... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Buruli ulcer ( Mycobacterium ulcerans infection) Fact sheetUpdated February 2017 Key facts Buruli ulcer is a chronic debilitating disease caused by Mycobacterium ...
Background: Buruli ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. It produces a necrotissing toxin, which destroys the skin, subcutaneous tissue and bone, often leaving the patients with debilitating deformities. The mode of transmission of the disease is unclear, but water borne vectors may transmit ...
Richard W Merritt
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer is a neglected emerging disease that has recently been reported in some countries as the second most frequent mycobacterial disease in humans after tuberculosis. Cases have been reported from at least 32 countries in Africa (mainly west, Australia, Southeast Asia, China, Central and South America, and the Western Pacific. Large lesions often result in scarring, contractual deformities, amputations, and disabilities, and in Africa, most cases of the disease occur in children between the ages of 4-15 years. This environmental mycobacterium, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is found in communities associated with rivers, swamps, wetlands, and human-linked changes in the aquatic environment, particularly those created as a result of environmental disturbance such as deforestation, dam construction, and agriculture. Buruli ulcer disease is often referred to as the "mysterious disease" because the mode of transmission remains unclear, although several hypotheses have been proposed. The above review reveals that various routes of transmission may occur, varying amongst epidemiological setting and geographic region, and that there may be some role for living agents as reservoirs and as vectors of M. ulcerans, in particular aquatic insects, adult mosquitoes or other biting arthropods. We discuss traditional and non-traditional methods for indicting the roles of living agents as biologically significant reservoirs and/or vectors of pathogens, and suggest an intellectual framework for establishing criteria for transmission. The application of these criteria to the transmission of M. ulcerans presents a significant challenge.
Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most common mycobacterial infection in humans after tuberculosis and leprosy. We highlight the social and economic burden of 86 BU patients studied in a Ghanaian district in 2008 which has the fifth highest BU prevalence rate in the country and is the most endemic in the Greater Accra Region ...
Buruli ulcers (BU) is a disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. It is one of the most neglected but treatable tropical diseases. Cases of Buruli ulcers are extremely rare in Gulu District. It is because of this reason that we report a case of a 25 year old male patient who presented with Buruli ulcers on the right ...
Buruli ulcer is a mycobacterial skin ulcer caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, an acid-fast bacillus 3 - 6 μm long and 0.2 - 0.35 μm wide. It was first described in Australia. The name buruli ulcer derives from the Buruli district of Uganda where the disease was largely investigated. The lesions occur chiefly on the legs or arms.
. It is one of the most neglected but treatable tropical diseases. The causative organism is from the family of mycobacteriacae which causes tuberculosis and leprosy. Buruli ulcer has received the least attention than these other two diseases.
26.1%), excision and skin grafting 54 (39.1%), debridem net 10 (7.2%), sequestrectomy 2 (1.4%), regrafting 10 (7.2%), release of contractures 2 (1.4%). Conclusion: Treatment of MU disease with rifampicin and streptomycin improved the ...
Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most common mycobacterial infection in humans after tuberculosis and leprosy. We highlight the social and economic burden of 86 BU patients studied in a Ghanaian district in 2008 which has the fifth highest BU prevalence rate in the country and is the most endemic in the Greater Accra Region ...
Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan, Jean-François; Roche, Benjamin
Buruli Ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emergence and distribution of Buruli ulcer cases is clearly linked to aquatic ecosystems, but the specific route of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans remains unclear. Relying on the most detailed field data in space and time on M. ulcerans and Buruli ulcer available today, we assess the relative contribution of two potential transmission routes -environmental and water bug transmission- to the dynamics of Buruli ulcer in two endemic regions of Cameroon. The temporal dynamics of Buruli ulcer incidence are explained by estimating rates of different routes of transmission in mathematical models. Independently, we also estimate statistical models of the different transmission pathways on the spatial distribution of Buruli ulcer. The results of these two independent approaches are corroborative and suggest that environmental transmission pathways explain the temporal and spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in our endemic areas better than the water bug transmission.
Richard O Phillips
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is spreading in tropical countries, with major public health and economic implications in West Africa. Multi-analyte profiling of serum proteins in patients and endemic controls revealed that Buruli ulcer disease down-regulates the circulating levels of a large array of inflammatory mediators, without impacting on the leukocyte composition of peripheral blood. Notably, several proteins contributing to acute phase reaction, lipid metabolism, coagulation and tissue remodelling were also impacted. Their down-regulation was selective and persisted after the elimination of bacteria with antibiotic therapy. It involved proteins with various functions and origins, suggesting that M. ulcerans infection causes global and chronic defects in the host's protein metabolism. Accordingly, patients had reduced levels of total serum proteins and blood urea, in the absence of signs of malnutrition, or functional failure of liver or kidney. Interestingly, slow healers had deeper metabolic and coagulation defects at the start of antibiotic therapy. In addition to providing novel insight into Buruli ulcer pathogenesis, our study therefore identifies a unique proteomic signature for this disease.
Aboagye, Samuel Y.
Background. Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Early diagnosis is crucial to prevent morbid effects and misuse of drugs. We review developments in laboratory diagnosis of BU, discuss limitations of available diagnostic methods, and give a perspective on the potential of using aptamers as point-of-care. Methods. Information for this review was searched through PubMed, web of knowledge, and identified data up to December 2015. References from relevant articles and reports from WHO Annual Meeting of the Global Buruli Ulcer initiative were also used. Finally, 59 articles were used. Results. The main laboratory methods for BU diagnosis are microscopy, culture, PCR, and histopathology. Microscopy and PCR are used routinely for diagnosis. PCR targeting IS2404 is the gold standard for laboratory confirmation. Culture remains the only method that detects viable bacilli, used for diagnosing relapse and accrued isolates for epidemiological investigation as well as monitoring drug resistance. Laboratory confirmation is done at centers distant from endemic communities reducing confirmation to a quality assurance. Conclusions. Current efforts aimed at developing point-of-care diagnostics are saddled with major drawbacks; we, however, postulate that selection of aptamers against MU target can be used as point of care. PMID:27413382
Stienstra, Y; Van der Werf, TS; Oosterom, E; Nolte, IM; Van der Graaf, WTA; Etuaful, S; Raghunathan, PL; Whitney, EAS; Ampadu, EO; Asamoa, K; Klutse, EY; Meerman, GJT; Tappero, JW; Ashford, DA; van der Steege, G
Similar to other mycobacterial diseases, susceptibility to Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection) may be determined by host genetic factors. We investigated the role of SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) in Buruli ulcer because of its associations with both tuberculosis and leprosy. We enrolled 182 Buruli
Stienstra, Y.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Guedenon, A.; Johnson, R.C.; Ampadu, E.O.; Mensah, T.; Klutse, E.Y.; Etuaful, S.; Deepak, S.; van der Graaf, W.T.; van der Werf, T.S.
Buruli ulcer, a disease with long-term consequences, is emerging in west Africa. Thus, a functional limitation scoring system is needed to assess its nature and severity. A list of daily activities was developed for this disease. Following treatment of Buruli ulcer, persons in Benin (n = 47) and
Nienhuis, Wilhelmina Anjelina
De ernstige, verminkende ziekte Buruli ulcus kan eenvoudig en effectief behandeld worden met antibiotica. Operatieve verwijdering van zwerend weefsel is niet nodig. Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van promovenda Willemien Nienhuis. Buruli ulcus is een zwerende huidinfectie die met name kinderen in
Phillips, R; Adjei, O; Lucas, S; Benjamin, N; Wansbrough-Jones, M
Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) is a serious ulcerating skin disease which is common in many tropical countries. Standard treatment, by extensive excision and skin grafting, is not available in rural communities where the disease is common. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of treatment with topical nitrogen oxides. Thirty-seven patients with a clinical diagnosis of Buruli ulcer caused by M. ulcerans disease were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In one group, two creams containing sodium nitrite (6%, wt/wt) or citric acid monohydrate (9%, wt/wt) were applied daily for 6 weeks, while the other group received a placebo. In the second 6 weeks, both groups received the nitrogen oxide-generating combination of creams. Treatment was continued for another 4 weeks for patients whose ulcers were not healed after 12 weeks. The ulcer surface area was monitored by weekly tracings made by assessors blinded to the treatment. In the first 6 weeks, patients on sodium nitrite and citric acid monohydrate (group I, active treatment) showed a rapid decrease in ulcer size from 28.6 +/- 5.6 cm2 (mean +/- standard error) to 12.6 +/- 3.2 cm2, a decrease significantly greater than that in group II (from 15.3 +/- 3.1 to 11.7 +/- 3.7 cm2; P = 0.03). Five ulcers in the placebo group enlarged during this period, compared with one in the active group. In the second 6 weeks (both groups on active treatment), the rates of healing were similar for the two groups and there was a significant reduction in ulcer size in group II (previously on placebo) compared to the first 6 weeks. Yellow pigmentation of the skin, which disappeared 3 days after treatment was stopped, was the only side effect to date. We conclude that creams releasing nitrogen oxides increase the healing rate of ulcers caused by M. ulcerans infection with minimal adverse events. This is the first controlled trial of any form of therapy which demonstrates efficacy in treating this disease.
Buruli ulcer in West Africa: Strategies for early detection and treatment in the antibiotic era. ... delay and disease progression. Community-based surveillance and health education modeled after the village health worker programs used in the eradication of Guinea worm may be successfully applied in BU endemic areas.
Barogui, Yves Thierry; Klis, Sandor-Adrian; Johnson, Roch Christian; Phillips, Richard O; van der Veer, Eveline; van Diemen, Cleo; van der Werf, Tjip S; Stienstra, Ymkje
INTRODUCTION: Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most frequent mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent persons after tuberculosis and leprosy. During the last decade, eight weeks of antimicrobial treatment has become the standard of care. This treatment may be accompanied by transient clinical
Fred S Sarfo
Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer (BU, is unique among human pathogens in its capacity to produce a polyketide-derived macrolide called mycolactone, making this molecule an attractive candidate target for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Whether mycolactone diffuses from ulcerated lesions in clinically accessible samples and is modulated by antibiotic therapy remained to be established.Peripheral blood and ulcer exudates were sampled from patients at various stages of antibiotic therapy in Ghana and Ivory Coast. Total lipids were extracted from serum, white cell pellets and ulcer exudates with organic solvents. The presence of mycolactone in these extracts was then analyzed by a recently published, field-friendly method using thin layer chromatography and fluorescence detection. This approach did not allow us to detect mycolactone accurately, because of a high background due to co-extracted human lipids. We thus used a previously established approach based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. By this means, we could identify structurally intact mycolactone in ulcer exudates and serum of patients, and evaluate the impact of antibiotic treatment on the concentration of mycolactone.Our study provides the proof of concept that assays based on mycolactone detection in serum and ulcer exudates can form the basis of BU diagnostic tests. However, the identification of mycolactone required a technology that is not compatible with field conditions and point-of-care assays for mycolactone detection remain to be worked out. Notably, we found mycolactone in ulcer exudates harvested at the end of antibiotic therapy, suggesting that the toxin is eliminated by BU patients at a slow rate. Our results also indicated that mycolactone titres in the serum may reflect a positive response to antibiotics, a possibility that it will be interesting to examine further through longitudinal studies.
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a slowly progressing, necrotising disease of the skin caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. Non-ulcerative manifestations are nodules, plaques and oedema, which may progress to ulceration of large parts of the skin. Histopathologically, BU is characterized by coagulative necrosis, fat cell ghosts, epidermal hyperplasia, clusters of extracellular acid fast bacilli (AFB in the subcutaneous tissue and lack of major inflammatory infiltration. The mode of transmission of BU is not clear and there is only limited information on the early pathogenesis of the disease available.For evaluating the potential of the pig as experimental infection model for BU, we infected pigs subcutaneously with different doses of M. ulcerans. The infected skin sites were excised 2.5 or 6.5 weeks after infection and processed for histopathological analysis. With doses of 2 × 10(7 and 2 × 10(6 colony forming units (CFU we observed the development of nodular lesions that subsequently progressed to ulcerative or plaque-like lesions. At lower inoculation doses signs of infection found after 2.5 weeks had spontaneously resolved at 6.5 weeks. The observed macroscopic and histopathological changes closely resembled those found in M. ulcerans disease in humans.Our results demonstrate that the pig can be infected with M. ulcerans. Productive infection leads to the development of lesions that closely resemble human BU lesions. The pig infection model therefore has great potential for studying the early pathogenesis of BU and for the development of new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions.
Barogui, Yves T.; Klis, Sandor; Bankole, Honore Sourou; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Mamo, Solomon; Baba-Moussa, Lamine; Manson, Willem L.; Johnson, Roch Christian; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stienstra, Ymkje
Background: The emerging disease Buruli ulcer is treated with streptomycin and rifampicin and surgery if necessary. Frequently other antibiotics are used during treatment. Methods/Principal Findings: Information on prescribing behavior of antibiotics for suspected secondary infections and for
Hagarty, J.; Voegborlo, R.; Smithwick, E. A.; Singha, K.
Buruli ulcer, an emerging bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, affects populations in many equatorial countries, predominantly in western Africa. Occurring in over thirty countries worldwide, it is the third most common Mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy. The disease causes ulcerative lesions and can lead to severe deformity if untreated. While methods of treatment for Buruli ulcer are well known and have a high rate of success, the mode of transmission of Buruli ulcer remains elusive. Multiple hypotheses have been put forward in the search for the vector for this disease. Studies of Buruli ulcer to date seem to conclude that water is, in some way, closely related to the transmission of this disease. In particular, changes in water quality due to changes in land use may contribute to the emergence of Buruli ulcer. We hypothesize that stagnant pools, especially those with low dissolved oxygen and high metals, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations, will provide a favorable environment for M. ulcerans growth and transmission. To explore how climate, land use, and soil and water quality interact to create a favorable environment for Buruli ulcer emergence, we explore seasonal and annual variability in rainfall and temperature, land use, and physical and chemical properties of soil and water at five sites within the country: four in the southern part of the country (three Buruli-endemic communities and one control) and one non-endemic community in the north. The southern control accounts for differences between endemic and non-endemic communities with similar land uses and geological setting. The northern community has experienced massive floods in recent years, and we suspect that, due to this, Buruli ulcer may start to appear in the community. Results from groundwater data indicate that aquifer rock type does not strongly correlate with groundwater chemistry and that groundwater chemistry does not relate to incidence of Buruli ulcer
Delphin Mavinga Phanzu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium ulcerans, also known as Buruli ulcer (BU, represents the third most common mycobacterial disease in the world after tuberculosis and leprosy. Data on the burden of BU disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo are scanty. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence rate and the distribution of BU in the Songololo Territory, and to assess the coverage of the existing hospital-based reporting system. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (July-August 2008 using the door-to-door method simultaneously in the two rural health zones (RHZ of the Songololo Territory (RHZ of Kimpese and Nsona-Mpangu, each containing twenty health areas. Cases were defined clinically as active BU and inactive BU in accordance with WHO-case definitions. RESULTS: We detected 775 BU patients (259 active and 516 inactive in a total population of 237,418 inhabitants. The overall prevalence of BU in Songololo Territory was 3.3/1000 inhabitants, varying from 0 to 27.5/1000 between health areas. Of the 259 patients with active BU, 18 (7% had been reported in the hospital-based reporting system at Kimpese in the 6-8 months prior to the survey. CONCLUSION: The survey demonstrated a huge variation of prevalence between health areas in Songololo Territory and gross underreporting of BU cases in the hospital-based reporting system. Data obtained may contribute to better targeted and improved BU control interventions, and serve as a baseline for future assessments of the control program.
O'Brien, Daniel P; Comte, Eric; Serafini, Micaela; Ehounou, Geneviève; Antierens, Annick; Vuagnat, Hubert; Christinet, Vanessa; Hamani, Mitima D; du Cros, Philipp
Despite great advances in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer, it is one of the least studied major neglected tropical diseases. In Africa, major constraints in the management of Buruli ulcer relate to diagnosis and treatment, and accessibility, feasibility, and delivery of services. In this Personal View, we outline key areas for clinical, diagnostic, and operational research on this disease in Africa and propose a research agenda that aims to advance the management of Buruli ulcer in Africa. A model of care is needed to increase early case detection, to diagnose the disease accurately, to simplify and improve treatment, to reduce side-effects of treatment, to deal with populations with HIV and tuberculosis appropriately, to decentralise care, and to scale up coverage in populations at risk. This approach will require commitment and support to strategically implement research by national Buruli ulcer programmes and international technical and donor organisations, combined with adaptations in programme design and advocacy. A critical next step is to build consensus for a research agenda with WHO and relevant groups experienced in Buruli ulcer care or related diseases, and we call on on them to help to turn this agenda into reality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a neglected tropical disease frequently leading to permanent disabilities. The ulcers are treated with rifampicin and streptomycin, wound care and, if necessary surgical intervention. Professionals have exclusively shaped the research agenda concerning management and control, while patients' perspective on priorities and preferences have not explicitly been explored or addressed.To get insight into patient perception of the management and control of Buruli ulcer a mixed methods research design was applied with a questionnaire and focus group discussions among former BU patients. Data collection was obtained in collaboration with a local team of native speakers in Ghana. A questionnaire was completed by 60 former patients and four focus group discussions were conducted with eight participants per group. Former patients positively evaluated both the effectiveness of the treatment and the financial contribution received for the travel costs to the hospitals. Pain experienced during treatment procedures, in particular wound care and the streptomycin injections, and the side-effects of the treatment were negatively evaluated. Former patients considered the development of preventive measures and knowledge on the transmission as priorities. Additionally, former patients asked for improved accessibility of health services, counselling and economic support.These findings can be used to improve clinical management and to guide the international research agenda.
Full Text Available As the major burden of Buruli ulcer disease (BUD occurs in remote rural areas, development of point-of-care (POC tests is considered a research priority to bring diagnostic services closer to the patients. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP, a simple, robust and cost-effective technology, has been selected as a promising POC test candidate. Three BUD-specific LAMP assays are available to date, but various technical challenges still hamper decentralized application. To overcome the requirement of cold-chains for transport and storage of reagents, the aim of this study was to establish a dry-reagent-based LAMP assay (DRB-LAMP employing lyophilized reagents.Following the design of an IS2404 based conventional LAMP (cLAMP assay suitable to apply lyophilized reagents, a lyophylization protocol for the DRB-LAMP format was developed. Clinical performance of cLAMP was validated through testing of 140 clinical samples from 91 suspected BUD cases by routine assays, i.e. IS2404 dry-reagent-based (DRB PCR, conventional IS2404 PCR (cPCR, IS2404 qPCR, compared to cLAMP. Whereas qPCR rendered an additional 10% of confirmed cases and samples respectively, case confirmation and positivity rates of DRB-PCR or cPCR (64.84% and 56.43%; 100% concordant results in both assays and cLAMP (62.64% and 52.86% were comparable and there was no significant difference between the sensitivity of the assays (DRB PCR and cPCR, 86.76%; cLAMP, 83.82%. Likewise, sensitivity of cLAMP (95.83% and DRB-LAMP (91.67% were comparable as determined on a set of 24 samples tested positive in all routine assays.Both LAMP formats constitute equivalent alternatives to conventional PCR techniques. Provided the envisaged availability of field friendly DNA extraction formats, both assays are suitable for decentralized laboratory confirmation of BUD, whereby DRB-LAMP scores with the additional advantage of not requiring cold-chains. As validation of the assays was conducted in a third
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a cutaneous neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Participation of Community Health Workers (CHWs) is an integral part of the management of BU, yet their impact has not been systematically evaluated in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Our objectives were to summarize the ...
Klis, S.; Kingma, R. A.; Tuah, W.; van der Werf, T. S.; Stienstra, Y.
OBJECTIVES Buruli ulcer (BU) is a tropical skin disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans, which is currently treated with 8 weeks of streptomycin and rifampicin. The evidence to treat BU for a duration of 8 weeks is limited; a recent retrospective study from Australia suggested that a
Bertolotti, Antonella; Izzo, Annunziata; Grigolato, Pier Giovanni; Iabichella, Maria Letizia
This is the first case reporting the effective use of 2 weeks of ozone therapy for the treatment of Buruli ulcer (BU), a dramatic disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, an epidemic in central Africa. This simple and cheap treatment could become an effective option for managing BU as an alternative to antibiotic or surgical treatments.
Bertolotti, Antonella; Izzo, Annunziata; Grigolato, Pier Giovanni; Iabichella, Maria Letizia
This is the first case reporting the effective use of 2 weeks of ozone therapy for the treatment of Buruli ulcer (BU), a dramatic disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, an epidemic in central Africa. This simple and cheap treatment could become an effective option for managing BU as an alternative to antibiotic or surgical treatments. PMID:23376670
Alferink, Marike; de Zeeuw, Janine; Sopoh, Ghislain; Agossadou, Chantal; Abass, Karibu M.; Phillips, Richard O.; Loth, Susanne; Jutten, Emma; Barogui, Yves T.; Stewart, Roy E.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stienstra, Ymkje; Ranchor, Adelita V.
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. People living in remote areas in tropical Sub Saharan Africa are mostly affected. Wound care is an important component of BU management; this often needs to be extended for months after the initial antibiotic
Dec 12, 2011 ... rehabilitation process successfully conducted and patient discharged healed physically in ten weeks. DISCUSSION. The true incidence of Buruli ulcers is ... about the resulting scars and possible amputations may also prevail (1-5). Disfiguration stigma is a problem that also prevents people from seeking ...
Amissah, Nana Ama; Chlebowicz, Monika A.; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S.; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Friedrich, Alex W.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje; Rossen, John W.
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU wounds may also be colonized with other microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from BU patients.
Barogui, Yves T; Klis, Sandor; Bankolé, Honoré Sourou; Sopoh, Ghislain E; Mamo, Solomon; Baba-Moussa, Lamine; Manson, Willem L; Johnson, Roch Christian; van der Werf, Tjip S; Stienstra, Ymkje
The emerging disease Buruli ulcer is treated with streptomycin and rifampicin and surgery if necessary. Frequently other antibiotics are used during treatment. Information on prescribing behavior of antibiotics for suspected secondary infections and for prophylactic use was collected retrospectively. Of 185 patients that started treatment for Buruli ulcer in different centers in Ghana and Bénin 51 were admitted. Forty of these 51 admitted patients (78%) received at least one course of antibiotics other than streptomycin and rifampicin during their hospital stay. The median number (IQR) of antibiotic courses for admitted patients was 2 (1, 5). Only twelve patients received antibiotics for a suspected secondary infection, all other courses were prescribed as prophylaxis of secondary infections extended till 10 days on average after excision, debridement or skin grafting. Antibiotic regimens varied considerably per indication. In another group of BU patients in two centers in Bénin, superficial wound cultures were performed. These cultures from superficial swabs represented bacteria to be expected from a chronic wound, but 13 of the 34 (38%) S. aureus were MRSA. A guide for rational antibiotic treatment for suspected secondary infections or prophylaxis is needed. Adherence to the guideline proposed in this article may reduce and tailor antibiotic use other than streptomycin and rifampicin in Buruli ulcer patients. It may save costs, reduce toxicity and limit development of further antimicrobial resistance. This topic should be included in general protocols on the management of Buruli ulcer.
Solange Meyin A. Ebong
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae, their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. However, the exact mechanism of transmission of the bacillus and the development of the disease through human activities is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case-control study to identify Buruli ulcer risk factors in Cameroon compared case-patients with community-matched controls on one hand and family-matched controls on the other hand. Risk factors identified by the community-matched study (including 163 pairs were: having a low level of education, swamp wading, wearing short, lower-body clothing while farming, living near a cocoa plantation or woods, using adhesive bandages when hurt, and using mosquito coils. Protective factors were: using bed nets, washing clothes, and using leaves as traditional treatment or rubbing alcohol when hurt. The family-matched study (including 118 pairs corroborated the significance of education level, use of bed nets, and treatment with leaves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Covering limbs during farming activities is confirmed as a protective factor guarding against Buruli ulcer disease, but newly identified factors including wound treatment and use of bed nets may provide new insight into the unknown mode of transmission of M. ulcerans or the development of the disease.
de Zeeuw, Janine; Omansen, Till F.; Douwstra, Marlies; Barogui, Yves T.; Agossadou, Chantal; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Phillips, Richard O.; Johnson, Christian; Abass, K. Mohammed; Saunderson, Paul; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stientstra, Ymkje
Background: Buruli ulcer may induce severe disabilities impacting on a person's well-being and quality of life. Information about long-term disabilities and participation restrictions is scanty. The objective of this study was to gain insight into participation restrictions among former Buruli ulcer
Stienstra, Y.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van Wezel, M.J.; Beets, M.; Zijlstra, I.; Johnson, R.C.; Ampadu, E.O.; Gbovi, J.; Zinsou, C.; Etuaful, S.; Klutse, E.Y.; van der Graaf, W.T.; van der Werf, T.S.; van Roest, M.H.
The reliability and validity of the earlier developed Buruli ulcer functional limitation score (BUFLS) questionnaire was assessed. Of 638 former Buruli ulcer patients (of 678 individuals examined), sufficient items on daily activities (>= 13 of the 19) were applicable to calculate a score. To
We present a case report of a 15 year-old girl with Buruli ulcer which was confirmed during assessment/advocacy visit to a secondary Health facility in south-west, Nigeria by Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative, a WHO initiative. This case underscores the need for more education of health care providers working in the endemic ...
Koen Peeters Grietens
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Victims of Buruli ulcer disease (BUD frequently report to specialized units at a late stage of the disease. This delay has been associated with local beliefs and a preference for traditional healing linked to a reportedly mystical origin of the disease. We assessed the role beliefs play in determining BUD sufferers' choice between traditional and biomedical treatments. METHODS: Anthropological fieldwork was conducted in community and clinical settings in the region of Ayos and Akonolinga in Central Cameroon. The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, triangulating a qualitative strand based on ethnographic research and quantitative data obtained through a survey presented to all patients at the Ayos and Akonolinga hospitals (N = 79 at the time of study and in four endemic communities (N = 73 belonging to the hospitals' catchment area. RESULTS: The analysis of BUD sufferers' health-seeking behaviour showed extremely complex therapeutic itineraries, including various attempts and failures both in the biomedical and traditional fields. Contrary to expectations, nearly half of all hospital patients attributed their illness to mystical causes, while traditional healers admitted patients they perceived to be infected by natural causes. Moreover, both patients in hospitals and in communities often combined elements of both types of treatments. Ultimately, perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the treatment, the option for local treatment as a cost prevention strategy and the characteristics of the doctor-patient relationship were more determinant for treatment choice than beliefs. DISCUSSION: The ascription of delay and treatment choice to beliefs constitutes an over-simplification of BUD health-seeking behaviour and places the responsibility directly on the shoulders of BUD sufferers while potentially neglecting other structural elements. While more efficacious treatment in the biomedical sector is likely to
Hart, Bryan E.; Hale, Laura P.; Lee, Sunhee
Buruli ulcer, an emerging tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), is characterized by disfiguring skin necrosis and high morbidity. Relatively little is understood about the mode of transmission, pathogenesis, or host immune responses to MU infection. Due to significant reduction in quality of life for patients with extensive tissue scarring, and that a disproportionately high percentage of those affected are disadvantaged children, a Buruli ulcer vaccine would be greatly beneficial to the worldwide community. Previous studies have shown that mice inoculated with either M. bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) or a DNA vaccine encoding the M. ulcerans mycolyl transferase, Ag85A (MU-Ag85A), are transiently protected against pathology caused by intradermal challenge with MU. Building upon this principle, we have generated quality-controlled, live-recombinant strains of BCG and M. smegmatis which express the immunodominant MU Ag85A. Priming with rBCG MU-Ag85A followed by an M. smegmatis MU-Ag85A boost strongly induced murine antigen-specific CD4+ T cells and elicited functional IFNγ-producing splenocytes which recognized MU-Ag85A peptide and whole M. ulcerans better than a BCG prime-boost vaccination. Strikingly, mice vaccinated with a single subcutaneous dose of BCG MU-Ag85A or prime-boost displayed significantly enhanced survival, reduced tissue pathology, and lower bacterial load compared to mice vaccinated with BCG. Importantly, this level of superior protection against experimental Buruli ulcer compared to BCG has not previously been achieved. These results suggest that use of BCG as a recombinant vehicle expressing MU antigens represents an effective Buruli ulcer vaccine strategy and warrants further antigen discovery to improve vaccine efficacy. PMID:26393347
Phillips, Richard Odame; Phanzu, Delphin Mavinga; Beissner, Marcus; Badziklou, Kossi; Luzolo, Elysée Kalundieko; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Halatoko, Wemboo Afiwa; Amoako, Yaw; Frimpong, Michael; Kabiru, Abass Mohammed; Piten, Ebekalisai; Maman, Issaka; Bidjada, Bawimodom; Koba, Adjaho; Awoussi, Koffi Somenou; Kobara, Basile; Nitschke, Jörg; Wiedemann, Franz Xaver; Kere, Abiba Banla; Adjei, Ohene; Löscher, Thomas; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz
Background The only available vaccine that could be potentially beneficial against mycobacterial diseases contains live attenuated bovine tuberculosis bacillus (Mycobacterium bovis) also called Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Even though the BCG vaccine is still widely used, results on its effectiveness in preventing mycobacterial diseases are partially contradictory, especially regarding Buruli Ulcer Disease (BUD). The aim of this case-control study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of BCG vaccination on BUD. Methodology The present study was performed in three different countries and sites where BUD is endemic: in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, and Togo from 2010 through 2013. The large study population was comprised of 401 cases with laboratory confirmed BUD and 826 controls, mostly family members or neighbors. Principal Findings After stratification by the three countries, two sexes and four age groups, no significant correlation was found between the presence of BCG scar and BUD status of individuals. Multivariate analysis has shown that the independent variables country (p = 0.31), sex (p = 0.24), age (p = 0.96), and presence of a BCG scar (p = 0.07) did not significantly influence the development of BUD category I or category II/III. Furthermore, the status of BCG vaccination was also not significantly related to duration of BUD or time to healing of lesions. Conclusions In our study, we did not observe significant evidence of a protective effect of routine BCG vaccination on the risk of developing either BUD or severe forms of BUD. Since accurate data on BCG strains used in these three countries were not available, no final conclusion can be drawn on the effectiveness of BCG strain in protecting against BUD. As has been suggested for tuberculosis and leprosy, well-designed prospective studies on different existing BCG vaccine strains are needed also for BUD. PMID:25569674
Richard Odame Phillips
Full Text Available The only available vaccine that could be potentially beneficial against mycobacterial diseases contains live attenuated bovine tuberculosis bacillus (Mycobacterium bovis also called Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG. Even though the BCG vaccine is still widely used, results on its effectiveness in preventing mycobacterial diseases are partially contradictory, especially regarding Buruli Ulcer Disease (BUD. The aim of this case-control study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of BCG vaccination on BUD.The present study was performed in three different countries and sites where BUD is endemic: in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, and Togo from 2010 through 2013. The large study population was comprised of 401 cases with laboratory confirmed BUD and 826 controls, mostly family members or neighbors.After stratification by the three countries, two sexes and four age groups, no significant correlation was found between the presence of BCG scar and BUD status of individuals. Multivariate analysis has shown that the independent variables country (p = 0.31, sex (p = 0.24, age (p = 0.96, and presence of a BCG scar (p = 0.07 did not significantly influence the development of BUD category I or category II/III. Furthermore, the status of BCG vaccination was also not significantly related to duration of BUD or time to healing of lesions.In our study, we did not observe significant evidence of a protective effect of routine BCG vaccination on the risk of developing either BUD or severe forms of BUD. Since accurate data on BCG strains used in these three countries were not available, no final conclusion can be drawn on the effectiveness of BCG strain in protecting against BUD. As has been suggested for tuberculosis and leprosy, well-designed prospective studies on different existing BCG vaccine strains are needed also for BUD.
Doig Kenneth D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium ulcerans is an unusual bacterial pathogen with elusive origins. While closely related to the aquatic dwelling M. marinum, M. ulcerans has evolved the ability to produce the immunosuppressive polyketide toxin mycolactone and cause the neglected tropical disease Buruli ulcer. Other mycolactone-producing mycobacteria (MPM have been identified in fish and frogs and given distinct species designations (M. pseudoshottsii, M. shinshuense, M. liflandii and M. marinum, however the evolution of M. ulcerans and its relationship to other MPM has not been defined. Here we report the comparative analysis of whole genome sequences from 30 MPM and five M. marinum. Results A high-resolution phylogeny based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs showed that M. ulcerans and all other MPM represent a single clonal group that evolved from a common M. marinum progenitor. The emergence of the MPM was driven by the acquisition of the pMUM plasmid encoding genes for the biosynthesis of mycolactones. This change was accompanied by the loss of at least 185 genes, with a significant overrepresentation of genes associated with cell wall functions. Cell wall associated genes also showed evidence of substantial adaptive selection, suggesting cell wall remodeling has been critical for the survival of MPM. Fine-grain analysis of the MPM complex revealed at least three distinct lineages, one of which comprised a highly clonal group, responsible for Buruli ulcer in Africa and Australia. This indicates relatively recent transfer of M. ulcerans between these continents, which represent the vast majority of the global Buruli ulcer burden. Our data provide SNPs and gene sequences that can differentiate M. ulcerans lineages, suitable for use in the diagnosis and surveillance of Buruli ulcer. Conclusions M. ulcerans and all mycolactone-producing mycobacteria are specialized variants of a common Mycobacterium marinum progenitor that have
Yves Thierry Barogui
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is the third most frequent mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent persons after tuberculosis and leprosy. During the last decade, eight weeks of antimicrobial treatment has become the standard of care. This treatment may be accompanied by transient clinical deterioration, known as paradoxical reaction. We investigate the incidence and the risks factors associated with paradoxical reaction in BU.The lesion size of participants was assessed by careful palpation and recorded by serial acetate sheet tracings. For every time point, surface area was compared with the previous assessment. All patients received antimicrobial treatment for 8 weeks. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the primary indicator of vitamin D status, was determined in duplex for blood samples at baseline by a radioimmunoassay. We genotyped four polymorphisms in the SLC11A1 gene, previously associated with susceptibility to BU. For testing the association of genetic variants with paradoxical responses, we used a binary logistic regression analysis with the occurrence of a paradoxical response as the dependent variable.Paradoxical reaction occurred in 22% of the patients; the reaction was significantly associated with trunk localization (p = .039 by Χ(2, larger lesions (p = .021 by Χ(2 and genetic factors. The polymorphisms 3'UTR TGTG ins/ins (OR 7.19, p < .001 had a higher risk for developing paradoxical reaction compared to ins/del or del/del polymorphisms.Paradoxical reactions are common in BU. They are associated with trunk localization, larger lesions and polymorphisms in the SLC11A1 gene.
Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Barogui, Yves Thierry; Johnson, Roch Christian; Dossou, Ange Dodji; Makoutodé, Michel; Anagonou, Sévérin Y; Kestens, Luc; Portaels, Françoise
.... This study aims to determine whether frequent contacts with natural water sources, family relationship or the practice of consanguineous marriages are associated with the occurrence of Buruli ulcer (BU). Case control study...
Conclusion: The obtained results further strengthened the exploitation of these extracts as potent hits in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. Meanwhile, further studies are required to fully characterize the bioactive compounds.
New hydrological insights: Trace metals, thought to aid in the preferential growth of M. ulcerans, are present in higher concentrations in mining pits and stagnant pools than in other tested water bodies. Arsenic in particular could serve as a double threat for BU incidence: it could support the growth of M. ulcerans while suppressing immune systems, making the population more susceptible to disease. Few other differences between endemic and non-endemic communities exist, implying other variables such as human behavior may also control the onset of Buruli ulcer.
Full Text Available Objectives. To describe trends and category of disabilities caused by Buruli ulcer disease. Design. This retrospective study was set up to quantify information on the disability trends caused by Buruli ulcer (BU using data on patients attending BU and chronic ulcer clinics from 2004 to 2009, at Global Evangelical Mission Hospital, Apromase. Methods. Data was retrieved from the WHO BU1 form, case registry book, surgical theatre register, and BU patients' records book of the hospital. Disability was measured as the incapability of patients to perform one or more daily activities due to his/her state of BU disease before treatment. Results. A total of 336 positive BU cases comprising 181 males (53.9% were recorded of which 113 (33.6% cases of disabilities were identified. A mean age of 52.5 (±1.32 years was recorded. For the trend of disabilities, the year 2009 recorded the highest (N = 34, 31.0%. The lesions were mostly located at the lower limbs (N = 65, 57.5% region of the patients. Lesions with diameter >15 cm were the major (59.3% category of lesions. Conclusion. Trend of disability reveals proportional increase over the years from 2004 to 2009. Contracture at the knee and ankle joints was the commonest disability recorded.
Amissah, Nana Ama; Chlebowicz, Monika A; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S; Friedrich, Alex W; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje; Rossen, John W
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU wounds may also be colonized with other microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from BU patients. Previously sequenced genomes of 21 S. aureus isolates from BU patients were screened for the presence of virulence genes. The results show that all S. aureus isolates harbored on their core genomes genes for known virulence factors like α-hemolysin, and the α- and β-phenol soluble modulins. Besides the core genome virulence genes, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), i.e. prophages, genomic islands, pathogenicity islands and a Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) were found to carry different combinations of virulence factors, among them genes that are known to encode factors that promote immune evasion, superantigens and Panton-Valentine Leucocidin. The present observations imply that the S. aureus isolates from BU patients harbor a diverse repertoire of virulence genes that may enhance bacterial survival and persistence in the wound environment and potentially contribute to delayed wound healing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.
Durnez, Lies; Stragier, Pieter; Roebben, Karen
Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, the third most common mycobacterial disease in humans after tuberculosis and leprosy. Although the disease is associated with aquatic ecosystems, cultivation of the bacillus from the environment is difficult to achieve. Therefore...
Ahorlu Collins K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Buruli ulcer is considered a re-emerging disease in West Africa where it has suffered neglect over the years, though children below the age of 16 years are the worst affected in most endemic regions. Due to delayed health seeking, the disease leads to disabilities resulting from amputation and loss of vital organs like the eye leading to school dropout and other social and economic consequences for the affected family. Early treatment with antibiotics is effective; however, this involves daily oral and intramuscular injection at distant health facilities for 56 days making it a challenge among poor rural folks living on daily subsistence work. The mode of transmission of Buruli ulcer is not known and there is no effective preventive vaccine for Buruli ulcer. Thus the only effective control tool is early case detection and treatment to reduce morbidity and associated disabilities that occurs as a result of late treatment. It is therefore essential to implement interventions that remove impediments that limit early case detection; access to early effective treatment and this paper reports one such effort where the feasibility of social interventions to enhance Buruli ulcer control was assessed. Methods This was a qualitative study using in-depth interviews to generate information to ascertain the benefit or otherwise of the intervention implemented. Clinical records of patients to generate data to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of social interventions in the fight against Buruli ulcer was examined. In all, 56 in-depth interviews (28 at baseline and 28 at evaluation were conducted for this report. Results At full implementation, treatment default and dropout reduced significantly from 58.8% and 52.9% at baseline to 1.5% and 1.5% respectively. The number of early case detection went up significantly. Affected families were happy with social interventions such as provision of transportation and breakfast to patients
Klis, Sandor; Ranchor, Adelita; Phillips, Richard O.; Abass, Kabiru M.; Tuah, Wilson; Loth, Susanne; Velding, Kristien; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stienstra, Ymkje
Background: Buruli Ulcer is a tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, which, due to scarring and contractures can lead to stigma and functional limitations. However, recent advances in treatment, combined with increased public health efforts have the potential to significantly
Ackumey, Mercy M; Gyapong, Margaret; Pappoe, Matilda; Kwakye-Maclean, Cynthia; Weiss, Mitchell G
Ghana is a Buruli ulcer (BU) endemic country yet there is paucity of socio-cultural research on BU. Examining distinctive experiences and meanings for pre-ulcers and ulcers of BU may clarify the disease burden, illness experience and local perceptions of causes and spread, and environmental features of BU, which are useful to guide public health programmes and future research. This study aimed to explain local meanings and experiences of BU for persons with pre-ulcers and ulcers in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Accra. Semi-structured interviews based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue framework were administered to 181 respondents comprising 15 respondents with pre-ulcers and 166 respondents with ulcers. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare categories of illness experiences (PD) and perceived causes (PC) among respondents with pre-ulcer and ulcer conditions. The Fisher's exact test was used to compare the most troubling PD and the most important PC variables. Qualitative phenomenological analysis of respondents' narratives clarified illness experiences and meanings with reference to PC and PD variables. Families of respondents with pre-ulcers and the respondents themselves were often anxious about disease progression, while families of respondents with ulcers, who had to give care, worried about income loss and disruption of school attendance. Respondents with pre-ulcers frequently reported swimming in ponds and rivers as a perceived cause and considered it as the most important PC (53.3%). Respondents with ulcers frequently attributed their BU illness to witchcraft (64.5%) and respondents who claimed they had no water contact, questioned the credibility of health messages Affected persons with pre-ulcers are likely to delay treatment because of social and financial constraints and the absence of pain. Scepticism on the role of water in disease contagion and prolonged healing is perceived to make ideas of witchcraft as a PC more
Ackumey Mercy M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana is a Buruli ulcer (BU endemic country yet there is paucity of socio-cultural research on BU. Examining distinctive experiences and meanings for pre-ulcers and ulcers of BU may clarify the disease burden, illness experience and local perceptions of causes and spread, and environmental features of BU, which are useful to guide public health programmes and future research. This study aimed to explain local meanings and experiences of BU for persons with pre-ulcers and ulcers in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Accra. Methods Semi-structured interviews based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue framework were administered to 181 respondents comprising 15 respondents with pre-ulcers and 166 respondents with ulcers. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare categories of illness experiences (PD and perceived causes (PC among respondents with pre-ulcer and ulcer conditions. The Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the most troubling PD and the most important PC variables. Qualitative phenomenological analysis of respondents’ narratives clarified illness experiences and meanings with reference to PC and PD variables. Results Families of respondents with pre-ulcers and the respondents themselves were often anxious about disease progression, while families of respondents with ulcers, who had to give care, worried about income loss and disruption of school attendance. Respondents with pre-ulcers frequently reported swimming in ponds and rivers as a perceived cause and considered it as the most important PC (53.3%. Respondents with ulcers frequently attributed their BU illness to witchcraft (64.5% and respondents who claimed they had no water contact, questioned the credibility of health messages Conclusions Affected persons with pre-ulcers are likely to delay treatment because of social and financial constraints and the absence of pain. Scepticism on the role of water in disease contagion and
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease of the skin that is caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. We recently established an experimental pig (Sus scrofa infection model for Buruli ulcer to investigate host-pathogen interactions, the efficacy of candidate vaccines and of new treatment options.Here we have used the model to study pathogenesis and early host-pathogen interactions in the affected porcine skin upon infection with mycolactone-producing and non-producing M. ulcerans strains. Histopathological analyses of nodular lesions in the porcine skin revealed that six weeks after infection with wild-type M. ulcerans bacteria extracellular acid fast bacilli were surrounded by distinct layers of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes. Upon ulceration, the necrotic tissue containing the major bacterial burden was sloughing off, leading to the loss of most of the mycobacteria. Compared to wild-type M. ulcerans bacteria, toxin-deficient mutants caused an increased granulomatous cellular infiltration without massive tissue necrosis, and only smaller clusters of acid fast bacilli.In summary, the present study shows that the pathogenesis and early immune response to M. ulcerans infection in the pig is very well reflecting BU disease in humans, making the pig infection model an excellent tool for the profiling of new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions.
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a severe necrotizing human skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Clinically, presentation is a sum of these diverse pathogenic hits subjected to critical immune-regulatory mechanisms. Among them, autophagy has been demonstrated as a cellular process of critical importance. Since microtubules and dynein are affected by mycolactone, the critical pathogenic exotoxin produced by M. ulcerans, cytoskeleton-related changes might potentially impair the autophagic process and impact the risk and progression of infection.Genetic variants in the autophagy-related genes NOD2, PARK2 and ATG16L1 has been associated with susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. Here, we investigated their association with BU risk, its severe phenotypes and its progression to an ulcerative form.Genetic variants were genotyped using KASPar chemistry in 208 BU patients (70.2% with an ulcerative form and 28% in severe WHO category 3 phenotype and 300 healthy endemic controls.The rs1333955 SNP in PARK2 was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to BU [odds ratio (OR, 1.43; P = 0.05]. In addition, both the rs9302752 and rs2066842 SNPs in NOD2 gee significantly increased the predisposition of patients to develop category 3 (OR, 2.23; P = 0.02; and OR 12.7; P = 0.03, respectively, whereas the rs2241880 SNP in ATG16L1 was found to significantly protect patients from presenting the ulcer phenotype (OR, 0.35; P = 0.02.Our findings indicate that specific genetic variants in autophagy-related genes influence susceptibility to the development of BU and its progression to severe phenotypes.
Naithani, K. J.; Konzelman, C.; Tschakert, P.; Smithwick, E. A. H.
The Buruli Ulcer (BU) disease is one of the most prevalent, but poorly understood mycobacterial infections in the world. Fundamental ecological aspects of the disease causing bacteria (Mycobacterium ulcerans) are not understood completely, but its emergence is attributed to unidentified thresholds in human and natural systems. We explored the network of these interactions across socio-ecological landscapes of Ghana to understand the movement of bacteria and the emergence of BU in response to climate, disturbance, social and economic factors. We chose five communities, three endemic and two control, and explored the correlations of disease incidence with climate, landscape disturbance, water quality and social factors using path analysis. Our results show that water quality is strongly linked to disease emergence with high alkalinity, PO43-, NH4+, F, Mn, S, Cd, Fe, Pb, and Se were associated with higher disease incidents and high Cu concentration was associated with low or healthy communities. Contrary to previous studies, arsenic concentration in water was not linked to higher disease incidence. Water quality was linked to climate, type of mining, and agricultural practices. Higher annual precipitation and lower air temperature were found linked to higher disease incidence across communities. Our exploratory work provides insight into how human land use, social practices, demographics, and climatic factors influence the BU disease spread.
Capela, Carlos Alberto Pereira
Tese de Doutoramento - Doutoramento em Medicina Buruli ulcer (BU) is an infectious disease found in tropical regions of Africa, America, Asia, and Australia. Most of the cases are reported in West Africa and BU is considered a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization (WHO). This necrotising skin infection is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that secretes the exotoxin mycolactone as its main virulence factor. There is emerging evidence for a major role of g...
Beninese Medicinal Plants as a Source of Antimycobacterial Agents: Bioguided Fractionation and In Vitro Activity of Alkaloids Isolated from Holarrhena floribunda Used in Traditional Treatment of Buruli Ulcer
Achille Yemoa; Joachim Gbenou; Dissou Affolabi; Mansourou Moudachirou; André Bigot; Séverin Anagonou; Françoise Portaels; Anandi Martin; Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq
Buruli ulcer (BU) imposes a serious economic burden on affected households and on health systems that are involved in diagnosing the disease and treating patients. Research is needed to find cost-effective therapies for this costly disease. Plants have always been an important source of new pharmacologically active molecules. Consequently we decided to undertake the study of plants used in traditional treatment of BU in Benin and investigate their antimycobacterial activity as well as their c...
Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F.; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bratschi, Martin W.; Bolz, Miriam; Um Boock, Alphonse; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pluschke, Gerd; Junghanss, Thomas
BACKGROUND Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease most prevalent among West African children. The causative organism, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is sensitive to temperatures above 37°C. We investigated the safety and efficacy of a local heat application device based on phase change material. METHODS In a phase II open label single center noncomparative clinical trial (ISRCTN 72102977) under GCP standards in Cameroon, laboratory confirmed BU patients received up to 8 weeks of...
Raymond T A S N'krumah; Brama Koné; Issaka Tiembre; Guéladio Cissé; Gerd Pluschke; Marcel Tanner; Jürg Utzinger
Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a cutaneous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The exact mode of transmission remains elusive; yet, some studies identified environmental, socio-sanitary, and behavioral risk factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of such factors to contracting BU in Tiassal?, south C?te d?Ivoire. Methodology A case-control study was conducted in 2012. Cases were BU patients diagnosed according to clinical definition put forth by the ...
Full Text Available Increased availability of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS techniques allows, for the first time, to distinguish relapses from reinfections in patients with multiple Buruli ulcer (BU episodes.We compared the number and location of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs identified by genomic screening between four pairs of Mycobacterium ulcerans isolates collected at the time of first diagnosis and at recurrence, derived from a collection of almost 5000 well characterized clinical samples from one BU treatment center in Benin.The findings suggest that after surgical treatment-without antibiotics-the second episodes were due to relapse rather than reinfection. Since specific antibiotics were introduced for the treatment of BU, the one patient with a culture available from both disease episodes had M. ulcerans isolates with a genomic distance of 20 SNPs, suggesting the patient was most likely reinfected rather than having a relapse.To our knowledge, this study is the first to study recurrences in M. ulcerans using NGS, and to identify exogenous reinfection as causing a recurrence of BU. The occurrence of reinfection highlights the contribution of ongoing exposure to M. ulcerans to disease recurrence, and has implications for vaccine development.
Gryseels, Sophie; Amissah, Diana; Durnez, Lies
Background The reservoir and mode of transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, remain unknown. Ecological, genetic and epidemiological information nonetheless suggests that M. ulcerans may reside in aquatic protozoa. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimenta......Background The reservoir and mode of transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, remain unknown. Ecological, genetic and epidemiological information nonetheless suggests that M. ulcerans may reside in aquatic protozoa. Methodology/Principal Findings We...... cultures for the M. ulcerans markers IS2404, IS2606 and KR-B. IS2404 was detected in 2% of the environmental samples and in 4% of the amoeba cultures. The IS2404 positive amoeba cultures included up to 5 different protozoan species, and originated both from Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities...
Carolan, Kevin; Ebong, Solange Meyin A; Garchitorena, Andres; Landier, Jordi; Sanhueza, Daniel; Texier, Gaëtan; Marsollier, Laurent; Gall, Philipe Le; Guégan, Jean-François; Lo Seen, Danny
The mode of transmission of the emerging neglected disease Buruli ulcer is unknown. Several potential transmission pathways have been proposed, such as amoebae, or transmission through food webs. Several lines of evidence have suggested that biting aquatic insects, Naucoridae and Belostomatidae, may act as vectors, however this proposal remains controversial. Herein, based on sampling in Cameroon, we construct an ecological niche model of these insects to describe their spatial distribution. We predict their distribution across West Africa, describe important environmental drivers of their abundance, and examine the correlation between their abundance and Buruli ulcer prevalence in the context of the Bradford-Hill guidelines. We find a significant positive correlation between the abundance of the insects and the prevalence of Buruli ulcer. This correlation changes in space and time, it is significant in one Camerounese study region in (Akonolinga) and not other (Bankim). We discuss notable environmental differences between these regions. We interpret the presence of, and change in, this correlation as evidence (though not proof) that these insects may be locally important in the environmental persistence, or transmission, of Mycobacterium. ulcerans. This is consistent with the idea of M. ulcerans as a pathogen transmitted by multiple modes of infection, the importance of any one pathway changing from region to region, depending on the local environmental conditions.
Williamson, Heather R.; Benbow, Mark E.; Campbell, Lindsay P.; Johnson, Christian R.; Sopoh, Ghislain; Barogui, Yves; Merritt, Richard W.; Small, Pamela L. C.
Background Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer (BU). In West Africa there is an association between BU and residence in low-lying rural villages where aquatic sources are plentiful. Infection occurs through unknown environmental exposure; human-to-human infection is rare. Molecular evidence for M. ulcerans in environmental samples is well documented, but the association of M. ulcerans in the environment with Buruli ulcer has not been studied in West Africa in an area with accurate case data. Methodology/Principal Finding Environmental samples were collected from twenty-five villages in three communes of Benin. Sites sampled included 12 BU endemic villages within the Ouheme and Couffo River drainages and 13 villages near the Mono River and along the coast or ridge where BU has never been identified. Triplicate water filtrand samples from major water sources and samples from three dominant aquatic plant species were collected. Detection of M. ulcerans was based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results show a significant association between M. ulcerans in environmental samples and Buruli ulcer cases in a village (p = 0.0001). A “dose response” was observed in that increasing numbers of M. ulceran- positive environmental samples were associated with increasing prevalence of BU cases (R2 = 0.586). Conclusions/Significance This study provides the first spatial data on the overlap of M. ulcerans in the environment and BU cases in Benin where case data are based on active surveillance. The study also provides the first evidence on M. ulcerans in well-defined non-endemic sites. Most environmental pathogens are more broadly distributed in the environment than in human populations. The congruence of M. ulcerans in the environment and human infection raises the possibility that humans play a role in the ecology of M. ulcerans. Methods developed could be useful for identifying new areas where humans may be at high risk for BU
Martin W Bratschi
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU, a neglected tropical disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans and is the third most common mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy. While there is a strong association of the occurrence of the disease with stagnant or slow flowing water bodies, the exact mode of transmission of BU is not clear. M. ulcerans has emerged from the environmental fish pathogen M. marinum by acquisition of a virulence plasmid encoding the enzymes required for the production of the cytotoxic macrolide toxin mycolactone, which is a key factor in the pathogenesis of BU. Comparative genomic studies have further shown extensive pseudogene formation and downsizing of the M. ulcerans genome, indicative for an adaptation to a more stable ecological niche. This has raised the question whether this pathogen is still present in water-associated environmental reservoirs. Here we show persistence of M. ulcerans specific DNA sequences over a period of more than two years at a water contact location of BU patients in an endemic village of Cameroon. At defined positions in a shallow water hole used by the villagers for washing and bathing, detritus remained consistently positive for M. ulcerans DNA. The observed mean real-time PCR Ct difference of 1.45 between the insertion sequences IS2606 and IS2404 indicated that lineage 3 M. ulcerans, which cause human disease, persisted in this environment after successful treatment of all local patients. Underwater decaying organic matter may therefore represent a reservoir of M. ulcerans for direct infection of skin lesions or vector-associated transmission.
Gryseels, Sophie; Amissah, Diana; Durnez, Lies; Vandelannoote, Koen; Leirs, Herwig; De Jonckheere, Johan; Portaels, Françoise; Ablordey, Anthony; Eddyani, Miriam
Background The reservoir and mode of transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, remain unknown. Ecological, genetic and epidemiological information nonetheless suggests that M. ulcerans may reside in aquatic protozoa. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally infected Acanthamoeba polyphaga with M. ulcerans and found that the bacilli were phagocytised, not digested and remained viable for the duration of the experiment. Furthermore, we collected 13 water, 90 biofilm and 45 detritus samples in both Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities in Ghana, from which we cultivated amoeboid protozoa and mycobacteria. M. ulcerans was not isolated, but other mycobacteria were as frequently isolated from intracellular as from extracellular sources, suggesting that they commonly infect amoebae in nature. We screened the samples as well as the amoeba cultures for the M. ulcerans markers IS2404, IS2606 and KR-B. IS2404 was detected in 2% of the environmental samples and in 4% of the amoeba cultures. The IS2404 positive amoeba cultures included up to 5 different protozoan species, and originated both from Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of experimental infection of amoebae with M. ulcerans and of the detection of the marker IS2404 in amoeba cultures isolated from the environment. We conclude that amoeba are potential natural hosts for M. ulcerans, yet remain sceptical about their implication in the transmission of M. ulcerans to humans and their importance in the epidemiology of Buruli ulcer. PMID:22880141
Braxmeier, S; Hellmann, M; Beck, A; Umboock, A; Pluschke, G; Junghanss, T; Weinlaeder, H
A mathematical model was developed and validated to predict the thermal behaviour of a heat application device based on a phase change material (pcm) for the heat treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer). The thermal model allows the prediction of skin surface temperatures and an optimization of the amount of pcm with respect to discharge time. A first prototype of such a pcm bandage was manufactured and used in a proof-of-principal trial in Cameroon. The experimental data were analysed and yielded no difference in thermoregulatory response between people living in hot or moderate climate. Short-term maximum skin surface temperatures of 42 degrees C are tolerable; the pcm bandage keeps the skin surface temperature above 40 degrees C for about four to five hours. This makes such pcm bandages an ideal device for the heat treatment of Buruli ulcer. The pcm bandage is easy to apply, cheap, and thus is well suited for use in low-resource countries.
Mercy M Ackumey
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, is a debilitating disease of the skin and underlying tissue. The first phase of a BU prevention and treatment programme (BUPaT was initiated from 2005-2008, in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Ghana to increase access to BU treatment and to improve early case detection and case management. This paper assesses achievements of the BUPaT programme and lessons learnt. It also considers the impact of the programme on broader interests of the health system. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach included patients' records review, review of programme reports, a stakeholder forum, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, clinic visits and observations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Extensive collaboration existed across all levels, (national, municipality, and community, thus strengthening the health system. The programme enhanced capacities of all stakeholders in various aspects of health services delivery and demonstrated the importance of health education and community-based surveillance to create awareness and encourage early treatment. A patient database was also created using recommended World Health Organisation (WHO forms which showed that 297 patients were treated from 2005-2008. The proportion of patients requiring only antibiotic treatment, introduced in the course of the programme, was highest in the last year (35.4% in the first, 23.5% in the second and 42.5% in the third year. Early antibiotic treatment prevented recurrences which was consistent with programme aims. CONCLUSIONS: To improve early case management of BU, strengthening existing clinics to increase access to antibiotic therapy is critical. Intensifying health education and surveillance would ultimately increase early reporting and treatment for all cases. Further research is needed to explain the role of environmental factors for BU contagion. Programme strategies reported in our study: collaboration
Ackumey, Mercy M; Kwakye-Maclean, Cynthia; Ampadu, Edwin O; de Savigny, Don; Weiss, Mitchell G
Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, is a debilitating disease of the skin and underlying tissue. The first phase of a BU prevention and treatment programme (BUPaT) was initiated from 2005-2008, in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Ghana to increase access to BU treatment and to improve early case detection and case management. This paper assesses achievements of the BUPaT programme and lessons learnt. It also considers the impact of the programme on broader interests of the health system. A mixed-methods approach included patients' records review, review of programme reports, a stakeholder forum, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, clinic visits and observations. Extensive collaboration existed across all levels, (national, municipality, and community), thus strengthening the health system. The programme enhanced capacities of all stakeholders in various aspects of health services delivery and demonstrated the importance of health education and community-based surveillance to create awareness and encourage early treatment. A patient database was also created using recommended World Health Organisation (WHO) forms which showed that 297 patients were treated from 2005-2008. The proportion of patients requiring only antibiotic treatment, introduced in the course of the programme, was highest in the last year (35.4% in the first, 23.5% in the second and 42.5% in the third year). Early antibiotic treatment prevented recurrences which was consistent with programme aims. To improve early case management of BU, strengthening existing clinics to increase access to antibiotic therapy is critical. Intensifying health education and surveillance would ultimately increase early reporting and treatment for all cases. Further research is needed to explain the role of environmental factors for BU contagion. Programme strategies reported in our study: collaboration among stakeholders, health education, community surveillance and
Junghanss, Thomas; Um Boock, Alphonse; Vogel, Moritz; Schuette, Daniela; Weinlaeder, Helmut; Pluschke, Gerd
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is an infection of the subcutaneous tissue leading to chronic necrotizing skin ulcers. The causative pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, grows best at 30 degrees C-33 degrees C and not above 37 degrees C. We explored the safety, tolerability and efficacy of phase change material (PCM), a novel heat application system for thermotherapy of BU. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective observational single centre proof-of-principle trial in Ayos/Cameroon, six l...
Kenu, Ernest; Ganu, Vincent; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict N L; Yiran, Gerald A B; Lartey, Margaret; Adanu, Richard
Buruli ulcer (BU) disease is a chronic debilitating skin disease caused by Mycobacteriumulcerans. It is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. Policy makers take the necessary strategic and policy decisions especially where to target interventions based on available evidence including spatial distribution of the disease. Unfortunately, there is limited information on the spatial distribution of BU in Ghana. The aim of the study was to use Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to show the spatial distribution and hot spots of BU in Greater Accra and Eastern Regions in Ghana. The information could then be used by decision makers to make the necessary strategic and policy decisions, especially where to target intervention. We conducted a community case search and spatial mapping in two districts in Eastern region (Akuapem South and Suhum- Kraboa-Coaltar) and two districts in Greater Accra region (Ga West and Ga South Municipalities) of Ghana to identify the spatial distribution of BU cases in the communities along the Densu River. These municipalities are already known to the Ministry of Health as having high case load of BU. Structured questionnaires on demographic characteristics, environmental factors and general practices were administered to the cases.Using the E-trex Garmin Geographical Positioning System (GPS), the location of the case patient was marked along with any important attributes of the community. ArcGIS was used to generate maps showing BU distribution and hot spots. Two hundred and fifty-seven (257) probable BU patients were enrolled in the study after the case search. These cases and their houses (or homes) were located with the GPS. The GIS maps generated showed a varying distribution of BU in the various communities. We observed clustering of BU patients downstream of the Densu River which had hitherto not been observed. There is clustering of BU in areas where the river was most contaminated. The identified
Klis, Sandor; Ranchor, Adelita; Phillips, Richard O; Abass, Kabiru M; Tuah, Wilson; Loth, Susanne; Velding, Kristien; van der Werf, Tjip S; Stienstra, Ymkje
Buruli Ulcer is a tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, which, due to scarring and contractures can lead to stigma and functional limitations. However, recent advances in treatment, combined with increased public health efforts have the potential to significantly improve disease outcome. To study the Quality of Life (QoL) of former Buruli Ulcer patients who, in the context of a randomized controlled trial, reported early with small lesions (cross-sectional diameter Quality Index (DLQI) and the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL-BREF). The WHOQOL-BREF was also administered to 82 matched healthy controls. Those younger than 16 completed the Childrens' Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) only. The median (Inter Quartile Range) score on the DLQI was 0 (0-4), indicating good QoL. 85% of former patients indicated no effect, or only a small effect of the disease on their current life. Former patients also indicated good QoL on the physical and psychological domains of the WHOQOL-BREF, and scored significantly higher than healthy controls on these domains. There was a weak correlation between the DLQI and scar size (ρ = 0.32; pgood QoL at long-term follow-up. These findings contrast with the debilitating sequelae often reported in BU, and highlight the importance of early case detection.
John R Wallace
Full Text Available Addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer (BU is a World Health Organization priority. In Australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and BU. Here we tested a contaminated skin model of BU transmission by dipping the tails from healthy mice in cultures of the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans. Tails were exposed to mosquito (Aedes notoscriptus and Aedes aegypti blood feeding or punctured with sterile needles. Two of 12 of mice with M. ulcerans contaminated tails exposed to feeding A. notoscriptus mosquitoes developed BU. There were no mice exposed to A. aegypti that developed BU. Eighty-eight percent of mice (21/24 subjected to contaminated tail needle puncture developed BU. Mouse tails coated only in bacteria did not develop disease. A median incubation time of 12 weeks, consistent with data from human infections, was noted. We then specifically tested the M. ulcerans infectious dose-50 (ID50 in this contaminated skin surface infection model with needle puncture and observed an ID50 of 2.6 colony-forming units. We have uncovered a biologically plausible mechanical transmission mode of BU via natural or anthropogenic skin punctures.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is an infection of the subcutaneous tissue leading to chronic necrotizing skin ulcers. The causative pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, grows best at 30 degrees C-33 degrees C and not above 37 degrees C. We explored the safety, tolerability and efficacy of phase change material (PCM, a novel heat application system for thermotherapy of BU. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective observational single centre proof-of-principle trial in Ayos/Cameroon, six laboratory reconfirmed patients with ulcerative Buruli lesions received 28-31 (ulcers 2 cm days of thermotherapy with the PCM sodium acetate trihydrate as heat application system. This PCM is widely used in commercial pocket heat pads, it is easy to apply, rechargeable in hot water, non-toxic and non-hazardous to the environment. All patients enrolled in the trial completed treatment. Being completely mobile during the well-tolerated heat application, acceptability of the PCM bandages was very high. In patients with smaller ulcers, wounds healed completely without further intervention. Patients with large defects had skin grafting after successful heat treatment. Heat treatment was not associated with marked increases in local inflammation or the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue. One and a half years after completion of treatment, all patients are relapse-free. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our reusable PCM-based heat application device appears perfectly suited to treat BU in endemic countries with limited resources and infrastructure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN88392614.
Junghanss, Thomas; Um Boock, Alphonse; Vogel, Moritz; Schuette, Daniela; Weinlaeder, Helmut; Pluschke, Gerd
Buruli ulcer (BU) is an infection of the subcutaneous tissue leading to chronic necrotizing skin ulcers. The causative pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, grows best at 30 degrees C-33 degrees C and not above 37 degrees C. We explored the safety, tolerability and efficacy of phase change material (PCM), a novel heat application system for thermotherapy of BU. In a prospective observational single centre proof-of-principle trial in Ayos/Cameroon, six laboratory reconfirmed patients with ulcerative Buruli lesions received 28-31 (ulcers 2 cm) days of thermotherapy with the PCM sodium acetate trihydrate as heat application system. This PCM is widely used in commercial pocket heat pads, it is easy to apply, rechargeable in hot water, non-toxic and non-hazardous to the environment. All patients enrolled in the trial completed treatment. Being completely mobile during the well-tolerated heat application, acceptability of the PCM bandages was very high. In patients with smaller ulcers, wounds healed completely without further intervention. Patients with large defects had skin grafting after successful heat treatment. Heat treatment was not associated with marked increases in local inflammation or the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue. One and a half years after completion of treatment, all patients are relapse-free. Our reusable PCM-based heat application device appears perfectly suited to treat BU in endemic countries with limited resources and infrastructure. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN88392614.
Full Text Available Current laboratory diagnosis of Buruli ulcer (BU is based on microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR, histopathology or cultivation. Insertion sequence (IS 2404 qPCR, the most sensitive method, is usually only available at reference laboratories. The only currently available point-of-care test, microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB, has limited sensitivity and specificity.Here we analyzed AFB positive tissue samples (n = 83 for the presence, distribution and amount of AFB. AFB were nearly exclusively present in the subcutis with large extracellular clusters being most frequently (67% found in plaque lesions. In ulcerative lesions small clusters and dispersed AFB were more common. Beside this, 151 swab samples from 37 BU patients were analyzed by IS2404 qPCR and ZN staining in parallel. The amount of M. ulcerans DNA in extracts from swabs correlated well with the probability of finding AFB in direct smear microscopy, with 56.1% of the samples being positive in both methods and 43.9% being positive only in qPCR. By analyzing three swabs per patient instead of one, the probability to have at least one positive swab increased from 80.2% to 97.1% for qPCR and from 45% to 66.1% for AFB smear examination.Our data show that M. ulcerans bacteria are primarily located in the subcutis of BU lesions, making the retrieval of the deep subcutis mandatory for examination of tissue samples for AFB. When laboratory diagnosis is based on the recommended less invasive collection of swab samples, analysis of three swabs from different areas of ulcerative lesions instead of one increases the sensitivity of both qPCR and of smear microscopy substantially.
Fred S Sarfo
Full Text Available It has recently been shown that in a Buruli ulcer (BU endemic region of southeastern Australia, significant numbers of possums (native tree-dwelling marsupials have clinical BU disease. Furthermore, based on quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis, animals with BU lesions (and some without shed M. ulcerans DNA in their faeces, indicative of bacterial loads of up to 10(8 organisms/gram. These findings led us to propose that humans might also harbour M. ulcerans in their gastrointestinal tract and shed the bacterium in their faeces. We conducted a pilot study and collected faecal swabs from 26 patients with confirmed BU and 31 healthy household controls. Faecal samples were also collected from 10 healthy controls from non-endemic regions in Ghana. All 67 specimens were negative when tested by IS2404 PCR. The detection sensitivity of this method was ≥10(4 bacteria per gram (wet-weight of human faecal material. We conclude that the human gastrointestinal tract is unlikely to be a significant reservoir of M. ulcerans.
Ampah, Kobina Assan; Asare, Prince; Binnah, Daniel De-Graft; Maccaulley, Samuel; Opare, William; Röltgen, Katharina; Pluschke, Gerd; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans with more than two thirds of the global cases reported in West Africa. A nationwide active BU case search conducted in 1999 identified two health districts along the Offin River as two of the three most endemic districts in Ghana. Based on recent anecdotal accounts that transmission is unstable along the Offin River, we conducted from March to June 2013 an exhaustive household survey and active case search in 13 selected communities within a five-kilometer radius along the Offin River. The overall prevalence of BU was 2.3% among the surveyed population of 20,390 inhabitants and 477 of the total 480 cases detected (99.4%) were historical (healed) cases. By estimating the year of occurrence for each case per community and taking into account available passive surveillance records of health facilities and the District Health Directorate, we observed a general trend of continuous emergence of cases in communities located midstream the Offin River whereas downstream communities showed more sporadic patterns. We monitored the incidence of cases after the survey and recorded a cumulative incidence rate of 0.04% for the 13 communities over a 17-month active surveillance period from August 2013 to December 2014. Our data reveal an overall decline in BU incidence along the Offin River similar to the general decline in BU incidence in recent years reported by the World Health Organization for West Africa. PMID:27078028
Full Text Available A well-known histopathological feature of diseased skin in Buruli ulcer (BU is coagulative necrosis caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Since the underlying mechanism is not known, we have investigated the effect of mycolactone on endothelial cells, focussing on the expression of surface anticoagulant molecules involved in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Congenital deficiencies in this natural anticoagulant pathway are known to induce thrombotic complications such as purpura fulimans and spontaneous necrosis. Mycolactone profoundly decreased thrombomodulin (TM expression on the surface of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC at doses as low as 2 ng/ml and as early as 8 hrs after exposure. TM activates protein C by altering thrombin's substrate specificity, and exposure of HDMVEC to mycolactone for 24 hours resulted in an almost complete loss of the cells' ability to produce activated protein C. Loss of TM was shown to be due to a previously described mechanism involving mycolactone-dependent blockade of Sec61 translocation that results in proteasome-dependent degradation of newly synthesised ER-transiting proteins. Indeed, depletion from cells determined by live-cell imaging of cells stably expressing a recombinant TM-GFP fusion protein occurred at the known turnover rate. In order to determine the relevance of these findings to BU disease, immunohistochemistry of punch biopsies from 40 BU lesions (31 ulcers, nine plaques was performed. TM abundance was profoundly reduced in the subcutis of 78% of biopsies. Furthermore, it was confirmed that fibrin deposition is a common feature of BU lesions, particularly in the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that there is decreased ability to control thrombin generation in BU skin. Mycolactone's effects on normal endothelial cell function, including its ability to activate the protein C anticoagulant pathway are strongly associated with this
Ogbechi, Joy; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Hall, Belinda S.; Bodman-Smith, Katherine; Vogel, Moritz; Wu, Hua-Lin; Stainer, Alexander; Esmon, Charles T.; Ahnström, Josefin; Pluschke, Gerd; Simmonds, Rachel E.
A well-known histopathological feature of diseased skin in Buruli ulcer (BU) is coagulative necrosis caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Since the underlying mechanism is not known, we have investigated the effect of mycolactone on endothelial cells, focussing on the expression of surface anticoagulant molecules involved in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Congenital deficiencies in this natural anticoagulant pathway are known to induce thrombotic complications such as purpura fulimans and spontaneous necrosis. Mycolactone profoundly decreased thrombomodulin (TM) expression on the surface of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC) at doses as low as 2ng/ml and as early as 8hrs after exposure. TM activates protein C by altering thrombin’s substrate specificity, and exposure of HDMVEC to mycolactone for 24 hours resulted in an almost complete loss of the cells’ ability to produce activated protein C. Loss of TM was shown to be due to a previously described mechanism involving mycolactone-dependent blockade of Sec61 translocation that results in proteasome-dependent degradation of newly synthesised ER-transiting proteins. Indeed, depletion from cells determined by live-cell imaging of cells stably expressing a recombinant TM-GFP fusion protein occurred at the known turnover rate. In order to determine the relevance of these findings to BU disease, immunohistochemistry of punch biopsies from 40 BU lesions (31 ulcers, nine plaques) was performed. TM abundance was profoundly reduced in the subcutis of 78% of biopsies. Furthermore, it was confirmed that fibrin deposition is a common feature of BU lesions, particularly in the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that there is decreased ability to control thrombin generation in BU skin. Mycolactone’s effects on normal endothelial cell function, including its ability to activate the protein C anticoagulant pathway are strongly associated with this. Fibrin
Earnest Njih Tabah
Full Text Available Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme.We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005-2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate.In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon.Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with.
Alexandra G Fraga
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is an emerging infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that can result in extensive necrotizing cutaneous lesions due to the cytotoxic exotoxin mycolactone. There is no specific vaccine against BU but reports show some degree of cross-reactive protection conferred by M. bovis BCG immunization. Alternatively, an M. ulcerans-specific immunization could be a better preventive strategy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we used the mouse model to characterize the histological and cytokine profiles triggered by vaccination with either BCG or mycolactone-negative M. ulcerans, followed by footpad infection with virulent M. ulcerans. We observed that BCG vaccination significantly delayed the onset of M. ulcerans growth and footpad swelling through the induction of an earlier and sustained IFN-γ T cell response in the draining lymph node (DLN. BCG vaccination also resulted in cell-mediated immunity (CMI in M. ulcerans-infected footpads, given the predominance of a chronic mononuclear infiltrate positive for iNOS, as well as increased and sustained levels of IFN-γ and TNF. No significant IL-4, IL-17 or IL-10 responses were detected in the footpad or the DLN, in either infected or vaccinated mice. Despite this protective Th1 response, BCG vaccination did not avoid the later progression of M. ulcerans infection, regardless of challenge dose. Immunization with mycolactone-deficient M. ulcerans also significantly delayed the progression of footpad infection, swelling and ulceration, but ultimately M. ulcerans pathogenic mechanisms prevailed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The delay in the emergence of pathology observed in vaccinated mice emphasizes the relevance of protective Th1 recall responses against M. ulcerans. In future studies it will be important to determine how the transient CMI induced by vaccination is compromised.
Nicholas J Tobias
Full Text Available Mycolactone A/B is a lipophilic macrocyclic polyketide that is the primary virulence factor produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans, a human pathogen and the causative agent of Buruli ulcer. In M. ulcerans strain Agy99 the mycolactone polyketide synthase (PKS locus spans a 120 kb region of a 174 kb megaplasmid. Here we have identified promoter regions of this PKS locus using GFP reporter assays, in silico analysis, primer extension, and site-directed mutagenesis. Transcription of the large PKS genes mlsA1 (51 kb, mlsA2 (7 kb and mlsB (42 kb is driven by a novel and powerful SigA-like promoter sequence situated 533 bp upstream of both the mlsA1 and mlsB initiation codons, which is also functional in Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium marinum. Promoter regions were also identified upstream of the putative mycolactone accessory genes mup045 and mup053. We transformed M. ulcerans with a GFP-reporter plasmid under the control of the mls promoter to produce a highly green-fluorescent bacterium. The strain remained virulent, producing both GFP and mycolactone and causing ulcerative disease in mice. Mosquitoes have been proposed as a potential vector of M. ulcerans so we utilized M. ulcerans-GFP in microcosm feeding experiments with captured mosquito larvae. M. ulcerans-GFP accumulated within the mouth and midgut of the insect over four instars, whereas the closely related, non-mycolactone-producing species M. marinum harbouring the same GFP reporter system did not. This is the first report to identify M. ulcerans toxin gene promoters, and we have used our findings to develop M. ulcerans-GFP, a strain in which fluorescence and toxin gene expression are linked, thus providing a tool for studying Buruli ulcer pathogenesis and potential transmission to humans.
Williamson, Heather; Phillips, Richard; Sarfo, Stephen; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Small, Pamela
Culture of Mycobacterium ulcerans from Buruli ulcer patients has very low sensitivity. Thus confirmation of M. ulcerans infection is primarily based on PCR directed against IS2404. In this study we compare the genotypes obtained by variable number of tandem repeat analysis of DNA from IS2404-PCR positive cultures with that obtained from IS2404 positive, culture-negative tissue. A significantly greater genetic heterogeneity was found among culture-negative samples compared with that found in cultured strains but a single genotype is over-represented in both sample sets. This study provides evidence that both the focal location of bacteria in a lesion as well as differences in the ability to culture a particular genotype may underlie the low sensitivity of culture. Though preliminary, data from this work also suggests that mycobacteria previously associated with fish disease (M. pseudoshottsii) may be pathogenic for humans.
Alferink, Marike; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Agossadou, Didier C.; Barogui, Yves T.; Assouto, Frederic; Agossadou, Chantal; Stewart, Roy E.; Stienstra, Ymkje; Ranchor, Adelita V.
Background: Delay in seeking treatment at the hospital is a major challenge in current Buruli ulcer control; it is associated with severe sequelae and functional limitations. Choosing alternative treatment and psychological, social and practical factors appear to influence delay. Objectives were to
Klis, Sandor; Stienstra, Ymkje; Phillips, Richard O.; Abass, Kabiru Mohammed; Tuah, Wilson; van der Werf, Tjip S.
Background Buruli Ulcer (BU) is a tropical infectious skin disease that is currently treated with 8 weeks of intramuscular streptomycin and oral rifampicin. As prolonged streptomycin administration can cause both oto- and nephrotoxicity, we evaluated its long term toxicity by following-up former BU patients that had received either 4 or 8 weeks of streptomycin in addition to other drugs between 2006 and 2008, in the context of a randomized controlled trial. Methods Former patients were retrieved in 2012, and oto- and nephrotoxicity were determined by audiometry and serum creatinine levels. Data were compared with baseline and week 8 measurements during the drug trial. Results Of the total of 151 former patients, 127 (84%) were retrieved. Ototoxicity was present in 29% of adults and 25% of children. Adults in the 8 week streptomycin group had significantly higher hearing thresholds in all frequencies at long term follow-up, and these differences were most prominent in the high frequencies. In children, no differences between the two treatment arms were found. Nephrotoxicity that had been detected in 14% of adults and in 13% of children during treatment, was present in only 2.4% of patients at long term follow-up. Conclusions Prolonged streptomycin administration in the adult study subjects caused significant persistent hearing loss, especially in the high frequency range. Nephrotoxicity was also present in both adults and children but appeared to be transient. Streptomycin should be given with caution especially in patients aged 16 or older, and in individuals with concurrent risks for renal dysfunction or hearing loss. PMID:24625583
... Home / Digestive Health Topic / Peptic Ulcer Disease Peptic Ulcer Disease Basics Overview An “ulcer” is an open sore. The word “peptic” means ... time when a gastroenterologist is referring to an “ulcer” the doctor means a peptic ulcer. The two ...
Amoussouhoui, Arnaud Setondji; Johnson, Roch Christian; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Agbo, Ines Elvire; Aoulou, Paulin; Houezo, Jean-Gabin; Tingbe-Azalou, Albert; Boyer, Micah; Nichter, Mark
Background Reducing social distance between hospital staff and patients and establishing clear lines of communication is a major challenge when providing in-patient care for people afflicted by Buruli ulcer (BU) and chronic ulcers. Research on hospitals as therapeutic communities is virtually non-existent in Africa and is currently being called for by medical anthropologists working in the field of health service and policy planning. This paper describes a pioneering attempt to establish a therapeutic community for patients suffering from BU and other chronic ulcers requiring long term hospital care in Benin. Methods A six-month pilot project was undertaken with the objectives of establishing a therapeutic community and evaluating its impact on practitioner and patient relations. The project was designed and implemented by a team of social scientists working in concert with the current and previous director of a hospital serving patients suffering from advanced stage BU and other chronic ulcers. Qualitative research initially investigated patients’ understanding of their illness and its treatment, identified questions patients had about their hospitalization, and ascertained their level of social support. Newly designed question–answer health education sessions were developed. Following these hospital wide education sessions, open forums were held each week to provide an opportunity for patients and hospital staff to express concerns and render sources of discontent transparent. Patient group representatives then met with hospital staff to problem solve issues in a non-confrontational manner. Psychosocial support for individual patients was provided in a second intervention which took the form of drop-in counseling sessions with social scientists trained to serve as therapy facilitators and culture brokers. Results Interviews with patients revealed that most patients had very little information about the identity of their illness and the duration of their
Amoussouhoui, Arnaud Setondji; Johnson, Roch Christian; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Agbo, Ines Elvire; Aoulou, Paulin; Houezo, Jean-Gabin; Tingbe-Azalou, Albert; Boyer, Micah; Nichter, Mark
Reducing social distance between hospital staff and patients and establishing clear lines of communication is a major challenge when providing in-patient care for people afflicted by Buruli ulcer (BU) and chronic ulcers. Research on hospitals as therapeutic communities is virtually non-existent in Africa and is currently being called for by medical anthropologists working in the field of health service and policy planning. This paper describes a pioneering attempt to establish a therapeutic community for patients suffering from BU and other chronic ulcers requiring long term hospital care in Benin. A six-month pilot project was undertaken with the objectives of establishing a therapeutic community and evaluating its impact on practitioner and patient relations. The project was designed and implemented by a team of social scientists working in concert with the current and previous director of a hospital serving patients suffering from advanced stage BU and other chronic ulcers. Qualitative research initially investigated patients' understanding of their illness and its treatment, identified questions patients had about their hospitalization, and ascertained their level of social support. Newly designed question-answer health education sessions were developed. Following these hospital wide education sessions, open forums were held each week to provide an opportunity for patients and hospital staff to express concerns and render sources of discontent transparent. Patient group representatives then met with hospital staff to problem solve issues in a non-confrontational manner. Psychosocial support for individual patients was provided in a second intervention which took the form of drop-in counseling sessions with social scientists trained to serve as therapy facilitators and culture brokers. Interviews with patients revealed that most patients had very little information about the identity of their illness and the duration of their treatment. This knowledge gap
Samuel A Sakyi
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a subcutaneous skin disease listed among the neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO. Early case detection and management is very important to reduce morbidity and the accompanied characteristic disfiguring nature of BU. Since diagnosis based on clinical evidence can lead to misdiagnosis, microbiological confirmation is essential to reduce abuse of drugs; since the anti-mycobacterial drugs are also used for TB treatment. The current WHO gold standard PCR method is expensive, requires infrastructure and expertise are usually not available at the peripheral centers where BU cases are managed. Thus one of the main research agendas is to develop methods that can be applied at the point of care. In this study we selected aptamers, which are emerging novel class of detection molecules, for detecting mycolactone, the first to be conducted in a BUD endemic country.Aptamers that bind to mycolactone were isolated by the SELEX process. To measure their affinity and specificity to mycolactone, the selected aptamers were screened by means of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC and an enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA. Selected aptamers were assessed by ELONA using swab samples from forty-one suspected BU patients with IS2404 PCR and culture as standard methods. ROC analysis was used to evaluate their accuracy and cutoff-points.Five out of the nine selected aptamers bound significantly (p< 0.05 to mycolactone, of these, three were able to distinguish between mycolactone producing mycobacteria, M. marinum (CC240299, Israel and other bacteria whilst two others also bounded significantly to Mycobacterium smegmatis. Their dissociation constants were in the micro-molar range. At 95% confidence interval, the ROC curve analysis among the aptamers at OD450 ranged from 0.5-0.7. Using this cut-off for the ELONA assay, the aptamers had 100% specificity and sensitivity between 0.0% and 50.0%. The most promising
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is a devastating skin disease, occurring mainly in remote West African communities with poor access to health care. Early case detection and subsequent antibiotic treatment are essential to counteract the progression of the characteristic chronic ulcerative lesions. Since the accuracy of clinical BU diagnosis is limited, laboratory reconfirmation is crucial. However, currently available diagnostic techniques with sufficient sensitivity and specificity require infrastructure and resources only accessible at a few reference centres in the African endemic countries. Hence, the development of a simple, rapid, sensitive and specific point-of-care diagnostic tool is one of the major research priorities for BU. In this study, we have identified a previously unknown M. ulcerans protein, MUL_3720, as a promising target for antigen capture-based detection assays. We show that MUL_3720 is highly expressed by M. ulcerans and has no orthologs in other prevalent pathogenic mycobacteria. We generated a panel of anti-MUL_3720 antibodies and used them to confirm a cell wall location for MUL_3720. These antibodies could also specifically detect M. ulcerans in infected human tissue samples as well as in lysates of infected mouse footpads. A bacterial 2-hybrid screen suggested a potential role for MUL_3720 in cell wall biosynthesis pathways. Finally, we demonstrate that a combination of MUL_3720 specific antibody reagents in a sandwich-ELISA format has sufficient sensitivity to make them suitable for the development of antigen capture-based diagnostic tests for BU.
Full Text Available This study was conducted with the aim to understand some of the cultural belief systems in the management of wounds and patients practices that could contaminate wounds at the Obom sub-district of the Ga South Municipality of Ghana.This was an ethnographic study using in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions and participant observation techniques for data collection. Observations were done on Buruli ulcer patients to document how they integrate local and modern wound management practices in the day-to-day handling of their wounds. Content analysis was done after the data were subjected to thematic coding and representative narratives selected for presentation.It was usually believed that wounds were caused by charms or spirits and, therefore, required the attention of a native healer. In instances where some patients' wounds were dressed in the hospital by clinicians whose condition/age/sex contradict the belief of the patient, the affected often redress the wounds later at home. Some of the materials often used for such wound dressing include urine and concoctions made of charcoal and gunpowder with the belief of driving out evil spirits from the wounds.Clinicians must therefore be aware of these cultural beliefs and take them into consideration when managing Buruli ulcer wounds to prevent redressing at home after clinical treatment. This may go a long way to reduce secondary infections that have been observed in Buruli ulcer wounds.
Full Text Available Buruli Ulcer (BU is a neglected infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is responsible for severe necrotizing cutaneous lesions that may be associated with bone involvement. Clinical presentations of BU lesions are classically classified as papules, nodules, plaques and edematous infiltration, ulcer or osteomyelitis. Within these different clinical forms, lesions can be further classified as severe forms based on focality (multiple lesions, lesions' size (>15 cm diameter or WHO Category (WHO Category 3 lesions. There are studies reporting an association between delay in seeking medical care and the development of ulcerative forms of BU or osteomyelitis, but the effect of time-delay on the emergence of lesions classified as severe has not been addressed. To address both issues, and in a cohort of laboratory-confirmed BU cases, 476 patients from a medical center in Allada, Benin, were studied. In this laboratory-confirmed cohort, we validated previous observations, demonstrating that time-delay is statistically related to the clinical form of BU. Indeed, for non-ulcerated forms (nodule, edema, and plaque the median time-delay was 32.5 days (IQR 30.0-67.5, while for ulcerated forms it was 60 days (IQR 20.0-120.0 (p = 0.009, and for bone lesions, 365 days (IQR 228.0-548.0. On the other hand, we show here that time-delay is not associated with the more severe phenotypes of BU, such as multi-focal lesions (median 90 days; IQR 56-217.5; p = 0.09, larger lesions (diameter >15 cm (median 60 days; IQR 30-120; p = 0.92 or category 3 WHO classification (median 60 days; IQR 30-150; p = 0.20, when compared with unifocal (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, small lesions (diameter ≤15 cm (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, or WHO category 1+2 lesions (median 60 days; IQR 30-90, respectively. Our results demonstrate that after an initial period of progression towards ulceration or bone involvement, BU lesions become stable regarding size and focal
Capela, Carlos; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Houezo, Jean G.; Fiodessihoué, René; Dossou, Ange D.; Costa, Patrício; Fraga, Alexandra G.; Menino, João F.; Silva-Gomes, Rita; Ouendo, Edgard M.
Buruli Ulcer (BU) is a neglected infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is responsible for severe necrotizing cutaneous lesions that may be associated with bone involvement. Clinical presentations of BU lesions are classically classified as papules, nodules, plaques and edematous infiltration, ulcer or osteomyelitis. Within these different clinical forms, lesions can be further classified as severe forms based on focality (multiple lesions), lesions’ size (>15cm diameter) or WHO Category (WHO Category 3 lesions). There are studies reporting an association between delay in seeking medical care and the development of ulcerative forms of BU or osteomyelitis, but the effect of time-delay on the emergence of lesions classified as severe has not been addressed. To address both issues, and in a cohort of laboratory-confirmed BU cases, 476 patients from a medical center in Allada, Benin, were studied. In this laboratory-confirmed cohort, we validated previous observations, demonstrating that time-delay is statistically related to the clinical form of BU. Indeed, for non-ulcerated forms (nodule, edema, and plaque) the median time-delay was 32.5 days (IQR 30.0–67.5), while for ulcerated forms it was 60 days (IQR 20.0–120.0) (p = 0.009), and for bone lesions, 365 days (IQR 228.0–548.0). On the other hand, we show here that time-delay is not associated with the more severe phenotypes of BU, such as multi-focal lesions (median 90 days; IQR 56–217.5; p = 0.09), larger lesions (diameter >15cm) (median 60 days; IQR 30–120; p = 0.92) or category 3 WHO classification (median 60 days; IQR 30–150; p = 0.20), when compared with unifocal (median 60 days; IQR 30–90), small lesions (diameter ≤15cm) (median 60 days; IQR 30–90), or WHO category 1+2 lesions (median 60 days; IQR 30–90), respectively. Our results demonstrate that after an initial period of progression towards ulceration or bone involvement, BU lesions become stable regarding size and
Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bratschi, Martin W; Bolz, Miriam; Um Boock, Alphonse; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pluschke, Gerd; Junghanss, Thomas
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease most prevalent among West African children. The causative organism, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is sensitive to temperatures above 37°C. We investigated the safety and efficacy of a local heat application device based on phase change material. In a phase II open label single center noncomparative clinical trial (ISRCTN 72102977) under GCP standards in Cameroon, laboratory confirmed BU patients received up to 8 weeks of heat treatment. We assessed efficacy based on the endpoints 'absence of clinical BU specific features' or 'wound closure' within 6 months ("primary cure"), and 'absence of clinical recurrence within 24 month' ("definite cure"). Of 53 patients 51 (96%) had ulcerative disease. 62% were classified as World Health Organization category II, 19% each as category I and III. The average lesion size was 45 cm(2). Within 6 months after completion of heat treatment 92.4% (49 of 53, 95% confidence interval [CI], 81.8% to 98.0%) achieved cure of their primary lesion. At 24 months follow-up 83.7% (41 of 49, 95% CI, 70.3% to 92.7%) of patients with primary cure remained free of recurrence. Heat treatment was well tolerated; adverse effects were occasional mild local skin reactions. Local thermotherapy is a highly effective, simple, cheap and safe treatment for M. ulcerans disease. It has in particular potential as home-based remedy for BU suspicious lesions at community level where laboratory confirmation is not available. ISRCT 72102977. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Beninese Medicinal Plants as a Source of Antimycobacterial Agents: Bioguided Fractionation and In Vitro Activity of Alkaloids Isolated from Holarrhena floribunda Used in Traditional Treatment of Buruli Ulcer
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU imposes a serious economic burden on affected households and on health systems that are involved in diagnosing the disease and treating patients. Research is needed to find cost-effective therapies for this costly disease. Plants have always been an important source of new pharmacologically active molecules. Consequently we decided to undertake the study of plants used in traditional treatment of BU in Benin and investigate their antimycobacterial activity as well as their chemical composition. Extracts from forty-four (44 plant species were selected on account of reported traditional uses for the treatment of BU in Benin and were assayed for antimycobacterial activities. Crude hydroethanolic extract from aerial parts of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don T. Durand and Schinz was found to have significant antimycobacterial activity against M. ulcerans (MIC = 125 µg/mL. We describe here the identification of four steroidal alkaloids from Mycobacterium ulcerans growth-inhibiting fractions of the alkaloidal extract of the aerial parts of Holarrhena floribunda. Holadysamine was purified in sufficient amount to allow the determination of its MCI (=50 µg/mL. These results give some support to the use of this plant in traditional medicine.
Beninese Medicinal Plants as a Source of Antimycobacterial Agents: Bioguided Fractionation and In Vitro Activity of Alkaloids Isolated from Holarrhena floribunda Used in Traditional Treatment of Buruli Ulcer.
Yemoa, Achille; Gbenou, Joachim; Affolabi, Dissou; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Bigot, André; Anagonou, Séverin; Portaels, Françoise; Martin, Anandi; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle
Buruli ulcer (BU) imposes a serious economic burden on affected households and on health systems that are involved in diagnosing the disease and treating patients. Research is needed to find cost-effective therapies for this costly disease. Plants have always been an important source of new pharmacologically active molecules. Consequently we decided to undertake the study of plants used in traditional treatment of BU in Benin and investigate their antimycobacterial activity as well as their chemical composition. Extracts from forty-four (44) plant species were selected on account of reported traditional uses for the treatment of BU in Benin and were assayed for antimycobacterial activities. Crude hydroethanolic extract from aerial parts of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) T. Durand and Schinz was found to have significant antimycobacterial activity against M. ulcerans (MIC = 125 µg/mL). We describe here the identification of four steroidal alkaloids from Mycobacterium ulcerans growth-inhibiting fractions of the alkaloidal extract of the aerial parts of Holarrhena floribunda. Holadysamine was purified in sufficient amount to allow the determination of its MCI (=50 µg/mL). These results give some support to the use of this plant in traditional medicine.
Yolanda K Mueller
Full Text Available Access to laboratory diagnosis can be a challenge for individuals suspected of Buruli Ulcer (BU. Our objective was to develop a clinical score to assist clinicians working in resource-limited settings for BU diagnosis.Between 2011 and 2013, individuals presenting at Akonolinga District Hospital, Cameroon, were enrolled consecutively. Clinical data were collected prospectively. Based on a latent class model using laboratory test results (ZN, PCR, culture, patients were categorized into high, or low BU likelihood. Variables associated with a high BU likelihood in a multivariate logistic model were included in the Buruli score. Score cut-offs were chosen based on calculated predictive values. Of 325 patients with an ulcerative lesion, 51 (15.7% had a high BU likelihood. The variables identified for the Buruli score were: characteristic smell (+3 points, yellow color (+2, female gender (+2, undermining (+1, green color (+1, lesion hyposensitivity (+1, pain at rest (-1, size >5cm (-1, locoregional adenopathy (-2, age above 20 up to 40 years (-3, or above 40 (-5. This score had AUC of 0.86 (95%CI 0.82-0.89, indicating good discrimination between infected and non-infected individuals. The cut-off to reasonably exclude BU was set at scores <0 (NPV 96.5%; 95%CI 93.0-98.6. The treatment threshold was set at a cut-off ≥4 (PPV 69.0%; 95%CI 49.2-84.7. Patients with intermediate BU probability needed to be tested by PCR.We developed a decisional algorithm based on a clinical score assessing BU probability. The Buruli score still requires further validation before it can be recommended for wide use.
Addison, Naa Okaikor; Pfau, Stefanie; Koka, Eric; Aboagye, Samuel Yaw; Kpeli, Grace; Pluschke, Gerd; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Junghanss, Thomas
Beyond Mycobacterium ulcerans-specific therapy, sound general wound management is required for successful management of Buruli ulcer (BU) patients which places them among the large and diverse group of patients in poor countries with a broken skin barrier. Clinically BU suspicious patients were enrolled between October 2013 and August 2015 at a primary health care (PHC) center and a municipal hospital, secondary health care (SHC) center in Ghana. All patients were IS2404 PCR tested and divided into IS2404 PCR positive and negative groups. The course of wound healing was prospectively investigated including predictors of wound closure and assessment of infrastructure, supply and health staff performance. 53 IS2404 PCR positive patients-31 at the PHC center and 22 at the SHC center were enrolled-and additionally, 80 clinically BU suspicious, IS2404 PCR negative patients at the PHC center. The majority of the skin ulcers at the PHC center closed, without the need for surgical intervention (86.7%) compared to 40% at the SHC center, where the majority required split-skin grafting (75%) or excision (12.5%). Only 9% of wounds at the PHC center, but 50% at the SHC center were complicated by bacterial infection. The majority of patients, 54.8% at the PHC center and 68.4% at the SHC center, experienced wound pain, mostly severe and associated with wound dressing. Failure of ulcers to heal was reliably predicted by wound area reduction between week 2 and 4 after initiation of treatment in 75% at the PHC center, and 90% at the SHC center. Obvious reasons for arrested wound healing or deterioration of wound were missed additional severe pathology; at the PHC center (chronic osteomyelitis, chronic lymphedema, squamous cell carcinoma) and at the SHC center (malignant ulceration, chronic lymphedema) in addition to hygiene and wound care deficiencies. When clinically suspicious, but IS2404 PCR negative patients were recaptured in the community, 76/77 (98.7%) of analyzed wounds were
Naa Okaikor Addison
Full Text Available Beyond Mycobacterium ulcerans-specific therapy, sound general wound management is required for successful management of Buruli ulcer (BU patients which places them among the large and diverse group of patients in poor countries with a broken skin barrier.Clinically BU suspicious patients were enrolled between October 2013 and August 2015 at a primary health care (PHC center and a municipal hospital, secondary health care (SHC center in Ghana. All patients were IS2404 PCR tested and divided into IS2404 PCR positive and negative groups. The course of wound healing was prospectively investigated including predictors of wound closure and assessment of infrastructure, supply and health staff performance.53 IS2404 PCR positive patients-31 at the PHC center and 22 at the SHC center were enrolled-and additionally, 80 clinically BU suspicious, IS2404 PCR negative patients at the PHC center. The majority of the skin ulcers at the PHC center closed, without the need for surgical intervention (86.7% compared to 40% at the SHC center, where the majority required split-skin grafting (75% or excision (12.5%. Only 9% of wounds at the PHC center, but 50% at the SHC center were complicated by bacterial infection. The majority of patients, 54.8% at the PHC center and 68.4% at the SHC center, experienced wound pain, mostly severe and associated with wound dressing. Failure of ulcers to heal was reliably predicted by wound area reduction between week 2 and 4 after initiation of treatment in 75% at the PHC center, and 90% at the SHC center. Obvious reasons for arrested wound healing or deterioration of wound were missed additional severe pathology; at the PHC center (chronic osteomyelitis, chronic lymphedema, squamous cell carcinoma and at the SHC center (malignant ulceration, chronic lymphedema in addition to hygiene and wound care deficiencies. When clinically suspicious, but IS2404 PCR negative patients were recaptured in the community, 76/77 (98.7% of analyzed
Full Text Available Background. Buruli ulcer (BU continues to be a serious public health threat in wet tropical regions and the mode of transmission of its etiological agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU, remains poorly understood. In this study, mosquito species collected in endemic villages in Benin were screened for the presence of MU. In addition, the ability of mosquitoes larvae to pick up MU from their environment and remain colonized through the larval developmental stages to the adult stage was investigated. Methods. 7,218 adults and larvae mosquitoes were sampled from endemic and nonendemic villages and screened for MU DNA targets (IS2404, IS2606, and KR-B using qPCR. Results. MU was not detected in any of the field collected samples. Additional studies of artificially infected larvae of Anopheles kisumu with MU strains revealed that mosquitoes larvae are able to ingest and host MU during L1, L2, L3, and L4 developmental stages. However, we noticed an absence of these bacteria at both pupae and adult stages, certainly revealing the low ability of infected or colonized mosquitoes to vertically transmit MU to their offspring. Conclusion. The overall findings highlight the low implication of mosquitoes as biological vectors in the transmission cycle of MU from the risk environments to humans.
Full Text Available The last 20 years has seen a significant series of outbreaks of Buruli/Bairnsdale Ulcer (BU, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, in temperate south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria. Here, the prevailing view of M. ulcerans as an aquatic pathogen has been questioned by recent research identifying native wildlife as potential terrestrial reservoirs of infection; specifically, tree-dwelling common ringtail and brushtail possums. In that previous work, sampling of environmental possum faeces detected a high prevalence of M. ulcerans DNA in established endemic areas for human BU on the Bellarine Peninsula, compared with non-endemic areas. Here, we report research from an emergent BU focus recently identified on the Mornington Peninsula, confirming associations between human BU and the presence of the aetiological agent in possum faeces, detected by real-time PCR targeting M. ulcerans IS2404, IS2606 and KR. Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA was detected in 20/216 (9.3% ground collected ringtail possum faecal samples and 4/6 (66.6% brushtail possum faecal samples. The distribution of the PCR positive possum faecal samples and human BU cases was highly focal: there was a significant non-random cluster of 16 M. ulcerans positive possum faecal sample points detected by spatial scan statistics (P<0.0001 within a circle of radius 0.42 km, within which were located the addresses of 6/12 human cases reported from the area to date; moreover, the highest sample PCR signal strength (equivalent to ≥10(6 organisms per gram of faeces was found in a sample point located within this cluster radius. Corresponding faecal samples collected from closely adjacent BU-free areas were predominantly negative. Possums may be useful sentinels to predict endemic spread of human BU in Victoria, for public health planning. Further research is needed to establish whether spatial associations represent evidence of direct or indirect transmission between possums and humans, and the
Ndongo, Paule Yolande; Fond-Harmant, Laurence; Makoutodé, Michel; Deccache, Alain
Buruli ulcer (BU) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Benin, one of the most severely affected countries, notified 365 cases in 2012. This article presents the results of a psychosocial and behavioural survey conducted in the context of a health promotion (HP) project with community participation. This paper describes the diagnosis, prevention, behaviours, as well as perceptions and experiences related to BU. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two villages (Azonme, Houedota) of Benin Atlantic department. From 15 May to 19 June 2011, a volunteer survey was conducted with 15 former patients and 15 new patients, selected by purposive sampling and 30 randomly selected healthy individuals. Encoding and data analysis were performed with SPSS and Excel. Respondents were aged 11 to 100 years with a mean age of 36.63 years and 55% were men. More than 96% of respondents were aware of BU (symptoms, mode of transmission, prevention and treatment). % were familiar with the mode of transmission, but were not aware of preventive measures. Twenty-none of the 30 patients or former patients were treated in hospital. The attributed and perceived (including non-medical) causes of the disease were water (52), bacteria (17), bad luck (5). 92% of respondents were satisfied with the services of health professionals but proposed changes (46) concerning hospital accessibility and cost of care. These results show similarities and differences compared to those reported in the literature on the subject. These surveys were the basis for health promotion interventions with the participation of two communities.
Martin W Bratschi
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU, a neglected tropical disease of the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, occurs most frequently in children in West Africa. Risk factors for BU include proximity to slow flowing water, poor wound care and not wearing protective clothing. Man-made alterations of the environment have been suggested to lead to increased BU incidence. M. ulcerans DNA has been detected in the environment, water bugs and recently also in mosquitoes. Despite these findings, the mode of transmission of BU remains poorly understood and both transmission by insects or direct inoculation from contaminated environment have been suggested. Here, we investigated the BU epidemiology in the Mapé basin of Cameroon where the damming of the Mapé River since 1988 is believed to have increased the incidence of BU. Through a house-by-house survey in spring 2010, which also examined the local population for leprosy and yaws, and continued surveillance thereafter, we identified, till June 2012, altogether 88 RT-PCR positive cases of BU. We found that the age adjusted cumulative incidence of BU was highest in young teenagers and in individuals above the age of 50 and that very young children (<5 were underrepresented among cases. BU lesions clustered around the ankles and at the back of the elbows. This pattern neither matches any of the published mosquito biting site patterns, nor the published distribution of small skin injuries in children, where lesions on the knees are much more frequent. The option of multiple modes of transmission should thus be considered. Analyzing the geographic distribution of cases in the Mapé Dam area revealed a closer association with the Mbam River than with the artificial lake.
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact mode of transmission is not known. Previous studies have identified demographic, socio-economic, health and hygiene as well as environment related risk factors. We investigated whether the same factors pertain in Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar (SKC and Akuapem South (AS Districts in Ghana which previously were not endemic for BU.We conducted a case control study. A case of BU was defined as any person aged 2 years or more who resided in study area (SKC or AS District diagnosed according to the WHO clinical case definition for BU and matched with age- (+/-5 years, gender-, and community controls. A structured questionnaire on host, demographic, environmental, and behavioural factors was administered to participants.A total of 113 cases and 113 community controls were interviewed. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified presence of wetland in the neighborhood (OR=3.9, 95% CI=1.9-8.2, insect bites in water/mud (OR=5.7, 95% CI=2.5-13.1, use of adhesive when injured (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.1-6.8, and washing in the Densu river (OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.1-4.96 as risk factors associated with BU. Rubbing an injured area with alcohol (OR=0.21, 95% CI=0.008-0.57 and wearing long sleeves for farming (OR=0.29, 95% CI=0.14-0.62 showed protection against BU.This study identified the presence of wetland, insect bites in water, use of adhesive when injured, and washing in the river as risk factors for BU; and covering limbs during farming as well as use of alcohol after insect bites as protective factors against BU in Ghana. Until paths of transmission are unraveled, control strategies in BU endemic areas should focus on these known risk factors.
Amoakoh, Hannah Brown; Aikins, Moses
The economic burden of diseases has become increasingly relevant to policy makers as healthcare expenditure keep rising in the face of limited and competing resources. Buruli ulcer (BU), a neglected but treatable tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, the only known environmental mycobacterium is capable of causing long term disability when left untreated. However, most BU studies have tended to focused on its bacteriology, epidemiology, entomology and other social determinants to the neglect of its economic evaluation. This paper reports estimated the household economic costs of BU and describe the intangible cost suffered by BU patients in an endemic area. Retrospective one year cost data was used. A total of 63 confirmed BU cases were randomly sampled for the study. Economic cost and cost burden of BU were estimated. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the robustness of the cost estimates. Intangible cost measured stigmatization, pain, functional limitation and social isolation of children. The annual total household economic cost was US$35,915.98, of which about 65% was cost incurred by children with a mean cost of US$521.04. The mean annual household cost was US$570.09. The direct cost was 96% of the total cost. Non-medical cost accounts for about 97% of the direct cost with a mean cost of US$529.27. The mean medical cost was US$18.94. The main cost drivers of the household costs were transportation (78%) and food (12%). Caregivers and adult patients lost a total of 535 productive days seeking care, which gives an indirect cost valued at US$1,378.67 with a mean of US$21.88. A total of 365 school days (about 1 year) were lost by 19 BU patients (mean, 19.2 days). Functional loss and pain were low, and stigma rated moderate. Most children suffering from BU (84%) were socially isolated. Household cost burden of out-patient BU ulcer treatment was high. Household cost of BU is therefore essential in the design of its intervention. BU afflicted
Full Text Available Ulcerative lesions in Behcet’s disease (BD are regarded as important manifestation for diagnosis. Various kinds of ulcerative lesions appear in patients with BD. They present as orogenital ulcers, necrotizing vasculitis and pyoderma gengrenosum. Gastrointestinal system involvement (Gis in Behçet’s disease affects all areas from the esophagus to the anus. Most authors believe that the Gis manifestations of Behçet’s disease should be confined to aphthous ulcers, which can occur throughout the Gis tract. All patients with oro-genital and Gis ulcerations should be fully investigated to establish a definitive diagnosis and eliminate the possibility of an underlying BD.
N'krumah, Raymond T A S; Koné, Brama; Tiembre, Issaka; Cissé, Guéladio; Pluschke, Gerd; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a cutaneous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The exact mode of transmission remains elusive; yet, some studies identified environmental, socio-sanitary, and behavioral risk factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of such factors to contracting BU in Tiassalé, south Côte d'Ivoire. A case-control study was conducted in 2012. Cases were BU patients diagnosed according to clinical definition put forth by the World Health Organization, readily confirmed by IS2404 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis prior to our study and recruited at one of the health centers of the district. Two controls were matched for each control, by age group (to the nearest 5 years), sex, and living community. Participants were interviewed after providing oral witnessed consent, assessing behavioral, environmental, and socio-sanitary factors. A total of 51 incident and prevalent cases and 102 controls were enrolled. Sex ratio (male:female) was 0.9. Median age was 25 years (range: 5-70 years). Regular contact with unprotected surface water (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 6.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.1-19.7) and absence of protective equipment during agricultural activities (aOR = 18.5, 95% CI = 5.2-66.7) were identified as the main factors associated with the risk of contracting BU. Etiologic fractions among exposed to both factors were 84.9% and 94.6%, respectively. Good knowledge about the risks that may result in BU (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.8) and perception about the disease causes (aOR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.02-0.3) showed protection against BU with a respective preventive fraction of 70% and 90%. Main risk factors identified in this study were the contact with unprotected water bodies through daily activities and the absence of protective equipment during agricultural activities. An effective strategy to reduce the incidence of BU should involve compliance with protective equipment during agricultural activities and
N’krumah, Raymond T. A. S.; Koné, Brama; Tiembre, Issaka; Cissé, Guéladio; Pluschke, Gerd; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg
Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a cutaneous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The exact mode of transmission remains elusive; yet, some studies identified environmental, socio-sanitary, and behavioral risk factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of such factors to contracting BU in Tiassalé, south Côte d’Ivoire. Methodology A case-control study was conducted in 2012. Cases were BU patients diagnosed according to clinical definition put forth by the World Health Organization, readily confirmed by IS2404 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis prior to our study and recruited at one of the health centers of the district. Two controls were matched for each control, by age group (to the nearest 5 years), sex, and living community. Participants were interviewed after providing oral witnessed consent, assessing behavioral, environmental, and socio-sanitary factors. Principal Findings A total of 51 incident and prevalent cases and 102 controls were enrolled. Sex ratio (male:female) was 0.9. Median age was 25 years (range: 5–70 years). Regular contact with unprotected surface water (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 6.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.1–19.7) and absence of protective equipment during agricultural activities (aOR = 18.5, 95% CI = 5.2–66.7) were identified as the main factors associated with the risk of contracting BU. Etiologic fractions among exposed to both factors were 84.9% and 94.6%, respectively. Good knowledge about the risks that may result in BU (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1–0.8) and perception about the disease causes (aOR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.02–0.3) showed protection against BU with a respective preventive fraction of 70% and 90%. Conclusions/Significance Main risk factors identified in this study were the contact with unprotected water bodies through daily activities and the absence of protective equipment during agricultural activities. An effective strategy to reduce the incidence of BU should
Raymond T A S N'krumah
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a cutaneous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The exact mode of transmission remains elusive; yet, some studies identified environmental, socio-sanitary, and behavioral risk factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of such factors to contracting BU in Tiassalé, south Côte d'Ivoire.A case-control study was conducted in 2012. Cases were BU patients diagnosed according to clinical definition put forth by the World Health Organization, readily confirmed by IS2404 polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis prior to our study and recruited at one of the health centers of the district. Two controls were matched for each control, by age group (to the nearest 5 years, sex, and living community. Participants were interviewed after providing oral witnessed consent, assessing behavioral, environmental, and socio-sanitary factors.A total of 51 incident and prevalent cases and 102 controls were enrolled. Sex ratio (male:female was 0.9. Median age was 25 years (range: 5-70 years. Regular contact with unprotected surface water (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 6.5; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.1-19.7 and absence of protective equipment during agricultural activities (aOR = 18.5, 95% CI = 5.2-66.7 were identified as the main factors associated with the risk of contracting BU. Etiologic fractions among exposed to both factors were 84.9% and 94.6%, respectively. Good knowledge about the risks that may result in BU (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.8 and perception about the disease causes (aOR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.02-0.3 showed protection against BU with a respective preventive fraction of 70% and 90%.Main risk factors identified in this study were the contact with unprotected water bodies through daily activities and the absence of protective equipment during agricultural activities. An effective strategy to reduce the incidence of BU should involve compliance with protective equipment during agricultural
biofilms, soil, aquatic insects, fish and wildlife however, the mode of transmission to humans remains an enigma. Current transmission ideas including bites from predatory water bugs and mosquitoes, do not explain satisfactorily the spasmodic disease distribution in human populations. Here we argue that Acanthamoeba ...
Aboagye, Samuel Yaw; Danso, Emelia; Ampah, Kobina Assan; Nakobu, Zuliehatu; Asare, Prince; Otchere, Isaac Darko; Röltgen, Katharina; Yirenya-Tawiah, Dzidzo; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy
This study aimed to isolate nontuberculous mycobacterial species from environmental samples obtained from some selected communities in Ghana. To optimize decontamination, spiked environmental samples were used to evaluate four decontamination solutions and supplemented media, after which the best decontamination solution and media were used for the actual analysis. The isolates obtained were identified on the basis of specific genetic sequences, including heat shock protein 65, IS2404, IS2606, rpoB, and the ketoreductase gene, as needed. Among the methods evaluated, decontamination with 1 M NaOH followed by 5% oxalic acid gave the highest rate of recovery of mycobacteria (50.0%) and the lowest rate of contamination (15.6%). The cultivation medium that supported the highest rate of recovery of mycobacteria was polymyxin B-amphotericin B-nalidixic acid-trimethoprim-azlocillin-supplemented medium (34.4%), followed by isoniazid-supplemented medium (28.1%). Among the 139 samples cultivated in the main analysis, 58 (41.7%) yielded mycobacterial growth, 70 (50.4%) had no growth, and 11 (7.9%) had all inoculated tubes contaminated. A total of 25 different mycobacterial species were identified. Fifteen species (60%) were slowly growing (e.g., Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium mantenii, and Mycobacterium malmoense), and 10 (40%) were rapidly growing (e.g., Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium abscessus). The occurrence of mycobacterial species in the various environmental samples analyzed was as follows: soil, 16 species (43.2%); vegetation, 14 species (38.0%); water, 3 species (8.0%); moss, 2 species (5.4%); snail, 1 species (2.7%); fungi, 1 species (2.7%). This study is the first to report on the isolation of M. ulcerans and other medically relevant nontuberculous mycobacteria from different environmental sources in Ghana. Diseases caused by mycobacterial species other than those that cause tuberculosis and leprosy are
direct smear examination, culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histopathology are recommended investigation means (4),. To the best knowledge of the authors, there is ... Because of the long queue for bed, she went back home. There after, since she lost hope on modern medicine, she visited several traditional.
include visceral leishmaniasis (VL), human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease, hookworm infection, ascariasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, drancunculiasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma, leprosy (Hansen's disease), and Buruli ulcer. Except for Chaga's disease, all other officially designated ...
Full Text Available Boakye DA ... TITLE ... Ecology and transmission of Buruli ulcer disease: a system...05 (description, env_factor) ... AUTHORS ... Merritt RW, Walker ED, Small PL, Wallace JR, Johnson PD, Benbow ME,
Tytgat, G. N.
An overview is given of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Helicobacter pylori-associated duodenal and gastric ulceration. Special attention is given to the role of microbial virulence factors, the effects on gastric acid secretion and the development of 'gastric type' metaplasia in the duodenal
Alferink, Marike; van der Werf, Tjip S; Sopoh, Ghislain E; Agossadou, Didier C; Barogui, Yves T; Assouto, Frederic; Agossadou, Chantal; Stewart, Roy E; Stienstra, Ymkje; Ranchor, Adelita V
Delay in seeking treatment at the hospital is a major challenge in current Buruli ulcer control; it is associated with severe sequelae and functional limitations. Choosing alternative treatment and psychological, social and practical factors appear to influence delay. Objectives were to determine potential predictors for pre-hospital delay with Leventhal's commonsense model of illness representations, and to explore whether the type of available dominant treatment modality influenced individuals' perceptions about BU, and therefore, influenced pre-hospital delay. 130 healthy individuals aged >18 years, living in BU-endemic areas in Benin without any history of BU were included in this cross-sectional study. Sixty four participants from areas where surgery was the dominant treatment and sixty six participants from areas where antibiotic treatment was the dominant treatment modality were recruited. Using a semi-structured interview we measured illness perceptions (IPQ-R), knowledge about BU, background variables and estimated pre-hospital delay. The individual characteristics 'effectiveness of treatment' and 'timeline acute-chronic' showed the strongest association with pre-hospital delay. No differences were found between regions where surgery was the dominant treatment and regions where antibiotics were the dominant treatment modality. Individual characteristics, not anticipated treatment modality appeared predictors of pre-hospital delay.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delay in seeking treatment at the hospital is a major challenge in current Buruli ulcer control; it is associated with severe sequelae and functional limitations. Choosing alternative treatment and psychological, social and practical factors appear to influence delay. Objectives were to determine potential predictors for pre-hospital delay with Leventhal's commonsense model of illness representations, and to explore whether the type of available dominant treatment modality influenced individuals' perceptions about BU, and therefore, influenced pre-hospital delay. METHODOLOGY: 130 healthy individuals aged >18 years, living in BU-endemic areas in Benin without any history of BU were included in this cross-sectional study. Sixty four participants from areas where surgery was the dominant treatment and sixty six participants from areas where antibiotic treatment was the dominant treatment modality were recruited. Using a semi-structured interview we measured illness perceptions (IPQ-R, knowledge about BU, background variables and estimated pre-hospital delay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The individual characteristics 'effectiveness of treatment' and 'timeline acute-chronic' showed the strongest association with pre-hospital delay. No differences were found between regions where surgery was the dominant treatment and regions where antibiotics were the dominant treatment modality. CONCLUSIONS: Individual characteristics, not anticipated treatment modality appeared predictors of pre-hospital delay.
Hart, Bryan E.
Buruli ulcer (BU) vaccine design faces similar challenges to those observed during development of prophylactic tuberculosis treatments. Multiple BU vaccine candidates, based upon Mycobacterium bovis BCG, altered Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) cells, recombinant MU DNA, or MU protein prime-boosts, have shown promise by conferring transient protection to mice against the pathology of MU challenge. Recently, we have shown that a recombinant BCG vaccine expressing MU-Ag85A (BCG MU-Ag85A) displayed the highest level of protection to date, by significantly extending the survival time of MU challenged mice compared to BCG vaccination alone. Here we describe the generation, immunogenicity testing, and evaluation of protection conferred by a recombinant BCG strain which overexpresses a fusion of two alternative MU antigens, Ag85B and the MU ortholog of tuberculosis TB10.4, EsxH. Vaccination with BCG MU-Ag85B-EsxH induces proliferation of Ag85 specific CD4+ T cells in greater numbers than BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A and produces IFNγ+ splenocytes responsive to whole MU and recombinant antigens. In addition, anti-Ag85A and Ag85B IgG humoral responses are significantly enhanced after administration of the fusion vaccine compared to BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A. Finally, mice challenged with MU following a single subcutaneous vaccination with BCG MU-Ag85B-EsxH display significantly less bacterial burden at 6 and 12 weeks post-infection, reduced histopathological tissue damage, and significantly longer survival times compared to vaccination with either BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A. These results further support the potential of BCG as a foundation for BU vaccine design, whereby discovery and recombinant expression of novel immunogenic antigens could lead to greater anti-MU efficacy using this highly safe and ubiquitous vaccine. PMID:27941982
Bryan E Hart
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU vaccine design faces similar challenges to those observed during development of prophylactic tuberculosis treatments. Multiple BU vaccine candidates, based upon Mycobacterium bovis BCG, altered Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU cells, recombinant MU DNA, or MU protein prime-boosts, have shown promise by conferring transient protection to mice against the pathology of MU challenge. Recently, we have shown that a recombinant BCG vaccine expressing MU-Ag85A (BCG MU-Ag85A displayed the highest level of protection to date, by significantly extending the survival time of MU challenged mice compared to BCG vaccination alone. Here we describe the generation, immunogenicity testing, and evaluation of protection conferred by a recombinant BCG strain which overexpresses a fusion of two alternative MU antigens, Ag85B and the MU ortholog of tuberculosis TB10.4, EsxH. Vaccination with BCG MU-Ag85B-EsxH induces proliferation of Ag85 specific CD4+ T cells in greater numbers than BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A and produces IFNγ+ splenocytes responsive to whole MU and recombinant antigens. In addition, anti-Ag85A and Ag85B IgG humoral responses are significantly enhanced after administration of the fusion vaccine compared to BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A. Finally, mice challenged with MU following a single subcutaneous vaccination with BCG MU-Ag85B-EsxH display significantly less bacterial burden at 6 and 12 weeks post-infection, reduced histopathological tissue damage, and significantly longer survival times compared to vaccination with either BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A. These results further support the potential of BCG as a foundation for BU vaccine design, whereby discovery and recombinant expression of novel immunogenic antigens could lead to greater anti-MU efficacy using this highly safe and ubiquitous vaccine.
Hart, Bryan E; Lee, Sunhee
Buruli ulcer (BU) vaccine design faces similar challenges to those observed during development of prophylactic tuberculosis treatments. Multiple BU vaccine candidates, based upon Mycobacterium bovis BCG, altered Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) cells, recombinant MU DNA, or MU protein prime-boosts, have shown promise by conferring transient protection to mice against the pathology of MU challenge. Recently, we have shown that a recombinant BCG vaccine expressing MU-Ag85A (BCG MU-Ag85A) displayed the highest level of protection to date, by significantly extending the survival time of MU challenged mice compared to BCG vaccination alone. Here we describe the generation, immunogenicity testing, and evaluation of protection conferred by a recombinant BCG strain which overexpresses a fusion of two alternative MU antigens, Ag85B and the MU ortholog of tuberculosis TB10.4, EsxH. Vaccination with BCG MU-Ag85B-EsxH induces proliferation of Ag85 specific CD4+ T cells in greater numbers than BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A and produces IFNγ+ splenocytes responsive to whole MU and recombinant antigens. In addition, anti-Ag85A and Ag85B IgG humoral responses are significantly enhanced after administration of the fusion vaccine compared to BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A. Finally, mice challenged with MU following a single subcutaneous vaccination with BCG MU-Ag85B-EsxH display significantly less bacterial burden at 6 and 12 weeks post-infection, reduced histopathological tissue damage, and significantly longer survival times compared to vaccination with either BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A. These results further support the potential of BCG as a foundation for BU vaccine design, whereby discovery and recombinant expression of novel immunogenic antigens could lead to greater anti-MU efficacy using this highly safe and ubiquitous vaccine.
Morris, Aaron; Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Hassani, Hossein; Andreou, Demetra; Couppié, Pierre; Guégan, Jean-François
International audience; Predominantly occurring in developing parts of the world, Buruli ulcer is a severely disabling mycobacterium infection which often leads to extensive necrosis of the skin. While the exact route of transmission remains uncertain, like many tropical diseases, associations with climate have been previously observed and could help identify the causative agent's ecological niche. In this paper, links between changes in rainfall and outbreaks of Buruli ulcer in French Guiana...
Pickwell, KM; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kars, M
Healing of heel ulcers in patients with diabetes is considered to be poor, but there is relatively little information on the influence of ulcer location on ulcer healing.......Healing of heel ulcers in patients with diabetes is considered to be poor, but there is relatively little information on the influence of ulcer location on ulcer healing....
Levine, Arie; de Bie, Charlotte I; Turner, Dan
Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping of at...... of atypical inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our aim was to identify the prevalence of atypical disease patterns in new-onset pediatric UC using the Paris classification.......Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping...
Motamedi, Mojdeh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Vesal, Mahmoud
Peptic ulcer, the common disease of the upper gastro-intestinal tract, occurs in about 5-10% of the world's population. Therefore, diagnosis of trace disease progression with a noninvasive method is of prime importance in the field of healthcare research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of salivary enzymes as noninvasive biomarkers for peptic ulcer. In practice, 34 peptic ulcer patients and 30 healthy subjects donated their un-stimulated saliva samples after 8 h of fasting. The activity of some selected enzymes was measured using appropriate enzymatic assay methods. The results indicated an overall alternation in enzymatic activity of saliva in patients suffering from peptic ulcer. Biological activity of a-amylase, peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase, showed significantly higher values in almost all patients as compared to control subjects. Based on the results of salivary enzyme activity, it was concluded that besides the influence of their peptic ulcer on enzyme activity of saliva, the considerably higher activity of a-amylase could also be related to the major role of the enzyme on physiological oxidative stress.
Motamedi, Mojdeh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Vesal, Mahmoud
Aim Peptic ulcer, the common disease of the upper gastro-intestinal tract, occurs in about 5–10% of the world's population. Therefore, diagnosis of trace disease progression with a noninvasive method is of prime importance in the field of healthcare research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of salivary enzymes as noninvasive biomarkers for peptic ulcer. Materials and methods In practice, 34 peptic ulcer patients and 30 healthy subjects donated their un-stimulated saliva samples after 8 h of fasting. The activity of some selected enzymes was measured using appropriate enzymatic assay methods. Results The results indicated an overall alternation in enzymatic activity of saliva in patients suffering from peptic ulcer. Biological activity of a-amylase, peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase, showed significantly higher values in almost all patients as compared to control subjects. Conclusions Based on the results of salivary enzyme activity, it was concluded that besides the influence of their peptic ulcer on enzyme activity of saliva, the considerably higher activity of a-amylase could also be related to the major role of the enzyme on physiological oxidative stress. PMID:25737890
... Lab tests To see if you have a Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, your doctor will order ... Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de ...
Furthermore, the correlation study was performed between CSE expression ... Aim:The expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) was determined, and correlated with the severity of gastric ulcer disease. Methods: One hundred and .... hydrogen sulfide against oxidative stress in rat gastric mucosal epithelium. Toxicology ...
Lolle, Ida; Møller, Morten Hylander; Rosenstock, Steffen Jais
OBJECTIVE: Mortality rates in complicated peptic ulcer disease are high. This study aimed to examine the prognostic importance of ulcer site in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) and perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DESIGN: a nationwide cohort study with prospective...... and adjusted association between ulcer site (gastric and duodenal) and the outcome measures of interest were assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Some 20,059 patients with PUB and 4273 patients with PPU were included; 90-d mortality was 15.3% for PUB and 29.8% for PPU; 30-d mortality...... was 10.2% and 24.7%, respectively. Duodenal bleeding ulcer, as compared to gastric ulcer (GU), was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality within 90 and 30 d, and with re-intervention: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.30-1.67); p
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Ulcers KidsHealth / For Teens / Ulcers What's in this article? ... is that the real story? What Is an Ulcer? An ulcer is a sore, which means it's ...
Background: Helicobacter pylori infection has been identified as an important risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and is probably the most important cause of relapse in those previously treated for peptic ulcer disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association of Helicobacter pylori infection as ...
Zamir, Ehud; Bodaghi, Bahram; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; See, Robert F; Charlotte, Frederic; Wang, Robert C; Wechsler, Bertrand; LeHoang, Phuc; Anteby, Irene; Rao, Narsing A
To describe the occurrence of conjunctival ulcers as a manifestation of Behçet's disease. Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series with histopathologic correlation. Six patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for Behçet's disease and presented with painful conjunctival ulcers were included in the study. Three of these ulcers were biopsied and studied histologically and immunohistochemically. The lesions were treated with topical or subconjunctival injection of corticosteroids and, in one case, with oral indomethacin. Although all six patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for Behçet's disease, two developed uveitis and other signs of Behçet's disease only months to years after the appearance of the conjunctival ulcers. The 3- to 5-mm, round to oval ulcers were located in the limbal and/or bulbar conjunctiva. Histopathology revealed disrupted epithelium, infiltration of both acute and chronic inflammatory cells, and high endothelial venules. Immunohistochemical analysis of the infiltrating lymphocytes revealed primarily T-cell populations admixed with several B cells and CD68-positive histiocytes. After treatment, the conjunctival lesions invariably healed without scarring. In addition to the oral and genital ulceration, ulcers can also be found in the conjunctiva of patients with Behçet's disease. Although this is a rare clinical sign, when accompanied by uveitis or orogenital ulcers, it may suggest a diagnosis of Behçet's disease.
Isene, Rune; Bernklev, Tomm; Høie, Ole
BACKGROUND: In chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]), symptoms from outside the gastrointestinal tract are frequently seen, and the joints, skin, eyes, and hepatobiliary area are the most usually affected sites (called extraintestinal...
Tytgat, G. N.; Noach, L. A.; Rauws, E. A.
H. pylori is undoubtedly the dominant factor in the multifactorial peptic ulcer diathesis. We should not ignore the other contributing factors but rather try to identify how they interact with the organism and initiate the ulcerative process. The interplay of acid attack and mucosal defence is
Lozano Sánchez, F S; Marinel lo Roura, J; Carrasco Carrasco, E; González-Porras, J R; Escudero Rodríguez, J R; Sánchez Nevarez, I; Díaz Sánchez, S
Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a frequent disorder with a high socioeconomic impact. Little is known about the possible differences between healed ulcer (C5 group) and active ulcer (C6 group) in terms of disease severity and quality of life (QoL). Our aim was to determine the possible differences in severity disease and QoL between the C5-C6 and C1 (control) group. Data from a national, multicentre, observational and cross-sectional study (n = 1598) were used to compare three groups of CVD: C1 (n = 243), C5 (n = 136) and C6 (n = 70). CVD severity was assessed with the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and QoL with the Short Form 12 Health Survey (SF-12) and Chronic Lower Limb Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire (CIVIQ-20). Patients with active ulcers had a higher mean total VCSS than patients with healed ulcers (P ulcers than in those with C1 (P ulcers (C6) had lower QoL scores, but the differences were not statistically significant. Patients with venous leg ulcers (C5-C6) are associated with high severity and poor QoL. However, the healing of a leg ulcer did not contribute to improvement of QoL.
Jess, P; Eldrup, J
OBJECTIVES. To compare personality characteristics in duodenal ulcer patients and patients with ulcer-like dyspepsia from the primary health sector with duodenal ulcer patients from a hospital and to evaluate the relationship of the personality characteristics to the course of the diseases. DESIGN......, Denmark. SUBJECTS. Sixty hospital patients with duodenal ulceration and 17 patients with duodenal ulceration plus 25 patients with ulcer-like dyspepsia from the primary health sector. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. MMPI scores. RESULTS. The hospital patients differed from the two other groups of patients...
Lim, Wei-Yen; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Chong, Siow Ann
We evaluated the association between self-reported doctor-diagnosed peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and mental disorders in a representative cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 in Singapore. The sample comprised 6616 community-dwelling individuals. Participants were asked about a previous history of doctor-diagnosed PUD. Assessment of mental disorders was performed using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Quality of life was assessed using the EuroQoL 5D. The weighted prevalence of PUD was 1.58% (95% CI=1.13-2.02). In adjusted analyses, PUD was more common among people with anxiety disorders [obsessive compulsive disorders (OR 4.22, 95% CI 1.59-11.21), Generalized Anxiety Disorders (OR 9.25, 95% CI 2.43-35.17), any anxiety disorders (OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.82-10.61)] and with any mood disorders (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.08-6.53). PUD was associated with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, but not with smoking or nicotine dependence. Adjustment for nicotine and alcohol use attenuated the association of mood disorders with PUD, but not that of anxiety disorders. PUD was associated with reduced quality of life as measured on EuroQoL 5D, with further reduction in those with concomitant mental disorders. PUD was associated with anxiety disorders, and this association is not attenuated with adjustment for nicotine dependence or alcohol use disorder. © 2014.
A single rectal ulcer is an uncommon finding in children with gastrointestinal disease. Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is foremost among the differential diagnoses, a primary immunological defect should not be forgotten. Because of the paucity of literature on the association of rectal ul...
Finch, Justin J; Wald, Jenna; Ferenczi, Katalin; Khalid, Saima; Murphy, Michael
Nonsexual acute genital ulceration (NAGU) is a rare vulvar skin condition typically affecting girls and young women, characterized by acute onset of singular or multiple painful vaginal ulcers. The etiology of this ulcerative dermatosis has not been identified, although it has been associated with systemic infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association with Lyme disease. A case of a woman with early disseminated Lyme disease presenting with NAGU is reported. A thorough workup ruled out other causes of genital ulceration, and the ulcers completely resolved after treatment with topical steroids and oral doxycycline. Although the etiology of NAGU is unknown, the vulvar ulcers may result from an exuberant immune response to infection. Most patients with NAGU exhibit nonspecific symptoms such as myalgias and fever, suggesting an infectious agent, but the majority have no identifiable pathogen. In addition to previously reported associations with systemic infection, which are reviewed herein, Lyme disease should be considered in women presenting with acute-onset genital ulcers.
Rhodes, J M; Gallimore, R; Elias, E; Allan, R N; Kennedy, J F
Because the normal faecal flora includes bacteria which can produce mucus-digesting glycosidases, it follows that increased digestion of colonic mucus by these bacterial enzymes could be important in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal activities of potential mucus-degrading glycosidases have therefore been assayed in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal controls. The enzymes alpha-D-galactosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-NAc-D-glucosaminidase alpha-L-fucosidase and neuraminidase were assayed. Considerable glycosidase activity was present in most faecal samples. Similar activities of all the enzymes assayed were found in faeces from patients with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and normal controls and there was no significant correlation with disease activity. These results imply that relapse of ulcerative colitis is not initiated by increased degradation of colonic mucus by faecal glycosidases but do not exclude a role for bacterial mucus degradation in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.
Oparin, S O; Korotkyï, V M; Kolosovych, I V; Spitsyn, R Iu; Furmanenko, M F; Kartashov, B T; Martynovych, L D; Krasovs'kyĭ, V O; Butyrin, S O; Zinchenko, I I; Rupitsev, O O; Dzhurko, M G
There were examined 135 patients with perforative ulcer of the gastric terminal portion (GTP) and of duodenum. Performance of duodeno- or gastroduodenoplasty without vagotomy, the correcting therapy conduction in early postoperative period had promoted the normalization of the GTP motor function and the gastric acid output reduction in late follow-up period, trusting the expediency of organ-preserving operation conduction without vagotomy as radical method of the complicated ulcer disease treatment.
Gonzáles Flores, Pedro; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Monge Salgado, Eduardo; Servicio de Gastroenterología, Hospital Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión, Callao
OBJETIVE: To determinate the ABO blood group distribution in patients with peptic ulcer disease ( PUD ). METHODS: Descriptive and retrospective study. Clinical records of patients with endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer and ABO blood group typification between june 1994 and november 1996 were reviewed. Blood donnors and patients that attended the blood bank between july and august 1996 were taken as controls. RESULTS: 100 patients were studied. In controls 73% were blood group O, whereas in...
Back, Ivi Ribeiro; Marcon, Sonia Silva; Gaino, Natalia Moreno; Vulcano, Daniela Salate Biagioni; Dorna, Mariana de Souza; Sassaki, Ligia Yukie
The nutritional status of individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases is directly related to the severity of the disease and is associated with poor prognosis and the deterioration of immune competence. To assess the nutritional status and the body composition of outpatients with inflammatory bowel diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted with clinical and nutritional assessment of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Patients were classified according to the clinical activity through Crohn's Disease Activity Index and Mayo Score. Nutritional assessment consisted of anthropometric measurements of current weight, height, mid-arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness and thickness of adductor policis muscle, with subsequent calculation of BMI, arm muscle circumference and the mid-arm muscle area (MAMA). The phase angle (PhA) and lean and fat mass were obtained with the use of electrical bioimpedance. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test or Fisher exact test, ANOVA and t-test. We evaluated 141 patients of which 54 (38.29%) had Crohn's disease and 87 (61.70%) ulcerative colitis. The mean age was 43.98 (±15.68) years in Crohn's disease and 44.28 (±16.29) years for ulcerative colitis. Most of the patients were in clinical remission of the disease (Crohn's disease: 88.89%; ulcerative colitis: 87.36%). Regarding the nutritional classification using BMI, it was found that 48.15% of Crohn's disease patients were eutrophic and 40.74% were overweight or obese; among patients with ulcerative colitis, 52.87% were classified as overweight or obese. When considering the triceps skinfold, it was observed in both groups a high percentage of overweight and obesity (Crohn's disease: 75.93%; ulcerative colitis: 72.42%). Crohn's disease patients showed the most affected nutritional status according to the nutritional variables when compared to patients with ulcerative colitis (BMI: 24.88 kg/m² x BMI: 26.56 kg/m², P=0.054; MAMA: 35.11 mm x MAMA: 40
Hernandez, D E; Arandia, D; Dehesa, M
Evidence indicates that a link between peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and selected psychosomatic factors may exist. A series of 70 consecutive male and female adult patients were categorized by peptic symptoms and divided into four groups: a) controls; b) gastric ulcer (GU); c) duodenal ulcer (DU); and d) chronic non-ulcer dyspepsia (CNUD). All patients were interviewed and asked to answer a questionnaire that included demographics, medical history and the incidence of negative life events. A decreased level of activity was a predominant finding in GU, DU and CNUD patients. Family history of PUD may be correlated with CNUD. Of interest was the finding that DU and CNUD patients presented a higher incidence of negative life events when compared to the other study groups. Negative life events that produce considerable stress may predispose to peptic symptoms in certain patients.
Morris, Aaron; Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Hassani, Hossein; Andreou, Demetra; Couppié, Pierre; Guégan, Jean-François
Predominantly occurring in developing parts of the world, Buruli ulcer is a severely disabling mycobacterium infection which often leads to extensive necrosis of the skin. While the exact route of transmission remains uncertain, like many tropical diseases, associations with climate have been previously observed and could help identify the causative agent's ecological niche. In this paper, links between changes in rainfall and outbreaks of Buruli ulcer in French Guiana, an ultraperipheral European territory in the northeast of South America, were identified using a combination of statistical tests based on singular spectrum analysis, empirical mode decomposition and cross-wavelet coherence analysis. From this, it was possible to postulate for the first time that outbreaks of Buruli ulcer can be triggered by combinations of rainfall patterns occurring on a long (i.e., several years) and short (i.e., seasonal) temporal scale, in addition to stochastic events driven by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation that may disrupt or interact with these patterns. Long-term forecasting of rainfall trends further suggests the possibility of an upcoming outbreak of Buruli ulcer in French Guiana.
... aspirin and ibuprofen an infection with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) rare cancerous and noncancerous tumors ... Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aimed at determining peptic ulcer disease (PUD incidence among chronic kidney disease (CKD patients during 1998-2008, compared to patients without CKD, and at examining associations between CKD and PUD. METHODS: Data for 1998-2008 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The annual PUD incidence (cases per thousand persons per year was calculated separately for patients with and without CKD. Characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed PUD (n = 16322 were compared to those of a control group without PUD (n = 32644. The 2 groups were matched for age, sex, and index year. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: Over the 10-year period, the PUD incidence was ∼10-12 times higher in CKD patients than in those without CKD. Its incidence in elderly CKD patients increased rapidly over time. For CKD patients, most PUD events (>95% were managed during hospitalization. Peptic ulcer risk, adjusted for all potential confounders, was much higher in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis (adjusted OR, 9.74; 95% CI, 7.11-13.31. Maintenance hemodialysis patients were 2 times more likely to have gastric ulcers than duodenal ulcers, while CKD patients not on dialysis had similar risks for both. There were no significant interactions between medications and CKD status on the peptic ulcer risk. Unlike CKD patients on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and clopidogrel, those on aspirin did not have a higher peptic ulcer risk (adjusted OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.44-1.77. CONCLUSIONS: CKD patients have a substantially increased PUD risk, and the majority of CKD patients with PUD require hospital management. Further, peptic ulcer risk is affected by hemodialysis therapy, patient status (inpatient vs. outpatient, and ulcerogenic medications.
To determine the Epidemiological characteristic of genital ulcers and sexually transmitted diseases, incident cases with genital tract symptoms presenting at the primary care and secondary care centers; 4 private pharmacies, 3 private medical laboratories were seen at the Our Land of Lourdes Hospital through a system of ...
Peptic ulcer disease is due to the circumscribed, complete loss of gut epithelium in parts of the digestive tract exposed to hydrochloric acid and pepsin secretion. It can be acute or chronic and occurs as a result of an imbalance between the defensive and aggressive forces at play in the mucosal lining of the stomach, ...
Surgical management of peptic ulcer disease. R. T. Kuremu. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2002 79(9): 454-456). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v79i9.9115 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...
Huchzermeyer, Karl D A; van der Waal, Benjamin C W
In late 2006 an unusual ulcerative condition in wild fish was reported for the first time in Africa from the Chobe and upper Zambezi Rivers in Botswana and Namibia. Concern increased with subsistence fishermen reporting large numbers of ulcerated fish in their catches. In April 2007 the condition was confirmed as an outbreak of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS). The causative agent, Aphanomyces invadans, is a pathogenic water mould of fish that shows little host specificity. Ulcers follow infection of tissues by oomycete zoospores, resulting in a granulomatous inflammation associated with invading oomycete hyphae. Granulomatous tracts surrounding oomycete hyphae within the necrotic tissues characterise the diagnostic histological picture. The upper Zambezi floodplain at the confluence with the Chobe River spans the four countries of Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe, making disease control a challenge. The floodplain ecosystem supports a high fish diversity of around 80 species, and is an important breeding and nursery ground. The annual cycle of flooding brings about changes in water quality that are thought to favour the infectivity of A. invadans, with diseased fish appearing soon after the plains become flooded. Since 2006 the disease has spread rapidly upstream along the upper Zambezi and its tributaries. By 2010 the disease was reported from the Okavango Delta in Botswana and in 2011 from the Western Cape Province of South Africa. EUS has the potential to disrupt floodplain ecosystems elsewhere in Africa where high fish diversity forms the basis of subsistence fisheries and local economies, and is a direct threat to freshwater fish culture.
HIV-seropositive persons are at increased risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted infection with subsequent MRSA infection in HIV-seropositive persons have been documented only once. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented to the ...
Rantanen, Tuomo K; Sihvo, Eero I T; Räsänen, Jari V; Hynninen, Marja; Salo, Jarmo A
This study aimed at defining the mortality and the nature of fatal complications that arise out of esophageal ulcer for one clearly defined geographical area. In this national, population-based study, the occurrence of fatal esophageal ulcer or ulcer requiring hospital treatment between January 1987 and December 2000 was assessed by the use of Finland's administrative databases. Medical records provided etiology of fatal ulcer and agonal symptoms. Due to an esophageal ulcer, 2,242 patients received treatment in Finnish hospitals, at an annual frequency of 3.2/100,000. Ulcer with hemorrhage (53.5%), perforation (38.4%), or aspiration pneumonia (2.3%) was the cause of death in 86 patients for an annual mortality of 0.12/100,000. Based on the number of ulcers treated, 3.8% cases ended fatally. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) seemed to be the etiologic factor for ulcer in 68 (79.0%) patients. The most common agonal symptoms were hematemesis (41.8%), abdominal pain (25.6%), melaena (22.1%), and dyspnea (17.4%). Twenty (23.3%) patients were found dead at home. The rarity of the disease, related disorders, and the diversity of symptoms make the complicated esophageal ulcer a diagnostic challenge. Effective monitored treatment for severe GERD may be an important step to prevent fatal outcome.
Altenburg, Andreas; Krahl, Dieter; Zouboulis, Christos C
Non-infectious ulcerative oral mucous membrane diseases are difficult to separate at first glance: they can appear as aphthous, bullous, lichenoid, drug-induced or toxic-irritative reactions. The overall considerations of history, localization of lesions, clinical and histological features, as well as direct and indirect immunofluorescence examination are required for the correct diagnosis. Some disorders start preferably at the oral mucosa, like pemphigus vulgaris and Adamantiades-Behçet disease, while others, such as cicatricial pemphigoid and habitual aphthosis generally are confined to the mucous membranes. This overview summarizes clinical and diagnostic features, differential diagnoses and current therapeutic possibilities of non-infectious inflammatory stomatopathies, which possess a specific position among skin diseases in distinction to infectious or neoplastic oral ulcers. This group of diseases includes aphthous lesions, lichen planus mucosae, lupus erythematosus, disorders with intraepidermal or subepidermal formation of blisters including pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, erythema multiforme and variants as well as allergic or toxic contact stomatitis.
Grosskopf, Courtney; Desai, Bhavik; Stoopler, Eric T
Morgellons disease is a psycho-dermatologic condition in which patients report fibers or filaments "growing" out of their skin. This case report highlights an oral ulceration in a young woman associated with Morgellons disease, a condition that has not been previously described in the dental literature. An increasing number of individuals are self-reporting this condition and oral health care providers must be familiar with this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Grant I Chen
Full Text Available Three cases of coexisting ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are presented. In the first case, the patient had a long-standing history of ulcerative proctitis before developing Crohn’s colitis. In the two remaining cases, the patients presented initially with Crohn’s disease of the ileum and, subsequent to resection, developed ulcerative colitis. Well-documented cases of patients diagnosed with both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are rare. The literature on such cases is reviewed, and the controversy over whether ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are two distinct diseases is explored.
Conclusion About 70% of our patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission had an active disease. Clinical remission in ulcerative colitis can be best expressed as true and false remission depending on histological grading in a revised ulcerative colitis disease activity index. Some inflammatory markers can be useful for the detection of true remission.
Kumai, M; Iwao, S; Kodama, Y; Nagae, S
Various stresses are considered to be involved in the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers. We interviewed patients of either gastric ulcer group (GU) or duodenal ulcer group (DU) with regular occupation who were admitted to our Psychosomatic Illness Department in order to examine the differences in the characteristics of their stress and developmental factors of their diseases between the two groups. Developmental factors were scored for comparison. The following results were obtained. Though group DU was generally younger than group GU, it tended to have a greater number of episodes. No significant difference was found between the two groups in living habits, life history, or familial, social and physical environments. However, group DU had greater stress than group GU in the working environment. A significantly greater number of patients in group DU smoked and had problems in personal relations as compared with GU. There was a significant correlation between smoking habit and stressfulness of the working environment in both groups. In group DU, there was a significant correlation between the father-child relationship and personal relations. In group DU, a significant number of those who had problems in the relation with their superiors at work had problems in the father-child relation. These findings show that patients with duodenal ulcer had more problems in the working environment, particularly in personal relations, than those with gastric ulcer, and smoking habit appears to accelerate the development of the diseases. Also, a possible association was suggested between problems of personal relations at work and the history of growth.
... or siblings. They can be reassured that genetic transmission of the disease is only 5-7% if one parent has ... a healthy sex life. Experience has shown that sexual activity improves rather ... will deal with the disease in a straightforward and matter-of-fact fashion, ...
... failure, which requires removal of the pouch and conversion to a permanent ileostomy, occurs in a small ... because they try to avoid surgery. If medical therapy no longer keeps the disease under control, surgery ...
Full Text Available We analyzed the clinical and endoscopic features of H.pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease in children. Prevalence of H.pylori-positive cases of peptic ulcer disease, regardless of the localization of ulcers, was determined. Toxigenic strains of H.pylori cause severe course of ulcer disease with prolonged and frequent relapses. Most of H.pylori-positive lesions are associated with Cag+-VacA+ serotype of microorganism. In individuals infected with serotype CagA-VacA+, ulcers of large sizes are more common.
Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke
centres in 16 countries in Europe, North America, and Australasia. We applied the Montreal classification system of inflammatory bowel disease subphenotypes to 34,819 patients (19,713 with Crohn's disease, 14,683 with ulcerative colitis) genotyped on the Immunochip array. We tested for genotype......-phenotype associations across 156,154 genetic variants. We generated genetic risk scores by combining information from all known inflammatory bowel disease associations to summarise the total load of genetic risk for a particular phenotype. We used these risk scores to test the hypothesis that colonic Crohn's disease...... of a patient's disease, in part genetically determined, and the major driver to changes in disease behaviour over time. FUNDING: International Inflammatory Bowel Disease Genetics Consortium members funding sources (see Acknowledgments for full list)....
Brunner, G; Meyer, H; Athmann, C
This report contains the observations of 9 women who received omeprazole for severe reflux disease during different stages of pregnancy. Four patients took omeprazole at the time of conception, and 3 of these patients continued omeprazole therapy without interruption until delivery. One patient discontinued therapy in the 8th week of pregnancy but had to take the drug again from the 28th week to delivery. The other 5 patients started therapy in weeks 24, 30, 33, 34 and 36 of pregnancy because of bleeding in 2 patients and unbearable H2 receptor refractory reflux symptoms in the other 3 patients. All patients were carefully monitored. In all cases omeprazole was well tolerated. No severe side effects were observed in any of the mothers or their newborns. No malfunctions or malformations were observed in the newborns. Follow-up of the children between 2 and 12 years showed normal development in all children. These data together with the data on 8 such pregnancies published by other authors suggest that omeprazole is safe when given during pregnancy at whatever phase.
Vaillant, Loïc; Samimi, Mahtab
Aphthous ulcers are painful ulcerations located on the mucous membrane, generally in the mouth, less often in the genital area. Three clinical forms of aphthous ulcers have been described: minor aphthous ulcers, herpetiform aphthous ulcers and major aphthous ulcers. Many other conditions presenting with oral bullous or vesiculous lesions orulcerations and erosions can be mistaken for aphthous ulcers. Currently, treatment of aphthous ulcers is palliative and symptomatic. Topical treatments (topical anesthetics, topical steroids and sucralfate) are the first line therapy. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is defined by the recurrence of oral aphthous ulcers at least 4 times per year. RAS is often idiopathic but can be associated with gastro-intestinal diseases (i.e. celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases), nutritional deficiencies (iron, folates...), immune disorders (HIV infection, neutropenia) and rare syndromes. Behçet's disease is a chronic, inflammatory, disease whose main clinical feature is recurrent bipolar aphthosis. Colchicine associated with topical treatments constitutes a suitable treatment of most RAS. Thalidomide is the most effective treatment of RAS but its use is limited by frequent adverse effects. Oral ulcers can be related to a wide range of conditions that constitute the differential diagnoses of aphthous ulcers. Oral ulcers are classified into three main groups: acute ulcers with abrupt onset and short duration, recurrent ulcers (mainly due to postherpetic erythema multiforme) and chronic ulcers (with slow onset and insidious progression). Acute oral ulcers are due to trauma, bacterial infections (including acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis), deep fungal infection, gastro-intestinal (namely inflammatory bowel disease) or systemic diseases. Chronic oral ulcers may be drug-induced, or due to benign or malignant tumors. Every oral solitary chronic ulcer should be biopsied to rule out squamous cell carcinoma. A solitary palatal ulcer
Prasher, Pawan; Di Pascuale, Mario; Cavanagh, H Dwight
To report a case of bilateral chronic peripheral ulcerative keratitis secondary to cat-scratch disease. Case report. A 66-year-old woman was initially diagnosed with Perinaud oculoglandular syndrome in her right eye. She subsequently experienced recurrent episodes of bilateral peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with diffuse thinning, neovascularization, and conjunctivalization of the peripheral corneas. This case report shows a sequential occurrence of bilateral chronic peripheral ulcerative keratitis after an episode of cat-scratch disease. Cat-scratch disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of bilateral chronic peripheral ulcerative keratitis.
Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke; Schumm, L. Philip; Zeissig, Sebastian; Ahmad, Tariq; Andersen, Vibeke; Andrews, Jane M.; Annese, Vito; Brand, Stephan; Brant, Steven R.; Cho, Judy H.; Daly, Mark J.; Dubinsky, Marla; Duerr, Richard H.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Franke, Andre; Gearry, Richard B.; Goyette, Philippe; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halfvarson, Jonas; Hov, Johannes R.; Huang, Hailang; Kennedy, Nicholas A.; Kupcinskas, Limas; Lawrance, Ian C.; Lee, James C.; Satsangi, Jack; Schreiber, Stephan; Theatre, Emilie; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Weersma, Rinse K.; Wilson, David C.; Parkes, Miles; Vermeire, Severine; Rioux, John D.; Mansfield, John; Silverberg, Mark S.; Radford-Smith, Graham; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Lees, Charlie W.
Background Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease; treatment strategies have historically been determined by this binary categorisation. Genetic studies have identified 163 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, mostly shared between
van der Heide, Frans; Dijkstra, Arie; Weersma, Rinse K.; Albersnagel, Frans A.; van der Logt, Elise M. J.; Faber, Kloos Nico; Sluiter, Wim J.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Dijkstra, Gerard
Background: Smoking is a remarkable risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). aggravating Crohn's disease (CD) while having beneficial effects On Ulcerative colitis (UC). We Studied the effects of active and passive smoking in Dutch IBD patients. Methods: A questionnaire focusing Oil
Chen, Cheng-Yen; Ballard, Ronald C
Highly sensitive and specific nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have emerged as the gold standard diagnostic tests for many infectious diseases. Real-time PCR has further refined the technology of nucleic acid amplification with detection in a closed system and enabled multiplexing to simultaneously detect multiple pathogens. It is a versatile, fast, and high-throughput system for pathogen detection that has reduced the risk of PCR contamination, eliminated post-PCR manipulations, and improved the cost-effectiveness of testing. In addition, real-time PCR can be applied to self-collected noninvasive specimens. Here, we describe an in-house developed TaqMan-based real-time multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease (GUD) and discuss briefly on issues associated with validation of assay performance.
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are lifelong illnesses which have a significant impact on quality of life and personal burden through a reduction in the ability to work, sick leave and restrictions of leisure time. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the indirect costs of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The search was carried out in Medline, EMBASE, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, and reference lists of identified articles and reference lists of identified articles were also handsearched. All costs were adjusted to 2013 USD values by using the consumer price index and purchasing power parity. Identified studies were then analysed in order to assess their heterogeneity and possibility of inclusion in the meta-analysis. Eleven of the identified publications presented indirect costs of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The range of estimated yearly indirect costs per patient was large, from $1 159.09 for loss of earnings to $14 135.64 for lost productivity and sick leave for Crohn's disease. The values for ulcerative colitis ranged from $926.49 to $6 583.17. Because of the imprecise definition of methods of indirect cost calculations as well as heterogeneity of indirect cost components, a meta-analysis was not performed. The indirect costs of ulcerative colitis seem to be slightly lower than in the case of Crohn's disease. A small number of studies referring to indirect costs of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were identified, which indicates the need to conduct further investigations on this problem.
Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G.; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.
Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD. PMID:26199856
L. A. Lyubskaya
Full Text Available Objective: to compare clinical manifestations, course, mental status in duodenal ulcer (DU patients with a history of perforated ulcer and its uncomplicated course.Subjects and methods. One hundred and thirteen patents with DU were examined. Group 1 included 61 patients with uncomplicated DUand Group 2 comprised 52 patients with a history of perforated ulcer. A comparison group consisted of 20 patients who had undergone laparotomy. Physical and mental status examinations, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS, and 24-hour pH-metry were performed.Results. Classical pain syndrome was observed in 75 % of the patients with uncomplicated DU. Prior to perforation, the pain and dyspeptic syndromes were distinguished only by a significantly lower degree in Group 2; following perforation, the pain syndrome was recorded more frequently, it was more extensive, meal-unrelated, and similar to that in the patients who had undergone laparotomy and had diminished appetite (36.5 %. EGDS showed that the complicated course was accompanied by the significantly higher incidence of erosive esophagitis (21.2 %, gastritis (51.9 %, duodenitis (25.0 %, multiple ulcers (28.8 %, and larger ulcers. 24-hour pH-metry indicated that the level of hyperacidity in Group 2 was higher and the circadian intragastric pH variations were less marked than those in uncomplicated DU. The patients with a history of perforated ulcer showed a high rate of anxiety and depressive changes. Conclusion. In complicated DU, marked monotonic hyperacidity causes common erosive-ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal area in relatively mild pain syndrome, late referrals, and long-term ulcer healing. After perforation followed by wound closure, the pain and dyspeptic syndromes become more pronounced, which is associated with anxiety and depressive changes in the mental status, as well as with early referrals and less healing time.
Roberts-Thomson, Ian C
Humans and Helicobacter pylori have evolved and adapted over tens of thousands of years. Yet peptic ulcer disease appeared to be rare prior to the 19 th century. The prevalence of peptic ulcer disease increased between 1850 and 1900 and culminated in a cohort at high risk that was born at the end of the 19 th century. This coincided with the provision of safe water and improvements in sanitation and personal hygiene. One hypothesis for the emergence of peptic ulcer disease focuses on the rate of development of atrophic gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori. The hypothesis developed in this article focuses on delay in the age of acquisition of Helicobacter pylori to a time when immune and inflammatory responses to the infection were more mature. Whereas the acquisition of H. pylori in infancy usually resulted in mild pangastritis, hypochlorhydria and a low risk for peptic ulcer disease, delayed acquisition could cause either more severe pangastritis [predisposing to gastric ulceration] or gastritis largely restricted to the antrum of the stomach [predisposing to duodenal ulceration]. The decline in the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease over the past 100 years parallels the decline in the prevalence of H. pylori. The epidemic of ulcer disease in the first half of the 20 th century seems likely to be an adverse effect of important public health measures undertaken in the latter half of the 19 th century. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Wallenhorst, Timothée; Brochard, Charlène; Le Balch, Eric; Bodere, Anaïs; Garros, Aurélien; Merlini-l'Heritier, Alexandre; Bouguen, Guillaume; Siproudhis, Laurent
The natural history of anal ulcerations in Crohn's disease remains unknown. To assess the long-term outcomes of anorectal ulcerations. Data from consecutive patients with perineal Crohn's disease were prospectively recorded. The data of patients with anal ulceration were extracted. Anal ulcerations were observed in 154 of 282 patients (54.6%), and 77 cases involved cavitating ulcerations. The cumulative healing rates were 47%, 70% and 82% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. Patients with a primary fistula phenotype had a shorter median time to healing of their anal ulceration (28 [13-83] weeks) than those with a stricture (81 [28-135] weeks) or those with isolated ulceration (74 [31-181] weeks) (p=0.004). Among patients with ulcerations but no fistula at referral (n=67), only 4 (6%) developed de novo abscesses and/or fistula during follow-up. There was no benefit associated with introducing or optimising biologics, nor with combining immunosuppressants and biologics. Anal ulceration in Crohn's disease usually requires a long time to achieve sustained healing. Determining the impact of biologics on healing rates will require dedicated randomised trials although it does not show a significant healing benefit in the present study. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kolotilova, M L; Ivanov, L N
Based on the analysis of literature data and our own research, we have developed the original concept of etiology and pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease. An analysis of the literature shows that none of the theories of pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease does not cover the full diversity of the involved functions and their shifts, which lead to the development of ulcers in the stomach and the duodenum. Our neurogenic-genetic theory of etiology and pathogenesis of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer very best explains the cause-and-effect relationships in the patient peptic ulcer, allowing options for predominance in one or the other case factors of neurosis or genetic factors. However, it is clear that the only other: combination of neurogenic factor with genetically modified reactivity of gastroduodenal system (the presence of the target organ) cause the chronicity of the sores. The theory of peptic ulcer disease related to psychosomatic pathologies allows us to develop effective schema therapy, including drugs with psychocorrective action. On the basis of our theory of the role of Helicobacter pylori infection is treated as a pathogenetic factor in the development of peptic ulcer disease.
Tytgat, G. N.; Nio, C. Y.
Mucosa protective drugs are thought to have an important role in the treatment of both duodenal (DU) and gastric ulcer (GU) disease by means of correcting the disturbed defensive factors. Sucralfate as well as colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) form a layer on the ulcer base and in this way protect
McLaren, L.C.; Gitnick, G.
Bowel-wall tissue filtrates from patients with inflammatory bowel disease produce cytopathic effects in tissue culture. The cytopathic effects inducers have been reported to have the characteristics of a small RNA virus. Clostridium difficile toxin also produces cytopathic effects and has been found in the stools of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The present study concerns the further characterization of the cytopathic inducers in tissues of inflammatory bowel disease patients. It was found that they are nonsedimentable at 148,000 g for 2 h and resistant to inactivation by UV light. They are proteins that are distinct from C. difficile toxin and are unique cytotoxins which are associated with the early cytopathic effects observed in Riff-free chick embryo and rabbit ileum cell cultures. These results suggest that the early cytopathic effects previously described are not produced by a virus. They do not explain the delayed cytopathic effects seen in rabbit ileum or WI-38 cells.
Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a chronic disease of the intestines in dairy cows and a wide range of other animals, including nonhuman primates, called Johne's ("Yo-knee's") disease. MAP has been consistently identified by a variety of techniques in humans with Crohn's disease. The research investigating the presence of MAP in patients with Crohn's disease has often identified MAP in the "negative" ulcerative colitis controls as well, suggesting that ulcerative colitis is also caused by MAP. Like other infectious diseases, dose, route of infection, age, sex and genes influence whether an individual infected with MAP develops ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The apparently opposite role of smoking, increasing the risk of Crohn's disease while decreasing the risk of ulcerative colitis, is explained by a more careful review of the literature that reveals smoking causes an increase in both diseases but switches the phenotype from ulcerative colitis to Crohn's disease. MAP as the sole etiologic agent of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease explains their common epidemiology, geographic distribution and familial and sporadic clusters, providing a unified hypothesis for the prevention and cure of the no longer "idiopathic" inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:21167058
Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006.
de Souza, Edson Marques; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti; de Melo, Valdinaldo Aragão; Aragão, José Aderval; de Oliveira, Luiz Augusto Bitencurt
Venous ulcers account for 70% of chronic leg ulcers and affect about 2-7% of the population, causing much socioeconomic impact and reducing patients' quality of life. In this study we aimed to describe the clinical features of venous ulcers and sociodemographic characteristics of patients with ulcers due to chronic venous disease (CVD). This cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at the Vascular Surgery Service, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, in northeastern Brazil. The study included a consecutive series of 154 patients with active venous ulcers (CEAP C6) in the lower limb due to CVD. Sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, race, monthly income, education, occupation, and caregiver) and clinical data (affected limb, ulcer site, etiopathogenesis, recurrence, and time elapsed since the first episode of ulcer) were collected. A possible correlation of time elapsed since the first episode of ulcer and number of recurrences with primary or secondary etiology was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-test. Of the 154 patients analyzed, 79% were female, 94% were ethnically black or brown, 90% had a monthly income less than or equal to minimum wage, 47% were illiterate, 35% had not completed elementary school, 50% had informal jobs, 19.5% were retired, and 18.2% received sick pay from the social security system. The mean age was 53.7 years. Both limbs were affected similarly, and venous ulcers were located predominantly on the medial aspect of the leg (84%). The median time elapsed since the first episode of ulcer was 36 months, being significantly higher in patients with venous ulcers of secondary etiology (P venous ulcers of secondary etiology (P ulcers were primary (Ep), 94.1% demonstrated reflux involving the superficial system (As), 92% had incompetent perforators (Ap), 35% demonstrated reflux involving the deep system (Ad), and all ulcers showed reflux without obstruction (Pr). Venous ulcers were more prevalent among low-income patients, especially chronic
Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Mudter, Jonas; Vieth, Michael; Atreya, Raja; Günther, Claudia; Zopf, Yurdagül; Wildner, Dane; Kiesslich, Ralf; Vecchi, Maurizio; Neurath, Markus F; Neumann, Helmut
The differential diagnosis of ulcerative colitis from Crohn's disease is of pivotal importance for the management of inflammatory bowel diseases, as both entities involve specific therapeutic management strategies. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) allows on-demand, in vivo characterization of architectural and cellular details during endoscopy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of CLE to differentiate between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. This was a prospective study involving consecutive patients with a well-established diagnosis of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease who underwent colonoscopy with fluorescein-aided confocal imaging. Overall, 79 patients were included (40 Crohn's disease, 39 ulcerative colitis). CLE findings in patients with Crohn's disease, showed significantly more discontinuous inflammation (87.5 % vs. 5.1 %), focal cryptitis (75.0 % vs. 12.8 %), and discontinuous crypt architectural abnormality (87.5 % vs. 10.3 %) than in ulcerative colitis (P Crohn's disease), decreased crypt density (79.5 % vs. 22.5 %), and frankly irregular surface (89.7 % vs. 17.5 %; P Crohn's disease. However, because of the limited penetration depth of CLE, submucosal details or granulomas were not visible. The new scoring system may allow in vivo diagnosis of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 02238665. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Chang, Shen-Shong; Hu, Hsiao-Yun
Inverse correlation between childhood-onset asthma and human gastric Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection exists. To investigate whether adult asthma patients with peptic ulcer disease demonstrated lower rates of H. pylori infection. Asthma patients were identified from records of inpatient treatments or from 3 or more ambulatory care claims using the International Classifications of Diseases, Revision 9, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis code: 493. To be defined as a non-asthma patient, a person cannot have the code ICD-9-CM: 490-494, and 496 in inpatient records or in the ambulatory care claims. The sample included 2,894 H. pylori-positive patients with peptic ulcers and 522 H. pylori-negative patients with peptic ulcers. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio and a 95% confidence interval. Asthma patients with peptic ulcers included 74 H. pylori-positive and 21 H. pylori-negative. Non-asthma patients with peptic ulcers comprised 2,820 H. pylori-positive and 501 H. pylori-negative. Based on logistic regression analysis, adult asthma patients with peptic ulcers (OR = 0.71, P = 0.187) demonstrated similar H. pylori infection rates, compared to adult non-asthma patients with peptic ulcers. Our data show no inverse relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and adult asthma with peptic ulcers.
inhibitory or ... of acid secretion, antacids or drugs that enhance the mucosa's capacity to resist acid/pepsin aggression ( ..... cigarette smoking on duodenal ulcer healing and prolongs subsequent remission. Gastroenterology 1987; 92: 1193-1201.
Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver
Epidemiological associations, expressed as odds ratios between variables obtained from dairy cow records and sole ulcer occurrence at claw trimmings were estimated with logistic regression analysis on data from 2204 and 1124 cows in lactation 1 and lactations 2 to 9, respectively. Sole ulcer in one...... foot or more than one foot occurred in 20.0 and 29.7% of cows in lactation 1 and in 23.5 and 24.7% of cows in lactations 2 to 9. The analysis revealed several complicated interactions. Trimming or calving in summer to fall was strongly associated with sole ulcer. Trimming later than 1 to 2 mo after...... calving was positively associated with sole ulcer depending on milk yield, body weight, or season of calving. If lactation 1 cows were treated for disease (limb, metabolic, digestive, or severe reproductive disorders), sole ulcer in more than one foot occurred earlier in lactation. Milk yield in early...
Senusi, Amal; Seoudi, Noha; Bergmeier, Lesley Ann; Fortune, Farida
Behçet's Disease (BD) is a chronic auto-inflammatory, multisystem relapsing/remitting disorder of unknown aetiology. Oro-genital ulceration is a key feature of the disease and has a major impact on the patients' quality of life. Other clinical manifestations include ocular inflammation, rheumatologic and skin involvement, while CNS and vascular complications can lead to considerable morbidity. The availability of a valid monitoring tool for BD activity is crucial in evaluating the impact of the disease on daily life activity. The aims of this study were to validate a novel tool for monitoring genital ulceration severity in BD and to assess the impact of genital ulcers on the Genital Health Quality of Life (GHQoL). Genital Ulcer Severity Score (GUSS) was developed using six genital ulcer characteristics: number, size, duration, ulcer-free period, pain and site. A total of 207 BD patients were examined, (137 females: mean age ± SD: 39.83 ± 13.42 and 70 males: mean age ± SD: 39.98 ± 11.95) from the multidisciplinary Behçet's Centre of Excellence at Barts Health NHS Trust. GUSS was used in conjunction with Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF). The over-all score of GUSS showed a strong correlation with all genital ulcer characteristics, and the strongest correlation was with the pain domain (r = 0.936; P Ulcer average size and ulcer pain were the major predicting factors in GUSS (β = 0.284; β = 0.275) respectively, and P-values were significant. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the ulcer pain, size and site are the main ulcer characteristics having an influence on the GHQoL (R(2): 0.600; P ulcers and validated its use in 207 patients. Genital ulcers of BD have a considerable impact on the patients GHQoL.
Full Text Available Seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SpA and allergic diseases are frequently observed in Ulcerative Colitis (UC. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible relationships between SpA, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD and IgE-mediated allergic disease (AD in patients with UC. Fifty consecutive UC patients were graded with clinical, endoscopic and histologic activity scores and classified on the basis of Rachmilewitz and Truelove & Richard criteria. The rheumatologic evaluation included history and physical examination. Axial and peripheral joint involvement was confirmed by radiographic and scintiscan examination. SpA was diagnosed according to the ESSG criteria. The allergologic evaluation included personal history of allergy, prick and patch exposition to airborne, food and contact allergens. AD was confirmed by specific provocation tests, while ACD was determined by using the European Standard Series. Fifty healthy subjects served as controls. Fourteen patients (28% and 1 control subject (2% showed SpA (p<0.001. Diagnosis of rhinitis, conjunctivitis or asthma was made in 19 patients (38% and 6 controls (12% (p=0.01, while ACD was found in 10 (20% and 3 (6% (p=0.03, respectively. Only 2 patients had a concurrence of SpA and AD (p=0.03, while SpA and ACD coexisted in 5 (p=n.s.. No patients contemporarily showed AD and ACD (p=0.008. Notwithstanding the high frequency of AD, SpA and ACD found in UC, the concurrence of AD with SpA or ACD is an unusual finding, while SpA and ACD may coexist. These data seem to indicate that AD and SpA, as well as AD and ACD, are strongly polarized conditions tending to mutual exclusion.
Orholm, Marianne; Fonager, Kirsten; Sørensen, Henrik Toft
) and Crohn's disease (CD) among first-degree relatives of patients with these diseases. To give more precise risk estimates we conducted a nationwide study using population-based data from the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP). METHODS: All patients from the entire Danish population (5.2 million......OBJECTIVE: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) varies among and within countries, but several studies have indicated that genetic factors may play an important role in the etiology of IBD. A Danish regional study has observed an almost 10-fold increased risk for ulcerative colitis (UC...
Wang, Zhen-Kai; Shi, Hui; Wang, Shao-Dong; Liu, Jiong; Zhu, Wei-Ming; Yang, Miao-Fang; Liu, Chan; Lu, Heng; Wang, Fang-Yu
Behcet's disease (BD) is a rare and life-long disorder characterized by inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body. BD was originally described in 1937 as a syndrome involving oral and genital ulceration in addition to ocular inflammation. Intestinal BD refers to colonic ulcerative lesions documented by objective measures in patients with BD. Many studies have shown that over 40% of BD patients have gastrointestinal complaints. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, anorexia and abdominal distension. Although gastrointestinal symptoms are common, the demonstration of gastrointestinal ulcers is rare. This so-called intestinal BD accounts for approximately 1% of cases. There is no specific test for BD, and the diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. The manifestations of intestinal BD are similar to those of other colitis conditions such as Crohn's disease or intestinal tuberculosis, thus, it is challenging for gastroenterologists to accurately diagnose intestinal BD in patients with ileo-colonic ulcers. However, giant ulcers distributed in the esophagus and ileocecal junction with gastrointestinal hemorrhage are rare in intestinal BD. Here, we present a case of untypical intestinal BD. The patient had recurrent aphthous ulceration of the oral mucosa, and esophageal and ileo-colonic ulceration, but no typical extra-intestinal symptoms. During examination, the patient had massive acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient underwent ileostomy after an emergency right hemicolectomy and partial ileectomy, and was subsequently diagnosed with incomplete-type intestinal BD by pathology. The literature on the evaluation and management of this condition is reviewed.
Jagpal Singh Klair
Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among patients of peptic ulcer disease and to study the patients of peptic ulcer disease with psychiatric morbidity in comparison to patients of peptic ulcer disease without psychiatric morbidity on following variables: sociodemographic variables and attributes/risk factors of peptic ulcer disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of clinically proven acid peptic diseases and 30 cases of the control group were screened in department of General Medicine, outdoor as well as indoor patients. Instruments applied for the purpose of the study were Personal Bio-data Performa (Appendix-I, (SCL- 80 (Appendix-II, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety and depression, (P.S.L.E.; clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders was made as per ICD- 10 criteria. Data collected shall be subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Findings: The psychiatric morbidity was significantly (P10 years, compared to 23.80% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Lastly, 48.27% of patients with psychiatric morbidity had significantly (P<0.01 stronger family history of acid peptic disease compared to 9.52% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between the peptic ulcer disease and the various psychiatric morbidity factors as illustrated from the findings of this study.
He, Ping; Zhou, Renmin; Hu, Guorui; Liu, Zhifeng; Jin, Yu; Yang, Guang; Li, Mei; Lin, Qian
Curcumin is known to possess anti‑inflammatory properties. Despite the fact that curcumin is known to be a strong inhibitor of H+, K+‑ATPase activity, the mechanism underlying the curcumin‑induced inhibition of the transcription of the H+, K+‑ATPase α subunit in gastric mucosal parietal cells remains unclear. The present study investigated the possible mechanism by which curcumin inhibits stomach H+, K+‑ATPase activity during the acute phase of gastric ulcer disease. A rat model of stress‑induced gastric ulcers was produced, in which the anti‑ulcer effects of curcumin were examined. Curcumin‑induced inhibition of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter via histone acetylation, was verified using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The results showed that curcumin improved stress‑induced gastric ulcer disease in rats, as demonstrated by increased pH values and reduced gastric mucosal hemorrhage and ulcer index. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in the level of histone H3 acetylation at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter and in the expression of the gastric H+,K+‑ATPase α subunit gene and protein. In conclusion, curcumin downregulated the acetylation of histone H3 at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter gene, thereby inhibiting the transcription and expression of the H+, K+‑ATPase gene. Curcumin was shown to have a preventive and therapeutic effect in gastric ulcer disease.
Laerum, O.D.; Illemann, M.; Skarstein, A.
OBJECTIVES: Chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall is the common characteristic of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; disorders, which in some cases can be difficult to distinguish. The inflammation also affects the local neuronal plexuses of the enteric nervous system. It is known...... by immunohistochemical techniques. RESULTS: PAI-1 was found in a subset of neurons primarily located in the submucosal plexus of the small and large intestine in 24 of 28 cases (86%) with Crohn's disease, but in none of 17 cases with chronic ulcerative colitis and other severe inflammatory conditions in the intestinal....... CONCLUSIONS: PAI-1-positive neurons in inflammatory bowel disease are linked to chronic inflammation in Crohn's disease, implying PAI-1 as a potential parameter for the differential diagnosis between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The findings also suggest that PAI-1 in neurons is related to pain...
Mark-Christensen, Anders; Brandsborg, Søren; Laurberg, Søren
following colectomy and IPAA.Methods:Individuals who had a colectomy were identified from a national cohort of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and controls without colectomy were sampled from within the same cohort, matching on gender, calendar year, and year of birth. We used Cox regression...
This is a review of 32 consecutive cases of patients with genital ulcers or who were repeatedly reactive to serological tests for syphilis (STS) at the Venereology Clinic of the University Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria, between January 1993 and April 1995. The criteria for diagnosis of the various conditions included the ...
Tytgat, G. N.; Rauws, E. A.
In almost all patients with genuine nondrug-induced duodenal or gastric ulcer there is evidence of gastric Campylobacter pylori colonization and concomitant inflammation. C. pylori is only demonstrable in the duodenal cap when there is "gastric mucus metaplasia." Suppression or eradication of C.
Meleney's ulcer or post operative synergistic bacterial gangrene is a rare form of abdominal wall gangrene but has well documented clinical entity. It develops following intra abdominal surgery in the immediate vicinity of the surgical wound. It is caused by synergistic interaction between microaerophilic nonhemolytic ...
... ulcers - self-care; Arterial insufficiency ulcer self-care; Ischemic wounds - self-care; Peripheral artery disease - ulcer; Peripheral ... arteries ( atherosclerosis ) are the most common cause of ischemic ulcers. Clogged arteries prevent a healthy supply of ...
. Duration of hospital stay was clearly correlated with the time spent at home prior to admission; spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was 0.72 (95% CI 0.42–0.87. Conclusion. Delays in seeking treatment among BU patients were the main factor which resulted in most of the other factors contributing to the challenges in treatment. A combination of psychosocial and biomedical approach was proposed as holistic method to alleviate the challenges in BU treatment.
3945 days) at 32°C? and the inability of same to grow at either 37"C (like M. tuberculosis) or ZS'lC (like. M. niorinu/n) are characteristics compatible with M. ulcerons. Being a slow grower, the test organism can be further differenciated from M.
Pippa, G; Apuzzo, M; Bazuro, M E; Nava, G; Papi, C; Tammaro, G F; Nava, G
The prevalence of erosive lesions was found to be 27.5% in 11838 cases examined during the last 10 years. In almost 66% of the cases, erosive lesions were localized in the duodenal bulb but mainly isolated and less often in the antro-pyloric area. In 55% of the cases, duodenal erosions coexist with ulcerative peptic disease, 20% in "active" phase and 35% in "inactive" phase. Erosive lesions, appeared autonomously in 45% of the cases. Morphologically, they can be divided in: a) periulcerative marginal erosions closely connected with activity of the ulcers; b) clustered, complete or incomplete erosions, which may or may not be associated with the ulcerative disease and often have a prolonged acyclic behaviour; c) scattered flat erosions which can at times be associated with the ulcerative peptic disease but are always related to a chronic widespread duodenitis. An epidemiological study was performed on 564 cases which were divided into 3 groups: a) cases with autonomous erosive disease; b) those with erosions associated with post-ulcerative scars; and c) those with erosions associated with active ulcers. The control group of 111 cases was characterised by duodenal active ulcers with no erosions. Statistical evaluation of the percentage differences between the 4 groups revealed that in duodenal erosive disease predisposing factors such as psychic temper, environmental and work conditions and eating habits are evident. In autonomous disease drug intake and spices and, to a less extent, alcohol and/or stress situations play a more important role. In erosions associated with an active ulcer, a dominant obsessive temper facilitated by a difficult family situation, bad eating habits and a great amount of smoking are prominent factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Hao, D; Hu, C; Zhang, T; Feng, G; Chai, J; Li, T
The objective of the current ongoing study was to evaluate the characteristics of diabetic patients with newly diagnosed foot ulcer in Burn & Plastic Hospital of PLA General Hospital. A total of 1002 consecutive patients presenting with a new foot ulcer between March 2007 and September 2013 were enrolled. All enrolled patients were classified based on presence or absence of collateral infection, disabling comorbidities and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Of patients, 70.05% had PAD, which occurred significantly more in elderly adults. Patients with PAD had higher incidence of infection (58.9% vs. 41.5% in non-PAD group) and disabling comorbidities (79% in PAD and 61% in non-PAD; p foot ulcers between the PAD and non-PAD group of enrolled diabetic patients. Diabetic foot ulcer is more prominent in patients with PAD that is further reflected by significantly more underlying cases of infection and disabling comorbidity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Ando, Takafumi; Goto, Hidemi; Mori, Kensaku
The purpose of this paper is to present a new method to detect ulcers, which is one of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, from CT images. Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease of the digestive tract. Crohn's disease commonly affects the small intestine. An optical or a capsule endoscope is used for small intestine examinations. However, these endoscopes cannot pass through intestinal stenosis parts in some cases. A CT image based diagnosis allows a physician to observe whole intestine even if intestinal stenosis exists. However, because of the complicated shape of the small and large intestines, understanding of shapes of the intestines and lesion positions are difficult in the CT image based diagnosis. Computer-aided diagnosis system for Crohn's disease having automated lesion detection is required for efficient diagnosis. We propose an automated method to detect ulcers from CT images. Longitudinal ulcers make rough surface of the small and large intestinal wall. The rough surface consists of combination of convex and concave parts on the intestinal wall. We detect convex and concave parts on the intestinal wall by a blob and an inverse-blob structure enhancement filters. A lot of convex and concave parts concentrate on roughed parts. We introduce a roughness value to differentiate convex and concave parts concentrated on the roughed parts from the other on the intestinal wall. The roughness value effectively reduces false positives of ulcer detection. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can detect convex and concave parts on the ulcers.
Zimmermann, W; Frank, N; Philippi, M; Burkhard, B
In 68 of 1152 patients older than 65 years an acute ulcus duodeni could be stated by endoscopy. This is 5,9% of the examined patients. Among this group there was a remarkably great number of patients who belonged to the age group between 70 and 80 years. The anamnesis of 42 patients indicated complaints for several years, whereas 26 patients showed symptoms only for a few weeks. The size of the acute ulceration was mostly below 1,0 cm. A determined relation between the size of the ulceration, the patients age and the duration of their anamnesis could not be found. In 12 patients an acute ulcus ventriculi could be proved simultaneously. In 15 cases acute bleeding was the initial symptom of the ulceration. Healing of the ulcera took between 4 weeks and 3 months. The conservative therapeutical steps were not standardized. Stationary and ambulant patients did not show any difference in the time of healing. It was remarkable that the consumption of alcohol and especially of cigarettes was relatively high.
van der Heide, Frans; Dijkstra, Arie; Albersnagel, Frans A.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Dijkstra, Gerard
Background: Smoking is a remarkable risk factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with negative effects on Crohn's disease (CD) and positive effects on ulcerative colitis (UC). This makes different changes in smoking behaviour after diagnosis between CD and UC likely. Changes in active smoking,
Pausch, J.; Holstege, A.; Brambs, J.
The indication for radiologic or endoscopic examinations in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease depends on the stage of the disease. Advantages of the colonoscopy are the possibility of observation of colour and the avoidance of X-rays in the management of young patients. Radiology is superior to endoscopy in estimating shortening of the bowel, stenoses and fistulas. (orig.).
Christensen, A H; Gjørup, T
OBJECTIVES: To describe the medical research process from the time of the generation of a new theory to its implementation in clinical practice. The Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) theory, i.e. the theory that H. pylori plays a significant causal role in duodenal ulcer disease was chosen as a case....... MATERIAL: Abstracts from 1984 to 1993, identified in the CD-Rom, Medline system, ("Silverplatter"), using the search terms Campylobacter pylori and Helicobacter pylori, and reviews and editorials about H. pylori in some of the most widespread clinical journals. RESULTS: 2204 papers on H. pylori were....... pylori in duodenal ulcer disease had been published in some of the most widespread clinical journals. In half of the papers the authors were convinced of the causal role of H. pylori in duodenal ulcer disease, while in the remainder they were sceptical. In seven cases the authors stated which patients...
Full Text Available Until 2030 the ulcer mortality will have a growing trend as estimated by the World Health Organization. Detection of countries and population groups with high risks for the ulcer mortality is possible using forecast method. The authors made a forecast of mortality rate from complicated ulcer disease in males and females and their age groups (15-24, 25-34, 35-54, 55-74, over 75, 15 - over 75 in our country. The study included data of the World Health Organization Database from 1991 to 2012. The work analyzed absolute all-Ukrainian numbers of persons of both genders died from the ulcer causes (К25-К27 coded by the 10th International Diseases Classification. The relative mortality per 100 000 of alive persons of the same age was calculated de novo. The analysis of distribution laws and their estimation presents a trend of growth of the relative mortality. A remarkable increase of deaths from the ulcer disease is observed in males and females of the age after 55 years old. After the age of 75 years this trend is more expressed.
Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan
Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers? Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recurrence. Implementation: Potential pitfalls to avoid are: Failure to exclude underlying arterial disease before application of compression.Unusual-looking ulcers or those slow to heal should be biopsied to exclude malignant transformation. PMID:21673869
Poulsen, L O; Elling, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt
In 12 patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) the rectal epithelial cells were analyzed for HLA-DR antigens by an immunohistochemical technique. The clinical, rectoscopic, and histologic stages were also determined. The investigations were carried out at the beginning of the study and 2 weeks......-DR antigens on rectal epithelial cells of patients with UC could not be predicted from the clinical, rectoscopic, or histologic findings. HLA-DR expression is normally restricted to immunocompetent cells. The presence of HLA-DR antigens on epithelial cells may be a consequence of immunological reactions...
Depender Kumar Timshina
Full Text Available Objective: To assess and compare the risk factors in patients with benign gastric and duodenal ulcers and to correlate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in benign peptic ulcer disease. Methods: A total of 30 consecutive patients with peptic ulcer disease were included in this study after upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Their clinical profile and endoscopic findings were noted. Antral biopsies were subjected to histopathological examination and urease test for detection of H. pylori. Results were correlated. The study was cleared by the Institute Research Council and the Ethics committee. Results: The male: female ratio was 11:4. Overall, H. pylori infection was prevalent in 93.3% of the patients. Patients who took spicy food had a significantly higher rate of H. pylori positivity (P=0.04. Smoking, alcohol intake and NSAIDs did not affect H. pylori status in patients. There was no significant association between the site of the ulcer and H. pylori infection. Conclusions: Based on our observations we conclude that prevalence of H. pylori infection is similar in duodenal and gastric ulcers and intake of spicy food is a significant risk factor.
Full Text Available Raymond SY Tang, Justin CY Wu Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong Abstract: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD are not uncommon in elderly patients. Clinical presentations of these acid-related disorders may be atypical in the geriatric population. Older individuals are at increased risk for poor outcomes in complicated PUD and for development of GERD complications. Multiple risk factors (eg, Helicobacter pylori [HP], use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], aspirin contribute to the development of PUD. Recent data has shown that HP-negative, NSAID-negative idiopathic peptic ulcers are on the rise and carry a higher risk of recurrent ulcer bleeding and mortality. Effective management of PUD in the geriatric population relies on identification and modification of treatable risk factors. Elderly patients with GERD often require long-term acid suppressive therapy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI including esomeprazole are effective in the treatment of reflux esophagitis, maintenance of GERD symptomatic control, and management of PUD as well as its complications. Potential safety concerns of long-term PPI use have been reported in the literature. Clinicians should balance the risks and benefits before committing elderly patients to long-term PPI therapy. Keywords: elderly patients, peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, proton pump inhibitor, esomeprazole
Poulsen, Steen Seier
Rectal biopsy samples from 22 healthy control subjects, 54 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 34 with Crohn's disease with involvement of the colon or rectum were investigated in a stereomicroscopic study. Samples were stained as whole mounts with Alcian Green before the stereomicroscopic...... the stereomicroscopic findings and the clinical disease activity, the sigmoidoscopic findings, and the histologic activity. Apart from the stereomicroscopic observation of small superficial erosions in one fourth of the biopsies, no changes of diagnostic value were observed in Crohn's disease....
Vinesh, E; Masthan, Kmk; Kumar, M Sathish; Jeyapriya, S Marytresa; Babu, Aravindha; Thinakaran, Meera
The aim and objectives of this study are to identify oral changes in certain gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, namely gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcerative colitis, gastritis, and to evaluate these oral symptoms as indicators for assessing GI disorders. In this study, the oral manifestations of various GI disorders were assessed in a varying age group of 250 patients in Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. Out of 250 patients, 142 were affected by GERD, 99 were affected by gastritis, and 9 patients were affected by ulcerative colitis. Of these patients, 177 were males and 73 were females. Evaluation of patients with gastritis revealed that 66.7% affected with gingivitis, 19.2% with dental erosion on the palatal and lingual aspects of maxillary and mandibular teeth predominantly in the anterior region, 10.1% with periodontitis, 2% with gingival erythema. Among the patients with GERD, 44% of the cases showed dental erosion, 25.5% periodontitis, 9.9% gingivitis, 5.7% gingival erythema, 2.8% palatal erythema, 2.1% gingival ulcers, glossitis 2%, 1.4% floor of the mouth erythema, and 0.7% erythema of the tongue. Patients with ulcerative colitis showed 44.4% of gingival erythema, 33.3% of dental erosions, and 22.2% of gingival ulcers and periodontitis. In our study of 250 patients, oral manifestations were observed in 88% of the patients. Both soft tissue and hard tissue changes were evident. There was a high correlation between various GI disease and dental erosion, erythema at various sites of the oral cavity, oral ulcers, gingivitis, periodontitis, and glossitis. Careful evaluation of oral cavity may unveil many GI disorders and help the patient by providing early diagnosis, which further facilitates the prognosis.
Dzyubanovskiy, I Ya; Selskiy, P R; Viytovych, L E
Results of examination of 20 gastric ulcer disease patients were analyzed for delineation of a high risk group for an acute complications occurrence, and in whom the conduction of organ preserving preventive operative interventions is expedient. For prognostication such following indices were applied: quantity of cells-producents of various immunoglobulins, mitotic and apoptotic indices, relative volume of damaged epitheliocytes, the patients' age.
Three classes of drugs have been shown to have a direct effect on Helicobacter pylori: antibiotics, bismuth salts, and proton pump inhibitors. ... The discovery of Helicobacter pylori as a gastrointestinal pathogen has had a profound effect on current concepts of the pathogenesis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease.
Diaz-Gallo, Lina-Marcela; Espino-Paisan, Laura; Fransen, Karin; Gomez-Garcia, Maria; van Sommeren, Suzanne; Cardena, Carlos; Rodrigo, Luis; Mendoza, Juan Luis; Taxonera, Carlos; Nieto, Antonio; Alcain, Guillermo; Cueto, Ignacio; Lopez-Nevot, Miguel A.; Bottini, Nunzio; Barclay, Murray L.; Crusius, J. Bart; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Gearry, Richard B.; Roberts, Rebecca L.; Weersma, Rinse K.; Urcelay, Elena; Merriman, Tony R.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Martin, Javier
Background: The PTPN22 gene is an important risk factor for human autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the role of the R263Q PTPN22 polymorphism in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), and to reevaluate the association of the R620W PTPN22 polymorphism
Shim, Young Kwang; Kim, Nayoung
Despite decreasing Helicobacter pylori prevalence, the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease is increasing in the aged population, mainly due to increasing use of NSAIDs to manage pain and inflammation. In addition, low dose aspirin is employed as an anti-coagulant for those who have suffered or are at high risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular disease. However, NSAIDs and aspirin are injurious to mucosa of stomach and duodenum. NSAID-induced inhibition of mucosal prostaglandin synthesis is thought to be a major mechanism of gastrointestinal mucosal injury. The proportion of elderly has increased rapidly in Korea, with the proportion over 65 years old expected to be 24.3% in 2030. In this higher-risk population, the strategy to reduce the incidence of NSAID-related peptic ulcers and complications such as bleeding, obstruction and perforation is very important. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor can be used for reducing the risk of NSAID-related ulcers and upper gastrointestinal (GI) complications. However, continuous use of PPI has several problems. In addition, NSAID-related problems in the lower GI tract have increased, in contrast to the decrease of NSAID-related upper GI disease. The aim of this review is to provide an evidence-based knowledge regarding the mechanism, complications of treatment, and prevention strategies for NSAID- or aspirin-related peptic ulcer disease in Korea.
Nørgård, Bente Mertz; Nielsen, Jan; Fonager, Kirsten
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) has increased during the 20th century in North America and Western Europe. However, there are conflicting reports whether the incidence has declined, stabilized or even continued to increase. No nationwide Danish...
Holstein, P; Lassen, N A
The frequency of healing in subchronic ulcers in 66 feet in 62 patients with arterial occlusive disease was correlated with the systolic digital blood pressure (SDBP) and the systolic ankle blood pressure (SABP), both measured with a strain gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the heel ...
Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke; Schumm, L Philip; Zeissig, Sebastian; Ahmad, Tariq; Andersen, Vibeke; Andrews, Jane M; Annese, Vito; Brand, Stephan; Brant, Steven R; Cho, Judy H; Daly, Mark J; Dubinsky, Marla; Duerr, Richard H; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Franke, Andre; Gearry, Richard B; Goyette, Philippe; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halfvarson, Jonas; Hov, Johannes R; Huang, Hailang; Kennedy, Nicholas A; Kupcinskas, Limas; Lawrance, Ian C; Lee, James C; Satsangi, Jack; Schreiber, Stephan; Théâtre, Emilie; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Weersma, Rinse K; Wilson, David C; Parkes, Miles; Vermeire, Severine; Rioux, John D; Mansfield, John; Silverberg, Mark S; Radford-Smith, Graham; McGovern, Dermot P B; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lees, Charlie W
Summary Background Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease; treatment strategies have historically been determined by this binary categorisation. Genetic studies have identified 163 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, mostly shared between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. We undertook the largest genotype association study, to date, in widely used clinical subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease with the goal of further understanding the biological relations between diseases. Methods This study included patients from 49 centres in 16 countries in Europe, North America, and Australasia. We applied the Montreal classification system of inflammatory bowel disease subphenotypes to 34 819 patients (19 713 with Crohn's disease, 14 683 with ulcerative colitis) genotyped on the Immunochip array. We tested for genotype–phenotype associations across 156 154 genetic variants. We generated genetic risk scores by combining information from all known inflammatory bowel disease associations to summarise the total load of genetic risk for a particular phenotype. We used these risk scores to test the hypothesis that colonic Crohn's disease, ileal Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis are all genetically distinct from each other, and to attempt to identify patients with a mismatch between clinical diagnosis and genetic risk profile. Findings After quality control, the primary analysis included 29 838 patients (16 902 with Crohn's disease, 12 597 with ulcerative colitis). Three loci (NOD2, MHC, and MST1 3p21) were associated with subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease, mainly disease location (essentially fixed over time; median follow-up of 10·5 years). Little or no genetic association with disease behaviour (which changed dramatically over time) remained after conditioning on disease location and age at onset. The genetic risk score representing all known risk alleles for
Full Text Available Peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK is type of crescent-shaped inflammatory damage that occurs in the limbal region of the cornea. PUK is always combined with an epithelial defect and the destruction of the peripheral corneal stroma. PUK may have a connection to systemic conditions, such as long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Wegener granulomatosis (WG, relapsing polychondritis, classic polyarteritis nodosa and its variants, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. However, the most common connection is with RA, which is also the focus of this review. The pathogenesis of PUK is still unclear. It is thought that circulating immune complexes and cytokines exert an important influence on the progression of this syndrome. Treatment is applied to inhibit certain aspects of PUK pathogenesis.
Cao, Yan; Zhang, Wensong; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Hong
Peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) is type of crescent-shaped inflammatory damage that occurs in the limbal region of the cornea. PUK is always combined with an epithelial defect and the destruction of the peripheral corneal stroma. PUK may have a connection to systemic conditions, such as long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Wegener granulomatosis (WG), relapsing polychondritis, classic polyarteritis nodosa and its variants, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. However, the most common connection is with RA, which is also the focus of this review. The pathogenesis of PUK is still unclear. It is thought that circulating immune complexes and cytokines exert an important influence on the progression of this syndrome. Treatment is applied to inhibit certain aspects of PUK pathogenesis. PMID:28785483
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota has been established in Crohn's disease (CD, but the molecular characterization of this dysbiosis in Chinese subjects with CD remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the predominant bacterial composition of the faecal and mucosal-associated microbiota in Chinese CD patients using culture-independent techniques. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eighteen patients with CD and 9 healthy controls were included in this study. The faeces and the intestinal mucosal tissues from the ulcerated and nonulcerated sites were subjected to bacterial community fingerprinting using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. The predominant bacterial composition in the faeces and mucosa was determined with DNA sequencing and BLAST. We showed that the bacterial diversity in the faeces of CD patients was reduced compared with that in healthy controls (p<0.01. The faecal bacterial dysbiosis of the patients was characterized by an elevated abundance of γ-Proteobacteria (especially Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri and a reduced proportion of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Five bacterial species defined the microbiota imbalance of the ulcerated mucosa in CD, including an increase in Escherichia coli, a decrease in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Lactobacillus coleohominis, Bacteroides sp and Streptococcus gallolyticus in the bacterial community as compared with the nonulcerated (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first description of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in Chinese CD patients. These results allow a better understanding of the faecal and mucosal microbiota in CD, showing a predominance of some opportunistic pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in beneficial bacterial species. The findings may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of CD in Chinese population.
A. E. Dongo
Full Text Available Background. Peptic ulcer perforation is a common cause of emergency admission and surgery. This is the first study that documents the presentation and outcome of management in Irrua, Nigeria. Patients and Method. This is a prospective study of all patients operated on for perforated peptic ulcer between April 1, 2010, and March 31, 2015. A structured questionnaire containing patients’ demographics, operation findings, and outcome was filled upon discharge or death. Results. There were 104 patients. 81 males and 23 females (M : F = 3.5 : 1. The age range was between 17 years and 95 years. The mean age was 48.99 years ± SD 16.1 years. The ratio of gastric to duodenal perforation was 1.88 : 1. Perforation was the first sign of peptic ulcer disease in 62 (59.6%. Pneumoperitoneum was detectable with plain radiographs in 95 (91% patients. 72 (69.2% had Graham’s Omentopexy. Death rate was 17.3%. Conclusion. We note that gastric perforation is a far commoner disease in our environment. Perforation is often the first sign of peptic ulcer disease. We identify fasting amongst Christians as a risk factor for perforation.
Ziech, Manon L.W.; Smets, Anne M.J.B.; Lavini, Cristina; Caan, Matthan W.A.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hummel, Thalia Z.; Benninga, Marc A.; Kindermann, Angelika [Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelofs, Joris J.T.H. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Endoscopy is currently the primary diagnostic technique for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children. To assess the accuracy of US and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease and for distinguishing Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis in comparison to a reference standard. Consecutive children with suspected IBD underwent diagnostic workup including ileocolonoscopy and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as the reference standard, abdominal US, and MR enterography and colonography at 3 T. The protocol included a dynamic contrast-enhanced 3-D sequence. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa values were calculated for one ultrasonographer and two MRI observers. We included 28 children (15 boys) with mean age 14 years (range 10-17 years). The diagnosis was IBD in 23 children (72%), including 12 with Crohn disease, 10 with ulcerative colitis and 1 with indeterminate colitis. For the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease the sensitivity was 55% for US and 57% (both observers) for MR entero- and colonography, and the specificity was 100% for US and 100% (observer 1) and 75% (observer 2) for MR entero- and colonography. Combined MRI and US had sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 100% (observer 1) and 74% and 80% (observer 2), respectively. With the addition of a dynamic contrast-enhanced MR sequence, the sensitivity increased to 83% and 87%. US and MRI could only distinguish between Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis when terminal ileum lesions were present. US and MR entero- and colonography have a high accuracy for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease in children but cannot be used to distinguish Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. (orig.)
Jess, P; Eldrup, J
. A prospective study using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with retesting of a subgroup of patients after a median observation period of 14 months. SETTING. Departments of Medical and Surgical Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, and the primary health sector in Roskilde County......, Denmark. SUBJECTS. Sixty hospital patients with duodenal ulceration and 17 patients with duodenal ulceration plus 25 patients with ulcer-like dyspepsia from the primary health sector. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. MMPI scores. RESULTS. The hospital patients differed from the two other groups of patients...... by having higher scores of depression and anxiety (P MMPI. Contrary to the patients with persisting complaints, abnormal personality characteristics disappeared in patients without complaints (P
Chen, San-Ni; Lian, Iebin; Chen, Yi-Chiao; Ho, Jau-Der
To investigate peptic ulcer disease and other possible risk factors in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) using a population-based database. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, longitudinal data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were analyzed. The study cohort comprised 835 patients with CSR and the control cohort comprised 4175 patients without CSR from January 2000 to December 2009. Conditional logistic regression was applied to examine the association of peptic ulcer disease and other possible risk factors for CSR, and stratified Cox regression models were applied to examine whether patients with CSR have an increased chance of peptic ulcer disease and hypertension development. The identifiable risk factors for CSR included peptic ulcer disease (adjusted odd ratio: 1.39, P = 0.001) and higher monthly income (adjusted odd ratio: 1.30, P = 0.006). Patients with CSR also had a significantly higher chance of developing peptic ulcer disease after the diagnosis of CSR (adjusted odd ratio: 1.43, P = 0.009). Peptic ulcer disease and higher monthly income are independent risk factors for CSR. Whereas, patients with CSR also had increased risk for peptic ulcer development.
Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke
dramatically over time) remained after conditioning on disease location and age at onset. The genetic risk score representing all known risk alleles for inflammatory bowel disease showed strong association with disease subphenotype (p=1·65 × 10(-78)), even after exclusion of NOD2, MHC, and 3p21 (p=9·23 × 10...
Wagner-Bartak, Nicolaus A; Levine, Marc S; Rubesin, Stephen E; Laufer, Igor; Rombeau, John L; Lichtenstein, Gary R
The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with six patients who developed Crohn's disease in the ileal pouch or distal ileum after a total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Pouch enemas showed characteristic findings of Crohn's disease, including nodularity, thickened folds, ulceration, cobblestoning, strictures, sinus tracks, and fistulas to the perianal region and vagina. It is important for radiologists to be aware of the findings of Crohn's disease in the ileal pouch and distal ileum on radiographic studies of the pouch after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis because of the implications for patient management.
Phiri, Sam; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Weiss, Helen A; Martinson, Francis; Nyirenda, Naomi; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Miller, William C; Cohen, Myron S; Mayaud, Philippe; Hoffman, Irving F
The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic management for patients presenting with genital ulcer disease (GUD) in developing countries. However, effective treatment guidelines depend on a current country-specific GUD etiological profile, which may change over time. From 2004 to 2006, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from patients presenting with GUD at a reference STI clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi. Participants were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of acyclovir added to syndromic management and followed up for up to 28 days. Serologies for HIV (using parallel rapid tests), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2; using Focus HerpeSelect IgG2 ELISA [Focus Technologies, Cypress Hill, CA]), and syphilis (rapid plasma reagin confirmed by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination) were determined, with plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count in HIV-positive patients. Genital ulcer disease etiology was determined by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction from lesional swabs. A total of 422 patients with GUD (313 men; 74%) were enrolled. Overall seroprevalence of HIV-1, HSV-2, and syphilis were 61%, 72%, and 5%, respectively. Ulcer etiology was available for 398 patients and showed the following: HSV-2, 67%; Haemophilus ducreyi, 15%; T. pallidum, 6%; lymphogranuloma venereum, 6%; mixed infections, 14%, and no etiology, 20%. Most HSV-2 ulcers were recurrent (75%). Among all patients with HSV-2, HIV prevalence was high (67%) and HIV seroprevalence was higher among patients with recurrent HSV-2 compared with patients with first-episode HSV-2 (78% vs. 39%, P ulcers are highly prevalent in this symptomatic population and strongly associated with HIV. Unlike most locations in sub-Saharan Africa, H. ducreyi remains prevalent in this population and requires periodic monitoring and an appropriate treatment regimen.
Moran, Neil R; Webster, Bradley; Lee, Kenneth M; Trotman, Judith; Kwan, Yiu-Lam; Napoli, John; Leong, Rupert W
Epstein Barr virus (EBV) positive mucocutaneous ulcers (EBVMCU) form part of a spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease. They have been reported in the setting of immunosenescence and iatrogenic immunosuppression, affecting the oropharyngeal mucosa, skin and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Case reports and series to date suggest a benign natural history responding to conservative management, particularly in the GIT. We report an unusual case of EBVMCU in the colon, arising in the setting of immunosuppression in the treatment of Crohn's disease, with progression to Hodgkin lymphoma 18 mo after cessation of infliximab. The patient presented with multiple areas of segmental colonic ulceration, histologically showing a polymorphous infiltrate with EBV positive Reed-Sternberg-like cells. A diagnosis of EBVMCU was made. The ulcers failed to regress upon cessation of infliximab and methotrexate for 18 mo. Following commencement of prednisolone for her Crohn's disease, the patient developed widespread Hodgkin lymphoma which ultimately presented as a life-threatening lower GIT bleed requiring emergency colectomy. This is the first report of progression of EBVMCU to Hodgkin lymphoma, in the setting of ongoing iatrogenic immunosuppression and inflammatory bowel disease.
Oral ulcer; Stomatitis - ulcerative; Ulcer - mouth ... Mouth ulcers are caused by many disorders. These include: Canker sores Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer ...
Kao Chiahung (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Wang Shyhjen (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Chen Granhum (Div. of Gastroenterology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Yeh Shinhwa (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China))
Forty-five patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastritis or ulcer disease were included in this study. Radionuclide-labelled solid meals were used to calculate gastric emptying times (GETs) and carbon-14 urea breath tests ([sup 14]C UBTs) were used to measure the HP colonies quantitatively. The patients were assessed according to the following two criteria: (a) the HP colony number (i.e. high or low) and (b) the recorded duration of the GET (i.e. long or short). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of abnormal GET between high and low [sup 14]C UBT patients or in the incidence of abnormal [sup 14]C UBT between long and short GET cases. In conclusion, no significant relationship between HP-associated gastritis or ulcer disease and GET was found in this study. (orig.)
Full Text Available Background: Non-healing trophic ulcers in Hansen's disease patients is one of the major causes for disability. It has been shown that autologous platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM is effective in healing chronic non-healing leg ulcers. Aim: The objective of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM in non-healing trophic ulcers in patients treated for Hansen's disease. Design: A prospective study. Setting: An institution-based clinic. Participants: Seven treated patients with Hansen's disease, with a mean age of 38.33 years, with nine non-healing trophic ulcer of more than 6 weeks duration. Measurements: Photographs were taken before treatment and at every subsequent sitting. Area and volume were calculated at baseline and every subsequent sitting till the closure was achieved. Materials and Methods: The healthy ulcers were treated with PRFM at weekly intervals, repeated once a week for a maximum of five sittings as per requirement. Results: The mean percentage improvement in the area was 93.52%, and volume was 97.74% at the end of the second sitting. All ulcers closed by a maximum of five sittings. No adverse events were noted. Conclusion: PRFM for the treatment of trophic ulcers in treated patients with Hansen's disease is a feasible, safe, simple and inexpensive method.
... wipes, and other supplies throughout the day and use as needed. Tests and project limits: Medications and active disease symptoms may contribute to sleep deprivation and fatigue. As a result, the number of ...
Christensen, A H; Logan, R P; Noach, L A
OBJECTIVES. To examine to what extent clinicians in Europe accepted the theory of the casual role of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) in duodenal ulcer disease in the year 1992, and to what extent the theory had influenced their diagnostic and therapeutic habits in the management of duodenal ulcer...... the role of H. pylori in duodenal ulcer disease. The rates were higher among gastroenterologists than among general practitioners. Eighty-four per cent of the British doctors, 80% of the Dutch doctors, and 48% of the Danish doctors used diagnostic tests for H. pylori, most frequently histological...
Karl D.A. Huchzermeyer
Full Text Available In late 2006 an unusual ulcerative condition in wild fish was reported for the first time in Africa from the Chobe and upper Zambezi Rivers in Botswana and Namibia. Concern increased with subsistence fishermen reporting large numbers of ulcerated fish in their catches. In April 2007 the condition was confirmed as an outbreak of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS. The causative agent, Aphanomyces invadans, is a pathogenic water mould of fish that shows little host specificity. Ulcers follow infection of tissues by oomycete zoospores, resulting in a granulomatous inflammation associated with invading oomycete hyphae. Granulomatous tracts surrounding oomycete hyphae within the necrotic tissues characterise the diagnostic histological picture. The upper Zambezi floodplain at the confluence with the Chobe River spans the four countries of Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe, making disease control a challenge. The floodplain ecosystem supports a high fish diversity of around 80 species, and is an important breeding and nursery ground. The annual cycle of flooding brings about changes in water quality that are thought to favour the infectivity of A. invadans, with diseased fish appearing soon after the plains become flooded. Since 2006 the disease has spread rapidly upstream along the upper Zambezi and its tributaries. By 2010 the disease was reported from the Okavango Delta in Botswana and in 2011 from the Western Cape Province of South Africa. EUS has the potential to disrupt floodplain ecosystems elsewhere in Africa where high fish diversity forms the basis of subsistence fisheries and local economies, and is a direct threat to freshwater fish culture.
Lazaridis, Lazaros-Dimitrios; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Georgitsi, Marianna; Damoraki, Georgia; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos
NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimolecular cytosol complex that, when activated, contributes to the cleavage of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β to IL-1β. To investigate NLRP3 inflammasome activation in inflammatory bowel disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and controls were stimulated with LPS in the absence or presence of MSU. After incubation, concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα were measured in cell supernatants and concentration of pro-IL-1β was measured in cell lysates. NLRP3 activation was defined as more than 30% increase in IL-1β production after MSU addition. In separate experiments, PBMCs were lysed for RNA isolation transcripts of IL-1β, TNFα, NLRP3, and CASP1 were measured by RT-PCR. DNA was isolated from CD patients for ATG16L1 gene genotyping. NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in 60% of CD patients compared to 28.6% of controls (p = 0.042); no significant difference was detected between UC and controls. Among UC patients, NLRP3 activation was associated (p = 0.008) with long-standing disease (>1.5 years). IL-1β levels were significantly higher in CD patents in comparison with controls (p = 0.032). No difference was detected in the levels of IL-6, TNFα, pro-IL-1β and in the numbers IL-1β, TNFα, NLRP3, and CASP1 transcripts among groups. IL-1β production was similar between carriers of wild-type and of SNP alleles of the rs2241880. NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in CD patients and in UC patients with long-standing disease.
Edden, Yair; Shih, Shirley S; Wexner, Steven D
Colonic ulcerations can affect the entire colon and rectum, and have variable clinical presentation according to the anatomic location and underlying pathology. Diverse causes may lead to colonic ulceration, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, oral drugs (mostly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), local or diffuse ischemia, and different intestinal microorganisms. An ulcer may also herald a concealed malignant disease. In most cases, colonic ulcerate is associated with diffuse colitis in the acute setup or with inflammatory bowel diseases, and to the lesser extent the ulceration is defined as solitary. This article focuses on two of the less commonly diagnosed diseases: solitary rectal ulcer syndrome and stercoral ulceration, both related to local tissue ischemia and often seen in the elderly population.
Wang, Hwang-Huei; Pan, Chun-Hsu; Wu, Ping-Ping; Luo, Shu-Fang; Lin, Hung-Jen
Abstract Objectives This study investigated whether the tongue inspection technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) can be used as a noninvasive auxiliary diagnostic tool to differentiate the subtypes of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and as an indicator of therapeutic efficacy. Subjects and methods A total of 198 outpatients from the China Medical University Hospital were recruited. The control group comprised 50 healthy adults. The remaining 148 patients were diagnosed with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, or Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection using upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, biopsy, and Campylobacter-like organism test. Tongue appearance was evaluated by a physician experienced in clinical Chinese medicine. Images of the tongue were immediately recorded using a high-resolution digital camera system. Results The affected group of 148 patients received an 8-week course of ulcer therapy. Of these, 108 patients infected with Hp were subjected to triple therapy in the first week. Forty-nine of these 108 cases infected with Hp completed secondary examination of upper GI endoscopy and tongue inspection. Forty-one of 49 cases (83.7%) were fully cured of Hp infection. These results showed that the color of the tongue body did not change in the cured patients; however, tongue fur was markedly thinner with a color change to white (p<0.05), while sublingual veins with engorgement (p<0.05) and blood stasis (p<0.01) improved after the ulcer healed and Hp was eradicated. Conclusions TCM tongue inspection can be potentially used as a noninvasive auxiliary diagnostic method and as an indicator for clinical outcomes for patients with PUD. PMID:23153037
Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin
Abstract Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who received simple suture/hemostasis to determine the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). This retrospective cohort study analyzed 335,680 peptic ulcer patients recorded from 2000 to 2006 versus 335,680 age-, sex-, comorbidity-, and index-year matched comparisons. Patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection were excluded. In order to identify the effect of vagus nerve severance, patients who received gastrectomy or antrectomy were also excluded. The incidence of IHD in both cohorts, and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy versus those who received simple suture or hemostasis was evaluated. The overall incidence of IHD was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (17.00 vs 12.06 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.46 based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis controlling for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and death (competing risk). While comparing peptic ulcer patients with acid-reducing vagotomy to those with simple suture/hemostasis or those without surgical treatment, the aHR (0.58) was the lowest in the acid-reducing vagotomy group. Patients with peptic ulcer have an elevated risk of IHD. However, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were associated with reduced risk of developing IHD. PMID:27977613
Phiri, Sam; Hoffman, Irving F; Weiss, Helen A; Martinson, Francis; Nyirenda, Naomi; Kamwendo, Debbie; Fiscus, Susan A; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Miller, William C; van der Hoeven, Len; Chilongozi, David; Cohen, Myron S; Mayaud, Philippe
By a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aciclovir 800 mg twice daily for 5 days added to the syndromic management of genital ulcer disease (GUD) to determine the impact on ulcer healing and HIV outcomes. Patients presenting with GUD in Malawi were evaluated for HIV and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) serologies, ulcer aetiology, lesional, genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ count. Patients were followed up at days 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28. The primary study outcome was ulcer healing at day 14, with secondary outcomes being lesional and genital HIV-1 shedding at day 14 and HIV-1 plasma viral load at day 28 among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected individuals. Four hundred and twenty-two patients (74% male) were randomised (208 to aciclovir, 214 to placebo), of whom 61% were HIV-1 seropositive and 72% HSV-2 seropositive; 67% (267/398) had HSV-2 ulcers. 85% of ulcers were healed at day 14 with no difference between treatment arms (risk ratio (RR)=1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11). Among 244 HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected individuals, aciclovir reduced lesional HIV-1 RNA (adjusted RR=0.64, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.99) and seminal HIV-1 RNA (adjusted RR=0.59, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.88), but not cervical HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. Episodic HSV treatment with aciclovir added to syndromic management did not produce a significant clinical benefit in this African population.
Wang, Y; Yang, L; Zhang, Z L
Here we reported two patients who presented with panuveitis and were transferred from ophthalmologists to rheumatologists, for both the patients had oral and genital ulcers. They were misdiagnosed with Behcet's disease at first glance. Two young males presented with acute uveitis with history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers. They initially presented with symptoms and signs resembling Behcet's disease and were treated with systemic steroids with suboptimal responses. Routine laboratory test revealed syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. After treatment of penicillin and anti HIV virus therapy, the panuveitis was relived. The other patient was lost in the follow up. Recently epidemiological data indicate that syphilis and HIV infection increase, which can mimic the manifestation of Behcet's disease. Diagnosis of sexual transmitted diseases, such as HIV or syphilis needs to be ruled out in all cases that mimic the clinical feature of Behcet's disease, especially for those who had a history of high risk behaviors. Every patient should have history analysis in detail. Screening of sexual transmitted diseases, such as HIV or syphilis is important especially in those rapid progressive panuveitis. Also, other virus infections, such as cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus or Herpes simplex virus can cause mucosa ulcers and uveitis. CD4 T cell count is a very important marker to indicate that the patient has immunodeficiency. Erythema nodosa and pseudofolliculitis are the third common clinical manifestation in Chinese Behcet's disease patients. Rheumatologist should watch out for patients without skin involvement when making the diagnosis of Behcet's disease. Syphilis-associated uveitis usually has a good prognosis. Treatment of antibiotics can get good response, 92% uveitis can be relieved, with 67% improved vision. Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis (ASPPC) is a clinically and angiographically distinct manifestation of ocular
Dawesh P. Yadav
Full Text Available Background. Results on body composition in Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC have been heterogeneous and are lacking from Asia. Present study assessed body composition in CD/UC and correlated it with disease severity/duration. Methods. Patients of CD/UC following between Dec 2014 and Dec 2015 who consented for bioimpedance analysis for body fat measurement were included. Lean mass and fat-free mass index (FFMI were calculated with standard formulae. Visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SCA, and visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (VF/SC were evaluated in CD patients on abdominal CT. Results. Lean mass in CD (n=44, mean age: 41.2±15.8 years, 73% males was significantly lower than UC (n=53, mean age: 33.2±11.2 years, 68% males; 44.2±7.8 versus 48.3±8.4 Kg, p=0.01. In both UC/CD, disease severity was associated with nonsignificant decline in BMI (UC: 22.1±4.9 versus 20.2±3.2 versus 19.9±3.2 kg/m2, p=0.23; CD: 22.1±4.2 versus 19.9±2.3 versus 19.7±4.2 kg/m2, p=0.18 and fat mass (UC: 10.9±8.9 versus 8.1±5.9 versus 5.7±3.6 kg, p=0.14; CD: 11.2±7 versus 7.9±4.4 versus 7.2±5.9 kg, p=0.16, and disease duration was associated with significant decline in FFMI (p<0.05. In CD, disease severity was associated with nonsignificant decline in SCA and increase in VF/SC. Conclusions. CD patients have lower lean mass than UC. Body fat decreases with increasing disease severity and fat-free mass decreases with increasing disease duration in both UC/CD.
Christensen, A H; Gjørup, T; Andersen, I B
stated more causes than did their male colleagues (p anxiety, and stress, were contributory causes of peptic ulcer disease, whereas only around 40% believed that coffee/tea, alcohol, smoking, side effects......The aim of the study was to investigate opinions among Danish patients and physicians on causes of peptic ulcer disease. Fifty-nine patients with an ulcer history and 77 physicians with a special interest in gastroenterology participated. They were given a questionnaire listing 16 possible causes...... of peptic ulcer and indicated for each whether they believed it was a contributory cause of the disease. The patients stated 0-10 causes each (median, 4), and the physicians 3-12 causes (median, 6) (p causes than did the older ones (p
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Different studies show that the reasons for clinically diverse outcomes of infections caused by H. pylori may include host and environmental factors as well as differences in the prevalence or expression of bacterial virulence factors. The aim of this study was to study the distribution of different genotypes of major virulence factors cagA, vacA and ureAB among H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric ulcer (ulcerative disease and patients with gastritis (non ulcerative disease.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study 65 H. pylori strains, 30 from patients with gastric ulcer and 35 from patients with non ulcerative gastritis disease were investigated by RFLP-PCR.Results: The prevalence of vacA-positive strains in ulcerative patients was significantly more than that in non ulcerative patients (P0.05.Conclusion: It seems that in the patients under our study the presence of cagA gene may not necessarily be a risk factor for ulcer disease, while a homologous genotype of vacA appears to be associated with an increase risk of ulcer development. Lastly, despite the existence of a high degree of genomic variability within ureAB, conserved DNA banding profiles are distributed in our areas.
Tang, Raymond SY; Wu, Justin CY
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are not uncommon in elderly patients. Clinical presentations of these acid-related disorders may be atypical in the geriatric population. Older individuals are at increased risk for poor outcomes in complicated PUD and for development of GERD complications. Multiple risk factors (eg, Helicobacter pylori [HP], use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], aspirin) contribute to the development of PUD. Recent data has shown that HP-negative, NSAID-negative idiopathic peptic ulcers are on the rise and carry a higher risk of recurrent ulcer bleeding and mortality. Effective management of PUD in the geriatric population relies on identification and modification of treatable risk factors. Elderly patients with GERD often require long-term acid suppressive therapy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) including esomeprazole are effective in the treatment of reflux esophagitis, maintenance of GERD symptomatic control, and management of PUD as well as its complications. Potential safety concerns of long-term PPI use have been reported in the literature. Clinicians should balance the risks and benefits before committing elderly patients to long-term PPI therapy. PMID:24187492
... Colitis? > Types of Ulcerative Colitis Types of Ulcerative Colitis Email Print + Share If you are diagnosed with ... abdomen may occur in active disease. Left-sided Colitis Continuous inflammation that begins at the rectum and ...
Banche, M; Rossini, F P; Ferrari, A; Roatta, L; Gilli, E; Cirillo, R
The authors point out the striking significance of coloscopy in establishing a correct diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the colon. In particular, the most valuable endoscopic features are indicated which may permit distinguishing between idiopathic ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease of the colon. Differentiation between these two diseases cannot always be achieved by means of available diagnostic procedures other than coloscopy. Moreover, the endoscopic findings enable an assessment to be made of the extent, stage, severity and course of either disease. The authors' experience encompass 2,478 coloscopy examinations: the observed cases of idiopathic ulcerative colitis are 182, those of Crohn's disease of the colon are 104.
Castro Aguilar-Tablada, Teresa; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Quesada Granados, Javier; Samaniego Sánchez, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Nogueras-Lopez, Flor
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn's disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p nutritional (protein, albumin, prealbumin, cholinesterase and total cholesterol) and iron status-related (hemoglobin, Fe and hematocrit) parameters (p nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status.
... hemorrhage - peptic ulcer; G.I. bleed - peptic ulcer; H. pylori - peptic ulcer; Helicobacter pylori - peptic ulcer ... of the stomach by bacteria called Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori ). Most people with peptic ulcers have these bacteria ...
Full Text Available Background. A possible association of esophageal reflux disease with peptic ulcer, Helicobacter pylori infection or the results of eradication, has not been elucidated. It is an alarming fact that in developed countries the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma, which is associated with reflux disease, is increasing.Aim. The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of esophageal reflux disease after eradication of H. pylori infection in patients with hemorrhaging and nonhemorrhaging peptic ulcer of stomach or duodenum.Patients and methods. Study was approved in 1998 by the Slovenian Medical Ethics Committee (No. 90/09/98. Prospective, controlled and randomized, carried out between 1998– 2000.The study included 80 patients (50 male and 30 female, av. age 57.5 years, SD ± 17.1, range 22–80 years in which endoscopy confirmed hemorrhage from peptic ulcer of stomach or duodenum and HP infection. The control group was made up of 80 patients (50 male and 30 female, av. age 56.8 years, SD ± 16.8, range 19–80 years with peptic ulcer of stomach or duodenum and H.pylori infection in the same period of time. In all cases the recommended drug combinations were used in the treatment of the infection: a proton pump inhibitor, omeprazol (4 weeks, and combination of antibiotics, claritromycin and metronidazole or with regard to the antibiogram (1 week. The therapeutic success was ascertained endoscopically four weeks after inclusion in the study. Infection eradication was confirmed by the rapid urease test and histologic investigation of the gastric mucosa. One year later, in the course of follow-up, in patients with endoscopic investigations, 24-hour pH-metry or fiberoptic spectrophotometric bilirubin determination, bilimetry, we tried to establish signs of esophageal reflux disease.Results. Four weeks after inclusion in the study the success of infection eradication was 92.5% in the study group while in the control group reached 91.25%, p > 0
Ignacio López de Maturana
Full Text Available Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO or Buerger's disease is associated with both distal ulcers in the extremities and the possibility of amputation. The only treatment that has been shown to be effective in TAO is complete abstention from smoking. In spite of this, the disease progresses in up to 30 percent of cases and finally results in limb amputation. Only a few pharmacological and surgical options are available to date to improve healing ulcers in TAO. The efficacy of prostaglandin analogues is controversial. This paper summarizes the current evidence for medical treatment with bosentan in chronic ulcers in TAO patients. These available data up to date allow us to conclude that the beneficial effects of bosentan on improving endothelial function, inflammatory processes, and selective vasodilatation of damaged vessels result in a clinical enhancement regarding healing and preventive digital ulcers in such patients. In any case, these promising findings have to be confirmed with larger randomised trials.
Full Text Available With the momentous discovery in the 1980's that a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, can cause peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, antibiotic therapies and prophylactic measures have been successful, only in part, in reducing the global burden of these diseases. To date, ~700,000 deaths worldwide are still attributable annually to gastric cancer alone. Here, we review H. pylori's contribution to the epidemiology and histopathology of both gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease. Furthermore, we examine the host-pathogen relationship and H. pylori biology in context of these diseases, focusing on strain differences, virulence factors (CagA and VacA, immune activation and the challenges posed by resistance to existing therapies. We consider also the important role of host-genetic variants, for example, in inflammatory response genes, in determining infection outcome and the role of H. pylori in other pathologies—some accepted, for example, MALT lymphoma, and others more controversial, for example, idiopathic thrombocytic purpura. More recently, intriguing suggestions that H. pylori has protective effects in GERD and autoimmune diseases, such as asthma, have gained momentum. Therefore, we consider the basis for these suggestions and discuss the potential impact for future therapeutic rationales.
Mumcu, Gonca; Alibaz-Öner, Fatma; Öner, Sibel Yılmaz; Özen, Gülsen; Atagündüz, Pamir; İnanç, Nevsun; Köksal, Leyla; Ergun, Tülin; Direskeneli, Haner
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between oral ulcer activity and medication adherence according to gender in Behçet's disease (BD) patients. The study group included 330 BD patients (F/M: 167/163, mean age: 38.5±10.5 years). Oral ulcer activity and medication adherence were evaluated in the previous month. Medication adherence was evaluated using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) having a score range of "0" to "8" with high scores indicating better adherence. Low adherence was defined as medication adherence (2.39±3.24) than in the rest of the female group (1.28±2.05; p=0.023). Although a similar trend was also observed in male patients (2.14±3.3 vs. 1.81±2.31), a significant relationship was not observed (p=0.89). The frequency of medication intake per day was lower in patients with high medication adherence than in the rest of the study group (p=0.04). Low medication adherence is a hidden risk factor in the management of BD. Poor adherence was associated with oral ulcer activity in female BD patients.
Engelhardt, Michael; Spech, Eva; Diener, Hermann; Faller, Hermann; Augustin, Matthias; Debus, Eike S
Aim of the study was to validate a newly developed disease-specific quality of life questionnaire (Wuerzburg Wound Score, WWS) in patients with chronic arterial or venous leg ulcers. In this prospective study 115 patients with vascular disease associated leg ulcer (54 arterial ulcer, 61 venous ulcer) were studied (mean age 66 ± 11 years, 51 % male). All patients completed the WWS at baseline, and after four and 12 weeks. To assess construct validity additionally all patients completed the generic QoL-questionnaires Short Form-36 (SF-36) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Construct validity and responsiveness of the WWS were tested. WWS showed acceptable construct validity versus SF-36 (r = 0.5 - 0.78; P ulcer. The WWS is a valid measure of disease-specific QoL in patients with leg ulcers and it is more sensitive than the generic instruments in detecting changes of wound healing over time. Further assessment of the psychometric properties of the WWS with larger patient samples is required before the test can be recommended for use in clinical practice.
Guzman, Raul J; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi; Stein, C Michael
To determine the relationship between foot ulcers, arterial calcification, and peripheral occlusive disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. We performed a cross-sectional study on 162 patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent assessment of tibial artery calcification (TAC) by non-contrasted CT scan. Peripheral artery occlusive disease was assessed by angiography. Foot status including the presence or absence of ulcers was documented at presentation. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between foot ulcers, arterial calcification, and the extent of peripheral atherosclerotic occlusive disease. Patients with foot ulcers (N=31) were more likely to be older and have a history of tobacco use. They were also more likely to have higher TAC scores (median [IQR]: 4324.6 [609.9, 11163.6] vs. 9.4 [0.0, 343.9], PFoot ulcer was strongly associated with elevated TAC scores in a multivariable regression model (odds ratio [95% CI]=2.76 [1.61, 4.75], P=0.0002). There is a strong association between arterial calcification and diabetic foot ulcers that persists after adjusting for the extent of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brtan Romić, Renata; Brtan, Anđelka; Romić, Ivan; Cvitanović, Hrvoje; Duvančić, Tomislavć; Lugović-Mihić, Liborija
Chronic wounds on lower extremities most commonly result from chronic venous insufficiency. Chronic leg ulcer impacts the quality of life in a number of ways such as reduced mobility, pain, unpleasant odor, sleep disturbances, social isolation, etc. This study included 100 patients with chronic wounds/lower leg ulcer (59% of women and 41% of men, aged 31 to 89) treated locally with special wound dressings for moist wound healing. Study results showed no age and sex correlation with the quality of life, and all participants evaluated their quality of life and health satisfaction as neither good nor bad, but it was found that the disease mostly affected social relationships and to a lesser extent patient satisfaction with their physical and mental health, and the environment. Results on the disease perception showed that the participants considered their disease to have a significant effect on their life and would last for a relatively long time, but they also believed they had good control of their disease. Also, they considered the disease to have many symptoms affecting them; they were worried about their disease which they understood relatively well; they were aware that treatment could be very helpful; and that the disease had moderate effect on their emotional health. According to sex, the disease was found to have greater effect on women (especially on their emotional condition) and women had more faith in successful treatment, while correlation with age was nonsignificant. This study confirmed the importance of the patient psychological condition and the need of due care of their psychological reactions to and facing with the disease.
Full Text Available Introduction: To meet key millennium development goals, the rural population needs to be reached for health assessment and service delivery. Gastroduodenal ulcer disease is a common ailment affecting the health of people in Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Bwera Hospital in Kasese district of western Uganda, to establish the prevalence and predisposing factors of Helicobacter pylori among gastroduodenal ulcer disease patients. Methods: A sample of 174 patients with symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer disease was purposively obtained. Using two laboratory test methods, the prevalence of H. pylori among these patients was determined. A structured questionnaire was administered to participants to establish their demographic background and selected aspects of their lifestyle. Finally, the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunochromatographic rapid test (IRT were compared. Results: We established the prevalence of H. pylori as 29.9% (52/174 by ELISA and 37.4% (65/174 by IRT. Cigarette smoking, poor sanitation, and lack of formal education were the significant predisposing factors with p-values <0.05. The two tests gave identical results in 87.9% of the patients. Discussion: The prevalence of H. pylori by IRT and ELISA test methods was similar to what has been reported elsewhere in developed countries; but was lower than previously reported in developing countries including Uganda. The previous studies in Uganda were carried out in the urban population and on young children; and some used antibody-detection methods only, therefore leading to different prevalence as a result of difference in study population and methods.
Lim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sang Gyun; Song, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Han, Jae Pil; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Ji Hyun; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kim, Gwang Ha; Shim, Ki-Nam; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Sun Moon; Chung, Il-Kwon; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Heung Up; Lee, Joongyub; Kim, Jae Gyu
Background/Aims The resistance rate of Helicobacter pylori is gradually increasing. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication in peptic ulcer disease. Methods Between 2002 and 2014, 110 patients in 14 medical centers received levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease. Of these, 88 were included in the study; 21 were excluded because of lack of follow-up and one was excluded for poor compliance. Their eradication rates, treatment regimens and durations, and types of peptic ulcers were analyzed. Results The overall eradiation rate was 71.6%. The adherence rate was 80.0%. All except one received a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin. One received a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, and clarithromycin, and the eradication was successful. Thirty-one were administered the therapy for 7 days, 25 for 10 days, and 32 for 14 days. No significant differences were observed in the eradication rates between the three groups (7-days, 80.6% vs 10-days, 64.0% vs 14-days, 68.8%, p=0.353). Additionally, no differences were found in the eradiation rates according to the type of peptic ulcer (gastric ulcer, 73.2% vs duodenal/gastroduodenal ulcer, 68.8%, p=0.655). Conclusions Levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication showed efficacy similar to that of previously reported first/second-line therapies. PMID:27609487
Lim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sang Gyun; Song, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Han, Jae Pil; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Ji Hyun; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kim, Gwang Ha; Shim, Ki-Nam; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Sun Moon; Chung, Il-Kwon; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Heung Up; Lee, Joongyub; Kim, Jae Gyu
The resistance rate of Helicobacter pylori is gradually increasing. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication in peptic ulcer disease. Between 2002 and 2014, 110 patients in 14 medical centers received levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease. Of these, 88 were included in the study; 21 were excluded because of lack of follow-up and one was excluded for poor compliance. Their eradication rates, treatment regimens and durations, and types of peptic ulcers were analyzed. The overall eradiation rate was 71.6%. The adherence rate was 80.0%. All except one received a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin. One received a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, and clarithromycin, and the eradication was successful. Thirty-one were administered the therapy for 7 days, 25 for 10 days, and 32 for 14 days. No significant differences were observed in the eradication rates between the three groups (7-days, 80.6% vs 10-days, 64.0% vs 14-days, 68.8%, p=0.353). Additionally, no differences were found in the eradiation rates according to the type of peptic ulcer (gastric ulcer, 73.2% vs duodenal/gastroduodenal ulcer, 68.8%, p=0.655). Levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication showed efficacy similar to that of previously reported first/second-line therapies.
Lemberg, Daniel A; Day, Andrew S
Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two main types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have become increasingly common in Australasian children and adolescents in recent years. Furthermore, CD and UC are seen more often in younger children. These conditions are typically more extensive in children and tend to follow more severe disease courses than in adults. Although many children may present with typical symptoms (such as abdominal pain or bloody diarrhoea), others have atypical features (including oral ulceration, short stature or skin manifestations). In addition, many children with IBD will have altered growth or nutrition, which may compromise normal linear growth and pubertal development. Early identification and full assessment of children presenting with possible IBD are essential to avoid consequences of diagnostic delay and to optimise short- and long-term outcomes. Management of IBD encompasses various options and should be undertaken within a team-based, child and family-focused, multidisciplinary setting. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Nørgård, Bente Mertz; Larsen, P V; Fedder, J
OBJECTIVE: To examine the chance of live births and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) compared with women without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This was a nationwide...
Htun, Y; Morse, S A; Dangor, Y; Fehler, G; Radebe, F; Trees, D L; Beck-Sague, C M; Ballard, R C
To evaluate two protocols for the syndromic management of genital ulcer disease (GUD) in Lesotho, southern Africa and to compare the performance of these protocols with that of a conventional disease specific approach. A cross sectional study was conducted among consecutive patients with GUD attending an STD clinic in Maseru, Lesotho. The clinical diagnoses were made by using predefined criteria at the initial visit before the performance of laboratory tests. Attempts were made to detect the specific aetiology of the genital ulcers using PCR assays and syphilis serology. The results of PCR assays and syphilis serology were used as the gold standard against which the performance of the management approaches were applied. Of 100 patients initially recruited into the study, Haemophilus ducreyi infection was detected in 56%, herpes simplex virus in 26%, Treponema pallidum in 23%, and lymphogranuloma venereum in 7%. No pathogens were detected in 6% of patients. 17% of patients had mixed infections. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the three management protocols for GUD were compared after applying each to the study population. Theoretically, the lowest correct treatment rate would have been obtained by using the disease specific protocol (62%) compared with more than 90% in both syndromic management protocols. Considerable overtreatment for primary syphilis would occur following application of both syndromic protocols. This would be the result of the overdiagnosis of chancroid, in particular the misdiagnosis of genital herpes as chancroid, which would receive treatment for syphilis unnecessarily. The HIV seroprevalence among these patients was 36%. A significantly higher rate of HIV seropositivity was detected among the patients with herpes simplex virus infection when compared with those patients having other causes of genital ulcer disease (58% v 27%; odds ratio 3.73; 95% CI 1.26-11.26; p = 0.01). Poor sensitivity, specificity, and
Petersen, A M; Fussing, V; Colding, H
divided into five groups on the basis of upper endoscopic findings: gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastritis, esophagitis, or normal. The ultrastructural adherence pattern in vivo, autoagglutination, hemagglutination, adhesion to human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells, and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS...
Danielsson, Gudmundur; Eklof, Bo; Grandinetti, Andrew; Lurie, Fedor; Kistner, Robert L
We undertook this cross-sectional study to investigate the distribution of venous reflux and effect of axial reflux in superficial and deep veins and to determine the clinical value of quantifying peak reverse flow velocity and reflux time in limbs with chronic venous disease. Four hundred one legs (127 with skin changes, 274 without skin changes) in 272 patients were examined with duplex ultrasound scanning, and peak reverse flow velocity and reflux time were measured. Both parameters were graded on a scale of 0 to 4. The sum of reverse flow scores was calculated from seven venous segments, three in superficial veins (great saphenous vein at saphenofemoral junction, great saphenous vein below knee, small saphenous vein) and four in deep veins (common femoral vein, femoral vein, deep femoral vein, popliteal vein). Axial reflux was defined as reflux in the great saphenous vein above and below the knee or in the femoral vein to the popliteal vein below the knee. Reflux parameters and presence or absence of axial reflux in superficial or deep veins were correlated with prevalence of skin changes or ulcer (CEAP class 4-6). The most common anatomic presentation was incompetence in all three systems (superficial, deep, perforator; 46%) or in superficial or perforator veins (28%). Isolated reflux in one system only was rare (15%; superficial, 28 legs; deep, 14 legs; perforator, 18 legs). Deep venous incompetence was present in 244 legs (61%). If common femoral vein reflux was excluded, prevalence of deep venous incompetence was 52%. The cause, according to findings at duplex ultrasound scanning, was primary in 302 legs (75%) and secondary in 99 legs (25%). Presence of axial deep venous reflux increased significantly with prevalence of skin changes or ulcer (C4-C6; odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-4.67). Of 110 extremities with incompetent popliteal vein, 81 legs had even femoral vein reflux, with significantly more skin changes or ulcer, compared
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Ugh! Ulcers KidsHealth / For Kids / Ugh! Ulcers What's in this ... real story? Let's find out. What Is an Ulcer? An ulcer (say: UL-sur) is a sore, ...
Full Text Available Jill MV Petkau, Bertus Eksteen Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD encompasses a cluster of different disease phenotypes which are broadly classified into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Disease pathogenesis is driven by abnormal host immune responses to their resident gut microbiome in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical disease features and outcomes are heterogenous and not unexpected as over 163 genetic loci are associated with disease susceptibility, and there are great variability in environmental exposures. Despite this variability, there has been relatively few efficacious therapies for particularly moderate-to-severe IBD. Treatment has been dominated by antitumor necrosis alpha agents with significant success but equally potentially serious adverse events. Therapeutic targeting of leucocyte trafficking has emerged as a viable alternative therapy, with vedolizumab being the lead compound. This review focuses primarily on its biological function as a selective gut immunotherapy, its safety and efficacy, and its emerging role as a mainstream therapy in managing IBD. Keywords: adhesion molecule antagonist, anti-α4β7 integrin, inflammatory bowel disease, leukocyte trafficking, monoclonal antibody, selective gut immunotherapy, tumor necrosis factor alpha
Full Text Available During the years 1985 to 1987, 689 moose (Alces alces L. collected throughout Sweden were necrop-sied at the National Veterinary Institute in Uppsala, Sweden. Sixty-eight of those investigated had catarrhal to hemorrhagic enteritis, atrophied lymphoid organs, and/or numerous erosive, uclerative, necrotizing lesions of the digestive mucosa. Histopathology of the mucous membranes revealed marked inter- and intracellular oedema, erosions, ulcers and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Neither Bovine Virus Diarrhoea/Mucosal Disease (BVD/MD or Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR virus could be isolated from the diseased animals. It is suggested that the syndrome resembling BVD/MD complex, may have been caused by an yet unidentified virus.
Toutous Trellu, Laurence; Nkemenang, Patrick; Comte, Eric; Ehounou, Geneviève; Atangana, Paul; Mboua, Didier Junior; Rusch, Barbara; Njih Tabah, Earnest; Etard, Jean-François; Mueller, Yolanda K
Clinical diagnosis of Buruli ulcer (BU) due to Mycobacterium ulcerans can be challenging. We aimed to specify the differential diagnosis of skin lesions in a BU endemic area. We conducted a prospective diagnostic study in Akonolinga, Cameroon. Patients presenting with a skin ulcer suspect of BU were included. M. ulcerans was detected using swabs for Ziehl-Neelsen staining, PCR and culture. Skin punch biopsies were taken and reviewed by two histopathologists. Photographs of the lesions were taken and independently reviewed by two dermatologists. Final diagnosis was based on consensus, combining the results of laboratory tests and expert opinion. Between October 2011 and December 2013, 327 patients with ulcerative lesions were included. Median age was 37 years (0 to 87), 65% were males, and 19% HIV-positive. BU was considered the final diagnosis for 27% of the lesions, 85% of which had at least one positive laboratory test. Differential diagnoses were vascular lesions (22%), bacterial infections (21%), post-traumatic (8%), fistulated osteomyelitis (6%), neoplasia (5%), inflammatory lesions (3%), hemopathies and other systemic diseases (2%) and others (2%). The proportion of BU was similar between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients (27.0% vs. 26.5%; p = 0.940). Half of children below 15 years of age were diagnosed with BU, compared to 26.8% and 13.9% among individuals 15 to 44 years of age and above, respectively (chi2 pdiagnosis of skin lesions in a BU endemic area, stratifying results by age and HIV-status.
Vukobrat-Bijedic, Zora; Husic-Selimovic, Azra; Bijedic, Nina; Bjelogrlic, Ivana; Djuran, Aleksandra
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common disease with a chronic and relapsing presentation requiring regular clinical follow up. Epidemiological and microbiologic studies suggest that enteropathogenic microorganisms play a substantial role in the clinical presentation and extent of inflammatory bowel disease. To evaluate the presence of intestinal infections by Entamoeba hystolitica in patients with ulcerative colitis, their impact on clinical outcome, and to identify associated risk factors. A total of 31 patients hospitalized on Gastroenterohepatology Department with patohystologically proved ulcerative colitis were studied. Fresh feces samples taken from 20 patients were examined immediately using Eosin and Lugol-staining methods and analyzing the presence of vegetative and MIFC (Meriolat and Iod staining). A total of 16 female and 15 male hospitalized UC patients were analysed in a period of two years (2010-2011). The mean age at diagnosis was 43 years. We analyzed relation of amoeba infection with localization of ulcerative colitis. Our results indicate that amoeba infection is related to extent of disease (they were mostly present in pancolitis). Presence of amoeba is not related to age nor gender. Furthermore, presence of amoeba was not associated with more severe clinical course of disease. Similarly, higher value of serum marker of inflammation was not associated with amoeba infection. Amoeba infections in UC patients treated at Gastroenterohepatology Department was not related to the grade of disease activity, and other clinical variables such as gender, age and parameters of inflammation. These microorganisms could be a contributing cause of extended localization of disease.
Kawalec, Paweł; Stawowczyk, Ewa; Mossakowska, Małgorzata; Pilc, Andrzej
Ulcerative colitis (UC) require expensive, lifelong treatment, which generates huge direct costs and has a significant impact on the quality of life, especially in the active state of the disease. To assess the indirect costs, health-related quality of life, and clinical characteristics of patients with UC in Poland. Additionally, we investigated the association between activity of UC and productivity loss of patients in a Polish setting. A questionnaire survey was conducted using the Patient Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (P-SCCAI) to assess disease activity, as well as the modified Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire to assess productivity loss. The quality of life was presented as utility calculated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Indirect costs were assessed with the Human Capital Approach and were expressed in Polish zlotys (PLN) as well as in euros (€). Correlations were presented using the Spearman coefficient. We performed our analysis based on 202 full questionnaires collected. Mean patient age and age at disease onset were 33.14 years (standard deviation (SD): 9.90) and 26.35 years (SD: 8.89), respectively. The mean P-SCCAI score in the analysed group of patients was 8.26, and the mean utility was 0.8651. Average and median annual indirect costs per working person were €2043 and €1389 (8543 PLN and 5808 PLN), respectively, calculated using the gross domestic product, as well as €4791 and €3257 (20,026 PLN and 13,615 PLN), respectively, calculated using the gross value added. Total productivity loss was significantly correlated with the disease activity. Ulcerative colitis causes a decrease in the quality of life as well as patients' productivity loss associated with both absenteeism and with presenteeism.
Noda, Angel A; Blanco, Orestes; Correa, Consuelo; Pérez, Lissette; Kourí, Vivian; Rodríguez, Islay
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and in particular genital ulcer disease (GUD) have a major impact on morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in resource-constrained countries. Surveillance of autochthonous etiologies provides epidemiological information contributing to the prevention and treatment of STIs. We investigated the etiology and factors associated with GUD among male patients attending a STD clinic in Havana, Cuba. Swabs from genital ulcers of 113 male patients, collected from May 2012 to June 2015, were analyzed using PCR for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and Chlamydia trachomatis. We also investigated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with the presence of these pathogens in GUD. At least one of the pathogens was detected in 70% of patients. The occurrence of the pathogens was herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (51.3%), T. pallidum (29.2%), and C. trachomatis (1.8%). Co-infections occurred as follows: T. pallidum-HSV-2 (10.6%), C. trachomatis-HSV-2 (0.9%) and C. trachomatis-T. pallidum (0.9%). Herpes simplex virus type 1 and H. ducreyi were not detected. Ages 15 to 40 years, HIV-positive serostatus, and no condom use were significant risk factors for the presence of HSV-2 in genital ulcers. Our preliminary results highlight the predominance of HSV-2 and T. pallidum as the leading GUD etiologies in the study population and identified risk factors associated with HSV-2. This information should help to inform guidelines for better management of GUD in Havana, Cuba.
Full Text Available To evaluate the association between disease severity and hepatic steatosis in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Consecutively selected UC patients admitted to the gastroenterology clinic were enrolled in the study. UC severity was assessed by Truelove and Witts classification. Patients with severe UC were excluded from the study. NASH was determined based on persistently elevated serum aminotransferase levels and detection of fatty liver ultrasound. Patients with other etiologies for elevated aminotransferase levels were excluded. Liver fat content (LFC was assessed by measuring liver fat score (LFS. One hundred patients (42% male were included in the study. According to liver ultrasound examination, 62 (% patients were identified with grade 1 fatty liver disease, and 38 (% patients were classified as advanced (grade 2 and 3 fatty liver disease. Sixty-one patients had left-sided UC and (46% had mild UC disease severity index. LFS was significantly higher in UC patients with the moderate disease than patients with mild disease (3.53±2.68 vs. 5.89±2.85, respectively; P<0.01. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in LFS regarding UC extension. There was no significant difference between NASH ultrasound grades in view of UC severity and extension. LFC might be associated with UC severity.
Arents, NLA; Thijs, JC; van Zwet, AA; Kleibeuker, JH
Objectives Recent studies have suggested that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with ulcer disease who were not using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been overestimated. The decreasing prevalence of H. pylori could lead to a relative increase in the
Mosti, G; Cavezzi, A; Massimetti, G; Partsch, H
Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is reported in about 15-20% of patients with venous leg ulcers (VLU). In such cases arterial recanalization is often recommended, and compression therapy is considered a contraindication when the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) is venous recalcitrant leg ulcer" [pvRLU]) and with associated PAOD ("mixed arterial and venous recalcitrant leg ulcer" [mavRLU]), by treating only the venous disease. The records of 180 outpatients with recalcitrant ulcers treated between January 2011 and July 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. In total, 109 were affected by pvRLU and 71 by mavRLU, with moderate PAOD defined by an ABPI between 0.5 and 0.8. In addition to the same local wound dressing, the patients received ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy of the refluxing superficial veins and a modified inelastic compression with a pressure ≤ 40 mmHg. No patient was referred for arterial revascularization. The patients were followed until ulcer healing. Patients with pvRLU and mavRLU showed comparable demographic characteristics. Twenty-five patients were lost to follow up and the outcomes were analyzed in 93 patients with pVLU (85.4%) and in 62 patients with mavRLU (87.4%). The maximum time to complete healing was 48 weeks in the pvRLU group and 52 weeks in the mavRLU group (p = .009), The median healing time was 23 (pvRLU) versus 25.5 weeks (mavRLU) (p = .030). Deep venous incompetence (p ulcer surface area (p ulcer duration (p ulcers by treating venous incompetence by foam sclerotherapy and modified compression is successful, even if underlying moderate PAOD is not actively treated. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bernstein, C N; Blanchard, J F; Rawsthorne, P; Wajda, A
The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and utility of administrative health data in identifying persons with inflammatory bowel disease on a population basis and to determine the incidence and prevalence of this disease in the Canadian province of Manitoba. The data from Manitoba Health (the province's single insurer) were used to identify residents with physician and/or hospital contacts for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes between 1984 and 1995. Of 5,182 eligible individuals, 4,514 were mailed questionnaires and 2,725 responded. Cases were defined as individuals with five or more separate medical contacts with one of these diagnoses or three or more such contacts if they were resident for less than 2 years. The accuracy of the study case definitions was high when compared with either self-report or chart review. The 1989-1994 age- and sex-adjusted annual incidence was 14.6/100,000 for Crohn's disease and 14.3/100,000 for ulcerative colitis. The prevalence of Crohn's disease in 1994 was 198.5/100,000, and that of ulcerative colitis was 169.7/100,000. In conclusion, the authors have successfully established and validated a population-based database of inflammatory bowel disease based on administrative data. The high incidence rates and dynamic epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Manitoba indicate the presence of important environmental risk factors, which warrants further investigation.
Alzafiri, Raed; Holcroft, Christina A; Malolepszy, Paula; Cohen, Albert; Szilagyi, Andrew
Infliximab has shown benefit in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Evaluation of long-term outcome of therapy for both diseases. We analyzed retrospectively patients treated at infusion centers from one institution. Demographic, laboratory parameters leading up to biologic therapy and the subsequent pattern of outcomes in either disease were established as a database. Initial failure, subsequent need to change therapy, or need to adjust therapy were evaluated. Kruskal-Wallis (nonparametric) tests to compare two groups and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis were used to compare outcomes. Over approximately 6 years, 71 CD and 26 UC patients received 999 and 215 infusions, respectively, for a median of 62 months. Of these, 17% for CD and 19% for UC patients were primary failures. Following the start of infliximab, 18% of CD and 11% of UC patients required stoppage and switching to another type of therapy. In either CD or UC patients, 54% or 62%, respectively, continued therapy without the need to change to other treatments. Few serious side effects were noted. No important statistically significant differences in treatment patterns or outcome were observed between the groups. Long-term treatment of both inflammatory bowel diseases reflects outcomes of clinical trials. This study emphasizes similarities between CD and UC and reports therapeutic success for an extended time.
Humphries, Misty D; Brunson, Ann; Li, Chin-Shang; Melnikow, Joy; Romano, Patrick S
This study reports all-payer amputation rates using state-based administrative claims data for high-risk patients with lower extremity (LE) ulcers and concomitant peripheral artery disease (PAD), diabetes mellitus (DM), or combination PAD/DM. In addition, we characterize patient factors that affect amputation-free survival. We also attempted to create a measure of a patient's ability to manage chronic diseases or to access appropriate outpatient care for ulcer management by accounting for hospital and emergency department (ED) visits in the preceding 60 days to determine how this also affects amputation-free survival. Patients admitted to nonfederal hospitals, seen in an ED, or treated in an eligible ambulatory surgery center within California from 2005 through 2013 with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for a disease-specific LE ulcer were identified in the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database. All subsequent hospital, ED, and ambulatory surgery center visits and procedures are captured to identify whether a patient underwent major amputation. Yearly amputation rates were determined to analyze trends. Amputation-free survival for the PAD, DM, and PAD/DM groups was determined. Cox modeling was used to evaluate the effect of patient characteristics. There were 219,547 patients identified with an incident LE ulcer throughout the state. Of these, 131,731 were DM associated, 36,193 were PAD associated, and 51,623 were associated with both PAD and DM. From 2005 to 2013, the number of patients with LE ulcers who required inpatient admission, presented to the ED, or had outpatient procedures was stable. However, there was a statistically significant increase in overall disease-associated amputation rates from 5.1 in 2005 to 13.5 in 2013 (P amputation rates from 10 per 100 patients with LE ulcers in 2005 to 28 per 100 patients in 2013 (P amputation-free survival. Within
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Nørgård, Bente Mertz
risk of preterm birth and stillbirth in ulcerative colitis women, compared to women with no prescription of reimbursed medicine in pregnancy - and also after comparing with women with chronic inflammatory bowel disease not taking 5-aminosalicylic acid during pregnancy. It is not clear whether...... birth outcome. We learned from the studies in this thesis that the traditional way of reporting birth outcome in women with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, i.e. without having valid information on the type of underlying disease, concurrent therapeutic drug treatment and disease activity......The clinical epidemiological studies included in this thesis fall into three parts. The first part includes studies on birth outcome in women with ulcerative colitis. The second part includes pharmacoepidemiological studies on birth outcome after anti-inflammatory drug therapy in pregnancy...
Gehringer, Susanne; Müller, Matthias; Maierl, Johann
To demonstrate the morphology of pathological changes to the inner structures of the claw in cases of toe ulcers, white line disease in the heel and changes due to inappropriate weight bearing and deficient claw care. Hind limbs of 55 cows displaying external signs of complicated sole ulcers were examined externally and internally. To examine the samples internally, a sagittal section was performed. Furthermore, the material was examined after bone maceration and histologically. A total of 43 claws of 112 digits with 120 deep sole ulcers displayed a toe ulcer and in 18 claws white line disease was diagnosed. In animals with toe ulcers, necrosis of the pedal bone was found in severely altered claws. In cows with white line disease, osteolysis in the abaxial region of the margo solearis and arthritis in the distal interphalangeal joint were the most common pathological findings. Claws with deficient claw care displayed severe pathological changes to the pedal bone. Sole ulcers may rapidly cause serious and irreversible changes to the structures encased within the hoof capsule and consequently have an impact on animal welfare. Therefore, prophylaxis and functional claw care are essential measures to avoid pathological conditions in claws and to improve animal welfare.
Gomes Naveca, Felipe; Sabidó, Meritxell; Amaral Pires de Almeida, Tatiana; Araújo Veras, Elaine; Contreras Mejía, Matilde Del Carmen; Galban, Enrique; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz
To determine the etiology and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) among patients presenting to a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil; and to compare a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of GUD with standard methods. Ulcer swabs were collected and used for Tzanck test and processed in an M-PCR to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2), Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), and Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi). Sera were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Multivariable analysis was used to measure the association between clinical aspects and GUD. M-PCR results were compared with syphilis serology and Tzanck tests. Overall, 434 GUD samples were evaluated, 84.8% from men. DNA from HSV-2 was detected in 55.3% of GUD samples, T. pallidum in 8.3%, HSV-1 in 3.2%, and 32.5% of GUD specimens were negative for the DNA of all three pathogens. No cases of H. ducreyi were identified. HIV serology among GUD patients was 3.2%. Treponemal antibodies and Tzanck test positivity for genital herpes was detected in 25 (5.8%) and in 125 (30.3%) of GUD patients, respectively. In multivariable analysis genital herpes etiology by M-PCR was associated with the vesicular, multiple and recurrent lesions whereas T. pallidum with non-vesicular, non-recurrent lesions. Compared to M-PCR, syphilis serology was 27.8% sensitive and 96.2% specific whereas Tzanck test was 43.8% sensitive and 88.9% specific. The predominance of genital herpes etiology suggests a revision of existing national syndromic treatment guidelines in Brazil to include antiherpetic treatment for all GUD patients. The use of M-PCR can significantly improve the diagnosis of GUD and provide a greater sensitivity than standard diagnostics.
Hietanen, Jarkko; Häyrinen-Immonen, Ritva; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Trokovic, Nina; Koskenpato, Katja; Konttinen, Yrjö T
Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is characterized by acute and painful inflammatory ulcerations, which heal spontaneously but tend to recur. Many pathogens have been proposed as causative agents, but none has been consistently proven. According to our hypothesis, RAU is an autoinflammatory disorder triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) shared by different pathogenic and commensal microbes. PAMP-reactive Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were mapped in oral epithelium in healthy controls compared to RAU. In controls, the superficial epithelium formed a TLR(-), a PAMP non-reactive physical barrier zone, but all TLRs were found deeper in the epithelium, usually restricted to suprabasal and basal cell layers. In RAU, the epithelial TLR polarity was lost: TLRs 1, 2, 5, 7, and 8 were found throughout the epithelium, but also TLRs 4, 6, and 10 extended higher up than normally, whereas TLR-3 was almost lost in RAU. In RAU lesions, connective tissue stroma was heavily infiltrated by TLR(+) inflammatory cells. Normal TLR architecture prevents inflammatory responses against normal microbes but still contains a deep TLR(+) , PAMP-reactive dormant defense zone. In RAU, the TLR(+), PAMP-reactive zone extends to surface or subsurface exposed to microbial PAMPs. TLR reactivity is further enhanced by recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes forming a new deep line of defense. The organization of the TLR system in healthy mucosa and its changes in RAU are compatible with active pathogenic involvement of TLRs, which together with the typical clinical picture and course suggest that RAU is a TLR-mediated disease. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Wei, Shu-Chen; Chang, Ting-An; Chao, Te-Hsin; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Chou, Jen-Wei; Chou, Yenn-Hwei; Chuang, Chiao-Hsiung; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Huang, Tien-Yu; Hsu, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Chun-Chi; Lin, Hung-Hsin; Lin, Jen-Kou; Lin, Wei-Chen; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Shih, I-Lun; Shun, Chia-Tung; Tsang, Yuk-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Horng-Yuan; Weng, Meng-Tzu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Wu, Wen-Chieh; Yen, Hsu-Heng; Wong, Jau-Min
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation of the colon, and the prevalence and incidence of UC have been steadily increasing in Taiwan. A steering committee was established by the Taiwan Society of Inflammatory Bowel Disease to formulate statements on the diagnosis and management of UC taking into account currently available evidence and the expert opinion of the committee. Accurate diagnosis of UC requires thorough clinical, endoscopic, and histological assessment and careful exclusion of differential diagnoses, particularly infectious colitis. The goals of UC therapy are to induce and maintain remission, reduce the risk of complications, and improve quality of life. As outlined in the recommended treatment algorithm, choice of treatment is dictated by severity, extent, and course of disease. Patients should be evaluated for hepatitis B virus and tuberculosis infection prior to immunosuppressive treatment, especially with steroids and biologic agents, and should be regularly monitored for reactivation of latent infection. These consensus statements are also based on current local evidence with consideration of factors, and could be serve as concise and practical guidelines for supporting clinicians in the management of UC in Taiwan.
Kostić, Marina; Djakovic, Ljiljan; Šujić, Raša; Godman, Brian; Janković, Slobodan M
Although the costs of treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in developed countries are well established, they remain largely unknown in countries with recent histories of socio-economic transition including Serbia. To estimate the costs of treatment including the resources used by patients with IBD in Serbia from a societal perspective. This includes both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This cost-of-illness study was conducted to identify direct, indirect and out-of-pocket costs of treating patients with IBD in Serbia. Patients with IBD (n = 112) completed a semi-structured questionnaire with data concerning their utilisation of heath-care resources and illness-related expenditures. All costs were calculated in Republic of Serbia dinars (RSD) at a 1-year level (2014) and subsequently converted to Euros. Median values and ranges were reported to avoid potential distortions associated with mean costs. Median total direct costs and total indirect costs per patient per year in patients with Crohn's disease were 192,614.32RSD (€1602.97) and 28,014.00RSD (€233.13) and 142,267.15RSD (€1183.97) and 21,436.00RSD (€178.39), respectively, in patients with ulcerative colitis. In both groups, the greatest component of direct costs was hospitalisation. Costs of IBD in Serbia are lower than in more developed countries for two reasons. These include the fact that expensive biological therapy is currently under-utilised in Serbia and prices of health services are largely controlled by the State at a low level. The under-utilisation of biologicals may change with the advent of biosimilars at increasingly lower prices.
Oleastro, Mónica; Monteiro, Lurdes; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis; Ménard, Armelle
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) occurs after a long-term Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the disease can develop earlier, and rare cases have been observed in children, suggesting that these H. pylori strains may be more virulent. We used suppressive subtractive hybridization for comparative genomics between H. pylori strains isolated from a 5-year-old child with duodenal ulcer and from a sex- and age-matched child with gastritis only. The prevalence of the 30 tester-specific subtracted sequences was determined on a collection of H. pylori strains from children (15 ulcers and 30 gastritis) and from adults (46 ulcers and 44 gastritis). Two of these sequences, jhp0562 (80.0% versus 33.3%, P = 0.008) and jhp0870 (80.0% versus 36.7%, P = 0.015), were highly associated with PUD in children and a third sequence, jhp0828, was less associated (40.0% versus 10.0%, P = 0.048). Among adult strains, none of the 30 sequences was associated with PUD. However, both jhp0562 and jhp0870 were less prevalent in adenocarcinoma strains than in PUD strains from children and adults, the difference being statistically significant for jhp0870. In conclusion, two H. pylori genes were identified as being strongly associated with PUD in children, and their putative roles as an outer membrane protein for jhp0870 and in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis for jhp0562, suggest that they may be novel virulence factors of H. pylori. PMID:16790780
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study on the quality of life in children aged 14–17 years, suffering from a stomach ulcer and/or duodenal ulcers. Introduction. When assessing the effectiveness of different treatments, it has been proved that clinical parameters are not enough for the complete verification of response to therapy. The quality of life indexes should be included to the list of criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of treatment. Objective: to assess the effectiveness of drug treatment for peptic ulcer disease in adolescents aged 14 to 17 years with the help of international questionnaire PedsQL™ 4.0 and to determine the feasibility of its use in pediatric practice. Materials and methods. The study involved 50 children with the diagnosis «stomach ulcer and/or duodenal ulcer, acute stage» aged 14–17 years. Evaluation of the quality of life of patients was carried out on admission to hospital and 1 month after treatment wit the help of PedsQL™ 4.0 questionnaire using separate forms for children and parent. Results. When comparing the quality of life at baseline and after a month, we can conclude that the parameters of physical, emotional, psychosocial and school functioning became significantly higher during the survey of both children and their parents. When filling out the questionnaire by children, their quality of life indices were significantly higher than when filling the questionnaire by their parents, on the scales of physical functioning, school life, psychosocial functioning and the mean value of all scales. This difference was found before and during the treatment, and one month after received therapy. Conclusion. The significant increase in most indicators on the PedsQL™ 4.0 questionnaire 1 month after received treatment, according to approved protocols, demonstrates the possibility of using this tool for assessing the quality of life as an additional criterion for efficacy of drug therapy of peptic
Jiménez, L Mario; Duque, Francisco L; Baer, Paul N; Jiménez, Sol Beatriz
Previous findings that necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is a precursor to noma or cancrum oris were confirmed by the follow-up of these clinical conditions in a study of 45 Colombian patients: necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG, n = 29), necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (NUP, n = 7) and noma (n = 9). Patients were diagnosed at the outpatient clinic of the School of Dentistry at the University of Antioquia, at the University Hospital Saint Vincent of Paul, at the Luz Castro de Gutierrez University Hospital, at the Red Cross Hospital and at the private office of one of the authors (Jiménez L., M) in Medellín, Colombia, from 1965 until 2000. Almost all the patients came from low socioeconomic groups and presented with predisposing and/or contributing factors, such as acute herpetic gingivostomatitis, measles, and leukemia (including acute lymphoblastic and chronic lymphoid leukemia). Malnutrition and poor oral hygiene were associated with the necrotizing process and favored progression from the gingiva to deeper periodontal tissues and other structures within the oral cavity or the facial tissues. No patients had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDS, which makes these findings different from other reports. Noma can be prevented by vaccinating children against infectious diseases, by controlling malnutrition and by improving their oral hygiene. It is arrested by mechanical lesion debridement, improving oral hygiene and antibiotic therapy. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis may progress in some cases to ulcerative necrotizing stomatitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis, and, finally, to noma. Microbial studies among new Colombian NUG, NUP and noma patients are necessary, using bacterial culturing and identification methods and molecular techniques such as PCR for viruses and bacteria, in order to establish the exact nature of these lesions.
... the acid and enzymes by a mucous lining. Ulcers are caused when there is an imbalance between ... protect the lining of the stomach. Symptoms of ulcers may include bleeding. On rare occasions, an ulcer ...
Tytgat, G. N.
Virtually all duodenal ulcers (DUs) and the vast majority of gastric ulcers (GUs) are the consequence of Helicobacter pylori-associated inflammation. In DUs, the inflammation is maximal in the antrum and is associated with gastric metaplasia in the bulb. Gastrin homeostasis is disturbed by H. pylori
Background: Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is associated with high morbidity and a mortality rate. Thus it requires urgent surgical intervention. Recently a reduction in the rate of peptic ulcer perforation in young men with a relative increase in the elderly and in women has been documented. This study is an audit of ...
Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos
Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.
Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the relationship between infections and the risk of pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Methods. We conducted a nested case-control study of 501 incident cases aged ≤17 years and 9,442 controls who were members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California for at least one consecutive year between 1996 and 2006. IBD was confirmed and the incidence date was adjudicated by pediatric gastroenterologists. Hospitalized infections were identified from the principal diagnosis code of electronic inpatient records. Medications to treat infections were identified during the hospitalization. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the associations between hospitalized infections, medications, and Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Results. In the year prior to diagnosis, both hospitalized infection of any system (OR 6.3; 95% CI 1.6–23.9 and hospitalized intestinal infection (OR 19.4; 95% CI 2.6–143.2 were associated with CD. Hospitalized infections of any system were inversely associated with UC after excluding the year prior to diagnosis (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2–0.9. No UC case had a hospitalized gastrointestinal infection prior to diagnosis. Conclusion. Infections appear to play opposite roles prior to the diagnosis of CD and UC. Infections may be associated with an increased risk of CD and a decreased risk of UC.
Caprini, J.A.; Partsch, H.; Simman, R.
Venous leg ulcers are the most frequent form of wounds seen in patients. This article presents an overview on some practical aspects concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Duplex ultrasound investigations are essential to ascertain the diagnosis of the underlying venous pathology and to treat venous refluxes. Differential diagnosis includes mainly other vascular lesions (arterial, microcirculatory causes), hematologic and metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, malignancies. Patients with superficial venous incompetence may benefit from endovenous or surgical reflux abolition diagnosed by Duplex ultrasound. The most important basic component of the management is compression therapy, for which we prefer materials with low elasticity applied with high initial pressure (short-stretch bandages and Velcro-strap devices). Local treatment should be simple, absorbing and not sticky dressings keeping adequate moisture balance after debridement of necrotic tissue and biofilms are preferred. After the ulcer is healed compression therapy should be continued in order to prevent recurrence. PMID:26236636
Luben, Robert; van Schaik, Fiona; Oldenburg, Bas; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Hallmans, Göran; Karling, Pontus; Lindgren, Stefan; Grip, Olof; Key, Timothy; Crowe, Francesca L.; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Racine, Antoine; Carbonnel, Franck; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Tumino, Rosario; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Hart, Andrew R.
Background: Diet may have a role in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. In previous studies, the associations between increased intakes of carbohydrates, sugar, starch, and inflammatory bowel disease are inconsistent. However, few prospective studies have investigated the associations between these macronutrients and incident Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: A total of 401,326 men and women were recruited between 1991 and 1998. At recruitment, dietary intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, and starch were measured using validated food frequency questionnaires. The cohort was monitored identifying participants who developed incident CD or UC. Cases were matched with 4 controls, and odds ratios were calculated for quintiles of total carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intakes adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, and smoking. Results: One hundred ten participants developed CD, and 244 participants developed UC during follow-up. The adjusted odds ratio for the highest versus the lowest quintiles of total carbohydrate intake for CD was 0.87, 95% CI = 0.24 to 3.12 and for UC 1.46, 95% CI = 0.62 to 3.46, with no significant trends across quintiles for either (CD, Ptrend = 0.70; UC, Ptrend = 0.41). Similarly, no associations were observed with intakes of total sugar (CD, Ptrend = 0.50; UC, Ptrend = 0.71) or starch (CD, Ptrend = 0.69; UC, Ptrend = 0.17). Conclusions: The lack of associations with these nutrients is in agreement with many case–control studies that have not identified associations with CD or UC. As there is biological plausibility for how specific carbohydrates could have an etiological role in inflammatory bowel disease, future epidemiological work should assess individual carbohydrates, although there does not seem to be a macronutrient effect. PMID:25265262
Parfenov, A I; Boldyreva, O N; Ruchkina, I N; Knyazev, O V; Sagynbaeva, V E; Shcherbakov, P L; Khomeriki, S G; Lazebnik, L B; Konoplyannikov, A G
To define the value of adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1 integrin, P-selectin, E-selectin, and L-selectin) for the prediction and evaluation of the efficiency of treatment in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease. Twenty-six patients with UC and 14 patients with CD were examined. Of them, 16 patients took infliximab (INF) in a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight according to the standard scheme; 14 patients received cultured mesenchymal stem stromal cells (MSSCs) in a quantity of 150 x 10(8) cells, and 10 had azathioprine (AZA) 2 mg/kg and glucocorticosteroids (GCS) 1 mg/kg of body weight. Enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the serum concentration of the adhesion molecules (L-selectin, E-selectin, P-selectin, and sVCAM-1 integrin) before and 2 months after treatment. The signs of bowel inflammatory disease activity and the elevated levels of adhesion molecules whose synthesis did not occur under normal conditions remained in the patients receiving GCS and AZA. INF treatment caused a decrease in P-selectin, E-selectin, and sVCAM-1 levels to 8.9 +/- 1.0, 5.5 +/- 1.7, and 9.5 +/- 4.4 ng/ml, respectively (p 0.1); that of L-selectin did not drop after MSSC administration and INF induction therapy. P-selectin, E-selectin, L-selectin, and sVCAM-1 integrin are current inflammatory markers and may be used to evaluate the efficiency of standard and biological therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases and to predict disease course.
OBJECTIVE: To optimize total bacterial 16S rRNA quantification in microdissected colonic crypts in healthy controls and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to characterize the findings with disease activity. BACKGROUND: Microscopic and molecular techniques have recently converged to allow bacterial enumeration in remote anatomic locations [eg, crypt-associated mucous gel (CAMG)]. The aims of this study were to combine laser capture microdissection (LCM) and 16S rRNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine total bacterial copy number in CAMG both in health and in UC and to characterize the findings with disease activity. METHODS: LCM was used to microdissect CAMG from colonic mucosal biopsies from controls (n = 20) and patients with acute (n = 10) or subacute (n = 10) UC. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA copy number per millimeter square in samples from 6 locations across the large bowel was obtained by qPCR using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans as a reference strain. Copy numbers were correlated with the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) and the simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI). RESULTS: Bacterial colonization of CAMG was detectable in all groups. Copy numbers were significantly reduced in acute UC. In subacute colitis, there was a positive correlation between copy number and UCDAI and SCCAI in the ascending, transverse and sigmoid colon. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a sensitive method of quantitatively assessing bacterial colonization of the colonic CAMG. A positive correlation was found between CAMG bacterial load and subacute disease activity in UC, whereas detectable bacterial load was reduced in acute UC.
Murata, Atsuhiko; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Muramatsu, Keiji; Ohtani, Makoto; Matsuda, Shinya
Little information is available on the effect of dementia on outcomes of elderly patients with hemorrhagic peptic ulcer disease at the population level. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dementia on outcomes of elderly patients with hemorrhagic peptic ulcer based on a national administrative database. A total of 14,569 elderly patients (≥80 years) who were treated by endoscopic hemostasis for hemorrhagic peptic ulcer were referred to 1073 hospitals between 2010 and 2012 in Japan. We collected patients' data from the administrative database to compare clinical and medical economic outcomes of elderly patients with hemorrhagic peptic ulcers. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of dementia: patients with dementia (n = 695) and those without dementia (n = 13,874). There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality within 30 days and overall mortality between the groups (odds ratio; OR 1.00, 95 % confidence interval; CI 0.68-1.46, p = 0.986 and OR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.74-1.41, p = 0.877). However, the length of stay (LOS) and medical costs during hospitalization were significantly higher in patients with dementia compared with those without dementia. The unstandardized coefficient for LOS was 3.12 days (95 % CI 1.58-4.67 days, p < 0.001), whereas that for medical costs was 1171.7 US dollars (95 % CI 533.8-1809.5 US dollars, p < 0.001). Length of stay and medical costs during hospitalization are significantly increased in elderly patients with dementia undergoing endoscopic hemostasis for hemorrhagic peptic ulcer disease.
Mortensen, Joachim Høg; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Jensen, Michael Dam
patients, 22 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 24 healthy donors. One-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers. The ECM......Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM) in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may...
Schneider, L C; Schneider, A E
Ulcers commonly occur in the mouth. Their causes range from minor irritation to malignancies and systemic diseases. Innocent solitary ulcerations, which result from trauma and infections, must be distinguished from squamous cell carcinomas, which also typically present as solitary ulcers. Multiple oral ulcers may be classified as acute, recurrent and/or chronic. The most common causes of rapid-onset oral ulcers include acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, allergies and erythema multiforme. The two common forms of acute (short-term) recurrent oral ulcers, "cold sores" or "fever blisters," which are caused by the herpes simplex virus, and recurrent aphthous ulcers ("canker sores"), may be distinguished largely on the basis of their location. Most types of multiple chronic oral ulcers are associated with disturbances of the immune system. They include erosive lichen planus, mucous membrane pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris. Clinical criteria which are most useful in identifying the cause of oral ulcers are vesicles or bullae, which may not be seen because they rupture rapidly in the oral environment; constitutional signs and symptoms; and lesions on the skin and/or other mucosa. In some cases, diagnosis depends upon culture or biopsy, particularly with the application of immunofluorescence to the surgical specimen.
Kefayati, Sarah; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L
Clinical decision-making for the treatment of patients with diseased carotid artery is mainly based on the severity of the stenosis. However, stenosis severity alone is not a sensitive indicator, and other local factors for the assessment of stroke risk are required. Flow disturbance is of particular interest due to its proven association with increased thromboembolic activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of turbulence intensity (TI) with regards to certain geometrical features of the plaque - namely stenosis severity, eccentricity, and ulceration. A family of eight carotid-artery bifurcation models was examined using particle image velocimetry. Results showed a marked difference in turbulence intensity among these models; increasing degree of stenosis severity resulted in increased turbulence intensity, going from 0.12 m/s for mild stenosis to 0.37 m/s for severe stenosis (with concentric geometry). Moreover, independent of stenosis severity, eccentricity led to further elevations in turbulence intensity, increasing TI by 0.05-0.10 m/s over the counterpart concentric plaque. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque) produced a larger portion of moderate turbulence intensity (~0.10 m/s) compared to the non-ulcerated model, more proximal to the bifurcation apex in the post-stenotic recirculation zone. The effect of plaque eccentricity and ulceration in enhancing the downstream turbulence has potential clinical implications for a more sensitive assessment of stroke risk beyond stenosis severity alone. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer disease can lead to serious complications including massive hemorrhage or bowel perforation. The modern treatment of peptic ulcer disease has transitioned from the control of gastric acid secretion to include antibiotic therapy in light of the identification of Helicobacter pylori as a causative infectious organism. We sought to determine trends related to this discovery by using a national database. Materials and Methods: Patient discharges with peptic ulcer disease and associated sequelae were queried from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1993 to 2007, under the auspices of a data user agreement. To account for the Nationwide Inpatient Sample weighting schema, design-adjusted analyses were used. Standard error was calculated using SUDAAN software (Research Triangle International, NC, USA. Results: Decreases in the incidences of gastrointestinal perforation, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and surgical procedures most specific to peptic ulcer disease were statistically significant over the study period [range of P value (two tailed = 0.000 - 0.00353; significant at P < 0.001 to < 0.01]. The incidence of H. pylori rose dramatically, peaking at an estimated 97,823 cases in 1998 [SE = 3155; 95% CI = 6,184]. Since that time it has decreased and then stabilized. Conclusions: The identification of H. pylori as the causative agent in the majority of peptic ulcer disease has revolutionized the understanding and management of the disease. Medical conditions and surgical procedures associated with end-stage peptic ulcer disease have significantly decreased according to analysis of selected index categories. Resident physician education objectives may need to be modified in light of these trends. Review Criteria: We reviewed patients with peptic ulcer disease. The database used was the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1993 to 2007. Message for the Clinic: Medical therapy has resulted in decreased morbidity from H. pylori infection as it
Mantegazza, C; Angiero, F; Zuccotti, G V
Alterations of the oral cavity are common in children: 22% of children aged less than 4 years and 44% of those aged more than 12 develop dental erosion, 9-95% of children in Europe and in North America develop gingivitis, with adolescents showing a prevalence of more than 60% [Italian Ministry of Health, Guidelines 2013]. Alterations within the oral cavity can be the first sign of systemic diseases and may thus allow for an early diagnosis and treatment. In particular, being the oral cavity a part of the gastrointestinal system, oral alterations can be an expression of a gastrointestinal disease. Pyostomatitis vegetans can be a sign of ulcerative colitis. Dental erosion with enamel loss in facial, occlusal, and lingual surfaces, and an increased risk of dental caries have been reported in children and adolescents with gastro-oesophageal reflux with varying prevalence. A prompt recognition of systemic diseases through a careful examination of the oral cavity could allow proper investigations and management in a timely fashion.
Hamedi, Shokouhsadat; Sadeghpour, Omid; Shamsardekani, Mohammad Reza; Amin, Gholamreza; Hajighasemali, Dawood; Feyzabadi, Zohreh
Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is an oral disease and the most common oral lesion, with 2% to 66% of the world's population infected annually. Its prevalence is about 25% in Tehran and 27.6% in Mashhad. The etiology of RAU is multifactorial. Aphthous risk factors include: immunological factors, psychological factors, stress, trauma, sensitivity, family history, blood disorders, malnutrition, and use of certain medications, It should be noted that the best treatment for RAU is the topical application of drugs. The use of topical treatments is recommended not only because the drug can directly impact the source of the disease, but also systemic side effects of the drug are reduced. Treatment of RAU has been considered in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), and is covered in therapeutic books. The use of herbs in RAU has a centuries-old history; accordingly, extensive research should be conducted for this treatment of the disease. Iranian medical sources were reviewed and effective plants used in the traditional treatment of RAU were found and compared with new findings. Finally, we have created a table listing the plants that are part of the therapeutic protocol for RAU. Based on this article we can explain some of traditional pharmacological effects of plants and how these plants can be a source for a cure. The plants listed can be used as a prediction of RAU management. Of course, there are is no evidence for curing RAU by some of these plants in allopathic medicine, and the further investigations in this area could lead to the discovery of a new drug.
Christensen, A H; Gjørup, T; Andersen, I B
stated more causes than did their male colleagues (p coffee/tea, alcohol, smoking, side effects...... of medicine, and working conditions played a causal role. Around 95% of the physicians indicated that medical drugs and smoking were contributory causes of peptic ulcer disease, and around 80% that alcohol and psychologic factors were so. Only 30-40% of the physicians believed that coffee/tea, food habits...
Kim, Jihye; Kim, Keun Ho; Lee, Bum Ju
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a common disorder, but whether an association exists between PUD and anthropometric indicators remains controversial. Furthermore, no studies on the association of PUD with anthropometric indices, blood parameters, and nutritional components have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess associations of anthropometrics, blood parameters, nutritional components, and lifestyle factors with PUD in the Korean population. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of the South Korean population using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine associations of anthropometrics, blood parameters and nutritional components among patients with PUD. Age was the factor most strongly associated with PUD in women (p = blood parameters were associated with PUD in women, and only triglyceride level was associated with PUD in men (adjusted p = 0.0169, adjusted OR = 1.227 [1.037-1.451]). We found that obesity was associated with PUD in the Korean population; additionally, the association between nutritional components and PUD was greater in women than in men.
Full Text Available GIST tumors is very unusual in the young and middle aged and a high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis in young patients who present with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Appropriate imaging such as a Computed tomographic scan (CT scan may identify this tumor which may easily be misdiagnosed as a bleeding Peptic Ulcer Disease in the young. We present a case of a healthy 38 year old man with no alcohol use who presented with epigastric pain and melena and subsequent torrential bleeding uncontrolled during endoscopy necessitating an emergency exploratory laparotomy by the general surgery team. The bleeding intraluminal component of the tumor with gross splenic and pancreatic involvement was identified and surgical management consisted of a wedge resection of the greater curvature of the stomach incorporating the tumor and the spleen with successful dissection of the tumor off the tail of the pancreas. Histology was positive for C-KIT and DOG-1 markers. Postoperative course was uneventful and he is presently on Imatinib Mesylate.
Tytgat, G. N.
The current therapy of choice for all Helicobacter pylori-associated ulcer disease is eradication therapy. Although adequate therapeutic regimens are currently available, often still ineffective therapies are tried. Cure of the infection essentially eliminates the ulcer diathesis. Cure of the
Conclusion: In children, H. pylori-related PUD is associated with familial peptic ulcer and the presence of DU. However, short-term NSAID use is correlated highly with GU. The outcome of childhood PUD is good.
Crohn's disease is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract, which rarely affects the oesophagus and stomach together. The usual sites of involvement are the terminal ileum and proximal colon. It is rarer still for gastric Crohn's disease to present for the first time with haematemesis resulting from ...
development and subsequent rupturing of vesicles at the coronary band and in the oral cavity. Vesicles and ulcerations can also occur on the mammary gland. Recovery in adult animals usually occurs in 8-15 days. Clinical signs for most serotypes are less dramatic in sheep and goats. Swine can develop very severe coronary band lesions and high mortality in piglets has been observed. One of the challenges of diagnosing FMD is that it may be clinically similar to several other vesicular or ulcerative diseases. FMD is clinically indistinguishable from Vesicular stomatitis, Swine vesicular disease and Vesicular exanthema of swine. It may also resemble Bovine viral diarrhea, Mucosal disease, Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Bluetongue, Bovine papular stomatitis, Bovine mammillitis and Rinderpest.
Klein, H.M. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Wein, B. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Adam, G. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Ruppert, D. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany)
We analysed the CT examinations of 109 patients with 197 involved bowel locations. 81 patients suffered from Crohn`s disease, 28 from ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis was based on the combination of clinical, endoscopic and histopathologic findings. Three radiologists evaluated the CT series concerning the presence of morphologic changes analogous to conventional radiographic findings. In Crohn`s disease, we found irregular outer contours in 26% of cases. The bowel wall was thickened in 82%. In acute phases, the bowel wall was thickened in 100%. Abscess and fistula as complications of inflammatory disease were present in 26 and 14% respectively. In ulcerative colitis, a target sign of the bowel wall was present in 40%, whereas in Crohn`s disease a homogeneous wall density was present in all but two cases. Reduced attenuation due to submucosal fat deposits was found in 16% and mucosal tunneling in 27% of cases with ulcerative colitis. Even if severe mucosal destructions were found, the outer contour of the gut was smooth and regular in 95% of the ulcerative colitis cases. CT can provide additional information on acuity, extent and complications in inflammatory bowel disease. In combination with conventional radiographic findings a three-step classification for Crohn`s disease and ulcerative colitis (early changes, acute and chronic phase) can be proposed. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Wir untersuchten computertomographisch 109 Patienten mit 197 erkrankten Darmsegmenten. 81 Patienten litten an M. Crohn und 28 an Colitis ulcerosa. Die Diagnose wurde durch Kombination klinischer, endoskopischer, radiologischer und bioptischer Befunde gesichert. Drei Radiologen bewerteten die Computertomographien und verglichen die Ergebnisse mit den konventionell-radiologischen Befunden. Bei den Patienten mit M. Crohn fanden wir in 26% der Faelle eine irregulaere aeussere Darmwand. Eine Darmwandverdickung lag in 82% vor und fand sich regelmaessig in Darmabschnitten mit floriden Veraenderungen
Khatoon, J; Prasad, K N; Prakash Rai, R; Ghoshal, U C; Krishnani, N
To investigate the frequency and integrity of certain cag pathogenicity island genes (cagPAI) in Helicobacter pylori strains and their association with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastric cancer. We enrolled 240 adult patients [120 with functional dyspepsia (FD), 50 with PUD and 70 with gastric cancer] undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. H. pylori infection was diagnosed when either culture or any two of the three tests (rapid urease test, histopathology and specific ureA PCR) were positive. DNA extracted from H. pylori isolates and positive gastric tissues were tested by PCR for the presence of different genes of cagPAI using specific primers. A total of 122 (51%) patients were H. pylori positive. Frequencies of cagPAI genes cagA, cagE, cagT and cagM in H. pylori strains from different groups of patients were as follows: functional dyspepsia 73, 83, 76 and 60%, PUD 70, 94, 91, 70% and gastric cancer 75, 95, 90 and 70%, respectively. Risk associated for the presence of PUD and gastric cancer with cagPAI genes cagE, cagT and cagM was 5.0-, 4.6- and 4.1- and 3.0-, 2.8- and 2.5-folds, respectively. Prevalence of intact cagPAI was significantly higher in PUD and gastric cancer compared to functional dyspepsia (PUD vs. functional dyspepsia, 71% vs. 38%, P = 0.01; gastric cancer vs. functional dyspepsia, 75% vs. 38%, P integrity and its different genes are linked to different forms of gastric disease and so may have a role in pathogenesis, diagnosis and management.
Taxonera, Carlos; Olivares, David; Mendoza, Juan L; Díaz-Rubio, Manuel; Rey, Enrique
AIM: To compare the need for infliximab dose intensification in two cohorts of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Single centre, uncontrolled, observational study. Consecutive patients with CD and UC who responded to infliximab induction doses were included. Data collected in a prospectively maintained database were retrospectively analysed. Differences in the rates of dose intensification per patient-month and the intensification-free survival time were compared. We also evaluated the interval between the first infliximab induction dose and the first infliximab escalated dose. The weight-adjusted infliximab administration costs were also calculated. RESULTS: Fifty nine patients with CD and 38 patients with UC were enrolled. The rate of intensification per patient-month was 3.9% for UC and 1.4% for CD (P = 0.005). The median time from baseline to intensification was significantly shorter in UC compared to CD [6.6 mo (IQR: 4.2-9.5 mo) vs 10.7 mo (IQR: 8.9-11.7 mo), P = 0.005]. In the survival analysis, the cumulative probability of avoiding infliximab dose intensification was significantly higher in CD (P = 0.002). In the multivariate analysis, disease (UC vs CD) was the only factor significantly associated with dose intensification. The infiximab administration costs during the first year were significantly higher for UC compared to CD (mean ± SD 234.9 ± 53.3 Euros/kg vs 212.3 ± 15.1 Euros/kg, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The rate of infliximab dose intensification per patient-month is significantly higher in UC patients. The infliximab administration costs are also significantly higher in patients with UC. PMID:25083091
Selinger, Christian P; Andrews, Jane; Dent, Owen F; Norton, Ian; Jones, Brian; McDonald, Charles; Cowlishaw, James; Barr, Gavin; Selby, Warwick; Leong, Rupert W
Data from the northern hemisphere suggest that patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have similar survival to the general population, whereas mortality in Crohn's disease (CD) is increased by up to 50%. There is a paucity of data from the southern hemisphere, especially in Australia. A prevalence cohort (1977-1992) of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) diagnosed after 1970 was studied. Survival status data and causes of death up to December 2010 were extracted from the National Death Index. Relative survival analysis was carried out separately for men and women. Of 816 cases (384 men, 432 women; 373 CD, 401 UC, 42 indeterminate colitis), 211 (25.9%) had died by December 2010. Median follow-up was 22.2 years. Relative survival of all patients with IBD was not significantly different from the general population at 10, 20, and 30 years of follow-up. Separate analyses of survival in CD and UC also showed no differences from the general population. There was no difference in survival between patients diagnosed earlier (1971-1979) or later (1980-1992). At least 17% of the deaths were caused by IBD. Fatal cholangiocarcinomas were more common in IBD (P < 0.001), and fatal colorectal cancers more common in UC (P = 0.047). In Australia, IBD patient survival is similar to the general population. In contrast to data from Europe and North America, survival in CD is not diminished in Australia. IBD caused direct mortality in 17%, especially as biliary and colorectal cancers are significant causes of death.
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 31-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED with worsening constant left sided throat pain over the past four months. The patient reports that he was brushing his teeth when his dog jumped onto his back causing his toothbrush to puncture the back of his throat, resulting in immediate bleeding and discomfort. The bleeding subsided and the patient did not seek medical care. The pain radiated to his left ear and the back of the neck. He also noted a change in his voice. The day before presenting to the ED the patient noted subjective fevers, hemoptysis and drooling, which led him to seek medical care. Significant findings: The photograph demonstrates an area of ulcerative tissue at the left palatine tonsil without surrounding erythema or purulent drainage. The computed tomography (CT scan shows a large ulceration of the left soft palate and palatine tonsil (red arrow. There is no evidence of skull base osteomyelitis. There is suppurative lymphadenopathy with partial left jugular vein compression due to mass effect (yellow highlight. There is mild nasopharyngeal airway narrowing with architectural distortion (blue arrow, but no other evidence of airway obstruction. Discussion: The oral cavity is prone to trauma leading to the formation of superficial ulcerations. There are many causes of mechanical trauma, most commonly accidental biting. Chemical, electrical and thermal insults are also possibilities. Poor fitting dental devices and fractured or malformed teeth can also be etiologies.1 Traumatic ulcerations are most common in children given bruxism and thumb sucking. However, a broad differential must be considered including malignant and premalignant lesions, infections of the oral mucosa, aphthous ulcerations and autoimmune diseases.2, 3 Chronic ulcerations are associated with superimposed infection, but there has not been established an association of malignant transformation of the oral mucosa after
Pattern recognition of the long-term disease course before, during, and after pregnancy can provide us with data about the influence of pregnancy on IBD, and vice versa. Determinants that predict an indolent versus an aggressive disease course are currently being sought. Our intention is to analyze...... the disease course during pregnancy in an EU-IBD inception cohort of 1200 patients diagnosed from 1991 to 1993 and followed up for 10 years. We also attempt to evaluate such factors as smoking and medication and to predict pregnancy course and fertility in IBD as well as in a cross-sectional study of members...... of the patient organization EFCCA. One of the questions that arose was: what factor is responsible for the observation that pregnancy decreases the incidence of relapses and the development of fibrostenotic lesions? Relaxin and the glycoprotein YKL-40 are validated in the cohort. The protein relaxin, produced...
Gastric Ulcer; Peptic Ulcer; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Digestive System Diseases; Lansoprazole; Anti-Ulcer Agents; Gastrointestinal Agents; Proton Pump Inhibitors; Enzyme Inhibitors; Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
A multisite, hospital-based, case-control study examined the risk of ulcerative colitis in relation to dietary factors, smoking and drinking habits, past history of diseases, and childhood factors. Information was obtained from self-administered patient questionnaires. Study subjects included 101 ulcerative colitis patients who were 10-39 years old at the time of disease onset, which was within the previous 3 years, and 143 control subjects. Combined consumption of Western foods (bread for breakfast, butter, margarine, cheese, meats, and ham and sausage) was significantly related to an increased risk of ulcerative colitis (trend, p = 0.04). Margarine (as an individual Western food item) was positively associated with ulcerative colitis (trend, p = 0.005). There was also a tendency toward positive association of bread for breakfast with ulcerative colitis (trend, p = 0.07). The risk did not measurably vary with the consumption of typical Japanese foods, vegetables and fruits, confectioneries, or soft drinks. As compared with lifelong nonsmokers, current smokers tended to have a decreased risk of ulcerative colitis and former smokers had an increased risk. There was no association between breastfeeding in infancy and the risk of ulcerative colitis.
Rahul S Mhaskar
Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer. There have been no studies addressing environmental and dietary risk factors in western India. We conducted a case control study enrolling peptic ulcer patients in Pune, India. Materials and Methods: Risk factors for peptic ulcer and H. pylori infection were assessed in a participant interview. H. pylori status was assessed from stool by monoclonal antigen detection. Results: We enrolled 190 peptic ulcer, 35 stomach cancer patients, and 125 controls. Fifty-one percent (180/350 of the participants were infected with H. pylori. Lower socioeconomic status (SES [odds ratio (OR: 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.02-1.39], meat consumption (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30-4.23, smoking (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.24-4.02, eating restaurant food (OR: 3.77, 95% CI: 1.39-10.23, and drinking nonfiltered or nonboiled water (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.23 were risk factors for H. pylori infection. H. pylori infection (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.03-2.89, meat (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.75, fish (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.89 consumption, and a family history of ulcer (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08-1.60 were risk factors for peptic ulcer. Consumption of chili peppers (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.37 and parasite infestation (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24-0.80 were protective against H. pylori infection. Conclusion: H. pylori infection is associated with peptic ulcer. Lower SES, consumption of restaurant food, meat, nonfiltered water, and smoking are risk factors for H. pylori. Consumption of meat, fish, and a family history of peptic ulcer are risk factors for peptic ulcer. Consumption of chili peppers and concurrent parasite infestation appear to be protective against H. pylori.
Rerkasem, Kittipan; Kosachunhanun, Natapong; Sony, Kiran; Inpankaew, Nimit; Mani, Raj
A range of prevalence of peripheral artery disease in diabetic patients has been estimated using the measurement of ankle brachial pressure index and clinical features in Asian countries. These data may be underestimates and hence underrecognized, raising questions about the numbers of patients with neuroischemic feet who are also at risk of diabetic foot ulcers. Underrecognition of these lesions may well increase the high levels of chronic wound burden resulting from peripheral artery disease as well as neuroischemic foot lesions. Improved education and training of clinical staff (nurses and family physicians) is required to combat these serious issues. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gomollón, Fernando; Rubio, Saioa; Charro, Mara; García-López, Santiago; Muñoz, Fernando; Gisbert, Javier P; Domènech, Eugeni
Methotrexate is an immunosuppressant that may be useful in several clinical scenarios in inflammatory bowel disease. In this article, we review the available evidence in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis and establish general recommendations for its use in clinical practice. Although the available data are limited, it is very likely that methotrexate is underused because its effectiveness is underestimated and its toxicity is overestimated. Both in induction therapy and in maintenance of remission, methotrexate is useful in Crohn's disease. When prescribed in combination with biologic agents, immunogenicity is less frequent and consequently long-term response could potentially be improved. There are few published studies, but several data suggest that methotrexate could also be useful in ulcerative colitis. Although myelotoxicity and liver toxicity are well known risks, methotrexate is a drug that is well tolerated in many patients, even in the long term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.
Hamzaoui, Lamine; Bouassida, Mahdi; Ben Mansour, Imed; Medhioub, Mouna; Ezzine, Heykal; Touinsi, Hassen; Azouz, Mohamed M
Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a rare complication of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). The endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) associated with medical treatment of Helicobacter pylori is a successful method in the management of pyloric stenosis. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological, clinical, and endoscopic characteristics of GOO related to PUD and to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and outcome of EBD. In a retrospective study of patients seen between 1999 and 2009 with symptoms of GOO secondary to PUD, pyloro-bulbar stenosis was confirmed by endoscopic examination. Balloon dilatation was performed when obstruction persisted after treatment with double-dose proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) intravenously for 7-10days. The H. pylori status was assessed with histology, and eradication therapy was prescribed for infection. A total of 45 consecutive patients (38 males, 7 females median age, 51.9years; range, 20-58years) with symptoms of GOO secondary to PUD underwent EBD. Median follow-up time of the 45 patients was 32months (range, 4-126months). The immediate success rate of the procedure was 95.5%. Clinical remission was noted in 84.4% of the patients. Remission without relapse was observed in 55.8%, 30months after the dilatation. Pyloric stenosis relapsed in 15 patients (39.5%) after a median period of 22.9months. The dilatation was complicated in three patients (6.7%, two perforations and one bleeding). A total of 13 patients (29%) underwent surgery. H. pylori was found to be positive in 97.7% of the patients, and was eradicated in 78.4% of them. Smoking and failure of H. pylori eradication were associated with the relapse of the stenosis. EBD is a simple, effective, and safe therapy for the GOO related to PUD, producing short- and long-term remission. Copyright © 2015 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mehta, Supriya D.; Moses, Stephen; Parker, Corette B.; Agot, Kawango; Maclean, Ian; Bailey, Robert C.
Objective We assessed the protective effect of medical male circumcision (MMC) against HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and genital ulcer disease (GUD) incidence. Design Two thousand, seven hundred and eighty-seven men aged 18–24 years living in Kisumu, Kenya were randomly assigned to circumcision (n=1391) or delayed circumcision (n =1393) and assessed by HIV and HSV-2 testing and medical examinations during follow-ups at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Methods Cox regression estimated the risk ratio of each outcome (incident HIV, GUD, HSV-2) for circumcision status and multivariable models estimated HIV risk associated with HSV-2, GUD, and circumcision status as time-varying covariates. Results HIV incidence was 1.42 per 100 person-years. Circumcision was 62% protective against HIV [risk ratio =0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22–0.67] and did not change when controlling for HSV-2 and GUD (risk ratio =0.39; 95% CI 0.23–0.69). GUD incidence was halved among circumcised men (risk ratio =0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.73). HSV-2 incidence did not differ by circumcision status (risk ratio =0.94; 95% CI 0.70–1.25). In the multivariable model, HIV seroconversions were tripled (risk ratio =3.44; 95% CI 1.52–7.80) among men with incident HSV-2 and seven times greater (risk ratio =6.98; 95% CI 3.50–13.9) for men with GUD. Conclusion Contrary to findings from the South African and Ugandan trials, the protective effect of MMC against HIV was independent of GUD and HSV-2, and MMC had no effect on HSV-2 incidence. Determining the causes of GUD is necessary to reduce associated HIV risk and to understand how circumcision confers protection against GUD and HIV PMID:22382150
Kim, John J; Lee, John S; Olafsson, Snorri; Laine, Loren
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) testing in patients with bleeding ulcers is recommended by society guidelines and considered a quality indicator. The aim of the study is to examine the proportion of patients with bleeding ulcers who had H. pylori testing and identify predictors associated with H. pylori testing. Consecutive hospitalized patients with bleeding ulcers documented endoscopically at a single center from 10/2004-5/2011 were identified retrospectively from an endoscopy database. The proportion of patients undergoing direct H. pylori testing (histology, rapid urease test, breath test or stool antigen) and any H. pylori testing (direct or serologic) were determined. Among 330 patients with bleeding ulcers, 105 (32%, 95% CI 27-37%) underwent direct testing and another 52 (16%, 95% CI 12-20%) had serologic testing during a median follow-up of 9 months (range, 0-86). H. pylori testing occurred at the index hospitalization in 146 (93%) of the 157 patients tested. Among the 105 patients who had direct H. pylori testing, 90 (86%) had biopsy-based testing during the initial endoscopy. On multivariate analysis, undergoing biopsy of a gastric ulcer was strongly associated with having direct H. pylori testing performed (OR = 5.1, 95% CI 2.3-11.5; p pylori testing and less than a third received the more accurate direct testing. Most of the direct H. pylori testing was biopsy-based with very few being tested after the index hospitalization. Efforts to increase H. pylori testing in patients with bleeding ulcers are needed to improve outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In September 2009, the German "Standing Committee for Vaccination" (STIKO) recommended the H1N1 influenza vaccination to all patients with chronic diseases. We investigated the adherence to this recommendation in patients with the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Special attention was paid to arguments for vaccination refusal. In an explorative multicenter study we asked adult patients to answer a questionnaire about their participation in the H1N1 vaccination campaign, their arguments for and against this vaccination and disease specific parameters. Out of 1389 participating patients, 226 (16 %) received the H1N1 vaccination. Among patients who were vaccinated against the seasonal flu as well as patients who were treated with anti-TNF-treatment and members of the German Crohn's and Colitis Association, the participation rates were significantly higher (32 %, 26 %, 25 %, respectively). The main argument against the H1N1 vaccination was fear of side effects (59 %). However, 77 % of all vaccinated patients judged the vaccine as very well tolerated. The non-adherence to general vaccination recommendations against tetanus and seasonal flu was also high (25 % and 66 %, respectively). Only a minority of patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis had adhered to the official recommendation concerning vaccination against H1N1. In order to reach higher acceptance, further vaccination campaigns must focus on the safety of the recommended vaccine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Singal, Archana; Pandhi, Deepika; Kataria, Vandana; Arora, Vinod K
We report a 45-year-old, apparently healthy sero-negative man, presenting with multiple ulcers on the glans penis for a duration of three months. There was no significant inguinal lymphadenopathy. He showed no improvement on systemic antibiotics and acyclovir. Histopathology revealed the diagnosis of genital tuberculosis (TB), and polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis tested positive. The patient responded well to category I anti-tubercular treatment with complete resolution of lesions in six months. It is important to consider a differential diagnosis of penile TB in patients with non-healing genital ulcers.
A peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of your stomach or your duodenum, the first part of your small ... and goes for several days or weeks Peptic ulcers happen when the acids that help you digest ...
Schaper, N.; Apelqvist, J.; Edmonds, M.; Jude, E.; Mauricio, D.; Uccioli, L.; Urbancic, V.; Bakker, K.; Holstein, P.; Jirkovska, A.; Piaggesi, A.; Ragnarson-Tennvall, G.; Reike, H.; Spraul, M.; Van Acker, K.; Van Baal, J.; Van Merode, F.; Ferreira, I.; Huijberts, M.
Aims/hypothesis Outcome data on individuals with diabetic foot ulcers are scarce, especially in those with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We therefore examined the clinical characteristics that best predict poor outcome in a large population of diabetic foot ulcer patients and examined whether such predictors differ between patients with and without PAD. Methods Analyses were conducted within the EURODIALE Study, a prospective cohort study of 1,088 diabetic foot ulcer patients across 14 centres in Europe. Multiple logistic regression modelling was used to identify independent predictors of outcome (i.e. non-healing of the foot ulcer). Results After 1 year of follow-up, 23% of the patients had not healed. Independent baseline predictors of non-healing in the whole study population were older age, male sex, heart failure, the inability to stand or walk without help, end-stage renal disease, larger ulcer size, peripheral neuropathy and PAD. When analyses were performed according to PAD status, infection emerged as a specific predictor of non-healing in PAD patients only. Conclusions/interpretation Predictors of healing differ between patients with and without PAD, suggesting that diabetic foot ulcers with or without concomitant PAD should be defined as two separate disease states. The observed negative impact of infection on healing that was confined to patients with PAD needs further investigation. PMID:18297261
Sturm, P.D.J.; Moodley, P.; Govender, K.; Bohlken, L.; Mali, T. van; Sturm, A.W.
The detection of herpes, chancroid, and syphilis in genital ulcers is done by PCR. This is not so for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). We report on the use of a PCR with digestion that differentiates the LGV biovar from the trachoma biovar. Our findings suggest that the clinical description of LGV in
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion
This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…
Liu, Na; Lv, Jing; Liu, Jinchun; Zhang, Yanbo
Patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) conceived to enable description of treatment-related effects, from the patient perspective, bring the potential to improve in clinical research, and to provide patients with accurate information. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a patient-centred peptic ulcer patient-reported outcome measure (PU-PROM) and evaluate its reliability, validity, differential item functioning (DIF) and feasibility. To develop a conceptual framework and item pool for the PU-PROM, we performed a literature review and consulted other measures created in China and other countries. Beyond that, we interviewed 10 patients with peptic ulcers, and consulted six key experts to ensure that all germane parameters were included. In the first item selection phase, classical test theory and item response theory were used to select and adjust items to shape the preliminary measure completed by 130 patients and 50 controls. In the next phase, the measure was evaluated used the same methods with 492 patients and 124 controls. Finally, we used the same population in the second item reselection to assess the reliability, validity, DIF and feasibility of the final measure. The final peptic ulcer PRO measure comprised four domains (physiology, psychology, society and treatment), with 11 subdomains, and 54 items. The Cronbach's α coefficient of each subdomain for the measure was >0.800. Confirmatory factory analysis indicated that the construct validity fulfilled expectations. Model fit indices, such as RMR, RMSEA, NFI, NNFI, CFI and IFI, showed acceptable fit. The measure showed a good response rate. The peptic ulcer PRO measure had good reliability, validity, DIF and feasibility, and can be used as a clinical research evaluation instrument with patients with peptic ulcers to assess their condition focus on treatment. This measure may also be applied in other health areas, especially in clinical trials of new drugs, and may be helpful in clinical
Dhar, Poshmaal; Ng, Garrett Z; Sutton, Philip
The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is the etiological agent of a range of gastrointestinal pathologies including peptic ulcer disease and the major killer, gastric adenocarcinoma. Infection with this bacterium induces a chronic inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa (gastritis). It is this gastritis that, over decades, eventually drives the development of H. pylori-associated disease in some individuals. The majority of studies investigating H. pylori pathogenesis have focused on factors that promote disease development in infected individuals. However, an estimated 85% of those infected with H. pylori remain completely asymptomatic, despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria that drive a chronic gastritis that lasts many decades. This indicates the presence of highly effective regulatory processes in the host that, in most cases, keeps a check on inflammation and protect against disease. In this minireview we discuss such known host factors and how they prevent the development of H. pylori-associated pathologies. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Umeh, Nkeiruka I.; Ajegba, Brittany; Buscetta, Ashley J.; Abdallah, Khadijah E.; Minniti, Caterina P.
Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) impacts millions of individuals worldwide and more than 100,000 people in the United States. Leg ulcers are the most common cutaneous manifestation of SCD. The health status of individuals living with chronic leg ulcers is not only influenced by clinical manifestations such as pain duration and intensity, but also by psychosocial factors. Garnering insights into the psychosocial impact can provide a more holistic view of their influence on quality of life. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants living with active SCD-associated leg ulcers or with a history of ulcers. Subjects were recruited from an ongoing study (INSIGHTS, Clin Trial.Gov NCT02156102) and consented to this qualitative phase of the study. Five areas were explored: leg ulcer pain, physical function, social-isolation, social relationships and religious support. Data was collected from 20 individuals during these interviews and a thematic analysis was performed and reported. Results Twenty participants with a mean age of 42.4 (SD ± 11.1years) were included in the study. Major themes identified included:1) pain (acute and chronic); 2) compromised physical function as demonstrated by decreased ability to walk, run, and play sports; 3) social isolation from activities either by others or self-induced as a means of avoiding certain emotions, such as embarrassment; 4) social relationships (family support and social network); 5) support and comfort through their religion or spirituality. Conclusions SCD patients with leg ulcers expressed that they experience social isolation, intense and frequent ulcer pain, and difficulty in physical function. SCD-associated leg ulcers have been studied from a clinical approach, but the psychosocial factors investigated in this study informs how quality of life is impacted by the leg ulcers. PMID:29045487
Umeh, Nkeiruka I; Ajegba, Brittany; Buscetta, Ashley J; Abdallah, Khadijah E; Minniti, Caterina P; Bonham, Vence L
Sickle cell disease (SCD) impacts millions of individuals worldwide and more than 100,000 people in the United States. Leg ulcers are the most common cutaneous manifestation of SCD. The health status of individuals living with chronic leg ulcers is not only influenced by clinical manifestations such as pain duration and intensity, but also by psychosocial factors. Garnering insights into the psychosocial impact can provide a more holistic view of their influence on quality of life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants living with active SCD-associated leg ulcers or with a history of ulcers. Subjects were recruited from an ongoing study (INSIGHTS, Clin Trial.Gov NCT02156102) and consented to this qualitative phase of the study. Five areas were explored: leg ulcer pain, physical function, social-isolation, social relationships and religious support. Data was collected from 20 individuals during these interviews and a thematic analysis was performed and reported. Twenty participants with a mean age of 42.4 (SD ± 11.1years) were included in the study. Major themes identified included:1) pain (acute and chronic); 2) compromised physical function as demonstrated by decreased ability to walk, run, and play sports; 3) social isolation from activities either by others or self-induced as a means of avoiding certain emotions, such as embarrassment; 4) social relationships (family support and social network); 5) support and comfort through their religion or spirituality. SCD patients with leg ulcers expressed that they experience social isolation, intense and frequent ulcer pain, and difficulty in physical function. SCD-associated leg ulcers have been studied from a clinical approach, but the psychosocial factors investigated in this study informs how quality of life is impacted by the leg ulcers.
In this podcast, CDC's Dr. David Swerdlow discusses the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease and trends in hospitalization rates for peptic ulcer disease in the United States between 1998 and 2005. Created: 8/17/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 8/17/2010.
Prompers, L.; Schaper, N.; Apelqvist, J.
Aims/hypothesis Outcome data on individuals with diabetic foot ulcers are scarce, especially in those with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We therefore examined the clinical characteristics that best predict poor outcome in a large population of diabetic foot ulcer patients and examined whether...... such predictors differ between patients with and without PAD. Methods Analyses were conducted within the EURODIALE Study, a prospective cohort study of 1,088 diabetic foot ulcer patients across 14 centres in Europe. Multiple logistic regression modelling was used to identify independent predictors of outcome (i...... ulcer size, peripheral neuropathy and PAD. When analyses were performed according to PAD status, infection emerged as a specific predictor of non-healing in PAD patients only. Conclusions/Interpretation Predictors of healing differ between patients with and without PAD, suggesting that diabetic foot...
Kaminski, Michelle R; Raspovic, Anita; McMahon, Lawrence P; Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Palmer, Suetonia C; Ruospo, Marinella; Dallimore, Sarah; Landorf, Karl B
Adults with end-stage renal disease are at increased risk of foot ulceration and lower extremity amputation. However, the central determinants of lower limb injury and loss are incompletely understood. We conducted a systematic review of non-randomized studies that quantified the major risk factors for foot ulceration and amputation in adults treated with dialysis and analysed patient populations in which risks were greatest. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate summary estimates. Thirty studies (48 566 participants) were identified. Risk factors for foot ulceration and amputation included previous foot ulceration (odds ratios, OR, 17.56 and 70.13), peripheral arterial disease (OR, 7.52 and 9.12), diabetes (OR, 3.76 and 7.48), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 3.24 and 3.36) and coronary artery disease (OR, 3.92 and 2.49). Participants with foot ulceration or amputation had experienced a longer duration of diabetes (mean difference, MD, 4.04 and 6.07 years) and had lower serum albumin levels (MD, -0.23 and -0.13 g/dL). Risk factors for foot ulceration also included retinopathy (OR, 3.03), previous amputation (OR, 15.50) and higher serum phosphorus levels (MD, 0.40 mg/dL), while risk factors for amputation also included male sex (OR, 1.50), current smoking (OR, 2.26) and higher glycated haemoglobin levels (MD, 0.75%). Dialysis patients who have markedly higher risks of ulceration or amputation include those with previous foot ulceration or amputation, peripheral neuropathy, diabetes or macrovascular disease. The temporal relationship between these risk factors and the development of foot ulceration and/or limb loss is uncertain and requires further study. Stable estimates of the key risk factors for ulceration and amputation can inform the design of future trials investigating clinical interventions to reduce the burden of lower limb disease in the dialysis population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights
Marcia Henriques de MAGALHÃES-COSTA
Full Text Available Context and Objectives Focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates are found in the upper gastrointestinal involvement of Crohn’s disease, and may reflect an underlying defective innate immunity. These features, however, are also described in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. The role of these gastric abnormalities in the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease was assessed in a population with high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Methods Thirty-seven Crohn’s disease, 26 ulcerative colitis, and 30 control patients were included. The H. pylori status was evaluated by the rapid urease test and histology. The presence of focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates was recorded. Results Focally enhanced gastritis was present in 24% of Crohn’s disease patients, 4% of ulcerative colitis patients and 11.5% of controls, presenting an overall sensitivity and specificity for Crohn’s disease of 24% and 88%, respectively. Macrophage microaggregates were found in all groups, but were only detected in ulcerative colitis and controls in association with H. pylori infection, with an overall sensitivity and specificity for Crohn’s disease of 61% and 69%, respectively. In the absence of H. pylori infection, focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates were significantly associated with Crohn’s disease (P<0.02 and P = 0.001 respectively. Conclusions Focally gastritis and macrophage microaggregates are suggestive of Crohn’s disease only in H. pylori-negative specimens. HEADINGS - Crohn’s disease. Ulcerative colitis. Gastritis. Macrophages. Helicobacter pylori.
M Abid Hussain
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: H. pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers and is a risk factor for the development of gastric carcinoma. Many of the proteins such as urease, porins, flagellins and toxins such as lipo-polysaccharides have been identified as potential virulence factors which induce proinflammatory reaction. We report immunogenic potentials of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD, an important house keeping protein of H. pylori. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amino acid sequences of H. pylori ICD were subjected to in silico analysis for regions with predictably high antigenic indexes. Also, computational modelling of the H. pylori ICD as juxtaposed to the E. coli ICD was carried out to determine levels of structure similarity and the availability of surface exposed motifs, if any. The icd gene was cloned, expressed and purified to a very high homogeneity. Humoral response directed against H. pylori ICD was detected through an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 82 human subjects comprising of 58 patients with H. pylori associated gastritis or ulcer disease and 24 asymptomatic healthy controls. The H. pylori ICD elicited potentially high humoral immune response and revealed high antibody titers in sera corresponding to endoscopically-confirmed gastritis and ulcer disease subjects. However, urea-breath-test negative healthy control samples and asymptomatic control samples did not reveal any detectable immune responses. The ELISA for proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 did not exhibit any significant proinflammatory activity of ICD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ICD of H. pylori is an immunogen which interacts with the host immune system subsequent to a possible autolytic-release and thereby significantly elicits humoral responses in individuals with invasive H. pylori infection. However, ICD could not significantly stimulate IL8 induction in a cultured macrophage cell line (THP1 and therefore, may not be a notable proinflammatory agent.
Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S
Major hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell anemia, are becoming a global health issue. Leg ulcers are the most common cutaneous manifestation of sickle cell disease and an important contributor to morbidity burden in this population. Leg ulcers following sickling disorders are extremely painful, and hard to heal. The clinical evidence for the optimal management of these ulcers is limited. Treating the cause and the strategies to prevent sickling are the mainstay of treatment. The basic principles of wound bed preparation and compression therapy is beneficial in these patients. © The Author(s) 2015.
Farrukh, Affifa; Mayberry, John Francis
Despite intensive research we remain ignorant of the cause of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The dramatic rise in incidence, particularly of Crohn's disease, points towards environmental factors as playing a significant role. A major purpose of this review is to stimulate a co-ordinated international effort to establish an on-going data base in Central and South America in which new cases are registered and through which investigations into aetiology can be conducted. In both Brazil and Mexico there is evidence that the incidence of ulcerative colitis is increasing, as also is the case for Crohn's disease in Brazil. The pattern of disease is, therefore, directly comparable to that reported from Europe and the USA during the 1970s and 1980s, but much lower than contemporary data from Spain. Although the incidence is similar to that reported from Portugal, the studies from Almada and Braga were conducted a decade before that from Sao Paulo. The situation in Brazil compares dramatically with Uruguay and Argentina where the reported incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is significantly less. However, with growing industrialisation it is likely that there will be an explosion of inflammatory bowel disease in some areas of Central and South America over the next 20 years. The creation of a network of researchers across South and Central America is a real possibility and through a Concerted Action there is the possibility that major strides could be made towards understanding the cause of inflammatory bowel disease and so develop preventive strategies.
Venous disorders causing a permanent increase in venous pressure are by far the most frequent reason for ulcers of the lower extremity. With a prevalence of 1 % in the general population rising to 4 % in the elderly over 80 and its chronic character, 1 % of healthcare budgets of the western world are spent on treatment of venous ulcers. A thorough investigation of the underlying venous disorder is the prerequisite for a differenciated therapy. This should comprise elimination of venous reflux as well as local wound management. Chronic ulcers can successfully be treated by shave therapy and split skin grafting. Compression therapy is a basic measure not only in venous ulcer treatment but also in prevention of ulcer recurrence. Differential diagnosis which have to be considered are arterial ulcers, vasculitis and neoplasms.
Amissah, Nana Ama
Huidwonden zijn bijzonder vatbaar voor secundaire bacteriële infecties. Dit is met name een probleem in zorginstellingen met beperkte financiële middelen en een ontoereikende infectiepreventie. Het onderhavige promotieonderzoek had tot doel om de implicaties van bacteriële wondkolonisatie in een
Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease, is reported to be associated with impaired health-related quality of life (QOL. Although decreased QOL in these subjects has been reported to be associated with various factors, the effect of nutritional therapy, especially nutrients intake on QOL has received less attention. In this study, we evaluated the various factors including nutrients intake on QOL using SF-8 in 64 patients with IBD. Patients with IBD seem to have decreased QOL especially in the mental aspects. The percentage energy intake from fat of total energy fat intake (% energy of the whole subjects, was lower than those of the annual National Nutrition Survey in Japan. Multiple regression analyses revealed that fat intake (% energy was a significant predictor for mental component summary. In conclusion, fat restriction contributes to impaired QOL especially in the mental aspects in IBD patients.
Nørgård, Bente Mertz; Larsen, P V; Fedder, J
, the OR of preterm birth was 5.29 (95% CI 2.41 to 11.63) in analyses including singletons and multiple births; restricted to singletons the OR was 1.80, 95% CI 0.49 to 6.62. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that women with UC and CD receiving ART treatments cannot expect the same success for each embryo transfer......OBJECTIVE: To examine the chance of live births and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) compared with women without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This was a nationwide...... cohort study based on Danish health registries, comprising all women with an embryo transfer during 1 January 1994 through 2013. The cohorts comprised 1360 ART treatments in 432 women with UC, 554 ART treatments in 182 women with CD and 148 540 treatments in 52 489 women without IBD. Our primary outcome...
Sardana, Kabir; Bansal, Shuchi
Palatal ulcers are a common presentation and can be conveniently divided into developmental and acquired causes, the latter of which is subdivided into acute and chronic causes. Most commonly seen dermatologic causes have associated skin manifestations. Acute and multiple ulcers are usually infectious or drug induced in origin. Recurrent ulcers are largely dominated by aphthosis, while chronic ulcers are seen in immunocompromised patients and can occasionally be malignant. It is essential to involve the oral and maxillofacial surgeons early in the therapeutic management to tackle the inevitable complications that may ensue in the chronic cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bowers, Andre S A; Duncan, Walworth W; Pepple, D J
Background There is no consensus regarding the role of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in the pathogenesis of leg ulcers (LUs) in sickle cell disease (SCD). Objectives We sought to evaluate whether the cross-sectional determination of RBC aggregation and hematological indices were associated with the presence of LU in homozygous SCD. Methods Twenty-seven patients with LU and 23 with no history of ulceration were recruited into the study. A laser-assisted rotational red cell analyzer (LoRRca) was used in the determination of the aggregation index (AI), aggregation half-time ( t 1/2 ), and the RBC aggregate strength (AMP). Hematological indices were determined using a CELL-DYN Ruby analyzer. Whole blood viscosity (WBV) and plasma viscosity (PV) were measured using a Vilastic bioprofiler. The data were presented as means ± standard deviation or median, interquartile range. Two-sample t -test was used to test for associations between the AIs, WBV, and PV in patients with and without LU. Statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. All analyses were conducted using Stata/SE v . 12.1 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). Results The AI was comparable in the group with and without ulcers (68.6, 16.7 versus 67.7, 16.9; p = 0.74); t 1/2 (1.7, 1.3 versus 1.8, 1.3; p = 0.71); AMP (18.8, 14.5 versus 19.1, 13.3; p = 0.84), WBV (3.8, 1.2 versus 3.8, 0.7; p = 0.77); and the PV (1.3, 0.08 versus 1.4, 0.1; p = 0.31) and were also not statistically different between the groups of participants. Conclusion RBC aggregation and aggregate strength are not associated with leg ulceration in SCD.
Venous stasis ulcers; Ulcers - venous; Venous ulcer; Venous insufficiency - stasis dermatitis; Vein - stasis dermatitis ... the skin Skin turns dark brown Skin sores (ulcers) may develop (called a venous ulcer or stasis ...
... instrument with a heated tip or a laser technique. Resection of ulcers : cutting around and removing the ulcers from ... Provider Registry Order Educational Materials CME/CEU IC Reading List Living with IC ... Sources of Fiber What to Eat The IC Plate™ Foods ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relapsing nature and varying geographical prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC implicates environmental factors such as diet in its aetiology. Methods In order to determine which foods might be related to disease activity in UC a new method of dietary analysis was developed and applied. Eighty-one UC patients were recruited at all stages of the disease process. Following completion of a 7 d diet diary, clinical assessment including a sigmoidoscopic examination (scale 0 (normal mucosa to 6 (very active disease was conducted. Food weights for each person were adjusted (divided by the person's calorific intake for the week. Each food consumed was given a food sigmoidoscopy score (FSS calculated by summing the products of the (adjusted weight of food consumed and sigmoidoscopy score for each patient and occurrence of food and dividing by the total (adjusted weight of the food consumed by all 81 patients. Thus, foods eaten in large quantities by patients with very active disease have high FSSs and vice versa. Foods consumed by Results High FSS foods were characterized by high levels of the anti-thiamin additive sulfite (Mann-Whitney, p Conclusions The dietary analysis method described provides a new tool for establishing relationships between diet and disease and indicates a potentially therapeutic diet for UC.
Bol, Yvonne; Duits, Annelien A; Vertommen-Mertens, Christianne E R; Hupperts, Raymond M M; Romberg-Camps, Mariëlle J L; Verhey, Frans R J; Vlaeyen, Johan W S
Fatigue is one of the most common and troubling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and more severe and disabling than fatigue in other somatic populations. Although fatigue seems MS specific, its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. To study the disease specificity of fatigue in MS by comparing its level, its physical and psychological correlates to those of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), a peripheral chronic auto-immune disease. We focused on the relative contribution of disease severity, depression and negative affectivity to fatigue in both patient samples. A total of 88 MS and 76 UC patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Fatigue, depression and negative affectivity were assessed respectively with the physical and mental fatigue subscales of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the neuroticism subscale of the Dutch NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The Expanded Disability Status Scale and the Colitis Activity Index were used to measure disease severity in MS and UC patients respectively. While levels of both physical and mental fatigue were significantly higher in MS patients than in UC patients, there were no group differences in the contribution of disease severity, depression and negative affectivity to both physical and mental fatigue. Although levels of fatigue are higher for MS patients when compared with UC patients, the correlates of fatigue do not indicate MS specificity. As such our results support a transdiagnostic approach to fatigue in MS. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Hout, BA; Klok, RM; Brouwers, JRBJ; Postma, MJ
Background: The focus of treatment of patients with peptic ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux disease has changed during the last 15 years, with a shift from histamine(2)-receptor antagonists to proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). From 1993 to 2000, expenditures for omeprazole (90% of total market share of
Keulemans, Y. C.; Mok, K. S.; Slors, J. F.; Brink, M. A.; Gouma, D. J.; Tytgat, G. N.; Groen, A. K.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Crohn's disease is a risk factor for gallstone formation. In contrast, patients with ulcerative colitis have an incidence of gallstone formation comparable to the general population. The reason for this difference is not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors
Schaper, N. C.; Andros, G.; Apelqvist, J.; Bakker, K.; Lammer, J.; Lepantalo, M.; Mills, J. L.; Reekers, J.; Shearman, C. P.; Zierler, R. E.; Hinchliffe, R. J.
The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWDGF) has produced in 2011 a guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes and a foot ulcer. This document, together with a systematic review that provided the background information on
Odes, S.; Vardi, H.; Friger, M.
P>Background Forecasting clinical and economic outcomes in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients is complex, but necessary. Aims To determine: the frequency of treatment-classified clinical states; the probability of transition between states; and the economic outcomes. Methods...
Hurenkamp, G. J.; van der Ende, A.; Grundmeijer, H. G.; Tytgat, G. N.; van der Hulst, R. W.
BACKGROUND: In patients with ulcer disease the optimal dose and duration of Helicobacter pylori treatment containing omeprazole (O), metronidazole (M) and clarithromycin (C) has yet to be established. The efficacy might be influenced by metronidazole- and clarithromycin-resistance. AIM: To study the
Lehman, Julia S; Rogers, Roy S
Accurate diagnosis of acute oral ulcers can be challenging. Important historic details include the pattern of recurrence, anatomic areas of involvement within the mouth and elsewhere on the mucocutaneous surface, associated medical symptoms or comorbidities, and symptomology. Careful mucocutaneous examination is essential. When necessary, biopsy at an active site without ulceration is generally optimal. Depending on the clinical scenario, supplemental studies that may be useful include cultures; perilesional biopsy for direct immunofluorescence testing; and evaluation for infectious diseases, gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, connective tissue diseases, or hematinic deficiencies. Clinicians should maintain a broad differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute oral ulcers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mumcu, Gonca; Cimilli, Hale; Karacayli, Ümit; Inanc, Nevsun; Türe-Özdemir, Filiz; Eksioglu-Demiralp, Emel; Ergun, Tülin; Direskeneli, Haner
Saliva contains antimicrobial peptides derived from oral epithelium as well as neutrophils in the innate immune response. The aim of this study was to examine the association between salivary human neutrophil peptide (HNP) 1-3 levels originating from neutrophils and oral ulcers in patients with Behçet's disease (BD). Ninety-five patients with BD (F/M: 39/56; mean age: 38.7 ± 11.9 years) and 53 healthy controls (HC; F/M: 23/30; mean age: 35.2 ± 10.1 years) were included in the study. The disease control group (F/M: 20/33; mean age: 33.7 ± 10.7 years) was comprised of patients with oral infection regarding endodontic infection (n = 32) and pericoronitis (n = 21). Salivary HNP 1-3 levels of groups were measured in unstimulated samples by ELISA (Hycult, the Netherlands). A statistically significant increase was found in salivary HNP 1-3 levels of patients with BD (2268.28 ± 1216.38 μg/ml) compared with HC (1836.49 ± 857.76 μg/ml), patients with endodontic infection (849.9 ± 376.1 μg/ml), and patients with pericoronitis (824.3 ± 284.02 μg/ml; P = 0.024, 0.000 and 0.000, respectively). The ratio of active oral ulcer (100%, n = 14) was higher in low HNP 1-3 levels (≤ 1000 μg/ml) than the others (66.7%, n = 54) in active patients with BD (P = 0.008). Moreover, salivary HNP 1-3 levels were significantly lower in patients with endodontic infection and patients with pericoronitis compared with those in the HC group and patients with BD (P = 0.000). A decrease in salivary HNP 1-3 levels might be a biological factor for predisposition to oral ulcers in patients with BD and oral infection in healthy patients. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.
Full Text Available Despite intensive research we remain ignorant of the cause of both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The dramatic rise in incidence, particularly of Crohn’s disease, points towards environmental factors as playing a significant role. A major purpose of this review is to stimulate a co-ordinated international effort to establish an on-going data base in Central and South America in which new cases are registered and through which investigations into aetiology can be conducted. In both Brazil and Mexico there is evidence that the incidence of ulcerative colitis is increasing, as also is the case for Crohn’s disease in Brazil. The pattern of disease is, therefore, directly comparable to that reported from Europe and the USA during the 1970s and 1980s, but much lower than contemporary data from Spain. Although the incidence is similar to that reported from Portugal, the studies from Almada and Braga were conducted a decade before that from Sao Paulo. The situation in Brazil compares dramatically with Uruguay and Argentina where the reported incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is significantly less. However, with growing industrialisation it is likely that there will be an explosion of inflammatory bowel disease in some areas of Central and South America over the next 20 years. The creation of a network of researchers across South and Central America is a real possibility and through a Concerted Action there is the possibility that major strides could be made towards understanding the cause of inflammatory bowel disease and so develop preventive strategies.
Bouhoutsos, J.; Barabas, A. P.; Martin, Peter
In a series of 400 consecutive patients with arteriosclerosis seen in two peripheral vascular clinics, we confirm the previously reported association with peptic ulcer. The incidence was almost 25% both in patients with occlusive disease (300) and with aneurysm (100). The accepted expectation of peptic ulcer in the same age-group is 6 or 7% (Jones, Kirk & Bloor, 1970; McManus, 1966). Patients with peptic ulcer, or the history of one, had a significantly higher amputation rate than those without a peptic ulcer. PMID:4650780
Magalhães-Costa, Marcia Henriques de; Reis, Beatriz Ribeiro dos; Chagas, Vera Lúcia Antunes; Nunes, Tiago; Souza, Heitor Siffert Pereira de; Zaltman, Cyrla
Focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates are found in the upper gastrointestinal involvement of Crohn's disease, and may reflect an underlying defective innate immunity. These features, however, are also described in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. The role of these gastric abnormalities in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease was assessed in a population with high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Thirty-seven Crohn's disease, 26 ulcerative colitis, and 30 control patients were included. The H. pylori status was evaluated by the rapid urease test and histology. The presence of focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates was recorded. Focally enhanced gastritis was present in 24% of Crohn's disease patients, 4% of ulcerative colitis patients and 11.5% of controls, presenting an overall sensitivity and specificity for Crohn's disease of 24% and 88%, respectively. Macrophage microaggregates were found in all groups, but were only detected in ulcerative colitis and controls in association with H. pylori infection, with an overall sensitivity and specificity for Crohn's disease of 61% and 69%, respectively. In the absence of H. pylori infection, focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates were significantly associated with Crohn's disease (PCrohn's disease only in H. pylori-negative specimens.
Full Text Available Probably due to caffeine-induced gastric acid secretion, negative effects of coffee upon various upper-gastrointestinal diseases have been precariously accepted, despite the inadequate epidemiological evidence. Our aim is to evaluate the effect of coffee consumption on four major acid-related diseases: gastric ulcer (GU, duodenal ulcer (DU, reflux esophagitis (RE, and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD based on the large-scale multivariate analysis. Of the 9,517 healthy adults, GU, DU, and RE were diagnosed by endoscopy, and NERD was diagnosed by the symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation without esophageal erosion. Associations between coffee consumption and the four disorders were evaluated, together with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, Helicobacter pylori (HP infection status, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, and alcohol. We further performed meta-analysis using the random effects model to redefine the relationship between coffee intake and peptic ulcer disease. The eligible 8,013 study subjects comprised of 5,451 coffee drinkers and 2,562 non-coffee drinkers. By univariate analysis, age, BMI, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, and alcohol showed significant associations with coffee consumption. By multiple logistic regression analysis, positively correlated factors with significance were HP infection, current smoking, BMI, and pepsinogen I/II ratio for GU; HP infection, pepsinogen I/II ratio, and current smoking for DU; HP non-infection, male, BMI, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, age, and alcohol for RE; younger age, smoking, and female for NERD. The meta-analyses could detect any association of coffee consumption with neither GU nor DU. In conclusion, there are no significant relationship between coffee consumption and the four major acid-related upper gastrointestinal disorders.
Harlander-Locke, Michael; Lawrence, Peter; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Rigberg, David; DeRubertis, Brian; Gelabert, Hugh
Patients with healed venous ulcers often experience recurrence of ulceration, despite the use of long-term compression therapy. This study examines the effect of closing incompetent superficial and/or perforating veins on ulcer recurrence rates in patients with CEAP 5 who have progressive lipodermatosclerosis and impending ulceration. Endovenous ablation was performed on patients with CEAP 5 disease and incompetent superficial and/or perforator veins and increasing lipodermatosclerosis and/or progressive malleolar pain. A minimum of 3 months of compressive therapy was attempted before endovenous ablation of incompetent veins. Demographic data, risk factors, CEAP classification, procedural details, and postoperative status were all recorded. Patients underwent duplex ultrasound scans before ablation to assess for deep, superficial, and perforator venous incompetence as well as postoperatively to confirm successful ablation. Twenty-eight endovenous ablation procedures (superficial = 19; perforator = 9) were performed on 20 patients (limbs = 21). The mean patient age was 73 years old (range, 45-93 years) and the mean body mass index was 29.5 (18.9-58.4). Ninety-five percent of patients previously wore compression stockings (20-30 mm Hg = 9; 30-40 mm Hg = 10; none = 1) for a mean time of 23.3 months (range, 3-52 months) since the prior ulcer healed. Indications for venous ablation were increasing malleolar pain (55%) and/or lipodermatosclerosis (70%). Technical success rates for the ablation procedures were 100% for superficial veins and 89% for perforators (96.4% overall). All patients underwent closure of at least one incompetent vein. Postoperatively, 95% of patients were compliant with wearing compression stockings (20-30 mm Hg = 8; 30-40 mm Hg = 11; none = 1). Ulcer recurrence rates were 0% at 6 months and 4.8% at 12 and 18 months. These data compare with prior studies showing an ulcer recurrence rate up to 67% at 12 months with compression alone. Patients with
Lee, Shou-Wu; Lee, Teng-Yu; Lien, Han-Chung; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Chang, Chi-Sen; Ko, Chung-Wang
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), functional dyspepsia (FD), and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) impact the daily lives of affected individuals. The aim of this study was to compare the risk factors and impacts on life quality of overlapping FD or PUD in patients with GERD. Data from patients diagnosed with GERD were collected between January and November 2009. FD was defined using the Rome III diagnostic criteria. The overlapping GERD-FD or GERD-PUD groups were classified as concomitant GERD and FD or peptic ulcers. The characteristics of these individuals were analyzed. There were 63, 48, and 60 patients in the GERD only, overlapping GERD-FD, and overlapping GERD-PUD groups, respectively. Significantly younger age, female gender, lower body weight and body mass index, and higher rates of tea consumption were noted in the GERD-FD group. Patients in the GERD-FD group exhibited the lowest quality of life scores, both with respect to physical and mental health, on the Short Form 36 domains. Patients with concomitant GERD and FD were more likely to be younger and female. Overlapping GERD and FD had the worst impact on the quality of life of the affected individuals.
Tabatabaeian, Mahshid; Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Feizi, Awat; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaeian, Maryam; Naji, Fateme; Adibi, Peyman
Background: Psychological profile of inflammatory bowel disease patients is not well studied in Iran. We investigated the psychological status of Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its relationship with disease activity and quality of life (QOL). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult UC patients. The Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire-12, and WHOQOL-BREF, were completed by the patients. Results: From 120 studied patients, 35 (29.2%), 48 (40.0%), and 46 (38.3%) had significant anxiety, depression, and psychological distress, respectively. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were strongly correlated with disease activity (r = 0.357 to 0.439, P < 0.01). Disease activity was negatively correlated with all QOL dimensions (r = −0.245 to −0.550, P < 0.01). Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were also negatively correlated with all QOL domains (r = −0.356 to −0.789, P < 0.01). In the regression models, anxiety was independently associated with active disease (β = 4.150, P = 0.049). Furthermore, disease activity was associated with the physical health (β = −0.371, P < 0.001). For almost all of the QOL domains, depression and psychological distress were independent predictors (β = −0.296 to −0.453, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress are highly frequent in UC patients of our society and are strongly associated with disease activity. Depression and psychological distress are important predictors of poor QOL in these patients. Further prospective studies, as well as clinical trials, are warranted in this regard. PMID:26600833
Full Text Available Background: Psychological profile of inflammatory bowel disease patients is not well studied in Iran. We investigated the psychological status of Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and its relationship with disease activity and quality of life (QOL. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult UC patients. The Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire-12, and WHOQOL-BREF, were completed by the patients. Results: From 120 studied patients, 35 (29.2%, 48 (40.0%, and 46 (38.3% had significant anxiety, depression, and psychological distress, respectively. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were strongly correlated with disease activity (r = 0.357 to 0.439, P < 0.01. Disease activity was negatively correlated with all QOL dimensions (r = −0.245 to −0.550, P < 0.01. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were also negatively correlated with all QOL domains (r = −0.356 to −0.789, P < 0.01. In the regression models, anxiety was independently associated with active disease (β = 4.150, P = 0.049. Furthermore, disease activity was associated with the physical health (β = −0.371, P < 0.001. For almost all of the QOL domains, depression and psychological distress were independent predictors (β = −0.296 to −0.453, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress are highly frequent in UC patients of our society and are strongly associated with disease activity. Depression and psychological distress are important predictors of poor QOL in these patients. Further prospective studies, as well as clinical trials, are warranted in this regard.
Mehta, Supriya D.; Green, Stefan J.; Maclean, Ian; Hu, Hong; Bailey, Robert C.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Spear, Greg T.
Background Medical male circumcision (MMC) reduces the risk of genital ulcer disease (GUD) in men by 50%. In Ugandan and Kenyan trials, a sexually transmissible agent was not identified in 50–60% of GUD specimens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. We sought to better define the etiology of GUD in men participating in the Kenyan trial and examine how MMC affects GUD etiology. Methods We defined GUD of unknown etiology as negative for HSV (type 1 and type 2), T. pallidum, and H. ducreyi by PCR, and negative for HSV-2 and T. pallidum by serology. We identified bacterial microbiota in a subset of 59 GUD specimens using multitag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and compared results by unknown vs. STI-associated etiology. Statistical analysis employed Bray-Curtis similarity measure of bacterial community by etiology, hierarchical clustering and logistic regression. Results In 59 GUD specimens from 59 men, 23 (39%) had unknown etiology. Bacterial diversity was greater in GUD of unknown than STI etiology (p = 0.01). Fusobacteria (Fusobacterium spp. and Sneathia spp.) were more commonly detected in men with GUD of unknown etiology [adjusted OR = 5.67; 95% CI: 1.63–19.8] as were Oxobacter spp. and Anaerovorax spp. [adjusted OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 0.83–11.7]. Sequences from these four anaerobic bacterial taxa were more often detected in uncircumcised men than circumcised men (pulcers of uncircumcised men. The specific anaerobic bacteria associated with GUD of unknown etiology have cytotoxic properties that can exacerbate epithelial disruptions leading to ulcer-like appearance. MMC may reduce GUD through a reduction in these anaerobic bacteria. PMID:22848346
Abdallah, Iddrisu; Armstrong-Mensah, Elizabeth; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Jones, Cheryl
Demographic and risky sexual behaviours may increase the risk for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection and, thus, enhance HIV transmission to uninfected partners. We assessed the demographic and behavioural risk factors associated with TV among South African HIV-positive men with genital ulcer disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study with data from a randomised controlled trial conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The data were obtained from three primary healthcare clinics in South Africa. At baseline (n=387), participants reported on demographics, sexual behaviour, history of sexually transmitted infections and clinical ulcers. The outcome TV was measured using real-time multiplex PCR assays and a Rotor-gene 3000 platform from the first and past urine samples of all participants. Logistic regression model estimated ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for demographics, sexual risk behaviours and ulcer conditions. An estimated 11.4% of TV was detected among the men. The odds of TV infection were significantly associated with high blister counts (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 28, p=0.01), ulcer pain (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7, p=0.003), number of days with ulcers (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.8, p=0.006), sought treatment before coming into clinics (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.7, p=0.005) and being unqualified worker (OR 2.5, 95% CI 0.9 to 6.7 p=0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that increased days with ulcers (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.5, p=0.002) and ulcer pain intensity (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.007 to 1.1, p=0.05) remained significantly associated with decreased odds of TV infection. Men from the Sotho ethnic group were eight times more likely to have TV infection (OR 8.6, 95% CI 1.3 to 55.7, p<0.02) than men from the other ethnic groups. HIV-positive men with severe ulceration should be screened and treated for TV to minimise HIV transmission to uninfected partners. © Article author(s) (or their employer
Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents...
Full Text Available Background and aim: Education of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC about their disease and access to a specialist are important to improve health outcomes. Our objective was to determine, by collecting information directly from the patients, their information sources and knowledge of the disease, and the options for access to the gastroenterologist. Methods: The information was collected using a printed survey handed out by 39 gastroenterologists to 15 consecutive adult patients with UC. Patients answered anonymously from their home. The responses were stratified by hospital size (> 900; 500-900; < 500 beds. Results: A total of 585 patients received the survey and 436 responded (74.5%; mean age of 46 years [13.5], 53% men. The main information source was the specialist physician (89.2%. Between 32% and 80% of patients had areas of improvement regarding knowledge of their disease. Knowledge of the disease was better in patients from small hospitals (< 500 beds. The frequency of routine visits was also higher in small hospitals. In case of a flare-up, 60% stated they were able to contact their doctor by phone and 37%, that they could get an appointment on the same day. The percentage stating that they had to ask for an appointment and wait until their physician was available was lower in small hospitals. Conclusions: There are areas of improvement with regard to knowledge of their disease in patients with UC followed in hospital clinics. Patients followed in small hospitals seem to know their disease better, are followed more frequently in the clinic, and have better access in case of a flare-up.
Kodia M; Trébissou Jonhson Noel D; Crezoit Yapo A; Eyangoh S; Asse H
The aqueous extract of a plant coded OBAYOKOU (Moringa oleifera ) has been tested on the healing of ulcers in children under 15 years, two lots of 15 children each were made all presenting clinical forms of Buruli ulcer. The aqueous plant extract of Moringa oleifera was added to the food supply given to Lot B (lot of experimental subjects) at a rate of 330 ml per meal per child for six weeks. Children of Lot A (control Lot) received normal diet without Moringa oleifera. The results of this st...
Abbade, Luciana P F; Wang, Mei; Sriganesh, Kamath; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana
Although venous ulcers have a great social and economic impact, there is a lack of evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to support appropriate management for this disease. Framing the research question using the Population; Intervention; Comparator; Outcome; Time frame (PICOT) format in RCTs can improve the quality of the research design. To evaluate how the PICOT format is used to frame a research question in reports of RCTs of venous ulcer disease and to determine the factors associated with better adherence to the PICOT format in framing the research question. We will conduct a systematic survey of RCTs on venous ulcers published in the National Institute of Health, PubMed database between January 2009 and May 2016. We will include all RCTs addressing therapeutic intervention for venous ulcer disease involving human subjects, and published in the English language. The selection process will be carried out in duplicate by two independent investigators. First, titles and abstracts will be screened, then full-text articles. We will examine whether the five elements of the PICOT format are used in formulating the research question and give a score between 0 and 5. The primary outcome will be the proportion of studies that have adequately reported all five PICOT elements. This will be the first survey to assess how the PICOT format is used to frame research questions on the management of venous ulcers in reports of RCTs. On completion, this review will be submitted to a peer-reviewed biomedical journal for publication and the findings will also be presented at scientific conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Smolinska, A; Bodelier, A G L; Dallinga, J W; Masclee, A A M; Jonkers, D M; van Schooten, F-J; Pierik, M J
To optimise treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), patients need repeated assessment of mucosal inflammation. Current non-invasive biomarkers and clinical activity indices do not accurately reflect disease activity in all patients and cannot discriminate UC from non-UC colitis. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled air could be predictive of active disease or remission in Crohn's disease. To investigate whether VOCs are able to differentiate between active UC, UC in remission and non-UC colitis. UC patients participated in a 1-year study. Clinical activity index, blood, faecal and breath samples were collected at each out-patient visit. Patients with clear defined active faecal calprotectin >250 μg/g and inactive disease (Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index colitis was confirmed by stool culture or radiological evaluation. Breath samples were analysed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and kernel-based method to identify discriminating VOCs. In total, 72 UC (132 breath samples; 62 active; 70 remission) and 22 non-UC-colitis patients (22 samples) were included. Eleven VOCs predicted active vs. inactive UC in an independent internal validation set with 92% sensitivity and 77% specificity (AUC 0.94). Non-UC colitis patients could be clearly separated from active and inactive UC patients with principal component analysis. Volatile organic compounds can accurately distinguish active disease from remission in UC and profiles in UC are clearly different from profiles in non-UC colitis patients. VOCs have demonstrated potential as new non-invasive biomarker to monitor inflammation in UC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Raed Alzafiri1, Christina A Holcroft2, Paula Malolepszy1, Albert Cohen1, Andrew Szilagyi11Jewish General Hospital, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 2Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies, McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Infliximab has shown benefit in Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC.Objective: Evaluation of long-term outcome of therapy for both diseases.Methods: We analyzed retrospectively patients treated at infusion centers from one institution. Demographic, laboratory parameters leading up to biologic therapy and the subsequent pattern of outcomes in either disease were established as a database. Initial failure, subsequent need to change therapy, or need to adjust therapy were evaluated. Kruskal–Wallis (nonparametric tests to compare two groups and Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis were used to compare outcomes.Results: Over approximately 6 years, 71 CD and 26 UC patients received 999 and 215 infusions, respectively, for a median of 62 months. Of these, 17% for CD and 19% for UC patients were primary failures. Following the start of infliximab, 18% of CD and 11% of UC patients required stoppage and switching to another type of therapy. In either CD or UC patients, 54% or 62%, respectively, continued therapy without the need to change to other treatments. Few serious side effects were noted. No important statistically significant differences in treatment patterns or outcome were observed between the groups.Discussion: Long-term treatment of both inflammatory bowel diseases reflects outcomes of clinical trials.Conclusions: This study emphasizes similarities between CD and UC and reports therapeutic success for an extended time.Keywords: infliximab, inflammatory bowel diseases
Hoshino, E; Umeda, N; Sano, J; Miki, K; Yahagi, N; Oka, M; Kimura, M; Miyashita, H
Seventy-one patients with peptic ulcer (44 gastric ulcer and 27 duodenal ulcer patients) were enrolled in this study. After the ulcers had healed with 2 months of treatment with lansoprazole (LPZ) 30 mg/day, patients were divided into two groups: 43 in the half-dose q.d. group and 28 in the weekend full-dose group. Fourteen (23%) of the 43 patients in the half-dose q.d. group and 14 of the 28 (50%) in the weekend full-dose group failed to continue taking the drug for 6 months owing to poor compliance (p half-dose q.d. administration schedule was superior to weekend full-dose administration because of the better patient compliance and a lower ulcer recurrence rate.
Jordan S. Mar
Full Text Available Significant gut microbiota heterogeneity exists among ulcerative colitis (UC patients, though the clinical implications of this variance are unknown. We hypothesized that ethnically distinct UC patients exhibit discrete gut microbiotas with unique metabolic programming that differentially influence immune activity and clinical status. Using parallel 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer 2 sequencing of fecal samples (UC, 30; healthy, 13, we corroborated previous observations of UC-associated bacterial diversity depletion and demonstrated significant Saccharomycetales expansion as characteristic of UC gut dysbiosis. Furthermore, we identified four distinct microbial community states (MCSs within our cohort, confirmed their existence in an independent UC cohort, and demonstrated their coassociation with both patient ethnicity and disease severity. Each MCS was uniquely enriched for specific amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism pathways and exhibited significant luminal enrichment of the metabolic products of these pathways. Using a novel ex vivo human dendritic cell and T-cell coculture assay, we showed that exposure to fecal water from UC patients caused significant Th2 skewing in CD4+ T-cell populations compared to that of healthy participants. In addition, fecal water from patients in whom their MCS was associated with the highest level of disease severity induced the most dramatic Th2 skewing. Combined with future investigations, these observations could lead to the identification of highly resolved UC subsets based on defined microbial gradients or discrete microbial features that may be exploited for the development of novel, more effective therapies.
Bruisten, Sylvia M.
Women who are in a low socioeconomic status are most vulnerable to genital ulcer disease (GUD). GUD is recognized as an important co-factor for acquisition of HIV. GUD etiology has been elucidated in the past decade, with the availability of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Worldwide, herpes
Patients at highest risk for developing cancer in ulcerative colitis are those with ‘extensive’ or total involvement of the large bowel who have had the disease for at least seven years. Dysplasia is used as a marker bur has many problems including those of sampling, reproducibility and management. The risk in patients with colitis is unclear particularly in those with left-sided or distal ulcerative colitis. In countries at high risk from colorectal cancer about 4 to 6% of the population can...
Mehmet Latif Güneş
Full Text Available In their daily practice, psychiatrists often experience gastriccomplaints in patients beside psychiatric disorders.Peptic ulcer is one of the diseases, which accompanyto psychiatric disorders including mainly depression. Itis shown that antidepressants can inflame the bleedingsincluding gastrointestinal (GI bleedings, while they havepositive effect on ulcer healing. In this review, studies,which conducted about the positive or negative effects ofantidepressant drugs on ulcer treatment were examined.Accordingly; it was found that opipramol, amitriptyline,imipramine that of tricyclic antidepressants was found tobe helpful in healing of the ulcer. It was stated that SelectiveSerotonin Reuptake Inhibitors generally inflamedulcers, exceptionally fluvoxamine and fluoxetine reducedulcer; moclobemide that of monoamine-oxidase inhibitorand tianeptine and mirtazapine that of atypical antidepressantshad positive effect in ulcer healing. To be carefulin choosing the appropriate antidepressant in psychiatricpatients with gastric ulcer is important in the prognosisof both ulcer and depression.Key words: peptic ulcer; depression; antidepressant drugs
Romo-González, Carolina; Salama, Nina R.; Burgeño-Ferreira, Juan; Ponce-Castañeda, Veronica; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Torres, Javier
Helicobacter pylori establishes a chronic infection in the human stomach, causing gastritis, peptic ulcer, or gastric cancer, and more severe diseases are associated with virulence genes such as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). The aim of this work was to study gene content differences among H. pylori strains isolated from patients with different gastroduodenal diseases in a Mexican-Mestizo patient population. H. pylori isolates from 10 patients with nonatrophic gastritis, 10 patients with duodenal ulcer, and 9 patients with gastric cancer were studied. Multiple isolates from the same patient were analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and strains with unique patterns were tested using whole-genome microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). We studied 42 isolates and found 1,319 genes present in all isolates, while 341 (20.5%) were variable genes. Among the variable genes, 127 (37%) were distributed within plasticity zones (PZs). The overall number of variable genes present in a given isolate was significantly lower for gastric cancer isolates. Thirty genes were significantly associated with nonatrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer, or gastric cancer, 14 (46.6%) of which were within PZs and the cag PAI. Two genes (HP0674 and JHP0940) were absent in all gastric cancer isolates. Many of the disease-associated genes outside the PZs formed clusters, and some of these genes are regulated in response to acid or other environmental conditions. Validation of candidate genes identified by aCGH in a second patient cohort allowed the identification of novel H. pylori genes associated with gastric cancer or duodenal ulcer. These disease-associated genes may serve as biomarkers of the risk for severe gastroduodenal diseases. PMID:19237517
Krupa Shankar D
Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.
... wipes, and other supplies throughout the day and use as needed. Tests and project limits: Medications and active disease symptoms may contribute to sleep deprivation and fatigue. As a result, the number of ...
Shin, Jin Yong; Roh, Si-Gyun; Sharaf, Basel; Lee, Nae-Ho
Limb amputation in diabetic patients raises important issues regarding low quality of life and survival rates. This meta-analysis aimed to identify predictive factors accompanying diseases with high major amputation rates in diabetic patients. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Eight variables were extracted from the included studies and evaluated according to major amputation rates. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was utilized to assess the quality of the studies. The search strategy identified 101 publications. After screening, 10 articles were selected for review. Hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease were identified as predictive variables of higher major amputation rates. Although further investigation of long-term and prospective studies is needed, we identified four variables as predisposing factors for higher major amputation in diabetic patients through meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abbade, Luciana P F; Wang, Mei; Sriganesh, Kamath; Jin, Yanling; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana
Despite several publications on venous ulcers, there is still a lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support certain treatments for patients with this disorder. Well-designed research questions using the PICOT (Population; Intervention; Comparator; Outcome; Time-frame) format in RCTs can improve the quality of research. The objectives of this study were to assess how the PICOT format is used to frame research questions in RCTs published on venous ulcer disease and to determine the factors associated with better adherence to the PICOT format. We conducted a systematic survey of RCTs on venous ulcers published in the PubMed database between January 2009 and May 2016. All RCTs published in English addressing therapeutic interventions for venous ulcer disease in human subjects were included. We examined whether the five elements of the PICOT format were used in formulating the research question and scored them between 0 and 5. The primary outcome of this systematic survey was the percentage of studies that adequately reported all five PICOT elements. Eighty-five (85) RCTs were included with median PICOT score of 3 (IQR = 1.5). Four elements of PICOT were present in 28 reports (32.9%) and only 2 RCTS (2.3%) reported all the PICOT elements. Population and intervention were often appropriately described, in (70/85) 82.4% and (83/85) 97.6% of the studies, respectively; however, comparison intervention and outcome were presented in only (53/85) 62.3% and (48/85) 56.5% of studies, respectively. Very few RCTs (7.1%; 6/85) reported the study time frame. No journal or RCT characteristics were found to be significantly associated with better reporting. Use of the PICOT format to frame research questions in RCTs published on venous ulcers is suboptimal, and our study reinforces the importance of framing a good research question to improve the design of trials and quality of evidence in venous ulcer disease. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.
Background: Atypical and exceptional clinical presentation of full blown AIDS may be observed in sub-Saharan Africa. We report herein the case of a Central African 37-year-old male patient presented with full blown AIDS, a typical picture of slim disease with marked cachexia and wasting faces. In addition, the patient was ...
Mihai, Carina; Landewé, Robert; van der Heijde, Désirée
OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease with high morbidity and significant mortality. There is a great need of predictors that would allow risk stratification of patients with SSc and ultimately initiation of treatment early enough to ensure optimal clinical results....
Quan, Samuel; Yang, Hong; Tanyingoh, Divine; Villeneuve, Paul J; Stieb, David M; Johnson, Markey; Hilsden, Robert; Madsen, Karen; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Novak, Kerri; Lang, Eddy; Ghosh, Subrata; Kaplan, Gilaad G
Recent studies have demonstrated an association between short-term elevations in air pollution and an increased risk of exacerbating gastrointestinal disease. The objective of the study was to evaluate if day-to-day increases in air pollution concentrations were positively associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) secondary to peptic ulcer disease (PUD). A time-stratified case-crossover study design was used. Adults presenting to hospitals with their first UGIB secondary to PUD from 2004-2010 were identified using administrative databases from Calgary (n = 1374; discovery cohort) and Edmonton (n = 1159; replication cohort). Daily concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) were estimated in these two cities. Conditional logistic regression models were employed, adjusting for temperature and humidity. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were expressed relative to an interquartile range increase in the concentration of each pollutant. No statistically significant associations were observed for any of the individual pollutants based on same-day, or 1-day lag effects within the Calgary discovery cohort. When the air pollution exposures were assessed as 3-, 5-, and 7-day averages, some pollutants were inversely associated with UGIB in the discovery cohort; for example, 5-day averages of nitrogen dioxide (OR = 0.68; 95 % CI: 0.53-0.88), and particulate matter <2.5 μm (OR = 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.61-0.90). However, these findings could not be reproduced in the replication cohort. Our findings suggest that short-term elevations in the level of ambient air pollutants does not increase the incidence of UGIB secondary to PUD.
Jagpal Singh Klair; B S Sidhu
Background: A stressful life event or situation-internal or external, acute or chronic-generates challengesto which the organism cannot adequately respond some times. Recent studies have found that the peoplewho face general stresses pessimistically are apt to experience psychosomatic disorders. Psychologicalfactors like stress are important in development of initiation, progression, aggravation, predisposition orreaction to disease. For example, a stressful event might lead to exacerbation o...
Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Wang, Yulan; Hao, Fuhua
metabolome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Stool samples from 113 individuals (UC 48, CD 44, controls 21) were analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (Bruker 600 MHz, Bruker BioSpin, Rheinstetten, Germany). Data were analyzed with principal component analysis and orthogonal...... acids, microbiota-related short chain fatty acids, and lactate suggestive of an inflammation-driven malabsorption and dysbiosis of the normal bacterial ecology. However, removal of patients with intestinal surgery and anti-TNF-α antibody treatment eliminated the discriminative power regarding UC versus...
Tsai, Hsiao-Cheng; Li, Yi-Chen; Young, Tai-Horng; Chen, Min-Huey
Various polyphenolic compounds from plants have been confirmed to have different pharmaceutical functions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate citrus polyphenol (CP) for dental applications. A medium with CP was developed to improve oral wound healing. The CP could be used as a supplemental compound in mouthwash for periodontal diseases. In this study, the metabolic activity and cell toxicity of CP (1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%) for fibroblasts were investigated by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase assays (n = 6). The effect of CP on motility of fibroblast was also evaluated via a wound healing model. The growth of Hs68 cells on TCPS was greatly increased in the presence of 0.01% CP. In addition, the signiﬁcant difference (phealing model, it was also found that CP could enhance the migratory ability of fibroblasts. The results confirm the feasibility of CP be a supplemental compound in mouthwash for treatment of periodontal diseases in dental application to improve wound healing in the mouth. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
O'Donnell, Sarah; Stempak, Joanne M; Steinhart, A Hillary; Silverberg, Mark S
Studies have demonstrated the benefit of dose optimisation in the setting of secondary loss of response to infliximab in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of our study was to retrospectively investigate the rates of dose optimisation in an inflammatory bowel disease cohort receiving maintenance infliximab therapy to determine if there are different rates of dose optimisation between CD and UC cases and what impact this has on the durability of treatment effect. Cases receiving infliximab for treatment of IBD between January 2008 and February 2014 were identified from an infusion centre database. Cases receiving ≥ 4 infusions were included in the study. Details of infusion dosing and timing were obtained. A dose increase from 5mg/kg to 10mg/kg or a reduction in the dosing interval was considered a dose optimisation. A total of 412 cases were included in the study; 52.7% required at least one dose optimisation. Dose optimisation was more common in UC than in CD cases [67.2% vs 46.3%, p = 0.00006]. The median time to dose optimisation was 7 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.8-9.2) for UC cases and 27 months [95% CI 7.3-46.7] for CD cases, p = 0.00003. Here we have shown that dose optimisation is required more frequently in UC than in CD, with a significantly shorter time to dose optimisation for UC cases than CD cases. The majority of cases responding to induction therapy with infliximab will have a sustained response to therapy, but over 50% will require a dose optimisation during their treatment. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr
The aim of this systematic review was to collect all current data on indirect costs related to inflammatory bowel disease as well as assessing homogeneity and comparability, and conducting a meta-analysis. Costs were collected using databases from Medline, Embase and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, then average annual cost per patient was calculated and expressed in 2013-rate USD using the consumer price index and purchasing power parity (scenario 1) and then adjusted to specific gross domestic product (scenario 2) to make them comparable. The studies were then included in quantitative synthesis using the meta-analysis and bootstrap methods. This systematic review was carried out and reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. From 18 publications, overall annual indirect costs per patient as a result of the quantitative synthesis among all studies eligible for meta-analysis ranged from US$2425.01-US$9622.15 depending on the scenario and model used for analysis. The cost of presenteeism was assessed in only two studies. Considering heterogeneity among all identified studies random-effect model presented the most accurate results of meta-analysis equal to US$7189.27 and US$9622.15 per patient per year for scenario 1 and scenario 2, respectively. This systematic review revealed the existence of a relatively small number of studies that reported on the great economic burden of the disease upon society. A great variety of methodologies and cost components resulted in a very large discrepancy in indirect costs and made meta-analysis difficult to perform, so two scenarios were considered and meta-analysis conducted in subgroups to make data more comparable.
Barrett, Mary M; Sangüeza, Martin; Werner, Betina; Kutzner, Heinz; Carlson, John A
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection can rarely present as painful genital ulcers, mostly in young female adolescents. Typically diagnosed by clinical findings, EBV vulvar ulceration (EBVVU) is rarely biopsied. Herein, the authors report the histopathology in 8 biopsies from 7 EBVVU patients, all serologically confirmed for acute (4/7) or reactivated-chronic (3/7) EBV infection. The 7 women all presented with 1 or more painful, punched-out vulvar ulcers. Only patients with acute EBV infection showed other clinical findings: fever and/or atypical lymphocytosis affected 75% (3/4); lymphadenopathy in 50%; and malaise/fatigue, dysuria and/or hepatomegaly in 25%. All reactivated-chronic EBVVU had a solitary ulcer, and 2 had history of a similar episode of vulvar ulceration (aphthosis). Histopathologically, lymphocytic arteritis was identified in 88% (7/8); a submucosal scar was found in the eighth specimen. Other histopathologies included venulitis (62%), endarteritis obliterans (38%), thrombosis (25%), neutrophilic sebaceous adenitis (25%), and mucosal lymphoid hyperplasia (12%). Dense angiocentric CD3 CD4 T-cell lymphocyte-predominant infiltrates were found, regionally or diffusely. In 2 specimens, neutrophils compromised half of the infiltrate. Minor components of CD8, CD20, and CD30 lymphocytes, CD123 plasmacytoid monocytes, CD68 macrophages, and plasma cells were present. Small-vessel endothelium and smooth muscle adjacent to the ulcers faintly expressed cytoplasmic EBV latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1). In situ hybridization for early EBV mRNA (EBER) identified rare solitary or scattered clustered positive lymphocytes in 38%. Polymerase chain reaction for EBV DNA was positive in one EBER positive biopsy. EBV infection has been documented in muscular vessel vasculitis. Based on the aforementioned, EBVVU appears to be the consequence of localized lymphocytic arteritis.
Raffetto, Joseph D; Marston, William A
The pathophysiology of venous dermal abnormality in chronic venous ulcers is reflective of a complex interplay that involves sustained venous hypertension, inflammation, changes in the microcirculation, cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase activation, and altered cellular function. Red blood cells and macromolecules extravasate into the interstitium and activate endothelial cells. Endothelial expression of specific adhesion molecules recruits leukocytes and causes diapedesis of these cells into the dermal microvasculature, promoting an inflammatory response with activation of cytokines and proteinases. Altered cell function enhances a state of vulnerability in the surrounding tissues, initiating specific changes associated with venous disease. Ultimately, the persistent inflammatory-proteinase activity leads to advanced chronic venous insufficiency and ulcer formation. The mainstay of therapy in venous ulcer abnormality is correction of the underlying venous hypertension through compression therapy and/or surgery. Understanding the science involved in the pathophysiology of venous ulcer formation has led to the development of adjunctive treatment directed at the dysregulated molecular pathways. Randomized clinical trials are critical for determining the most effective evidence-based treatments for venous ulcer, and this review discusses important trials that have had a significant impact on venous ulcer healing. In addition, the authors have included subsections referred to as "Translational Implications for Therapy" in the basic science sections of the review to help bridge the basic science knowledge with clinical applications that may help to modulate the molecular abnormalities in the pathophysiologic cascade leading to venous ulcers.
Rayhana Malek; Amina Gharibi; Nadia Khlil; Jamila Kissa
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is a typical form of periodontal diseases. It has an acute clinical presentation with the distinctive characteristics of rapid onset of interdental gingival necrosis, gingival pain, bleeding, and halitosis. Systemic symptoms such as lymphadenopathy and malaise could be also found. There are various predisposing factors such as stress, nutritional deficiencies, and immune system dysfunctions, especially, HIV infection that seems to play a major role in t...
Al-Mahroos, Faisal; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon
Although epidemiological studies have persistently shown a high prevalence of diabetes in Arabs, the control of diabetes is still poor and complications of diabetes are common. We examined the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DN), neuropathic foot ulceration (FU) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD), and potential risk factors for these complications among patients attending primary care diabetes clinics in Bahrain. We studied 1477 diabetic patients (Type 2 diabetes 93%); to, including 635 men and 842 women, with ages ranging from 18-75 years in a cross-sectional study. The main predictor variables were demographic and clinical data, including assessment of foot and blood parameters. Mean age of the patients and duration of diabetes were 57.3 +/- 6.32 and 9.5 +/- 8.4 years, respectively. DN was present in 36.6% of the population, FU in 5.9%, and PVD in 11.8%. Diabetic patients with neuropathy were older than patients without neuropathy (P=0.001) and had had diabetes longer (P=0.002). Diabetic patients with foot ulcers had more severe neuropathy and higher vibration perception thresholds values than patients without foot ulcers (Pobesity defined by body mass index, large waist circumference, elevated triglycerides levels and hypertension but not gender, were significant risk factors for DN in both the univariate and the multivariate analyses (P< 0.05). DN and PVD also remained significant risk factors for foot ulceration in the multiple logistic regression analysis. Rates of DN and PVD are high among diabetic patients in Bahrain. Implementation of strategies for prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment at the primary health care level are urgently needed.
Full Text Available The familial Mediterranean fever (FMF gene (MEFV encodes pyrin, a major regulator of the inflammasome platform controlling caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta processing. Pyrin has been shown to interact with the gene product of NLRP3, NALP3/cryopyrin, also an important active member of the inflammasome. The NLRP3 region was recently reported to be associated with Crohn's disease (CD susceptibility. We therefore sought to evaluate MEFV as an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD susceptibility gene.MEFV colonic mucosal gene expression was significantly increased in experimental colitis mice models (TNBS p<0.0003; DSS p<0.006, in biopsies from CD (p<0.02 and severe ulcerative colitis (UC patients (p<0.008. Comprehensive genetic screening of the MEFV region in the Belgian exploratory sample set (440 CD trios, 137 UC trios, 239 CD cases, 96 UC cases, and 107 healthy controls identified SNPs located in the MEFV 5' haplotype block that were significantly associated with UC (rs224217; p = 0.003; A allele frequency: 56% cases, 45% controls, while no CD associations were observed. Sequencing and subsequent genotyping of variants located in this associated haplotype block identified three synonymous variants (D102D/rs224225, G138G/rs224224, A165A/rs224223 and one non-synonymous variant (R202Q/rs224222 located in MEFV exon 2 that were significantly associated with UC (rs224222: p = 0.0005; A allele frequency: 32% in cases, 23% in controls. No consistent associations were observed in additional Canadian (256 CD trios, 91 UC trios and Scottish (495 UC, 370 controls sample sets. We note that rs224222 showed marginal association (p = 0.012; G allele frequency: 82% in cases, 70% in controls in the Canadian sample, but with a different risk allele. None of the NLRP3 common variants were associated with UC in the Belgian-Canadian UC samples and no significant interactions were observed between NLRP3 and MEFV that could explain the observed flip-flop of the rs224222 risk
de Souza Helton Luis
Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is believed to participate in the etiology of Crohn’s disease (CD and possibly of ulcerative colitis (UC, due at least in part to the observed rise in the number of these bacteria in the gut microbiota of CD and UC patients. Nevertheless, it is not fully understood whether this quantitative variation occurs equally throughout the mucosal and luminal spaces of the gut. To assess this question, stools and mucosa biopsies from distinct intestinal sites were cultured aiming at determining their E. coli concentration. The cultures were additionally screened for the presence of some virulence genes of pathogenic E. coli. Results Analyses of clinical materials from 14 controls (38 biopsies and 14 stools samples, 11 CD (25 biopsies and 11 stools samples and 7 UC patients (18 biopsies and 7 stools samples indicated no significant variation in the number of E. coli present in stools, but a rise of at least one log10 CFU/mg in biopsies from the ileum of CD patients and the sigmoid and rectum of CD and UC patients. The cultures were screened for the presence of E. coli attaching and effacing (eae, invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH, aggregative adherence transcriptional activator (aggR, Shiga cytotoxins (stx, and heat labile enterotoxin (elt and the following serine proteases autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE genes: plasmid encoded toxin (pet, secreted autotransporter toxin (sat, Shigella extracellular protein (sepA, protein involved in intestinal colonization (pic and Shigella IgA-like protease homolog (sigA. Six of the 10 genes screened were detected in the total of samples investigated: aggR, eae, pet, sat, sepA and sigA. No difference in the prevalence of any of these markers was observed in cultures from different clinical materials or groups of patients. Methods Bacterial quantitation was carried out following cultures of diluted samples suspensions in MacConkey agar, Wilkins Chalgren agar for anaerobes
Background: The advent of proton pump inhibitors and helicobacter pylori eradication in the management of chronic peptic ulcer disease has reduced the operative treatment of this condition to its complications. Perforated duodenal ulcer remains a major life threatening complication of chronic peptic ulcer disease.
Atle van Beelen Granlund
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, genetic susceptibility together with environmental factors disturbs gut homeostasis producing chronic inflammation. The two main IBD subtypes are Ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD. We present the to-date largest microarray gene expression study on IBD encompassing both inflamed and un-inflamed colonic tissue. A meta-analysis including all available, comparable data was used to explore important aspects of IBD inflammation, thereby validating consistent gene expression patterns. METHODS: Colon pinch biopsies from IBD patients were analysed using Illumina whole genome gene expression technology. Differential expression (DE was identified using LIMMA linear model in the R statistical computing environment. Results were enriched for gene ontology (GO categories. Sets of genes encoding antimicrobial proteins (AMP and proteins involved in T helper (Th cell differentiation were used in the interpretation of the results. All available data sets were analysed using the same methods, and results were compared on a global and focused level as t-scores. RESULTS: Gene expression in inflamed mucosa from UC and CD are remarkably similar. The meta-analysis confirmed this. The patterns of AMP and Th cell-related gene expression were also very similar, except for IL23A which was consistently higher expressed in UC than in CD. Un-inflamed tissue from patients demonstrated minimal differences from healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: There is no difference in the Th subgroup involvement between UC and CD. Th1/Th17 related expression, with little Th2 differentiation, dominated both diseases. The different IL23A expression between UC and CD suggests an IBD subtype specific role. AMPs, previously little studied, are strongly overexpressed in IBD. The presented meta-analysis provides a sound background for further research on IBD pathobiology.
Bermejo, Fernando; Aguas, Mariam; Chaparro, María; Domènech, Eugeni; Echarri, Ana; Garcia-Planella, Esther; Guerra, Iván; Gisbert, Javier P; López-Sanromán, Antonio
Thiopurines (azathioprine and mercaptopurine) are widely used in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In this paper, we review the main indications for their use, as well as practical aspects on efficacy, safety and method of administration. They are mainly used to maintain remission in steroid-dependent disease or with ciclosporin to control a severe ulcerative colitis flare-up, as well as to prevent postoperative Crohn's disease recurrence, and also in combination therapy with biologics. About 30-40% of patients will not respond to treatment and 10-20% will not tolerate it due to adverse effects. Before they are prescribed, immunisation status against certain infections should be checked. Determination of thiopurine methyltransferase activity (TPMT) is not mandatory but it increases initial safety. The appropriate dose is 2.5mg/kg/day for azathioprine and 1.5mg/kg/day for mercaptopurine. Some adverse effects are idiosyncratic (digestive intolerance, pancreatitis, fever, arthromyalgia, rash and some forms of hepatotoxicity). Others are dose-dependent (myelotoxicity and other types of hepatotoxicity), and their surveillance should never be interrupted during treatment. If therapy fails or adverse effects develop, management can include switching from one thiopurine to the other, reducing the dose, combining low doses of azathioprine with allopurinol and assessing metabolites, before their use is ruled out. Non-melanoma skin cancer, lymphomas and urinary tract tumours have been linked to thiopurine therapy. Thiopurine use is safe during conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Coyne, R.; Bergh, Ø.; Samuelsen, O.
Concentrations of oxolinic acid (OXA) were measured in the plasma, muscle, liver, and kidney of 48 Atlantic salmons (Salmo salar) 1 day after the end of an oral administration. OXA was administered over a period of 13 days to control an outbreak of winter ulcer disease in a commercial marine farm....... On the basis of their behaviour, the fish were classified as healthy (n=18), moribund (n=20), or dead (n=10). There was a dramatic difference in the OXA concentrations in the healthy fish and those classified as moribund or dead. There was no evidence of bacterial infection in the 18 healthy fish, all of which...
Romolo, Harvey; Wartono, Dicky A; Suyuti, Sugisman; Herlambang, Bagus; Caesario, Michael; Sunu, Ismoyo
Isolated saccular compared to fusiform aneurysm is considered to be a rare entity with challenges of its own. A 62-year-old female was diagnosed with a case of saccular aneurysm and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the aortic arch. Additionally, she also had one vessel coronary artery disease and type B abdominal aortic dissection. She was then managed with open aortic arch repair and coronary artery bypass grafting. If required, elective endovascular repair will be done for the abdominal aorta on a later date.
Full Text Available Background:Recent animal studies have identified that dietary salt intake may modify the risk and progression of autoimmune disorders through modulation of the IL23/TH17 pathway, which is critical in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. Methods:We conducted a prospective study of U.S. women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS and NHSII who provided detailed and validated information on diet and lifestyle beginning in 1984 in NHS and 1991 in NHSII. We confirmed incident cases of UC and CD reported through 2010 in NHS and 2011 in NHSII. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. In a case-control study nested within these cohorts, we evaluated the interaction between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in TH17 pathway and dietary potassium on risk of CD and UC. In a cohort of healthy volunteers, we also assessed the effect of supplemental potassium on development of naïve and memory T cells, differentiated with TGFβ1 or TH17 conditions.Results:Among a total of 194,711 women over a follow up of 3,220,247 person-years, we documented 273 cases of CD and 335 cases of UC. Dietary intake of potassium (Ptrend = 0.005 but not sodium (Ptrend = 0.44 was inversely associated with risk of CD. Although, both dietary potassium and sodium were not significantly associated with risk of UC, there was a suggestion of an inverse association with dietary potassium (Ptrend = 0.08. The association of potassium with risk of CD and UC appeared to be modified by loci involved in the TH17 pathway that have previously been associated with susceptibility to CD, particularly SNP rs7657746 (IL21 (Pinteraction = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively. In vitro, potassium enhanced the expression of Foxp3 in both naïve and memory CD4+ T cells via activating Smad2/3 and inhibiting Smad7 in TH17 cells. Conclusion:Dietary potassium is inversely associated with risk
Andre P Archambault
Full Text Available This randomized, single-blind, parallel group study was conducted to compare omeprazole with ranitidine for the treatment of symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, uncomplicated duodenal ulcer (DU or both. After baseline assessments, patients were randomized to receive daily treatment with either 20 mg omeprazole or 300 mg ranitidine for four weeks. In total, 1481 patients (1001 omeprazole, 480 ranitidine with a diagnosis of GERD (n=904 and/or DU (n=577, confirmed by endoscopy or barium meal and reporting moderate to severe symptoms, were included in the analyses. The seventy of overall daytime symptoms reported by the omeprazole group at clinic visits was lower than that reported by the ranitidine group at week 2 for the entire patient group (P=0.0002 and at both weeks 2 and 4 for the subgroup of patients with GERD (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively. The severity of overall night-time symptoms reported by the omeprazole group was lower than that reported by the ranitidine group at week 4 for all patients as a whole (P=0.042 and at both weeks 2 and 4 for the subgroup of patients with GERD (P=0.035 and P=0.010, respectively. There were no significant differences in reports of adverse events. In the omeprazole group, 19% of patients at week 2 and 15% of patients at week 4 reported adverse events, while the corresponding results from the ranitidine group were 21% and 11%. In conclusion, patients with GERD, DU or both treated with omeprazole 20 mg daily for four weeks showed statistically significant reductions in symptoms compared with patients treated with ranitidine 300 mg daily for the same period of time. The percentage of patients with any remaining daytime symptoms was 12% lower in the omeprazole group compared with the ranitidine group at week 2, and 7% lower at week 4. Five per cent fewer patients in the omeprazole group experienced night-time symptoms at either week 2 or week 4.
Park, Sunhee; Abdi, Tsion; Gentry, Mark; Laine, Loren
Endoscopic remission in ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with improved clinical outcomes. We assessed whether histological remission predicts clinical outcomes, estimated the magnitude of effect, and determined whether histological remission provides additional prognostic utility beyond clinical or endoscopic remission. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies in inflammatory bowel disease providing baseline histological status and relation to an outcome of clinical relapse or exacerbation. Our primary analysis compared the proportion of patients with study-defined histological remission vs. the proportion with histological activity who developed clinical relapse/exacerbation. Additional analyses compared the proportion with relapse/exacerbation for the presence vs. absence of different histological features and for histological remission vs. endoscopic remission and clinical remission. A fixed-effect model was used for meta-analysis, with a random-effects model if statistical heterogeneity was present. Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria. The major methodological shortcoming was lack of blinding of the assessor of clinical relapse/exacerbation to baseline histological status in 13 of the 15 studies. Relapse/exacerbation was less frequent with baseline histological remission vs. histological activity (relative risk (RR)=0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.60) and vs. baseline clinical and endoscopic remission (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94). Relapse/exacerbation was also less common in the absence vs. presence of specific histological features: neutrophils in epithelium (RR=0.32, 95% CI 0.23-0.45), neutrophils in lamina propria (RR=0.43, 95% CI 0.32-0.59), crypt abscesses (RR=0.38, 95% CI 0.27-0.54), eosinophils in the lamina propria (RR=0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.91), and chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate (RR=0.28, 95% CI 0.10-0.75). Histological remission was present in 964 (71%) of the 1360 patients with combined endoscopic and clinical remission
... most often caused by an infection with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Another common cause is long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and ...
Miyazaki, Dai; Fukushima, Atsuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Shoji, Jun; Takamura, Etsuko; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Fujishima, Hiroshi
To evaluate the effects of 0.1% topical tacrolimus alone or in combination with steroids for the treatment of shield ulcers and corneal epitheliopathy in patients with refractory allergic ocular diseases. Open cohort study. Patients with refractory allergic conjunctivitis epitheliopathy, shield ulcers, or corneal plaques (N = 791). The 791 patients were treated with topical tacrolimus alone or in combination with topical or oral steroids. The effectiveness of the treatments was determined by a corneal epitheliopathy score during the 3-month follow-up period. The clinical signs were rated on a 4-grade scale. Corneal epitheliopathy with no corneal staining was graded as 0, and shield ulcers or plaques were graded as 3, the highest grade. The effects of tacrolimus with and without topical steroids on the epitheliopathy scores were assessed after adjustments for the severity of the clinical signs and characteristics. Changes in the corneal epitheliopathy score. Adjusted mean epitheliopathy score at the baseline was 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-1.81) for patients treated with tacrolimus alone, and this was significantly reduced by -0.93 at 1 month. The reduction of the score by topical and oral steroids was -0.02 for fluorometholone, 0.02 for betamethasone, and -0.02 for oral steroids, and these reductions were not significant compared with the reduction effect of topical tacrolimus alone at -0.93. The 238 patients with shield ulcer (score 3) were analyzed with adjustments, and the mean epitheliopathy score at 1 month was reduced to 1.38 with tacrolimus alone (95% CI, 1.24-1.51), 1.41 (95% CI, 1.26-1.56) with adjuvant fluorometholone, and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.32-1.61) with adjuvant betamethasone. No significant difference was observed in the adjunctive topical steroids. The presence of severe palpebral conjunctival symptoms, including giant papillae, was a significant resisting factor for topical tacrolimus. The significant effects of topical tacrolimus
Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a colonic inflammatory condition with a substantial impact on the quality of life of affected persons. The disease carries a cumulative risk of need of colectomy of 20-30% and an estimated cumulative risk of colorectal cancer of 18% after 30 years of disease duration...
McKenna, Nicholas P; Behm, Kevin T; Ubl, Daniel S; Glasgow, Amy E; Mathis, Kellie L; Pemberton, John H; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Cima, Robert R
Patients with IBD have a higher baseline risk of venous thromboembolism, which further increases with surgery. Therefore, extended venous thromboembolism chemoprophylaxis has been suggested in certain high-risk cohorts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying diagnosis, operative procedure, or both influence the incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism. This was a retrospective review. The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database was analyzed. The NSQIP database was queried for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis and non-IBD undergoing colorectal resections using surgical Current Procedural Terminology codes modeled after the 3 stages used for the surgical management of chronic ulcerative colitis from 2005 to 2013. We measured 30-day postoperative venous thromboembolism risk in patients with chronic ulcerative colitis based on operative stage and risk factors for development of venous thromboembolism. A total of 18,833 patients met inclusion criteria, with an overall rate of venous thromboembolism of 3.8. Among procedure risk groups, venous thromboembolism rates were high risk, 4.4%; intermediate risk, 1.6%; and low risk, 0.7% (across risk groups, p operative procedure are the 2 highest risk factors for postoperative venous thromboembolism. Extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis might be appropriate for patients undergoing these high-risk procedures or any emergent colorectal procedures. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A339.
Goyette, Philippe; Boucher, Gabrielle; Mallon, Dermot
Genome-wide association studies of the related chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) known as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have shown strong evidence of association to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This region encodes a large number of immunological candidates, includi...
Reeder, S; de Roos, K-P; de Maeseneer, M; Sommer, A; Neumann, H A M
Leg ulceration caused by chronic venous disease occurs in 1% of the adult Western population. A majority of these patients is successfully treated in the outpatient setting. A minority of patients is hospitalized, most frequently because of the lack of healing tendency. The literature provides recurrence rates for ulcer disease, but lacks specific data on recurrence rates after in-hospital treatment of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers. To investigate time to ulcer recurrence after in-hospital treatment of venous leg ulceration. A multicentre, retrospective cohort study of patients admitted for leg ulceration between 1996 and 2007 was conducted. Data could be collected for 107 of the patients. Of these, 27 had conservative treatment (bed rest, local wound care, pain management) and 48 patients underwent surgical ulcer treatment with (n = 19) or without (n = 29) initial vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) treatment. The treatment method was 'miscellaneous' in the remaining 32 patients. Median admission time was 30 days, median percentage of closure at discharge was 95%, and median time to ulcer recurrence 60 days. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed significant differences between the conservative group and the surgery group, the latter having a longer length of hospital stay (P ulcer closure (P ulcer recurrence (P = 0.273). Comparable differences were demonstrated between the conservative group and the VAC plus surgery group. No significant differences could be demonstrated between the surgically treated patients and those treated by VAC and surgery. Hospital stay is significantly shorter in cases of surgical treatment of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers. Most ulcers recur within 2 months after hospital discharge. Recurrence of venous leg ulcers after hospital admission is independent of the method of treatment and cause of ulceration. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.
The vulval ulcers that are seen in obstetrics and gynaecological practice in South Africa are most commonly caused by sexually transmitted diseases, especially herpes simplex infection. These ulcers have become more common due to the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and are also responsible for ...
Full Text Available A 35-year-old male presented with lower gum pain associated with fever, chills, and sore throat. His medical history included intravenous drug use, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and hepatitis C. Physical exam revealed tachycardia, a temperature of 38.9°C, anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, halitosis, an edematous lower lip, and purulent ulcers anterior and posterior to lower central incisors with marked tenderness and erythema (Figure. His laboratory work was notable for a low white blood cell count (2.6 thousand/µl, neutropenia (0.11 thousand/µl, a low absolute CD4 lymphocyte count (0.5 thousand/µl, and elevated C-reactive protein (129mg/L and sedimentation rate (23mm/hr. A computed tomography study showed a 0.5×1.3×0.3cm abscess anterior to the mandibular symphysis.
Leichliter, Jami S; Lewis, David A; Sternberg, Maya; Habel, Melissa A; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela
Episodic acyclovir therapy has been added to genital ulcer disease (GUD) syndromic management guidelines in several sub-Saharan African countries with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics. We examined the correlates of health care seeking in men with GUD and its relationship to HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 outcomes. Men with GUD (n = 615) were recruited from primary health care clinics in Gauteng province, South Africa for a randomized controlled trial of episodic acyclovir therapy. We used baseline survey and sexually transmitted infection/HIV-testing data to examine delay in health care seeking (defined as time from ulcer recognition to baseline study visit). Median delay in health care seeking for GUD was 5 days, and one-quarter of men had previously sought care for the current ulcer. Previous care seekers were older, had more episodes of ulceration in the past year, and were more likely to test seropositive for HIV-1 and HSV-2. Delay in health care seeking was significantly associated with age, education level, and sex during the ulceration episode. Delays in care seeking were related to poorer HIV-1 outcomes; these findings were valid after controlling for advanced HIV. Interventions to help shorten the duration between ulcer recognition and health care seeking for men with GUD are needed.
Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan
Paul Bevis, Jonothan Earnshaw Department of Vascular Surgery, Gloucestershire Royal Hospital, Great Western Road, Gloucester, UKDate of preparation: 3 February 2011Conflict of interest: None declared.Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers?Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recu...
TO COMPARE THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF THREE DIFFERENT, PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS OMEPRAZOLE, ESO M EPRAZOLE AND RABEPRAZOLE IN A TRIPLE DRUG REGIMEN IN PATIENTS WITH PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE IN THE ERADICATION OF H. PYLORI INFECTION
Full Text Available Peptic ulcer disease continues to be issue especially due to its high prevalence in the developing world. Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori infection associated duodenal ulcers should undergo eradication therapy. There are many regimens offered for H. pylori eradication which include triple , quadruple , or sequential therapy regimens. In our study we planned to see whether these differences in pharmacokinetic properties show any difference in t he efficacy and safety parameters between treatment with omeprazole rabeprazole and esomeprazole in the triple drug regimen for eradication of H.pylori infection in peptic ulcer patients in our hospital Osmania General Hospital / Osmania Medical College , Hyderabad. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total number of 45 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients with either sex suffering from peptic ulcer defined as ulcer crater of >2.5mm in size by endoscopy. Study Design : It was a randomized double blind , paralle l and comparative study. CONCLUSION: Two weeks after triple drug treatment , H.pylori was negative in 66.7% , 73% and 80% and Rapid urease test was negative in 53% , 60% and 66% in group A , B and C respectively. Endoscopy findings showed significant reduction in size and healing of ulcers in group A , B and C. There was improvement in signs and symptoms by 53 to 80% , after 2 weeks. Hence after therapy with triple drug regimen H.pylori eradication was 66 - 80% and healing of ulcers was 83 – 100% which was higher in Rabeprazole group. At 6 weeks , there was complete relief of signs and symptoms. At the follow up of 10 weeks there was no ulcer recurrence. No adverse effects were noted in all the groups. In conclusion , Triple drug regimen had shown to eradicate H.pylori infection in the treatment of Peptic ulcer. There was healing of ulcers in all the groups which was highly significant. There was no recurrence of peptic ulcer with these regimens in all the groups. However Rabeprazole group patients
Background: Perforations complicate up to 5-10% of peptic ulcer diseases. Mortality following peptic ulcer perforation can peak 29%. Of the factors that influence the outcome of peptic ulcer perforation, treatment delay is most important and modifi able. This study reviewed delay and how it affected outcome in patients ...
Garchitorena, A; Sokolow, S H; Roche, B; Ngonghala, C N; Jocque, M; Lund, A; Barry, M; Mordecai, E A; Daily, G C; Jones, J H; Andrews, J R; Bendavid, E; Luby, S P; LaBeaud, A D; Seetah, K; Guégan, J F; Bonds, M H; De Leo, G A
Reducing the burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is one of the key strategic targets advanced by the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the unprecedented effort deployed for NTD elimination in the past decade, their control, mainly through drug administration, remains particularly challenging: persistent poverty and repeated exposure to pathogens embedded in the environment limit the efficacy of strategies focused exclusively on human treatment or medical care. Here, we present a simple modelling framework to illustrate the relative role of ecological and socio-economic drivers of environmentally transmitted parasites and pathogens. Through the analysis of system dynamics, we show that periodic drug treatments that lead to the elimination of directly transmitted diseases may fail to do so in the case of human pathogens with an environmental reservoir. Control of environmentally transmitted diseases can be more effective when human treatment is complemented with interventions targeting the environmental reservoir of the pathogen. We present mechanisms through which the environment can influence the dynamics of poverty via disease feedbacks. For illustration, we present the case studies of Buruli ulcer and schistosomiasis, two devastating waterborne NTDs for which control is particularly challenging.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder that mainly affects the colon and rectum. Immunological derangements are associated with the pathogenesis of UC. Many patients with UC also have chronic kidney disease, associated with immunological disorders and/or pharmacotherapy for UC. Some patients with UC may develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD and require renal replacement therapy. However, little is known clinically about ESRD patients who develop UC or about patients with UC who develop ESRD. This report describes an elderly patient with ESRD who presented with fever and bloody diarrhea and was finally diagnosed as UC (pancolitis type at dialysis initiation. The patient was successfully treated with a series of immunosuppressive agents. This report highlights the importance of considering UC as a potential cause of bloody stool and fever in patients with ESRD.
Clausen, M R; Franzmann, M B; Holst, C
acid output, time of healing of the preceding ulcer, treatment of the present ulcer (cimetidine, antacids, or no treatment), or type and degree of gastritis. Thus, although H. pylori is prevalent in patients with duodenal ulcer disease, the present study indicates that H. pylori does not have...
Full Text Available Ayse YagciEge University, School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Izmir, TurkeyAbstract: Ulcerative inflammation of the cornea occurs in the perilimbal cornea, and is associated with autoimmune collagen vascular and arthritic diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most frequent underlying disease. The tendency for peripheral location is due to the distinct morphologic and immunologic characteristics of the limbal conjunctiva, which provides access for circulating immune complexes to the peripheral cornea via the capillary network. Deposition of immune complexes in the terminal ends of limbal vessels initiates immune-mediated vasculitis, and causes inflammatory cell and protein leakage due to vessel wall damage. Development of peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with systemic disease may represent worsening of a potentially life-threatening disease. Accompanying scleritis, particularly the necrotizing form, is usually observed in severe cases, which may result in corneal perforation and loss of vision. Although first-line treatment with systemic corticosteroids is indicated for acute phases, immunosuppressive and cytotoxic agents are required for treatment of peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with multisystem disorders. Recently, infliximab, a chimeric antibody against proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, was reported to be effective in cases refractory to conventional immunomodulatory therapy. The potential side effects of these therapies require close follow-up and regular laboratory surveillance.Keywords: autoimmune disease, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, treatment, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
L. Crespo Pérez
Full Text Available El síndrome de la úlcera rectal solitaria es una entidad benigna poco común cuyos síntomas más frecuentes son la rectorragia y el dolor anal. Los hallazgos anatomopatológicos son típicos. Se suele evidenciar engrosamiento de la mucosa, elongación y distorsión de las glándulas, una lámina propia edematosa con gran cantidad de colágena y engrosamiento de la muscularis mucosae. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante endoscopia con toma de biopsias. No siempre se trata de lesiones ulceradas. Se suele localizar preferentemente en la cara rectal anterior y/o lateral, aunque hasta un 30% de las lesiones son múltiples, existiendo casos de afectación del colon sigmoide y descendente. Por tanto, la presentación puede ser heterogénea y este es el motivo por el que esta entidad es también conocida como la "enfermedad de las tres mentiras". Presentamos un caso de síndrome de la ulcera rectal solitaria manifestado endoscópicamente como una placa eritematosa localizada en la cara lateral izquierda del recto.Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is an uncommon benign condition characterized by rectal bleeding, passage of mucus, and pain. Histological features are well established as obliteration of the lamina propria by fibrosis and smooth-muscle fibers extending from a thickened muscularis mucosa to the lumen. Diagnosis can usually be made on sigmoidoscopy, and biopsies should always be taken. Ulceration is not universally present, and polypoid, non-ulcerated lesions and erythematous areas are also seen. The lesion or lesions are most often found on the anterior or anterolateral wall of the rectum, although they can also be located in the left colon and be more extensive or even circumferential. Lesions are multiple in 30 percent of cases. These are the reasons why this entity is also known as "the disease of three lies". We report a case of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome presenting at endoscopy with an erythematous area on the left side wall of the
Prosberg, Michelle V; Vester-Andersen, Marianne K; Andersson, Mikael
BACKGROUND: Noncompliance to long-term medical therapy is a well-known problem among patients treated for ulcerative colitis, but studies of long-term consequences in unselected patients are lacking. The authors aimed to determine the risk of recurrence according to long-term compliance with oral 5......-aminosalicylic acid. Data were collected from medical records and the Danish National Prescription Database. They performed Cox regression analysis with adjustments for demographic and clinical characteristics to examine risk of recurrence (defined by increased use of oral 5-Aminosalicylic Acid, other additional...... not to take their medication....
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic immune mediated diseases of unknown aetiology. Traditionally, the highest occurrence of both UC and CD is found in North America and Europe, including Scandinavia and the United Kingdom, while the diseases remain rare in Eastern Europe. Until recently, few population-based cohort data were available on the epidemiology of IBD in Eastern Europe. However, recent studies from Hungary and Croatia have reported steep increases in IBD incidence that means they are now comparable with Western European countries. The reasons for these changes remain unknown but could include an increasing awareness of the diseases, better access to diagnostic procedures, methodological bias in previous studies from Eastern Europe, or real differences in environmental factors, lifestyle and genetic susceptibility. The aim of this thesis was to create a prospective European population-based inception cohort of incident IBD patients in order to investigate whether an East-West gradient in the incidence of IBD exists in Europe. Furthermore, we investigated possible differences throughout Europe during the first year subsequent to diagnosis in terms of clinical presentation, disease outcome, treatment choices, frequency of environmental risk factors, as well as patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of care (QoC). Finally, we assessed resource utilization during the initial year of disease in both geographic regions. A total number of 31 centres from 14 Western and 8 Eastern European countries covering a total background population of approximately 10.1 million participated in this study. During the inclusion period from 1 January to 31 December 2010 a total number of 1,515 patients aged 15 years or older were included in the cohort. Annual incidence rates were twice as high in Western Europe (CD: 6.3/100,000; UC: 9.8/100,000) compared to Eastern Europe (CD
Bastaki, Salim M A; Al Ahmed, Mohammed Majed; Al Zaabi, Ahmed; Amir, Naheed; Adeghate, Ernest
This study investigates the protective effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa, CL) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was induced in male Wistar rats by intra-rectal administration of 1 ml of 4% acetic acid at 8 cm proximal to the anus for 30 s. Curcuma longa (CL) powder, (1, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day) was administered for either 3 days before or after IBD for 7 days. The body weight, macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the colon of CL-treated IBD rats and that of control rats (no IBD, no CL) were performed on 0 day, 2, 4 and 7th day. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), IL-23 and glutathione levels in control, untreated and treated rats were measured by ELISA. CL significantly (P weight and mean macroscopic ulcer score. Administration of CL also significantly (P weight gain, mean macroscopic and microscopic ulcer scores in the colon of rats suffering from acetic acid-induced IBD. CL reduced both MPO and IL-23 in the mucosa of the colon. The increase in the mean serum glutathione level may help in the reduction of oxidative stress associated with IBD.
Saxena, Ashish; Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Ghoshal, Uday Chand
Mutations in the oncogene and tumour suppressor genes play an important role in carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of p53 and K-ras gene mutation and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) attending a tertiary care hospital in north India. In total, 348 adult patients [62 GC, 45 PUD and 241 non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD)] who underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology and PCR. Mutation in the exon 5-8 of p53 gene was analyzed by PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and confirmed by sequence analysis. K-ras gene codon 12 mutation was analyzed by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Overall p53 gene mutation was found in 4.6 per cent of the study population, and its distribution in GC, PUD and NUD was 21, 4.4 and 0.4 per cent, respectively. p53 gene mutation was significantly higher in patients with GC than PUD (Pgene mutation was observed between H. pylori infected and non-infected individuals. K-ras gene mutation was absent in all the patients. Our results show that p53 gene mutation may be associated with gastric carcinogenesis independent to H. pylori infection and absence of K-ras gene mutation questions its role in the pathogenesis of GC and PUD in Indian patients.
Graham, David Y
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.
Controls were selected from the general population by a two stage cluster sampling method. A total of 116 cases and 116 controls were included. For the cases, the male/female sex ratio was 0.84, the median age was 19.5 years and 40.5% were children 15 years. Biological results were obtained for 86 (74%) cases using ...
Fred Stephen Sarfo
Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans infection causes a neglected tropical disease known as Buruli ulcer that is now found in poor rural areas of West Africa in numbers that sometimes exceed those reported for another significant mycobacterial disease, leprosy, caused by M. leprae. Unique among mycobacterial diseases, M. ulcerans produces a plasmid-encoded toxin called mycolactone (ML, which is the principal virulence factor and destroys fat cells in subcutaneous tissue. Disease is typically first manifested by the appearance of a nodule that eventually ulcerates and the lesions may continue to spread over limbs or occasionally the trunk. The current standard treatment is 8 weeks of daily rifampin and injections of streptomycin (RS. The treatment kills bacilli and wounds gradually heal. Whether RS treatment actually stops mycolactone production before killing bacilli has been suggested by histopathological analyses of patient lesions. Using a mouse footpad model of M. ulcerans infection where the time of infection and development of lesions can be followed in a controlled manner before and after antibiotic treatment, we have evaluated the progress of infection by assessing bacterial numbers, mycolactone production, the immune response, and lesion histopathology at regular intervals after infection and after antibiotic therapy. We found that RS treatment rapidly reduced gross lesions, bacterial numbers, and ML production as assessed by cytotoxicity assays and mass spectrometric analysis. Histopathological analysis revealed that RS treatment maintained the association of the bacilli with (or within host cells where they were destroyed whereas lack of treatment resulted in extracellular infection, destruction of host cells, and ultimately lesion ulceration. We propose that RS treatment promotes healing in the host by blocking mycolactone production, which favors the survival of host cells, and by killing M. ulcerans bacilli.
Rodsaward, Pongsawat; Prueksrisakul, Titipong; Deekajorndech, Tawatchai; Edwards, Steven W.; Beresford, Michael W.; Chiewchengchol, Direkrit
Oral ulcers are the most common mucosal sign in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE). The ulcers are one of the key clinical features; however, the terminology of oral ulcers, especially in JSLE patients, is often vague and ill-defined. In fact, there are several clinical manifestations of oral ulcers in JSLE, and some lesions occur when the disease is active, indicating that early management of the disease should be started. Oral ulcers are classified as lupus erythematosus (LE...
Graham, David Y
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori
Labropoulos, Nicos; Wang, Eric D; Lanier, Steven T; Khan, Sami U
Plastic surgeons are often approached for wound management and closure of chronic venous ulcers that fail to heal despite multimodal management. The authors present a retrospective analysis of a large series of venous ulcers to determine factors predicting nonhealing and recurrence. Consecutive patients with chronic venous ulcers (≥ 2-cm diameter) were examined for the presence of superficial, perforating, or deep venous disease, including reflux and/or obstruction. Treatment included compression, venous ligation, stripping, thermal ablation, sclerotherapy, and local wound care. Ulcers refractory to 6 months of treatment were defined as nonhealing ulcers. Data were analyzed for differences in baseline patient and ulcer characteristics and clinical course of nonhealing ulcers. Data were compared using Wilcoxon rank sum, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests using Sigma Stat and SPSS, with α set at p ulcers in 127 patients. Factors associated with ulcer nonhealing included advanced age, increased body mass index, history of deep venous thrombosis, noncompliance with compression therapy, and large ulcer area. One hundred thirty-one of the ulcers (85.6 percent) healed within 6 months and 147 (96 percent) of the ulcers ultimately healed without the need for operative plastic surgical intervention. A thorough understanding of risks and expected clinical course is required for assessment of the nonhealing venous ulcer. The authors recommend identification and correction of underlying venous abnormality and a minimum of at least 6 months of compression and local wound care followed by reassessment of venous function before operative plastic surgical intervention should be considered. Risk, III.
Hofstraat, Karlijn; van Brakel, Wim H
People affected by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are frequently the target of social stigmatization. To date not much attention has been given to stigma in relation to NTDs. The objective of this review is to identify the extent of social stigma and the similarities and differences in the causes, manifestations, impact of stigma and interventions used between the NTDs. A systematic review was conducted in Pubmed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge. The search encompassed 17 NTDs, including podoconiosis, but not leprosy as this NTD has recently been reviewed. However, leprosy was included in the discussion. The 52 selected articles provided evidence on stigma related to lymphatic filariasis (LF), podoconiosis, Buruli ulcer, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, trachoma, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and human African trypanosomiasis. The similarities predominated in stigma related to the various NTDs; only minimal differences in stigma reasons and measures were found. These similarities suggest that joint approaches to reduce stigmatization may be feasible. Lessons from leprosy and other stigmatized health conditions can be used to plan such joint approaches. Further research will be necessary to study the efficacy of joint interventions and to investigate stigma related to NTDs for which no evidence is available yet. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available An 18-year-old male presented with a nonhealing wound on left lower limb, pain and swelling over multiple joints, weight loss, and yellowish discoloration of eyes and urine for the past 4 years. On examination, the patient had pallor, icterus, and generalized lymphadenopathy with a nonhealing unhealthy ulcer over left medial malleolus. He had deformed joints with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. His laboratory investigations were positive for antinuclear antibody (ANA and anticardiolipin antibody (ACLA. Synovial fluid analysis showed inflammatory findings. Biopsy of margin of the ulcer showed findings consistent with Acroangiodermatitis of Mali. The patient was treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs and aspirin for juvenile idiopathic arthritis and secondary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS, respectively. The ulcer was managed conservatively with systemic antibiotics and topical steroids along with limb elevation and compression elastic stockings. The patient's symptoms improved significantly, and he is in our followup.
Recommendations of the Spanish Working Group on Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (GETECCU) and the Association of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Patients (ACCU) in the management of psychological problems in Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients.
Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Marín-Jiménez, Ignacio; Panadero, Abel; Guardiola, Jordi; Cañas, Mercedes; Gobbo Montoya, Milena; Modino, Yolanda; Alcaín, Guillermo; Bosca-Watts, Marta Maia; Calvet, Xavier; Casellas, Francesc; Chaparro, María; Fernández Salazar, Luis; Ferreiro-Iglesias, Rocío; Ginard, Daniel; Iborra, Marisa; Manceñido, Noemí; Mañosa, Miriam; Merino, Olga; Rivero, Montserrat; Roncero, Oscar; Sempere, Laura; Vega, Pablo; Zabana, Yamile; Mínguez, Miguel; Nos, Pilar; Gisbert, Javier P
To establish recommendations for the management of psychological problems affecting patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A meeting of a group of IBD experts made up of doctors, psychologists, nurses and patient representatives was held. The following were presented: 1) Results of a previous focal group, 2) Results of doctor and patient surveys, 3) Results of a systematic review of tools for detecting anxiety and depression. A guided discussion was then held about the most important psychological and emotional problems associated with IBD, appropriate referral criteria and situations to be avoided. The validated instrument most applicable to clinical practice was selected. A recommendations document and a Delphi survey were designed. The survey was sent to the group and to a scientific committee of the GETECCU group in order to establish the level of agreement with these recommendations. Fifteen recommendations were established linked to 3 key processes: 1) What steps should be taken to identify psychological problems at an IBD appointment; 2) What are the criteria for referring patients to a mental health specialist; 3) How to approach psychological problems. Resources should be made available to healthcare professionals so that they can treat these problems during consultations, identify the disorders which could affect the clinical course of the disease and determine their impact on the patient's life in order that these can be treated and followed up by the most suitable professional. These recommendations could serve as a basis for redesigning IBD services or processes and as justification for the training of healthcare personnel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Vloedbeld, M. G.; Venema, A. W.; Smit, A. J.
A 35-year-old man presented with nonhealing ulcers at an atypical location on his left foot, caused by a combination of venous insufficiency (after deep venous thrombosis) and arterial insufficiency. The underlying cause was Buerger's disease.
... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166957.html Scientists Spot Genes Behind Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis Large study finds key ... Researchers say they've come closer to pinpointing genes linked with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD are characterized by intestinal inflammation mainly caused by a disturbance in the balance between cytokines and increased complement (C activation. Our aim was to evaluate possible associations between C activation capacity and prednisolone treatment. Methods Plasma from patients with exacerbations of UC (n = 18 or CD (n = 18 were collected before and during high dose prednisolone treatment (1 mg/kg body weight and tapering. Friedman's two way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test were used Results Before treatment, plasma from CD patients showed significant elevations in all C-mediated analyses compared to the values obtained from 38 healthy controls (p Conclusion Our findings indicate that C activation capacity is up-regulated significantly in plasma from CD patients. The decreases observed after prednisolone treatment reflect a general down-regulation in immune activation.
Realo, Anu; Teras, Andero; Kööts-Ausmees, Liisi; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Allik, Jüri
The current study examined the relationship between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and physician-confirmed peptic ulcer disease (PUD) diagnosis in a large population-based adult sample, controlling for the relevant behavioral and sociodemographic factors. Personality traits were assessed by participants themselves and by knowledgeable informants using the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO PI-3). When controlling for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking, only one of the five NEO PI-3 domain scales - higher Neuroticism - and two facet scales - lower A1: Trust and higher C1: Competence - made a small, yet significant contribution (p factors for the development of PUD. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Odes, S.; Vardi, H.; Friger, M.
Newly diagnosed UC and CD patients, allocated into seven clinical states by medical and surgical treatments recorded in serial 3-month cycles, underwent Markov analysis. Results Over 10 years, 630 UC and 318 CD patients had 22,823 and 11 871 cycles. The most frequent clinical outcomes were medical......P>Background Forecasting clinical and economic outcomes in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients is complex, but necessary. Aims To determine: the frequency of treatment-classified clinical states; the probability of transition between states; and the economic outcomes. Methods...... engendered high costs in the cohort. Conclusions Most patients on 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunomodulators had favourable clinical and economic outcomes over 10 years. Drug-refractory and surgical patients exhibited greater long-term expenses...
Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Cai, Tianxi; Savova, Guergana; Cheng, Su-Chun; Chen, Pei; Perez, Raul Guzman; Gainer, Vivian S; Murphy, Shawn N; Szolovits, Peter; Xia, Zongqi; Shaw, Stanley; Churchill, Susanne; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Kohane, Isaac; Plenge, Robert M; Liao, Katherine P
Previous studies identifying patients with inflammatory bowel disease using administrative codes have yielded inconsistent results. Our objective was to develop a robust electronic medical record-based model for classification of inflammatory bowel disease leveraging the combination of codified data and information from clinical text notes using natural language processing. Using the electronic medical records of 2 large academic centers, we created data marts for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) comprising patients with ≥1 International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, code for each disease. We used codified (i.e., International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition codes, electronic prescriptions) and narrative data from clinical notes to develop our classification model. Model development and validation was performed in a training set of 600 randomly selected patients for each disease with medical record review as the gold standard. Logistic regression with the adaptive LASSO penalty was used to select informative variables. We confirmed 399 CD cases (67%) in the CD training set and 378 UC cases (63%) in the UC training set. For both, a combined model including narrative and codified data had better accuracy (area under the curve for CD 0.95; UC 0.94) than models using only disease International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition codes (area under the curve 0.89 for CD; 0.86 for UC). Addition of natural language processing narrative terms to our final model resulted in classification of 6% to 12% more subjects with the same accuracy. Inclusion of narrative concepts identified using natural language processing improves the accuracy of electronic medical records case definition for CD and UC while simultaneously identifying more subjects compared with models using codified data alone.
Polytarchou, Christos; Oikonomopoulos, Angelos; Mahurkar, Swapna; Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Koukos, Georgios; Hommes, Daniel W; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios
Clinical decision and patient care management in inflammatory bowel diseases is largely based on the assessment of clinical symptoms, while the biomarkers currently in use poorly reflect the actual disease activity. Therefore, the identification of novel biomarkers will serve an unmet clinical need for IBD screening and patient management. We examined the utility of circulating microRNAs for diagnosis and disease activity monitoring in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Blood serum microRNAs were isolated from patients with UC with active and inactive disease and healthy donors. High-throughput microRNA profiling was performed using the Nanostring technology platform. Clinical disease activity was captured by calculating the partial Mayo score. C-reactive protein was measured in patients with UC as part of their clinical monitoring. The profiles of circulating microRNAs and C-reactive protein were correlated with clinical disease indices. We have identified a signature of 12 circulating microRNAs that differentiate patients with UC from control subjects. Moreover, 6 of these microRNAs significantly correlated with UC disease activity. Importantly, a set of 4 microRNAs (hsa-miR-4454, hsa-miR-223-3p, hsa-miR-23a-3p, and hsa-miR-320e), which correlated with UC disease activity were found to have higher sensitivity and specificity values than C-reactive protein. Circulating microRNAs provide a novel diagnostic and prognostic marker for patients with UC. The use of an FDA-approved platform could accelerate the application of microRNA screening in a gastrointenstinal clinical setting. When used in combination with current diagnostic and disease activity assessment modalities, microRNAs could improve both IBD screening and care management.
Cristina Costa Duarte Lanna
Full Text Available Os sintomas articulares constituem a manifestação extra-intestinal mais comum em pacientes com doença de Crohn e com retocolite ulcerativa. Reconhecida como artrite colítica, e mais recentemente, artrite enteropática, está classificada como uma das doenças do grupo das espondiloartropatias. Reconhecidamente, há dois padrões de acometimento articular: 1 periférico, habitualmente, associado aos períodos de atividade da doença intestinal e sem associação com o antígeno HLA B27, e 2 axial, caracterizado por espondilite e sacroiliíte, com curso clínico e radiográfico independente da doença intestinal e associado ao HLA B27.Joint involvement is the most commom extraintestinal manifestation in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The colitic arthritis, lately called enteropathic arthritis, is classified as one of the diseases of the spondyloarthropathies group. There are two patterns of joint involvement: 1 peripheral arthritis, usually coincides with exacerbations of the inflammatory bowel disease and is not associated with the HLA B27 antigen; and 2 axial involvement, characterized by spondylitis and sacroiliitis, which the clinical course is independent of the intestinal disease, and has an association with HLA B27.
Seating is a major factor in pressure ulcer development, but it is frequently overlooked in the literature on pressure area management. Pressure ulcers are largely preventable and nurses are integral to the promotion of good practice. The author examines how implementing careful patient assessment, correct positioning and providing optimum seating equipment can help to reduce the risk of pressure ulcer development.
Ulcère de Buruli et de déterminer le vécu de la maladie. Il s'est agi d'une étude prospective qui s'est déroulée dans le District Sanitaire de Sotouboua d'Août à septembre 2008. Les 35 malades inclus dans l'étude ont été identifiés à partir des ...
Mungati, More; Machiha, Anna; Mugurungi, Owen; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Kilmarx, Peter H; Nyakura, Justice; Shambira, Gerald; Kupara, Vitalis; Lewis, David A; Gonese, Elizabeth; Tippett Barr, Beth A; Handsfield, H Hunter; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A
In many countries, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are treated syndromically. Thus, patients diagnosed as having genital ulcer disease (GUD) in Zimbabwe receive a combination of antimicrobials to treat syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and genital herpes. Periodic studies are necessary to assess the current etiology of GUD and assure the appropriateness of current treatment guidelines. We selected 6 geographically diverse clinics in Zimbabwe serving high numbers of STI cases to enroll men and women with STI syndromes, including GUD. Sexually transmitted infection history and risk behavioral data were collected by questionnaire and uploaded to a Web-based database. Ulcer specimens were obtained for testing using a validated multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for Treponema pallidum (TP; primary syphilis), Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid), LGV-associated strains of Chlamydia trachomatis, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. Blood samples were collected for testing with HIV, treponemal, and nontreponemal serologic assays. Among 200 GUD patients, 77 (38.5%) were positive for HSV, 32 (16%) were positive for TP, and 2 (1%) were positive for LGV-associated strains of C trachomatis. No H ducreyi infections were detected. No organism was found in 98 (49.5%) of participants. The overall HIV positivity rate was 52.2% for all GUD patients, with higher rates among women compared with men (59.8% vs 45.2%, P < 0.05) and among patients with HSV (68.6% vs 41.8%, P < 0.0001). Among patients with GUD, 54 (27.3%) had gonorrhea and/or chlamydia infection. However, in this latter group, 66.7% of women and 70.0% of men did not have abnormal vaginal or urethral discharge on examination. Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of GUD in our survey, followed by T. pallidum. No cases of chancroid were detected. The association of HIV infections with HSV suggests high risk for cotransmission; however, some HSV ulcerations may be due to HSV
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests a crucial role of the endocannabinoid system, including the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CNR1, in intestinal inflammation. We therefore investigated the influence of the CNR1 1359 G/A (p.Thr453Thr; rs1049353 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP on disease susceptibility and phenotype in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD. METHODS: Genomic DNA from 579 phenotypically well-characterized individuals was analyzed for the CNR1 1359 G/A SNP. Amongst these were 166 patients with UC, 216 patients with CD, and 197 healthy controls. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, subjects A/A homozygous for the CNR1 1359 G/A SNP had a reduced risk to develop UC (p = 0.01, OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.78. The polymorphism did not modulate CD susceptibility, but carriers of the minor A allele had a lower body mass index than G/G wildtype carriers (p = 0.0005. In addition, homozygous carriers of the G allele were more likely to develop CD before 40 years of age (p = 5.9x10(-7 than carriers of the A allele. CONCLUSION: The CNR1 p.Thr453Thr polymorphism appears to modulate UC susceptibility and the CD phenotype. The endocannabinoid system may influence the manifestation of inflammatory bowel diseases, suggesting endocannabinoids as potential target for future therapies.
Muñoz-Corcuera, M; Esparza-Gómez, G; González-Moles, M A; Bascones-Martínez, A
Oral ulcers are generally painful lesions that are related to various conditions developing within the oral cavity. They can be classified as acute or chronic according to their presentation and progression. Acute oral ulcers are be associated with conditions such as trauma, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, Behçet's disease, bacterial and viral infections, allergic reactions or adverse drug reactions. Chronic oral ulcers are associated with conditions such as oral lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, mucosal pemphigoid, lupus erythematosus, mycosis and some bacterial and parasitic diseases. The correct differential diagnosis is necessary to establish the appropriate treatment, taking into account all the possible causes of ulcers in the oral cavity. In this second part of this two-part review, chronic oral ulcers are reviewed.
Muñoz-Corcuera, M; Esparza-Gómez, G; González-Moles, M A; Bascones-Martínez, A
Oral ulcers are generally painful lesions that are related to various conditions developing within the oral cavity. They can be classified as acute or chronic according to their presentation and progression. Acute oral ulcers are be associated with conditions such as trauma, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, Behçet's disease, bacterial and viral infections, allergic reactions or adverse drug reactions. Chronic oral ulcers are associated with conditions such as oral lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, mucosal pemphigoid, lupus erythematosus, mycosis and some bacterial and parasitic diseases. The correct differential diagnosis is necessary to establish the appropriate treatment, taking into account all the possible causes of ulcers in the oral cavity. In the first part of this two-part review, acute oral ulcers are reviewed.
Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo
There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ruzyłło, E; Szostak, D
In the "Ulcer" research programme 5813 male and female patients with peptic ulcer of the upper gastrointestinal tract were analysed paying attention to the quality of their diet and mode of meal taking. Weight loss was found to occur in these patients and information was gathered concerning alcohol, tobacco, coffee, tea consumption and addictions.
Bewtra, Meenakshi; Brensinger, Colleen M; Tomov, Vesselin T; Hoang, Tram B; Sokach, Carly E; Siegel, Corey A; Lewis, James D
There is a need for simple, noninvasive patient-driven disease assessment instruments in ulcerative colitis (UC). We sought to further assess and refine the previous described 6-point Mayo score. A cross-sectional study of 282 UC patients was conducted assessing the correlation of the 2 patient-reported Mayo score components (6-point Mayo score) with the simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI) and a single Likert scale of patient-reported disease activity. Spearman's correlation, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) were calculated. A separate validation study in 59 UC patients was also conducted. Participants predominantly had long-standing disease (83%) and were in self-reported remission (63%). The 6-point Mayo score correlated well with the SCCAI (rho = 0.71; P < 0.0001) and patient-reported disease activity (rho = 0.65; P < 0.0001). Using a cutpoint of 1.5, the 6-point Mayo score had 83% sensitivity and 72% specificity for patient-defined remission, and 89% sensitivity and 67% specificity for SCCAI-defined remission (score, <2.5). The 6-point Mayo score and SCCAI had similar accuracy of predicting patient-defined remission (AUC = 0.84 and 0.87, respectively). Addition of the SCCAI general well-being question to the 6-point Mayo improved the predictive ability for patient-defined remission; and a new weighted score had an AUC of 0.89 in the development cohort and 0.93 in the validation cohort. The optimal cutpoint was 1.6. The patient-reported UC severity index that includes stool frequency, bleeding, and general well-being accurately measures clinical disease activity without requiring direct physician contact.
Full Text Available Abstract Pyoderma gangrenosum is a non-infectious neutrophilic skin disease commonly associated with underlying systemic diseases. Histopathological and laboratory diagnostics are unspecific in the majority of the cases and the diagnosis is made in accordance with the clinical picture. Here, we report the case of a 69-year old man with progredient pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcerations under treatment with sunitinib due to hepatocellular carcinoma. A conventional ulcer therapy did not lead to a regression of the lesions. Solely cessation of sunitinib therapy resulted in an improvement of the ulcerations. Sunitinib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets the PDGF-α - and -β-, VEGF-1-3-, KIT-, FLT3-, CSF-1- and RET-receptor, thereby impairing tumour proliferation, pathological angiogenesis and metastasation. Here, we demonstrate that pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcers may represent a serious side effect of sunitinib-based anti-cancer treatment.
Maessen-Visch, M Birgitte; de Roos, Kees-Peter
The revised guideline of 2013 is an update of the 2005 guideline "venous leg ulcer". In this special project four separate guidelines (venous leg ulcer, varicose veins, compression therapy and deep venous disorders) were revised and developed simultaneously. A meeting was held including representatives of any organisation involved in venous disease management including patient organizations and health insurance companies. Eighteen clinical questions where defined, and a new strategy was used to accelerate the process. This resulted in two new and two revised guidelines within one year. The guideline committee advises use of the C of the CEAP classification as well as the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and a Quality of life (QoL) score in the assessment of clinical signs. These can provide insight into the burden of disease and the effects of treatment as experienced by the patient. A duplex ultrasound should be performed in every patient to establish the underlying aetiology and to evaluate the need for treatment (which is discussed in a separate guideline). The use of the TIME model for describing venous ulcers is recommended. There is no evidence for antiseptic or antibiotic wound care products except for a Cochrane review in which some evidence is presented for cadexomer iodine. Signs of infection are the main reason for the use of oral antibiotics. When the ulcer fails to heal the use of oral aspirin and pentoxifylline can be considered as an adjunct. For the individual patient, the following aspects should be considered: the appearance of the ulcer (amount of exudate) according to the TIME model, the influence of wound care products on moisturising the wound, frequency of changing compression bandages, pain and allergies. The cost of the dressings should also be considered. Education and training of patients t improves compliance with compression therapy but does not influence wound healing rates. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Gopinathan, S.; D. Naveenraj
Peptic ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease. Even though a wide range of drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and have side effects. These factors have attracted researchers to investigate the natural products which have more efficacy, less side effects and less expensive for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. In the present study the anti ulcer activity of (1) Aloe vera juice, (2) papaya fruit juice (...
M S Eliseev
Full Text Available Objective. To study actovegin efficacy in the treatment of chronic skin ulcers due to ulceration of tophuses in pts with chronic tophaceous gout. Materials and methods. 6 pts with chronic tophaceous gout aged 52 to 77 years with disease duration from 6 to 20 years with longstanding persisting skin ulcers due to tophuses ulceration were included. In addition to allopuri- nol, steroid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs they were treated with actovegin 20% intravenously and local applications of 2% actovegin gel. Clinical examination was performed before and after the course of therapy- Results. Two from six pts showed healing of single chronic ulcers to the end of the treatment course. In the remaining pts ulcer count and size decrease was achieved. Conclusion. Actovegin administration in combined therapy of chronic skin ulcers in pts with chronic tophaceous gout promoted healing of the defects in all cases.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the 1-year period prevalence of oral aphthous ulcers (OAUs and their association with oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL in patients with Behçet’s disease (BD and in the general population. In this cross-sectional study, 675 patients with Behçet’s disease (BD group and 1,097 males and females in the Japanese general population (control group completed both questionnaires on their OAU status during the prior year and the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI. In the BD group, 84% of patients reported experiencing an OAU during the previous year, and the mean number of OAUs/year was 13. In the control group, 31% of individuals experienced an OAU during the previous year, and the mean number of OAUs/year was one. Multivariate analysis indicated that both BD patients (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 4.8–8.0 and controls (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 2.0–3.5 who had OAUs at least twice per year were more likely to have GOHAI scores below the norm than were controls who had fewer than two OAUs per year. The association between HLA-B*51 and OAUs remains unknown. The presence of OAUs has a negative effect on the OHQOL of patients with BD.
Miyadai, T; Kitamura, S I; Uwaoku, H; Tahara, D
Kuchijirosho (snout ulcer disease) is a fatal epidemic disease which affects the tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes, a commercial fish species in Japan and Korea. To assess the possibility that non-tiger puffer fish can serve as reservoirs of infection, 5 fish species were challenged by infection with the extracts of Kuchijirosho-affected brains from cultured tiger puffer: grass puffer T. niphobles, fine-patterned puffer T. poecilonotus, panther puffer T. pardalis, red sea bream Pagrus major, and black rockfish Sebastes schlegeli. When slightly irritated, all these species, especially the puffer fish, exhibited typical signs of Kuchijirosho, i.e., erratic swimming, biting together and bellying out (swelling of belly), as generally observed in tiger puffers affected by Kuchijirosho. Although the mortalities of the 2 non-puffer species were lower, injection of the extracts prepared from the brains of both inoculated fish into tiger puffer resulted in death, indicating that the inoculated fish used in this experiment have the potential to be infected with the Kuchijirosho agent. Condensations of nuclei or chromatin in the large nerve cells, which is a major characteristic of Kuchijirosho, were histopathologically observed to some extent in the brains of all kinds of puffer fish species infected. These findings suggest that the virus can spread horizontally among wild and cultured puffers and even among fishes belonging to different orders.
Koch Hansen, Lars; Møller, Linda Maria Sevelsted; Rabjerg, Maj
by excessive T-cell infiltration and cytokine production. It is unknown if KV1.3 and KCa3.1 in the inflamed mucosa are markers of active UC. We hypothesized that KV1.3 and KCa3.1 correlate with disease activity and cytokine production in patients with UC. METHODS: Mucosal biopsies were collected from patients...... with active UC (n=33) and controls (n=15). Protein and mRNA expression of KV1.3 and KCa3.1, immune cell markers, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined by quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) and immunofluorescence, and correlated with clinical parameters of inflammation. In......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Potassium channels, KV1.3 and KCa3.1, have been suggested to control T-cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production and may thus constitute targets for anti-inflammatory therapy. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized...
Ryu, Hee Jung; Seo, Mi Ryoung; Choi, Hyo Jin; Baek, Han Joo
Recurrent oral ulcer (ROU) is a common condition that significantly impacts quality of life. It is often related to systemic diseases, such as Behçet's disease (BD), Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Treatment of ROU depends on its severity: from topical agents for mild cases to systemic agents, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, or other immunosuppressants for severe cases. Recently, good results have been reported with infliximab in refractory ROU. However, the optimal dosage and treatment duration have not been determined and the cost and potential side effects should be considered. We report on four patients who received a single-dose infliximab for refractory ROU. Two patients had refractory ROU with no underlying disease; one of them had soft palate perforation accompanied by severe oral ulcers. The two other patients had ROU of BD without major organ involvement. All patients received a single infusion of infliximab and an additional infusion was given on demand in one patient. Infliximab showed a rapid, good response in three patients and was also effective in improving the acute inflammation in the perforation of the soft palate, which had been resistant to conventional therapies. These effects diminished over a few weeks, but the ROU were tolerable and it was not necessary to increase steroids or add another medicine for about 1 year. We suggest that a single infusion of infliximab can be considered for refractory ROU. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation in the colon. Adalimumab, as a TNF-α blocker, offers a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and refractory or intolerant to conventional medications; however, its cost-effectiveness profile has not yet been well established. Future economic evaluations should choose appropriate comparators in the context of target-reimbursement decision making and focus on cost-effectiveness over a long time horizon.
Iboshi, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ihara, Eikichi; Iwasa, Tsutomu; Akiho, Hirotada; Harada, Naohiko; Nakamuta, Makoto; Takayanagi, Ryoichi
Although the involvement of helper T (Th) and regulatory T (Treg) cell-related immune molecules in pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is widely accepted, no discriminatory mucosal expression profiles of these molecules between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) have been clarified. Mucosal expression of 17 cytokines and transcription factors related to Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were measured by quantitative PCR in endoscopic biopsies from inflamed (40 from UC [UCI] and 20 from CD [CDI]) and noninflamed (47, 22, and 25 from UC, CD, and controls, respectively) colon or ileum. The discriminatory power of these markers to differentiate between the 2 diseases was evaluated by linear discriminant analysis and, unsupervised, principal component analysis. By univariate analysis, many targets were markedly increased in inflamed versus noninflamed areas. However, marker expression was almost comparable between UCI and CDI, with the largest difference in UCI-predominant interleukin (IL) 21 and IL-13 with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.704 and 0.664, respectively. In contrast, combinations of 2 to 7 markers improved UCI versus CDI discrimination with AUC = 0.875 to 0.975. Among these, a 5-maker set (interferon-γ, IL-12 p35, T-bet, GATA3, and IL-21) demonstrated an AUC of 0.949 and a misclassification rate of 8.3%. Principal component analysis also markedly separated UCI and CDI. Inflamed mucosae from UC and CD could be discriminated with high accuracy using combinations of Th cell-related markers. Multigene analysis, possibly reflecting the underlying pathogenesis, is expected to be useful for diagnosis, monitoring and further defining distinctive characteristics in inflammatory bowel disease.
Turner, Dan; Levine, Arie; Escher, Johanna C
Pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) shares many features with adult-onset disease but there are some unique considerations; therefore, therapeutic approaches have to be adapted to these particular needs. We aimed to formulate guidelines for managing UC in children based on a systematic review (SR......) of the literature and a robust consensus process. The present article is a product of a joint effort of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization (ECCO) and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN)....
Full Text Available Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG is a typical form of periodontal diseases. It has an acute clinical presentation with the distinctive characteristics of rapid onset of interdental gingival necrosis, gingival pain, bleeding, and halitosis. Systemic symptoms such as lymphadenopathy and malaise could be also found. There are various predisposing factors such as stress, nutritional deficiencies, and immune system dysfunctions, especially, HIV infection that seems to play a major role in the pathogenesis of NUG. The treatment of NUG is organized in successive stages: first, the treatment of the acute phase that should be provided immediately to stop disease progression and to control patient's feeling of discomfort and pain; second, the treatment of the preexisting condition such as chronic gingivitis; then, the surgical correction of the disease sequelae like craters. Moreover, finally, maintenance phase that allows stable outcomes. This case report describes the diagnosis approach and the conservative management with a good outcome of NUG in a 21-year-old male patient with no systemic disease and probable mechanism of pathogenesis of two predisposing factors involved.
Malek, Rayhana; Gharibi, Amina; Khlil, Nadia; Kissa, Jamila
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is a typical form of periodontal diseases. It has an acute clinical presentation with the distinctive characteristics of rapid onset of interdental gingival necrosis, gingival pain, bleeding, and halitosis. Systemic symptoms such as lymphadenopathy and malaise could be also found. There are various predisposing factors such as stress, nutritional deficiencies, and immune system dysfunctions, especially, HIV infection that seems to play a major role in the pathogenesis of NUG. The treatment of NUG is organized in successive stages: first, the treatment of the acute phase that should be provided immediately to stop disease progression and to control patient's feeling of discomfort and pain; second, the treatment of the preexisting condition such as chronic gingivitis; then, the surgical correction of the disease sequelae like craters. Moreover, finally, maintenance phase that allows stable outcomes. This case report describes the diagnosis approach and the conservative management with a good outcome of NUG in a 21-year-old male patient with no systemic disease and probable mechanism of pathogenesis of two predisposing factors involved.
Sharma, Amit; Schwartz, Robert A; Swan, Kenneth G
Marjolin's ulcer refers to malignant change within burn scar. The French surgeon Jean-Nicolas Marjolin is honored with the eponym. Marjolin described the "warty ulcer" in the first edition of Dictionnaire de Medécine. In his description, Marjolin did not actually state that this ulcer represented malignant transformation. Credit for noting the specific association involved in Marjolin's ulcer belongs to Caesar Hawkins, an English Surgeon, who described skin cancer arising in burn and flogging scars. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
... For Health Professionals Diabetes Discoveries & Practice Blog Health Communication Programs FAQs ... (Stomach Ulcers) Definition & Facts Related Topics Section Navigation Peptic Ulcers (Stomach ...
Deepak V Almeida
Full Text Available Since 2004, treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, or Buruli ulcer, has shifted from surgery to daily treatment with streptomycin (STR + rifampin (RIF for 8 weeks. For shortening treatment duration, we tested the potential of daily rifapentine (RPT, a long-acting rifamycin derivative, as a substitute for RIF.BALB/c mice were infected with M. ulcerans in the right hind footpad and treated either daily (7/7 with STR+RIF or five days/week (5/7 with STR+RIF or STR+RPT for 4 weeks, beginning 28 days after infection when CFU counts were 4.88±0.51. The relative efficacy of the drug treatments was compared by footpad CFU counts during treatment and median time to footpad swelling after treatment cessation as measure of sterilizing activity. All drug treatments were bactericidal. After 1 week of treatment, the decline in CFU counts was significantly greater in treated mice but not different between the three treated groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, the decline in CFU was greater in mice treated with STR+RPT 5/7 than in mice treated with STR+RIF 7/7 and STR+RIF 5/7. After 3 and 4 weeks of treatment, CFU counts were nil in mice treated with STR+RPT and reduced by more than 3 and 4 logs in mice treated with STR+RIF 5/7 and STR+RIF 7/7, respectively. In sharp contrast to the bactericidal activity, the sterilizing activity was not different between all drug regimens although it was in proportion to the treatment duration.The better bactericidal activity of daily STR+RIF and especially of STR+RPT did not translate into better prevention of relapse, possibly because relapse-freecure after treatment of Buruli ulcer is more related to the reversal of mycolactone-induced local immunodeficiency by drug treatment rather than to the bactericidal potency of drugs.
Between September 1986 and February 1988, a case-control study involving 27 Italian dermatological centers collaborating in the Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia was conducted, concerning the relationship between history of several medical conditions and exposures to drugs and the risk of lichen planus. The cases were all consecutive patients with a new diagnosis of lichen planus, and the controls were patients under dermatological care observed under the same conditions. A total of 711 cases and 1395 controls met the admission criteria and were interviewed by trained investigators. Patients with histories of alopecia areata were found to be at risk for lichen planus (relative risk = 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 6.5). Five patients (0.7%) in the group with lichen planus had a history of ulcerative colitis, while none of the controls had this disease. The risk of lichen planus was also increased in patients with a history of chronic active hepatitis, but this increase was not statistically significant (relative risk = 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.7 to 29.4).
Al-Shobaili, Hani; Hassanein, Khaled M; Mostafa, Marwa Salah; Al Duways, Ali Saleh
A rapid point-of-care test with high sensitivity and specificity is required in order to fulfill the need for early detection and screening of Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection among patients with genital ulcer disease (GUD), for better management and control of virus transmission. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of the commercially available HerpeSelect Express rapid test in comparison with three ELISA assays: HerpeSelect ELISA, Kalon HSV-2 glycoprotein G2 assay, and monoclonal antibody blocking enzyme immunoassay, which was used as the gold standard for the detection of HSV-2 antibodies. This study showed high sensitivity (ranging from 82.6 to 100%) and specificity (100%) of the HerpeSelect Express rapid test when compared to the three ELISA assays. The agreement between the HerpeSelect Express rapid test with the three ELISAs ranged from 93.3 to 100%. The HerpeSelect Express rapid test has adequate sensitivity and specificity for confirming HSV-2 infection in patients with GUD, indicating its suitability for epidemiological studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T
In the clinical setting, diagnosis and treatment of venous leg ulcers can vary considerably from patient to patient. The first step to reducing this variation is to document venous leg ulcer care through use of quantitative scientific documentation principles. This requires the development of valid...... and reliable evidence-based quality indicators of venous leg ulcer care. A Scandinavian multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of wound healing experts developed clinical quality indicators on the basis of scientific evidence from the literature and subsequent group nominal consensus of the panel......; an independent medical doctor tested the feasibility and reliability of these clinical indicators, assessing the quality of medical technical care on 100 consecutive venous leg ulcer patients. Main outcome measures were healing, recurrence, pain, venous disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment...
Pedersen, A; Klausen, B; Hougen, H P
Peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets: T-helper (OKT4) and T-suppressor (OKT8) cells were studied quantitatively in 20 patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) in ulcerative, as well as inactive, stages of the disease. The figures were compared with T-lymphocyte subsets from matched control...... in either stage compared with controls. The study support the hypothesis of recurrent aphthous ulceration being a disorder of immunodeficiency....
Full Text Available Introduction Choledochoduodenal fistulas are very rare and in most cases are caused by a long-lasting and poorly treated chronic duodenal ulcer. They may be asymptomatic or followed by symptoms of ulcer disease, by attacks of cholangitis or bleeding or vomiting in cases of ductoduodenal stenosis. The diagnosis is simple and safe, however treatment is still controversial. If surgery is the choice of treatment, local findings should be taken into consideration. As a rule, intervention involving closure of fistula is not recommended. Case Outline The authors present a 60-year-old woman with a long history of ulcer disease who developed attacks of cholangitis over the last three years. Ultrasonography and CT showed masive pneumobilia due to a choledochoduodenal fistula. . As there was no duodenal stenosis or bleeding, at operation the common bile duct was transected and end-to-side choledochojejunostomy was performed using a Roux-en Y jejunal limb. From the common bile duct, multiple foreign bodies of herbal origin causing biliary obstruction and cholangitis were removed. After uneventful recovery the patient stayed symptom free for four years now. Conclusion The performed operation was a simple and good surgical solution which resulted in complication-free and rapid recovery with a long-term good outcome. .
Hinchliffe, R. J.; Brownrigg, J. R. W.; Apelqvist, J.; Boyko, E. J.; Fitridge, R.; Mills, J. L.; Reekers, J.; Shearman, C. P.; Zierler, R. E.; Schaper, N. C.
Recommendations Examine a patient with diabetes annually for the presence of peripheral artery disease (PAD); this should include, at a minimum, taking a history and palpating foot pulses. (GRADE strength of recommendation: strong; quality of evidence: low) Evaluate a patient with diabetes and a
Soendergaard, Christoffer; Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict
disease severity. RESULTS: Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) differentiated between mild and moderate UC (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.79) with a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.70, thereby exceeding the predictive ability of CRP (AUC = 0.52). Combining alpha-1 antitrypsin and granulocyte colony...
Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.; Khalili, Hamed; Konijeti, Gauree G.; Higuchi, Leslie M.; de Silva, Punyanganie; Korzenik, Joshua R.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Willett, Walter C.; Richter, James M.; Chan, Andrew T.
Background & Aims Increased intake of dietary fiber has been proposed to reduce risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn’s disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC]). However, few prospective studies have examined associations between long-term intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident CD or UC. Methods We collected and analyzed data from 170,776 women, followed over 26 y, who participated in the Nurses’ Health Study, followed for 3,317,425 person-y. Dietary information was prospectively ascertained via administration of a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 y. Self-reported CD and UC were confirmed through review of medical records. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders, were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Results We confirmed 269 incident cases of CD (incidence 8/100,000 person-y) and 338 cases of UC (incidence 10/100,000 person-y). Compared to the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted cumulative average intake of dietary fiber, intake of the highest quintile (median of 24.3 g/day) was associated with a 40% reduction in risk of CD (multivariate HR for CD, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.90). This apparent reduction appeared to be greatest for fiber derived from fruits; fiber from cereals, whole grains, or legumes did not modify risk. In contrast, neither total intake of dietary fiber (multivariate HR, 0.82; 95% CI 0.58–1.17) nor intake of fiber from specific sources appeared to be significantly associated with risk of UC. Conclusion Based on data from the Nurses’ Health Study, long-term intake of dietary fiber, particularly from fruit, is associated with lower risk of CD but not UC. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms that mediate this association. PMID:23912083
Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Sarid, Orly; Friger, Michael; Schwartz, Doron; Sergienko, Ruslan; Pereg, Avihu; Vardi, Hillel; Singer, Terri; Chernin, Elena; Greenberg, Dan; Odes, Shmuel
We published that threatening life experiences and adverse family relations impact Crohn's disease (CD) adversely. In this study, we examine the influence of these stressors in ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients completed demography, economic status (ES), the Patient-Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (P-SCCAI), the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Family Assessment Device (FAD), and the List of Threatening Life Experiences (LTE). Analysis included multiple linear and quantile regressions and structural equation modeling, comparing CD. UC patients (N=148, age 47.55±16.04 years, 50.6% women) had scores [median (interquartile range)] as follows: SCAAI, 2 (0.3-4.8); FAD, 1.8 (1.3-2.2); LTE, 1.0 (0-2.0); SF-36 Physical Health, 49.4 (36.8-55.1); SF-36 Mental Health, 45 (33.6-54.5); Brief Symptom Inventory-Global Severity Index (GSI), 0.5 (0.2-1.0). SIBDQ was 49.76±14.91. There were significant positive associations for LTE and SCAAI (25, 50, 75% quantiles), FAD and SF-36 Mental Health, FAD and LTE with GSI (50, 75, 90% quantiles), and ES with SF-36 and SIBDQ. The negative associations were as follows: LTE with SF-36 Physical/Mental Health, SIBDQ with FAD and LTE, ES with GSI (all quantiles), and P-SCCAI (75, 90% quantiles). In structural equation modeling analysis, LTE impacted ES negatively and ES impacted GSI negatively; LTE impacted GSI positively and GSI impacted P-SCCAI positively. In a split model, ES had a greater effect on GSI in UC than CD, whereas other path magnitudes were similar. Threatening life experiences, adverse family relations, and poor ES make UC patients less healthy both physically and mentally. The impact of ES is worse in UC than CD.
Kummen, Martin; Holm, Kristian; Anmarkrud, Jarl Andreas; Nygård, Ståle; Vesterhus, Mette; Høivik, Marte L; Trøseid, Marius; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Schrumpf, Erik; Moum, Bjørn; Røsjø, Helge; Aukrust, Pål; Karlsen, Tom H; Hov, Johannes R
Gut microbiota could influence gut, as well as hepatic and biliary immune responses. We therefore thoroughly characterised the gut microbiota in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) compared with healthy controls (HC) and patients with ulcerative colitis without liver disease. We prospectively collected 543 stool samples. After a stringent exclusion process, bacterial DNA was submitted for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PSC and HC were randomised to an exploration panel or a validation panel, and only significant results (p<0.05, QFDR<0.20) in both panels were reported, followed by a combined comparison of all samples against UC. Patients with PSC (N=85) had markedly reduced bacterial diversity compared with HC (N=263, p<0.0001), and a different global microbial composition compared with both HC (p<0.001) and UC (N=36, p<0.01). The microbiota of patients with PSC with and without IBD was similar. Twelve genera separated PSC and HC, out of which 11 were reduced in PSC. However, the Veillonella genus showed a marked increase in PSC compared with both HC (p<0.0001) and UC (p<0.02). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, Veillonella abundance yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.64 to discriminate PSC from HC, while a combination of PSC-associated genera yielded an AUC of 0.78. Patients with PSC exhibited a gut microbial signature distinct from both HC and UC without liver disease, but similar in PSC with and without IBD. The Veillonella genus, which is also associated with other chronic inflammatory and fibrotic conditions, was enriched in PSC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs, including ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. A combination of environmental factors and interactions with a genetic predisposition are suggested to play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of the IBD. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs are multifunctional enzymes involved in the cellular oxidative stress handling. Possible associations between GSTs gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to UC and CD have been reported in different population. The relationship between GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms and susceptibility to UC and CD were investigated in the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in 106 IBD patients and 243 age- and sex-matched healthy Iranian controls consulting the IBD registry center of the Motahari Clinic, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, between 2011 and 2013. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotyping were performed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction and differences in the distribution of gene polymorphisms were analyzed statistically between the studied groups. Results: Statistically significant higher frequency of GSTM1 null genotype was observed in IBD patients (P = 0.01 and in the subgroup of patients with UC (P = 0.04 compared to healthy controls, whereas this was not true for CD patients. No significant association was found between GSTT1 gene polymorphism and UC or CD. Conclusions: Absence of GSTT1 functional gene does not play an important role in the pathophysiology and development of IBD, UC, and CD in Iranian population whereas GSTM1 null genotype could be considered as a possible genetic predisposing factor for more susceptibility to IBD and UC.
... Expand Section Ulcerative Colitis: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Colitis ulcerativa: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Ulcerative Colitis - español (Spanish) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Ukrainian ( ...
Method: Literatures on marjolin's ulcers were sourced from available journals and internet based searches using Pubmed, Medline and Google search. Results: The incidence of Marjolin's ulcers appears higher in developing countries. First recognized in the first century AD, a lot is yet to be understood about the evolution ...
H.A. van Essen
textabstractThe stress ulcer syndrome is described in this thesis. This syndrome is seen in patients admitted to intensive care departments or being treated in field hospitals, in disaster areas, or battle fields. Acute mucosal lesions associated with burns (Curling's ulcers) and central nervous
Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is a condition characterised by chronic recidivous inflammation of the bowel and intestine. IBD includes chron´s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The combined prevalence of CD and UC are app. 1 in 500 in the general Caucasian population. In 25% of the cases...
Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a colonic inflammatory condition with a substantial impact on the quality of life of affected persons. The disease carries a cumulative risk of need of colectomy of 20-30% and an estimated cumulative risk of colorectal cancer of 18% after 30 years of disease duration...... epithelial cells and other cells of the mucosa are discussed. The biochemistry of wound healing in UC provides the basis for the subsequent description of how these pathways are affected by the current medications, and what can be learnt on how to design future treatment regimens for UC based on targeting...
Rosen, Michael J; Karns, Rebekah; Vallance, Jefferson E; Bezold, Ramona; Waddell, Amanda; Collins, Margaret H; Haberman, Yael; Minar, Phillip; Baldassano, Robert N; Hyams, Jeffrey S; Baker, Susan S; Kellermayer, Richard; Noe, Joshua D; Griffiths, Anne M; Rosh, Joel R; Crandall, Wallace V; Heyman, Melvin B; Mack, David R; Kappelman, Michael D; Markowitz, James; Moulton, Dedrick E; Leleiko, Neal S; Walters, Thomas D; Kugathasan, Subra; Wilson, Keith T; Hogan, Simon P; Denson, Lee A
There is controversy regarding the role of the type 2 immune response in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC)-few data are available from treatment-naive patients. We investigated whether genes associated with a type 2 immune response in the intestinal mucosa are up-regulated in treatment-naive pediatric patients with UC compared with patients with Crohn's disease (CD)-associated colitis or without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and whether expression levels are associated with clinical outcomes. We used a real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction array to analyze messenger RNA (mRNA) expression patterns in rectal mucosal samples from 138 treatment-naive pediatric patients with IBD and macroscopic rectal disease, as well as those from 49 children without IBD (controls), enrolled in a multicenter prospective observational study from 2008 to 2012. Results were validated in real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of rectal RNA from an independent cohort of 34 pediatric patients with IBD and macroscopic rectal disease and 17 controls from Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. We measured significant increases in mRNAs associated with a type 2 immune response (interleukin [IL]5 gene, IL13, and IL13RA2) and a type 17 immune response (IL17A and IL23) in mucosal samples from patients with UC compared with patients with colon-only CD. In a regression model, increased expression of IL5 and IL17A mRNAs distinguished patients with UC from patients with colon-only CD (P = .001; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.72). We identified a gene expression pattern in rectal tissues of patients with UC, characterized by detection of IL13 mRNA, that predicted clinical response to therapy after 6 months (odds ratio [OR], 6.469; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.553-26.94), clinical response after 12 months (OR, 6.125; 95% CI, 1.330-28.22), and remission after 12 months (OR, 5
García-Rayado, Guillermo; Sostres, Carlos; Lanas, Angel
Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world and low-dose aspirin is considered the cornerstone of the cardiovascular disease prevention. However, low-dose aspirin use is associated with gastrointestinal adverse effects in the whole gastrointestinal tract. In this setting, co-therapy with a proton pump inhibitor is the most accepted strategy to reduce aspirin related upper gastrointestinal damage. In addition, some adverse effects have been described with proton pump inhibitors long term use. Areas covered: Low-dose aspirin related beneficial and adverse effects in cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract are reviewed. In addition, this manuscript summarizes current data on upper gastrointestinal damage prevention and adverse events with proton pump inhibition. Finally, we discuss the benefit/risk ratio of proton pump inhibitor use in patients at risk of gastrointestinal damage taking low-dose aspirin. Expert commentary: Nowadays, with the current available evidence, the combination of low-dose aspirin with proton pump inhibitor is the most effective therapy for cardiovascular prevention in patients at high gastrointestinal risk. However, further studies are needed to discover new effective strategies with less related adverse events.
Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.
Grada, Ayman; Falanga, Vincent
Chronic skin ulcers are frequently encountered in clinical practice and are often due to very heterogeneous etiologies. Cryofibrinogenemia is an unusual cause of non-healing skin ulcers. It is a small-vessel occlusive vascular disorder that results from the precipitation of cryofibrinogens in plasma. The lack of definitive diagnostic criteria means cryofibrinogenemia remains an under-diagnosed entity that causes significant morbidity. One of the most common manifestations of cryofibrinogenemia is skin ulceration. The presence of non-healing ulcers in otherwise healthy patients with no evidence of large-vessel disease should raise the suspicion of essential cryofibrinogenemia. An important clinical feature is the presence of microlivedo, which represents short hyperpigmented linear streaks around the ulcer or even distally about the foot. Histopathologic findings are microthrombi in the dermis and not confined exclusively to the ulcerated area. Cryofibrinogenemia can be secondary to an underlying disorder, so careful investigation to exclude other etiologies is always necessary.
Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is notably characterized by the expansion of visceral fat with small adipocytes expressing a high proportion of anti-inflammatory genes. Conversely, visceral fat depots in ulcerative colitis (UC patients have never been characterized. Our study aims were a to compare adipocyte morphology and gene expression profile and bacterial translocation in omental (OM and mesenteric (MES adipose tissue of patients with UC and CD, and b to investigate the effect of bacterial infection on adipocyte proliferation in vitro. Specimens of OM and MES were collected from 11 UC and 11 CD patients, processed and examined by light microscopy. Gene expression profiles were evaluated in adipocytes isolated from visceral adipose tissue using microarray and RTqPCR validations. Bacteria within adipose tissue were immuno-detected by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Adipocytes were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis and cells counted after 24 h. Morphology and molecular profile of OM and MES revealed that UC adipose tissue is less inflamed than CD adipose tissue. Genes linked to inflammation, bacterial response, chemotaxis and angiogenesis were down-regulated in adipocytes from UC compared to CD, whereas genes related to metallothioneins, apoptosis pathways and growth factor binding were up-regulated. A dense perinuclear positivity for Enterococcus faecalis was detected in visceral adipocytes from CD, whereas positivity was weak in UC. In vitro bacterial infection was associated with a five-fold increase in the proliferation rate of OM preadipocytes. Compared to UC, visceral adipose tissue from CD is more inflamed and more colonized by intestinal bacteria, which increase adipocyte proliferation. The influence of bacteria stored within adipocytes on the clinical course of IBD warrants further investigations.
Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a relapsing inflammatory disorder of unconfirmed aetiology, variable severity and clinical course, characterised by progressive histological inflammation and with elevation of eicosanoids which have a known pathophysiological role in inflammation. Therapeutic interventions targetting eicosanoids (5-aminosalicylates (ASA are effective first line and adjunctive treatments in mild-moderate UC for achieving and sustaining clinical remission. However, the variable clinical response to 5-ASA and frequent deterioration in response to cyclo-oxygenase (COX inhibitors, has prompted an in depth simultaneous evaluation of multiple lipid mediators (including eicosanoids within the inflammatory milieu in UC. We hypothesised that severity of inflammation is associated with alteration of lipid mediators, in relapsing UC.Study was case-control design. Mucosal lipid mediators were determined by LC-MS/MS lipidomics analysis on mucosal biopsies taken from patients attending outpatients with relapsing UC. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to investigate the association of mucosal lipid mediators, with the disease state and severity graded histologically.Levels of PGE2, PGD2, TXB2, 5-HETE, 11-HETE, 12-HETE and 15-HETE are significantly elevated in inflamed mucosa and correlate with severity of inflammation, determined using validated histological scoring systems.Our approach of capturing inflammatory mediator signature at different stages of UC by combining comprehensive lipidomics analysis and computational modelling could be used to classify and predict mild-moderate inflammation; however, predictive index is diminished in severe inflammation. This new technical approach could be developed to tailor drug treatments to patients with active UC, based on the mucosal lipid mediator profile.
Fernandes, Tania Rita Moreno de Oliveira; dos Santos, Talita Suzany Siqueira; Lopes, Ramon Rodrigues de Macedo
In Brazil, leprosy is a widespread infectious and contagious disease. Clinicians and specialists view leprosy broadly as a systemic infection, since, in its manifestations, it mimics many conditions, such as rheumatic, vascular, ENT, neurological and dermatological diseases. There are few studies that characterize the factors associated with ulcers in leprosy. These injuries should be prevented and treated promptly to avoid serious problems like secondary infections, sepsis, carcinomatous degeneration and amputations. We describe a patient with ulcers on his legs, involving late diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy. PMID:27828650
Zehra Esin Gencer
Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcer is a chronic wound. It reduces the quality of life of the elderly and individuals with restricted range of motion. It prolongs hospital stay and increases the risk of complications. The cost is quite high. Preventive actions for the prevention of pressure ulcers should be developed. Planning protocols and standards of care are among the main targets. Material and Method: Research was conducted in one-year period between 2012 May and 2013 May on patients who were followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital clinics and intensive care unit with pressure ulcers. The research population consisted of 569 patients. Patient data were recorded in SPSS 16 for Windows program. Statistical analyzes were performed with retrospective methods. The demographic characteristics of patients with pressure ulcers were analyzed as frequency and descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence of one year were calculated. Results: Of the patients, 58% were males, 42% were females. Of the patients, 36% were in the age range of 61-80 years, and their average length of stay was 42,9 days. Of the patients, 70% were at stage 2 and 3. In 15% of patients pressure ulcers occurred on the first day of hospitalization. Pressure ulcers were developed between days 2 and 10 in 59% of the patients. Prevalence rate was 2.5%, the incidence was 1.9%, the prevalence rate was 5.9% in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: It is easier to prevent pressure ulcers than treating.
An audit of peptic ulcer surgery in Ibadan, Nigeria. D. O. Irabor. Department of Surgery, University College ... individual and possibly environmental variables inﬂuence which procedure is chosen. Some of these procedures ... This paper gives an audit of the treatment of peptic ulcer disease in this institution. Materials and ...
An epidemioloigcal and microbiological studies of diabetic foot ulcers were- carried out in our hospital, with a view to reducing the amputation and mortality rate associated with the disease. Wound swabs from 38 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) foot ulcer patients were investigated using culture methods for both strict aerobes and ...
Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) is a fish disease caused by an infection of the oomycete, Aphanomyces invadans. During a fish biodiversity assessment of Lake Liambezi, Zambezi Region, Namibia, in August 2011, two Barbus haasianus and three Barbus unitaeniatus with circular ulcerative skin lesions were collected ...
rrgical Resident. I:aculty of Med~cine, University of Addis Ababa. Key words: peptic ulcer, Ethiopia. This was a retrospective study of 90 patients operated on for peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in. Karamara Hospital, Ethiopia, between 1st April.