais aussi le nombre d’heures de contact d’un travailleur avec un patient tuberculeux (p>0,05). Conclusion L’âge, l’antécédent de vaccination de BCG ainsi que la majorité de paramètres professionnels sont en association avec la maladie TB des travailleurs de CDT. D’où, la maîtrise de certains facteurs de risque s’avère important pour faire face au fardeau de la TB parmi le personnel hospitalier. PMID:24847402

  17. La production laitière et la croissance du chevreau pendant la période néonatale chez la chèvre locale au Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farina, L.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk yield and kid's growth rate of local goats in Burundi during the first weeks after birth. A study on local goats in Burundi, specially the growth rate of the kid during the first weeks after birth, has been undertaken. Milk yield has been monitored to establish milking and suckling abilities of local goats. The results of daily controls have given a milk yield average of 511 g/day up to day 56 post partum. Lactation yield has been significantly affected by the doe's weight. During the first month, heavy goats have produced the equivalent of a glass of milk per day (about 200 ml for human consumption in addition to the quantity taken up by the kids. The daily weight gain of 54.05 g recorded from birth to 28 days of age in youngs is low, probably due to the limited quantity of milk available to them. Nevertheless local kids show an excellent conversion ratio of suckled milk, with a value of 3.93 kg of milk to produce 1 kg liveweight during the first 28 days, representing a very high food conversion.

  18. Appréciation et amélioration de la qualité bactériologique du poisson commercialisé au Burundi. Cas de Stolothrissa tanganicae et Luciolates stappersii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindayigaya, E.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Appreciation and improvement of the bacteriological quality of fish commercialized in Burundi. Cases of Stolothrissa tanganicae and Luciolates stappersii. The bacteriological quality of Stolothrissa tanganicae and Luciolates stappersii has been estimated by determining the aerobic mesophilic flora, Staphylococcus aureus as pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis as fecal contamination indices. The freshness has been evaluated by the determination of the total volatile bases (T.V.B.. At the arrival of fresh fish on the market, the aerobic mesophilic flora was sometimes high due to inadequate handling and processing on board. Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus can be found in fresh fish. The determination of the T.V.B. and the bacteriological analysis provided concordant informations. An improvement of bacteriological quality has been obtained by a combination of the traditional conservation methods : drying, salting and smoking.

  19. Efficacité de la roche phosphatée de Matongo au travers d'un compostage sur une culture de pomme de terre sur un sol acide de Rabiro (Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Berghe, C.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of phosphatic rock from Matongo applied in the composting process on potatoes on an acid soil of Rabiro. In the frame of the Cooperation between the CVHA (Cultures Vivrieres de Haute Altitute Project and the Program of Fertilisation of the Agro-systems on Altitude (FAVA of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in Burundi, the local phosphatic rock from Matongo has been compared to diammonium-phosphate when added in the composting process. The field trials with potatoes have shown that both phosphate sources have the same fertilizing value when the enriched compost was applied at the dose of 20 t/ha. It is very interesting from agricultural and economical viewpoint to use this phosphatic rock in combination with compost.

  20. Contribution á l’étude des lichens du Kivu (Zaire, du Rwanda et du Burundi. VII. Approche écogéographique de la flore et de la végétation lichéniques dans Pest de P Afrique centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lambinon

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available A short historical record of the lichenological exploration of tropical Africa, especially Kivu (Zaire, Rwanda and Burundi is given, including an account of the material collected and of the present state of taxonomic knowledge of the lichens. Several phytogeographical categories can be recognized in this area; they are (some with significant variants: subcosmopolitan, temperate-tropical, pantropical, paleotropical, afro-neotropical, guineo-congolian, sudano-zambezian, zambezian-afrooriental and zambezian, central African lakes endemic, afromontane and afroalpine. The distributional types of the lichens within the studied area are briefly described, as well as their importance in the main vegetation types.

  1. Poor understanding of the hydrogeological structure is a main cause of hand-dug wells failure in developing countries: A case study of a Precambrian basement aquifer in Bugesera region (Burundi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakundukize, Charles; Mtoni, Yohana; Martens, Kristine; Van Camp, Marc; Walraevens, Kristine

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates a Precambrian basement aquifer in Bugesera region, a typical African rural area in northeastern Burundi. Domestic water supply relies on groundwater which is tapped through hand-dug wells. Despite several attempts to increase the number of water points in the area, the water demand is still far from being met as a result of the high rate of well failure. This paper seeks to understand whether the hydrogeological structure and the spatial distribution of hydraulic parameters can explain the low productivity and the high failure rate of hand-dug wells. The hydrogeological structure inferred from the interpretation of a large number of vertical electrical soundings (VES) reveals a typical sequence of geoelectrical layers, which is characterized by an overall upwards fining from the fresh basement, over the fractured/weathered basement, to the overburden or saprolite with a clay-rich layer on top. Whereas the overall aquifer potential mainly depends on the thickness of the weathered overburden, the aquifer potential for shallow hand-dug wells is determined by the hydraulic conductivity of the upper few meters of the saturated zone. This upper zone was investigated in the pumping tests. The spatial distribution of the specific capacity reveals a wide variation of hydraulic parameters, depending on the well's position in the depth profile of the aquifer's hydraulic conductivity. The thickness of the potential aquifer is highest in the central part of the study area (pegmatitic and granitic intrusions) which has the highest overall aquifer potential compared to the surrounding metasedimentary formations. However, a thick weathered overburden will increase the groundwater potential of an aquifer for deep boreholes, whereas for hand-dug wells, the productivity can only be high if the thickness of the weathered overburden is small enough, or the water table is deep enough, to allow to tap the coarse part at the base of the overburden and/or part of

  2. The development of diaspora engagement policies in Burundi and Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, S.; Siegel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Many countries are currently exploring their diaspora's potential to contribute to local development processes. These countries face numerous challenges in effectively engaging their diasporas such as a lack of experience and resources. Conflict-affected countries, however, face legacies from the past that might challenge diaspora engagement processes. They often also struggle with security issues in the post-conflict phase in addition to these challenges. This chapter compares the diaspora e...

  3. Preventing re-displacement through genuine reintegration in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Hovil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is often part of a cyclical process of conflict anddisplacement. Preventing displacement, therefore, is not only aboutpreventing new displacement but about ensuring that people do notget re-displaced.

  4. Children of former child soldiers and never-conscripted civilians: a preliminary intergenerational study in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Song; J. de Jong; R. O'Hara; C. Koopman

    2013-01-01

    Studies around the world show that former child soldiers (FCSs) have mental health strengths and limitations, and highlight the important role of families and communities in reintegration to society. However, there are limited data that examine the mental health risks and protective factors of the o

  5. Reconciling reintegration: the complexity of economic and social reintegration of ex-combatants in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R; Leeuwen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programmes initiated by state or multilateral agencies can realise the reintegration of ex-combatants remains debated. While some consider that DDR should have the ambition to result in long-term reintegration, others argue that

  6. Understanding resilience in armed conflict: Social resources and mental health of children in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Hall; W.A. Tol; M.J.D. Jordans; J. Bass; J.T.V.M. de Jong

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and receiv

  7. Solar hot water for household and institutional use in Bujumbura, Burundi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on solar energy which is clean and renewable. It is the primary source for a wide range of energy resources such as biomass, hydraulics, coal, peat and petroleum. Until recently, the sun was the major source of energy used by man to satisfy his needs. The extraction and use of fossil fuels became important with the technological and industrial development that took place in the nineteenth century. For countries without fossil fuels (such as petroleum and coal), solar energy is an important asset. The oil crisis of 1973 clearly showed the limits of fossil fuel consumption. The crisis slowed down and, in some cases, severely hampered economic growth in many developing countries. To this day, fossil fuels remain expensive for many developing countries which have to part with a significant share of their meagre convertible currency resources to import fossil fuels. It is thus imperative that developing countries should investigate the possibility of developing solar energy systems that can reduce their dependence on fossil fuels. In the short term, high investment costs and shortage of qualified manpower are major constraints on the development of solar energy systems. In the long run, however, the benefits of solar energy systems are expected to overcome these constraints. The benefits include low operation costs and non-generation of pollutants. The decentralized nature of solar energy is an asset in the isolated rural areas of Africa. It is possible to build small solar units and this provide energy security and autonomy at the level of a community and even at the level of an individual. Solar energy has, however, one major disadvantage - its energy density is low (1.0 kw per square metre on the earth surface, after taking absorption losses into account)

  8. Productivité de biomasse et gestion durable des exploitations dans le cas des plateaux à forte population du Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Rishirumuhirwa, T.; Roose, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Les tropiques humides d'altitude sont caractérisés par des sols acides très désaturés, carencés en phosphore, à très faible potentiel de production. Ces sols ferrallitiques sont observés notamment dans les régions bananières des Grands Lacs en Afrique orientale où les densités de populations sont très élevées (500 à plus de 1000 habitants au km2) sur des collines à fortes pentes. Les agriculteurs de ces régions ont développé des systèmes de production basés sur la concentration et le recyclag...

  9. Efficient Irrigation Water Allocation and Use for Enhanced Paddy Productivity : Case study of Mugerero in Imbo lowland Region in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Ndayizigiye, Tharcisse

    2009-01-01

    To address increasing irrigation water demand consecutive to the increasing population pressure in terms of food demand, there is an imperative of developing relevant mechanisms to regulate irrigation water consumption patterns. A radical shift from uncontrolled flooding irrigation as currently practiced by farmers in Mugerero paddy farming zone towards efficient allocation and use of water resources is important to save water that could be allocated to other water users. This paper surveys c...

  10. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi: a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Tol; I.H. Komproe; M.J.D. Jordans; A. Ndayisaba; P. Ntamatumba; H. Sipsma; E.S. Smallegange; R.D. Macy; J.T.V.M. de Jong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving

  11. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi : A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Wietse A.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S.; Macy, Robert D.; de Jong, Joop T V M; Komproe, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving

  12. Shifting management of a community volunteer system for improved child health outcomes: results from an operations research study in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Jennifer; Makonnen, Raphael; Sula, Delphin

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-based strategies that foster frequent contact between caregivers of children under five and provide credible sources of health information are essential to improve child survival. Care Groups are a community-based implementation strategy for the delivery of social and behavior change interventions. This study assessed if supervision of Care Group activities by Ministry of Health (MOH) personnel could achieve the same child health outcomes as supervision provided by specia...

  13. Boues de vidange des fosses septiques: Caractérisation et voies de valorisation-Cas du Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Nsavyimana, Gaston; Bigumandondera, Patrice; Baya, Dehenould Trésor; Ndikumana, Théophile; Vasel, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Les fosses septiques (F.S) sont classées parmi les digesteurs anaérobies les plus utilisés au monde dans le domaine de traitement des eaux usées (McCarty, 2001; Coelho et al., 2003; Wibisono et al., 2003). Cependant, un des grands problèmes d’utilisation de ces dispositifs, est la gestion des boues de vidange (Strauss et al., 1997; Strauss et al., 2000; Koanda, 2006). Cette étude vise à: (i) caractériser les boues de vidange des FS et déterminer leur potentiel méthanogène; (ii) élaborer des m...

  14. First insights into the diversity of gill monogeneans of 'Gnathochromis' and Limnochromis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Burundi: do the parasites mirror host ecology and phylogenetic history?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmentová, N.; Gelnar, M.; Koblmüller, Stephan; Vanhove, M. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, e1629 (2016), e1629. ISSN 2167-8359 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cichlidogyrus * Ectoparasites * Lake Tanganyika * Limnochromini * Tropheini Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.112, year: 2014

  15. A study on reintegration of street children in Burundi: Experienced violence and maltreatment are associated with mental health impairments and impeded educational progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm eCrombach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Street children are exposed to violence, and subsist in poor and generally precarious conditions. In conflict regions, institutional care facilities are often the only well established way to care for vulnerable children. Providing access to school education is considered to be key to allow successful integration into society. However, adverse effects of psychological disorders may pose another serious obstacle. In semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 Burundian male youths (mean age = 15.9 years, we assessed exposure to traumatic stressors, regularly and recently occurring violence as well as prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, substance dependence, suicidal risk, and progress in school. Former street children (n = 32 and other vulnerable children (n = 50 in a residential center were compared to children living in the streets (n = 15 or with families (n = 15. While the children living in the center were less regularly exposed to violence and reported less substance dependence than street children, PTSD symptoms were common among the former street children. Furthermore, we provided empirical evidence that for the children living in the center, recently experienced violence – mostly minor physical conflicts, psychological violence and neglect – was associated with increased PTSD symptomatology and impeded progress in school. In a population of children who experienced many traumatic incidences and a lot of violence, even minor violent events may trigger and reinforce PTSD symptoms. Hence controlling exposure to violence and addressing mental ill-health in vulnerable children is mandatory for reintegration.

  16. A study on reintegration of street children in Burundi: Experienced violence and maltreatment are associated with mental health impairments and impeded educational progress

    OpenAIRE

    Anselm eCrombach; Manassé eBambonyé; Thomas eElbert

    2014-01-01

    Street children are exposed to violence, and subsist in poor and generally precarious conditions. In conflict regions, institutional care facilities are often the only well established way to care for vulnerable children. Providing access to school education is considered to be key to allow successful integration into society. However, adverse effects of psychological disorders may pose another serious obstacle. In semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 Burundian male youths (mean age ...

  17. A study on reintegration of street children in Burundi: experienced violence and maltreatment are associated with mental health impairments and impeded educational progress

    OpenAIRE

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Street children are exposed to violence, and subsist in poor and generally precarious conditions. In conflict regions, institutional care facilities are often the only well established way to care for vulnerable children. Providing access to school education is considered to be key to allow successful integration into society. However, adverse effects of psychological disorders may pose another serious obstacle. In semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 Burundian male youths (mean age ...

  18. First insights into the diversity of gill monogeneans of 'Gnathochromis' and Limnochromis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Burundi: do the parasites mirror host ecology and phylogenetic history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmentová, Nikol; Gelnar, Milan; Koblmüller, Stephan; Vanhove, Maarten P M

    2016-01-01

    Monogenea is one of the most species-rich groups of parasitic flatworms worldwide, with many species described only recently, which is particularly true for African monogeneans. For example, Cichlidogyrus, a genus mostly occurring on African cichlids, comprises more than 100 nominal species. Twenty-two of these have been described from Lake Tanganyika, a famous biodiversity hotspot in which many vertebrate and invertebrate taxa, including monogeneans, underwent unique and spectacular radiations. Given their often high degrees of host specificity, parasitic monogeneans were also used as a potential tool to uncover host species relationships. This study presents the first investigation of the monogenean fauna occurring on the gills of endemic 'Gnathochromis' species along the Burundese coastline of Lake Tanganyika. We test whether their monogenean fauna reflects the different phylogenetic position and ecological niche of 'Gnathochromis' pfefferi and Gnathochromis permaxillaris. Worms collected from specimens of Limnochromis auritus, a cichlid belonging to the same cichlid tribe as G. permaxillaris, were used for comparison. Morphological as well as genetic characterisation was used for parasite identification. In total, all 73 Cichlidogyrus individuals collected from 'G.' pfefferi were identified as C. irenae. This is the only representative of Cichlidogyrus previously described from 'G.' pfefferi, its type host. Gnathochromis permaxillaris is infected by a species of Cichlidogyrus morphologically very similar to C. gillardinae. The monogenean species collected from L. auritus is considered as new for science, but sample size was insufficient for a formal description. Our results confirm previous suggestions that 'G.' pfefferi as a good disperser is infected by a single monogenean species across the entire Lake Tanganyika. Although G. permaxillaris and L. auritus are placed in the same tribe, Cichlidogyrus sp. occurring on G. permaxillaris is morphologically more similar to C. irenae from 'G.' pfefferi, than to the Cichlidogyrus species found on L. auritus. Various evolutionary processes, such as host-switching or duplication events, might underlie the pattern observed in this particular parasite-host system. Additional samples for the Cichlidogyrus species occuring on G. permaxillaris and L. auritus are needed to unravel their evolutionary history by means of (co-)phylogenetic analyses. PMID:26855869

  19. Contribution to the study of psychosocial support to pregnant women in the services of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Irambona, Rénovate

    2012-01-01

    L’annonce des résultats du diagnostic d’une maladie grave est toujours un moment difficile à vivre pour le patient et, dans une moindre mesure, pour le médecin. Lorsqu’il s’agit du VIH/SIDA, la difficulté est d’autant plus importante que bien souvent, cette maladie véhicule honte et culpabilité avec risque de stigmatisation de la personne séropositive. Chez les femmes enceintes burundaises, cette situation est encore plus préoccupante. Des barrières liées au contexte socio-culturel les pousse...

  20. [Simultaneous association of tubercular meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis in an African with human immunodeficiency virus HIV positive serology. University Hospital Center of Bujumbura,Burundi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyongabo, T; Aubry, P

    1992-01-01

    The authors report a connection between a meningitis tuberculosis and a meningoencephalitis with cryptococcus in the case of an african VIH+. The diagnostic of a meningitis tuberculosis was retained on an indirect arguments, this of meningoencephalitis of direct arguments (antigen cryptococcus, cultivation on Sabouraud environment). The pulmonary tuberculosis and/or extrapulmonary tuberculosis is current in Central Africa during HIV infection, as well as the crytococcosis during AIDS. But, any observation on neuromeningitis strike of those two infections have been reported up to now. PMID:1406216

  1. Analyse et stratégies de l’agriculture familiale dans un pays post-conflit : cas de la province de Kirundo au nord du Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Minani, Bonaventure; Rurema, Déo-Guide; Lebailly, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Les fermiers de la province de Kirundo pratiquaient l’agriculture familiale orientée vers le marché. Aujourd’hui, cette agriculture est tournée vers l’autoconsommation. Pour bien comprendre les contraintes rencontrées par les fermiers, 355 exploitants agricoles ont été choisis aléatoirement dans toutes les communes de cette province. Les résultats issus de cette enquête montrent que l’insuffisance de la main d’oeuvre, du matériel agricole, des intrants agricoles, de protection des sols, la pe...

  2. Mécanisme pour un Développement Propre (MDP) du Protocole de Kyoto :barrières et opportunités pour les pays moins avancés d’Afrique. Cas du Burundi/Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol: barriers and opportunities for the least developed countries in Africa. Case study of Burundi.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisore, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Du Protocole de Kyoto est née une série d’objectifs de réduction des émissions de GES. Le respect de ces objectifs peut entraîner des coûts très lourds pour les économies des pays développés engagés dans la lutte contre les changements climatiques. Pour minimiser les coûts imposés par ces objectifs, des instruments économiques ont été développés, avec notamment la création de marchés du carbone. Y participent les trois mécanismes de flexibilité du Protocole de Kyoto parmi lesquels figure le M...

  3. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi..., Lesotho, Liberia, Macau, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria,...

  4. Mécanisme pour un développement propre (MDP) du protocole de Kyoto: barrières et opportunités pour les pays moins avancés d'Afrique :cas du Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Bisore, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Du Protocole de Kyoto est née une série d’objectifs de réduction des émissions de GES. Le respect de ces objectifs peut entraîner des coûts très lourds pour les économies des pays développés engagés dans la lutte contre les changements climatiques. Pour minimiser les coûts imposés par ces objectifs, des instruments économiques ont été développés, avec notamment la création de marchés du carbone. Y participent les trois mécanismes de flexibilité du Protocole de Kyoto parmi lesquels figure le M...

  5. Extraction de l'Huile Essentielle Complète des Fleurs de Cananga Odorata de la Plaine de l'Imbo: Vers la Vulgarisation d'une Nouvelle Filière de Plante Industrielle au Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    De Cliff, Steve; Harerimana, Pierre Claver

    2013-01-01

    The Cananga odorata, commonly known as "ylang-ylang", is a very fragrant plant now growing in the Imbo plain. The extraction of essential oils from flowers of that plant, performed by hydrodistillation few days after flowering, and only under non optimal experimental conditions, has yet to give oil with physico-chemical properties very consistent with international standards. In effect, with a density of 0.940, a refractive index of 1.502, an acidic index of 0.421, and a particularly high est...

  6. Tradition, Globalisation and Language Dilemma in Education: African Options for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwantabagu, Hermenegilde

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the dilemma of language in education in African countries with particular reference to Burundi. African languages are still marginalised by colonial languages such as French and English. Looking at other African countries in general and at the case of Burundi in detail, an analysis is made of the adopted policies aimed at…

  7. Evolutionary ecology of annual Nothobranchius fishes: the model taxon for ageing studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Cellerino, A.; Vrtílek, Milan

    Bujumbura: University of Burundi, 2013. s. 52. [International Conference of the Pan African Fish and Fisheries Association (PAFFA) /5./. 16.09.2013-20.09.2013, Bujumbura] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Nothobranchius * Mozambique Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  8. 48 CFR 52.225-11 - Buy American Act-Construction Materials under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or...); (3) A least developed country (Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi..., Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome...

  9. Extraordinary life history in African annual fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažek, Radim; Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin

    Bujumbura: University of Burundi, 2013. s. 52-53. [International Conference of the Pan African Fish and Fisheries Association (PAFFA) /5./. 16.09.2013-20.09.2013, Bujumbura] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Nothobranchius * Mozambique Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  10. Comparative phylogeography of annual Nothobranchius fishes from southern Mozambique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartáková, Veronika; Bryja, Josef; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Reichard, Martin

    Bujumbura: University of Burundi, 2013. s. 42. [International Conference of the Pan African Fish and Fisheries Association (PAFFA) /5./. 16.09.2013-20.09.2013, Bujumbura] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Nothobranchius * Mozambique Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak... developed country (Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Central..., Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and...

  12. Onchocerciasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live in 31 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, ... Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, ...

  13. Responding to crises in the African Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynne Evans

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A published Adelphi Paper examines the international responses to the ethnic conflict in Burundi and Rwanda from 1993-97 and its overspill into neighbouring Zaire. This extract provides details of four concrete proposals.

  14. Kliimamuutuste mõju laboratoorium / Andres Tarand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarand, Andres, 1940-

    2001-01-01

    Segadused Ida-Aafrika riikides, nende põhjused. Tabel: Ida-Aafrika riikide mõned arengunäitajad: Etioopia, Sudaan, Somaali, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Keenia. Autor: Rahvaerakond Mõõdukad. Parlamendisaadik

  15. Fish diversity of Gambia River floodplain (Senegal) and Turkana Lake (Kenya), two fish communities endangered by dam construction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažek, Radim; Ndiaye, A.; Jirků, Miloslav; Kousalová, Anna; Lotuliakou, D.; Malala, J. O.; Ondračková, Markéta; Petrášová, Ivona; Reichard, Martin; Vetešník, Lukáš; Vošlajerová Bímová, Barbora

    Bujumbura: University of Burundi, 2013. [International Conference of the Pan African Fish and Fisheries Association (PAFFA) /5./. 16.09.2013-20.09.2013, Bujumbura] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gambia River floodplain * fish Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  16. Post-War Economics. Micro-Level Evidence from the African Great Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    D'Aoust, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    This thesis starts by arguing that the civil conflicts that erupted in the African Great Lakes are rooted in a continuous pursuit of power, in which ethnic, regional and political identifiers are used by the contenders for power to rally community support. In an introductory chapter, I go back to the colonial era, drawing attention to Burundi and Rwanda, and then describe in more details Burundi's refugee crisis, ex-combatants' demobilization and the 2010 elections, all of which will be addre...

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members

  18. The Role of Education in Peace-Building in the African Great Lakes Region: Educators' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndura-Ouedraogo, Elavie

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the findings from a qualitative study which examined educators' perceptions of their contributions to the quest for sustainable peace in Burundi and the African Great Lakes region. The study looked at how educators representing different ethnic backgrounds, academic preparation, and currently employed at different levels…

  19. On the Afrotropical genus Holmelgonia (Araneae, Linyphiidae, with the description of three new species from the Albertine Rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Nzigidahera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Holmelgonia were found in the mountain forest of Kibira National Park in Burundi: H. afromontana sp. nov. (♂♀, H. bosnasutus sp. nov. (♂♀ and H. disconveniens sp. nov. (♂. A key to the males in the genus, now containing 17 species, is provided.

  20. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia..., Macau, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria, Oman, Pacific...

  1. External nutrient sources for Lake Tanganyika

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, V.T.; Nyamushahu, S.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the external nutrient sources for Lake Tanganyika from August 1994 to August 1995. The physico-chemical characteristics of the three largest inflowing rivers (Rusizi, Malagarasi, and Lufubu) and the wet atmospheric deposition in Bujumbura (Burundi), Kigoma (Tanzania), and Mpulung

  2. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1991-01-01

    Includes annotations for 19 government publications from 17 countries: Bolivia, Botswana, Burundi, Chile, Costa Rica, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Peru, Rwanda, and the Soviet Union. Topics covered include pornography, poverty, food, and hunger. The effect of library budget pressures on…

  3. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  4. Tradition, globalisation and language dilemma in education: African options for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwantabagu, Hermenegilde

    2011-08-01

    This paper addresses the dilemma of language in education in African countries with particular reference to Burundi. African languages are still marginalised by colonial languages such as French and English. Looking at other African countries in general and at the case of Burundi in detail, an analysis is made of the adopted policies aimed at promoting the use of the mother tongue as a basis for knowledge acquisition and cultural integration. Burundi has gone through a series of educational reforms both before and after gaining independence in 1962, with French and Kirundi competing as curricular teaching languages. After the integration of Burundi into the East African Community in July 2007, English and Kiswahili were added to the curriculum, complicating education policies. This article places particular emphasis on the contextual challenges that tend to impair the full implementation of the adopted policy reforms. The paper concludes by advocating for a multilingual approach in which the indigenous mother tongue serves as the basis for the acquisition of other languages in the curriculum.

  5. In their own words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC and Sierra Leone, the end of armed fighting has not brought with it the longed-for peace. Today, an epidemic of gender-based violence continues to undermine efforts to bring stability.

  6. Introduction course on the economical evaluation of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical course on the financial and economical evaluation of energy projects is presented. The course was organized by the Banque Mondiale in Bujumbura, Burundi, from 11 to 16 November 1991. Subsequently attention is paid to the basics of economic analysis, the financial and the economical analysis of an investment project, and finally the prices of energy products. 4 figs., 13 refs

  7. Preparing Peacekeepers: An Analysis of the African Contingency Operations, Training, and Assistance Program Command and Staff Operational Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karis, Daniel Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) response to events in Africa in the 1990s--warlords in Somalia, the genocide in Rwanda, the crisis in Burundi, and the destruction of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania--was the development of the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) followed by the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA)…

  8. Fiche technique à usage des techniciens et des ingénieurs forestiers établie à partir des résultats de recherche des auteurs et d'expériences pratiques de formation et de développement (Burundi, Cameroun, France, Gabon et RCA) : Exemples de méthodes simplifiées d'éclaircie dans les plantations forestières des zones tropicales et méditerranéennes

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier, R.; Njoukam, R.

    2007-01-01

    Bien que l'ensemble du milieu scientifique, politique et médiatique s'accorde pour dénoncer la disparition des forêts tropicales et méditerranéennes et pour signaler le rôle des défrichements agricoles, peu de documents pratiques sont disponibles pour aider les agriculteurs à replanter des forêts et surtout à les gérer. Forts du constat que la plupart des reboisements réalisés en milieu paysan en Afrique sont ensuite laissés à l'abandon, ce qui les rends improductifs et sensibles aux agressio...

  9. 16. Oratory, formal speaking, and other stylized forms

    OpenAIRE

    Finnegan, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Oratory and rhetoric: Burundi; Limba. Prayers, curses, etc. Word play and verbal formulas. Names I The art of oratory is in West Africa carried to a remarkable pitch of perfection. At the public palavers each linguist [official spokesman] stands up in turn and pours forth a flood of speech, the readiness and exuberance of which strikes the stranger with amazement, and accompanies his words with gestures so various, graceful, and appropriate that it is a pleasure to look on, though the matter...

  10. Patterns of Conflict in the Great Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    Lupa Ramadhani; Jennifer Todd; Patrick Paul Walsh

    2011-01-01

    The African Great Lakes Region (GLR) has witnessed some of the most intense violence and protracted conflict of the last half-century. There has been spiralling and sometimes over-lapping conflict in Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (hereinafter Zone 1 conflict states). Yet their neighbours—Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia (hereinafter Zone 2 peaceful states)—have remained generally peaceful. This article asks what makes the difference in conflict outcomes ...

  11. Le développement agricole par l'itinéraire "paysan - recherche - vulgarisation". Exemple de l'Atelier régional de recherche du Bututsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozy, P.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development following the process "Farmer - Research - Vulgarisation". Example of the local research centre of Bututsi". Agricultural innovations are often not very attractive to farmers. The Institute of Agricuttural Science of Burundi is carried out, since 1985 in the Bututsi highland, a new guideline starting out farmer's priorities and constraints. The innovations are better fitted to farmer's conditions and on farm transfert research is worked on a participative approach. The proposed techniques are adapted and adopted by the farmers.

  12. Relance agricole: Sécurité alimentaire et plus

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Morris, Michael; Glaesner, Vincent; Zoyem, Jean-Paul; Larbouret, Patricia; Moens, Marc; Dianga, Evalyne; Mdaye, Ba; Kavalec, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    Burundi is still experiencing a major food crisis. One important element that will help to avoid new episodes of violence is revised agricultural policies that support sustainable food security. Food crops and livestock supply 91 percent of agricultural GDP and the major livelihood for most households, thus it is essential to promote production and commercialization of subsistence crops and livestock. These subsectors currently perform poorly and foster a chronic food deficit, a condition tha...

  13. Agricultural Recovery: Food Security and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Morris, Michael; Glaesener, Vincent; Zoyem, Jean-Paul; Larbouret, Patricia; Moens, Marc; Dianga, Evalyne; Mdaye, Ba; Kavalec, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    Burundi is still experiencing a major food crisis. One important element that will help to avoid new episodes of violence is revised agricultural policies that support sustainable food security. Food crops and livestock supply 91 percent of agricultural GDP and the major livelihood for most households, thus it is essential to promote production and commercialization of subsistence crops and livestock. These subsectors currently perform poorly and foster a chronic food deficit, a condition tha...

  14. Good Governance and Foreign Direct Investment : A Legal Contribution to a Balanced Economic Development in the East African Community (EAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Mbembe, Binda

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of the East African Community (EAC) is the promotion of a balanced economic development between its Partner States: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. And one of the ways to reach this economic development is the attraction of investment, especially Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). Paradoxically some theories submit that a regional integration between countries characterized by striking asymmetries, as is the case between EAC Partner States, leads to the aggl...

  15. The Influence of Policy Discourses on multilevel water governance: a case study of the Equatorial Nile Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Hissen, Nina F.

    2014-01-01

    This research assesses how discourses on climate change and water security during policy making impact on actual water management, analysing the Equatorial Nile Basin and its riparian countries (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda and DR Congo) as a case study. The thesis looks at the significance of informal policy networks for water governance, and critically discusses the extent to which the framing of issues by these networks are reflected in the practical implementation of mul...

  16. Book review: Windows of opportunity: how women seize peace negotiations for political change by Miriam J. Anderson

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Why, even when women have not been intimately involved in conflicts, do peace agreements so frequently contain reference to their rights? In Windows of Opportunity: How Women Seize Peace Negotiations for Political Change, Miriam J. Anderson examines how provisions relating to gender and women’s rights have been part of peace negotiations through three case studies of conflict resolution in Burundi, Macedonia and Northern Ireland as well as discussion of 195 peace agreements signed between 197...

  17. Volatile Compounds and Capsaicinoid Content of Fresh Hot Peppers (Capsicum Chinense) Scotch Bonnet Variety at Red Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Gahungu; Eric Ruganintwali; Eric Karangwa; Xiaoming Zhang; Daniel Mukunzi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsaicinoids content and the volatile compounds of fresh hot pepper from Burundi at red stage. The Capsaicinoids were extracted in acetone and separated using column chromatography on silica gel, then evaluated quantitatively using a reverse phase High performance liquid chromatography/Photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC/PAD). The volatile compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and then re-extracted and concentrated by SPME fiber at 55ºC for 3...

  18. Widespread rape does not directly appear to increase the overall HIV prevalence in conflict-affected countries: so now what?

    OpenAIRE

    Mills Edward; Joffres Michel R; Anema Aranka; Spiegel Paul B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is severely affected by HIV/AIDS and conflict. Sexual violence as a weapon of war has been associated with concerns about heightened HIV incidence among women. Widespread rape by combatants has been documented in Burundi, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan and Uganda. To examine the assertion that widespread rape may not directly increase HIV prevalence at the population level, we built a model to determine the poten...

  19. Phytothérapie traditionnelle des bovins dans les élevages de la plaine de la Ruzizi

    OpenAIRE

    Malaisse F.; Byavu N.; Henrard C.; Dubois M.

    2000-01-01

    Traditional horned cattle phytotherapy in the Rusizi plain breedings [Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo]. After presenting the ecological characteristics of the Rusizi plain and reminding of the socio-economical importance of horned cattle for the local populations, the authors deal with the traditional phytotherapy knowledge in this area. The study lists the plants used, the organs concerned (leaves, bark, root, fruit, etc.), as well as the formula and doses recommended regarding...

  20. Contract flexibility and dispute resolution in African manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Collier; Marcel Fafchamps; Francis Teal; Stefan Dercon

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the contractual practices of African manufacturing firms using survey data collected in Burundi, Cameroon, Cote d`Ivoire, Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics and econometric results are presented. They show that contractual flexibility is pervasive and that relational contracting is the norm between manufacturers, their suppliers, and their clients. The existence of long-term relations between firms helps them deal with contract non-performance through nego...

  1. Contract Flexibility and Dispute Resolution in African Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Bigsten; Paul Collier; Stefan Dercon; Marcel Fafchamps; Bernard Gauthier; Jan Willem Gunning; Abena Oduro; Remco Oostendorp; Cathy Patillo; Måns Söderbom; Francis Teal; Albert Zeufack

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the contractual practices of African manufacturing firms using survey data collected in Burundi, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics and econometric results are presented. They show that contractual flexibility is pervasive and that relational contracting is the norm between manufacturers, their suppliers, and their clients. The existence of long-term relations between firms helps them deal with contract non-performance through nego...

  2. Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation : analysis of mortality studies from developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Aaby, P; Samb, B.; Simondon, F.; Seck, A. M.; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether the reduction in mortality after standard titre measles immunisation in developing countries can be explained simply by the prevention of acute measles and its long term consequences. DESIGN--An analysis of all studies comparing mortality of unimmunised children and children immunised with standard titre measles vaccine in developing countries. STUDIES--10 cohort and two case-control studies from Bangladesh, Benin, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Senegal, and Zair...

  3. HIV and mobility in the Lake Victoria Basin agricultural sector: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Drimie, Scott; Weinand, Julia; Gillespie, Stuart; Wagah, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The Lake Victoria region has the highest HIV prevalence in the East African Community, which comprises Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi. This region also has a significant concentration of commercial agricultural plantations, which rely on mobile workers, an extensive system of out-grower schemes, and linkages with neighboring communities and transportation routes. This paper reviews the relationships between the various components of the plantation system and the spread of HIV, w...

  4. False positive HIV diagnoses in resource limited settings: operational lessons learned for HIV programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Shanks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to HIV diagnosis is life-saving; however the use of rapid diagnostic tests in combination is vulnerable to wrongly diagnosing HIV infection when both screening tests give a false positive result. Misclassification of HIV patients can also occur due to poor quality control, administrative errors and lack of supervision and training of staff. Médecins Sans Frontières discovered in 2004 that HIV negative individuals were enrolled in some HIV programmes. This paper describes the result of an audit of three sites to review testing practices, implement improved testing algorithms and offer re-testing to clients enrolled in the HIV clinic. FINDINGS: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Burundi and Ethiopia patients were identified for HIV retesting. In total, 44 false-positive patients were identified in HIV programmes in DRC, two in Burundi and seven in Ethiopia. Some of those identified had been abandoned by partners or started on anti-retroviral therapy or prophylaxis. Despite potential damage to programme reputations, no impact in terms of testing uptake occurred with mean monthly testing volumes stable after introduction of re-testing. In order to prevent the problem, training, supervision and quality control of testing procedures were strengthened. A simple and feasible confirmation test was added to the test algorithm. Prevalence of false positives after introducing the changes varied from zero percent (95% CI 0%-8.2% to 10.3 percent (95% CI: 7.2%-14.1% in Burundi and DRC respectively. CONCLUSION: False HIV diagnoses were found in a variety of programme settings and had devastating individual consequences. We re-tested individuals in our programmes while instituting improved testing procedures without a negative impact on test uptake. Considering the importance of correct diagnosis to the individual, as well as the resources needed to care for someone with HIV, it is critical to ensure that all patients registered in

  5. Den Afrikanske Union - regional sikkerhed i Afrika

    OpenAIRE

    Munch, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Projektet undersøger om den Afrikanske Union (AU) formår, at samle dens medlemslande om et kontinentalt sikkerhedsarbejde. Projektet tager udgangspunkt i AU’s panafrikanske vision om et samlet Afrika og undersøger gennem unionens konstitution og unionens fire fredsmissioner i hhv. Burundi, Sudan, Comoros og Somalia, hvordan AU formår, at overføre den panafrikanske vision til sine medlemslande. Undersøgelsen af sikkerhed bygger på tre analyseniveauer; det globale, regionale og domestiske, som ...

  6. Annexe I. Liste des participants aux sommets du mouvement des pays non alignés

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sommet de Belgrade, 1961 Membres (25) Afghanistan Indonésie Algérie Irak Arabie Saoudite Liban Birmanie Mali Cambodge Maroc Ceylon Népal Chypre République arabe unie Congo (Léopoldville) Somalie Cuba Soudan Ethiopie Tunisie Ghana Yémen Guinée Yougoslavie Inde Observateurs (3) Bolivie Brésil Equateur Sommet du Caire, 1964 Membres (47) Afghanistan Birmanie Algérie Burundi Angola Cambodge Arabie Saoudite Cameroun Ceylon Maroc Chypre Mauritanie Congo (Brazzaville) Népal Cuba Nigéria Dahomey Ouga...

  7. Phytothérapie traditionnelle des bovins dans les élevages de la plaine de la Ruzizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaisse F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional horned cattle phytotherapy in the Rusizi plain breedings [Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo]. After presenting the ecological characteristics of the Rusizi plain and reminding of the socio-economical importance of horned cattle for the local populations, the authors deal with the traditional phytotherapy knowledge in this area. The study lists the plants used, the organs concerned (leaves, bark, root, fruit, etc., as well as the formula and doses recommended regarding the recognized diseases. Finally this ethnobotanical knowledge is placed and discussed regarding the East African one.

  8. Hope in Africa?: social representations of world history and the future in six African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-10-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo). PMID:22044307

  9. Paleolimnological investigations of anthropogenic environmental change in Lake Tanganyika: I. An introduction to the project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A.S.; Palacios-Fest, M. R.; McGill, J.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Verschuren, D.; Sinyinza, R.; Songori, T.; Kakagozo, B.; Syampila, M.; O'Reilly, C. M.; Alin, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated paleolimnological records from a series of river deltas around the northeastern rim of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa (Tanzania and Burundi) in order to understand the history of anthropogenic activity in the lake's catchment over the last several centuries, and to determine the impact of these activities on the biodiversity of littoral and sublittoral lake communities. Sediment pollution caused by increased rates of soil erosion in deforested watersheds has caused significant changes in aquatic communities along much of the lake's shoreline. We analyzed the effects of sediment discharge on biodiversity around six deltas or delta complexes on the east coast of Lake Tanganyika: the Lubulungu River delta, Kabesi River delta, Nyasanga/Kahama River deltas, and Mwamgongo River delta in Tanzania; and the Nyamuseni River delta and Karonge/Kirasa River deltas in Burundi. Collectively, these deltas and their associated rivers were chosen to represent a spectrum of drainage-basin sizes and disturbance levels. By comparing deltas that are similar in watershed attributes (other than disturbance levels), our goal was to explore a series of historical "experiments" at the watershed scale, with which we could more clearly evaluate hypotheses of land use or other effects on nearshore ecosystems. Here we discuss these deltas, their geologic and physiographic characteristics, and the field procedures used for coring and sampling the deltas, and various indicators of anthropogenic impact. ?? Springer 2005.

  10. Genetic and morphological characterisation of the Ankole Longhorn cattle in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeyo Mwai A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study investigated the population structure, diversity and differentiation of almost all of the ecotypes representing the African Ankole Longhorn cattle breed on the basis of morphometric (shape and size, genotypic and spatial distance data. Twentyone morphometric measurements were used to describe the morphology of 439 individuals from 11 sub-populations located in five countries around the Great Lakes region of central and eastern Africa. Additionally, 472 individuals were genotyped using 15 DNA microsatellites. Femoral length, horn length, horn circumference, rump height, body length and fore-limb circumference showed the largest differences between regions. An overall FST index indicated that 2.7% of the total genetic variation was present among sub-populations. The least differentiation was observed between the two sub-populations of Mbarara south and Luwero in Uganda, while the highest level of differentiation was observed between the Mugamba in Burundi and Malagarasi in Tanzania. An estimated membership of four for the inferred clusters from a model-based Bayesian approach was obtained. Both analyses on distance-based and model-based methods consistently isolated the Mugamba sub-population in Burundi from the others.

  11. Hepatitis E virus infection in Thai troops deployed with U.N. peacekeeping forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Khin Saw Aye; Duripunt, Pochaman; Mammen, Mammen P; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Rodkvamtook, Wuttikon; Gibbons, Robert V

    2007-11-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is thought to be endemic throughout much of the world, particularly where sanitary infrastructure remains inadequate. HEV has been considered a military health threat and has been reported in several military environments. This study determined HEV seroconversion (defined by a 4-fold increase in antibody titers) occurring in Thai soldiers deployed to the HEV-endemic areas of East Timor, Afghanistan, and Iraq, as part of the U. N. multinational forces. With an average deployment of 6.4 months, the annualized seroconversion rates after deployments to East Timor, Afghanistan, Burundi, and Iraq were 1.9%, 4.6%, 4.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. PMID:18062401

  12. Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle; Stoffelen, P.;

    2012-01-01

    Understanding why some regions have higher levels of diversity and which factors are driving the occurrence of species in a particular area is crucial for environmental management and for the development of species conservation strategies. In this study, we studied seven species of the Caesalpini......, additional reserves should be created to improve the protection of these endemic plant species....... Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current...... endemic species is influenced by a combination of climatic and non-climatic variables. Soil type, temperature annual range and precipitation of the driest month were the most important predictor variables. Overlaying the potential distributions of the seven selected species indicated three areas of...

  13. An example of agro-forestry in Rwanda

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    Hardouin, J.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of Burundi, its lack of natural resources and its high demografic pressure force the country to maximise the output of the arable land available while considering regional potentials. A well-planned regional specialization seems therefore necessary. In this paper, the significance and the purpose of regional specialization was assessed. Possible conditions for the introduction of the system were analyzed and an attempt was made to assess the potential of different agricultural production schemes as subjects for regional agricultural specialization. As a consequence of regional specialization, increased complementary production among regions (Le. increased dissimilarity among them should stimulate exchange (i. e. commercial activity offering readier usage of money in the rural environment. In these circumstances regional specialization might induce development for which commercializing of agricultural products seems essential and mandatory. Regional specialization however should coincide with regional agricultural specialization at its tranformation level.

  14. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of

  15. Assessment of the vulnerability and the resilience of the population at risk of multi-hazard: a support to geo-risk management in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michellier, Caroline; Kervyn, François; Tréfon, Théodore; Wolff, Eléonore

    2013-04-01

    GeoRisCA is a project which aims at studying the geo-risk in the Kivu region (DRC, Rwanda, Burundi), in order to support risk management. The approach developed in GeoRisCA combines methodologies from various disciplines, which will allow the analyses of seismic, volcanic and mass-movement hazards and the vulnerability assessment of the threatened elements. Vulnerability is a complex concept which is commonly defined as the susceptibility of the population, the infrastructures and the natural ecosystems to suffer from damages if a hazard occurs. The densely populated area extended from the North Kivu province in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to North Burundi and East Rwanda is vulnerable to several geohazards, such as landslides triggered by geodynamical processes (climate, seismicity, volcanism) and possibly worsen by anthropic actions. Located in the East African rift valley, the region is also characterized by a strong seismicity, with increasing people and infrastructure exposed. In addition, east DRC hosts the two most active African volcanoes: Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira. Their activity can have serious impacts, as in 2002 when Nyiragongo directly endangers the ~800.000 inhabitants of Goma city, located ~15 km to the south. Linked to passive volcanic degassing, SO2 and CO2 discharge may also increase the population vulnerability(morbidity, mortality). Focusing specifically on this region, the vulnerability assessment methodology developed in GeoRisCA takes into account "exposure to perturbations" and "adaptive capacity or resilience" of the vulnerable systems. On one hand, the exposure is identified as the potential degree of loss of a given element or set of elements at risk; i.e., the susceptibility of people, infrastructures and buildings with respect to a hazard (social vulnerability). It focuses mainly on land use, and on demographic and socio-economic factors that increase or attenuate the impacts of hazards events on local populations. On the

  16. Découverte d’une culture africaine et fantasmes d’un missionnaire. Le Dictionnaire français-kirundi du Père Van der Burgt (1903 entre ethnographie, exégèse biblique et orientalisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Chrétien

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Un des premiers regards extérieurs portés sur l’Afrique des Grands Lacs nous vient du Père blanc hollandais Van der Burgt, missionnaire au Burundi. En 1903 il publie un dictionnaire encyclopédique français‑kirundi, dont l’influence sera durable auprès des lettrés de ce pays. Or cet ouvrage est autant nourri d’une érudition ethnographique, historique et biblique mal contrôlée que d’enquêtes sur le terrain. Il exprime une obsession raciale, celle de la quête des origines orientales des populations noires et, en particulier, de l’assimilation de la catégorie tutsi à une souche hamito‑sémitique. Il est même tenté par des formes ésotériques de l’orientalisme qui le mènent jusqu’en Inde, en Polynésie ou aux révélations de la mystique allemande Catherine Emmerich. La culture burundaise se retrouve capturée par cet imaginaire venu des bibliothèques européennes et elle est décrite comme le fruit d’une dégénérescence, prolongeant le mythe de la malédiction de Cham.One of the first exogenous looks on the Great Lakes region of Africa came from a missionary in Burundi, the Dutch White Father Van der Burgt. He published in 1903 a French‑Kirundi encyclopaedic dictionary, which left a lasting influence on that countries scholarship. This book was both based on fieldwork and poorly‑controlled ethnographic, historical and biblical scholarship. It expressed a peculiar racial obsession : the quest for the Oriental origins of African populations and particularly the inclusion of the Tutsi category into a Hamito‑Semitic stock. Van der Burgt was even influenced by esoteric forms of orientalism, which drove his thoughts as far as India, Polynesia, or the revelations of the German mystic Catherine Emmerich. The Burundese culture was thus trapped by this imagination born out of the European libraries and it was described as the result of degeneration, based on the myth of the curse of Ham.

  17. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoki Mwabukusi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara, Burundi (Muyinga and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke. Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server–client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6, and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing

  18. Extent and drainage status of organic soils in the Lake Victoria catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmes, Reni; Barthelmes, Alexandra; Joosten, Hans

    2016-04-01

    When considering peatlands and organic soils in the tropics, the huge areas in SE Asia prevail in public and scientific perception, whereas Africa has largely been out of focus. However, East Africa contains large areas of organic soils as well. They basically occur in the high altitudes of the uplifted flanks of the East African Rift System, isolated volcanoes and the Ethiopian highlands, in the Zambezian floodplains (e.g. Zambia), and in coastal environments (e.g. Mozambique and Madagascar). We used a mapping approach that integrates old field data and maps, specialized landscape and peatland-related knowledge, and modern RS and GIS techniques to elaborate a comprehensive and rather reliable overview of organic soils (incl. peatlands) in the Lake Victoria catchment. Maps at a scale of 1:25,000 have been prepared for Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The land use intensity has been estimated for all organic soil areas based on satellite and aerial imagery. Feeding the Nile River, sustaining a fast growing and widely poor population and already facing climatic changes, organic soils of the Lake Victoria neighbouring countries are partially under heavy threat. We mapped 10,645 km2 of organic soils for the entire area of which 8,860 km2 (83.2%) seem to be in near natural condition. We assume slightly drainage and low degradation for 564 km2 (5.3%) and intensive drainage and heavy degradation for 1,222 km2 (11.5%). Degradation hotspot is Burundi with 522 km2 (79.5%) of heavily drained and degrading organic soils. This area assessment has been quite conservative to not overestimate the extent of organic soils. A reserve of 5-7,000 km2 of wetlands in the Lake Victoria catchment may include peatlands too, which needs to be confirmed in field surveys. Considering the key role of peatlands and organic soils for water provision and regulation and their rapid degradation due to drainage and inappropriate use, this inventory might be a step towards organic soil

  19. The state, refugees and migration in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akokpari, J K

    1998-01-01

    Migration and refugee movements could significantly decline in sub-Saharan African countries. However, countries must redistribute meager resources equitably and engage in environmental protection. Refugee and migrant populations have increased in sub-Saharan Africa during 1969-95, from 700,000 to 6.8 million. This study examined the causes of migration and the implications for host countries. Doornbos (1990) identifies the root problem as the partisan nature of African politics and the incapacity to manage ecological degradation. The African state is wholly or partially responsible for the creation of conflicts. Examples abound in Zaire, South Africa, Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, Somalia, Ethiopia, Liberia, Congo, and Chad. State partisanship is also evident in Angola, Mozambique, Uganda, and Sierra Leone. An estimated 10 million Africans, in 1985, left their homes due to wars, government repression, or the inability of land to support them. In 1994, USAID estimated that 11.6 million Africans in 10 countries were threatened by famine from drought. Environmental degradation has generated conflicts. Africa's marginalized economy results in recession, unemployment, inflation, and distributional conflicts. Democratization has brought conflicts between the state, civil society, and exiles. Refugees face homelessness, poverty, emotional distress, inadequate food, and disease. Host countries face security threats, pressure on limited resources, rebellions from refugees and their involvement with foreign mercenaries, local conflicts between native and refugee populations, and environmental degradation from refugees. PMID:12293796

  20. Food technologies and developing countries: a processing method for making edible the highly toxic cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Lambri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to be a possible solution to the food crisis becoming a productive model to follow, the development of a process and/or a technique of food production in a developing country could create advantages from an industrial point of view due to the use of alternative raw materials, which have a potentially high competitiveness. In developing countries, agriculture is able to offer a variety of products making up the daily diet and provide products with potential that could make up for many nutritional deficiencies to which resident populations are subject. Food technology applications on cereals, tubers, roots, fruits, and by-products from related processes are reported at aiming to obtain finished and semi-finished foods and/or basic ingredients meeting the food safety criteria. In detail, this study aims to generate a processing method for the white bitter roots collected in a rural area of Burundi with a cyanogenic glycoside content >400 mg cyanide equivalent/kg dry weight. A standardised procedure consisting of peeling, grating, and oven drying at 60°C, with or without fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was successfully tested.

  1. Ring complexes and related rocks in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, J. R.

    Over 625 igneous complexes throughout Africa and Arabia have been selected and classified on the basis of petrographic association and chronology into six broad age groups forming 29 provinces. The groups range from Mid-Proterozoic to Tertiary and include gabbro, granite, syenite, foid syenite and carbonatite plutonic rocks, the majority in the form of ring-dykes, cone-sheets, plugs, circular intrusions, and their associated extrusive phases. Pan-African late or post-orogenic complexes (720-490 Ma) are common in the Arabian-Nubian and Tuareg shields of north Africa originating from subduction zone derived magmatism. Anorogenic complexes in Egypt, NE and central Sudan, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaïre-Burundi, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Angola span 550 to 50 Ma and are dominantly alkali granites and foid syenites. Many groups occur as en-echelon bands within linear arrays, and show migrating centres of intrusion in variable directions. In W. Africa there was a progressive shift of emplacement southwards during early Ordovician to Mid-Cretaceous times. Distribution patterns suggest thatdeep seated features, such as shear zones associated with lithospheric plate movements,controlled melting, and the resultant location of the complexes. Economic mineralization is not widespread in the rocks of the African ring complexes and is mainly restricted to small deposits of Sn, W, F, U and Nb.

  2. A spatially explicit assessment of current and future hotspots of hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa in the context of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Fritz, Steffen; van Wesenbeeck, C. F. A.; Fuchs, Michael; You, Liangzhi; Obersteiner, Michael; Yang, Hong

    2008-12-01

    Hunger knows no boundaries or borders. While much research has focused on undernutrition on a national scale, this report evaluates it at subnational levels for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to pinpoint hotspots where the greatest challenges exist. Undernutrition is assessed with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes by investigating anthropometric data on weight and length of individuals. The impact of climate change on production of six major crops (cassava, maize, wheat, sorghum, rice and millet) is analyzed with a GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (GEPIC) model with the same spatial resolution. Future hotspots of hunger are projected in the context of the anticipated climate, social, economic, and bio-physical changes. The results show that some regions in northern and southwestern Nigeria, Sudan and Angola with a currently high number of people with undernutrition might be able to improve their food security situation mainly through increasing purchasing power. In the near future, regions located in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, southwestern Niger, and Madagascar are likely to remain hotspots of food insecurity, while regions located in Tanzania, Mozambique and the Democratic Republic of Congo might face more serious undernutrition. It is likely that both the groups of regions will suffer from lower capacity of importing food as well as lower per capita calorie availability, while the latter group will probably have sharper reduction in per capita calorie availability. Special attention must be paid to the hotspot areas in order to meet the hunger alleviation goals in SSA.

  3. Volatile Compounds and Capsaicinoid Content of Fresh Hot Peppers (Capsicum Chinense Scotch Bonnet Variety at Red Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Gahungu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsaicinoids content and the volatile compounds of fresh hot pepper from Burundi at red stage. The Capsaicinoids were extracted in acetone and separated using column chromatography on silica gel, then evaluated quantitatively using a reverse phase High performance liquid chromatography/Photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC/PAD. The volatile compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and then re-extracted and concentrated by SPME fiber at 55ºC for 30 min and analyzed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Seventy volatile compounds were identified, of which aliphatic esters, alcohols, terpenoids and acids were the main classes. Hexyl pentanoate, hexyl isopentanoate, Pentyl 3- methylbutanoate, 10- undecenol, 3, 3- dimethyl cyclohexanol, β-chamigrene, Pentadecanoic acid, (E- 9- tetradecenoic acid and Hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major volatile constituents. Capsaicin (CAPS 47.632 mg/g and dihydrocapsaicin (DHCAPS 23.096 mg/g were the major capsaicinoids and their contents converted in Scoville heat value (142931 show that the Scotch Bonnet variety is a high hot chili pepper according to the Scoville scale.

  4. High resolution population maps for low income nations: combining land cover and census in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Tatem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps. CONCLUSIONS: We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km(2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk and are freely available.

  5. Violent Offending Promotes Appetitive Aggression Rather than Posttraumatic Stress-A Replication Study with Burundian Ex-Combatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbach, Anke; Nandi, Corina; Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé; Westner, Britta; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified appetitive aggression, i.e., the perception of committed, violent acts as appealing, exciting and fascinating, as a common phenomenon within populations living in precarious and violent circumstances. Investigating demobilized soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) demonstrated that violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression and not necessarily with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. In the present study, we sought to replicate these results in an independent and larger sample of demobilized soldiers from Burundi. As with the Congolese ex-combatants, random forest regression revealed that the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts is the most important predictor of appetitive aggression and the number of lifetime experienced traumatic events is the main predictor for posttraumatic stress. Perpetrated violent acts with salient cues of hunting (pursuing the victim, the sight of blood, etc.) were most predictive for perceiving violent cues appealingly after demobilization. Moreover, the association of violent acts and appetitive aggression as well as traumatic events and posttraumatic stress remains strong even years after demobilization. Patterns of traumatic events and perpetrated acts as predictors for posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression seem to be robust among different samples of ex-combatants who fought in civil wars. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address these complementary facets of combat-related disorders-namely, posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression-are indispensable for a successful reintegration of those who fought in armed conflicts and to achieve a successful transition to peace. PMID:26696913

  6. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike eAugsburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude towards aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.

  7. Evolutionary history of the river frog genus Amietia (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) reveals extensive diversification in Central African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Thornton R; Castro, Delilah; Behangana, Mathias; Greenbaum, Eli

    2016-06-01

    The African river frog genus Amietia is found near rivers and other lentic water sources throughout central, eastern, and southern Africa. Because the genus includes multiple morphologically conservative species, taxonomic studies of river frogs have been relatively limited. We sampled 79 individuals of Amietia from multiple localities in and near the Albertine Rift (AR) of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda. We utilized single-gene (16S) and concatenated (12S, 16S, cyt b and RAG1) gene-tree analyses and coalescent species-tree analyses to construct phylogenetic trees. Two divergence dating approaches were used in BEAST, including secondary calibration points with 12S, 16S, cyt b and RAG1, and a molecular clock with the 12S, 16S, and cyt b genes. All analyses recovered Amietia as monophyletic with strong support, and revealed several well-supported cryptic lineages, which is consistent with other recent phylogeography studies of AR amphibians. Dating estimates were similar, and Amietia diversification is coincident with global cooling and aridification events in the Miocene and Pliocene, respectively. Our results suggest additional taxonomic work is needed to describe multiple new species of AR Amietia, some of which have limited geographic distributions that are likely to be of conservation concern. PMID:27026115

  8. Recherches et formation en hydrobiologie - pêches - aquicultures au Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reizer, C.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches and training in Hydrobiology Fisheries Aquaculture in Mali. A study on local goats in Burundi, specially the growth rate of the kid during the first weeks after birth, has been undertaken. Milk yield has been monitored to establish milking and suckling abilities of local goats. The results of daily controls have given a milk yield average of 511 g/day up to day 56 post partum. Lactation yield has been significantly affected by the doe's weight. During the first month, heavy goats have produced the equivalent of a glass of milk per day (about 200 ml for human consumption in addition to the quantity taken up by the kids. The daily weight gain of 54.05 g recorded from birth to 28 days of age in youngs is low, probably due to the limited quantity of milk available to them. Nevertheless local kids show an excellent conversion ratio of suckled milk, with a value of 3.93 kg of milk to produce 1 kg liveweight during the first 28 days, representing a very high food conversion.

  9. The duck industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demey, F.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on local goats in Burundi, specially the growth rate of the kid during the first weeks after birth, has been undertaken. Milk yield has been monitored to establish milking and suckling abilities of local goats. The results of daily controls have given a milk yield average of 511 g/day up to day 56 post partum. Lactation yield has been significantly affected by the doe's weight. During the first month, heavy goats have produced the equivalent of a glass of milk per day (about 200 ml for human consumption in addition to the quantity taken up by the kids. The daily weight gain of 54.05 g recorded from birth to 28 days of age in youngs is low, probably due to the limited quantity of milk available to them. Nevertheless local kids show an excellent conversion ratio of suckled milk, with a value of 3.93 kg of milk to produce 1 kg liveweight during the first 28 days, representing a very high food conversion.

  10. Electrical valorization of bamboo in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENEA releases a technical benchmark of small-scale woody biomass-to-electricity technologies, as well as its application to a project to valorize bamboo in Rwanda and Burundi. Within the framework of its voluntary consulting action, ENEA has provided technical and project management support to help INBAR (International Network for Bamboo and Rottin) evaluate the technical feasibility of its project and assess what would be the best available technology to fit with the project's objectives and local context. This report thus includes up-to-date description of combustion, gasification and pyrolysis technologies as well as associated power-generation engines. For each, principle, advantages and drawbacks, technical maturity, adaptation to small-scale, flexibility to a change in biomass, scale-up feasibility, economical aspects or else environmental impacts are described and compared. Unit's integration within its environment, electricity use and associated business models are also addressed, and needed bamboo crop surfaces to meet power supply objectives are assessed

  11. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. PMID:27139449

  12. Parker's sneak-guard model revisited: why do reproductively parasitic males heavily invest in testes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Kohda, Masanori; Hori, Michio; Sato, Tetsu

    2011-10-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in males and may cause intraspecific differences in testes investment. Parker's sneak-guard model predicts that sneaker males, who mate under sperm competition risk, invest in testes relatively more than bourgeois conspecifics that have lower risk. Given that sneakers are much smaller than bourgeois males, sneakers may increase testes investment to overcome their limited sperm productivity because of their small body sizes. In this study, we examined the mechanism that mediates differential testes investment across tactics in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Lamprologus callipterus. In the Rumonge population of Burundi, bourgeois males are small compared with those in other populations and have a body size close to sneaky dwarf males. Therefore, if differences in relative testis investment depend on sperm competition, the rank order of relative testis investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge = bourgeois males in the other populations. If differences in relative testis investment depend on body size, the rank order of relative testes investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge > bourgeois males in the other populations. Comparisons of relative testis investment among the three male groups supported the role of sperm competition, as predicted by the sneak-guard model. Nevertheless, the effects of absolute body size on testes investment should be considered to understand the mechanisms underlying intraspecific variation in testes investment caused by alternative reproductive tactics.

  13. The Tree Project enlists youth to plant trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson, J.

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The climate of the African region around the "Great Lakes" induces a strong process of soil weathering which eventually leads to a strong aluminium saturation of the absorption complex, as expressed by the "m" index of Kamprath. The response to aluminium toxicity of the common bean cv. Diacol Calima, a widely grown variety in Burundi, has been studied in pot trials in two ways : (1 Using superficial soil samples of "humiferous high elevation kaolisols" whose "m" index varied between 4 and 92 ; (2 On culture condition consisting of an inert substrate complemented with a nutritional solution to which a serie of soluble aluminium concentrations were added. Under soil condition, biomass produced after a period of 25 days of growth, decreased as from "m" = 33. The number of Rhizobium nodules decreased drastically with aluminium toxicity becoming negligible at "m" - 33. On culture media, rising concentration of aluminium affected growth adversely as well, although root growth inhibition was less pronounced than under soil condition.

  14. Albinism in Africa: stigma, slaughter and awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Inigo, Andres E; Ladizinski, Barry; Sethi, Aisha

    2011-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a lack of pigment in the hair, skin, and eyes. Albinism is caused by defective or absent tyrosinase, an enzyme necessary for melanogenesis. Although rare in the western world, albinism is quite common in sub-Saharan Africa, likely as a result of consanguinity. Albinism has long been associated with stigma and superstitions, such as the belief that a white man impregnated the mother or that the child is the ghost of a European colonist. Recently, a notion has emerged that albino body parts are good-luck charms or possess magical powers. These body parts may be sold for as much as $75,000 on the black market. As a result there have been over 100 albino murders in Tanzania, Burundi, and other parts of Africa in the past decade, which is now beginning to garner international attention and thus prompting novel legislation. To ameliorate the plight of individuals with albinism in Africa, a coordinated effort must be organized, involving medical professionals (dermatologists, ophthalmologists, oncologists), public health advocates and educators, social workers, human rights and antidiscrimination activists, law-enforcement agencies, and governmental support groups. The main issues that should be addressed include skin cancer prevention education, stigma and discrimination denouncement, and swift prosecution of albino hunters and their sponsors. PMID:21095532

  15. JOURNALISTIC IDENTITY AND AUDIENCE PERCEPTIONS: PARADIGM AND MODELS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN THE AFRICAN GREAT LAKES REGIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  16. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  17. Human Factors Predicting Failure and Success in Hospital Information System Implementations in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Frank; Karara, Gustave; Nyssen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    From 2007 through 2014, the authors participated in the implementation of open source hospital information systems (HIS) in 19 hospitals in Rwanda, Burundi, DR Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, and Mali. Most of these implementations were successful, but some failed. At the end of a seven-year implementation effort, a number of risk factors, facilitators, and pragmatic approaches related to the deployment of HIS in Sub-Saharan health facilities have been identified. Many of the problems encountered during the HIS implementation process were not related to technical issues but human, cultural, and environmental factors. This study retrospectively evaluates the predictive value of 14 project failure factors and 15 success factors in HIS implementation in the Sub-Saharan region. Nine of the failure factors were strongly correlated with project failure, three were moderately correlated, and one weakly correlated. Regression analysis also confirms that eight factors were strongly correlated with project success, four moderately correlated, and two weakly correlated. The study results may help estimate the expedience of future HIS projects. PMID:26262097

  18. Simulated effects of a seasonal precipitation change on the vegetation in tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cassignat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen data collected in Africa at high (Kuruyange, valley swamp, Burundi and low altitude (Lake Victoria; Ngamakala, pond, Congo showed that after 6 ky Before Present (BP, pollen of deciduous trees increase their relative percentage, thus suggesting the beginning of a drier climate and/or an increase of the dry season length. Until now, pollen-climate transfer functions only investigated mean annual precipitation, hence omitting the potential effect of a change in precipitation seasonality. In the present study, we use an equilibrium biosphere model (i.e. BIOME3.5 to estimate the sensitivity of equatorial African vegetation to such changes, at specific sites. Climatic scenarios, differing only by the monthly distribution of the current annual amount of precipitations, are tested at the above three locations in equatorial Africa. Soil nature, monthly temperatures and cloudiness are kept constant at their present day values. A good agreement is shown between model simulations and current biomes assemblages, as reconstructed from pollen data. To date, the increase of the deciduous forest component in the palaeodata around 6 ky has been interpreted as the beginning of the drier climate period. However, our results demonstrate that a seasonal change of the precipitation distribution should likely induce such reconstructed changes toward drier vegetation types. This study confirms the necessity of taking into account seasonal changes in the hydrological balance when palaeoecologists wish to reconstruct vegetation composition or to infer quantitative climate parameters, such as temperature and precipitation, from pollen or vegetation proxy.

  19. Older Adults Accessing HIV Care and Treatment and Adherence in the IeDEA Central Africa Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Newman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Very little is known about older adults accessing HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from 18,839 HIV-positive adults at 10 treatment programs in Burundi, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We compared characteristics of those aged 50+ with those aged 18–49 using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to determine if age was associated with medication adherence. Results. 15% of adults were 50+ years. Those aged 50+ were more evenly distributed between women and men (56% versus 44% as compared to those aged 18–49 (71% versus 29% and were more likely to be hypertensive (8% versus 3% (P<0.05. Those aged 50+ were more likely to be adherent to their medications than those aged 18–49 (P<0.001. Adults who were not heavy drinkers reported better adherence as compared to those who reported drinking three or more alcoholic beverages per day (P<0.001. Conclusions. Older adults differed from their younger counterparts in terms of medication adherence, sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics.

  20. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi. PMID:12316887

  1. Nations of the earth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These books contain summaries of the national reports prepared for the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. Summary reports of the following countries are included: V. 1) Algeria, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Canada, Chad, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Guinea, Jordan, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Paraguay, Romania, Senegal, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Tokelau, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen Arab Republic, Yugoslavia. V. 2) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Central African Republic, Colombia, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Morocco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Oman, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Pacific Islands Developing Countries, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sudan, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Zimbabwe

  2. Breastfeeding beliefs and practices of African women living in Brisbane and Perth, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Danielle; Vicca, Natalie; Streiner, Samantha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of breastfeeding among refugee women from Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo living in two major capital cities in Australia. Participants were recruited from their relevant community associations and via a snowballing technique. Thirty-one women took part in either individual interviews or facilitated group discussions to explore their experiences of breastfeeding in their home country and in Australia. Thematic analysis revealed four main themes: cultural breastfeeding beliefs and practices; stigma and shame around breastfeeding in public; ambivalence towards breastfeeding and breastfeeding support. Women who originated from these four African countries highlighted a significant desire for breastfeeding and an understanding that it was the best method for feeding their infants. Their breastfeeding practices in Australia were a combination of practices maintained from their countries of origin and those adopted according to Australian cultural norms. They exemplified the complexity of breastfeeding behaviour and the relationship between infant feeding with economic status and the perceived social norms of the host country. The results illustrate the need for policy makers and health professionals to take into consideration the environmental, social and cultural contexts of the women who are purportedly targeted for the promotion of breastfeeding. PMID:23557385

  3. Sensibilité du haricot Phaseolus vulgaris à la concentration en aluminium des sols de la région des grands lacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters, JFR.

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensibility to soil aluminium concentration of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris in the African "Great Lakes" region. The climate of the African region around the "Great Lakes" induces a strong process of soil weathering which eventually leads to a strong aluminium saturation of the absorption complex, as expressed by the "m" index of Kamprath. The response to aluminium toxicity of the common bean cv. Diacol Calima, a widely grown variety in Burundi, has been studied in pot trials in two ways : (1 Using superficial soil samples of "humiferous high elevation kaolisols" whose "m" index varied between 4 and 92 ; (2 On culture condition consisting of an inert substrate complemented with a nutritional solution to which a serie of soluble aluminium concentrations were added. Under soil condition, biomass produced after a period of 25 days of growth, decreased as from "m" = 33. The number of Rhizobium nodules decreased drastically with aluminium toxicity becoming negligible at "m" - 33. On culture media, rising concentration of aluminium affected growth adversely as well, although root growth inhibition was less pronounced than under soil condition.

  4. Covering Post-Conflict Elections: Challenges for the Media in Central Africa Wahlberichterstattung in Post-Konflikt-Phasen: Herausforderungen für die Medien in Zentralafrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, elections were held in six countries of Central Africa experiencing “post-conflict” situations. The polls that took place in Burundi (2005, the Central African Republic (2005, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006, Congo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, Chad (1996, 2001, 2006 and Rwanda (2003 were crucial for peace-building. In some cases, they were widely supported and supervised by the international community, being considered the last step of a peace process and the first step toward establishing a truly representative “post-conflict” regime. The media were expected to play a large part in supporting these elections, both to inform the citizens, so they could make an educated choice, and to supervise the way the electoral administration was organizing the polls. This paper attempts to show the many challenges faced by the media while covering these post-conflict electoral processes. In a context of great political tension, in which candidates are often former belligerents who have just put down their guns to go to the polls, the media operate in an unsafe and economically damaged environment, suffering from a lack of infrastructure, inadequate equipment and untrained staff. Given those constraints, one might wonder if the media should be considered actual democratic tools in Central Africa or just gimmicks in a “peace-building kit” (including “free and fair” elections, multipartism and freedom of the press with no real impact on the democratic commitment of the elite or the political participation of the population.In den letzten zehn Jahren wurden in sechs zentralafrikanischen Ländern, die sich in einer Post-Konflikt-Phase befanden, Wahlen abgehalten. Die Wahlgänge in Burundi (2005, der Zentralafrikanischen Republik (2005, der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (2006, Kongo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, dem Tschad (1996, 2001, 2006 und Ruanda (2003 waren entscheidend für die Friedenskonsolidierung. Einige dieser

  5. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present. PMID:12321764

  6. Experiences with the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two foci in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gryseels

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences with population-based chemotherapy and other methods for the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two subsaharan foci are described. In the forest area of Maniema (Zaire, intense transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, high prevalences and intensities of infection, and important morbidity have been documental. Taking into account the limited financial means and the poor logistic conditions, the control strategy has been based mainly on targeted chemotherapy of heavily infected people (>600 epg. After ten years of intervention, prevalences and intensities have hardly been affected, but the initial severe hepatosplenic morbidity has almost disappeared. In Burundi, a national research and control programme has been initiated in 1982. Prevalences, intensities and morbidity were moderate, transmission was focal and erratic in time and space. A more structural control strategy was developed, based on screening and selective therapy, health education, sanitation and domestic water supply. Prevalences and intensities have been considerably reduced, though the results show focal and unpredicatable variations. Transmission and reinfection were not signifcantly affected by chemotherapy alone, and eventual outcome of repeated selective treatment appears to be limited by the sensitivity of the screening method. Intestinal morbidity was strongly reduced by community-based selective treatment, but hepatosplenic enlargement was hardly affected; this is possibly due to the confounding impact of increasing malaria morbidity. The experiences show the importance of local structures and conditions for the development of an adapted control strategy. It is further concluded that population-based chemotherapy is a highly valid tool for the rapid control of morbidity, but should in most operational conditions not be considered as a tool for transmission control. Integration of planning, execution and surveillance in regular health services...

  7. An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Background It is estimated that more than two-thirds of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) must leave their home to collect water, putting them at risk for a variety of negative health outcomes. There is little research, however, quantifying who is most affected by long water collection times. Objectives This study aims to a) describe gender differences in water collection labor among both adults and children (water, disaggregated by urban and rural residence; and b) estimate the absolute number of adults and children affected by water collection times greater than 30 minutes in 24 SSA countries. Methods We analyzed data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) (2005–2012) to describe water collection labor in 24 SSA countries. Results Among households spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, adult females were the primary collectors of water across all 24 countries, ranging from 46% in Liberia (17,412 HHs) to 90% in Cote d’Ivoire (224,808 HHs). Across all countries, female children were more likely to be responsible for water collection than male children (62% vs. 38%, respectively). Six countries had more than 100,000 households (HHs) where children were reported to be responsible for water collection (greater than 30 minutes): Burundi (181,702 HHs), Cameroon (154,453 HHs), Ethiopia (1,321,424 HHs), Mozambique (129,544 HHs), Niger (171,305 HHs), and Nigeria (1,045,647 HHs). Conclusion In the 24 SSA countries studied, an estimated 3.36 million children and 13.54 million adult females were responsible for water collection in households with collection times greater than 30 minutes. We suggest that accessibility to water, water collection by children, and gender ratios for water collection, especially when collection times are great, should be considered as key indicators for measuring progress in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector. PMID:27248494

  8. The importance and significance of peace studies with special reference to South Africa’s political-security role in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neethling

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The origins of peace studies as an academic field of inquiry could be traced to the late 1940s and the field has been developing considerably since then. Currently, scholars at various tertiary institutions over the world are involved in using their academic skills to educate students about the causes of wars and violent conflict while pointing out various alternatives to these phenomena. Peace studies in the South African and broader African context are certainly of great significance and importance. After all, the gripping and devastating violence that manifested in African countries such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, the DRC, Somalia, Angola, the Comoros and many other conflict-stricken areas warrant scholarly attention with a view to better understanding the causes, dynamics and effects of such conflict. By means of this understanding the conflict could be addressed through mechanisms of conflict resolution and peace building could be promoted. Furthermore, the South African Government’s progressive military involvement in international peace missions in recent years is far more than an issue of mere military concern. It is a matter of great political interest and significance. Being supportive of the need for peace studies in the curricula of South African universities (and African universities in general, this article argues that South African students should be exposed to a rich and comprehensive literature on the search for international peace and security; of how to understand and deal with the causes of large-scale conflict and violence; and how these could be curtailed and resolved − literature which informs scholarly discussions and research in many centres and places of education, training and peace building.

  9. Molecular and phylogeographic analysis of human immuno-deficiency virus type 1 strains infecting treatment-naive patients from Kigali, Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rusine

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing the genetic subtype distribution of HIV-1 strains circulating in Kigali and their epidemiological link with the HIV-1 strains from the five countries surrounding Rwanda. One hundred and thirty eight pol (RT and PR sequences from 116 chronically- and 22 recently-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve patients from Kigali were generated and subjected to HIV drug resistance (HIV-DR, phylogenetic and recombinant analyses in connection with 366 reference pol sequences from Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Uganda (Los Alamos database. Among the Rwandan samples, subtype A1 predominated (71.7%, followed by A1/C recombinants (18.1%, subtype C (5.8%, subtype D (2.9%, one A1/D recombinant (0.7% and one unknown subtype (0.7%. Thirteen unique and three multiple A1/C recombinant forms were identified. No evidence for direct transmission events was found within the Rwandan strains. Molecular characteristics of HIV-1 were similar between chronically and recently-infected individuals and were not significantly associated with demographic or social factors. Our report suggests that the HIV-1 epidemic in Kigali is characterized by the emergence of A1/C recombinants and is not phylogenetically connected with the HIV-1 epidemic in the five neighboring countries. The relatively low level of transmitted HIV-DR mutations (2.9% reported here indicates the good performance of the ART programme in Rwanda. However, the importance of promoting couples' counseling, testing and disclosure during HIV prevention strategies is highlighted.

  10. It is possible to increase by over thirty per cent the Nile Water availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population of the Nile catchment is presently 250 Million and will probably reach 400 Million in 2040. The catchment includes two parts of about same population but with a very different climate. - The upstream rainy part (most of this area is in Ethiopia, Uganda and South Sudan). - The downstream dry part i.e North Sudan and Egypt. The available water from the Nile runoff is evaluated as average as 72 Billion m3 /year; it is quite totally coming from the upstream part and used in the downstream part. For their development the upstream populations (including also part of Tanzania, Kenya, Congo, Rwanda and Burundi) are now requiring a significant share of the run off generated from local rains when Egypt and North Sudan claim historic rights on the Nile Waters. The best way to avoid conflicts is to increase the water availability for keeping in Egypt and North Sudan at least the water volume presently used and to allow to upstream countries the water resources necessary for their development, possibly in the range of 100 m3 / year / capita in 2030 or 2040. The average total runoff of the Nile is in fact close to 140 Billion m3 / year but over 40 Billion evaporate in the South Sudan Swamps and 15 Billion in the reservoirs of Aswan and Northern Sudan. A solution for reducing by half these two main losses is presented in this paper: it is based upon a concrete knowledge of the local very specific data and upon a successful experience of adapted technical solutions

  11. Tracing the origin and northward dissemination dynamics of HIV-1 subtype C in Brazil.

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    Edson Delatorre

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in southern Brazil was initiated by the introduction of a single founder strain probably originating from east Africa. However, the exact country of origin of such a founder strain as well as the origin of the subtype C viruses detected outside the Brazilian southern region remains unknown. HIV-1 subtype C pol sequences isolated in the southern, southeastern and central-western Brazilian regions (n = 209 were compared with a large number (n ~ 2,000 of subtype C pol sequences of African origin. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed that most HIV-1 subtype C Brazilian sequences branched in a single monophyletic clade (CBR-I, nested within a larger monophyletic lineage characteristic of east Africa. Bayesian analyses indicate that the CBR-I clade most probably originated in Burundi and was introduced into the Paraná state (southern region around the middle 1970s, after which it rapidly disseminated to neighboring regions. The states of Paraná and Santa Catarina have been the most important hubs of subtype C dissemination, and routine travel and spatial accessibility seems to have been the major driving forces of this process. Five additional introductions of HIV-1 subtype C strains probably originated in eastern (n = 2, southern (n = 2 and central (n = 1 African countries were detected in the Rio de Janeiro state (southeastern region. These results indicate a continuous influx of HIV-1 subtype C strains of African origin into Brazil and also unveil the existence of unrecognized transmission networks linking this country to east Africa.

  12. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei and coffee production in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei, the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model. In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.

  13. Simulated effects of a seasonal precipitation change on the vegetation in tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Gritti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen data collected in Africa at high (Kuruyange, valley swamp, Burundi and low altitude (Victoria, lake, Uganda; Ngamakala, pond, Congo showed that after 6 ky before present (BP, pollen of deciduous trees increase their relative percentage, suggesting thus the reduction of the annual amount of precipitation and/or an increase of in the length of the dry season. Until now, pollen-climate transfer functions only investigated mean annual precipitation, due to the absence of modern pollen-assemblage analogs under diversified precipitation regimes. Hence these functions omit the potential effect of a change in precipitation seasonality modifying thus the length of the dry season. In the present study, we use an equilibrium biosphere model (i.e. BIOME3.5 to estimate the sensitivity of equatorial African vegetation, at specific sites, to such changes. Climatic scenarios, differing only in the monthly distribution of the current annual amount of precipitation, are examined at the above three locations in equatorial Africa. Soil characteristics, monthly temperatures and cloudiness are kept constant at their present-day values. Good agreement is shown between model simulations and current biomes assemblages, as inferred from pollen data. To date, the increase of the deciduous forest component in the palaeodata around 6 ky BP has been interpreted as the beginning of a drier climate period. However, our results demonstrate that a change in the seasonal distribution of precipitation could also induce the observed changes in vegetation types. This study confirms the importance of taking into account seasonal changes in the hydrological balance. Palaeoecologists can greatly benefit from the use of dynamic process based vegetation models to acccount for modification of the length of the dry season when they wish to reconstruct vegetation composition or to infer quantitative climate parameters, such as temperature and precipitation, from pollen or vegetation

  14. Timing of the volcanism of the southern Kivu province: Implications for the evolution of the western branch of the East African rift system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New K-Ar datings of a large rock sampling from the South Kivu volcanic province (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi) are reported. No ages older than 10 Ma have been obtained. This result contrasts with older assumptions and puts severe constraints on the relations between volcanism and rift evolution. From 10 to 7.5 Ma tholeiitic volcanism predominates corresponding to an episode of fissural eruptions; from 7.5 to 5 Ma alkali basalts and their differentiates are mainly erupted in localized rifts. A culmination of activity occurs between 6.0 and 5.5 Ma ago. Pleistocene alkalic volcanism is restricted to localized areas. The transition from tholeiites to alkali-basaltic volcanism dated around 7.5 Ma would correspond to a major rifting phase which corresponds with the initiation of Lake Kivu Basin formation. The distribution of tholeiitic rocks in the central part of the rift, and predominantly alkalic rocks along the western active border fault, strengthens the idea that the former are associated with tension, the latter with vertical, possibly also strike-slip movements. Volcanism in the Western Rift is restricted to areas where tension occurs in a zone which is located between two zones of strike-slip. In the South Kivu area normal faults intersect strike-slip faults and this seems to have determined the location of volcanic activity. Magma formation is considered to be related with shear heating combined with adiabatic decompression in ascending diapirs. This implies heating at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary as a result of extension. Generation of tholeiitic or alkalic magmas is connected with the variable ascent velocity of mantle diapirs or with variable shear heating along the shear zone. Changes in both magma composition and intensity of volcanic activity with time are considered to be related to major phases of rift evolution. (orig.)

  15. Climate and CO2 modulate the C3-C4 balance and δ13C signal in simulated vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jolly

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil pollen data and δ13C measurements from cores collected in peatbogs or lakes have shown major changes in the terrestrial vegetation during Late Quaternary. Although the effect of climate on the C3-C4 balance has been discussed for 50 years, the impact of a low atmospheric CO2 during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM was emphasized recently and conflicting evidence exists. In this paper, we use a physiologically-based biome model (BIOME4 in an iterative mode to simulate vegetation response to changing mean climate conditions and atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2. In particular, we investigate the transition from LGM to present conditions in two sites which changed from either a C4- or a C3-dominated vegetation to the opposite pole, respectively at Kuruyange (Burundi and Lingtaï (Central Loess Plateau, China. The response of the C3-C4 balance and δ13C signal in the simulated vegetation are investigated. The results show that the vegetation is primarily sensitive to temperature and pCO2. Rainfall impacted the simulated variables below a threshold which decreased with higher pCO2. Climate and pCO2 interacted differently between the two sites showing indirect effects on the δ13C signal. Moreover, the plant functional types (PFTs differed in their composition and in their response between the two sites, emphasizing that the competition between C3 and C4 plants cannot be hardly considered as a simple binary scheme. Our results confirm the advantages of using process-based models to understand past vegetation changes and the need to take account of multiple drivers when the C3-C4 balance is reconstructed from a palaeo-δ13C signal.

  16. The modern Nile sediment system: Processes and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; El Kammar, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    We trace compositional changes of Nile sediments for 7400 km, from their sources in equatorial rift highlands of Burundi and Rwanda to their sink in the Mediterranean Sea. All chemical and physical controls on sediment petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry, including weathering, grain-size, hydraulic sorting, mechanical breakdown, anthropic impact, mixing and recycling are investigated in detail. The Nile course is controlled along its entire length by the East African-Red Sea Rift. In this anorogenic setting, detritus is derived in various proportions from volcanic fields associated with tectonic extension (Anorogenic Volcanic provenance) and from igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks uplifted on the rift shoulders or exposed on the craton (Continental Block provenance). The entire spectrum of such detrital signatures is displayed in the Nile catchment. Volcaniclastic Atbara sand is generated by focused erosion of the Ethiopian basaltic plateau in semiarid climate, whereas quartzose White Nile sand reflects low erosion rates, extensive weathering and sediment trapping in lakes and swamps at equatorial to subequatorial latitudes. In the main Nile, as in its main tributary the Blue Nile, suspended load is volcaniclastic, whereas feldspatho-quartzose bedload is derived largely from basement sources, with fine to medium-grained eolian sand added along the lower course. Mixing of detrital populations with different provenance and grain size is reflected in diverse violations of settling-equivalence relationships in fluvial and deltaic sediments. Sediment delivery from Sudan has been cut off after closure of the Aswan High Dam and accelerated erosion of deltaic cusps is leading to local formation of placer lags dominated by ultradense Fe-Ti-Cr oxides, but mineralogical changes caused by man's radical modification of fluvial regimes have been minor so far. In beaches of Sinai, Gaza and Israel, the Nile volcaniclastic trace gets progressively diluted by quartzose

  17. MIGRATION FROM THE OAU TO THE AU: EXPLORING THE QUEST FOR A MORE EFFECTIVE AFRICAN PEACEKEEPING CAPABILITY

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    Francois Vreÿ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This thesis explores the quest for a more effective African peacekeeping capability.It seeks to answer the question what is different now that can enable the AfricanUnion (AU to establish an effective peacekeeping capability after the Organisationof African Unity (OAU failed to do so in the past. The study is a descriptiveanalysis of efforts by the AU to enhance its peacekeeping capabilities in resolvingconflicts in Africa. The thesis traces the challenges that limited security cooperationand conditions that enhanced such cooperation in recent years, culminating in theapproval of a continental standby force. It establishes that Africa was stagnated bysecurity problems and at the same time it was reluctant to directly commit itself toresolve such problems, but instead sought assistance from the internationalcommunity or relied on its own ad hoc arrangements. The study identifies thereason for this approach to have been the value of sovereignty entrenched in theOAU Charter, which forced leaders to pledge non-interference in each other’sinternal affairs.The study further reveals that the establishment of the AU in 2000 was meant to giveAfrica the capability to resolve its own problems by consolidating intra-Africansecurity cooperation. The establishment of the Peace and Security Council (PSCand its implementation tools such as the African Standby Force (ASF opened a newwindow of hope in peace and security matters. However, the PSC is facingoperational challenges, principally because of financial and logistical constraints,above its own lack of institutionalised mechanisms to ensure effective partnershipsand burden sharing with its partners. This is against the revelation that the AU hasinsufficient capacity to embark on multidimensional peacekeeping operations on itsown. This was highlighted by the AU peacekeeping operations in Burundi andDarfur (Sudan.The study concludes that although there is more political will, an improvedcontinental security

  18. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  19. Hydrothermal vents is Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiercelin, J.J. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Pflumio, C.; Castrec, M. [Universite Paris VI, Paris (France)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 {degrees}C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza, active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO{sub 3}-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO{sub 3} thermal fluids form lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch of the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction of 219 and 179 {degrees}C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130{degrees}N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north-south major rift trend. The sources of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  20. The burden of malaria in post-emergency refugee sites: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel Paul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost two-thirds of refugees, internally displaced persons, returnees and other persons affected by humanitarian emergencies live in malaria endemic regions. Malaria remains a significant threat to the health of these populations. Methods Data on malaria incidence and mortality were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2009 from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Health Information System database collected at sites in Burundi, Chad, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Uganda. Data from three countries during 2006 and 2007, and all nine countries from 2008 to 2009, were used to describe trends in malaria incidence and mortality. Monthly counts of malaria morbidity and mortality were aggregated into an annual country rate averaged over the study period. Results An average of 1.18 million refugees resided in 60 refugee sites within nine countries with at least 50 cases of malaria per 1000 refugees during the study period 2008-2009. The highest incidence of malaria was in refugee sites in Tanzania, where the annual incidence of malaria was 399 confirmed cases per 1,000 refugees and 728 confirmed cases per 1,000 refugee children younger than five years. Malaria incidence in children younger than five years of age, based on the sum of confirmed and suspected cases, declined substantially at sites in two countries between 2006 and 2009, but a slight increase was reported at sites within four of seven countries between 2008 and 2009. Annual malaria mortality rates were highest in sites in Sudan (0.9 deaths per 1,000 refugees, Uganda and Tanzania (0.7 deaths per 1000 refugees each. Malaria was the cause of 16% of deaths in refugee children younger than five years of age in all study sites. Conclusions These findings represent one of the most extensive reports on malaria among refugees in post-emergency sites. Despite declines in malaria incidence among refugees in several countries, malaria

  1. Widespread rape does not directly appear to increase the overall HIV prevalence in conflict-affected countries: so now what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is severely affected by HIV/AIDS and conflict. Sexual violence as a weapon of war has been associated with concerns about heightened HIV incidence among women. Widespread rape by combatants has been documented in Burundi, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan and Uganda. To examine the assertion that widespread rape may not directly increase HIV prevalence at the population level, we built a model to determine the potential impact of varying scenarios of widespread rape on HIV prevalence in the above seven African countries. Discussion Our findings show that even in the most extreme situations, where 15% of the female population was raped, where HIV prevalence among assailants was 8 times the country population prevalence, and where the HIV transmission rate was highest at 4 times the average high rate, widespread rape increased the absolute HIV prevalence of these countries by only 0.023%. These projections support the finding that widespread rape in conflict-affected countries in SSA has not incurred a major direct population-level change in HIV prevalence. However, this must not be interpreted to say that widespread rape does not pose serious problems to women's acquisition of HIV on an individual basis or in specific settings. Furthermore, direct and indirect consequences of sexual violence, such as physical and psychosocial trauma, unwanted pregnancies, and stigma and discrimination cannot be understated. Summary The conclusions of this article do not significantly change current practices in the field from an operational perspective. Proper care and treatment must be provided to every survivor of rape regardless of the epidemiological effects of HIV transmission at the population level. Sexual violence must be treated as a protection issue and not solely a reproductive health and psychosocial issue. It is worth publishing data and conclusions that could be

  2. Exploring drought vulnerability in Africa: an indicator based analysis to be used in early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, G.; Barbosa, P.; Garrote, L.; Iglesias, A.; Vogt, J.

    2014-05-01

    We propose a composite drought vulnerability indicator (DVI) that reflects different aspects of drought vulnerability evaluated at Pan-African level for four components: the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the infrastructure and technology. The selection of variables and weights reflects the assumption that a society with institutional capacity and coordination, as well as with mechanisms for public participation, is less vulnerable to drought; furthermore, we consider that agriculture is only one of the many sectors affected by drought. The quality and accuracy of a composite indicator depends on the theoretical framework, on the data collection and quality, and on how the different components are aggregated. This kind of approach can lead to some degree of scepticism; to overcome this problem a sensitivity analysis was done in order to measure the degree of uncertainty associated with the construction of the composite indicator. Although the proposed drought vulnerability indicator relies on a number of theoretical assumptions and some degree of subjectivity, the sensitivity analysis showed that it is a robust indicator and hence able of representing the complex processes that lead to drought vulnerability. According to the DVI computed at country level, the African countries classified with higher relative vulnerability are Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad. The analysis of the renewable natural capital component at sub-basin level shows that the basins with high to moderate drought vulnerability can be subdivided into the following geographical regions: the Mediterranean coast of Africa; the Sahel region and the Horn of Africa; the Serengeti and the Eastern Miombo woodlands in eastern Africa; the western part of the Zambezi Basin, the southeastern border of the Congo Basin, and the belt of Fynbos in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The results of the DVI at the country level were

  3. Exploring drought vulnerability in Africa: an indicator based analysis to inform early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, G.; Barbosa, P.; Garrote, L.; Iglesias, A.; Vogt, J.

    2013-10-01

    Drought vulnerability is a complex concept that includes both biophysical and socio-economic drivers of drought impact that determine capacity to cope with drought. In order to develop an efficient drought early warning system and to be prepared to mitigate upcoming drought events it is important to understand the drought vulnerability of the affected regions. We propose a composite Drought Vulnerability Indicator (DVI) that reflects different aspects of drought vulnerability evaluated at Pan-African level in four components: the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the infrastructure and technology. The selection of variables and weights reflects the assumption that a society with institutional capacity and coordination, as well as with mechanisms for public participation is less vulnerable to drought; furthermore we consider that agriculture is only one of the many sectors affected by drought. The quality and accuracy of a composite indicator depends on the theoretical framework, on the data collection and quality, and on how the different components are aggregated. This kind of approach can lead to some degree of scepticism; to overcome this problem a sensitivity analysis was done in order to measure the degree of uncertainty associated with the construction of the composite indicator. Although the proposed drought vulnerability indicator relies on a number of theoretical assumptions and some degree of subjectivity, the sensitivity analysis showed that it is a robust indicator and hence able of representing the complex processes that lead to drought vulnerability. According to the DVI computed at country level, the African countries classified with higher relative vulnerability are Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad. The analysis of the renewable natural capital component at sub-basin level shows that the basins with high to moderate drought vulnerability can be subdivided in three main different

  4. Holocene Millennial Time Scale Hydrological Changes In Central-east Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, D.; Bonnefille, R.; Beaufort, L.

    The Holocene hydrological changes of a tropical swamp is reconstructed using a high resolution pollen record (ca 50 yrs) from the Kuruyange valley (Burundi, Africa, 3°35'S, 29°41'E), at 2000 m elevation. The sequence was dated by 10 radiocarbon dates, allowing reconstruction between ca 12 500 and 1000 cal yr B.P. In the Kuruyange swamp, peat accumulated rapidly at a sedimentation rate varying from 0.73 (prior to 6200 cal yr B.P.) to 1.51 mm/yr (during the late Holocene). A pollen index of water table, based on a ratio of aquatic versus non-aquatic plants has been used in order to test the hypothesis of hydrological constraints on the swampy ecosystem. Eight arid phases are evidenced by the index minima at 12 200, 11 200, 9900, 8600, 6500, 5000, 3400, 1600 cal yr B.P. The good agreement existing between this index and independent data such as (i) low-resolution East-African lake level reconstruct ions (Gillespie et al., 1983) and (ii) ?18O analyses from Arabian Sea (Sirocko et al., 1993) suggests the water table level responds to the monsoon dynamic. The Index varies periodically with a combination of 1/1515, 1/880 and 1/431 years-1 frequencies, revealed by time series analyses (Blackman-Tukey and Maximum Entropy). The extrapolation of the composite curve based on these 3 periodicities show that two major climatic events defined in the high latitudes between 1000 and 660 cal yr B.P. (Medieval Warm Period) and between 500 and 100 cal yr B.P. (Little Ice Age) are recorded in our data and show respectively high and low stands of the water table. Our results support some previous pollen-derived climate estimates in Ethiopia done by Bonnefille and Umer (1994). Moreover, the "1500 year" cycle registered in our data from the tropics, already evidenced in higher latitudes (Wijmstra et al., 1984; Bondet al., 1997; Schulz et al., 1999; Bond et al., 2001) support the hypothesis of strong teleconnections between tropical/subtropical and polar climates during the deglaciation

  5. Impact of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and radioactive waste trafficking in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Africa is the world's second largest and the most populated continent after Asia, it has a total population of approximately 800 million people. It comprises of 54 sovereign nations out of which 36 are coastal countries and blessed with over 100 Seaports. Apart from Nigeria, South Africa, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Libya, all the other remaining African countries are extremely poor and unviable. As a result of this, Africa has been experiencing a lot of civil unrest since the 1960s when most of the African countries gained their independence from their former colonial masters, the civil unrest in countries like Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Mozambique, Liberia, Sierra Leon and recently in Cote D'Ivoire, are good examples. In addition to abject poverty of less than 1$ per person per day makes trafficking in drugs, arms, humans and weaponry trade on the continent becomes much more rampant. Today the continent is experiencing the coming of a new evil deal called 'Trade in radioactive waste'; which involves the transporting of materials from existing or decommissioned nuclear plants ranging from fairly used Trucks, laboratory equipment s, office facilities, clothing materials like booths and raincoats, roofing sheets and even toxic waste from the developed countries to it's waste bin in Africa, where it is unsafely disposed after collecting millions of dollars from It's original owners (UN report, 2001). Recent statistics have revealed that most of the people involved in the evil businesses of trafficking in drugs, human, arms and trading in weaponry, are diverting in to the so called new evil business of 'Trade in Radioactive waste' because this new evil business financially exceeds the rest of the above listed evil businesses. This is clearly proved by the recent toxic waste disposed in Abidjan Cot Devoir in August 2006. The materials from the decommissioned nuclear plant sites can be hazardous if for example a roofing sheet

  6. Geological setting and timing of the cassiterite vein type mineralization of the Kalima area (Maniema, Democratic Republic of Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, S.; Muchez, Ph; Burgess, R.; Boyce, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Central African Mesoproterozoic Karagwe-Ankole belt in the Great Lakes area (DRCongo, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and Tanzania) forms a metallogenic province that hosts a variety of granite-related mineralization, which contains cassiterite, columbite-tantalite, wolframite/ferberite, spodumene and beryl. The Kalima area in the Maniema province of the DRCongo forms one of the most important areas for cassiterite mineralization in the eastern part of the DRCongo, even after many decades of exploitation. The mineralization dominantly consists of quartz veins that are hosted in Mesoproterozoic metasediments at the contact with granitic rocks of the Kalima granite (Avuanga and Yubuli) or directly crosscutting these granitic rocks (Atondo). Only limited - and mainly unmineralized pegmatites - have been described in the Lutshurukuru area. Mineralized quartz veins - and some granite bodies - intruded following the regional tectonic foliation or existing fracture zones, confirming the late-to post-tectonic origin of the fertile granite system. The emplacement of the quartz veins resulted in an alteration of the metasedimentary and granitic host-rocks, mainly resulting in muscovitization, tourmalinization and silicification. Cassiterite itself formed relatively late during vein formation and is associated with muscovite in fractures in or along the margins of the quartz veins. 40Ar-39Ar age dating of muscovite of an unmineralized pegmatite from the Lutshurukuru area gave an excellent plateau age of 1024 ± 5.5 Ma, while the muscovite associated with mineralization gave plateau ages of 986 ± 5.3 Ma for the Atondo deposit and 992.4 ± 5.4 Ma for the Yubuli deposit. The rather large spread in ages between the supposed parental granite/pegmatite and quartz veins is interpreted to reflect different magmatic events in the evolution of a composite granite system, starting at ∼1020 Ma and ending with mineralized quartz vein formation at ∼990 Ma. The latter age corresponds with

  7. An updated atlas of human helminth infections: the example of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanja Peris

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable and updated maps of helminth (worm infection distributions are essential to target control strategies to those populations in greatest need. Although many surveys have been conducted in endemic countries, the data are rarely available in a form that is accessible to policy makers and the managers of public health programmes. This is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa, where empirical data are seldom in the public domain. In an attempt to address the paucity of geographical information on helminth risk, this article describes the development of an updated global atlas of human helminth infection, showing the example of East Africa. Methods Empirical, cross-sectional estimates of infection prevalence conducted since 1980 were identified using electronic and manual search strategies of published and unpublished sources. A number of inclusion criteria were imposed for identified information, which was extracted into a standardized database. Details of survey population, diagnostic methods, sample size and numbers infected with schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths were recorded. A unique identifier linked each record to an electronic copy of the source document, in portable document format. An attempt was made to identify the geographical location of each record using standardized geolocation procedures and the assembled data were incorporated into a geographical information system. Results At the time of writing, over 2,748 prevalence surveys were identified through multiple search strategies. Of these, 2,612 were able to be geolocated and mapped. More than half (58% of included surveys were from grey literature or unpublished sources, underlining the importance of reviewing in-country sources. 66% of all surveys were conducted since 2000. Comprehensive, countrywide data are available for Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda. In contrast, information for Kenya and Tanzania is typically clustered in specific regions of

  8. Anti-malarial market and policy surveys in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevcsik Ann-Marie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At a recent meeting (Sept 18, 2009 in which reasons for the limited access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in sub-Saharan Africa were discussed, policy and market surveys on anti-malarial drug availability and accessibility in Burundi and Sierra Leone were presented in a highly interactive brainstorming session among key stakeholders across private, public, and not-for-profit sectors. The surveys, the conduct of which directly involved the national malaria control programme managers of the two countries, provides the groundwork for evidence-based policy implementation. The results of the surveys could be extrapolated to other countries with similar socio-demographic and malaria profiles. The meeting resulted in recommendations on key actions to be taken at the global, national, and community level for better ACT accessibility. At the global level, both public and private sectors have actions to take to strengthen policies that lead to the replacement of loose blister packs with fixed-dose ACT products, develop strategies to ban inappropriate anti-malarials and regulate those bans, and facilitate technology and knowledge transfer to scale up production of fixed-dose ACT products, which should be readily available and affordable to those patients who are in the greatest need of these medicines. At the national level, policies that regulate the anti-malarial medicines market should be enacted and enforced. The public sector, including funding donors, should participate in ensuring that the private sector is engaged in the ACT implementation process. Research similar to the surveys discussed is important for other countries to develop and evaluate the right incentives at a local level. At the community level, community outreach and education about appropriate preventive and treatment measures must continue and be strengthened, with service delivery systems developed within both public and private sectors, among other measures

  9. Exploring drought vulnerability in Africa: an indicator based analysis to inform early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Naumann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought vulnerability is a complex concept that includes both biophysical and socio-economic drivers of drought impact that determine capacity to cope with drought. In order to develop an efficient drought early warning system and to be prepared to mitigate upcoming drought events it is important to understand the drought vulnerability of the affected regions. We propose a composite Drought Vulnerability Indicator (DVI that reflects different aspects of drought vulnerability evaluated at Pan-African level in four components: the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the infrastructure and technology. The selection of variables and weights reflects the assumption that a society with institutional capacity and coordination, as well as with mechanisms for public participation is less vulnerable to drought; furthermore we consider that agriculture is only one of the many sectors affected by drought. The quality and accuracy of a composite indicator depends on the theoretical framework, on the data collection and quality, and on how the different components are aggregated. This kind of approach can lead to some degree of scepticism; to overcome this problem a sensitivity analysis was done in order to measure the degree of uncertainty associated with the construction of the composite indicator. Although the proposed drought vulnerability indicator relies on a number of theoretical assumptions and some degree of subjectivity, the sensitivity analysis showed that it is a robust indicator and hence able of representing the complex processes that lead to drought vulnerability. According to the DVI computed at country level, the African countries classified with higher relative vulnerability are Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad. The analysis of the renewable natural capital component at sub-basin level shows that the basins with high to moderate drought vulnerability can be subdivided in three

  10. Condoms hitch lift with truckers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimwiko, L

    1991-09-01

    This article reports on the efforts being made in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania and other road stops in central Tanzania to provide condoms to long-haul drivers and the women who serve on-the-road-companionship. The Truck Driver's AIDS Intervention Project (TDAIP) in collaboration with the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) and Tanzania's National AIDS Control Program (NACP) are working to protect these 2 at risk populations. Along the 1000 km Tanzania/Zambia highway, gasoline pump attendants offer drivers condoms. Prostitutes at these stops also offer condoms. There are meter long stickers with "condoms prevent AIDs" available. The message from the NACP regional office is that those at risk, such as truck drivers, are unlikely to attend rallies, or hear radio message when behind the wheel. Research has shown that men are more receptive to messages given in a work setting. Barmaids at 5 of the most frequented truckstops have been trained as peer health educators. Their job is to sensitize the men to the dangers of AIDs. An operating example is given of the barmaid serving drinks, and when approached, replies with the messages of how protection can be accomplished. One partner only is recommended, and if this is not possible, then one should avoid assuming "labda huyu hana ukimwi" (hopefully this one is AIDs free). There is no safe sex. The peer educators are trained in AIDs prevention and communication skills, and are paid a monthly wage. 725,000 condoms and 250,000 pieces of educational literature were distributed by TDAIP at these 5 truckstops in the 1st 6 months of 1990. Several drawbacks to this effort have occurred. It is difficult to sustain the distribution system outside a medical setting, and it is difficult to effectively monitor and support peer educators spread out across the country. One barmaid observed that those seeking condoms were primarily from outside Tanzania: Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Rwanda, and Burundi, where better information about the

  11. ECOSOC conference news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Economic and Social Council of the UN met in Geneva for its fifty-third summer session from July 3-28. A request for a study regarding the world's multinational corporations, a call on the Governments concerned for action to stop the reported clandestine trafficking in labor from Africa to Europe, far-reaching recommendations on land reform, and measures to eliminate mass poverty and unemployment in the developing countries, were some of the major decisions taken by the Economic and Social Council. Of particular interest to the Agency are the following matters: 1. Science and Technology A standing committee on science and technology, for which the Council at this session approved terms of reference and a programme of work, was established last year to provide guidance and to make recommendations on matters relating to assistance in the application of science and technology to development. Under the mandate as approved, the standing committee was given the power to suggest scientific and technological policies to promote development in the interest of all mankind. It will assist the Council in co-ordinating the activities of United Nations bodies in the field of science and technology and in appraisal of this field during the decade of the 1970s. 2. The Council also decided to return to the question of United Nations sponsorship of the Protein Advisory Group (PAG) in the summer of 1973. It invited the Secretary-General, in the meantime, to work out proposals for the operation and administration of a special protein fund. 3. United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration The Council further has recommended that at its forthcoming session the General Assembly should consider the establishment of a United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration with a view to finalizing and approving the Statute. Membership of the Council Members of the council are: Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Ceylon, Chile, China, Finland, France, Ghana, Haiti

  12. A methodology to track temporal dynamics and rainfall thresholds of landslide processes in the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsieurs, Elise; Jacobs, Liesbet; Kervyn, François; Kirschbaum, Dalia; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Derauw, Dominique; Kervyn, Matthieu; Nobile, Adriano; Trefois, Philippe; Dewitte, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    The East African rift valley is a major tectonic feature that shapes Central Africa and defines linear-shaped lowlands between highland ranges due to the action of geologic faults associated to earthquakes and volcanism. The region of interest, covering the Virunga Volcanic Province in eastern DRC, western Rwanda and Burundi, and southwest Uganda, is threatened by a rare combination of several types of geohazards, while it is also one of the most densely populated region of Africa. These geohazards can globally be classified as seismic, volcanic and landslide hazards. Landslides, include a wide range of ground movements, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. Landslides are possibly the most important geohazard in terms of recurring impact on the populations, causing fatalities every year and resulting in structural and functional damage to infrastructure and private properties, as well as serious disruptions of the organization of societies. Many landslides are observed each year in the whole region, and their occurrence is clearly linked to complex topographic, lithologic and vegetation signatures coupled with heavy rainfall events, which is the main triggering factor. The source mechanisms underlying landslide triggering and dynamics in the region of interest are still poorly understood, even though in recent years, some progress has been made towards appropriate data collection. Taking into account difficulties of field accessibility, we present a methodology to study landslide processes by multi-scale and multi-sensor remote sensing data from very high to low resolution (Pléiades, TRMM, CosmoSkyMed, Sentinel). The research will address the evolution over time of such data combined with other earth observations (seismic ground based networks, catalogues, rain gauge networks, GPS surveying, field observations) to detect and study landslide occurrence, dynamics and evolution. This research aims to get insights into the rainfall

  13. Adult HIV care resources, management practices and patient characteristics in the Phase 1 IeDEA Central Africa cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Mushingantahe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite recent advances in the management of HIV infection and increased access to treatment, prevention, care and support, the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a major global health problem, with sub-Saharan Africa suffering by far the greatest humanitarian, demographic and socio-economic burden of the epidemic. Information on HIV/AIDS clinical care and established cohorts’ characteristics in the Central Africa region are sparse. Methods: A survey of clinical care resources, management practices and patient characteristics was undertaken among 12 adult HIV care sites in four countries of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS Central Africa (IeDEA-CA Phase 1 regional network in October 2009. These facilities served predominantly urban populations and offered primary care in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC; six sites, secondary care in Rwanda (two sites and tertiary care in Cameroon (three sites and Burundi (one site. Results: Despite some variation in facility characteristics, sites reported high levels of monitoring resources, including electronic databases, as well as linkages to prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs. At the time of the survey, there were 21,599 HIV-positive adults (median age=37 years enrolled in the clinical cohort. Though two-thirds were women, few adults (6.5% entered HIV care through prevention of mother-to-child transmission services, whereas 55% of the cohort entered care through voluntary counselling and testing. Two-thirds of patients at sites in Cameroon and DRC were in WHO Stage III and IV at baseline, whereas nearly all patients in the Rwanda facilities with clinical stage information available were in Stage I and II. WHO criteria were used for antiretroviral therapy initiation. The most common treatment regimen was stavudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (64%, followed by zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (19%. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the

  14. Water balance modelling of the Nile River system to aid in understanding hydrologic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nile River Basin'. This project works towards assisting Nile countries in management of rivers, lakes, and wetlands by conducting water balance studies to evaluate the relative influence of groundwater. The IAEA/UNDEP/GEF Medium Size Project (MSP) entitled 'Mainstreaming Groundwater Considerations into the Integrated Management of the Nile River Basin (RAF8042)' was initiated at a meeting held in Vienna in May 2006 on 'Sustainable Development and Equitable Utilization of the Common Nile Basin Water Resource (RAF8037)'. In November 2006, the IAEA Board of Governors approved the project. Two years later, a project inception meeting was organized by the IAEA, as executing agency of the MSP, in Vienna from 27 to 30 January 2009. With the objective of reviewing existing work and refining the project work plan, the first coordination meeting was held in Nairobi in August 2009. The countries involved in the project are: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, and Uganda. Major components of the project are: Assessment of the interaction between major tributaries of the Nile River and groundwater; Assessment of the interaction between wetlands and groundwater; Integration of isotope data into water balance models; Sub-basin and basin wide water balance modelling

  15. Towards a Global High Resolution Peatland Map in 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Barthelmes, Karen-Doreen; Joosten, Hans; Dommain, Rene; Margalef, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Some 3% of land area on planet Earth (approx. 4 million km2) is covered by peatlands. About 10% (~ 0.3 % of the land area) are drained and responsible for a disproportional 5 % of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Victoria et al., 2012). Additionally, peatland drainage and degradation lead to land subsidence, soil degradation, water pollution, and enhanced susceptibility to fire (Holden et al., 2004; Joosten et al., 2012). The global importance of peatlands for carbon storage and climate change mitigation has currently been recognized in international policy - since 2008 organic soils are subject of discussion in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Joosten, 2011). In May 2013 the European Parliament decided that the global post 2020 climate agreement should include the obligation to report emissions and removals from peatland drainage and rewetting. Implementation of such program, however, necessitates the rapid availability of reliable, comprehensive, high resolution, spatially explicit data on the extent and status of peatlands. For many reporting countries this requires an innovation in peatland mapping, i.e. the better and integrative use of novel, but already available methods and technologies. We developed an approach that links various science networks, methodologies and data bases, including those of peatland/landscape ecology for understanding where and how peatlands may occur, those of remote sensing for identifying possible locations, and those of pedology (legacy soil maps) and (palaeo-)ecology for ground truthing. Such integration of old field data, specialized knowledge, and modern RS and GIS technologies enables acquiring a rapid, comprehensive, detailed and rather reliable overview, even on a continental scale. We illustrate this approach with a high resolution overview of peatland distribution, area, status and greenhouse gas fluxes e.g. for the East African countries Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and Zambia. Furthermore, we

  16. Natural equilibria and anthropic effects on sediment transport in big river systems: The Nile case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~ 6700 km, from Burundi and Rwanda highlands south of the Equator to the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes. It is thus the longest natural laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are carrying out a continuing research project to investigate changes in sediment composition associated with a variety of chemical and physical processes, including weathering in equatorial climate and hydraulic sorting during transport and deposition. Petrographic, mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic fingerprints of sand and mud have been monitored along all Nile branches, from the Kagera and White Nile draining Archean, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basements uplifted along the western branch of the East African rift, to the Blue Nile and Atbara Rivers sourced in Ethiopian volcanic highlands made of Oligocene basalt. Downstream of the Atbara confluence, the Nile receives no significant tributary water and hardly any rainfall across the Sahara. After construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964, the Nile ceased to be an active conveyor-belt in Egypt, where the mighty river has been tamed to a water canal; transported sediments are thus chiefly reworked from older bed and levee deposits, with minor contributions from widyan sourced in the Red Sea Hills and wind-blown desert sand and dust. Extensive dam construction has determined a dramatic sediment deficit at the mouth, where deltaic cusps are undergoing ravaging erosion. Nile delta sediments are thus recycled under the effect of dominant waves from the northwest, the longest Mediterranean fetch direction. Nile sands, progressively enriched in more stable minerals such as quartz and amphiboles relative to volcanic rock fragments and pyroxene, thus undergo multistep transport by E- and NE-directed longshore currents all along the coast of Egypt and Palestine, and are carried as far as Akko Bay in northern Israel. Nile mud reaches the Iskenderun Gulf in southern Turkey. A full

  17. An Integrated Hydrological and Water Management Study of the Entire Nile River System - Lake Victoria to Nile Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Alo, Clement; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Policelli, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    The Nile basin River system spans 3 million km(exp 2) distributed over ten nations. The eight upstream riparian nations, Ethiopia, Eretria, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Tanzania and Kenya are the source of approximately 86% of the water inputs to the Nile, while the two downstream riparian countries Sudan and Egypt, presently rely on the river's flow for most of the their needs. Both climate and agriculture contribute to the complicated nature of Nile River management: precipitation in the headwaters regions of Ethiopia and Lake Victoria is variable on a seasonal and inter-annual basis, while demand for irrigation water in the arid downstream region is consistently high. The Nile is, perhaps, one of the most difficult trans-boundary water issue in the world, and this study would be the first initiative to combine NASA satellite observations with the hydrologic models study the overall water balance in a to comprehensive manner. The cornerstone application of NASA's Earth Science Research Results under this project are the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) and the USDA Atmosphere-land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. These two complementary research results are methodologically independent methods for using NASA observations to support water resource analysis in data poor regions. Where an LDAS uses multiple sources of satellite data to inform prognostic simulations of hydrological process, ALEXI diagnoses evapotranspiration and water stress on the basis of thermal infrared satellite imagery. Specifically, this work integrates NASA Land Data Assimilation systems into the water management decision support systems that member countries of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) and Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD, located in Nairobi, Kenya) use in water resource analysis, agricultural planning, and acute drought response to support sustainable development of Nile Basin water resources. The project is motivated by the recognition that

  18. The Role of the African Union Pan African Veterinary Vaccine Centre (AU-PANVAC) in Rinderpest Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    applied. The proportion of African vaccine lots meeting international quality standards rose from about 33 percent in 1985 to more than 90 percent in 1997. Implementation of the quality assurance system enabled managers of PARC to insist that only PANVAC-certified vaccines were used in national rinderpest eradication programmes. At one point, possession of a PANVAC quality assurance certificate was a prerequisite for any rinderpest vaccine purchased for use in Africa or any country where the battle against rinderpest was being waged. Vaccine production and quality assurance technologies based on the PANVAC quality assurance procedures were transferred to countries in other regions, such as Pakistan, India and Iraq. It was noted that these transfers, carried out by PANVAC staff in 1995, may have been decisive in eliminating rinderpest from the countries concerned. PANVAC's activities throughout PARC were not restricted to laboratory processes to ensure that vaccines released for the campaign were of good quality. PANVAC was also active at the producer level, promoting the concept of good manufacturing practices, in training laboratory personnel and in the following activities: Standardization of biologics and standard operation procedures: A repository; Training and technology transfer; Countries that did not produce vaccines, such as Burundi, the United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda, benefited from PANVAC assistance in revalidating the potency of their priority vaccine stocks and emergency vaccine banks; Information collection and dissemination; A network of vaccine production laboratories; Collaboration with other centres of vaccine sciences.

  19. The White Nile sedimentary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~6700 km from south of the Equator to finally reach the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes (Woodward et al. 2007). This is the longest sedimentological laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are investigating changes in sediment composition associated with diverse chemical and physical processes, including weathering and hydraulic sorting. The present study focuses on the southern branch of the Nile across 20° of latitude, from hyperhumid Burundi and Rwanda highlands in central Africa to Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan at the southern edge of the Sahara. Our study of the Kagera basin emphasizes the importance of weathering in soils at the source rather than during stepwise transport, and shows that the transformation of parent rocks into quartzose sand may be completed in one sedimentary cycle (Garzanti et al. 2013a). Micas and heavy minerals, less effectively diluted by recycling than main framework components, offer the best key to identify the original source-rock imprint. The different behaviour of chemical indices such as the CIA (a truer indicator of weathering) and the WIP (markedly affected by quartz dilution) helps us to distinguish strongly weathered first-cycle versus polycyclic quartz sands (Garzanti et al. 2013b). Because sediment is efficiently trapped in East African Rift lakes, the composition of Nile sediments changes repeatedly northwards across Uganda. Downstream of both Lake Kyoga and Lake Albert, quartzose sands are progressively enriched in metamorphiclastic detritus supplied from tributaries draining amphibolite-facies basements. The evolution of White Nile sediments across South Sudan, a scarcely accessible region that suffered decades of civil war, was inferred from the available information (Shukri 1950), integrated by original petrographic, heavy-mineral and geochemical data (Padoan et al. 2011). Mineralogical and isotopic signatures of Bahr-el-Jebel and Sobat sediments, derived

  20. [Demography: can growth be slowed down?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The UN Fund for Population Activities report on the status of world population in 1990 is particularly unsettling because it indicates that fertility is not declining as rapidly as had been predicted. The world population of some 5.3 billion is growing by 90-100 million per year. 6 years ago the growth rate appeared to be declining everywhere except in Africa and some regions of South Asia. Hopes that the world population would stabilize at around 10.2 billion by the end of the 21st century now appear unrealistic. Some countries such as the Philippines, India, and Morocco which had some success in slowing growth in the 1960s and 70s have seen a significant deceleration in the decline. Growth rates in several African countries are already 2.7% per year and increasing. It is projected that Africa's population will reach 1.581 billion by 2025. Already there are severe shortages of arable land in some overwhelmingly agricultural countries like Rwanda and Burundi, and malnutrition is widespread on the continent. Between 1979-81 and 1986- 87, cereal production declined in 25 African countries out of 43 for which the Food and Agriculture Organization has data. The urban population of developing countries is increasing at 3.6%/year. It grew from 285 million in 1950 to 1.384 billion today and is projected at 4.050 billion in 2050. Provision of water, electricity, and sanitary services will be very difficult. From 1970-88 the number of urban households without portable water increased from 138 million to 215 million. It is not merely the quality of life that is menaced by constant population growth, but also the very future of the earth as a habitat, because of the degradation of soils and forests and resulting global warming. 6-7 million hectares of agricultural land are believed to be lost to erosion each year. Deforestation is a principal cause of soil erosion. Each year more than 11 million hectares of tropical forest and forested zones are stripped, in addition to some

  1. Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Rwanda's population characteristics, history, government, political situation, economy, and foreign relations were briefly discribed. Rwanda, a small African country, covers an area of 10,160 square miles and is situated between Zaire, Uganda, Burundi, and Tanzania. During the 1400s, Tutsi cattle breeders moved into the region and turned the Hutu farmers, the original occupants of the region, into serfs. The Tutsi maintained their dominant position until 1959. Rwanda was a German protectorate between 1899-1916 and a territory under the administration of Belgium following World War I. During the 1950s, the Tutsi resisted efforts by the Belgians to democratize the country, and in 1959, the Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement (PARMEHUTU) overthrew the Tutsi monarchy. The PARMEHUTU leader, Gregoire Kayibanda was selected by the elected unicameral National Assembly to head the government following the granting of independence to Rwanda in 1962. In 1973 growing government inefficiency and corruption led to the takeover of the country by the military leader, Major General Juvenal Habyarimana, who in 1975 formed the National Revolutionary Movement for Development. Although civilian rule is being gradually restored, Habyarimana, who is now the elected president of the country, retains considerable power. In addition to the president, the country is run by a 17-member cabinet and a 70-member elected legislative body, the National Development Council. The current goverment is strongly committed to the developing the country's economy. Rwanda is a poor and overpopulated country, and its economy is based mainly on subsistence level farming. 93% of the work force is engaged in agriculture. 35% of the gross national product (GNP) is derived from agriculture, and the main agricultural products are tea, pyrethrum, and cinchona. Small-scale industries account for another 21.6% of the GNP. The government is working to increase the country's energy sources and to attract foreign

  2. 非洲坦噶尼喀湖流域资源开发利用与环境管理研究%Resources Use and Environmental Management across Lake Tanganyika Basin, Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高群; 陈爽; 余成

    2015-01-01

    坦噶尼喀湖( Lake Tanganyika )位于非洲东部大裂谷地区,是世界第二深水湖。坦湖流域涉及坦桑尼亚、布隆迪、赞比亚和刚果(金)4个主权国家,是典型的跨界流域,对流域进行有效管理必需经沿岸四国共同协调开展,尤其在流域资源利用和环境保护方面。坦噶尼喀湖目前水环境质量良好,但受气候变化、外来生物入侵、水土流失加剧以及沿岸城市人口增长过快、城市建设无序发展带来的点源和面源污染等自然和社会经济因素的多重影响。沿岸四国由于历史原因,在渔业资源分配和环境管理标准等方面存在较多矛盾和不统一,2008年成立的坦噶尼喀湖流域管理局受四国政府和UNEP等国际组织的支持作为该湖国际性事务的管理机构,主要发挥协调作用推动坦湖流域各国资源利用与环境管理的一体化。在梳理和分析坦噶尼喀湖流域水资源状况及渔业资源状况的基础上,提出该流域当前资源开发利用与利益冲突的问题,阐述了流域管理合作的发展以及流域管理机构的主要特点和结构,并讨论总结了有关经验和结论。%Lake Tanganyika is a large lake , with an area of 32 900 km2 , a maximum depth of 1 470 m and 18 900 km3 of water .It is in East Africa , within the Western area of the Great Rift Valley .After Lake Baikal , it is second deepest lake in the world .The lake and its basin are endowed with excep-tionally large and highly diverse heritage of flora and fauna , famous for its biodiversity and endemic species.Shared by the four countries of Burundi , the Democratic Republic of Congo , Tanzania, and Zambia, and as a typical trans-boundary water, it is necessary that the four riparian countries work to-gether to manage its resources and protect the watershed′s environment .The study indicates that the lake environment is still under a good condition , but with population growth

  3. London forum targets Africa's cancer crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    meeting, which will be chaired by Alan Milburn, former UK Secretary of State for Health. One of the key speakers is Hilary Benn, UK Secretary of State for International Development. Cancer Control in Africa is limited to 140 delegates. Those attending are central to the implementation of cancer strategies. They include 19 African Health Ministries, from Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Gabon, Ghana, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Uganda and Zambia. Also invited are leading African doctors and health professionals, many of the world's foremost oncologists, UK government members and advisors, cancer organizations and charities (World Health Organization (WHO), International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research (INCTR), U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI), American Cancer Society (ACS), International Union Against Cancer (UICC), African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC), National Cancer Research Institute, UK, Breakthrough Breast Cancer, African Palliative Care Association and Help the Hospices), representatives from the pharmaceutical industry (GSK, Roche, Novartis, GE Healthcare and Eli Lilly), the Gates Foundation, the African Development Bank and investment bankers. There will be two press briefings: Venue: Committee Room, The Reform Club, 104 Pall Mall, London, SW1Y 5EW. Times: Thursday, 10 May, 09:00-10:00 and Friday, 11 May, 16:00-17:00. Space is limited to 25 journalists per briefing. Advance registration is therefore requested. (IAEA)

  4. Production and Marketing Status of Bananas and Plantains in Africa%非洲香蕉和大蕉产销概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沛政; 冯慧敏

    2011-01-01

    area of plantains production of Africa.7.8 million tons of banana sand 14 million tons of plantains were produced in Easter Africa,the average production per Ha was 6.7 t only,where Uganda is the largest producer of bananas followed by Rwanda,Tanzania,Kenya while Tanzania is the largest producer of plantain followed by burundi and Uganda etc.About 0.92and 8.4 million tons of bananas and plantains were harvested in West Africa,respectively,and Cote d' Ivoire produced the largest bananas followed by Guinea,Liberia and Gana,while Gana,Nigeria,Cote d' Ivoire and Guinea produced the largest plantains in turn.Central Africa produced about 1.7 million tons and 3.06 million tons of bananas and plantains respectively.Over there Angola,Cameroon,Democratic Congo and Central africa is the largest bananas production in turn and the ranking of the largest plantains production were Cameroon,Democratic Congo,Gabon and Central africa.Only dessert bananas(AAA genome) are shipped from Africa to EU and despite Africa being a major production zone for banana and plantain.In regard to dessert banana,Cameroon and Ivory Coast have long monopolized African exports to the EU but since 2006 Ghana has began exportation.